Sample records for computational medicine spie the

  1. The first SPIE software Hack Day (United States)

    Kendrew, S.; Deen, C.; Radziwill, N.; Crawford, S.; Gilbert, J.; Gully-Santiago, M.; Kubánek, P.


    We report here on the software Hack Day organised at the 2014 SPIE conference on Astronomical Telescopes and Instrumentation in Montréal. The first ever Hack Day to take place at an SPIE event, the aim of the day was to bring together developers to collaborate on innovative solutions to problems of their choice. Such events have proliferated in the technology community, providing opportunities to showcase, share and learn skills. In academic environments, these events are often also instrumental in building community beyond the limits of national borders, institutions and projects. We show examples of projects the participants worked on, and provide some lessons learned for future events.

  2. News from the Library: Advancing light - SPIE Digital Library accessible to CERN till 31 March 2012

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Library


    SPIE (Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers) is a not-for-profit international society which publishes one of the largest collections of applied optics and photonics research papers in the world: the SPIE Digital Library.   This resource includes more than 300,000 technical papers from SPIE journals, e-books and conference proceedings from 1990 to the present. The SPIE Digital Library covers many areas of interest for CERN users, such as astronomy, nanotechnology, sensors, lasers, electro-optics and imaging. The CERN Library has trial access to the complete resource till 31 March 2012, don't hesitate to give it a try! Access to the SPIE Digital Library here. We welcome any comment or question at

  3. Biotechnology Computing: Information Science for the Era of Molecular Medicine. (United States)

    Masys, Daniel R.


    The evolution from classical genetics to biotechnology, an area of research involving key macromolecules in living cells, is chronicled and the current state of biotechnology is described, noting related advances in computing and clinical medicine. (MSE)

  4. Cryo-vacuum testing of the JWST Integrated Science Instrument Module (SPIE) (United States)

    Kimble, Randy A.; Vila, M. Begona; Van Campen, Julie; Birkmann, Stephan M.; Comber, Brian J.; Fatig, Curtis C.; Glasse, Alistair C. H.; Glazer, Stuart D.; Kelly, Douglas M.; Mann, Steven D.; hide


    In late 2015/early 2016, a major cryo-vacuum test was carried out for the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). This test comprised the final cryo-certification and calibration test of the ISIM, after its ambient environmental test program (vibration, acoustics, EMI/EMC), and before its delivery for integration with the rest of the JWST observatory. Over the 108-day period of the round-the-clock test program, the full complement of ISIM flight instruments, structure, harness radiator, and electronics were put through a comprehensive program of thermal, optical, electrical, and operational tests. The test verified the health and excellent performance of the instruments and ISIM systems, proving the ISIM element's readiness for integration with the telescope. We report here on the context, goals, setup, execution, and key results for this critical JWST milestone.

  5. Spie, mandarini, bramini: i gesuiti e i loro travestimenti / Spies, Mandarins, Brahmins. The Jesuits and their disguises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Pavone


    Full Text Available Nella prima età moderna l’abito degli ordini religiosi rappresenta un importante fattore di identità immediatamente riconoscibile. È per questo motivo che i gesuiti vennero visti con sospetto: essi erano infatti vestiti come preti secolari. Ignazio di Loyola decise di non avere alcun segno distintivo poiché voleva vivere nel mondo, ma la sua scelta venne male interpretata e intesa come una forma di dissimulazione: la mancanza di un abito specifico fu vista come strumentale all’assunzione di ogni tipo di travestimento e presto, in determinati contesti, i gesuiti vennero considerati vere e proprie spie. Ai loro occhi infatti indossare l’abito del paese che si accingevano a evangelizzare era anche il modo migliore, certo non l’unico, per entrare in contatto con le altre culture. In questo saggio si vuole prendere in esame tanto l’uso dell’abito come elemento della pratica evangelizzatrice nelle missioni quanto la leggenda nera che dalle origini circondò i gesuiti e vide proprio nell’abito uno dei segni più importanti della loro attitudine al travestimento.   In the early modern age, the religious orders habit represent a very significant factor of identity to be immediately recognised, that’s why the Jesuits were looked with suspicion: in fact they were dressed as secular priests. Ignazio of Loyola decided not to have any distinctive sign because he wanted to live inside the world, but this choice was misinterpreted as a way of dissimulation: the lack of an habit was considered as a manner to assume any kind of disguise and soon Jesuits were considered as spies. In their opinion, to take the habit of the country they wanted to evangelize, was also the best way to be brought into contact with others cultures. In this paper I would like to consider either the Jesuits evangelisation practice in missions or the black legend that since the origins surrounded them considering also the habit one of the most important signal of their

  6. Computer-aided prediction for medicinal chemistry via the Internet. (United States)

    Geronikaki, A; Druzhilovsky, D; Zakharov, A; Poroikov, V


    Some computational tools for medicinal chemistry freely available on the Internet were compared to examine whether the results of prediction obtained with different methods coincided or not. It was shown that the correlation coefficients varied from 0.65 to 0.90 for log P (seven methods), from 0.01 to 0.73 for aqueous solubility (four methods), and from 0.19 to 0.73 for drug-likeness (three methods). While for log P estimates, reasonable average pairwise correlation was found, for aqueous solubility and drug-likeness it was rather poor. Therefore, using computational tools freely available via the Internet, medicinal chemists should evaluate their accuracy versus experimental data for particular series of compounds. In contrast to prediction of above mentioned properties, which can be done with several Internet tools, wide profiling of biological activity can be obtained only with PASS Inet ( PASS Inet was tested by a dozen medicinal chemists for compounds from different chemical series with various kinds of biological activity, and in the majority of cases the results of prediction coincided with the experiments. New anxiolytics, antiarrhythmics, antileishmanials, and other biologically active agents have been identified on this basis. The advantages and limitations of computer-aided predictions for medicinal chemistry via the Internet are discussed.

  7. Computers working for medicine (United States)

    Richmond, Gillian


    1 A demonstration of the use of Viewdata Systems in clinical trials is presented. 2 The potential of these systems in several areas of medicine is shown and related to their speed of development in the last 2 years. 3 Particular reference is made to the use of computers in the assessment of patients with affective disorders. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2 PMID:3994904

  8. SPIE's School Outreach Activity Program (SOAP) by IIT Madras SPIE Student Chapter: a review (United States)

    Kalikivayi, Lavanya; Kalikivayi, V.; Udayakumar, K.; Ganesan, A. R.


    One of the important aspects of SPIE is "Community Support and Outreach Education", which should raise awareness and interest in optics and photonics among the targeted communities and school children. Hence as part of SPIE IIT Madras student chapter, we carried out SPIE SOAP, a `School Outreach Activity Program'. Two types of schools were identified, one a high socio-economic status school and the other a low socio-economic status school having a majority of poor children. Optics related scientific experiments were demonstrated in these schools followed by oral quiz session to the students to assess the level of their knowledge before and after the experiments. We also clubbed this activity with "Vision Screening" and distribution of free spectacles for those children who live below poverty line. Out of the 415 children screened, 60.84% eyes were having normal vision, while 39.16% were found to have refractive errors (Myopia 35.78% and Hyperopia 3.38%) where some of them could not even read the board. Treatable eye diseases were also found in 0.72% of the children. The entire activity is been discussed and documented in this paper.

  9. Computational medicine tools and challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Trajanoski, Zlatko


    This book covers a number of contemporary computational medicine topics spanning scales from molecular to cell to organ and organism, presenting a state-of-the-art IT infrastructure, and reviewing four hierarchical scales.

  10. [Computer evaluation of hidden potential of phytochemicals of medicinal plants of the traditional Indian ayurvedic medicine]. (United States)

    Lagunin, A A; Druzhilovsky, D S; Rudik, A V; Filimonov, D A; Gawande, D; Suresh, K; Goel, R; Poroikov, V V


    Applicability of our computer programs PASS and PharmaExpert to prediction of biological activity spectra of rather complex and structurally diverse phytocomponents of medicinal plants, both separately and in combinations has been evaluated. The web-resource on phytochemicals of 50 medicinal plants used in Ayurveda was created for the study of hidden therapeutic potential of Traditional Indian Medicine (TIM) ( It contains information on 50 medicinal plants, their using in TIM and their pharmacology activities, also as 1906 phytocomponents. PASS training set was updated by addition of information about 946 natural compounds; then the training procedure and validation were performed, to estimate the quality of PASS prediction. It was shown that the difference between the average accuracy of prediction obtained in leave-5%-out cross-validation (94,467%) and in leave-one-out cross-validation (94,605%) is very small. These results showed high predictive ability of the program. Results of biological activity spectra prediction for all phytocomponents included in our database are in good correspondence with the experimental data. Additional kinds of biological activity predicted with high probability provide the information about most promising directions of further studies. The analysis of prediction results of sets of phytocomponents in each of 50 medicinal plants was made by PharmaExpert software. Based on this analysis, we found that the combination of phytocomponents from Passiflora incarnata may exhibit nootropic, anticonvulsant and antidepressant effects. Experiments carried out in mice models confirmed the predicted effects of Passiflora incarnata extracts.

  11. Fluorescence detection: SPIE volume 743

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, E.R.


    This book contains proceedings arranged into four sessions. They are: Fluorescence spectroscopic techniques; Fluorescence in analysis and materials characterization; Fluorescence in medicine and biochemistry; and Fluorescence in criminalistics.

  12. Computed Tomography in Forensic Medicine


    Leth, Peter Mygind


    Modern diagnostic imagining techniques are gaining popularity in forensic medicine. Denmark has been involved in the development of this use of imaging techniques from the beginning. The Institute of Forensic Medicine at the University of Southern Denmark acquired a helical computed tomography (CT) scanner in 2006. This thesis presents our research on post-mortem CT (PMCT) and addresses the following research questions: 1. In how many cases can the cause of death be established by PMCT, and w...

  13. Computers in medicine: patients' attitudes (United States)

    Cruickshank, P. J.


    Data are presented from two surveys where a 26-item questionnaire was used to measure patients' attitudes to diagnostic computers and to medical computers in general. The first group of respondents were 229 patients who had been given outpatient appointments at a hospital general medical clinic specializing in gastrointestinal problems, where some had experienced a diagnostic computer in use. The second group of respondents were 416 patients attending a group general practice where there was no computer. Patients who had experience of the diagnostic computer or a personal computer had more favourable attitudes to computers in medicine as did younger people and males. The two samples of patients showed broadly similar attitudes, and a notable finding was that over half of each group believed that, with a computer around, the personal touch of the doctor would be lost. PMID:6471021

  14. Sixth Computational Biomechanics for Medicine Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, Poul MF; Miller, Karol; Computational Biomechanics for Medicine : Deformation and Flow


    One of the greatest challenges for mechanical engineers is to extend the success of computational mechanics to fields outside traditional engineering, in particular to biology, biomedical sciences, and medicine. This book is an opportunity for computational biomechanics specialists to present and exchange opinions on the opportunities of applying their techniques to computer-integrated medicine. Computational Biomechanics for Medicine: Deformation and Flow collects the papers from the Sixth Computational Biomechanics for Medicine Workshop held in Toronto in conjunction with the Medical Image Computing and Computer Assisted Intervention conference. The topics covered include: medical image analysis, image-guided surgery, surgical simulation, surgical intervention planning, disease prognosis and diagnostics, injury mechanism analysis, implant and prostheses design, and medical robotics.

  15. Computer applications in veterinary medicine | Hassan | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Computers have become essential tools in almost every field of research and applied technology. The advent of the micro-computers allows us as veterinarians enter and analyze vast amount of data on animal health, production and administrative responsibilities. Computers in veterinary medicine have been used for ...

  16. ING Papers for SPIE's Astronomical Telescopes & Instrumentation Conference (United States)

    Talbot, G.


    Isaac Newton Group staff from both the astronomy and engineering groups had several papers accepted by SPIE (The International Society for Optical Engineering) for their conference 'Astronomical Telescopes and Instrumentation - The Industrial Revolution in Astronomy' held from 21 to 25 June 2004, at the Scottish Exhibition and Convention Centre in Glasgow. The range of topics reflected the range of development interests at ING, many of the papers being about various aspects of adaptive optics. The full list of papers featuring ING staff is below, all but one of them having ING staff as principal author. At the conference Chris Benn and Simon Tulloch gave oral presentations, while the remaining papers were poster presentations.

  17. The impact of computer science in molecular medicine: enabling high-throughput research. (United States)

    de la Iglesia, Diana; García-Remesal, Miguel; de la Calle, Guillermo; Kulikowski, Casimir; Sanz, Ferran; Maojo, Víctor


    The Human Genome Project and the explosion of high-throughput data have transformed the areas of molecular and personalized medicine, which are producing a wide range of studies and experimental results and providing new insights for developing medical applications. Research in many interdisciplinary fields is resulting in data repositories and computational tools that support a wide diversity of tasks: genome sequencing, genome-wide association studies, analysis of genotype-phenotype interactions, drug toxicity and side effects assessment, prediction of protein interactions and diseases, development of computational models, biomarker discovery, and many others. The authors of the present paper have developed several inventories covering tools, initiatives and studies in different computational fields related to molecular medicine: medical informatics, bioinformatics, clinical informatics and nanoinformatics. With these inventories, created by mining the scientific literature, we have carried out several reviews of these fields, providing researchers with a useful framework to locate, discover, search and integrate resources. In this paper we present an analysis of the state-of-the-art as it relates to computational resources for molecular medicine, based on results compiled in our inventories, as well as results extracted from a systematic review of the literature and other scientific media. The present review is based on the impact of their related publications and the available data and software resources for molecular medicine. It aims to provide information that can be useful to support ongoing research and work to improve diagnostics and therapeutics based on molecular-level insights.

  18. The Computer Book of the Internal Medicine Resident: competence acquisition and achievement of learning objectives. (United States)

    Oristrell, J; Oliva, J C; Casanovas, A; Comet, R; Jordana, R; Navarro, M


    The Computer Book of the Internal Medicine resident (CBIMR) is a computer program that was validated to analyze the acquisition of competences in teams of Internal Medicine residents. To analyze the characteristics of the rotations during the Internal Medicine residency and to identify the variables associated with the acquisition of clinical and communication skills, the achievement of learning objectives and resident satisfaction. All residents of our service (n=20) participated in the study during a period of 40 months. The CBIMR consisted of 22 self-assessment questionnaires specific for each rotation, with items on services (clinical workload, disease protocolization, resident responsibilities, learning environment, service organization and teamwork) and items on educational outcomes (acquisition of clinical and communication skills, achievement of learning objectives, overall satisfaction). Associations between services features and learning outcomes were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate analysis. An intense clinical workload, high resident responsibilities and disease protocolization were associated with the acquisition of clinical skills. High clinical competence and teamwork were both associated with better communication skills. Finally, an adequate learning environment was associated with increased clinical competence, the achievement of educational goals and resident satisfaction. Potentially modifiable variables related with the operation of clinical services had a significant impact on the acquisition of clinical and communication skills, the achievement of educational goals, and resident satisfaction during the specialized training in Internal Medicine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  19. Aspects of healthcare computer networks security in the education of students of medicine and healthcare management


    Mircheva, Iskra


    Preserving privacy and confidentiality of medical data has always been a fundamental question in medicine and healthcare. Information technologies state even greater requirements to medical data security, especially when, as expected, medical data should be transferred between the different healthcare providers using specialized or public computer networks. The presented paper outlines some basic requirements to healthcare networks security, with which the future medical specialists should ...

  20. Computational biomechanics for medicine imaging, modeling and computing

    CERN Document Server

    Doyle, Barry; Wittek, Adam; Nielsen, Poul; Miller, Karol


    The Computational Biomechanics for Medicine titles provide an opportunity for specialists in computational biomechanics to present their latest methodologies and advancements. This volume comprises eighteen of the newest approaches and applications of computational biomechanics, from researchers in Australia, New Zealand, USA, UK, Switzerland, Scotland, France and Russia. Some of the interesting topics discussed are: tailored computational models; traumatic brain injury; soft-tissue mechanics; medical image analysis; and clinically-relevant simulations. One of the greatest challenges facing the computational engineering community is to extend the success of computational mechanics to fields outside traditional engineering, in particular to biology, the biomedical sciences, and medicine. We hope the research presented within this book series will contribute to overcoming this grand challenge.

  1. Clinicians’ perceptions and the relevant computer-based information needs towards the practice of evidence based medicine (United States)

    Jiang, Guoqian; Ogasawara, Katsuhiko; Endoh, Akira; Sakurai, Tsunetaro


    We conducted a survey among 100 clinicians in a university hospital to determine the clinician’s attitudes and the relevant computer-based information needs towards the practice of evidence-based medicine in outpatient setting. PMID:14728387

  2. Application of micro-computed tomography to microstructure studies of the medicinal fungus Hericium coralloides. (United States)

    Pallua, Johannes D; Kuhn, Volker; Pallua, Anton F; Pfaller, Kristian; Pallua, Anton K; Recheis, Wolfgang; Pöder, Reinhold


    The potential of 3-D nondestructive imaging techniques such as micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) was evaluated to study morphological patterns of the potential medicinal fungus Hericium coralloides (Basidiomycota). Micro-CT results were correlated with histological information gained from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and light microscopy (LM). It is demonstrated that the combination of these imaging methods results in a more distinct picture of the morphology of the edible and potentially medicinal Hericium coralloides basidiomata. In addition we have created 3-D reconstructions and visualizations based on micro-CT imagery from a randomly selected part of the upper region of a fresh H. coralloides basidioma: Analyses for the first time allowed an approximation of the evolutionary effectiveness of this bizarrely formed basidioma type in terms of the investment of tissue biomass and its reproductive output (production of basidiospores). © 2015 by The Mycological Society of America.

  3. Directory of computer users in nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, J.J.; Gurney, J.; McClain, W.J. (eds.)


    The Directory of Computer Users in Nuclear Medicine consists primarily of detailed descriptions and indexes to these descriptions. A typical Installation Description contains the name, address, type, and size of the institution and the names of persons within the institution who can be contacted for further information. If the department has access to a central computer facility for data analysis or timesharing, the type of equipment available and the method of access to that central computer is included. The dedicated data processing equipment used by the department in its nuclear medicine studies is described, including the peripherals, languages used, modes of data collection, and other pertinent information. Following the hardware descriptions are listed the types of studies for which the data processing equipment is used, including the language(s) used, the method of output, and an estimate of the frequency of the particular study. An Installation Index and an Organ Studies Index are also included. (PCS)

  4. The LBTI Hunt for Observable Signatures of Terrestrial Systems (HOSTS) Survey: a Key NASA Science Program on the Road to Exoplanet Imaging Missions (SPIE Proceedings 2) (United States)

    Danchi, William C.; Bailey, V.; Defrere, D.; Haniff, C.; Hinz, P.; Kennedy, G.; Mennesson, B.; Millan-Gabet, R.; Rieke, G.; Roberge, Aki; hide


    Telescope Interferometer (LBTI) will survey nearby stars for faint exozodiacal dust (exozodi). This warm circumstellar dust, analogous to the interplanetary dust found in the vicinity of the Earth in our own system, is produced in comet breakups and asteroid collisions. Emission and or scattered light from the exozodi will be the major source of astrophysical noise for a future space telescope aimed at direct imaging and spectroscopy of terrestrial planets (exo- Earths) around nearby stars. About 20 of nearby field stars have cold dust coming from planetesimals at large distances from the stars (Eiroa et al. 2013, AA, 555, A11; Siercho et al. 2014, ApJ, 785, 33). Much less is known about exozodi; current detection limits for individual stars are at best 500 times our solar system's level (aka. 500 zodi). LBTI-HOSTS will be the first survey capable of measuring exozodi at the 10 zodi level (3). Detections of warm dust will also reveal new information about planetary system architectures and evolution. We will describe the motivation for the survey and progress on target selection, not only the actual stars likely to be observed by such a mission but also those whose observation will enable sensible extrapolations for stars that will not be observed with LBTI. We briefly describe the detection of the debris disk around Crv, which is the first scientific result from the LBTI coming from the commissioning of the instrument in December 2013, shortly after the first time the fringes were stabilized.

  5. Cognitive Approaches for Medicine in Cloud Computing. (United States)

    Ogiela, Urszula; Takizawa, Makoto; Ogiela, Lidia


    This paper will present the application potential of the cognitive approach to data interpretation, with special reference to medical areas. The possibilities of using the meaning approach to data description and analysis will be proposed for data analysis tasks in Cloud Computing. The methods of cognitive data management in Cloud Computing are aimed to support the processes of protecting data against unauthorised takeover and they serve to enhance the data management processes. The accomplishment of the proposed tasks will be the definition of algorithms for the execution of meaning data interpretation processes in safe Cloud Computing. • We proposed a cognitive methods for data description. • Proposed a techniques for secure data in Cloud Computing. • Application of cognitive approaches for medicine was described.

  6. The multimod application framework: a rapid application development tool for computer aided medicine. (United States)

    Viceconti, Marco; Zannoni, Cinzia; Testi, Debora; Petrone, Marco; Perticoni, Stefano; Quadrani, Paolo; Taddei, Fulvia; Imboden, Silvano; Clapworthy, Gordon


    This paper describes a new application framework (OpenMAF) for rapid development of multimodal applications in computer-aided medicine. MAF applications are multimodal in data, in representation, and in interaction. The framework supports almost any type of biomedical data, including DICOM datasets, motion-capture recordings, or data from computer simulations (e.g. finite element modeling). The interactive visualization approach (multimodal display) helps the user interpret complex datasets, providing multiple representations of the same data. In addition, the framework allows multimodal interaction by supporting the simultaneous use of different input-output devices like 3D trackers, stereoscopic displays, haptics hardware and speech recognition/synthesis systems. The Framework has been designed to run smoothly even on limited power computers, but it can take advantage of all hardware capabilities. The Framework is based on a collection of portable libraries and it can be compiled on any platform that supports OpenGL, including Windows, MacOS X and any flavor of Unix/linux.

  7. Sol-Gel Optics: Proceedings SPIE-The International Society for Optical Engineering Held in San Diego, California on 11-13 July 1990. Volume 1328 (United States)


    the main problem of R640 is related to the fact that at low pH ɚ the protonated form is converted into the colorless lactonic form6 . Many...10-5 M leads to a colorless lactonic form within five days. Such a fast degradation has probably a photochemical origin since no lactonisation is...I, (4) where Is is the threshold power for the saturation, a 0 L gives the low intensity linear absorption, and a BL is the unsaturable background

  8. [The Computer Book of the Internal Medicine resident: validity and reliability of a questionnaire for self-assessment of competences in internal medicine residents]. (United States)

    Oristrell, J; Casanovas, A; Jordana, R; Comet, R; Gil, M; Oliva, J C


    There are no simple and validated instruments for evaluating the training of specialists. To analyze the reliability and validity of a computerized self-assessment method to quantify the acquisition of medical competences during the Internal Medicine residency program. All residents of our department participated in the study during a period of 28 months. Twenty-two questionnaires specific for each rotation (the Computer-Book of the Internal Medicine Resident) were constructed with items (questions) corresponding to three competence domains: clinical skills competence, communication skills and teamwork. Reliability was analyzed by measuring the internal consistency of items in each competence domain using Cronbach's alpha index. Validation was performed by comparing mean scores in each competence domain between senior and junior residents. Cut-off levels of competence scores were established in order to identify the strengths and weaknesses of our training program. Finally, self-assessment values were correlated with the evaluations of the medical staff. There was a high internal consistency of the items of clinical skills competences, communication skills and teamwork. Higher scores of clinical skills competence and communication skills, but not in those of teamwork were observed in senior residents than in junior residents. The Computer-Book of the Internal Medicine Resident identified the strengths and weaknesses of our training program. We did not observe any correlation between the results of the self- evaluations and the evaluations made by staff physicians. The items of Computer-Book of the Internal Medicine Resident showed high internal consistency and made it possible to measure the acquisition of medical competences in a team of Internal Medicine residents. This self-assessment method should be complemented with other evaluation methods in order to assess the acquisition of medical competences by an individual resident. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Espa

  9. Proceedings of the ADPA/AIAA/ASME/SPIE Conference on Active and Adaptive Structures Held in Alexandria, Virginia on November 4 - 8, 1991 (United States)


    anding to theoreti(cally anla- vize the process, thbough sonie of the relevant lparamet~ers muist be deduiced fromu experiment. A novel and] complete... theorem provides the relationship between the OVC and IVC control problems. See also [I 1l for solutions of problems similar to OVC/IVC. Theorem 1 181 let...tollowing theorem ; Theorem 2 19, Theorem 5.4.11 For f in a neighborhood of 0, the gradient of the optimal value function is y E -YQo.- =-r (Y ) (2.7) where

  10. Proceedings of SPIE - the International Society for Optical Engineering. Ocean Optics 12 Held in Bergen, Norway on 13-15 June 1994 (United States)


    between the a-meter and KId profiles, we had to use either an abnormally high c-meter correction factor, or else we had to use a pure water calibration...EXPERIMENT AND RESULTS The vision system was implemented using a Silicon Graphics Indigo workstation. Software was written in C and C++. Our camera is

  11. Computational intelligence, medicine and biology selected links

    CERN Document Server

    Zaitseva, Elena


    This book contains an interesting and state-of the art collection of chapters presenting several examples of attempts to developing modern tools utilizing computational intelligence in different real life problems encountered by humans. Reasoning, prediction, modeling, optimization, decision making, etc. need modern, soft and intelligent algorithms, methods and methodologies to solve, in the efficient ways, problems appearing in human activity. The contents of the book is divided into two parts. Part I, consisting of four chapters, is devoted to selected links of computational intelligence, medicine, health care and biomechanics. Several problems are considered: estimation of healthcare system reliability, classification of ultrasound thyroid images, application of fuzzy logic to measure weight status and central fatness, and deriving kinematics directly from video records. Part II, also consisting of four chapters, is devoted to selected links of computational intelligence and biology. The common denominato...

  12. Computed Tomography in Forensic Medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Peter Mygind


    to disease and injury diagnoses? 3. Can PMCT be used as a screening tool for selecting cases for autopsy, and can PMCT in some cases substitute for autopsy? 4. What is the inter-observer variation in PMCT? Who should evaluate the images? 5. How much new information is obtained by the histological examination...... was not used. Autopsies were performed according to the Danish government's official guidelines. PMCT and autopsy findings were interpreted independent of each other. Diagnoses, including the cause of death and histology findings, were registered in a computer database (SPSS) together with information about...... with a high AIS severity score. 5. Importance of histology: The histological examination confirmed the autopsy findings in 59% of all cases. Important new information was obtained in 23% of cases, and some, but less important, new information was obtained in 15% of cases. There were significantly fewer...

  13. William L. Wolfe, 1989 President of SPIE, encourages scientists from Eastern Europe (United States)

    Schmit, Joanna


    In 1990 Professor Wolfe after his SPIE presidency trekked the world, even making it as far as post-communist Poland, to see (in the visible and maybe in infrared - who knows) the work of optical scientists hidden behind the iron curtain. I am not sure if he was ready for how different that world was at this time, but for sure he was very inquisitive and eager to learn about the nuances of Poland right after the fall of communism. He met, visited with and encouraged young and old scientists from Poland, Russia, Hungary and Lithuania to add their expertise to the scientific conversations happening in the West. His mission in Poland was to invite us all, and he was ready to help us achieve our dreams. I was one of those he encouraged. This talk is my personal reflection of Professor Wolfe as an encouraging and sometimes brave SPIE pioneer - a stranger in a strange land - and as an energetic, caring SPIE president, Optical Sciences professor and human being. Disclaimer: Professor Bill Wolfe's contributions to the field of radiometry are well known and very well recognized. This conference is a tribute to him. However, my paper is not on radiometry; rather, I wish to illustrate the adventurous, caring and positive Bill Wolfe that helped me find my way to the American desert Southwest.

  14. Directory of computer users in nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henne, R.L.; Erickson, J.J.; McClain, W.J.; Kirch, D.L.


    The directory is composed of two major divisions, a Users' section and a Vendors' section. The Users' section consists of detailed installation descriptions and indexes to these descriptions. A typical description contains the name, address, type, and size of the institution as well as names of persons to contact. Following the hardware descriptions are listed the type of studies for which the computers are utilized, including the languages used, the method of output and an estimate of how often the study is performed. The Vendors' section contains short descriptions of current commercially available nuclear medicine systems as supplied by the vendors themselves. In order to reduce the amount of obsolete data and to include new institutions in future updates of the directory, a user questionnaire is included. (HLW)

  15. Computational fluid dynamics modelling in cardiovascular medicine. (United States)

    Morris, Paul D; Narracott, Andrew; von Tengg-Kobligk, Hendrik; Silva Soto, Daniel Alejandro; Hsiao, Sarah; Lungu, Angela; Evans, Paul; Bressloff, Neil W; Lawford, Patricia V; Hose, D Rodney; Gunn, Julian P


    This paper reviews the methods, benefits and challenges associated with the adoption and translation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling within cardiovascular medicine. CFD, a specialist area of mathematics and a branch of fluid mechanics, is used routinely in a diverse range of safety-critical engineering systems, which increasingly is being applied to the cardiovascular system. By facilitating rapid, economical, low-risk prototyping, CFD modelling has already revolutionised research and development of devices such as stents, valve prostheses, and ventricular assist devices. Combined with cardiovascular imaging, CFD simulation enables detailed characterisation of complex physiological pressure and flow fields and the computation of metrics which cannot be directly measured, for example, wall shear stress. CFD models are now being translated into clinical tools for physicians to use across the spectrum of coronary, valvular, congenital, myocardial and peripheral vascular diseases. CFD modelling is apposite for minimally-invasive patient assessment. Patient-specific (incorporating data unique to the individual) and multi-scale (combining models of different length- and time-scales) modelling enables individualised risk prediction and virtual treatment planning. This represents a significant departure from traditional dependence upon registry-based, population-averaged data. Model integration is progressively moving towards 'digital patient' or 'virtual physiological human' representations. When combined with population-scale numerical models, these models have the potential to reduce the cost, time and risk associated with clinical trials. The adoption of CFD modelling signals a new era in cardiovascular medicine. While potentially highly beneficial, a number of academic and commercial groups are addressing the associated methodological, regulatory, education- and service-related challenges. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission

  16. Using Free Computational Resources to Illustrate the Drug Design Process in an Undergraduate Medicinal Chemistry Course (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ricardo P.; Andrade, Saulo F.; Mantoani, Susimaire P.; Eifler-Lima, Vera L.; Silva, Vinicius B.; Kawano, Daniel F.


    Advances in, and dissemination of, computer technologies in the field of drug research now enable the use of molecular modeling tools to teach important concepts of drug design to chemistry and pharmacy students. A series of computer laboratories is described to introduce undergraduate students to commonly adopted "in silico" drug design…

  17. The use of computers for perioperative simulation in anesthesia, critical care, and pain medicine. (United States)

    Lambden, Simon; Martin, Bruce


    Simulation in perioperative anesthesia training is a field of considerable interest, with an urgent need for tools that reliably train and facilitate objective assessment of performance. This article reviews the available simulation technologies, their evolution, and the current evidence base for their use. The future directions for research in the field and potential applications of simulation technology in anesthesia, critical care, and pain medicine are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Computational human model VHP-FEMALE derived from datasets of the national library of medicine. (United States)

    Noetscher, Gregory M; Yanamadala, Janakinadh; Tankaria, Harshal; Louie, Sara; Prokop, Alexander; Nazarian, Ara; Makarov, Sergey N


    Simulation of the electromagnetic response of the human body relies upon efficient computational models. The objective of this paper is to describe a new platform-independent and computationally-efficient full-body electromagnetic model, the Visible Human Project® (VHP)-Female v.3.0 and to outline its distinct features. We also report model performance results using two leading commercial electromagnetic antenna simulation packages: ANSYS HFSS and CST MICROWAVE STUDIO®.

  19. Computational biomechanics for medicine new approaches and new applications

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Karol; Wittek, Adam; Nielsen, Poul


    The Computational Biomechanics for Medicine titles provide an opportunity for specialists in computational biomechanics to present their latest methodologiesand advancements. Thisvolumecomprises twelve of the newest approaches and applications of computational biomechanics, from researchers in Australia, New Zealand, USA, France, Spain and Switzerland. Some of the interesting topics discussed are:real-time simulations; growth and remodelling of soft tissues; inverse and meshless solutions; medical image analysis; and patient-specific solid mechanics simulations. One of the greatest challenges facing the computational engineering community is to extend the success of computational mechanics to fields outside traditional engineering, in particular to biology, the biomedical sciences, and medicine. We hope the research presented within this book series will contribute to overcoming this grand challenge.

  20. Precision Medicine and PET/Computed Tomography: Challenges and Implementation. (United States)

    Subramaniam, Rathan M


    Precision Medicine is about selecting the right therapy for the right patient, at the right time, specific to the molecular targets expressed by disease or tumors, in the context of patient's environment and lifestyle. Some of the challenges for delivery of precision medicine in oncology include biomarkers for patient selection for enrichment-precision diagnostics, mapping out tumor heterogeneity that contributes to therapy failures, and early therapy assessment to identify resistance to therapies. PET/computed tomography offers solutions in these important areas of challenges and facilitates implementation of precision medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Computational biomechanics for medicine from algorithms to models and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Joldes, Grand; Nielsen, Poul; Doyle, Barry; Miller, Karol


    This volume comprises the latest developments in both fundamental science and patient-specific applications, discussing topics such as: cellular mechanics; injury biomechanics; biomechanics of heart and vascular system; medical image analysis; and both patient-specific fluid dynamics and solid mechanics simulations. With contributions from researchers world-wide, the Computational Biomechanics for Medicine series of titles provides an opportunity for specialists in computational biomechanics to present their latest methodologies and advancements.

  2. Evaluation of the modulation transfer function for computer tomography by using American Association Physics Medicine Phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Won [Dept. of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gang-dong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Kwan Woo [Dept. of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hoi Woun [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Baekseok Culture University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Seo Goo [Dept. of Medical Science, Soonchunhyang University, Asan (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Kyung Tae [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Dongnam Health University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Son, Soon Yong [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Wonkwang Health Science University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Son, Jin Hyun; Min, Jung Whan [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Shingu University, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of)


    In clinical computed tomography (CT), regular quality assurance (QA) has been required. This study is to evaluate the MTF for analyzing the spatial resolution using AAPM phantom in CT exam. The dual source somatom definition flash (siemens healthcare, forchheim, Germany), the brilliance 64 (philips medical system Netherlands) and aquilion 64 (toshiba medical system, Japan) were used in this study. The quantitative evaluation was performed using the image J (wayne rasband national institutes of health, USA) and chart method which is measurement of modulation transfer function (MTF). In MTF evaluation, the spatial frequencies corresponding to the 50% MTF for the CT systems were 0.58, 0.28, and 0.59 mm-1, respectively and the 10% MTF for the CT systems were 1.63, 0.89, and 1.21 mm-1, respectively. This study could evaluate the characteristic of spatial resolution of MTF using chart method, suggesting the quantitative evaluation method using the data.

  3. [Forensic evidence-based medicine in computer communication networks]. (United States)

    Qiu, Yun-Liang; Peng, Ming-Qi


    As an important component of judicial expertise, forensic science is broad and highly specialized. With development of network technology, increasement of information resources, and improvement of people's legal consciousness, forensic scientists encounter many new problems, and have been required to meet higher evidentiary standards in litigation. In view of this, evidence-based concept should be established in forensic medicine. We should find the most suitable method in forensic science field and other related area to solve specific problems in the evidence-based mode. Evidence-based practice can solve the problems in legal medical field, and it will play a great role in promoting the progress and development of forensic science. This article reviews the basic theory of evidence-based medicine and its effect, way, method, and evaluation in the forensic medicine in order to discuss the application value of forensic evidence-based medicine in computer communication networks.

  4. Computer Models and Automata Theory in Biology and Medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Baianu, I C


    The applications of computers to biological and biomedical problem solving goes back to the very beginnings of computer science, automata theory [1], and mathematical biology [2]. With the advent of more versatile and powerful computers, biological and biomedical applications of computers have proliferated so rapidly that it would be virtually impossible to compile a comprehensive review of all developments in this field. Limitations of computer simulations in biology have also come under close scrutiny, and claims have been made that biological systems have limited information processing power [3]. Such general conjectures do not, however, deter biologists and biomedical researchers from developing new computer applications in biology and medicine. Microprocessors are being widely employed in biological laboratories both for automatic data acquisition/processing and modeling; one particular area, which is of great biomedical interest, involves fast digital image processing and is already established for rout...

  5. A Network Model and Computational Approach for the Mo-99 Supply Chain for Nuclear Medicine (United States)

    Nagurney, Ladimer; Nagurney, Anna


    Technetium-99m, produced from the decay of Molybdenum-99, is the most commonly used radioisotope for medical imaging, specifically in cardiac and cancer diagnostics. The MO-99 is produced in a small number of reactors and is processed and distributed worldwide. We have developed a tractable network model and computational approach for the design and redesign of the MO-99 supply chains. This topic is of special relevance to medical physics given the product's widespread use and the aging of the nuclear reactors where it is produced. This generalized network model, for which we derived formulae for the arc and path multipliers that capture the underlying physics of radioisotope decay, includes total operational cost minimization, and the minimization of cost associated with nuclear waste disposal, coupled with capacity investment (or disinvestment) costs. Its solution yields the optimal link capacities as well as the optimal MO-99 flows so that demand at the medical facilities is satisfied. We illustrate the framework with a Western Hemisphere case study. The framework provides the foundation for further empirical research and the basis for the modeling and analysis of supply chain networks for other very time-sensitive medical products.

  6. Proceedings of seventh symposium on sharing of computer programs and technology in nuclear medicine, computer assisted data processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, B.Y.; McClain, W.J.; Landay, M. (comps.)


    The Council on Computers (CC) of the Society of Nuclear Medicine (SNM) annually publishes the Proceedings of its Symposium on the Sharing of Computer Programs and Technology in Nuclear Medicine. This is the seventh such volume and has been organized by topic, with the exception of the invited papers and the discussion following them. An index arranged by author and by subject is included.

  7. Summer school in Kabardino-Balkaria by BMSTU SPIE Student Chapter (United States)

    Chernomyrdin, Nikita V.; Zaytsev, Kirill I.; Gavdush, Arsenii A.; Fokina, Irina N.; Karasik, Valeriy E.; Yurchenko, Stanislav O.


    This summer BMSTU SPIE Student Chapter have decided to visit Kabardino-Balkaria Republic of Caucasus (Russia) and spent there a week with children in a camp. It was called Summer school. We decided to organize it in order to engage talented and curious children in Optics and to show them how science could be funny. Education and entertainment program included such activities as lectures, optical demonstrations, laser games, hiking in the forest, and others. As a result children had a good time outdoors, learned interesting facts about optics and lasers, and of course found new friends who are keen to know more too. Four Chapter members and about 70 children of age 10-16 took part in this event.

  8. Computer literacy and E-learning perception in Cameroon: the case of Yaounde Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences. (United States)

    Bediang, Georges; Stoll, Beat; Geissbuhler, Antoine; Klohn, Axel M; Stuckelberger, Astrid; Nko'o, Samuel; Chastonay, Philippe


    Health science education faces numerous challenges: assimilation of knowledge, management of increasing numbers of learners or changes in educational models and methodologies. With the emergence of e-learning, the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) and Internet to improve teaching and learning in health science training institutions has become a crucial issue for low and middle income countries, including sub-Saharan Africa. In this perspective, the Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences (FMBS) of Yaoundé has played a pioneering role in Cameroon in making significant efforts to improve students' and lecturers' access to computers and to Internet on its campus.The objective is to investigate how computer literacy and the perception towards e-learning and its potential could contribute to the learning and teaching process within the FMBS academic community. A cross-sectional survey was carried out among students, residents and lecturers. The data was gathered through a written questionnaire distributed at FMBS campus and analysed with routine statistical software. 307 participants answered the questionnaire: 218 students, 57 residents and 32 lecturers. Results show that most students, residents and lecturers have access to computers and Internet, although students' access is mainly at home for computers and at cyber cafés for Internet. Most of the participants have a fairly good mastery of ICT. However, some basic rules of good practices concerning the use of ICT in the health domain were still not well known. Google is the most frequently used engine to retrieve health literature for all participants; only 7% of students and 16% of residents have heard about Medical Subject Headings (MeSH).The potential of e-learning in the improvement of teaching and learning still remains insufficiently exploited. About two thirds of the students are not familiar with the concept of e-leaning. 84% of students and 58% of residents had never had access to

  9. Computer literacy and E-learning perception in Cameroon: the case of Yaounde Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences (United States)


    Background Health science education faces numerous challenges: assimilation of knowledge, management of increasing numbers of learners or changes in educational models and methodologies. With the emergence of e-learning, the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) and Internet to improve teaching and learning in health science training institutions has become a crucial issue for low and middle income countries, including sub-Saharan Africa. In this perspective, the Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences (FMBS) of Yaoundé has played a pioneering role in Cameroon in making significant efforts to improve students’ and lecturers’ access to computers and to Internet on its campus. The objective is to investigate how computer literacy and the perception towards e-learning and its potential could contribute to the learning and teaching process within the FMBS academic community. Method A cross-sectional survey was carried out among students, residents and lecturers. The data was gathered through a written questionnaire distributed at FMBS campus and analysed with routine statistical software. Results 307 participants answered the questionnaire: 218 students, 57 residents and 32 lecturers. Results show that most students, residents and lecturers have access to computers and Internet, although students’ access is mainly at home for computers and at cyber cafés for Internet. Most of the participants have a fairly good mastery of ICT. However, some basic rules of good practices concerning the use of ICT in the health domain were still not well known. Google is the most frequently used engine to retrieve health literature for all participants; only 7% of students and 16% of residents have heard about Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). The potential of e-learning in the improvement of teaching and learning still remains insufficiently exploited. About two thirds of the students are not familiar with the concept of e-leaning. 84% of students and 58% of

  10. PET-Computed Tomography in Veterinary Medicine. (United States)

    Randall, Elissa K


    PET/CT is an advanced imaging modality that is becoming more commonly used in veterinary medicine. It is most commonly used to image patients with cancer, and the most frequently used radiopharmaceutical is F-18 FDG. F-18 FDG is a glucose analog that highlights areas of increased glucose metabolism on the PET images. CT images provide excellent anatomic depiction and aid in interpretation of the PET data. Many types of cancer are hypermetabolic on PET/CT scans, but normal structures and areas of inflammation are also hypermetabolic, so knowledge of normal imaging and cytologic or histopathologic evaluation of lesions is essential. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Computer applications in veterinary medicine | Hassan | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    If you would like more information about how to print, save, and work with PDFs, Highwire Press provides a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs. Alternatively, you can download the PDF file directly to your computer, from where it can be opened using a PDF reader. To download the PDF, click the Download link ...

  12. Computer applications in veterinary medicine | Hassan | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... diagnostic imaging and laboratory evaluations of specimens. Computers have also crept into the field of agro-veterinary consultancy services and have been useful here for clinical consultancy; agro-veterinary project design, monitoring and implementation; preparation of presentations as resource persons or instructor; ...

  13. Brain-Computer Interfaces in Medicine (United States)

    Shih, Jerry J.; Krusienski, Dean J.; Wolpaw, Jonathan R.


    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) acquire brain signals, analyze them, and translate them into commands that are relayed to output devices that carry out desired actions. BCIs do not use normal neuromuscular output pathways. The main goal of BCI is to replace or restore useful function to people disabled by neuromuscular disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, cerebral palsy, stroke, or spinal cord injury. From initial demonstrations of electroencephalography-based spelling and single-neuron-based device control, researchers have gone on to use electroencephalographic, intracortical, electrocorticographic, and other brain signals for increasingly complex control of cursors, robotic arms, prostheses, wheelchairs, and other devices. Brain-computer interfaces may also prove useful for rehabilitation after stroke and for other disorders. In the future, they might augment the performance of surgeons or other medical professionals. Brain-computer interface technology is the focus of a rapidly growing research and development enterprise that is greatly exciting scientists, engineers, clinicians, and the public in general. Its future achievements will depend on advances in 3 crucial areas. Brain-computer interfaces need signal-acquisition hardware that is convenient, portable, safe, and able to function in all environments. Brain-computer interface systems need to be validated in long-term studies of real-world use by people with severe disabilities, and effective and viable models for their widespread dissemination must be implemented. Finally, the day-to-day and moment-to-moment reliability of BCI performance must be improved so that it approaches the reliability of natural muscle-based function. PMID:22325364

  14. Brain-computer interfaces in medicine. (United States)

    Shih, Jerry J; Krusienski, Dean J; Wolpaw, Jonathan R


    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) acquire brain signals, analyze them, and translate them into commands that are relayed to output devices that carry out desired actions. BCIs do not use normal neuromuscular output pathways. The main goal of BCI is to replace or restore useful function to people disabled by neuromuscular disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, cerebral palsy, stroke, or spinal cord injury. From initial demonstrations of electroencephalography-based spelling and single-neuron-based device control, researchers have gone on to use electroencephalographic, intracortical, electrocorticographic, and other brain signals for increasingly complex control of cursors, robotic arms, prostheses, wheelchairs, and other devices. Brain-computer interfaces may also prove useful for rehabilitation after stroke and for other disorders. In the future, they might augment the performance of surgeons or other medical professionals. Brain-computer interface technology is the focus of a rapidly growing research and development enterprise that is greatly exciting scientists, engineers, clinicians, and the public in general. Its future achievements will depend on advances in 3 crucial areas. Brain-computer interfaces need signal-acquisition hardware that is convenient, portable, safe, and able to function in all environments. Brain-computer interface systems need to be validated in long-term studies of real-world use by people with severe disabilities, and effective and viable models for their widespread dissemination must be implemented. Finally, the day-to-day and moment-to-moment reliability of BCI performance must be improved so that it approaches the reliability of natural muscle-based function. Copyright © 2012 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Computed tomography in various fields outside medicine. (United States)

    van Kaick, Gerhard; Delorme, Stefan


    CT has been widely used for non-medical purposes, for which, as in medicine, it has the advantage of being non-destructive and having a high spatial and density resolution. CT may help to generate 3-D views which could otherwise be obtained only by dissecting the object. There is almost no limitation with regard to X-ray exposure and scanning time. Dedicated techniques, e.g., rotating the specimen between stationary tube and detector, have been developed. Micro-CT may provide a spatial resolution up to 1 microm. Fields where CT has been successfully applied are archaeology, soil science, the timber industry, biology, industrial X-ray inspection and aviation security.

  16. Practicing evidence based medicine at the bedside: a randomized controlled pilot study in undergraduate medical students assessing the practicality of tablets, smartphones, and computers in clinical life. (United States)

    Friederichs, Hendrik; Marschall, Bernhard; Weissenstein, Anne


    Practicing evidence-based medicine is an important aspect of providing good medical care. Accessing external information through literature searches on computer-based systems can effectively achieve integration in clinical care. We conducted a pilot study using smartphones, tablets, and stationary computers as search devices at the bedside. The objective was to determine possible differences between the various devices and assess students' internet use habits. In a randomized controlled pilot study, 120 students were divided in three groups. One control group solved clinical problems on a computer and two intervention groups used mobile devices at the bedside. In a questionnaire, students were asked to report their internet use habits as well as their satisfaction with their respective search tool using a 5-point Likert scale. Of 120 surveys, 94 (78.3%) complete data sets were analyzed. The mobility of the tablet (3.90) and the smartphone (4.39) was seen as a significant advantage over the computer (2.38, p computer (3.22) was rated superior to both tablet computers (2.13) and smartphones (1.68). No significant differences were detected between tablets and smartphones except satisfaction with screen size (tablet 4.10, smartphone 2.00, p computers. However, mobility is regarded as a substantial advantage, and therefore future applications might facilitate quick and simple searches at the bedside.

  17. Precision Cancer Medicine and Super-computing System. (United States)

    Wakai, Toshifumi


    Precision Cancer Medicine: Tumors are classified into several molecular subtypes by Genomic Sequencing. Comprehensive targeted-gene panel provides more therapeutic options. CANCERPLEX-JP version 4.0 includes 435 actionable genes, which clinical approaches are available. Utilizing the gene panel platform, we assessed the genes and pathways most frequently altered in Japanese and US cases (Genome Med 2016;8:136). We demonstrate concordance of CANCERPLEX-JP with whole-exome sequencing from the TCGA in identifying hypermutated samples and microsatellite instability in multiple cancer types, such as colorectal and gastric cancer. We introduced our activity for precision medicine at 4th US-Japan Clinical Trials in Oncology Workshop sponsored by Embassy of Japan, at Washington DC, held in June 9, 2016. We highlight the clinical utility of CANCERPLEX-JP (435 genes) in guiding treatment strategies with targeted therapy in solid tumors, thus providing rationale for Comprehensive Genomic Sequencing in actualizing precision medicine. The goal of Precision Medicine is cost effectiveness and realization of genome drug discovery.Super-computing System: This introduction plan is based on the massive medical big data (cancer gene mutation information, genomic data, image data, etc.) possessed by Niigata Prefecture and Niigata University, to construct an integrated analysis system incorporating deep learning, and introduces a high-performance computer system for the development and activation of related industries. Therefore, it is necessary to have an operation system that can connect to the hospital electronic medical record without interference.(Presented at the 1943rd Meeting, July 5, 2017).

  18. How much power does neural signal propagation need?Presented at the SPIE Conf. on BioMEMS and Smart Nanostructures (Adelaide., 2001); the conference version was published in its proceedings. (United States)

    Bezrukov, Sergey M.; Kish, Laszlo B.


    Two well known, biologically inspired non-dynamical models of stochastic resonance, the threshold-crossing model and the fluctuating rate model, are analyzed in terms of channel information capacity and dissipation of energy necessary for small-signal transduction. Using analogies to spike propagation in neurons we postulate the average output pulse rate as a measure of dissipation. The dissipation increases monotonically with the input noise. We find that for small dissipation both models give a close to linear dependence of the channel information capacity on dissipation. In both models the channel information capacity, as a function of dissipation, has a maximum at input noise amplitude that is different from that in the standard signal-to-noise ratio versus input noise plot. Though a direct comparison is not straightforward, for small signals the threshold model gives appreciably higher density of information per dissipation than the exponential fluctuating rate model. We show that a formal introduction of cooperativity in the rate fluctuating model permits us to imitate the response function of the threshold model and to enhance performance. This finding may have direct relevance to real neural spike generation where, due to a strong positive feedback, the ion channel currents add up in a synchronized way.

  19. Medical robotics and computer-integrated interventional medicine (United States)

    Taylor, Russell H.


    Computer-Integrated Interventional Medicine (CIIM) promises to have a profound impact on health care in the next 20 years, much as and for many of the same reasons that the marriage of computers and information processing methods with other technology have had on manufacturing, transportation, and other sectors of our society. Our basic premise is that the steps of creating patient-specific computational models, using these models for planning, registering the models and plans with the actual patient in the operating room, and using this information with appropriate technology to assist in carrying out and monitoring the intervention are best viewed as part of a complete patient-specific intervention process that occurs over many time scales. Further, the information generated in computer-integrated interventions can be captured and analyzed statistically to improve treatment processes. This paper will explore these themes briefly, using examples drawn from our work at the Engineering Research Center for Computer-Integrated Surgical Systems and Technology (CISST ERC).

  20. 2K09 and thereafter : the coming era of integrative bioinformatics, systems biology and intelligent computing for functional genomics and personalized medicine research (United States)


    Significant interest exists in establishing synergistic research in bioinformatics, systems biology and intelligent computing. Supported by the United States National Science Foundation (NSF), International Society of Intelligent Biological Medicine (, International Journal of Computational Biology and Drug Design (IJCBDD) and International Journal of Functional Informatics and Personalized Medicine, the ISIBM International Joint Conferences on Bioinformatics, Systems Biology and Intelligent Computing (ISIBM IJCBS 2009) attracted more than 300 papers and 400 researchers and medical doctors world-wide. It was the only inter/multidisciplinary conference aimed to promote synergistic research and education in bioinformatics, systems biology and intelligent computing. The conference committee was very grateful for the valuable advice and suggestions from honorary chairs, steering committee members and scientific leaders including Dr. Michael S. Waterman (USC, Member of United States National Academy of Sciences), Dr. Chih-Ming Ho (UCLA, Member of United States National Academy of Engineering and Academician of Academia Sinica), Dr. Wing H. Wong (Stanford, Member of United States National Academy of Sciences), Dr. Ruzena Bajcsy (UC Berkeley, Member of United States National Academy of Engineering and Member of United States Institute of Medicine of the National Academies), Dr. Mary Qu Yang (United States National Institutes of Health and Oak Ridge, DOE), Dr. Andrzej Niemierko (Harvard), Dr. A. Keith Dunker (Indiana), Dr. Brian D. Athey (Michigan), Dr. Weida Tong (FDA, United States Department of Health and Human Services), Dr. Cathy H. Wu (Georgetown), Dr. Dong Xu (Missouri), Drs. Arif Ghafoor and Okan K Ersoy (Purdue), Dr. Mark Borodovsky (Georgia Tech, President of ISIBM), Dr. Hamid R. Arabnia (UGA, Vice-President of ISIBM), and other scientific leaders. The committee presented the 2009 ISIBM Outstanding Achievement Awards to Dr. Joydeep Ghosh (UT

  1. Computer use and needs of internists: a survey of members of the American College of Physicians-American Society of Internal Medicine. (United States)

    Lacher, D; Nelson, E; Bylsma, W; Spena, R


    The American College of Physicians-American Society of Internal Medicine conducted a membership survey in late 1998 to assess their activities, needs, and attitudes. A total of 9,466 members (20.9% response rate) reported on 198 items related to computer use and needs of internists. Eighty-two percent of the respondents reported that they use computers for personal or professional reasons. Physicians younger than 50 years old who had full- or part-time academic affiliation reported using computers more frequently for medical applications. About two thirds of respondents who had access to computers connected to the Internet at least weekly, with most using the Internet from home for e-mail and nonmedical uses. Physicians expressed concerns about Internet security, confidentiality, and accuracy, and the lack of time to browse the Internet. In practice settings, internists used computers for administrative and financial functions. Less than 19% of respondents had partial or complete electronic clinical functions in their offices. Less than 7% of respondents exchanged e-mail with their patients on a weekly or daily basis. Also, less than 15% of respondents used computers for continuing medical education (CME). Respondents reported they wanted to increase their general computer skills and enhance their knowledge of computer-based information sources for patient care, electronic medical record systems, computer-based CME, and telemedicine While most respondents used computers and connected to the Internet, few physicians utilized computers for clinical management. Medical organizations face the challenge of increasing physician use of clinical systems and electronic CME.



    Sforza, Mario


    This article escribes family and popular medicine in the region of the Lake Como at the time of the Second World War. It also describes new developments in herbal medicine and the vertiginous evolution of medicine in the last fifty years.

  3. Computer assisted radiology and surgery. CARS 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The conference proceedings include contributions to the following topics: (1) CARS Clinical Day: minimally invasive spiral surgery, interventional radiology; (2) CARS - computer assisted radiology and surgery: ophthalmology, stimulation methods, new approaches to diagnosis and therapy; (3) Computer assisted radiology 24th International congress and exhibition: computer tomography and magnetic resonance, digital angiographic imaging, digital radiography, ultrasound, computer assisted radiation therapy, medical workstations, image processing and display; (4) 14th Annual conference of the International Society for computer aided surgery; ENT-CMF head and neck surgery computer-assisted neurosurgery, cardiovascular surgery, image guided liver surgery, abdominal and laparoscopic surgery, computer-assisted orthopedic surgery, image processing and visualization, surgical robotics and instrumentation, surgical modeling, simulation and education; (5) 28th International EuroPACS meeting: image distribution and integration strategies, planning and evaluation, telemedicine and standards, workflow and data flow in radiology; (6) 11th CARS/SPIE/EuroPACS joint workshop on surgical PACS and the digital operating, management and assessment of OR systems and integration; (7) 12th International workshop on computer-aided diagnosis: special session on breast CAD, special session on thoracic CAD, special session on abdominal brain, lumbar spine CAD; (8) 16th computed Maxillofacial imaging congress: computed maxillofacial imaging in dental implantology, orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics; approaches to 3D maxillofacial imaging; surgical navigation; (9) 2nd EuroNOTES/CARS workshop on NOTES: an interdisciplinary challenge; (10) 2nd EPMA/CARS workshop on personalized medicine and ICT.; (11)poster sessions.

  4. Computational biomechanics for medicine fundamental science and patient-specific applications

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Karol; Wittek, Adam; Nielsen, Poul


    One of the greatest challenges facing the computational engineering community is to extend the success of computational mechanics to fields outside traditional engineering, in particular to biology, the biomedical sciences, and medicine. The Computational Biomechanics for Medicine titles provide an opportunity for specialists in computational biomechanics to present their latest methodologies and advancements. This latest installment comprises nine of the latest developments in both fundamental science and patient-specific applications, from researchers in Australia, New Zealand, USA, UK, France, Ireland, and China. Some of the interesting topics discussed are: cellular mechanics; tumor growth and modeling; medical image analysis; and both patient-specific fluid dynamics and solid mechanics simulations.

  5. Can design principles of traditional learning theories be fulfilled by computer-based training systems in medicine: the example of CAMPUS. (United States)

    Garde, Sebastian; Heid, Jörn; Haag, Martin; Bauch, Matthias; Weires, Thorsten; Leven, Franz Josef


    Computer-based training (CBT) systems offer the potential to efficiently support modern teaching and learning. However, it is still unknown if a similar efficient learning experience built on sound learning theories and corresponding design principles can be created in the complex health care environment. The purpose of this paper is to analyse to what extent learning theories and corresponding design principles are relevant and can successfully be applied in computer-based training in medicine. We use the case-based CBT system CAMPUS as an example for a CBT system currently used to enhance the medical teaching and learning experience. We apply two well-accepted learning theories (Bloom's taxonomy and practice fields) and related design principles to determine to what extent they are relevant and fulfilled in the context of CAMPUS. We demonstrate that in principle these learning theories and design principles can be implemented using computer-based training. However, not all design principles can be fulfilled by the system alone; rather the integration of the system into adequate -- traditional or virtual -- teaching and learning environments is essential. Traditional learning theories and design principles are a valuable means in designing adequate CBT systems in medicine. They can be successfully implemented in CBT systems for medical education if the system itself is adequately integrated into teaching and learning environments.

  6. Laser and nonlinear optical materials: SPIE volume 681

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Shazer, L.G.


    This book contains papers arranged under the following session headings: Nonlinear optical crystals; Laser host crystals; Electro-optic and magneto-optic materials; and Characterization of optical materials.

  7. Precision medicine, an approach for development of the future medicine technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Nabipour


    Full Text Available Precision medicine is an approach in medicine that takes into account individual differences in people's genes, environments, and lifestyle. This field of medicine redefines our understanding of disease onset and progression, treatment response, and health outcomes through the more precise measurement of molecular, environmental, and behavioral factors that contribute to health and disease. Undoubtedly, the advances in omics technologies including genomics, data collection and storage, computational analysis, and mobile health applications over the last decade produced significant progress for precision medicine. In fact, precision medicine is a platform for the growth of personalized medicine, wearable biosensors, mobile health, computational sciences, genomic singularity, and other omics technologies. In the pathway of precision medicine, mathematics and computational sciences will be revolutionized to overcome the challenges in Big Data. By the birth of precision medicine, novel therapeutic strategies for chronic complex diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancers would be designed in Systems Medicine.

  8. Proceedings SPIE: Conference Digest, International Conference on Infrared and Millimeter Waves (18th) Held in Colchester, United Kingdom on 6-10 September 1993. Volume 2104 (United States)


    RKlmmitt, Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Infrared and Millimeter Waves, SPIE 1576, 548, (1991), [2) ADoria , O.PC3allerano, A.Renleri...axis and made of Ta and secondary cathode (SC) made of porous tungsten impregnated by barium aluminate, edged autoemitters, activated by barium, provide...two-beam polarisation configuration with tungsten wire grids as polarisers, analysers and beamdividers, as shown in figure 1. Collimated radiation

  9. Adaptive scapula bone remodeling computational simulation: Relevance to regenerative medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Gulshan B., E-mail: [Emory University, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Spine and Orthopaedic Center, Atlanta, Georgia 30329 (United States); University of Pittsburgh, Swanson School of Engineering, Department of Bioengineering, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); University of Calgary, Schulich School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada); Robertson, Douglas D., E-mail: [Emory University, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Spine and Orthopaedic Center, Atlanta, Georgia 30329 (United States); University of Pittsburgh, Swanson School of Engineering, Department of Bioengineering, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States)


    actual specimen. Low predicted bone density was lower than actual specimen. Differences were probably due to applied muscle and joint reaction loads, boundary conditions, and values of constants used. Work is underway to study this. Nonetheless, the results demonstrate three dimensional bone remodeling simulation validity and potential. Such adaptive predictions take physiological bone remodeling simulations one step closer to reality. Computational analyses are needed that integrate biological remodeling rules and predict how bone will respond over time. We expect the combination of computational static stress analyses together with adaptive bone remodeling simulations to become effective tools for regenerative medicine research.

  10. Computer analysis of the student log diary: an aid in the teaching of general practice and family medicine. (United States)

    Munro, J G


    At the University of Queensland all medical students in their fifth year rotate through a 2-week attachment to a general practitioner tutor as part of the course in community practice. As a means of learning from this experience each student records information in a log diary on seventy-five consecutive patients seen, and codes it using a code-book developed for the purpose. The International Classification of Health Problems in Primary Care (ICHPPC) classification is used for coding diagnoses and problems. These data are then computerized and a print-out of frequencies. including mean values, is provided for each student in a group of twenty-eight to thirty. In a teaching session of 2-3 hours held with the group. Results are presented and each variable discussed in turn. Students can easily identify differences between practices, and how data from each practice compare with mean values for the practices visited by the group. Possible reasons for these differences are then discussed. Comparisons are made with similar data accumulated by the Department over 2 1/2 years (amounting to some 42,000 patient encounters), and with other surveys of general practice morbidity. The use of the computer print-out provides an extremely valuable yet comparatively simple method of demonstrating the demography, clinical content and process of general practice.

  11. Systems Medicine: Sketching the Landscape. (United States)

    Kirschner, Marc


    To understand the meaning of the term Systems Medicine and to distinguish it from seemingly related other expressions currently in use, such as precision, personalized, -omics, or big data medicine, its underlying history and development into present time needs to be highlighted. Having this development in mind, it becomes evident that Systems Medicine is a genuine concept as well as a novel way of tackling the manifold complexity that occurs in nowadays clinical medicine-and not just a rebranding of what has previously been done in the past. So looking back it seems clear to many in the field that Systems Medicine has its origin in an integrative method to unravel biocomplexity, namely, Systems Biology. Here scientist by now gained useful experience that is on the verge toward implementation in clinical research and practice.Systems Medicine and Systems Biology have the same underlying theoretical principle in systems-based thinking-a methodology to understand complexity that can be traced back to ancient Greece. During the last decade, however, and due to a rapid methodological development in the life sciences and computing/IT technologies, Systems Biology has evolved from a scientific concept into an independent discipline most competent to tackle key questions of biocomplexity-with the potential to transform medicine and how it will be practiced in the future. To understand this process in more detail, the following section will thus give a short summary of the foundation of systems-based thinking and the different developmental stages including systems theory, the development of modern Systems Biology, and its transition into clinical practice. These are the components to pave the way toward Systems Medicine.

  12. Medicine's Life Inside the Body (United States)

    ... Science Home Page A Medicine's Life Inside the Body By Alison Davis Posted May 1, 2014 Pharmacology is the scientific field that studies how the body reacts to medicines and how medicines affect the ...

  13. Nanotechnology: The future medicine


    Rajiv Saini; Santosh Saini; Sugandha Sharma


    Nanotechnology is an exciting new area in science, with many possible applications in medicine. This article seeks to outline the role of different areas such as diagnosis of diseases, drug delivery, imaging, and so on.

  14. Nanotechnology: The future medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Saini


    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is an exciting new area in science, with many possible applications in medicine. This article seeks to outline the role of different areas such as diagnosis of diseases, drug delivery, imaging, and so on.

  15. Ethnoveterinary Medicine: The prospects of integrating medicinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, the use of medicinal plant products would be a rational alternative to synthetic drugs. Ethnobotanical surveys carried out in many parts of Kenya have revealed a lot of plants being used in animal disease management. Specific plant extracts have been identified and screened by many researchers for their ...

  16. Cannabis; extracting the medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazekamp, Arno


    The cannabis plant (Cannabis sativa L.) has a long history as a recreational drug, but also as part of traditional medicine in many cultures. Nowadays, it is used by a large number of patients worldwide, to ameliorate the symptoms of diseases varying from cancer and AIDS to multiple sclerosis and

  17. Cannabis; extracting the medicine


    Hazekamp, Arno


    The cannabis plant (Cannabis sativa L.) has a long history as a recreational drug, but also as part of traditional medicine in many cultures. Nowadays, it is used by a large number of patients worldwide, to ameliorate the symptoms of diseases varying from cancer and AIDS to multiple sclerosis and migraine. The discovery of cannabinoid-receptors and the endocannabinoid system have opened up a new and exciting field of research. But despite the pharmaceutical potential of cannabis, its classifi...

  18. Over-the-Counter Medicines (United States)

    Over-the-counter (OTC) medicines are drugs you can buy without a prescription. Some OTC medicines relieve aches, pains ... Others help manage recurring problems, like migraines. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration decides ...

  19. [The concept of "forensic medicine"]. (United States)

    Popov, V L


    The analysis of the definition of forensic medicine and its evolution during the past 300 years is presented. The special character of forensic medicine, its subject-matter, scope of research, procedures, goals and targeted application of forensic medical knowledge are discussed. The original definition of the notion of "forensic medicine" is proposed.

  20. The Jewish contribution to medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    History of Medicine. The Jewish contribution to medicine. Part I. Biblical and Talmudic times to the end of the 18th century. H.DUBOVSKY. Summary. Jewish interest in medicine has a religious motivation with the preservation of health and life as religious commandments in the Holy Scriptures. Despite a basic belief that God ...

  1. The Jewish contribution to medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Albert Einstein College of Medicine of the Yeshiva University in 1955 and the Mount Sinai School of Medicine in 1968 - and they accept smdents of all denominations. 32 Monawee, St Andrew Street, Bloemfontein. H. DUBOVSKY, M.B. CH.B., D.P.H. (Honorary Leccurer in che Hisrory. ofMedicine ac MEDUNSA). Accepted ...

  2. Application of MCNP{trademark} to computed tomography in medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brockhoff, R.C. [KSU (United States); Estes, G.P.; Hills, C.R. [Mason and Hanger (United States); Demarco, J.J.; Solberg, T.D. [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States)


    The MCNP{trademark} code has been used to simulate CT scans of the MIRD human phantom. In addition. an actual CT scan of a patient was used to create an MCNP geometry, and this geometry was computationally ``CT scanned`` using MCNP to reconstruct CT images. The results show that MCNP can be used to model the human body based on data obtained from CT scans and to simulate CT scans that are based on these or other models.

  3. Computer-based Training in Medicine and Learning Theories. (United States)

    Haag, Martin; Bauch, Matthias; Garde, Sebastian; Heid, Jörn; Weires, Thorsten; Leven, Franz-Josef


    Computer-based training (CBT) systems can efficiently support modern teaching and learning environments. In this paper, we demonstrate on the basis of the case-based CBT system CAMPUS that current learning theories and design principles (Bloom's Taxonomy and practice fields) are (i) relevant to CBT and (ii) are feasible to implement using computer-based training and adequate learning environments. Not all design principles can be fulfilled by the system alone, the integration of the system in adequate teaching and learning environments therefore is essential. Adequately integrated, CBT programs become valuable means to build or support practice fields for learners that build domain knowledge and problem-solving skills. Learning theories and their design principles can support in designing these systems as well as in assessing their value.

  4. The Relationship between Traditional Chinese Medicine and Modern Medicine. (United States)

    Dong, Jingcheng


    The essence of the traditional Chinese medicine has always been the most advanced and experienced therapeutic approach in the world. It has knowledge that can impact the direction of future modern medical development; still, it is easy to find simple knowledge with mark of times and special cultures. The basic structure of traditional Chinese medicine is composed of three parts: one consistent with modern medicine, one involuntarily beyond modern medicine, and one that needs to be further evaluated. The part that is consistent with modern medicine includes consensus on several theories and concepts of traditional Chinese medicine, and usage of several treatments and prescriptions of traditional Chinese medicine including commonly used Chinese herbs. The part that is involuntarily beyond modern medicine contains several advanced theories and important concepts of traditional Chinese medicine, relatively advanced treatments, formula and modern prescriptions, leading herbs, acupuncture treatment and acupuncture anesthesia of traditional Chinese medicine that affect modern medicine and incorporates massage treatment that has been gradually acknowledged by modern therapy. The part that needs to be further evaluated consists not only the knowledge of pulse diagnosis, prescription, and herbs, but also many other aspects of traditional Chinese medicine.

  5. The Relationship between Traditional Chinese Medicine and Modern Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingcheng Dong


    Full Text Available The essence of the traditional Chinese medicine has always been the most advanced and experienced therapeutic approach in the world. It has knowledge that can impact the direction of future modern medical development; still, it is easy to find simple knowledge with mark of times and special cultures. The basic structure of traditional Chinese medicine is composed of three parts: one consistent with modern medicine, one involuntarily beyond modern medicine, and one that needs to be further evaluated. The part that is consistent with modern medicine includes consensus on several theories and concepts of traditional Chinese medicine, and usage of several treatments and prescriptions of traditional Chinese medicine including commonly used Chinese herbs. The part that is involuntarily beyond modern medicine contains several advanced theories and important concepts of traditional Chinese medicine, relatively advanced treatments, formula and modern prescriptions, leading herbs, acupuncture treatment and acupuncture anesthesia of traditional Chinese medicine that affect modern medicine and incorporates massage treatment that has been gradually acknowledged by modern therapy. The part that needs to be further evaluated consists not only the knowledge of pulse diagnosis, prescription, and herbs, but also many other aspects of traditional Chinese medicine.

  6. New imaging tools in cardiovascular medicine: computational fluid dynamics and 4D flow MRI. (United States)

    Itatani, Keiichi; Miyazaki, Shohei; Furusawa, Tokoki; Numata, Satoshi; Yamazaki, Sachiko; Morimoto, Kazuki; Makino, Rina; Morichi, Hiroko; Nishino, Teruyasu; Yaku, Hitoshi


    Blood flow imaging is a novel technology in cardiovascular medicine and surgery. Today, two types of blood flow imaging tools are available: measurement-based flow visualization including 4D flow MRI (or 3D cine phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging), or echocardiography flow visualization software, and computer flow simulation modeling based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD). MRI and echocardiography flow visualization provide measured blood flow but have limitations in temporal and spatial resolution, whereas CFD flow calculates the flow according to assumptions instead of flow measurement, and it has sufficiently fine resolution up to the computer memory limit, and it enables even virtual surgery when combined with computer graphics. Blood flow imaging provides profound insight into the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases, because it quantifies and visualizes mechanical stress on the vessel walls or heart ventricle. Wall shear stress (WSS) is a stress on the endothelial wall caused by the near wall blood flow, and it is thought to be a predictor of atherosclerosis progression in coronary or aortic diseases. Flow energy loss (EL) is the loss of blood flow energy caused by viscous friction of turbulent diseased flow, and it is expected to be a predictor of ventricular workload on various heart diseases including heart valve disease, cardiomyopathy, and congenital heart diseases. Blood flow imaging can provide useful information for developing predictive medicine in cardiovascular diseases, and may lead to breakthroughs in cardiovascular surgery, especially in the decision-making process.

  7. The Traditional Medicine and Modern Medicine from Natural Products. (United States)

    Yuan, Haidan; Ma, Qianqian; Ye, Li; Piao, Guangchun


    Natural products and traditional medicines are of great importance. Such forms of medicine as traditional Chinese medicine, Ayurveda, Kampo, traditional Korean medicine, and Unani have been practiced in some areas of the world and have blossomed into orderly-regulated systems of medicine. This study aims to review the literature on the relationship among natural products, traditional medicines, and modern medicine, and to explore the possible concepts and methodologies from natural products and traditional medicines to further develop drug discovery. The unique characteristics of theory, application, current role or status, and modern research of eight kinds of traditional medicine systems are summarized in this study. Although only a tiny fraction of the existing plant species have been scientifically researched for bioactivities since 1805, when the first pharmacologically-active compound morphine was isolated from opium, natural products and traditional medicines have already made fruitful contributions for modern medicine. When used to develop new drugs, natural products and traditional medicines have their incomparable advantages, such as abundant clinical experiences, and their unique diversity of chemical structures and biological activities.

  8. Is laboratory medicine ready for the era of personalized medicine?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malentacchi, Francesca; Mancini, Irene; Brandslund, Ivan


    Developments in "-omics" are creating a paradigm shift in laboratory medicine leading to personalized medicine. This allows the increase in diagnostics and therapeutics focused on individuals rather than populations. In order to investigate whether laboratory medicine is ready to play a key role ...

  9. Tablet computer enhanced training improves internal medicine exam performance. (United States)

    Baumgart, Daniel C; Wende, Ilja; Grittner, Ulrike


    Traditional teaching concepts in medical education do not take full advantage of current information technology. We aimed to objectively determine the impact of Tablet PC enhanced training on learning experience and MKSAP® (medical knowledge self-assessment program) exam performance. In this single center, prospective, controlled study final year medical students and medical residents doing an inpatient service rotation were alternatingly assigned to either the active test (Tablet PC with custom multimedia education software package) or traditional education (control) group, respectively. All completed an extensive questionnaire to collect their socio-demographic data, evaluate educational status, computer affinity and skills, problem solving, eLearning knowledge and self-rated medical knowledge. Both groups were MKSAP® tested at the beginning and the end of their rotation. The MKSAP® score at the final exam was the primary endpoint. Data of 55 (tablet n = 24, controls n = 31) male 36.4%, median age 28 years, 65.5% students, were evaluable. The mean MKSAP® score improved in the tablet PC (score Δ + 8 SD: 11), but not the control group (score Δ- 7, SD: 11), respectively. After adjustment for baseline score and confounders the Tablet PC group showed on average 11% better MKSAP® test results compared to the control group (pmedical problem solving were journal articles looked up on PubMed or Google®, and books. Our study provides evidence, that tablet computer based integrated training and clinical practice enhances medical education and exam performance. Larger, multicenter trials are required to independently validate our data. Residency and fellowship directors are encouraged to consider adding portable computer devices, multimedia content and introduce blended learning to their respective training programs.

  10. The medicine from behind

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andel, Van Tinde; Onselen, Van Sabine; Myren, Britt; Towns, Alexandra; Quiroz, Diana


    Ethnopharmacological relevance Purgative enemas form an integral part of African traditional medicine. Besides possible benefits, serious health risks of rectal herbal therapy have been described in literature. To design appropriate health education programs, it is essential to understand

  11. [The Essenes and medicine]. (United States)

    Kottek, Samuel


    The Essenes were a Jewish sect, which flourished around the first century. We have limited our study to hygienic and medical aspects, as documented in the works of Josephus Flavius, Philo of Alexandria, and Pliny the Elder; Josephus and Philo were personally in contact with these sectarian Jews. We have described the regimen of life of these communities, who lived in strictly organised fashion, their meals taken in common, their bathing in cold water, their clothing, the Sabbath rest, the lavatories, and more. Most Essenes remained single, they adopted however small children, and educated them in accordance to their principles. There was no private property, but old people and sick residents were taken care of by the community. The Essenes, as well as the Therapeuts described by Philo, were knowledgeable in medical lore, they treasured old books and studied the virtues of medicinal plants. There is no clear-cut consensus whether the Essenes, the Therapeuts, and the Qumran residents were one and the same sect, or whether they were similar sub-sects. The calm, strictly regulated and frugal way of life of the Essenes enabled them to attain old age, often beyond 100 years.

  12. Applications of automatic mesh generation and adaptive methods in computational medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, J.A.; Macleod, R.S. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Johnson, C.R.; Eason, J.C. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)


    Important problems in Computational Medicine exist that can benefit from the implementation of adaptive mesh refinement techniques. Biological systems are so inherently complex that only efficient models running on state of the art hardware can begin to simulate reality. To tackle the complex geometries associated with medical applications we present a general purpose mesh generation scheme based upon the Delaunay tessellation algorithm and an iterative point generator. In addition, automatic, two- and three-dimensional adaptive mesh refinement methods are presented that are derived from local and global estimates of the finite element error. Mesh generation and adaptive refinement techniques are utilized to obtain accurate approximations of bioelectric fields within anatomically correct models of the heart and human thorax. Specifically, we explore the simulation of cardiac defibrillation and the general forward and inverse problems in electrocardiography (ECG). Comparisons between uniform and adaptive refinement techniques are made to highlight the computational efficiency and accuracy of adaptive methods in the solution of field problems in computational medicine.

  13. Undergraduate teaching in geriatric medicine using computer-aided learning improves student performance in examinations. (United States)

    Daunt, Laura A; Umeonusulu, Patience I; Gladman, John R F; Blundell, Adrian G; Conroy, Simon P; Gordon, Adam L


    computer-aided learning (CAL) is increasingly used to deliver teaching, but few studies have evaluated its impact on learning within geriatric medicine. We developed and implemented CAL packages on falls and continence, and evaluated their effect on student performance in two medical schools. traditional ward based and didactic teaching was replaced by blended learning (CAL package combined with traditional teaching methods). Examination scores were compared for cohorts of medical students receiving traditional learning and those receiving blended learning. Control questions were included to provide data on cohort differences. in both medical schools, there was a trend towards improved scores following blended learning, with a smaller number of students achieving low scores (P learning was associated with improvement in student examination performance, regardless of the setting or the methods adopted, and without increasing teaching time. Our findings support the use of CAL in teaching geriatric medicine, and this method has been adopted for teaching other topics in the undergraduate curriculum.

  14. Software and Hardware Utilization in Computer Medicine Education. (United States)

    Pitts, Gerald N.; Bateman, Barry L.

    Computers are currently being used to perform medical tasks such as: (1) taking medical histories; (2) patient care and health-unit care management; (3) clinical and laboratory work; (4) physiological signal monitoring; and (5) multiphasic screening. In a survey of over 200 institutions, over 339 computer language applications were found, many of…

  15. Lifestyle medicines and the elderly. (United States)

    Walley, Tom


    Lifestyle medicines are those used to meet patient aspirations rather than traditionally defined medical need. However, in many cases, the boundary between the two is ill defined and a matter of degree or cultural expectation. Such medicines are not yet widely used by the elderly, but this may change in an increasingly consumerist society. There are ethical, clinical and financial issues to be considered around these drugs, which are not independent. The ethical issues relate mainly to the rising consumerism in medicine, and whether these and other medicines are consumer goods available almost on demand. The clinical issues concern the balancing of risk and benefit for these medicines, and how we inform patients of these issues. The financial issues are who should pay and whether third party payers can and should ration these medicines and, if so, how. Lifestyle medicines may provoke a debate on the whole issue of rationing. These issues are not confined to the use of these medicines by the elderly and their resolution will depend on a broader societal debate, in which the elderly need to be active.

  16. The transformations of Tibetan medicine. (United States)

    Janes, C R


    This article presents a cultural and historical analysis of 20th-century Tibetan medicine. In its expansion into the state bureaucracy, Tibetan medicine has acceded to institutional modernity through transformations in theory, practice, and methods for training physicians. Despite Chinese rule in Tibet, however, Tibetan medicine has not yielded completely to state interests. With the collapsing of the traditionally pluralistic Tibetan health system into the professional sector of Tibetan medicine, contemporary Tibetan medicine has become to the laity a font of ethnic revitalization and resistance to the modernization policies of the Chinese state. These processes are particularly evident in the elaboration of disorders of rlung, a class of sicknesses that, collectively, have come to symbolize the suffering inherent in rapid social, economic, and political change.

  17. The Development of Sports Medicine. (United States)

    Waddington, Ivan


    The development of sports medicine was influenced by medicalization and increasing competitiveness in modern sport, with sports physicians helping to develop performance enhancing drugs and techniques. This paper discusses sports medicine and drug use in Eastern European countries, early development of anabolic steroids in the United States, and…

  18. TH-E-9A-01: Medical Physics 1.0 to 2.0, Session 4: Computed Tomography, Ultrasound and Nuclear Medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samei, E; Nelson, J [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Hangiandreou, N [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)


    Medical Physics 2.0 is a bold vision for an existential transition of clinical imaging physics in face of the new realities of value-based and evidencebased medicine, comparative effectiveness, and meaningful use. It speaks to how clinical imaging physics can expand beyond traditional insular models of inspection and acceptance testing, oriented toward compliance, towards team-based models of operational engagement, prospective definition and assurance of effective use, and retrospective evaluation of clinical performance. Organized into four sessions of the AAPM, this particular session focuses on three specific modalities as outlined below. CT 2.0: CT has been undergoing a dramatic transition in the last few decades. While the changes in the technology merits discussions of their own, an important question is how clinical medical physicists are expected to effectively engage with the new realities of CT technology and practice. Consistent with the upcoming paradigm of Medical Physics 2.0, this CT presentation aims to provide definitions and demonstration of the components of the new clinical medical physics practice pertaining CT. The topics covered include physics metrics and analytics that aim to provide higher order clinicallyrelevant quantification of system performance as pertains to new (and not so new) technologies. That will include the new radiation and dose metrics (SSDE, organ dose, risk indices), image quality metrology (MTF/NPS/d’), task-based phantoms, and the effect of patient size. That will follow with a discussion of the testing implication of new CT hardware (detectors, tubes), acquisition methods (innovative helical geometries, AEC, wide beam CT, dual energy, inverse geometry, application specialties), and image processing and analysis (iterative reconstructions, quantitative CT, advanced renditions). The presentation will conclude with a discussion of clinical and operational aspects of Medical Physics 2.0 including training and

  19. Many-models medicine: diversity as the best medicine. (United States)

    Nunn, Robin


    Many medicines have been proposed to cure various ills of biomedicine including evidence-based medicine, evolutionary medicine, narrative medicine, and complexity medicine, among others. To the extent that all models are idealizations or abstractions, all of these model medicines are imperfect in some respects. In the absence of a single unified model, if indeed unification is possible or even desirable, and despite the relative advantages of one model or another, in practice many models and methods are necessary in medicine. In this article, I consider the value of such diversity in models and methods. I briefly describe several models. Then I discuss simulations of agents who use diverse models. Advocates of models such as those discussed here typically claim that we should use their preferred model because it is the best. Evidence-based medicine, for instance, has been promoted as the single best model of medicine while other models have been cast as lesser models or in opposition to it and each other. But isolated models and methods may never be as good as groups of models and methods. Debates about various individual models may result in better outcomes, but explicitly choosing to use many models is likely to produce even better outcomes. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. History of computer-assisted orthopedic surgery (CAOS) in sports medicine. (United States)

    Jackson, Douglas W; Simon, Timothy M


    Computer-assisted orthopedic surgery and navigation applications have a history rooted in the desire to link imaging technology with real-time anatomic landmarks. Although applications are still evolving in the clinical and research setting, computer-assisted orthopedic surgery has already demonstrated in certain procedures its potential for improving the surgeon's accuracy, reproducibility (once past the learning curve), and in reducing outlier outcomes. It is also being used as an educational tool to assist less experienced surgeons in interpreting measurements and precision placements related to well defined anatomic landmarks. It also can assist experienced surgeons, in real-time, plan their bony cuts, tunnel placement, and with ligament balancing. Presently, the additional time, the expense to acquire the needed software and hardware, and restricted reimbursement have slowed the widespread use of navigation. Its current applications have been primarily in joint replacement surgery, spine surgery, and trauma. It has not been widely used in the clinical setting for sports medicine procedures. Sports medicine applications such as individualizing tunnel placement in ligament surgery, opening wedge osteotomy with and without accompanying ligament reconstruction, and balancing and tensioning of the ligaments during the procedure (allowing real-time corrections if necessary) are currently being evaluated and being used on a limited clinical basis.

  1. Medicinal plants used in traditional herbal medicine in the province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: We presented ten most used species by ancestral healers of Chimborazo province to cure different illnesses and their medicinal uses. We also provided the application mode and some features of healing that should be emphasized. Conclusion: The nettle was the medicinal plant employed for more different illness ...

  2. Computer-assisted hand-held dynamometer: low-cost instrument for muscle function assessment in rehabilitation medicine.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harlaar, J.; Roebroeck, M.E.; Lankhorst, G.J.


    In rehabilitation medicine, muscle function is assessed during the physical examination of the patient. Although a simple hand-held instrument improves the assessment of static strength, it is rarely used in clinical practice, where dynamic measurements are preferred. A computer-assisted hand-held

  3. The Society for Translational Medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Shugeng; Zhang, Zhongheng; Aragón, Javier


    The Society for Translational Medicine and The Chinese Society for Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery conducted a systematic review of the literature in an attempt to improve our understanding in the postoperative management of chest tubes of patients undergoing pulmonary lobectomy. Recommendati......The Society for Translational Medicine and The Chinese Society for Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery conducted a systematic review of the literature in an attempt to improve our understanding in the postoperative management of chest tubes of patients undergoing pulmonary lobectomy...

  4. Over-the-counter medicines (United States)

    ... lozenges: Soothe "tickle" in the throat (Halls, Robitussin, Vicks). Liquid cough medicines with dextromethorphan: Suppress the urge to cough (Benylin, Delsym, Robitussin DM, Simply Cough, Vicks 44, and store brands). Decongestants: Decongestants help clear ...

  5. The "child size medicines" concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nsabagasani, Xavier; Okeng, Jasper Ogwal; Mbonye, Anthony


    Background In 2007, the World Health Organization (WHO) launched the ‘make medicines child size’ (MMCS) campaign by urging countries to prioritize procurement of medicines with appropriate strengths for children’s age and weight and, in child-friendly formulations of rectal and flexible oral solid...... of policy provisions for the MMCS recommendations. Results For most medicines for the selected diseases, appropriate strength for children’s age and weight was addressed especially in the EMHSLU 2012. However, policy documents neither referred to ‘child size medicines’ concept nor provided for flexible oral...... health policy documents reflected limited adherence to the MMCS recommendations. This and failure to use evidence based medicines may result into treatment failure and or death. A revision of the current policies and guidelines to better reflect ‘child size’, child appropriate and evidence based...

  6. The Use of Herbal Medicine in Children


    Suryawati, Suryawati; Suardi, Hijra Novia


    The herbal medicine has been widely used in children for the treatment of several symptoms and the prevention of diseases before accessing the hospital for professionals help. There are 3 kinds of marketed herbal medicine including empirical based herbal medicine (jamu), standardized herbal medicine (obat herbal terstandar) and clininically tested herbal medicine (fitofarmaka). This study aimed to investigate the utilization of the marketed herbal medicine along with non marketed ones which w...

  7. Using tablet computers to teach evidence-based medicine to pediatrics residents: a prospective study. (United States)

    Soma, David B; Homme, Jason H; Jacobson, Robert M


    We sought to determine if tablet computers-supported by a laboratory experience focused upon skill-development-would improve not only evidence-based medicine (EBM) knowledge but also skills and behavior. We conducted a prospective cohort study where we provided tablet computers to our pediatric residents and then held a series of laboratory sessions focused on speed and efficiency in performing EBM at the bedside. We evaluated the intervention with pre- and postintervention tests and surveys based on a validated tool available for use on MedEdPORTAL. The attending pediatric hospitalists also completed surveys regarding their observations of the residents' behavior. All 38 pediatric residents completed the preintervention test and the pre- and postintervention surveys. All but one completed the posttest. All 7 attending pediatric hospitalists completed their surveys. The testing, targeted to assess EBM knowledge, revealed a median increase of 16 points out of a possible 60 points (P computer and laboratory sessions designed to teach the quick and efficient application of EBM at the bedside. Copyright © 2013 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. No medicine is sometimes the best medicine. (United States)

    Wallis, Katharine Ann


    A 76-year-old woman was admitted to hospital from the rheumatology outpatient clinic for investigation of fatigue, malaise, emotional lability, muscle weakness, productive cough and postural hypotension. She had been taking prednisone 60-40 mg daily for 6 weeks for suspected giant cell arteritis, along with six other regular medications, and had recently finished a course of antibiotics. During her admission she underwent many investigations (mostly negative) and treatments (largely harmful). When the diagnosis of adverse drug reaction was eventually reached, her medications were withdrawn and her symptoms gradually resolved. She was discharged home 1 month after admission, vowing never to return following her 'stormy course'. Adverse drug reactions are a common cause of avoidable hospital admissions in the elderly, estimated to cost billions every year. The single greatest risk factor for adverse drug reactions is the number of medications a person takes. Deprescribing to reduce potentially inappropriate medication is a possible way forward. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  9. Bridging the gap between systems biology and medicine (United States)


    Systems biology has matured considerably as a discipline over the last decade, yet some of the key challenges separating current research efforts in systems biology and clinically useful results are only now becoming apparent. As these gaps are better defined, the new discipline of systems medicine is emerging as a translational extension of systems biology. How is systems medicine defined? What are relevant ontologies for systems medicine? What are the key theoretic and methodologic challenges facing computational disease modeling? How are inaccurate and incomplete data, and uncertain biologic knowledge best synthesized in useful computational models? Does network analysis provide clinically useful insight? We discuss the outstanding difficulties in translating a rapidly growing body of data into knowledge usable at the bedside. Although core-specific challenges are best met by specialized groups, it appears fundamental that such efforts should be guided by a roadmap for systems medicine drafted by a coalition of scientists from the clinical, experimental, computational, and theoretic domains. PMID:19754960

  10. The Danish Fetal Medicine Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, Charlotte K; Petersen, Olav B; Jørgensen, Finn S


    OBJECTIVE: To describe the establishment and organization of the Danish Fetal Medicine Database and to report national results of first-trimester combined screening for trisomy 21 in the 5-year period 2008-2012. DESIGN: National register study using prospectively collected first-trimester screening...... data from the Danish Fetal Medicine Database. POPULATION: Pregnant women in Denmark undergoing first-trimester screening for trisomy 21. METHODS: Data on maternal characteristics, biochemical and ultrasonic markers are continuously sent electronically from local fetal medicine databases (Astraia Gmbh...... MEASURES: Screening performance was assessed for the years 2008-2012 by calculating detection rates and screen-positive rates. RESULTS: A total of 268 342 first-trimester risk assessments for trisomy 21 were performed in singleton pregnancies. Participation rate in first-trimester screening was >90...

  11. The Danish fetal medicine database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, Charlotte Kvist; Kopp, Tine Iskov; Tabor, Ann


    trimester ultrasound scan performed at all public hospitals in Denmark are registered in the database. Main variables/descriptive data: Data on maternal characteristics, ultrasonic, and biochemical variables are continuously sent from the fetal medicine units’Astraia databases to the central database via...... analyses are sent to the database. Conclusion: It has been possible to establish a fetal medicine database, which monitors first-trimester screening for chromosomal abnormalities and second-trimester screening for major fetal malformations with the input from already collected data. The database...

  12. The Danish Fetal Medicine database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, Charlotte; Kopp, Tine Iskov; Tabor, Ann


    trimester ultrasound scan performed at all public hospitals in Denmark are registered in the database. Main variables/descriptive data: Data on maternal characteristics, ultrasonic, and biochemical variables are continuously sent from the fetal medicine units’Astraia databases to the central database via...... analyses are sent to the database. Conclusion: It has been possible to establish a fetal medicine database, which monitors first-trimester screening for chromosomal abnormalities and second-trimester screening for major fetal malformations with the input from already collected data. The database...

  13. Automatic detection of spiculation of pulmonary nodules in computed tomography images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciompi, F; Jacobs, C; Scholten, E.T.


    We present a fully automatic method for the assessment of spiculation of pulmonary nodules in low-dose Computed Tomography (CT) images. Spiculation is considered as one of the indicators of nodule malignancy and an important feature to assess in order to decide on a patient-tailored follow-up pro......) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only....

  14. Traditional medicine use and the anaesthetist

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GD Nethathe

    This review considers traditional medicine, with an emphasis on traditional African medicine and its influence on perioperative care. Western and Eastern herbal remedies are widely used. The paucity of good quality evidence concerning these medicinal products has led to only some of the effects of these medicines being ...

  15. The evolution of sports medicine in Singapore. (United States)

    Tan, Benedict


    Sports medicine is a relatively new subspecialty in Singapore. This commentary chronicles its evolution in Singapore from 1969, through various milestones, to the present day. The first sports medicine clinic in Singapore was established in 1971 at Farrer Park. Notable institutions that followed include the Sports Medicine and Research Centre (1973), Soldier Performance Centre, Changi Sports Medicine Centre (2003), Singapore Sports Medicine Centre (2006), and other multidisciplinary centres of restructured hospitals. Formal groundwork to establish sports medicine as a subspecialty began in 2005, with its first trainee commencing traineeship at the Changi Sports Medicine Centre in 2007, and culminated in the subspecialty register at the beginning of 2011. Also captured in this discussion are the broader scopes of sports medicine, including military sports medicine, the sports sciences, exercise medicine, and event medical coverage.

  16. The World of Sports Medicine (United States)

    Emeagwali, N. Susan


    Soon, the best athletes in the world will face each other at the Summer Olympics in Beijing. Many of them will sustain injuries, or seek to prevent them, and will be thankful that among their entourages are some of the best sports medicine professionals in the world. When an athlete collapses from fatigue, or something else, there will be a group…

  17. [The methods of Western medicine in on ancient medicine]. (United States)

    Ban, Deokjin


    The treatise On Ancient Medicine attests that questions of method were being debated both in medicine and in philosophy and is important evidence of cross-discipline methodological controversy. The treatise On Ancient Medicine is the first attempt in the history of Greek thought to provide a detailed account of the development of a science from a starting point in observation and experience. The author of it criticizes philosophical physicians who attempt to systematized medicine by reducing it to the interaction of one or more of the opposites hot, cold, wet, and dry, factors. He regards the theory of his opponents as hypothesis(hypothesis). Medicine has long been in possession of both an archē and a hodos, a principle and a method, which have enabled it to make discoveries over a long period of time. As far as method is concerned, the traditional science of medicine attained the knowledge of the visible by starting from observation and experience, but it recommended the use of reasoning and analogies with familiar objects as a means of learning about the invisible. It also utilized inference from the visible to the visible(epilogismos) and inference from the visible to the invisible(analogismos). The use of analogy as a means of learning about the obscure was also part of the common heritage of early philosophy and medicine. But the author's use of the analogical method distinguishes it from Empedocles' well-known analogy comparisons of the eye to a lantern and the process of respiration to the operations of a clepsydra. According to the author, traditional science of medicine used functional analogy like wine example and cheese example to know the function of humors within the body and utilized structured analogy like a tube example and a cupping instrument example to acknowledge an organ or structure within the body. But the author didn't distinguish between the claim that medicine has a systematic method of making discoveries and very different claim that it

  18. The Jewish contribution to medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jul 15, 1989 ... myxoedema in a dog by removing the thyroid gland led to an understanding of the function of that organ. Leopold Auerbach (1828 - 1897) performed basic .... thousand dollars to the yeshivas of Eastern Europe. Georges Fernand Isidor Widal (1862 - 1929) was a professor of medicine and pathology in the ...

  19. Computers and the landscape (United States)

    Gary H. Elsner


    Computers can analyze and help to plan the visual aspects of large wildland landscapes. This paper categorizes and explains current computer methods available. It also contains a futuristic dialogue between a landscape architect and a computer.

  20. Pharmacoeconomics and the medicinal chemist. (United States)

    Lindsley, Craig W


    Pharmacoeconomics is a rational, scientific approach to compare the value (in terms of both cost and patient outcome) of one medication or drug therapy regimen to another. The impact of this new approach on both the practicing medicinal chemist and broader drug discovery efforts is considered.

  1. The Crisis in Osteopathic Medicine. (United States)

    Meyer, Christopher T.; Price, Albert


    In three decades, the osteopathic profession has moved from primarily manipulative therapy to full-service health care, replacing primary care emphasis with specialization. The profession should return to its original mission of primary care, establish links with allopathic medicine, and support new national policy for primary health care.…

  2. The Jewish contribution to medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    best educated group in medieval Europe. Not only were they able to practise an efficient self-government in ghettos, but were able to pursue scientific and humanistic professions over this period without recourse to European Universities. REFERENcEs. L Rosner F. Jewish contributions to medicine in the United States.

  3. Tablet computer enhanced training improves internal medicine exam performance


    Baumgart, Daniel C.; Wende, Ilja; Grittner, Ulrike


    Background Traditional teaching concepts in medical education do not take full advantage of current information technology. We aimed to objectively determine the impact of Tablet PC enhanced training on learning experience and MKSAP? (medical knowledge self-assessment program) exam performance. Methods In this single center, prospective, controlled study final year medical students and medical residents doing an inpatient service rotation were alternatingly assigned to either the active test ...

  4. The Glass Computer (United States)

    Paesler, M. A.


    Digital computers use different kinds of memory, each of which is either volatile or nonvolatile. On most computers only the hard drive memory is nonvolatile, i.e., it retains all information stored on it when the power is off. When a computer is turned on, an operating system stored on the hard drive is loaded into the computer's memory cache and…

  5. Nanotechnology - The New Frontier of Medicine. (United States)

    Datta, R; Jaitawat, S S


    Molecular nanotechnology is destined to become the core technology in 21(st) century medicine. Nanotechnology mean, controlling biologically relevant structures with molecular precision. Nanomedicine is exploring how to use carbon buckyballs, dendrimers and other cleverly engineered nanoparticles in novel drugs to combat viruses, bacteria, cancer and delivery of drugs. Medical nanorobots will be of the size of a microbe, capable of self-replication, containing onboard sensors, computers, manipulators, pumps, pressure tanks and power supplies. Building such sophisticated molecular machine systems will require molecular manufacturing to using massively parallel assembly lines in nanofactories.

  6. The digital computer

    CERN Document Server

    Parton, K C


    The Digital Computer focuses on the principles, methodologies, and applications of the digital computer. The publication takes a look at the basic concepts involved in using a digital computer, simple autocode examples, and examples of working advanced design programs. Discussions focus on transformer design synthesis program, machine design analysis program, solution of standard quadratic equations, harmonic analysis, elementary wage calculation, and scientific calculations. The manuscript then examines commercial and automatic programming, how computers work, and the components of a computer

  7. Systems Medicine: The Future of Medical Genomics, Healthcare, and Wellness. (United States)

    Saqi, Mansoor; Pellet, Johann; Roznovat, Irina; Mazein, Alexander; Ballereau, Stéphane; De Meulder, Bertrand; Auffray, Charles


    Recent advances in genomics have led to the rapid and relatively inexpensive collection of patient molecular data including multiple types of omics data. The integration of these data with clinical measurements has the potential to impact on our understanding of the molecular basis of disease and on disease management. Systems medicine is an approach to understanding disease through an integration of large patient datasets. It offers the possibility for personalized strategies for healthcare through the development of a new taxonomy of disease. Advanced computing will be an important component in effectively implementing systems medicine. In this chapter we describe three computational challenges associated with systems medicine: disease subtype discovery using integrated datasets, obtaining a mechanistic understanding of disease, and the development of an informatics platform for the mining, analysis, and visualization of data emerging from translational medicine studies.

  8. Philosophy of medicine 2017: reviewing the situation. (United States)

    Daly, Patrick


    In this introduction to a special subsection of Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics comprising separate reviews of the Springer Handbook of the Philosophy of Medicine, The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Medicine, and The Bloomsbury Companion to Contemporary Philosophy of Medicine, I compare the three texts with respect to their overall organization and their approach to the relation between the science and the art of medicine. I then indicate two areas that merit more explicit attention in developing a comprehensive philosophy of medicine going forward: health economics and systematic relations within the field as a whole. The reviews that follow speak for themselves.

  9. The Poetry of Medicine. (United States)

    Ratcliffe, Sophie


    Outlining an educational initiative for those who work in the National Health Service (NHS), this article argues that literary reflection has been too easily seen as a simple tool which may improve the practitioner's empathic skills and benefit patient-centred care. Using anecdotal feedback, the author reports ways in which a series of literary workshops held for professionals in the NHS have added to practitioners' general sense of well-being. Feedback shows that participants perceived literature in the workshop setting as being more than an enabler of 'empathy'. They reported that reflecting on literature in a group setting is an opportunity to think about their own autonomy, pleasure and creativity. The article concludes with a reflection about priorities in regulatory culture, its relationship to burnout, and ideas for future work.

  10. Nuclear medicine physics the basics

    CERN Document Server

    Chandra, Ramesh


    For decades this classic reference has been the book to review to master the complexities of nuclear-medicine physics. Part of the renowned The Basics series of medical physics books, Nuclear Medicine Physics has become an essential resource for radiology residents and practitioners, nuclear cardiologists, medical physicists, and radiologic technologists. This thoroughly revised Seventh Edition retains all the features that have made The Basics series a reliable and trusted partner for board review and reference. This handy manual contains key points at the end of each chapter that help to underscore principal concepts. You'll also find review questions at the end of each chapter—with detailed answers at the end of the book—to help you master the material. This edition includes useful appendices that elaborate on specific topics, such as physical characteristics of radionuclides and CGS and SI Units.

  11. Emergency medicine of the ferret. (United States)

    Pollock, Christal


    Common emergency conditions seen in the ferret include insulinoma, cardiomyopathy, and urethral obstruction. When developing a diagnostic and therapeutic plan, the ferret veterinarian must seek a balance between species-specific information and information extrapolated from cat and dog medicine. The therapeutic plan must always include close and careful monitoring. Significant changes in the status of these small patients can occur extremely quickly in the course of providing basic supportive care, such as intravenous fluids or supplemental heat.

  12. The Pharmacology of Regenerative Medicine (United States)

    Saul, Justin M.; Furth, Mark E.; Andersson, Karl-Erik


    Regenerative medicine is a rapidly evolving multidisciplinary, translational research enterprise whose explicit purpose is to advance technologies for the repair and replacement of damaged cells, tissues, and organs. Scientific progress in the field has been steady and expectations for its robust clinical application continue to rise. The major thesis of this review is that the pharmacological sciences will contribute critically to the accelerated translational progress and clinical utility of regenerative medicine technologies. In 2007, we coined the phrase “regenerative pharmacology” to describe the enormous possibilities that could occur at the interface between pharmacology, regenerative medicine, and tissue engineering. The operational definition of regenerative pharmacology is “the application of pharmacological sciences to accelerate, optimize, and characterize (either in vitro or in vivo) the development, maturation, and function of bioengineered and regenerating tissues.” As such, regenerative pharmacology seeks to cure disease through restoration of tissue/organ function. This strategy is distinct from standard pharmacotherapy, which is often limited to the amelioration of symptoms. Our goal here is to get pharmacologists more involved in this field of research by exposing them to the tools, opportunities, challenges, and interdisciplinary expertise that will be required to ensure awareness and galvanize involvement. To this end, we illustrate ways in which the pharmacological sciences can drive future innovations in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering and thus help to revolutionize the discovery of curative therapeutics. Hopefully, the broad foundational knowledge provided herein will spark sustained conversations among experts in diverse fields of scientific research to the benefit of all. PMID:23818131

  13. The Regulation of Energy Medicine (United States)

    Kosovich, Judy; Esq

    This paper describes the laws and regulations that affect the practice of energy medicine. State law often has more impact on a health care practice than federal law, but federal law provides a common denominator among states. Device law is emphasized here because practitioners of energy medicine are more likely to use devices than drugs. For purposes of this paper, energy medicine is defined as practices that measure or benefit energy flow and overall energy in the body. This broad definition encompasses things as diverse as certain forms of exercise, measurement of meridian resistance, the use of electrical current or magnetic pulses to relieve pain, and the use of light, sound, scent, touch, position, or movement to stimulate the body's own electrical systems. What is of greatest importance in determining legal implications of a practice is whether there are any health-related claims. Two federal entities are pivotal. The Food and Drug Administration ("FDA") is authorized to protect health and safety and the Federal Trade Commission ("FTC") is authorized to protect consumers from false or misleading advertising. There are 5 things that FDA looks at: 1) intended use, 2) claims made in advertising and in labeling, 3) substantial equivalence to a predicate, 4) safety, and 5) effectiveness. A concern regarding any one of these can be the basis for denying clearance to market a device. The FTC looks at whether statements are true and substantiated and whether they might be misleading. The FTC often consults with the FDA on the interpretation of technical information.

  14. Artificial intelligence in medicine and cardiac imaging: harnessing big data and advanced computing to provide personalized medical diagnosis and treatment. (United States)

    Dilsizian, Steven E; Siegel, Eliot L


    Although advances in information technology in the past decade have come in quantum leaps in nearly every aspect of our lives, they seem to be coming at a slower pace in the field of medicine. However, the implementation of electronic health records (EHR) in hospitals is increasing rapidly, accelerated by the meaningful use initiatives associated with the Center for Medicare & Medicaid Services EHR Incentive Programs. The transition to electronic medical records and availability of patient data has been associated with increases in the volume and complexity of patient information, as well as an increase in medical alerts, with resulting "alert fatigue" and increased expectations for rapid and accurate diagnosis and treatment. Unfortunately, these increased demands on health care providers create greater risk for diagnostic and therapeutic errors. In the near future, artificial intelligence (AI)/machine learning will likely assist physicians with differential diagnosis of disease, treatment options suggestions, and recommendations, and, in the case of medical imaging, with cues in image interpretation. Mining and advanced analysis of "big data" in health care provide the potential not only to perform "in silico" research but also to provide "real time" diagnostic and (potentially) therapeutic recommendations based on empirical data. "On demand" access to high-performance computing and large health care databases will support and sustain our ability to achieve personalized medicine. The IBM Jeopardy! Challenge, which pitted the best all-time human players against the Watson computer, captured the imagination of millions of people across the world and demonstrated the potential to apply AI approaches to a wide variety of subject matter, including medicine. The combination of AI, big data, and massively parallel computing offers the potential to create a revolutionary way of practicing evidence-based, personalized medicine.

  15. Traditional medicine for the rich and knowledgeable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Rikke Stamp; Pouliot, Mariéve


    Traditional medicine is commonly assumed to be a crucial health care option for poor households in developing countries. However, little research has been done in Asia to quantify the reliance on traditional medicine and its determinants. This research contributes to filling in this knowledge gap...... show that traditional medicine, and especially self-treatment with medicinal plants, prevail as treatment options in both rural and peri-urban populations. Contrarily to what is commonly assumed, high income is an important determinant of use of traditional medicine. Likewise, knowledge of medicinal...

  16. Computing technology in the 1980's. [computers (United States)

    Stone, H. S.


    Advances in computing technology have been led by consistently improving semiconductor technology. The semiconductor industry has turned out ever faster, smaller, and less expensive devices since transistorized computers were first introduced 20 years ago. For the next decade, there appear to be new advances possible, with the rate of introduction of improved devices at least equal to the historic trends. The implication of these projections is that computers will enter new markets and will truly be pervasive in business, home, and factory as their cost diminishes and their computational power expands to new levels. The computer industry as we know it today will be greatly altered in the next decade, primarily because the raw computer system will give way to computer-based turn-key information and control systems.

  17. Medicinal palms of the New World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Argüello Mejía


    Full Text Available The present investigation comprehends a bibliographical summary of the medicinal uses of the palms in the New World. This compilation is based on publications stating medicinal uses of palms since mid XIX century. There are described the species of palms and its medicinal uses in various places in America. A list of species and the medicinal uses of each one is also included.

  18. Biomedical Science, Unit IV: The Nervous System in Health and Medicine. The Nervous System; Disorders of the Brain and Nervous System; Application of Computer Science to Diagnosis; Drugs and Pharmacology; The Human Senses; Electricity. Instructor's Manual. Revised Version, 1976. (United States)

    Biomedical Interdisciplinary Curriculum Project, Berkeley, CA.

    This volume contains the lesson plans and appropriate teacher background material for a 37-lesson sequence on the nervous system in health and medicine. Additional material is provided for supplementary lessons on concepts of electricity. Associated material, contained in separate volumes, include a student text and a student laboratory manual.…

  19. The Computer Revolution. (United States)

    Berkeley, Edmund C.

    "The Computer Revolution", a part of the "Second Industrial Revolution", is examined with reference to the social consequences of computers. The subject is introduced in an opening section which discusses the revolution in the handling of information and the history, powers, uses, and working s of computers. A second section examines in detail the…

  20. Die spieël as blinde mond: die poësie van Breyten Breytenbach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Coetzee


    Full Text Available The mirror as blind mouth: The poetry of Breyten Breytenbach The representation of reality, the word and the relationship between signifier and signified is the main theme of this article. In the poetry of the Afrikaans poet, Breyten Breytenbach, representation and “reality” are concerns constantly reflected on. The poem “drome is ook wonde” (“dreams are wounds as well” can be read as a central “ars poetica” of Breytenbach’s work. Although it is a love poem it can also be read as literary theory, but not the same kind of theory as in, for example, Horace’s or Alexander Pope’s work. The poem discussed in this article does not deal with poetry as such, and what poetry should attempt to do; it is a presentation, the poetics being its representation. Breytenbach theorises an “epistemology of reading” in which the intuitive faculty of the reader – more than the cognitive – will guide the creation of meaning, and where the signifying value of the metaphor is beyond logical meaning. With the awareness of the impossibility of portraying reality by means of the poetic word, the mirror and mirror image acquire a meaningful function. For Leonardo (see Gombrich, 1986:5 the mirror was the painter’s master; the artist is the maker of mirrors, and then also the maker of dreams. The creation of a second reality, however, has boundaries because of the limitation of the poet’s medium. The creation then becomes more meaningful than the imitation, the presentation than the representation. After the analysis of Breytenbach’s poem one may come to the same conclusion as Lyotard (1984:81 concerning postmodern aesthetics which “ … allows the unpresentable to be put forward only as the missing contents; but the form … continues to offer to the reader … matter for solace and pleasure”.

  1. The Literature of Veterinary Medicine. CE 60. (United States)

    Kerker, Ann E.; Malamud, Judie

    This course guide outlines the objectives and content for a professional continuing education course on the literature of veterinary medicine. Topics covered include: (1) an introduction to veterinary medicine as a discipline, including comparison with other medical sciences, veterinary medicine education, licensure, animal models, veterinary…

  2. Integrative Medicine: In With the New

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany A. Mullen


    Full Text Available Integrative medicine is not "alternative," which implies the substitution of conventional medicine with often unproven natural treatments. Rather, integrative medicine is defined as the combination of conventional biomedicine with nontraditional and holistic practices to help patients on their journey to health.

  3. The Next Computer Revolution. (United States)

    Peled, Abraham


    Discusses some of the future trends in the use of the computer in our society, suggesting that computing is now entering a new phase in which it will grow exponentially more powerful, flexible, and sophisticated in the next decade. Describes some of the latest breakthroughs in computer hardware and software technology. (TW)

  4. The dose makes the medicine. (United States)

    Stumpf, Walter E


    Dose and time considerations in the development and use of a drug are important for assessing actions and side effects, as well as predictions of safety and toxicity. This article deals with epistemological aspects of dose selection by probing into the linguistic and cultural roots for the measure of medicine mediated by the medical doctor. Because toxicity is related to dose, historic and recent views suggest that less can be more. At low, medium and high dose levels, effects can differ not only quantitatively but also qualitatively. Dose-related target activation and recognition of enantiodromic thresholds between beneficial and toxic effects require elucidation of underlying events. Such studies, including hormesis and microdosing, call for extended ADME procedures with high-resolution methods in addition to the current low-resolution approaches. Improved information of drug logistics and target pharmacokinetics enables effective drug selection, dose determination and prediction. It also allows considerations of systems biology [i.e. integral (gestalt) pharmacology] exemplified by the drug homunculus, as in the case of vitamin D, that might lead to new paradigms and drug design.

  5. Die verdonkerende spieël: Simbolistiese trekke in Wilma Stockenstrom se eerste drie bundels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lombard


    Full Text Available This article is an attempt to relate the first three of Wilma Stockenstrom's collections of poetry to international Symbolism. First we discuss possible links between her work and Symbolism. The mam emphasis then falls on Stockenstrom’s method of Symbolism, the possible symbolist tone of her work and prominent symbolist motifs in her work. Finally we consider some manifestations of the symbolist oilier world in these collections. The conclusion arrived at is that Stockenstrom's earlier work shows many of the main characteristics of Symbolism so that her work can be regarded as a continuation of the symbolist tradition. This tradition undergoes three important transformations in her work: the European world of symbolist poetry is replaced by an archeologically rich but mute African world, modern science and technology replaces the medieval system of reference of Symbolism, and sound and musicality p la y a much smaller part in Stockenstrom's poetry. Stockenstrom's cynical, ironic tone, the use of opaque kafkaesque symbols, her emphasis on tentative visions, her distrust of language and her tendency to relativize frames of reference in the endings of her poems, show that Stockenstrom's poetry has already crossed the boundary to Modernism.

  6. The Global Computer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Robin


    This paper describes a Danish project, involving partners from Copenhagen University, DTU, the University of Southern Denmark, Aalborg University, Copenhagen Business School and UNI-C, for exploiting Grid technology to provide computer resources for applications with very large computational...

  7. Army Medicine and the Law (United States)


    AD-A278s444 . DTIC SELECTAPR 05 1994D AR14Y I4EDICMN AND THE LAW Colonel Haurice Levinft, JAGC br p~~tleaiC ees =’do -.016 its d~stdbtaoz~is MTC...The Federal Tort Claims Act, copyright, 1963. b. Consent to Medical Procedures, copyright 1963. c. Hypnosis in the Law , copyright 1964. d. Blood...Tort Claims Act, copyright 1963. b. Forensic Pathology and the Law , copyright 1964. c. Some Legal Aspects of Military Preventive Medicine, copyright

  8. Spieëlbeelde in die werk van Ingrid Jonker en Sylvia Plath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Gertenbach


    Full Text Available Mirror images in the work of Ingrid Jonker and Sylvia Plath Writing poetry has an element of healing in it, but how does it work? Plath and Jonker continually wrote about mirror images, eyes and questions of identity. Different psychological theories surrounding this issue, including those of Winnicott, Jung and Lacan, are discussed. Plath’s “Mirror” and “Words” as well as Jonker’s “Op alle gesigte” are specifically examined. Concluding remarks reveal that a mental block, or crypt, will always force a poet to reword his/her trauma.

  9. The Computer Bulletin Board. (United States)

    Batt, Russell H., Ed.


    Four applications of microcomputers in the chemical laboratory are presented. Included are "Mass Spectrometer Interface with an Apple II Computer,""Interfacing the Spectronic 20 to a Computer,""A pH-Monitoring and Control System for Teaching Laboratories," and "A Computer-Aided Optical Melting Point Device." Software, instrumentation, and uses are…

  10. Computer security for the computer systems manager


    Helling, William D.


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis is a primer on the subject of computer security. It is written for the use of computer systems managers and addresses basic concepts of computer security and risk analysis. An example of the techniques employed by a typical military data processing center is included in the form of the written results of an actual on-site survey. Computer security is defined in the context of its scope and an analysis is made of those ...

  11. [Chinese medicine needs the baptism of science]. (United States)

    Wang, Tai


    All branches of mature practical technologies of both Eastern and Western ancient cultures, such as astronomy, geography, calendar, agriculture, architectonics, medicine, and so on, possess their own scientific connotation, which were derived from gradual accumulation and repeated validation of practical experiences. The ancient Greek medicine has the advantage of easily receiving scientific 'baptism' (reformation). The ontology and logics in ancient Greek philosophy, served as the epistemological and methodological bases, could effectively promote the development of science. Therefore, following the rapid progress of natural sciences since the Renaissance of the West world, the ancient Greek medicine rationally received the scientific "baptism" and gradually transformed into "modern medicine". In recent years, an upsurge to study and reappraise the works of Galen, an outstanding doctor and philosopher of Roman Empire, was evoked to discover and illuminate the practical and historical values of ancient Greek medicine. In ancient times, the medical theories and clinical practice of both Greek medicine and Chinese medicine were quite similar to each other, and they separately produced particular merits of themselves. However, owe to lack in the support of natural philosophy in ancient China, the progress of Chinese medicine, with its original native qualities for thousands of years only showed increase of clinical experiences, rather than scientific reformation of its essences. Therefore, Chinese medicine should also receive scientific "baptism" as Greek medicine. Ebb tide and see the real gold. The valuable medical experiences of Chinese medicine can be picked up for wide application, and its great historical achievements can be revealed for later pondering.

  12. The effects of herbal medicine on epilepsy. (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Ge, Tongtong; Pan, Zhenxiang; Leng, Yashu; Lv, Jiayin; Li, Bingjin


    Traditional herbal medicine plays a significant role in the treatment of epilepsy. Though herbal medicine is widely used in antiepileptic treatment, there is a lack of robust evidence for efficacy and toxicity of most herbs. Besides, the herbal medicine should be subject to evidence-based scrutiny. In this context, we present a review to introduce the effects of herbal medicine on epilepsy. However, hundreds of herbal medicines have been investigated in the available studies. Some commonly used herbal medicines for epilepsy have been listed in our study. The overwhelming majority of these data are based on animal experiments. The lack of clinical data places constraints on the clinical recommendation of herbal medicine. Our study may conduct further studies and provide some insight on the development of anti-epileptic drugs.

  13. The role of alternative medicine in rhinology. (United States)

    Roehm, Corrie E; Tessema, Belachew; Brown, Seth M


    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) includes treatments from traditional Chinese medicine, homeopathy, naturopathy, herbal medicine, Ayurvedic medicine, mind-body medicine, chiropractic or osteopathic manipulations, and massage. More than 40% of patients in the United States use CAM, with 17% of CAM use related to otolaryngology diagnoses, but nearly half of CAM users do not communicate their use of these medications to their physicians. Perioperative risk of bleeding is a particular concern in surgical specialties, and knowledge of these therapies and their potential adverse effects is critical. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. [Social medicine in medical faculties: realisation of the topic in the specialty "social medicine, occupational health"]. (United States)

    Behmann, M; Bisson, S; Walter, U


    The 9 (th) Revision of German Medical Licensing Regulations for Physicians has come into effect on October 1 (st) 2003. Social medicine was separated into the fields "occupational health, social medicine" and the various cross-sectional modules: epidemiology, biometry, medical computer science; health economics, health-care system, public health; prevention, health promotion; rehabilitation, physical medicine, naturopathic treatment. This paper studies the realisation of teaching in the field social medicine at German medical faculties. The survey was conducted in collaboration with the German Association for Social Medicine and Prevention (DGSMP). A survey was conducted at 38 institutes of 36 German medical faculties. The written questionnaire contained mostly selection items in which chances and barriers of the field were queried with supply items. Information about time scale, general conditions and resources was aked for. On the basis of the guidelines of the DGSMP, the topics to be taught were evaluated concerning their relevance and integration into education. The response rate was 68% (n=26). Social insurance, basic principles, responsibility in the Social Security Code and the different providers were judged as the most important topics. There was a strong demand for lecturing material. 82% (n=18) of the faculties wished to have specific material, for example e-learning, examples, lesson plans, curricula and also textbooks. 91% (n=19) of the faculties requested an exchange of information between the faculties concerning educational contents, motivation of students and e-learning. The realisation of teaching is different between the faculties concerning the number of hours, teaching methods and number of students per year. The motivation of the students is one of the problems, but also the lack of acceptance within the clinic. Specific resources and exchange between the faculties are necessary concerning e-learning, which is offered at only few faculties so

  15. Revision of the Classical Dopamine D2 Agonist Pharmacophore Based on an Integrated Medicinal Chemistry, Homology Modelling and Computational Docking Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsgaard-Larsen, N; Harpsøe, Kasper; Kehler, J


    The scientific advances during the 1970ies and 1980ies within the field of dopaminergic neurotransmission enabled the development of a pharmacophore that became the template for design and synthesis of dopamine D2 agonists during the following four decades. A major drawback, however......, is that this model fails to accommodate certain classes of restrained dopamine D2 agonists including ergoline structures. To accommodate these, a revision of the original model was required. The present study has addressed this by an extension of the original model without compromising its obvious qualities...... in the binding mode for certain compounds, including a series of ergoline analogues, which was reported recently. The ambiguity was confirmed by docking to a homology model of the D2 receptor as well as by pharmacological characterization of individual enantiomers of one of the analogues. The present research...

  16. The conformational musings of a medicinal chemist. (United States)

    Finch, Harry


    Structure-based drug design strategies based on X-ray crystallographic data of ligands bound to biological targets or computationally derived pharmacophore models have been introduced over the past 25 years or so. These have now matured and are deeply embedded in the drug discovery process in most pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies where they continue to play a major part in the discovery of new medicines and drug candidates. Newly developed NMR methods can now provide a full description of the conformations in which ligands exist in free solution, crucially allowing those that are dominant to be identified. Integrating experimentally determined conformational information on active and inactive molecules in drug discovery programmes, alongside the existing techniques, should have a major impact on the success of drug discovery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The transfusion medicine we want. (United States)


    The Associação Brasileira de Hematologia e Hemoterapia (ABHH), through its Board of Directors, hosted a national symposium called "Forum: The Transfusion Medicine we want", to discuss proposed policies and techniques related to the area. This meeting was held in São Paulo on August 19 and 20, 2010, with the participation of experts, authorities and representatives of organized groups of patients and users. The discussions were organized around three specific issues selected from over 100 suggestions sent to the ABHH through public consultation on the web: 1. Strategies; 2. Financing; 3. Blood products. A plenary session, held at the end of the meeting, adopted recommendations that are relevant to the different discussion topics.This document contains actions proposed by the ABHH to meet the demands discussed.

  18. Enzyme Computation - Computing the Way Proteins Do

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime-Alberto Parra-Plaza


    Full Text Available It is presented enzyme computation, a computational paradigm based on the molecular activity inside the biological cells, particularly in the capacity of proteins to represent information, of enzymes to transform that information, and of genes to produce both elements according to the dynamic requirements of a given system. The paradigm explodes the rich computational possibilities offered by metabolic pathways and genetic regulatory networks and translates those possibilities into a distributed computational space made up of active agents which communicate through the mechanism of message passing. Enzyme computation has been tested in diverse problems, such as image processing, species classification, symbolic regression, and constraints satisfaction. Also, given its distributed nature, an implementation in dynamical reconfigurable hardware has been possible.

  19. La informática en el mundo actual: la educación y en la medicina Computing in the current times: Education & Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordovés Macías Mayra Luciana


    Full Text Available Este trabajo tiene como objetivo principal analizar el Impacto Social de la nueva Revolución Científico Técnica en el panorama del mundo actual y principalmente en la esfera de la educación y la medicina. Se realiza un esbozo acerca de los aspectos esenciales que caracterizan el panorama político actual, y se describen las tendencias internacionales, principalmente la globalización como la interdependencia creciente a escala mundial y la introducción de la Información Científica Técnica en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje como contenido y como medio de enseñanza, como cultura, recurso social, y reto a todos sus actores. Se evidencia que el recurso informático es una realidad y una necesidad social impuesta por el desarrollo tecnológico de la sociedad y en este sentido, la educación y la medicina, se han revolucionado sustancialmente en los últimos tiempos al igual que la formación del profesor universitario.The most outstanding objective of this paper is to analyze the social impact of the new Technical Scientific Revolution in the present world panorama; principally in education and medical sciences. An outline about the essential aspects that characterize today's political situation is carried out. International tendencies such as globalization as growing interdependency worldwide are described as well as the introduction of the technical-scientific information in the teaching-learning process as content, teaching method, culture or social resource. Informatics resources as a reality and social need imposed by society was seen. In this sense education and medical sciences have evolved significantly during the last years, especially in the formation of university professors.

  20. Nanomedicine: The Medicine of Tomorrow (United States)

    Logothetidis, S.

    Nowadays nanotechnology has become a technological field with great potential since it can be applied in almost every aspect of modern life. One of the sectors where nanotechnology is expected to play a vital role is the field of medical science. The interaction of nanotechnology with medicine gave birth to a completely new scientific field called nanomedicine. Nanomedicine is a field that aims to use the nanotechnology tools and principles in order to improve human health in every possible way. Nanotechnology provides monitoring tools and technology platforms that can be used in terms of detection, diagnostic, bioanalysis and imaging. New nanoscale drug-delivery systems are constantly designed with different morphological and chemical characteristics and unique specificity against tumours, offering a less harmful approach alternative to chemo- and radiotherapies. Furthermore, nanotechnology has led to great breakthroughs in the field of tissue engineering, making the replacement of damaged tissues and organs a much feasible procedure. The thorough analysis of bio and non-bio interactions achieved by versatile nanotools is essential for the design and development of highly performed medical implants. The continuous revolution in nanotechnology will result in the fabrication of nanostructures with properties and functionalities that can benefit patient's physiology faster and more effectively than conventional medical procedures and protocols. The number of nanoscale therapeutical products is rapidly growing since more and more nanomedical designs are reaching the global market. However the nanotoxic impact that these designs can have on human health is an era that requires still more investigation. The development of specific guidance documents at a European level for the safety evaluation of nanotechnology products in medicine is strongly recommended and the need for further research in nanotoxicology is identified. Ethical and moral concerns also need to be

  1. ITFoM - The IT Future of Medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehrach, H.; Subrak, R.; Boyle, P.; Pasterk, M.; Zatloukal, K.; Muller, H.; Hubbard, T.; Brand, A.; Girolami, M.; Jameson, D.; Bruggeman, F.J.; Westerhoff, H.V.


    Molecular medicine is undergoing a revolution, creating a data fog that may obscure understanding. The functioning human is analogous to a biological factory controlled by an incredibly complex Information and Communication (IC) network. It is proposed that 7 billion computational replicas be made

  2. AAAS joins the Translational Medicine family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marincola Francesco M


    Full Text Available Abstract The AAAS has announced the launch of Science Translational Medicine. This is further and critical recognition of this discipline and we are deeply gratified that translational medicine has risen to the level of recognition by one of the world's most prestigious scientific organizations. We believe that Science Translational Medicine will provide another valuable venue for the rapid and broad dissemination of important articles in the field and contribute to enhancing the effectiveness of translational medicine overall. It has been almost six years since we launched the Journal of Translational Medicine as an open-access journal with Biomed Central 1. At the beginning, we faced the inevitable skepticism and received several inquires among others also from Science reporters questioning both the significance of translational medicine in today's biomedical world and the need for a new journal dedicated to it.

  3. Protecting the rights of producers original medicines. (United States)

    Pashkov, Vitalii; Kotvitska, Alla; Noha, Petro

    the article analyzes the state of protection of intellectual property rights of original medicine producers, its accordance with international standards. Attention is focused on the importance of exclusivity of medicine market. the analysis of protection of intellectual property rights of medicine producers in Ukraine and determination of its conformity or non-conformity to the international standards. the experience of certain countries is analyzed in the research. Additionally, we used statistical data of international organizations, conclusions of experts. there are numerous cases of state registration of generic medicinal products using the registration information of original medicinal products and delict of the rights of patent holders. an effective mechanism of judicial protection of the original medicine producers` intellectual property rights from disorders that affect the profit was elaborated in Ukraine.

  4. The personalised medicine: a paradigm of evidence-based medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhavendra Kumar


    Full Text Available The practice of "evidence-based medicine" aims at the conscientious, explicit and judicious use of the current best evidence in making decisions about the individualised patient care. The clinical genetics evolved from translational genetics research and contributes to the clinical care of patients and families through evidence-based health care in managing inherited disorders through accurate diagnosis, molecular pathology and assessing phenotypic correlations. Translational genetics and genomics research has led to the development of powerful tools for clinical diagnosis, assessing individual's genomic profile for disease prediction/prevention, high-throughput genome-wide screening for predisposition and/or protection to complex medical conditions, and discovery and development of new drugs and vaccines. Gene mapping and deciphering pathogenic mutations have helped in unravelling the basic biological mechanisms leading to new drug discovery and development. Targeted pharmacotherapy is now possible for managing the highly penetrant multi-system dominantly inherited conditions. Notable examples include rapamycin (sirolimus in suppressing the mTOR pathway associated hamartomas in dominantly inherited cancer family syndromes and angiotensin converting enzyme receptor blockers (ACE-RB in preventing aortic dilatation in Marfan syndrome and related familial arteriopathies. The translational genomic research is the essential prerequisite for developing sound evidence-based diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic clinical protocols for the practice of personalised clinical medicine.

  5. The practice of travel medicine in Europe. (United States)

    Schlagenhauf, P; Santos-O'Connor, F; Parola, P


    Europe, because of its geographical location, strategic position on trade routes, and colonial past, has a long history of caring for travellers' health. Within Europe, there is great diversity in the practice of travel medicine. Some countries have travel medicine societies and provisions for a periodic distribution of recommendations, but many countries have no national pre-travel guidelines and follow international recommendations such as those provided by the WHO. Providers of travel medicine include tropical medicine specialists, general practice nurses and physicians, specialist 'travel clinics', occupational physicians, and pharmacists. One of the core functions of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control-funded network of travel and tropical medicine professionals, EuroTravNet, is to document the status quo of travel medicine in Europe. A three-pronged approach is used, with a real-time online questionnaire, a structured interview with experts in each country, and web searching.

  6. The formation of daodi medicinal materials. (United States)

    Zhao, Zhongzhen; Guo, Ping; Brand, Eric


    Daodi medicinal material is produced and assembled in specific geographic regions with designated natural conditions and ecological environment, with particular attention to cultivation technique, harvesting and processing. The quality and clinical effects surpass those of same botanical origin produced from other regions. It is thus widely recognized and has long enjoyed a good reputation. Based on literature, market and field investigation on daodi medicinal materials, the historical background and reasons behind the formation and the development of daodi medicinal material are analyzed. This review clarifies the concept and rationalizes the formation of daodi medicinal material. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Biomedical Science, Unit IV: The Nervous System in Health and Medicine. The Nervous System; Disorders of the Brain and Nervous System; Application of Computer Science to Diagnosis; Drugs and Pharmacology; The Human Senses; Electricity. Student Text. Revised Version, 1976. (United States)

    Biomedical Interdisciplinary Curriculum Project, Berkeley, CA.

    This unit consists of four sequences. The first considers the brain, the nervous system, and disorders of the brain. The second sequence deals with applications of the computer in diagnosis of brain disorders along with mathematical and statistical principles used in health applications. The third sequence is concerned with drugs and their effects…

  8. [The network of official medicines control laboratories]. (United States)

    Buchheit, K-H; Wanko, R


    Licensing, control and surveillance by competent authorities is the basis for ensuring efficacy, safety and quality of medicines in Europe. The control of the quality of medicines by national control laboratories, known as Official Medicines Control Laboratories (OMCLs) is an essential step in this process; it encompasses controls before and after granting a marketing authorisation. For certain groups of biomedical medicines (vaccines for human and veterinary use, medicines derived from human plasma) even each batch is controlled before it can be placed on the market. As single OMCLs would not be able to cope with their task, given the large number and diversity of medicines, in 1994 the OMCL network was founded upon initiative of the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & HealthCare, in close collaboration with the Commission of the European Union. Currently 68 OMCLs from 39 countries are part of the network. Prerequisite for the smooth operation of the OMCL network is the harmonisation of the quality management system of the individual OMCLs, based on the ISO 17025 standard, internal guidelines and the European Pharmacopoeia. Compliance with these standards is checked through regular audits, thus creating the basis for mutual recognition of test results. The collaboration in the OMCL network for the surveillance of the medicines market, the official control authority batch release and the fight against counterfeiting and illegal medicines enables OMCLs to keep pace with the developments in the field of medicines and to control the broad spectrum of medicines. In the 20 years since its start, the OMCL network has become a European success story.

  9. The Computational Materials Repository

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landis, David D.; Hummelshøj, Jens S.; Nestorov, Svetlozar


    The possibilities for designing new materials based on quantum physics calculations are rapidly growing, but these design efforts lead to a significant increase in the amount of computational data created. The Computational Materials Repository (CMR) addresses this data challenge and provides...

  10. Journal of Medicine in the Tropics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of Medicine in the Tropics is primarily a medium for the publication of research in the areas of medicine and related sciences. Specifically, the journal is interested in environmental and disease epidemiology, basic sciences as well as inter-disciplinary studies that enhance and improve the health status of man ...

  11. The Use of Medicines in Oman (United States)

    Abdo-Rabbo, Ahmed; Al-Ansari, Manal; Gunn, Brian C; Suleiman, Batool J


    Objectives: The objective of this study was to identify the common problems of medicine use in Oman in order to improve the appropriate use of medicines. Methods: A cross-sectional, pilot-tested questionnaire was administered to 6,675 Omani patients or their carers on exit from primary health care centres. Results: 66% of respondents visited multiple facilities on the same date for the same complaint and 51% failed to go for follow up to the same facility. 39% did not accept non-drug therapy and 30% preferred prescription of 3 or more medicines per visit. Many failed to ask how or when to take the medicines, where to store them at home and did not mention any current therapies they were taking. A total of 70% stopped taking their medicines when symptoms disappeared; 26% were unaware that most medicines have side-effects and 61% did not realise that injections are the riskiest dosage form. A total of 54% had definite colour and taste preferences; 43% practised self-medication and 68% never consulted the dispenser; 36% chose medicines based on previous experience and 33% exchanged medicines with others; 55% stored all their medicines in a fridge and 17% did not check the expiry date; 45% threw unused medicines away; 41% kept them for future use and only 12% returned them to a pharmacy or health facility. Conclusions: There is a widespread lack of knowledge about the appropriate use of medicines in Oman. Certain attitudes and beliefs can contribute to health risks and unnecessary expenditure. Many of these results could be improved by a well-targeted public education campaign. PMID:21509288

  12. The First Sports Medicine Books in English. (United States)

    Ryan, Allan J.

    The modern history of sports medicine is chronicled in a discussion of the first writings in English on sports medicine. What may have been the first writing in English is a section on first aid in the ENCYCLOPEDIA OF SPORT, published in England in 1898. It describes injuries commonly sustained in angling, boxing, cricket, cycling, football,…

  13. Archives and the computer

    CERN Document Server

    Cook, Michael Garnet


    Archives and the Computer deals with the use of the computer and its systems and programs in archiving data and other related materials. The book covers topics such as the scope of automated systems in archives; systems for records management, archival description, and retrieval; and machine-readable archives. The selection also features examples of archives from different institutions such as the University of Liverpool, Berkshire County Record Office, and the National Maritime Museum.The text is recommended for archivists who would like to know more about the use of computers in archiving of

  14. Public perceptions of the risks, benefits and use of natural remedies, pharmaceutical medicines and personalised medicines. (United States)

    Green, David W; Horne, Rob; Shephard, Elizabeth A


    To investigate public perceptions of the benefits, risks and use of a natural remedy, a pharmaceutical medicine and a personalised medicine, tailored to a person's genetic-makeup, to treat illness. In a case-based scenario, groups of participants individually rated the three different treatments of an illness in terms of their perceived benefits, risks and willingness to use, and completed a questionnaire on beliefs about medicines in general. Our study (n=158 adults) revealed a similar perception of a pharmaceutical medicine and a personalised medicine relative to a natural remedy. Contrary to expectation, personalised medicine was rated as no more beneficial and no less risky than a pharmaceutical medicine and was less likely to be used. However, willingness to use each medicine was differentially predicted by general beliefs about medicine. Avoidance of harm predicted willingness to use a natural remedy whereas the beneficial effects of medicines predicted use of a personalised medicine. By contrast, willingness to use a pharmaceutical medicine was predicted by a trade-off between perceived harm, risk of overuse and benefit. Personalised medicine, in the form of a pharmacogenetic approach, has the potential to improve drug efficacy and reduce adverse drug reactions but remains closely allied to public perceptions of pharmaceutical medicine. Nonetheless our data indicate some differentiation with respect to background beliefs on the beneficial effects of personalised medicine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The market for hospital medicine in Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Hostenkamp


    Full Text Available Pharmaceutical expenditure growth has outpaced GDP and healthcare expenditure growth rates in Denmark as in most OECD countries for the last decade. A major part of this increase was due to high growth rates in specialist areas that are typically located in hospital settings. Yet the market for hospital medicines and their procurement are still poorly understood. The present paper characterises the market for hospital medicines in Denmark in terms of its organisation and developments between 2005 and 2009. In Denmark hospital medicines are publicly financed and procurement is centrally organised. 98% of all medicines administered at Danish public hospitals are purchased through a public procurement agency by means of public tenders. Using data on actual contract prices we decompose pharmaceutical expenditure growth into the contributions from newly introduced medicines, price and volume increases and use summary statistics to compare market performance in both sectors. The market for hospital medicine is more concentrated than the pharmaceutical retail sector and the share of generics and parallel imported products is significantly lower. Between 2005 and 2009 expenditures for hospital medicines more than doubled -accounting for almost 40% of the total Danish pharmaceutical market in 2009. Price increases however - although positive and higher than in the pharmaceutical retail sector - were only moderate. The majority of the expenditure growth was due to an increase in utilisation and the introduction of new medicines in the hospital sector. Centralised tendering may therefore have important implications for competition and industry structure in the long run.

  16. [The regulatory framework for complementary and alternative medicines in Europe]. (United States)

    Knöss, Werner; Stolte, F; Reh, K


    Medicinal products from complementary and alternative medicine are in Germany a regular part of the health care system. Herbal, homeopathic, anthroposophic and traditional medicinal products are highly accepted by the population. The German Medicines Act obliged the competent authorities to consider the particular characteristics of complementary and alternative medicines. The European regulatory framework defined the status of herbal medicinal products, traditional herbal medicinal products and homeopathic medicinal products within the directive 2001/83/EC. The committee for herbal medicinal products (HMPC) was established at the European Medicines Agency in London (EMEA); for homeopathic medicinal products there is a specific working group established by the Heads of Medicines Agencies. Harmonisation of medicinal products from complementary and alternative and traditional medicine in Europe was enforced by implementation of directive 2001/83/EC in national legislations of member states. The provisions of this directive will substantially influence the development of the European market during the forthcoming years.

  17. Herbal medicine--sets the heart racing!

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGovern, E


    The potential for pharmaceuticals to produce side effects and drug interactions is well known to medical practitioners and the lay public alike. However, the potential for alternative medicines to produce such effects is less widely known. We describe a potentially dangerous interaction between a herbal medicine and concomitant selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI) ingestion.

  18. Friends of the National Library of Medicine (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Friends of the National Library of Medicine Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of Contents For ... Hon. Paul G. Rogers Chairman, Friends of the National Library of Medicine and former member of the U.S. Congress from ...

  19. The Philosophical Foundations of Modern Medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Dr Keekok


    An exploration of the philosophical foundation of modern medicine which explains why such a medicine possesses the characteristics it does and where precisely its strengths as well as its weaknesses lie. Written in plain English, it should be accessible to anyone who is intellectually curious, lay persons and medical professionals alike.

  20. The technological singularity and exponential medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Nabipour


    Full Text Available The "technological singularity" is forecasted to occur in 2045. It is a point when non-biological intelligence becomes more intelligent than humans and each generation of intelligent machines re-designs itself smarter. Beyond this point, there is a symbiosis between machines and humans. This co-existence will produce incredible impacts on medicine that its sparkles could be seen in healthcare industry and the future medicine since 2025. Ray Kurzweil, the great futurist, suggested that three revolutions in science and technology consisting genetic and molecular science, nanotechnology, and robotic (artificial intelligence provided an exponential growth rate for medicine. The "exponential medicine" is going to create more disruptive technologies in healthcare industry. The exponential medicine shifts the paradigm of medical philosophy and produces significant impacts on the healthcare system and patient-physician relationship.   

  1. Sleep Medicine Training Across the Spectrum (United States)


    There is now a new pathway and examination for sleep medicine, sponsored by the American Board of Internal Medicine, and a number of accredited sleep medicine fellowship programs through the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. This review takes an historical approach to discuss the process of education for sleep physiology and disorders not only in the postgraduate period but also at all levels of instruction. In reality, there is a continuum of knowledge that needs to be reinforced up and down the educational system, of which Sleep Medicine subspecialty training is just one part. Although progress has been made at all educational levels up to this point, the future of training and education will depend on a sustained effort at several levels from undergraduate to postgraduate continuing medical education and will be facilitated by professional societies and other specialties who will collectively promote the value of and outcomes for clinical sleep medicine. PMID:21540220

  2. Development of antibacterial conjugates using sulfamethoxazole with monocyclic terpenes: A systematic medicinal chemistry based computational approach. (United States)

    Swain, Shasank S; Paidesetty, Sudhir K; Padhy, Rabindra N


    To develop 6 conjugate agents of the moribund antibiotic sulfamethoxazole (SMZ) joined to 6 individual monoterpenes, followed by protocols of medicinal chemistry as potent antibacterials, against multidrug resistant (MDR) human gruesome pathogenic bacteria. Antibacterial activities of the proposed conjugates were ascertained by the 'prediction of activity spectra of substances' (PASS) program. Drug-likeness parameters and toxicity profiles of conjugates were standardized with the Lipinski rule of five, using cheminformatic tools, Molsoft, molinspiration, OSIRIS and ProTox. Antibacterial activities of individual chemicals and conjugates were examined by targeting the bacterial folic acid biosynthesis enzyme, dihydropteroate synthases (DHPSs) of bacteria, Bacillus anthracis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, with 3D structures of DHPSs from protein data bank. According to the PASS program, biological spectral values of conjugate-2, conjugate-5 and conjugate-6 were ascertained effective with 'probably active' or 'Pa' value > 0.5, for anti-infective and antituberculosic activities. Using molecular docking against 5 cited bacterial DHPSs, effective docking scores of 6 monoterpenes in the specified decreasing order (kcal/mol): -9.72 (eugenol against B. anthracis), -9.61 (eugenol against S. pneumoniae), -9. 42 (safrol, against B. anthracis), -9.39 (thymol, against M. tuberculosis), -9.34 (myristicin, against S. pneumoniae) and -9.29 (thymol, against B. anthracis); whereas the lowest docking score of SMZ was -8.46kcal/mol against S. aureus DHPS. Similarly, effective docking scores of conjugates were as specified (kcal/mol.): -10.80 (conjugate-4 consisting SMZ+safrol, against M. tuberculosis), -10.78 (conjugate-5 consisting SMZ+thymol, against M. tuberculosis), -10.60 (conjugate-5 against B. anthracis), -10.26 (conjugate-2 consisting SMZ+ eugenol, against M. tuberculosis), -10.25 (conjugate-5, against S

  3. The folklore medicinal orchids of Sikkim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Panda


    Results and Conclusion: We found that 36 species of orchids are used as medicines for different purposes of health. The botanical and ayurvedic name, phenology, parts used and medicinal uses of 36 orchids are presented in this paper along with its local distribution.

  4. Exerting the Role of Journal of International Translational Medicine in Translational Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YE Zhen-hua


    Full Text Available As a new branch of medicine with unlimited prospect, Translational Medicine has been rapidly developed over the past decades and gained global attention. Translational Medicine can be vividly described as “bench to bedside (B2B” model which focuses on the integration of multiple aspects, especially the basic medicine and clinical medicine, and has a great potential in treating many severe diseases and improving human health. Medical journals are carriers for medical information and play a great role in the development of medicines, and Journal of International Translational Medicine (JITM is just a journal emerging at the right moment and specialized in translational medicine. With professionalized attitude and internationalized requirements, JITM is committed to promote the development of Translational Medicine.

  5. The Computer in Lexicography (United States)

    Bailey, Richard W.; Robinson, Jay L.


    Expanded version of a paper presented to the section on Computer Research in Language and Literature of the Midwest Modern Language Association, October 24, 1969. Article is part of Lexicography and Dialect Geography, Festgabe for Hans Kurath''. (DD)

  6. The Symbiotic Relationship Between Operational Military Medicine, Tactical Medicine, and Wilderness Medicine: A View Through a Personal Lens. (United States)

    Llewellyn, Craig H


    There are direct and indirect linkages and a form of symbiosis between operational military medicine from World War II and present wilderness medicine, from the beginnings to contemporary practice, and the more recently evolved field of tactical emergency medical support. Each of these relationships will be explored from the historical perspective of the Department of Military & Emergency Medicine, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences from 1982 to the present. Copyright © 2017 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Multifaceted body. I. The bodies of medicine]. (United States)

    Saraga, M; Bourquin, C; Wykretowicz, H; Stiefel, F


    The human body is the object upon which medicine is acting, but also lived reality, image, symbol, representation and the object of elaboration and theory. All these elements which constitute the body influence the way medicine is treating it. In this series of three articles, we address the human body from various perspectives: medical (1), phenomenological (2), psychosomatic and socio-anthropological (3). This first article discusses four distinct types of representation of the body within medicine, each related to a specific epistemology and shaping a distinct kind of clinical legitimacy: the body-object of anatomy, the body-machine of physiology, the cybernetic body of biology, the statistical body of epidemiology.

  8. A pluralist challenge to "integrative medicine": Feyerabend and Popper on the cognitive value of alternative medicine. (United States)

    Kidd, Ian James


    This paper is a critique of 'integrative medicine' as an ideal of medical progress on the grounds that it fails to realise the cognitive value of alternative medicine. After a brief account of the cognitive value of alternative medicine, I outline the form of 'integrative medicine' defended by the late Stephen Straus, former director of the US National Centre for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Straus' account is then considered in the light of Zuzana Parusnikova's recent criticism of 'integrative medicine' and her distinction between 'cognitive' and 'opportunistic' engagement with alternative medicine. Parusnikova warns that the medical establishment is guilty of 'dogmatism' and proposes that one can usefully invoke Karl Popper's 'critical rationalism' as an antidote. Using the example of Straus, I argue that an appeal to Popper is insufficient, on the grounds that 'integrative medicine' can class as a form of cognitively-productive, critical engagement. I suggest that Parusnikova's appeal to Popper should be augmented with Paul Feyerabend's emphasis upon the role of 'radical alternatives' in maximising criticism. 'Integrative medicine' fails to maximise criticism because it 'translates' alternative medicine into the theories and terminology of allopathic medicine and so erodes its capacity to provide cognitively-valuable 'radical alternatives'. These claims are then illustrated with a discussion of 'traditional' and 'medical' acupuncture. I conclude that 'integrative medicine' fails to exploit the cognitive value of alternative medicine and so should be rejected as an ideal of medical progress. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Performance evaluation of three computed radiography systems using methods recommended in American Association of Physicists in Medicine Report 93. (United States)

    Muhogora, Wilbroad; Padovani, Renato; Bonutti, Faustino; Msaki, Peter; Kazema, R


    The performances of three clinical computed radiography (CR) systems, (Agfa CR 75 (with CRMD 4.0 image plates), Kodak CR 850 (with Kodak GP plates) and Kodak CR 850A (with Kodak GP plates)) were evaluated using six tests recommended in American Association of Physicists in Medicine Report 93. The results indicated variable performances with majority being within acceptable limits. The variations were mainly attributed to differences in detector formulations, plate readers' characteristics, and aging effects. The differences of the mean low contrast scores between the imaging systems for three observers were statistically significant for Agfa and Kodak CR 850A (P=0.009) and for Kodak CR systems (P=0.006) probably because of the differences in ages. However, the differences were not statistically significant between Agfa and Kodak CR 850 (P=0.284) suggesting similar perceived image quality. The study demonstrates the need to implement quality control program regularly.

  10. Medicines in My Home: Information for Adults on Using Over-the-Counter Medicines Safely (United States)

    ... to measure medicines correctly. • Use the measuring spoon, cup, or syringe that comes with the medicine. It ... pains caused by headaches, muscle aches, backaches, toothaches, menstrual cramps, and the common cold: • acetaminophen • aspirin • ibuprofen • ...

  11. The Perils of Complementary Alternative Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Bayme


    Full Text Available More than 11,000 articles lauding alternative medicine appear in the PubMed database, but there are only a few articles describing the complications of such care. Two patients suffering from complications of alternative medicine were treated in our hospital: one patient developed necrotizing fasciitis after acupuncture, and the second developed an epidural hematoma after chiropractic manipulation. These complications serve as a clarion call to the Israeli Health Ministry, as well as to health ministries around the world, to include complementary medicine under its inspection and legislative authority.

  12. The ATLAS Computing Model

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, D; Bee, C P; Hawkings, R; Jarp, S; Jones, R; Malon, D; Poggioli, L; Poulard, G; Quarrie, D; Wenaus, T


    The ATLAS Offline Computing Model is described. The main emphasis is on the steady state, when normal running is established. The data flow from the output of the ATLAS trigger system through processing and analysis stages is analysed, in order to estimate the computing resources, in terms of CPU power, disk and tape storage and network bandwidth, which will be necessary to guarantee speedy access to ATLAS data to all members of the Collaboration. Data Challenges and the commissioning runs are used to prototype the Computing Model and test the infrastructure before the start of LHC operation. The initial planning for the early stages of data-taking is also presented. In this phase, a greater degree of access to the unprocessed or partially processed raw data is envisaged.

  13. The computer graphics interface

    CERN Document Server

    Steinbrugge Chauveau, Karla; Niles Reed, Theodore; Shepherd, B


    The Computer Graphics Interface provides a concise discussion of computer graphics interface (CGI) standards. The title is comprised of seven chapters that cover the concepts of the CGI standard. Figures and examples are also included. The first chapter provides a general overview of CGI; this chapter covers graphics standards, functional specifications, and syntactic interfaces. Next, the book discusses the basic concepts of CGI, such as inquiry, profiles, and registration. The third chapter covers the CGI concepts and functions, while the fourth chapter deals with the concept of graphic obje

  14. Pre-Columbian medicine and the kidney. (United States)

    Peña, J C


    Medicine in Mesoamerican cultures began in the year 1500 BC and ended with the conquest and destruction of Mexico-Tenochtitlan in 1521 by Spain. Mesoamerica started with the Olmec civilization followed by the Teoitihuacanes, Toltecs, and Mayas and perished with the Nahoa Empire. The medicine used by the Aztecs (ticiotl) is undoubtedly the sum of all Mesoamerican medicine. The medical history of the ticiotl was recovered in the years that followed the conquest from the works of Bernardino de Sahagún and Francisco Hernández and the Cruz-Badiano codex. All these works describe the use of plants and herbs in the treatment of diseases, including, edema, urinary retention, kidney stones, and podagra. The Aztec doctors (titicih) were also well acquainted with innumerable diseases and were excellent healers of wounds and fractures. The works of modern historians confirm the theory of the ticiotl medicine and its application by the titicih and define the differences between the hippocratic-galenic medicine and the ticiotl medicine. The latter used a complex and philosophically elaborated medical theory based on the polarity cold/warm, different from the four-humor theory. They demonstrate that every culture is capable to understand and 'invent' the meaning of disease and its cure, even when it is different from our modern medical views.

  15. The forthcoming era of precision medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stjepan Gamulin


    Full Text Available Abstract. The aim of this essay is to present the definition and principles of personalized or precision medicine, the perspective and barriers to its development and clinical application. The implementation of precision medicine in health care requires the coordinated efforts of all health care stakeholders (the biomedical community, government, regulatory bodies, patients’ groups. Particularly, translational research with the integration of genomic and comprehensive data from all levels of the organism (“big data”, development of bioinformatics platforms enabling network analysis of disease etiopathogenesis, development of a legislative framework for handling personal data, and new paradigms of medical education are necessary for successful application of the concept of precision medicine in health care. Conclusion. In the present and future era of precision medicine, the collaboration of all participants in health care is necessary for its realization, resulting in improvement of diagnosis, prevention and therapy, based on a holistic, individually tailored approach.

  16. Aristotle, Hume and the goals of medicine. (United States)

    Misselbrook, David


    Whilst medicine is now an immense global industry clinicians often appear unclear as to its goals. This paper uses two philosophical steps to clarify our conceptualization of health and thus our goals for healthcare. Firstly, clinicians need to understand the significance of Hume's fact / value distinction in medicine, for medicine relies on both facts and values. Secondly clinicians need a better specified definition of 'health' to use as a goal for healthcare. Aristotle's model of human flourishing is used as the starting point for a new conceptualization of health. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. The future of computing (United States)

    Simmons, Michelle


    Down-scaling has been the leading paradigm of the semiconductor industry since the invention of the first transistor in 1947. However miniaturization will soon reach the ultimate limit, set by the discreteness of matter, leading to intensified research in alternative approaches for creating logic devices. This talk will discuss the development of a radical new technology for creating atomic-scale devices which is opening a new frontier of research in electronics globally. We will introduce single atom transistors where we can measure both the charge and spin of individual dopants with unique capabilities in controlling the quantum world. To this end, we will discuss how we are now demonstrating atom by atom, the best way to build a quantum computer - a new type of computer that exploits the laws of physics at very small dimensions in order to provide an exponential speed up in computational processing power.

  18. Lessons from the history of medicine. (United States)

    Waller, John


    What is the point of teaching the history of medicine? Many historians and clinicians find it regrettable that some medical students today will graduate knowing almost nothing of such "greats" of the past as Hippocrates, Galen, Vesalius, Harvey, Lister, and Pasteur. But does this really matter? After all, traditional history of medicine curricula tended to distort medicine's past, omitting the countless errors, wrong turns, fads, blunders, and abuses, in order to tell the sanitized stories of a few scientific superheroes. Modern scholarship has seriously challenged most of these heroic dramas; few of our heroes were as farsighted, noble, or obviously correct as once thought. Joseph Lister, for example, turns out to have had filthy wards, whereas William Harvey was devoted to the Aristotelianism he was long said to have overthrown [1]. But as the history of medicine has become less romanticized, it has also become much more relevant, for it promises to impart useful lessons in the vital importance of scientific scepticism.

  19. Drug repurposing and the medicinal chemist. (United States)

    Aubé, Jeffrey


    Drug repurposing is an approach to finding new uses for older drugs and has been gaining popularity in recent years. The role of traditional medicinal chemistry in the context of these efforts is considered.

  20. Alternative Medicine and the Ethics Of Commerce. (United States)

    Macdonald, Chris; Gavura, Scott


    Is it ethical to market complementary and alternative medicines? Complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) are medical products and services outside the mainstream of medical practice. But they are not just medicines (or supposed medicines) offered and provided for the prevention and treatment of illness. They are also products and services - things offered for sale in the marketplace. Most discussion of the ethics of CAM has focused on bioethical issues - issues having to do with therapeutic value, and the relationship between patients and those purveyors of CAM. This article aims instead to consider CAM from the perspective of commercial ethics. That is, we consider the ethics not of prescribing or administering CAM (activities most closely associated with health professionals) but the ethics of selling CAM. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The podiatrist as a member of the sports medicine team. (United States)

    Jenkins, David W


    This article reviews the history of sports medicine highlighting the "jogging boom" of the 1970s and the advocacy of Dr George Sheehan, which boosted the position of podiatry in sports medicine. Significant events in mainstream sports medicine that promoted the rise of podiatric medicine are discussed. Reasons as to why podiatric medicine should be a member of the sports medicine team are outlined, and lastly, examples that highlight podiatric medicine as participants alongside other specialties in the evaluation and care of athletes are given. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Current Over-the-Counter Medicine Label: Take a Look (United States)

    ... This is to help protect consumers against possible criminal tampering. Drug products with tamper-evident packaging have ... Medicines Medicines in My Home (MIMH) Choosing the right over-the-counter medicine (OTCs) The Over-the- ...

  3. The Market for Hospital Medicine in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hostenkamp, Gisela


    Pharmaceutical expenditure growth has outpaced GDP and healthcare expenditure growth rates in Denmark as in most OECD countries for the last decade. A major part of this increase was due to high growth rates in specialist areas that are typically located in hospital settings. Yet the market for h...... and the introduction of new medicines in the hospital sector. Centralised tendering may therefore have important implications for competition and industry structure in the long run....... for hospital medicines and their procurement are still poorly understood. The present paper characterises the market for hospital medicines in Denmark in terms of its organisation and developments between 2005 and 2009. In Denmark hospital medicines are publicly financed and procurement is centrally organised...

  4. The computer graphics metafile

    CERN Document Server

    Henderson, LR; Shepherd, B; Arnold, D B


    The Computer Graphics Metafile deals with the Computer Graphics Metafile (CGM) standard and covers topics ranging from the structure and contents of a metafile to CGM functionality, metafile elements, and real-world applications of CGM. Binary Encoding, Character Encoding, application profiles, and implementations are also discussed. This book is comprised of 18 chapters divided into five sections and begins with an overview of the CGM standard and how it can meet some of the requirements for storage of graphical data within a graphics system or application environment. The reader is then intr

  5. [Anthropology at the heart of medicine]. (United States)

    Vidal, Laurent


    Anthropology and medicine share many concerns, but have had trouble collaborating in the past. The anthropologist has had to plead both with his colleagues and physicians to move beyond a vision that would confine him to the study of traditional or alternative medicines and representations of populations and the sick. The anthropologist's approach perceived as intrusive has also raised fears in the medical world. These reciprocal misunderstandings and stereotypes need to be overcome by an anthropology that studies the practices and knowledge of modern medicine as they are elaborated daily. Anthropology will dialogue with medicine without judging it. In its turn, medicine will open its sites of healing and teaching to the anthropologist. Anthropology at the heart of medicine is organized around the idea that the paths and expectations of health professionals reflect the specicifities of the local system of health. The individual dimensions of practices cannot be divorced from the functioning of structures of health and decision. Finally, like any other kind of anthropology, medical anthropology must scrutinize its own methods and ethics in a critical way.

  6. Nuclear medicine in oncology 1: Lymphoma, and cancer of the lung ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nuclear medicine provides an opportunity to image pathophysiology, while radiology mainly shows morphology. Over the last few decades hybrid imaging modalities have been developed in which nuclear medicine instrumentation has been combined with computed tomography (CT) and, more recently, with magnetic ...

  7. Reproductive medicine and the concept of 'quality'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlberg, Ayo


    Selection in reproductive medicine today relies on normative assessments of what ‘good life’ consists of. This paper explores the terms under which such assessments are made by focusing on three particular concepts of ‘quality’: quality of life, biological quality and population quality. It is su......Selection in reproductive medicine today relies on normative assessments of what ‘good life’ consists of. This paper explores the terms under which such assessments are made by focusing on three particular concepts of ‘quality’: quality of life, biological quality and population quality....... It is suggested that the apparently conflicting hypes, hopes and fears that surround reproductive medicine can co-circulate because of the different forms of normative assessment that these concepts allow. To ensure clarity in bioethical deliberations about selection, it is necessary to highlight how...... these differing forms of assessment are mobilized and invoked in practices of and debates about reproductive medicine. Udgivelsesdato: November...

  8. The large hadron computer

    CERN Multimedia

    Hirstius, Andreas


    Plans for dealing with the torrent of data from the Large Hadron Collider's detectors have made the CERN particle-phycis lab, yet again, a pioneer in computing as well as physics. The author describes the challenges of processing and storing data in the age of petabyt science. (4 pages)

  9. The Future of Family Medicine: a collaborative project of the family medicine community

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin, James C; Avant, Robert F; Bowman, Marjorie A; Bucholtz, John R; Dickinson, John R; Evans, Kenneth L; Green, Larry A; Henley, Douglas E; Jones, Warren A; Matheny, Samuel C; Nevin, Janice E; Panther, Sandra L; Puffer, James C; Roberts, Richard G; Rodgers, Denise V; Sherwood, Roger A; Stange, Kurt C; Weber, Cynthia W


    Recognizing fundamental flaws in the fragmented US health care systems and the potential of an integrative, generalist approach, the leadership of 7 national family medicine organizations initiated...

  10. Education through the prism of computation (United States)

    Kaurov, Vitaliy


    With the rapid development of technology, computation claims its irrevocable place among research components of modern science. Thus to foster a successful future scientist, engineer or educator we need to add computation to the foundations of scientific education. We will discuss what type of paradigm shifts it brings to these foundations on the example of Wolfram Science Summer School. It is one of the most advanced computational outreach programs run by Wolfram Foundation, welcoming participants of almost all ages and backgrounds. Centered on complexity science and physics, it also covers numerous adjacent and interdisciplinary fields such as finance, biology, medicine and even music. We will talk about educational and research experiences in this program during the 12 years of its existence. We will review statistics and outputs the program has produced. Among these are interactive electronic publications at the Wolfram Demonstrations Project and contributions to the computational knowledge engine Wolfram|Alpa.

  11. Between the Living and the Dead: Trauma Medicine and Forensic Medicine in the Mid-Qing. (United States)

    Wu, Yi-Li


    This paper analyzes the influence of forensic medicine on therapeutic medicine through a case study of Qian Xiuchang and Hu Tingguang, two Chinese doctors who specialized in treating traumatic injuries. During the early nineteenth century, both men compiled medical treatises that sought to improve on a scholarly model of "rectifying bones" articulated in 1742 by the Imperially-Compiled Golden Mirror of the Medical Lineage. Both texts also incorporated information from forensic medicine, including official inquest diagrams and checklists promulgated by the Qing government. I show that they drew on these forensic materials to help address two interlinked medical issues: understanding the effects of injury on different parts of the body, and clarifying the location and form of the body's bones. Overall, I suggest that the exchange of ideas between the realm of therapeutic medicine and forensic medicine was an important epistemological strategy that doctors and officials alike employed to improve their knowledge of the material body.

  12. The role of veterinary medicine regulatory agencies. (United States)

    Smith, M V


    An effective animal medicine regulatory programme includes a systematic, evidence-based means of documenting the safety and effectiveness of products before they are produced, marketed or used in a particular country or region. The programme must also include adequate monitoring and controls over the use of these substances. It is clearthat such programmes provide veterinarians, farmers and other animal medicine users with greater assurance that veterinary drugs and biologicals will be safe and effective in preventing and mitigating disease. It is important that these regulatory controls include programmes to ensure that human food obtained from treated animals is safe and that all potential toxicological and microbiological hazards that may be associated with the use of veterinary medicines have been adequately evaluated. There is a great need worldwide for veterinary medicines that provide needed therapies for vast numbers of animals and animal species and, in the case of food-producing animals, for medicinal products that enhance the productivity and efficiency of food production and ensure food safety when they are used in accordance with their approval specifications. The public health mission of regulatory agencies succeeds when they are able to put into the hands of the user an approved, safe and effective, well-manufactured and appropriately labelled medicine, and when there are adequate controls in place to assure proper compliance.

  13. The folklore medicinal orchids of Sikkim. (United States)

    Panda, Ashok Kumar; Mandal, Debasis


    Orchids are well-known for decorative and aromatic values than its medicinal properties. Jīvantī, Jīvaka, Ṛṣabhaka, Rāsnā, Mānakanda, Pañcagula are used in Ayurveda are said to be orchids. There are 50 species of orchids in medicine. Sikkim has identified 523 species of wild orchids so far. The aim of this study is to determine the folklore medicinal use of orchids in Sikkim. To assess the traditional medicinal uses of orchid species, close contacts were made with native people particularly, traditional healers, religious leaders, nursery growers and villagers of Sikkim. The information was gathered with the help of the questionnaire and personal interviews with various knowledgeable respondents during the field visit in between August 2009 and December 2011. We found that 36 species of orchids are used as medicines for different purposes of health. The botanical and ayurvedic name, phenology, parts used and medicinal uses of 36 orchids are presented in this paper along with its local distribution.

  14. Sharing medicine: the candidacy of medicines and other household items for sharing, Dominican Republic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael N Dohn

    Full Text Available People share medicines and problems can result from this behavior. Successful interventions to change sharing behavior will require understanding people's motives and purposes for sharing medicines. Better information about how medicines fit into the gifting and reciprocity system could be useful in designing interventions to modify medicine sharing behavior. However, it is uncertain how people situate medicines among other items that might be shared. This investigation is a descriptive study of how people sort medicines and other shareable items.This study in the Dominican Republic examined how a convenience sample (31 people sorted medicines and rated their shareability in relation to other common household items. We used non-metric multidimensional scaling to produce association maps in which the distances between items offer a visual representation of the collective opinion of the participants regarding the relationships among the items. In addition, from a pile sort constrained by four categories of whether sharing or loaning the item was acceptable (on a scale from not shareable to very shareable, we assessed the degree to which the participants rated the medicines as shareable compared to other items. Participants consistently grouped medicines together in all pile sort activities; yet, medicines were mixed with other items when rated by their candidacy to be shared. Compared to the other items, participants had more variability of opinion as to whether medicines should be shared.People think of medicines as a distinct group, suggesting that interventions might be designed to apply to medicines as a group. People's differing opinions as to whether it was appropriate to share medicines imply a degree of uncertainty or ambiguity that health promotion interventions might exploit to alter attitudes and behaviors. These findings have implications for the design of health promotion interventions to impact medicine sharing behavior.

  15. Precision Medicine In Action | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine (United States)

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: NIH Precision Medicine Initiative Precision Medicine In Action Past Issues / Fall 2015 Table of ... Dishman "I am totally motivated to support precision medicine because I am one of the early prototype ...

  16. Think It Through: Managing the Benefits and Risks of Medicines (United States)

    ... States Counterfeit Medicine Ensuring Safe Use of Medicine Generic Drugs Misuse of Prescription Pain Relievers Understanding Over-the-Counter Medicines Medication Health Fraud Tips for Seniors Tips for Parents ...

  17. Computing in the Clouds (United States)

    Johnson, Doug


    Web-based applications offer teachers, students, and school districts a convenient way to accomplish a wide range of tasks, from accounting to word processing, for free. Cloud computing has the potential to offer staff and students better services at a lower cost than the technology deployment models they're using now. Saving money and improving…

  18. Computational screen and experimental validation of anti-influenza effects of quercetin and chlorogenic acid from traditional Chinese medicine. (United States)

    Liu, Zekun; Zhao, Junpeng; Li, Weichen; Shen, Li; Huang, Shengbo; Tang, Jingjing; Duan, Jie; Fang, Fang; Huang, Yuelong; Chang, Haiyan; Chen, Ze; Zhang, Ran


    The Influenza A virus is a great threat for human health, while various subtypes of the virus made it difficult to develop drugs. With the development of state-of-art computational chemistry, computational molecular docking could serve as a virtual screen of potential leading compound. In this study, we performed molecular docking for influenza A H1N1 (A/PR/8/34) with small molecules such as quercetin and chlorogenic acid, which were derived from traditional Chinese medicine. The results showed that these small molecules have strong binding abilities with neuraminidase from H1N1 (A/PR/8/34). Further details showed that the structural features of the molecules might be helpful for further drug design and development. The experiments in vitro, in vivo have validated the anti-influenza effect of quercetin and chlorogenic acid, which indicating comparable protection effects as zanamivir. Taken together, it was proposed that chlorogenic acid and quercetin could be employed as the effective lead compounds for anti-influenza A H1N1.

  19. Computational screen and experimental validation of anti-influenza effects of quercetin and chlorogenic acid from traditional Chinese medicine (United States)

    Liu, Zekun; Zhao, Junpeng; Li, Weichen; Shen, Li; Huang, Shengbo; Tang, Jingjing; Duan, Jie; Fang, Fang; Huang, Yuelong; Chang, Haiyan; Chen, Ze; Zhang, Ran


    The Influenza A virus is a great threat for human health, while various subtypes of the virus made it difficult to develop drugs. With the development of state-of-art computational chemistry, computational molecular docking could serve as a virtual screen of potential leading compound. In this study, we performed molecular docking for influenza A H1N1 (A/PR/8/34) with small molecules such as quercetin and chlorogenic acid, which were derived from traditional Chinese medicine. The results showed that these small molecules have strong binding abilities with neuraminidase from H1N1 (A/PR/8/34). Further details showed that the structural features of the molecules might be helpful for further drug design and development. The experiments in vitro, in vivo have validated the anti-influenza effect of quercetin and chlorogenic acid, which indicating comparable protection effects as zanamivir. Taken together, it was proposed that chlorogenic acid and quercetin could be employed as the effective lead compounds for anti-influenza A H1N1.

  20. Human capital identification process: linkage for family medicine and community medicine to mobilize the community. (United States)

    Tanasugarn, Chanuantong; Thongbunjob, Krid


    Community diagnosis and approach has shifted from a professional focus to a community focus. The information system has also been developed to reflect socio-cultural information. This new system has been established throughout the country and is being recorded in the computer system. However these data still lack human capital information to promote community mobilization. The present study aims to develop a process which reflects human capital from the insider and outsider points of view and which builds on the existing work system of primary care service, family medicine, and community medicine. The present study applies the participatory action research design with mixed methods including community grand-tour, household survey socio-metric questionnaire and focus group discussion in order to gather insider view of human capital. A key instrument developed in the present study is the socio-metric questionnaire which was designed according to the community grand tour and household survey results. The findings indicate that the process is feasible and the insider point of view given a longer evidence based list of the human capital. The model enhanced a closer relationship between professional and community people and suggested the realistic community mobilizer name list. Human capital identification process is feasible and should be recommended to integrate in the existing work process of the health staff in family and community practice.

  1. Substance and materiality? The archaeology of Talensi medicine shrines and medicinal practices. (United States)

    Insoll, Timothy


    Talensi materia medica is varied, encompassing plant, mineral, and animal substances. Healing, medicines, and medicinal practices and knowledge can be shrine-based and linked with ritual practices. This is explored utilising ethnographic data and from an archaeological perspective with reference to future possibilities for research both on Talensi medicine and, by implication, more generally through considering the archaeology of Talensi medicine preparation, use, storage, spread, and disposal. It is suggested that configuring the archaeology of medicine shrines and practices more broadly in terms of health would increase archaeological visibility and research potential.

  2. At the Computer Centre

    CERN Multimedia


    In preparation for the removal of of the ageing CDC 7600, a 1 megaword CYBER 170/835 and 1 megaword twin processor CYBER 170/875 were installed. The CYBER 835 was moved into production in August replacing the CYBER 720. On the successful introduction of the CYBER 875, the CYBER 720 was removed from service. (See Annual Report 1983 p.67.) The photo shows on foreground the two CDC computers, and on background the IBM 3081.

  3. The Peak of the Pyramid: Women in Dentistry, Medicine and Veterinary Medicine. (United States)

    Jones, Amber B.; Shapiro, Eileen C.

    This paper examines: (1) selected aspects of the current status of women at the top of the hierarchies in the three health professions of dentistry, medicine, and veterinary medicine, and (2) some of the effects of the changing structure of the health care system on the present and future roles of the women in each of these professions. Besides…

  4. The contribution of Medical Physics to Nuclear Medicine: looking back - a physicist's perspective. (United States)

    Hutton, Brian F


    This paper is the first in a series of invited perspectives by four pioneers of Nuclear Medicine imaging and physics. A medical physicist and a Nuclear Medicine clinical specialist each take a backward look and a forward look at the contributions of Medical Physics to Nuclear Medicine. Contributions of Medical Physics are presented from the early discovery of radioactivity, development of first imaging devices, computers and emission tomography to recent development of hybrid imaging. There is evidence of significant contribution of Medical Physics throughout the development of Nuclear Medicine.

  5. The Antares computing model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopper, Claudio, E-mail: [NIKHEF, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands)


    Completed in 2008, Antares is now the largest water Cherenkov neutrino telescope in the Northern Hemisphere. Its main goal is to detect neutrinos from galactic and extra-galactic sources. Due to the high background rate of atmospheric muons and the high level of bioluminescence, several on-line and off-line filtering algorithms have to be applied to the raw data taken by the instrument. To be able to handle this data stream, a dedicated computing infrastructure has been set up. The paper covers the main aspects of the current official Antares computing model. This includes an overview of on-line and off-line data handling and storage. In addition, the current usage of the “IceTray” software framework for Antares data processing is highlighted. Finally, an overview of the data storage formats used for high-level analysis is given.

  6. Selery medicinal plants in the Donbas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Yu. Naumov


    Full Text Available The performed studies determined the real number of species of medicinal plants in Apiaceae family growing on the Donbass territory. The study of literature and conducted field experiments revealed the presence of 41 species of medicinal plants of the celery family (Apiaceae Lindl., among which 11 cultivated species. There was a brief description of botanical species studied, the typical place of growth, and the presence of biologically active compounds that determine the medicinal properties of the studied taxons. The studied plants have various quantitative and spatial relationship: 6 species are rare and are considered as protected plants, 2 species does not grow in Luhansk, 3 — in the Donetsk region, 4 species are considered to be adventitious for our region. Medicinal plants of the family celery cover a wide range of various diseases due to the large number of various biologically active substances and, primarily, essential fatty oils, flavonoids, vitamins and coumarins. It is worth noting that there no agricultural enterprises specialized on medicinal plants cultivating.

  7. Concurrent Study of Eastern and Western Medicine at the National College of Natural Medicine: Dual or Duel? (United States)

    Smith, Andrea Christine


    Students at the National College of Natural Medicine (NCNM) are eligible to concurrently study both Western medicine, as reflected by the Doctor of Naturopathic Medicine (ND) program, and Eastern medicine, as exhibited by the Master of Science in Oriental Medicine (MSOM) degree program. The dual track is unique in that the dominant Western…

  8. From medicine to psychotherapy: the placebo effect. (United States)

    Justman, Stewart


    If placebos have been squeezed out of medicine to the point where their official place in in clinical trials designed to identify their own confounding effect, the placebo effect nevertheless thrives in psychotherapy. Not only does psychotherapy dispose of placebo effects that are less available to medicine as it becomes increasingly technological and preoccupied with body parts, but factors of the sort inhibiting the use of placebos in medicine have no equivalent in psychology. Medicine today is disturbed by the placebo effect in a way psychotherapy is not. Psychotherapy does not have to grapple with such a disconcerting paradox as successful sham surgery, and unlike those physicians who once pretended to treat the patient's body while actually attempting to treat the mind, the psychotherapist can treat the mind in all frankness. Perhaps it is because psychotherapy is less burdened by doubts about the placebo effect that it was able to come to its aid when it was orphaned by medicine. It is vain to expect something with so long a history as the placebo effect to disappear from the practices of healing.

  9. The Transmission of Chinese Medicine in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Garvey


    Full Text Available The paper explores some of the issues concerning the transmission of Chinese medicine in Australia, its practitioner training and the future of Chinese medicine as a distinct medical discipline in the Australian context. In China over the last century Chinese medicine was overhauled in order to align it with the biomedical perspective prevalent in the West. These changes, in turn, had important consequences for the transmission of CM in Australia and the West. But while the biomedicalisation of CM has offered the path of least resistance, it has also lead to unworkable simplifications and methodological failures. The paper thus argues for a renewed access to the tradition’s primary sources in order to ally the distinctive features and methods of traditional practice with biomedicine, as an alternative to an outright integration into biomedical practice.

  10. Converging technologies: shaping the future of medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj nabipour


    Full Text Available The miniaturization and virtualization processes drive converging technologies from interactions between the NBIC (Nano, Bio, Info, and Cogno technologies. The converging technologies stimulate innovation, promote research and development in different fields and produce revolutionary progresses in medicine. These technologies enable us to create contacts between brains and machines, the growth in molecular nanotechnology, the construction of respirocytes, chromallocytes, clottocytes, nanorobotic phagocytes, and nanobots. Nanobots would enter the nucleus of a cell and extract all of the genetic material and replace it with a synthetically produced copy of the original that has been manufactured in a laboratory to contain only non-defective base-pairs. It is predicted that “the regenerative medicine”, as a megatrend, will have an enormous effect on medical technologies and clinical sciences. Regenerative medicine is an application field of converging technologies in translational medicine. It attempts to translate the results of tissue engineering to construct 3D tissues and organs. Regenerative medicine is also an exciting field for induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC and promises to bring about a paradigm shift to health care. Accumulating evidence indicates that converging technologies will offer great potentials for regenerative medicine to create innovative treatments for diseases that the traditional therapies have not been effective yet.

  11. [The practice of medicine in 1910]. (United States)

    Viesca-Treviño, Carlo


    The aim is to describe the environmental and the practice of the medicine around the 1910, year of the Mexican Revolution. Prominent physicians and theirs contributions are describe. All of them from the Mexican clinical school development by Manuel Carpio and Miguel Jiménez. It is stand out the progress of the Mexican medicine with the incorporation of the European advances into the daily practice. It is also describe the development and contemporary practice of surgery of the Mexican surgery school forced by surgeons like Miguel Muñoz, Francisco Montes de Oca and Rafael Lavista.

  12. Computer-based teaching is as good as face to face lecture-based teaching of evidence based medicine: a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Khalid


    Full Text Available Abstract Background At postgraduate level evidence based medicine (EBM is currently taught through tutor based lectures. Computer based sessions fit around doctors' workloads, and standardise the quality of educational provision. There have been no randomized controlled trials comparing computer based sessions with traditional lectures at postgraduate level within medicine. Methods This was a randomised controlled trial involving six postgraduate education centres in the West Midlands, U.K. Fifty five newly qualified foundation year one doctors (U.S internship equivalent were randomised to either computer based sessions or an equivalent lecture in EBM and systematic reviews. The change from pre to post-intervention score was measured using a validated questionnaire assessing knowledge (primary outcome and attitudes (secondary outcome. Results Both groups were similar at baseline. Participants' improvement in knowledge in the computer based group was equivalent to the lecture based group (gain in score: 2.1 [S.D = 2.0] versus 1.9 [S.D = 2.4]; ANCOVA p = 0.078. Attitudinal gains were similar in both groups. Conclusion On the basis of our findings we feel computer based teaching and learning is as effective as typical lecture based teaching sessions for educating postgraduates in EBM and systematic reviews.

  13. Computer-based teaching is as good as face to face lecture-based teaching of evidence based medicine: a randomised controlled trial. (United States)

    Davis, James; Chryssafidou, Evi; Zamora, Javier; Davies, David; Khan, Khalid; Coomarasamy, Arri


    At postgraduate level evidence based medicine (EBM) is currently taught through tutor based lectures. Computer based sessions fit around doctors' workloads, and standardise the quality of educational provision. There have been no randomized controlled trials comparing computer based sessions with traditional lectures at postgraduate level within medicine. This was a randomised controlled trial involving six postgraduate education centres in the West Midlands, U.K. Fifty five newly qualified foundation year one doctors (U.S internship equivalent) were randomised to either computer based sessions or an equivalent lecture in EBM and systematic reviews. The change from pre to post-intervention score was measured using a validated questionnaire assessing knowledge (primary outcome) and attitudes (secondary outcome). Both groups were similar at baseline. Participants' improvement in knowledge in the computer based group was equivalent to the lecture based group (gain in score: 2.1 [S.D = 2.0] versus 1.9 [S.D = 2.4]; ANCOVA p = 0.078). Attitudinal gains were similar in both groups. On the basis of our findings we feel computer based teaching and learning is as effective as typical lecture based teaching sessions for educating postgraduates in EBM and systematic reviews.

  14. Medicine and the Task of Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. Komesaroff


    Full Text Available To understand the traditional description of medicine as a practice of healing, it is necessary to examine its relationships with both science and ethics. The “scientific” component of medicine includes an acknowledgment of the influence of social, cultural and environmental factors on the functioning of the organism. The “ethical” component is often presented as merely supplementary but actually provides the conditions of possibility of knowledge. “Healing” then appears as what joins the two together: the site where science is applied in the service of ethics and where ethics encounters science. This perspective allows us to reconsider medicine as a project to healing complex wounds that manifest themselves at the physical, psychological, emotional and cultural levels.

  15. Personalized medicine and education: the challenge. (United States)

    Haiech, Jacques; Kilhoffer, Marie-Claude


    Although personalized medicine appears to be a truism, medical doctors are still generally trained in an old-fashioned manner with a focus on reactive treatment. The aim of this paper is to emphasize the evolution of life sciences into a more predictive science, where the development of quantitative models is starting to take place. Personalized medicine is a consequence of such paradigm shift. To keep up with the change, the various actors within the health system must be trained in a completely different manner, focusing on the ability to work as part of a multidisciplinary team that includes medical doctors, nurses, engineers in medical imaging, and others who collect information from patients. In addition, these teams should include modelers that are able to integrate the flood of data into predictive and quantitative models. The challenge of implementing new training methods in line with the shift is a major bottleneck to the emergence and success of personalized medicine in our societies.

  16. Persian Medicine in the World of Research; Review of Articles on Iranian Traditional Medicine. (United States)

    Moeini, Reihaneh; Gorji, Narjes


    Due to negligence, Persian (Iranian) traditional medicine has had a weak presence in the world of research for a long time. However, in recent years, a variety of activates by research and faculty centers have created awareness and a platform to introduce and promote Persian medicine to the world. The aim of this study is to present and analyze scientific achievements of Persian medicine in the world of research. Articles were collected from PubMed database using keywords such as "Persian medicine", "Persian traditional medicine", "Iranian medicine", and "Iranian traditional medicine". All data were classified based on the type of research (review, intervention, case reports, etc.), the field of study (neurology, cardiovascular, metabolic, historical studies, etc.), publication year, and journal type. A total of 501 articles were identified until the end of 2015, comprising of 222 reviews and 219 interventional (108 animal, 57 clinical and 54 cellular). Most studies were on neurology (20.1%), gastroenterology (14.5%), and cardiovascular diseases (10.4%). The publications in 2015 and 2014 had the highest hit rate with 139 and 132 articles, respectively, with 1:2 publication ratio between foreign and Iranian journals. The most published articles, both foreign and Iranian, were in "Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine" and "Iranian Red Crescent Medicine" journals. The contribution of foreign authors was 5%. The primary focus of the articles was on "Basic concepts of Persian medicine", "Healthy lifestyle according to Persian medicine", and "Historical aspects", by 3.1%, 2.9%, and 6.7%, respectively. During the last 2 years, the number of articles published in Persian (Iranian) medicine, particularly clinical studies had significant growth in comparison with the years before. The tendency of foreign researchers to use the keywords "Iranian" or "Persian" medicine is notable. This research was only based on the designated keyword and other keywords were

  17. The downsizing of internal medicine residency programs. (United States)

    Asch, D A; Ende, J


    A variety of forces are converging to reduce the number of internal medicine residency positions offered in this country. This reduction, referred to as downsizing, has been proposed as the solution to several of the problems facing internal medicine. We examine the forces that underlie the current enthusiasm for downsizing; we consider the alternative strategies by which downsizing might be implemented; and we consider the implications of these alternatives on different groups of stakeholders. Although downsizing may represent a legitimate approach to real problems, any mechanism to reduce the number of training positions in internal medicine will have broad implications for medical education and patient care well into the next century. Special efforts must be taken to ensure that downsizing will not exacerbate the existing problem of overspecialization and limited access to care.

  18. Inhaled medicinal cannabis and the immunocompromised patient. (United States)

    Ruchlemer, Rosa; Amit-Kohn, Michal; Raveh, David; Hanuš, Lumír


    Medicinal cannabis is an invaluable adjunct therapy for pain relief, nausea, anorexia, and mood modification in cancer patients and is available as cookies or cakes, as sublingual drops, as a vaporized mist, or for smoking. However, as with every herb, various microorganisms are carried on its leaves and flowers which when inhaled could expose the user, in particular immunocompromised patients, to the risk of opportunistic lung infections, primarily from inhaled molds. The objective of this study was to identify the safest way of using medicinal cannabis in immunosuppressed patients by finding the optimal method of sterilization with minimal loss of activity of cannabis. We describe the results of culturing the cannabis herb, three methods of sterilization, and the measured loss of a main cannabinoid compound activity. Systematic sterilization of medicinal cannabis can eliminate the risk of fatal opportunistic infections associated with cannabis among patients at risk.

  19. Toward personalized medicine in the neuropsychiatric field. (United States)

    Wong, Erik H F; Fox, Jayne C; Ng, Mandy Y M; Lee, Chi-Ming


    There are great expectations for the personalized medicine approach to address the therapeutic needs of patients in the twenty-first century. Advances in human genome science and molecular innovations in neuroscience have encouraged the pharmaceutical industry to focus beyond broad spectrum population therapeutics--the driving force behind the "blockbuster" product concept--to personalized medicine. For central nervous system (CNS) therapeutics, repeated failures in converting scientific discoveries to clinical trial successes and regulatory approvals have precipitated a drug pipeline crisis and eroded confidence in the industry. This chapter describes how innovations in genomics and translational medicine can impact the future of neuropsychiatry and deconvolute the complexity of psychiatric diseases from symptoms biology. A targeted and consistent investment is needed to restore confidence in translating science into clinical success. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The impact of ancient Greek medicine in India: the birth of Unani medicine. (United States)

    Poulakou-Rebelakou, Effie; Karamanou, Marianna; George, Androutsos


    Unani Medicine, also called "Unani-tibb", has a long and impressive record in India based on the grecoarabic medicine and teachings of Hippocrates, Galen and Arab physicians. Its main principle is the maintenance of equilibrium among the various aspects of the body, made up of four elements, different temperaments, simple and compound organs, and four humours. The main bibliographic sources concerning the impact of ancient Greek medicine in India and the principles of Unani Medicine have been investigated and analysed. The assimilation of Hippocratic principles in a country with a different philosophy and worldview was successful. The ancient Greek medical system enriched with local elements encountered a large response to the Indian people and to the physicians. Nowadays Unani medicine is not only popular in India where several Unani practitioners are registered but it enjoys a worldwide upsurge of interest.

  1. Computing the functional proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Brien, Edward J.; Palsson, Bernhard


    Constraint-based models enable the computation of feasible, optimal, and realized biological phenotypes from reaction network reconstructions and constraints on their operation. To date, stoichiometric reconstructions have largely focused on metabolism, resulting in genome-scale metabolic models (M....... Specifically, ME-Models enable the prediction of transcriptome and proteome allocation and limitations, and basal expression states and regulatory needs. Continued expansion in reconstruction content and constraints will result in an increasingly refined representation of cellular composition and behavior....

  2. Reasons for the study of medicine and dental medicine in the first year students of the Faculty of medicine in Ljubljana

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Janja Omejec; Ana Stepišnik; Polona Selič; Marija Petek Šter


    ... relationships with patients. The purpose of the study was to identify the reasons that lead students to choose the study of dental medicine/medicine, and determine the level of emphaty in relation to the choice of study...

  3. [Voice pathology in the history of medicine]. (United States)

    Benzi, P; Sanità, N


    This article, which will be followed by others dealing with the same subject, is mainly concerned with the outstanding figures of Ippocrathes of Cos and Galenus as far as voice treatment in Greek medicine and under the Roman Empire is concerned. But apart from them, many writers and scientists such as Homer, Democritus, Plato, Celsius Scribonius Largus, not to mention Plinius, Discorides and Martialis dealt with this topic. In addition, the article will briefly deal with the ancient Egyptian medicine as well as with the Indian one.

  4. An Investigation of the Use of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Stroke Patients. (United States)

    Yeh, Mei-Ling; Chiu, Wei-Ling; Wang, Yu-Jen; Lo, Chyi

    This study aimed to investigate the use of traditional Chinese medicine and complementary and alternative medicine in stroke patients in Taiwan. Chinese herbal medicine, massage, acupuncture, natural products, and exercise were widely used among stroke patients. Integrating safe and effective traditional Chinese medicine and complementary and alternative medicine into conventional therapies is suggested.

  5. Appraisal of adaptive neuro-fuzzy computing technique for estimating anti-obesity properties of a medicinal plant. (United States)

    Kazemipoor, Mahnaz; Hajifaraji, Majid; Radzi, Che Wan Jasimah Bt Wan Mohamed; Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Petković, Dalibor; Mat Kiah, Miss Laiha


    This research examines the precision of an adaptive neuro-fuzzy computing technique in estimating the anti-obesity property of a potent medicinal plant in a clinical dietary intervention. Even though a number of mathematical functions such as SPSS analysis have been proposed for modeling the anti-obesity properties estimation in terms of reduction in body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage, and body weight loss, there are still disadvantages of the models like very demanding in terms of calculation time. Since it is a very crucial problem, in this paper a process was constructed which simulates the anti-obesity activities of caraway (Carum carvi) a traditional medicine on obese women with adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference (ANFIS) method. The ANFIS results are compared with the support vector regression (SVR) results using root-mean-square error (RMSE) and coefficient of determination (R(2)). The experimental results show that an improvement in predictive accuracy and capability of generalization can be achieved by the ANFIS approach. The following statistical characteristics are obtained for BMI loss estimation: RMSE=0.032118 and R(2)=0.9964 in ANFIS testing and RMSE=0.47287 and R(2)=0.361 in SVR testing. For fat loss estimation: RMSE=0.23787 and R(2)=0.8599 in ANFIS testing and RMSE=0.32822 and R(2)=0.7814 in SVR testing. For weight loss estimation: RMSE=0.00000035601 and R(2)=1 in ANFIS testing and RMSE=0.17192 and R(2)=0.6607 in SVR testing. Because of that, it can be applied for practical purposes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Is laboratory medicine ready for the era of personalized medicine? A survey addressed to laboratory directors of hospitals/academic schools of medicine in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malentacchi, F.; Mancini, I.; Brandslund, I.


    in the integration of personalized medicine in routine health care and set the state-of-the-art -knowledge about personalized medicine and laboratory medicine in Europe, a questionnaire was constructed under the auspices of the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM) and the European...

  7. Quantum Computing and the Limits of the Efficiently Computable

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    I'll discuss how computational complexity---the study of what can and can't be feasibly computed---has been interacting with physics in interesting and unexpected ways. I'll first give a crash course about computer science's P vs. NP problem, as well as about the capabilities and limits of quantum computers. I'll then touch on speculative models of computation that would go even beyond quantum computers, using (for example) hypothetical nonlinearities in the Schrodinger equation. Finally, I'll discuss BosonSampling ---a proposal for a simple form of quantum computing, which nevertheless seems intractable to simulate using a classical computer---as well as the role of computational complexity in the black hole information puzzle.

  8. The historical development of temperature measurement in medicine (United States)

    Ring, E. F. J.


    The association between temperature and disease is almost as old as medicine itself. After Galileo introduced the thermoscope thermometry evolved slowly and only became established in medicine by the work of Carl Wunderlich in the 19th Century. Thermal imaging began in the beginning of the 19th century with William and John Herschel, but was not developed commercially until World War 2. Today modern infrared imaging systems offer high resolution images of human body temperature, and can be used to quantify sensitive changes in skin temperature in relation to certain diseases, and their response to medication. Computing has dramatically improved the power of thermal imaging, and reliable imaging procedures have been established for medical use of this technique.

  9. The Hunterian Laboratory of Experimental Medicine. (United States)

    Ro, Kevin; Cameron, John L; Yeh, Michael W


    The Hunterian Laboratory of Experimental Medicine, established at the Johns Hopkins Hospital in 1905, played a central role in the early history of American surgery. Created primarily by William Halsted with the help of Harvey Cushing, the Laboratory was a cornerstone of experimental surgical research as well as surgical education. This article examines the conception and early years of the Laboratory.

  10. Systems biology, the Physiome Project and oriental medicine. (United States)

    Noble, Denis


    Systems biology, particularly at the higher levels that are the domain of the Physiome Project, offers a more promising basis for constructive dialogue with traditional oriental medicine than does reductive molecular biology alone. However, there are major problems to be overcome before this can be achieved. First, systems biology is at an early stage of development as a fully quantitative and computational discipline. We still do not know what the higher level concepts should be that might map well to traditional oriental medical concepts. Second, there are major problems of translation and interpretation to be tackled. Exploring the full semantic frame of the oriental concepts will be necessary before mapping to concepts in western medicine can be useful.

  11. The 2013 Model of the Clinical Practice of Emergency Medicine. (United States)

    Counselman, Francis L; Borenstein, Marc A; Chisholm, Carey D; Epter, Michael L; Khandelwal, Sorabh; Kraus, Chadd K; Luber, Samuel D; Marco, Catherine A; Promes, Susan B; Schmitz, Gillian; Keehbauch, Julia N


    In 2001, "The Model of the Clinical Practice of Emergency Medicine" was first published. This document, the first of its kind, was the result of an extensive practice analysis of emergency department (ED) visits and several expert panels, overseen by representatives from six collaborating professional organizations (the American Board of Emergency Medicine, the American College of Emergency Physicians, the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine, the Residency Review Committee for Emergency Medicine, the Council of Emergency Medicine Residency Directors, and the Emergency Medicine Residents' Association). Every 2 years, the document is reviewed by these organizations to identify practice changes, incorporate new evidence, and identify perceived deficiencies. For this revision, a seventh organization was included, the American Academy of Emergency Medicine. © 2014 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  12. The history of aeronautical medicine in Venezuela (United States)

    Iriarte, D. R.


    The Aerial Medical Service of the Ministry of Transportation and Communications of Venezuela was created on June 1949, and later became the Department of Aeronautical Medicine. Its functions include the medical examinations of future pilots, navigators and flight engineers. The importance of good mental and physical health in all flight and ground personnel to ensure the safety of air travel is discussed.

  13. Modular: The Super Computer


    Malashevich, B.,; Malashevich, D.,


    International audience; This article is deals with the history modular arithmetic, based on the rest classes calculus system «Restklassenarithmetik» (RCCS), or Modular Arithmetic, regarding its creation and development in the USSR. Characteristics of the USSR first modular super-computers: “Т-340А”, “К-340А”, “Diamond (Алмаз)” and “5E53” and their development history are briefly considered. A brief analysis of the weakening of interest in the modular arithmetic in the USSR and its subsequent ...

  14. Medicine and the Renaissance world of learning. (United States)

    Siraisi, Nancy G


    This article considers aspects of the relation of medicine with other learned disciplines during the sixteenth century and presents some examples of the contribution of medical authors of that period to such diverse fields as natural philosophy, physiognomy, alchemy, travel writing, the art of memory, and the study of antiquities.

  15. Physiopathology of dementia from the perspective of traditional Persian medicine. (United States)

    Seifaddini, Rostam; Tajadini, Haleh; Choopani, Rasool


    The most common cognitive disorder that is disabling is dementia. During the medieval period, traditional Persian medicine was an outstanding source of medicine that was used as standard references in medical schools of in the West and Middle East. In ancient manuscripts of traditional Persian medicine, a condition has been introduced similar to dementi (raoonat and homgh). In this article, by collecting materials of traditional medicine texts on dementia, we aim to provide theories for further studies on this topics, as there is an obvious difference between traditional Persian medicine and modern medicine with regard to dementia; however, since modern medicine has not found a suitable response to treatment for all diseases, reviewing traditional Persian medicine for finding better treatment strategies is wise. Use of all medical potentials approved by the World Health Organization beside classic medicine like traditional medicine and considering the availability and acceptability among people is recommended. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. The use of lasers in medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Roux


    Full Text Available The acronym laser stands for “light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation”. The basic principles by which light energy from a laser is generated is discussed briefly. The different types of lasers are mentioned. The diagnostic and therapeutic uses of lasers in medicine are discussed in greater detail.

  17. The arts and medicine: a challenging relationship. (United States)

    Macneill, Paul Ulhas


    This paper discusses various justifications for including medical humanities and art in healthcare education. It expresses concern about portrayals of the humanities and art as benign and servile in relation to medicine and the health professions. An alternative is for the humanities to take a more active role within medical education by challenging the assumptions and myths of the predominant biomedical model. Another is to challenge quiescent notions of the arts by examining examples of recent provocative work and, to this end, the paper considers the work of performance artists Stelarc and Orlan who have subjected their bodies to modifications and extensions. Their work challenges, and potentially undermines, conceptions of the body, medicine, and humanity's relationship with technology. Similarly, other artists, working with biological cultures, have raised controversial issues. Recent work of this kind defies easy understanding and resists being pressed into the service of medicine and other health professions for educational purposes by opening up topics for exploration and discussion without providing unitary explanatory frameworks. The paper goes on to discuss the implications for medical education if this is the approach to the arts and humanities in healthcare education. It suggests that there needs to be a shift in the foundational assumptions of medicine if the arts and humanities are to contribute more fully.

  18. Conserving the Appalachian medicinal plant industry (United States)

    James L. Chamberlain


    An industry based on plants that flourish in the mountains of Appalachia is at a critical crossroads. The medicinal plant industry has relied on the conservation of Appalachian forest resources for more than 300 years. There is growing and widespread concern that many of the species, on which this vibrant and substantial industry depends, are being depleted and...

  19. Health need and the use of alternative medicine among adults who do not use conventional medicine. (United States)

    Nahin, Richard L; Dahlhamer, James M; Stussman, Barbara J


    We hypothesize that a substantial portion of individuals who forgo conventional care in a given year turn to some form of alternative medicine. This study also examines whether individuals who use only alternative medicine will differ substantially in health and sociodemographic status from individuals using neither alternative medicine nor conventional care in a given year. To identify those factors that predict alternative medicine use in those not using conventional care, we employed the socio-behavioral model of healthcare utilization. The current study is a cross-sectional regression analysis using data from the 2002 National Health Interview Survey. Data were collected in-person from 31,044 adults throughout the 50 states and the District of Columbia. 19.3% of adults (38.3 million) did not use conventional care in a 12 month period, although 39.5% of these individuals (14.7 million) reported having one or more problems with their health. Of those not using conventional care, 24.8% (9.5 million) used alternative medicine. Users of alternative medicine had more health needs and were more likely to delay conventional care because of both cost and non-cost factors compared to those not using alternative medicine. While individual predisposing factors (gender, education) were positively associated with alternative medicine use, enabling factors (poverty status, insurance coverage) were not. We found that a quarter of individuals who forgo conventional care in a given year turn towards alternative medicine. Our study suggests that the potential determinants of using only alternative medicine are multifactorial. Future research is needed to examine the decision process behind an individual's choice to use alternative medicine but not conventional medicine and the clinical outcomes of this choice.

  20. Islamic Medicine in the Middle Ages. (United States)

    Edriss, Hawa; Rosales, Brittany N; Nugent, Connie; Conrad, Christian; Nugent, Kenneth


    The Islamic culture flourished between the 9th and 13th centuries. Scholars from this era made significant contributions in mathematics, science and medicine. Caliphs and physicians built hospitals that provided universal care and the foundation for medical education. Physician-scientists made significant advances in medical care, surgery and pharmacology. Notable authorities include al-Razi (865-925 CE) who wrote the Kitab al-Hawi fi al-tibb (The Comprehensive Book on Medicine), a 23-volume textbook that provided the main medical curriculum for European schools into the 14th century. Ibn Sina (980-1037 CE), an extraordinary Persian polymath, wrote al Qanun fi al-Tibb (The Canon of Medicine), an encyclopedic treatment of medicine that combined his own observations with medical information from Galen and philosophy from Aristotle. Mansur (1380-1422 CE) wrote the first color illustrated book on anatomy. Other important physicians compiled information on the use of medication from plants, advanced surgical techniques, including cataract extraction and studied physiology, including the pulmonary circulation. These books and ideas provided the basis for medical care in Europe during its recovery from the Dark Ages. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Tablet Use within Medicine (United States)

    Hogue, Rebecca J.


    This paper discusses the scholarly literature related to tablet computer use in medicine. Forty-four research-based articles were examined for emerging categories and themes. The most studied uses for tablet computers include: patients using tablets to complete diagnostic survey instruments, medical professionals using tablet computers to view…

  2. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... diagnoses. In addition, manufacturers are now making single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) and ... nuclear medicine include the gamma camera and single-photon emission-computed tomography (SPECT). The gamma camera, also ...

  3. The primary care sports medicine fellowship: American Medical Society for Sports Medicine proposed standards of excellence. (United States)

    Asif, Irfan M; Stovak, Mark; Ray, Tracy; Weiss-Kelly, Amanda


    The American Medical Society for Sports Medicine recognises a need to provide direction and continually enhance the quality of sports medicine fellowship training programmes. This document was developed to be an educational resource for sports medicine physicians who teach in a 1-year primary care sports medicine fellowship training programme. It is meant to provide high standards and targets for fellowship training programmes that choose to re-assess their curriculum and seek to make improvements. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. The Therapeutic Potential of Medicinal Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelvana Ramalingum


    Full Text Available Pharmaceutical and nutritional sciences have recently witnessed a bloom in the scientific literature geared towards the use of food plants for their diversified health benefits and potential clinical applications. Health professionals now recognize that a synergism of drug therapy and nutrition might confer optimum outcomes in the fight against diseases. The prophylactic benefits of food plants are being investigated for potential use as novel medicinal remedies due to the presence of pharmacologically active compounds. Although the availability of scientific data is rapidly growing, there is still a paucity of updated compilation of data and concerns about the rationale of these health-foods still persist in the literature. This paper attempts to congregate the nutritional value, phytochemical composition, traditional uses, in vitro and in vivo studies of 10 common medicinal food plants used against chronic noncommunicable and infectious diseases. Food plants included were based on the criteria that they are consumed as a common food in a typical diet as either fruit or vegetable for their nutritive value but have also other parts which are in common use in folk medicine. The potential challenges of incorporating these medicinal foods in the diet which offers prospective opportunities for future drug development are also discussed.

  5. negotiating the new medicines regulatory framework

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    REGULATORY FRAMEWORK: SOME BASIC. FACTS AND OBSERVATIONS. Jonathan Berger, Head, Law and Treatment Access Unit, AIDS Law Project, Centre forApplied Legal Studies,. University of the Witwatersrand, johannesburg. After many years, the controversial provisions of the Medicines and Related Substances ...

  6. Chinese medicinal herbs for the common cold. (United States)

    Wu, T; Zhang, J; Qiu, Y; Xie, L; Liu, G J


    Chinese herbal medicines are frequently used to treat the common cold in China. Until now, their efficacy has not been systematically reviewed. To assess the effectiveness and safety of Chinese herbal medicines for the common cold. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library, Issue 3, 2006) which contains the Acute Respiratory Infections Group's specialised register; MEDLINE (1966 to July 2006); EMBASE (1980 to March 2006); AMED (1985 to July 2006); and the Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM) (1975 to July 2005). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) studying the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine(s) for the treatment of the common cold were included, irrespective of publication status or language. Four review authors telephoned original trial authors of the RCTs identified by our searches to verify the randomisation procedure. Two review authors extracted and analysed data from the trials which met the inclusion criteria. Fourteen studies involving 2440 patients were included. The methods of all studies were rated of poor quality (category C). Included studies used "effective drugs" as controls; however, the efficacy of these control drugs was not reported. Different Chinese herbal preparations were tested in nearly all trials; in only one was a Chinese herbal preparation tested twice. In six studies, five herbal preparations were found to be more effective at enhancing recovery than the control; and in the other eight studies, five herbal preparations were shown to be equal to the control. There was a strong probability of different biases in all of the included studies. Chinese herbal medicines may shorten the symptomatic phase in patients with the common cold. However, the lack of high quality clinical trials means we are unable to recommend any kind of Chinese herbal preparation for the common cold.

  7. Assessing self-care and social function using a computer adaptive testing version of the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory Accepted for Publication, Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (United States)

    Coster, Wendy J.; Haley, Stephen M.; Ni, Pengsheng; Dumas, Helene M.; Fragala-Pinkham, Maria A.


    Objective To examine score agreement, validity, precision, and response burden of a prototype computer adaptive testing (CAT) version of the Self-Care and Social Function scales of the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) compared to the full-length version of these scales. Design Computer simulation analysis of cross-sectional and longitudinal retrospective data; cross-sectional prospective study. Settings Pediatric rehabilitation hospital, including inpatient acute rehabilitation, day school program, outpatient clinics; community-based day care, preschool, and children’s homes. Participants Four hundred sixty-nine children with disabilities and 412 children with no disabilities (analytic sample); 38 children with disabilities and 35 children without disabilities (cross-validation sample). Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures Summary scores from prototype CAT applications of each scale using 15-, 10-, and 5-item stopping rules; scores from the full-length Self-Care and Social Function scales; time (in seconds) to complete assessments and respondent ratings of burden. Results Scores from both computer simulations and field administration of the prototype CATs were highly consistent with scores from full-length administration (all r’s between .94 and .99). Using computer simulation of retrospective data, discriminant validity and sensitivity to change of the CATs closely approximated that of the full-length scales, especially when the 15- and 10-item stopping rules were applied. In the cross-validation study the time to administer both CATs was 4 minutes, compared to over 16 minutes to complete the full-length scales. Conclusions Self-care and Social Function score estimates from CAT administration are highly comparable to those obtained from full-length scale administration, with small losses in validity and precision and substantial decreases in administration time. PMID:18373991

  8. Mobile Computing & Semantic Web für Medizin und Informationsversorgung /Mobile Computing & Semantic Web in Health & Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van den Brekel, Guus


    Full Text Available Mobile Computing is big and unstoppable. The iPhone and iPad have given an enormous innovative boost to mobile healthcare. Applications, data, software, Operation systems and even Things are going into the “Cloud” to be accessed via Apps by a exponentially growing amount of mobile devices. What is the real magic of these devices? In the design, it’s functionality, in the easy of use, or …? And where exactly is wireless and unlimited Internet access changing healthcare for professionals and patients? What roles do libraries have now in this fast changing world of biomedicine & information technology? And what roles do they really need to develop? Web 2.0 gave users (and librarians power over the web, making connections, interoperability and sharing possible. Who is actually shaping the web 3.0, this World Web Database, the great Internet of Things? Can your library contribute to this? But for whom and why should you? This article will try to merge the possible implications on the long term with practical immediate actions to be taken.

  9. The National Network of Libraries of Medicine (United States)

    ... as well as community-based organizations, faith-based organizations, tribal colleges, public health agencies and other institutions, they promote good health information and the many online resources of the National Library of Medicine, such as MedlinePlus. Free RML-sponsored ...

  10. Journal of Medicine in the Tropics: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Papers in the following categories are accepted: Original Scientific Articles, Case Reports, Brief Communication, Letters to the Editor, Images in Medicine and Essays. Review articles are usually invited. Articles should normally not exceed 3,000 words for original scientific paper. Brief communication has a ceiling of 2,000 ...

  11. Differences in the origin of philosophy between Chinese medicine and Western medicine: Exploration of the holistic advantages of Chinese medicine. (United States)

    Sun, Da-zhi; Li, Shao-dan; Liu, Yi; Zhang, Yin; Mei, Rong; Yang, Ming-hui


    To explore advantages of Chinese medicine (CM) by analyzing differences in the origin of philosophy for human health between CM and Western medicine (WM). Methodologically, a distinctive feature of CM is its systems theory, which is also the difference between CM and WM. Since the birth of CM, it has taken the human body as a whole from the key concepts of "qi, blood, yin-yang, viscera (Zang-Fu), and meridian and channel", rather than a single cell or a particular organ. WM evolves from the Western philosophic way of thinking and merely uses natural sciences as the foundation. The development of WM is based on human structures, or anatomy, and therefore, research of WM is also based on the way of thinking of decomposing the whole human body into several independent parts, which is the impetus of promoting the development of WM. The core of CM includes the holistic view and the dialectical view. Chinese herbal medicines contain various components and treat a disease from multiple targets and links. Therefore, Chinese herbal medicines treat a diseased state by regulating and mobilizing the whole body rather than just regulating a single factor, since the diseased state is not only a problem in a local part of the body but a local reflection of imbalance of the whole body.

  12. Precision respiratory medicine and the microbiome. (United States)

    Rogers, Geraint B; Wesselingh, Steve


    A decade of rapid technological advances has provided an exciting opportunity to incorporate information relating to a range of potentially important disease determinants in the clinical decision-making process. Access to highly detailed data will enable respiratory medicine to evolve from one-size-fits-all models of care, which are associated with variable clinical effectiveness and high rates of side-effects, to precision approaches, where treatment is tailored to individual patients. The human microbiome has increasingly been recognised as playing an important part in determining disease course and response to treatment. Its inclusion in precision models of respiratory medicine, therefore, is essential. Analysis of the microbiome provides an opportunity to develop novel prognostic markers for airways disease, improve definition of clinical phenotypes, develop additional guidance to aid treatment selection, and increase the accuracy of indicators of treatment effect. In this Review we propose that collaboration between researchers and clinicians is needed if respiratory medicine is to replicate the successes of precision medicine seen in other clinical specialties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A review on the elemental contents of Pakistani medicinal plants: Implications for folk medicines. (United States)

    Aziz, Muhammad Abdul; Adnan, Muhammad; Begum, Shaheen; Azizullah, Azizullah; Nazir, Ruqia; Iram, Shazia


    Substantially, plants produce chemicals such as primary and secondary metabolites, which have significant applications in modern therapy. Indigenous people mostly rely on traditional medicines derived from medicinal plants. These plants have the capacity to absorb a variety of toxic elements. The ingestion of such plants for medicinal purpose can have imperative side effects. Hence, with regard to the toxicological consideration of medicinal plants, an effort has been made to review the elemental contents of ethno medicinally important plants of Pakistan and to highlight the existing gaps in knowledge of the safety and efficacy of traditional herbal medications. Literature related to the elemental contents of ethno medicinal plants was acquired by utilizing electronic databases. We reviewed only macro-elemental and trace elemental contents of 69 medicinal plant taxa, which are traditionally used in Pakistan for the treatment of sundry ailments, including anemia, jaundice, cancer, piles, diarrhea, dysentery, headache, diabetes, asthma, blood purification, sedative and ulcer. A majority of plants showed elemental contents above the permissible levels as recommended by the World health organization (WHO). As an example, the concentrations of Cadmium (Cd) and Lead (Pb) were reportedly found higher than the WHO permissible levels in 43 and 42 medicinal plants, respectively. More specifically, the concentrations of Pb (54ppm: Silybum marianum) and Cd (5.25ppm: Artemisia herba-alba) were found highest in the Asteraceae family. The reported medicinal plants contain a higher amount of trace and toxic elements. Intake of these plants as traditional medicines may trigger the accumulation of trace and toxic elements in human bodies, which can cause different types of diseases. Thus, a clear understanding about the nature of toxic substances and factors affecting their concentrations in traditional medicines are essential prerequisites for efficacious herbal therapeutics with

  14. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... computer, create pictures offering details on both the structure and function of organs and tissues in your ... substantially shorten the procedure time. The resolution of structures of the body with nuclear medicine may not ...

  15. [Hippocrates and the nineteenth-century French medicine]. (United States)

    Yeo, In-sok


    Hippocrates, the father of medicine, has been represented in many ways throughout the history of medicine. His influence on later medicine took different forms from one epoch to another. Hippocrates' medical doctrine was quite influential until Renaissance period, and with the arrival of modern medicine, the method or the spirit of Hippocrates had been valued more highly than his medical doctrine. Nineteenth century French medicine shows us how the influence of Hippocrates is still vivid even in the nineteenth century. Hippocrates, as the author of the Air, Water, Places, became the founder of environmental medicine with the flourishing of meteorological medicine. And in the hands of medical ideologies he also became a proclaimer of the ideology that stressed the correspondence between men, society and nature. Laennec represented Hippocrates as the true pioneer in Clinical Medicine to which he himself made a great contribution. These various images of Hippocrates show us the universal nature of his medicine.

  16. Computer Security: The Human Element. (United States)

    Guynes, Carl S.; Vanacek, Michael T.


    The security and effectiveness of a computer system are dependent on the personnel involved. Improved personnel and organizational procedures can significantly reduce the potential for computer fraud. (Author/MLF)

  17. The Future of Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamaroa SIclovan


    Full Text Available Cloud computing was and it will be a new way of providing Internet services and computers. This calculation approach is based on many existing services, such as the Internet, grid computing, Web services. Cloud computing as a system aims to provide on demand services more acceptable as price and infrastructure. It is exactly the transition from computer to a service offeredto the consumers as a product delivered online. This represents an advantage for the organization both regarding the cost and the opportunity for the new business. This paper presents the future perspectives in cloud computing. The paper presents some issues of the cloud computing paradigm. It is a theoretical paper.Keywords: Cloud Computing, Pay-per-use


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The present article, signed by one prominent Romanian scholar specialized in oral and maxillo-facial surgery, evaluates the main reference points (benchmarks of themedicine for healthy people” – as an alternative medicine set in contrast with conventional medicine. The medicine for healthy people is a more recent approach to medicine, which emphasizes health habits that prevent disease, including eating a healthier diet, getting adequate exercise, and insuring a safe environment. In this respect, there is a special connection between medicine and society as far as social life has an impact on morbidity and mortality rate, and vice versa. Medicine is indisputably an extremely complex science, but it is, also, an “art” of healing. The quality of medical performance depends upon the scientific and human quality of the practitioner. Technology is only secondary. The very large quantity of graduates of medical studies is surely at the expense of the quality of the art of healing (a clear sign that we stray from this desiderate. Sociological studies regarding the evolution of the human being prove undoubtedly that we are in obvious regression. What is the cause? Man as a self-destructing being! The solution? The return to nature and to themedicine for healthy people”. The conditions needed to meet this goal are disclosed throughout the present paper

  19. [A century of the The German Society of Forensic Medicine or Legal Medicine]. (United States)

    Pollak, Stefan


    On 20 September 1904 the Section of Forensic Medicine of the former Society of German Natural Scientists and Physicians decided in Breslau to found an independent "German Society of Forensic Medicine". The constituent assembly was held in Meran on 25 September 1905, with Fritz Strassmann from Berlin being elected as the first president. According to section 1 of the first statutes the object of the association was to "offer a platform for joint scientific work". Later the name of the association was changed several times; the last change (to "German Society of Legal Medicine") was made in 1968. The close relationship between legal medicine and criminalistics is demonstrated on the background of the historical development.

  20. Paper-Based and Computer-Based Concept Mappings: The Effects on Computer Achievement, Computer Anxiety and Computer Attitude (United States)

    Erdogan, Yavuz


    The purpose of this paper is to compare the effects of paper-based and computer-based concept mappings on computer hardware achievement, computer anxiety and computer attitude of the eight grade secondary school students. The students were randomly allocated to three groups and were given instruction on computer hardware. The teaching methods used…

  1. Small Bowel Imaging: Computed Tomography Enterography, Magnetic Resonance Enterography, Angiography, and Nuclear Medicine. (United States)

    Fidler, Jeff L; Goenka, Ajit H; Fleming, Chad J; Andrews, James C


    Radiology examinations play a major role in the diagnosis, management, and surveillance of small bowel diseases and are complementary to endoscopic techniques. Computed tomography enterography and magnetic resonance enterography are the cross-sectional imaging studies of choice for many small bowel diseases. Angiography still plays an important role for catheter-directed therapies. With the emergence of hybrid imaging techniques, radionuclide imaging has shown promise for the evaluation of small bowel bleeding and Crohn disease and may play a larger role in the future. This article reviews recent advances in technology, diagnosis, and therapeutic options for selected small bowel disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Undergraduate Courses in Family Medicine in the UK, Ireland, the Netherlands and the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan-Helge


    Almen medicin, Family Medicine, undergraduate Courses, the UK, Ireland, the Netherlands, the Nordic Countries......Almen medicin, Family Medicine, undergraduate Courses, the UK, Ireland, the Netherlands, the Nordic Countries...

  3. The "torpedo" effect in medicine. (United States)

    Tsoucalas, Gregory; Karamanou, Marianna; Lymperi, Maria; Gennimata, Vassiliki; Androutsos, George


    The natural electrical phenomena fascinated humans since antiquity. The electrical discharges produced by the torpedo fish were highly appreciated among ancient physicians as Hippocrates, Scribonius Largus and Galen and were prescribed for headache, gout and prolapsed anus. In the medieval period, torpedo's electrical properties were attributed to occult powers, while Renaissance physicians' and scientists' studied the anatomy and mechanical nature of the provoked shock paving the way for the discovery of the electrical nature of torpedo's activity and the evolution of electrotherapy.

  4. The Student-Teacher-Computer Team: Focus on the Computer. (United States)

    Ontario Inst. for Studies in Education, Toronto.

    Descriptions of essential computer elements, logic and programing techniques, and computer applications are provided in an introductory handbook for use by educators and students. Following a brief historical perspective, the organization of a computer system is schematically illustrated, functions of components are explained in non-technical…

  5. Computational screening and design of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to block phosphodiesterase-5. (United States)

    Chen, Calvin Yu-Chian


    The traditional Chinese medicines (TCM), Epimedium sagittatum (ESs), Cnidium monnieri (CMs), and Semen cuscutae (SCs), were used for treating erectile dysfunction since the ancient Han dynasty (202 BC-AD 220). Phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) is deemed the target protein for inhibition to treat erectile dysfunction. In this study, a reliable multiple linear regression (MLR) model (r value=0.8484) was used to predict the activities of new candidates which were designed from ES, CM, and SC. From docking and pharmacophore analysis, the potent candidates among ES, CM, and SC were screened. SC01, SC03, and ES03b were predicted to have high potencies based on MLR analysis and high docking scores. Additionally, from our analysis, we make the follow conclusion (1) Hydrophobic compounds tend to be more potent PDE-5 inhibitors; (2) Because of the big binding site, inhibitors with molecular weights over 500 remain potent; (3) From the pharmacophore analysis, the features of hydrogen bond acceptors are the basis for designing novel inhibitors of PDE-5 and (4) According to MLR analysis, the number of ring groups could be up to 6, but the number of aromatic rings was limited to 4 to be potent. This study offers an alternative way to screen PDE-5 inhibitors from TCM and provides a scientific basis for confirming pharmacological actions of TCM.

  6. The Jewish contribution to medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    evolution of hospitals Jews established their own in the major cities of Europe. The first American Jewish hospital is a prestigious instimtion today -- the Mount .... is the outcome of two great movements of the mind of man, who is ruled in heart and head by Israel and Greece. From the one he has leamed responsibility to a ...

  7. Essential medicines are more available than other medicines around the globe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taghipour Bazargani, Y.; Ewen, Margaret; de Boer, Anthonius; Leufkens, Hubert G M; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K


    BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) promotes the development of national Essential Medicines Lists (EMLs) in order to improve the availability and use of medicines considered essential within health care systems. However, despite over 3 decades of international efforts, studies show an

  8. Computing the continuous discretely

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, Matthias


    This richly illustrated textbook explores the amazing interaction between combinatorics, geometry, number theory, and analysis which arises in the interplay between polyhedra and lattices. Highly accessible to advanced undergraduates, as well as beginning graduate students, this second edition is perfect for a capstone course, and adds two new chapters, many new exercises, and updated open problems. For scientists, this text can be utilized as a self-contained tooling device. The topics include a friendly invitation to Ehrhart’s theory of counting lattice points in polytopes, finite Fourier analysis, the Frobenius coin-exchange problem, Dedekind sums, solid angles, Euler–Maclaurin summation for polytopes, computational geometry, magic squares, zonotopes, and more. With more than 300 exercises and open research problems, the reader is an active participant, carried through diverse but tightly woven mathematical fields that are inspired by an innocently elementary question: What are the relationships betwee...

  9. The Promise of Personalized Medicine (United States)

    ... I'm not a mathematician, yet I use mathematics. Every piece of work I've done has ... it has been this constant intermarriage of the physical and biological sciences in which the whole is greater than the ...

  10. [How to Teach Kampo Medicine in the Age of Internationalization?]. (United States)

    Makino, Toshiaki


    Given the universal prevalence of complementary and alternative medicines, as well as integrative medicine, the usage of traditional medicine has been gaining in popularity worldwide. Japanese Kampo medicine and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) are both derived from ancient medicines used in East Asia in the 5th-7th centuries, and have developed independently since the 14th century. Now Kampo medicine and TCM have different theories for the diagnosis and use of crude drugs. Unfortunately, Kampo medicine is not well known in Europe and the Americas; as a matter of practice, TCM is the international standard for traditional medicines derived from ancient East Asia. In the teaching of Kampo medicines to undergraduate students in a school of pharmacy, the author considers that a minimum requirement is to explain the differences between TCM and Kampo medicine. For graduate students of pharmaceutical science, the students must know the distinct medical theories of both TCM and Kampo medicine, and furthermore, must be able to read and write articles in English about traditional medicines, in order to help put Kampo medicine on the world map.

  11. The internal medicine specialist and neurosurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pizzini


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The neurosurgical patient is often a real challenge for the physicians, because of a frequent multimorbidity and a higher risk for severe complications. Cooperation between internal medicine specialist and neurosurgeon is essential to prevent the fatal effects of cranial and spinal injuries. The topic issues of medical interest in neurosurgery are the disorders of sodium balance, the glycemic control, the thromboembolic risk, the intracerebral bleeding management and the infective problems. The neurosurgeons could be worried by treating these complications that are mostly of internal medicine interest and that could unfortunately rise the risk of death or irreversible insults. AIM OF THE REVIEW This review summarizes the modality of diagnosis and therapy of the foremost concerns in neurosurgical field.

  12. The Basics of Cloud Computing (United States)

    Kaestner, Rich


    Most school business officials have heard the term "cloud computing" bandied about and may have some idea of what the term means. In fact, they likely already leverage a cloud-computing solution somewhere within their district. But what does cloud computing really mean? This brief article puts a bit of definition behind the term and helps one…

  13. The Society for Translational Medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Shugeng; Zhang, Zhongheng; Brunelli, Alessandro


    Patients undergoing lobectomy are at significantly increased risk of lung injury. One-lung ventilation is the most commonly used technique to maintain ventilation and oxygenation during the operation. It is a challenge to choose an appropriate mechanical ventilation strategy to minimize the lung ...

  14. Emergency medicine: beyond the basics. (United States)

    Malamed, S F


    Medical emergencies can arise in the dental office. Preparedness for these emergencies is predicated on an ability to rapidly recognize a problem and to effectively institute prompt and proper management. In all emergency situations, management is based on implementation of basic life support, as needed. The author describes the appropriate management of two common emergency situations: allergy and chest pain.

  15. Oral medicine and the elderly.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCreary, Christine


    A focus often exists in dental practice on the maintenance and management of the dentition and the periodontium, however, conditions of the oral mucosa and orofacial pain can cause significant problems for older patients. Oral mucosal conditions are more prevalent in older patients and many orofacial pain disorders, such as burning mouth syndrome and trigeminal neuralgia, are more common in patients over the age of 50 years. Although these conditions may not be routinely managed in general practice, identification of these patients in primary care and appropriate referral will lead to more prompt and effective treatment. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Dental practitioners need to be able to identify what is considered to be within the normal physiological limits of the ageing oral tissue and hence what is abnormal and requires further investigation to facilitate appropriate referral.

  16. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... molecular information. In many centers, nuclear medicine images can be superimposed with computed tomography (CT) or magnetic ... small hand-held device resembling a microphone that can detect and measure the amount of the radiotracer ...

  17. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... small amount of energy in the form of gamma rays. Special cameras detect this energy, and with ... imaging techniques used in nuclear medicine include the gamma camera and single-photon emission-computed tomography (SPECT). ...

  18. [Factors related to the choice of clinic between Chinese traditional medicine and Western medicine]. (United States)

    Kang, J T; Lee, C F; Chen, C F; Chou, P


    The study applied Andersen's health-service utilization model to analyze the basic demographic, enabling and need factors related to the choice of traditional Chinese medicine clinic or modern Western medicine clinic by single-method-treatment (i.e. traditional Chinese medicine or modern Western medicine only) patients. During the period from August 1989 to October 1989, systemic sampling was done and a structured questionnaire survey was carried out among patients from the Out-patient Departments of 13 teaching hospitals accepting reimbursement by Labor Medical Insurance in Taiwan. The total number of valid respondents was 579: 378 (65.3%) were visiting modern Western medicine clinics and 201 (34.7%), traditional Chinese medicine clinics. There were 339 (58.6%) males and 240 (41.4%) females, aged from 15 to 85 years old, with a mean of 40.7 years. Under univariate analysis, the significant variables (p religion, career, and two kinds of disorders. Folk-religion believers, farmers and businessmen favored traditional Chinese medicine; and patients who suffered from musculoskeletal, sense organs or skin disorders were also likely to visit traditional Chinese medicine clinics.

  19. A mathematics for medicine: The Network Effect


    West, Bruce J.


    The theory of medicine and its complement systems biology are intended to explain the workings of the large number of mutually interdependent complex physiologic networks in the human body and to apply that understanding to maintaining the functions for which nature designed them. Therefore, when what had originally been made as a simplifying assumption or a working hypothesis becomes foundational to understanding the operation of physiologic networks it is in the best interests of science to...

  20. Pain, madness and the limits of medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Baumann


    Full Text Available The problem of pain poses questions pertaining to some of the assumptions that underpin modern medicine, including the conceptualisation and treatment of psychiatric disorders. Problematic issues, such as subjectivity and meaning, seem particularly critical in the domains of pain and madness, but have relevance in the broader ranges of medicine. Of central concern is the relation such issues bear to notions of scientific practice. The subjective experience of illness and the meanings attached to it need to be accounted for, and cannot be considered to lie beyond the scope of scientific thinking, as not being measurable or objectively verifiable: yet attempts to incorporate these intrinsic dimensions remain elusive, and shape some of the shifting limitations of the various definitions of what might be considered to be a scientific perspective.

  1. Preliminary comparative analysis of medicinal plants used in the traditional medicine of Bulgaria and Italy. (United States)

    Leporatti, Maria Lucia; Ivancheva, Stephanie


    Despite their geographical, historical and cultural differences, Bulgaria and Italy share a surprisingly similar patrimony as regards the popular uses of medicinal plants. The extensive knowledge acquired over the centuries by people living in these countries and engaged in agriculture, derives from continuous contact with natural resources. This paper compares approximately 250 medicinal plants present in both countries and used in popular medicine. From this comparison it emerges that knowledge of medicinal plants and their uses are well founded. In fact, more than 80% of the plants are employed in identical or similar kinds of ailments, their preparation also showing marked similarities. The remaining 20% have very different uses, several of these being particularly noteworthy. The role played by edible plants, moreover, is important, about 30% being employed as medicine.

  2. The contribution of epidemiology to psychosomatic medicine. (United States)

    Lobo, A; Campos, R


    To discuss the contribution of epidemiology and epidemiological methods to psychosomatic medicine. Critical review of the literature, including both philosophical concepts and empirical data. The adjective "psychosomatic" has been used in two different ways: in the so called "psychosomatic" or holistic approach to medicine; and in a narrower approach, referring to particular disorders in which psychological factors were considered to have a fundamental aetiological role. While the ideal of the holistic, "humanistic" or "anthropological" approach should probably be never abandoned, the practical limitations of encompassing models, including Engel's bio-psycho-social model are also obvious: they may be heuristically sterile. On the other side, in relation to the narrow psychosomatic approach, psychogenetic views in the so called "psychosomatic illnesses" have been strongly criticized on empirical grounds. The potential of epidemiological methods to study these illnesses, but also "somatopsychic" disorders is shown in a number of papers in the empirical literature. We have grouped such contributions, including our own experience, in the five categories suggested by M. Shephered for epidemiological methods in general: 1) the completion of the spectrum of disease; 2) the establishment of outcome; 3) the actuarial assessment of morbid risk; 4) the evaluation of the efficacy of treatment; and 5) the conceptual construction of diagnosis and classification. The contribution of epidemiological data to areas of interest in psychosomatic medicine has been relevant in recent years. The potential of epidemiological methods in this area is very important both to increase knowledge and to improve the quality of clinical practice.

  3. Medicinal plants in the treatment of cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad M. Zlatić


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present a review of highly developed medicinal usages of plants in the treatment of cancer. In the last decades, the cancer treatment has been included in this range of plant use, due to plant active substances. Active substances or secondary metabolites are generally known for their widespread application. When it comes to the cancer treatment, these substances affect the uncontrolled cell division. Therefore, the plants which are the source of these substances are proved to be irreplaceable in this field of medicine. This paper deals with some of the most significant plants well known for their multiple aspects of beneficial medicinal influence. The group of the plants described is comprised of the following species: Taxus brevifolia (Taxaceae, Catharanthus roseus (Apocynaceae, Podophyllum peltatum (Berberidaceae, Camptotheca accuminata (Cornaceae, and Cephalotaxus harringtonia (Cephalotaxaceae. The comprehensive description of the plants in this paper includes the morphological characteristics, the features and the representation of the molecular structures of active substances, the particular influence that these active substances have and the general importance of the substances as seen from the aspect of cancer treatment mostly with reference to the impacts on cell cycle.

  4. [Folklore and popular medicine in the Amazon]. (United States)

    Henrique, Márcio Couto


    This discussion of the relations between folklore and popular medicine in the Amazon takes Canuto Azevedo's story "Filhos do boto" (Children of the porpoise) as an analytical reference point. Replete with elements of cultural reality, folk tales can serve as historical testimonies expressing clashes between different traditions. Folk records are fruit of what is often a quarrelsome dialogue between folklorists, social scientists, physicians, and pajés and their followers, and their analysis should take into account the conditions under which they were produced. Based on the imaginary attached to the figure of the porpoise--a seductive creature with healing powers--the article explores how we might expand knowledge of popular medicine as practiced in the Amazon, where the shamanistic rite known as pajelança cabocla has a strong presence.

  5. Racism in Medicine: Shifting the Power. (United States)

    Olayiwola, J Nwando


    Medicine has historically been a field where the provider of the service (physician, nurse) has a significant amount of power as compared with the recipient of the service (the patient). For the most part, this power is relatively consistent, and the power dynamic is rarely disrupted. In this essay, I share a personal experience in which a racist rant by a patient seemingly reverses the power dynamic. As the physician, I faced the realization that I may not have as much power as I believed, but fortunately I had some tools that allowed for my resilience. It is my hope that this paper will strengthen other family physicians and professional minorities that are victims of racism, discrimination, and prejudice for their race, sex, ability, sexual orientation, religion, and other axes of discrimination. © 2016 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  6. Laboratory medicine in the European Union. (United States)

    Oosterhuis, Wytze P; Zerah, Simone


    The profession of laboratory medicine differs between countries within the European Union (EU) in many respects. The objective of professional organizations of the promotion of mutual recognition of specialists within the EU is closely related to the free movement of people. This policy translates to equivalence of standards and harmonization of the training curriculum. The aim of the present study is the description of the organization and practice of laboratory medicine within the countries that constitute the EU. A questionnaire covering many aspects of the profession was sent to delegates of the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM) and Union Européenne de Médecins Spécialistes (UEMS) of the 28 EU countries. Results were sent to the delegates for confirmation. Many differences between countries were identified: predominantly medical or scientific professionals; a broad or limited professional field of interest; inclusion of patient treatment; formal or absent recognition; a regulated or absent formal training program; general or minor application of a quality system based on ISO Norms. The harmonization of the postgraduate training of both clinical chemists and of laboratory physicians has been a goal for many years. Differences in the organization of the laboratory professions still exist in the respective countries which all have a long historical development with their own rationality. It is an important challenge to harmonize our profession, and difficult choices will need to be made. Recent developments with respect to the directive on Recognition of Professional Qualifications call for new initiatives to harmonize laboratory medicine both across national borders, and across the borders of scientific and medical professions.

  7. The Prohibition of Medicinal Claims: Food in Fact But Medicinal Product in Law?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremmers, H.J.; Meulen, van der B.M.J.; Waarts, Y.R.


    Under EU medicinal law, any substance or combination of substances presented as having properties for treating or preventing disease in human beings is a medicinal product by virtue of its presentation. Under EU food law it is prohibited to attribute to any food the property of preventing, treating

  8. Teaching Humanities in Medicine: The University of Massachusetts Family Medicine Residency Program Experience (United States)

    Silk, Hugh; Shields, Sara


    Humanities in medicine (HIM) is an important aspect of medical education intended to help preserve humanism and a focus on patients. At the University of Massachusetts Family Medicine Residency Program, we have been expanding our HIM curriculum for our residents including orientation, home visit reflective writing, didactics and a department-wide…

  9. Ethics and the law in emergency medicine. (United States)

    Derse, Arthur R


    When ethical issues arise in emergency medical practice, many emergency physicians turn to the law for answers. Although knowing when and how the law applies to emergency medicine is important, the law is only one factor to consider among many factors. Additionally, the law may not be applicable or may not be clear, or the ethical considerations may seem to conflict with legal aspects of emergency medical treatment. Situations where ethics and the law may seem to be in conflict in emergency medicine are described and analyzed in this article, and recommendations are offered. In general, when facing ethical dilemmas in emergency medical practice, the emergency physician should take into account the ethical considerations before turning to the legal considerations.

  10. The pharmaceutical industry as a medicines provider. (United States)

    Henry, David; Lexchin, Joel


    Rising prices of medicines are putting them beyond the reach of many people, even in rich countries. In less-developed countries, millions of individuals do not have access to essential drugs. Drug development is failing to address the major health needs of these countries. The prices of patented medicines usually far exceed the marginal costs of their production; the industry maintains that high prices and patent protection are necessary to compensate for high development costs of innovative products. There is controversy over these claims. Concerns about the harmful effects of the international system of intellectual property rights have led the World Trade Organization to relax the demands placed on least developed countries, and to advocate differential pricing of essential drugs. How these actions will help countries that lack domestic production capacity is unclear. Better access to essential drugs may be achieved through voluntary licensing arrangements between international pharmaceutical companies and manufacturers in developing countries.

  11. Advertisement for the ontology for medicine. (United States)

    Simon, Jeremy R


    The ontology of medicine--the question of whether disease entities are real or not--is an underdeveloped area of philosophical inquiry. This essay explains the primary question at issue in medical ontology, discusses why answering this question is important from both a philosophical and a practical perspective, and argues that the problem of medical ontology is unique, i.e., distinct, from the ontological problems raised by other sciences and therefore requires its own analysis.

  12. The Therapeutic Potential of Medicinal Foods


    Nelvana Ramalingum; M. Fawzi Mahomoodally


    Pharmaceutical and nutritional sciences have recently witnessed a bloom in the scientific literature geared towards the use of food plants for their diversified health benefits and potential clinical applications. Health professionals now recognize that a synergism of drug therapy and nutrition might confer optimum outcomes in the fight against diseases. The prophylactic benefits of food plants are being investigated for potential use as novel medicinal remedies due to the presence of pharmac...

  13. The fate of idealism in modern medicine. (United States)

    Manson, Aaron


    William Osler's description of the ideal physician remains the dominant character-ideal for modern physicians. He believed that the personality traits that resulted from a belief in ascetic Protestantism, what has been called the Puritan temper, were essential in the practice of medicine. However, this idealism has been weakened by modern psychological theories which view idealism as an illness. In a culture oriented to health, rather than virtue, as an ultimate ideal, physicians can help develop a science of limits.

  14. [Quantitative structure characteristics and fractal dimension of Chinese medicine granules measured by synchrotron radiation X-ray computed micro tomography]. (United States)

    Lu, Xiao-long; Zheng, Qin; Yin, Xian-zhen; Xiao, Guang-qing; Liao, Zu-hua; Yang, Ming; Zhang, Ji-wen


    The shape and structure of granules are controlled by the granulation process, which is one of the main factors to determine the nature of the solid dosage forms. In this article, three kinds of granules of a traditional Chinese medicine for improving appetite and promoting digestion, namely, Jianwei Granules, were prepared using granulation technologies as pendular granulation, high speed stirring granulation, and fluidized bed granulation and the powder properties of them were investigated. Meanwhile, synchrotron radiation X-ray computed micro tomography (SR-µCT) was applied to quantitatively determine the irregular internal structures of the granules. The three-dimensional (3D) structure models were obtained by 3D reconstruction, which were more accurately to characterize the three-dimensional structures of the particles through the quantitative data. The models were also used to quantitatively compare the structural differences of granules prepared by different granulation processes with the same formula, so as to characterize how the production process plays a role in the pharmaceutical behaviors of the granules. To focus on the irregularity of the particle structure, the box counting method was used to calculate the fractal dimensions of the granules. The results showed that the fractal dimension is more sensitive to reflect the minor differences in the structure features than the conventional parameters, and capable to specifically distinct granules in structure. It is proved that the fractal dimension could quantitatively characterize the structural information of irregular granules. It is the first time suggested by our research that the fractal dimension difference (Df,c) between two fractal dimension parameters, namely, the volume matrix fractal dimension and the surface matrix fractal dimension, is a new index to characterize granules with irregular structures and evaluate the effects of production processes on the structures of granules as a new

  15. Personomics: The Missing Link in the Evolution from Precision Medicine to Personalized Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy C. Ziegelstein


    Full Text Available Clinical practice guidelines have been developed for many common conditions based on data from randomized controlled trials. When medicine is informed solely by clinical practice guidelines, however, the patient is not treated as an individual, but rather a member of a group. Precision medicine, as defined herein, characterizes unique biological characteristics of the individual or of specimens obtained from an individual to tailor diagnostics and therapeutics to a specific patient. These unique biological characteristics are defined by the tools of precision medicine: genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, epigenomics, pharmacogenomics, and other “-omics.” Personalized medicine, as defined herein, uses additional information about the individual derived from knowing the patient as a person. These unique personal characteristics are defined by tools known as personomics which takes into account an individual’s personality, preferences, values, goals, health beliefs, social support network, financial resources, and unique life circumstances that affect how and when a given health condition will manifest in that person and how that condition will respond to treatment. In this paradigm, precision medicine may be considered a necessary step in the evolution of medical care to personalized medicine, with personomics as the missing link.

  16. Personomics: The Missing Link in the Evolution from Precision Medicine to Personalized Medicine. (United States)

    Ziegelstein, Roy C


    Clinical practice guidelines have been developed for many common conditions based on data from randomized controlled trials. When medicine is informed solely by clinical practice guidelines, however, the patient is not treated as an individual, but rather a member of a group. Precision medicine, as defined herein, characterizes unique biological characteristics of the individual or of specimens obtained from an individual to tailor diagnostics and therapeutics to a specific patient. These unique biological characteristics are defined by the tools of precision medicine: genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, epigenomics, pharmacogenomics, and other "-omics." Personalized medicine, as defined herein, uses additional information about the individual derived from knowing the patient as a person. These unique personal characteristics are defined by tools known as personomics which takes into account an individual's personality, preferences, values, goals, health beliefs, social support network, financial resources, and unique life circumstances that affect how and when a given health condition will manifest in that person and how that condition will respond to treatment. In this paradigm, precision medicine may be considered a necessary step in the evolution of medical care to personalized medicine, with personomics as the missing link.

  17. The Need for Computer Science (United States)

    Margolis, Jane; Goode, Joanna; Bernier, David


    Broadening computer science learning to include more students is a crucial item on the United States' education agenda, these authors say. Although policymakers advocate more computer science expertise, computer science offerings in high schools are few--and actually shrinking. In addition, poorly resourced schools with a high percentage of…

  18. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts of radioactive materials called radiotracers, a special camera and a computer ... medical imaging that uses small amounts of radioactive material to diagnose and determine the severity of or ...

  19. Responding to the Pandemic of Falsified Medicines (United States)

    Nayyar, Gaurvika M. L.; Attaran, Amir; Clark, John P.; Culzoni, M. Julia; Fernandez, Facundo M.; Herrington, James E.; Kendall, Megan; Newton, Paul N.; Breman, Joel G.


    Over the past decade, the number of countries reporting falsified (fake, spurious/falsely labeled/counterfeit) medicines and the types and quantities of fraudulent drugs being distributed have increased greatly. The obstacles in combating falsified pharmaceuticals include 1) lack of consensus on definitions, 2) paucity of reliable and scalable technology to detect fakes before they reach patients, 3) poor global and national leadership and accountability systems for combating this scourge, and 4) deficient manufacturing and regulatory challenges, especially in China and India where fake products often originate. The major needs to improve the quality of the world's medicines fall into three main areas: 1) research to develop and compare accurate and affordable tools to identify high-quality drugs at all levels of distribution; 2) an international convention and national legislation to facilitate production and utilization of high-quality drugs and protect all countries from the criminal and the negligent who make, distribute, and sell life-threatening products; and 3) a highly qualified, well-supported international science and public health organization that will establish standards, drug-quality surveillance, and training programs like the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Such leadership would give authoritative guidance for countries in cooperation with national medical regulatory agencies, pharmaceutical companies, and international agencies, all of which have an urgent interest and investment in ensuring that patients throughout the world have access to good quality medicines. The organization would also advocate strongly for including targets for achieving good quality medicines in the United Nations Millennium Development Goals and Sustainable Development Goals. PMID:25897060

  20. The practical computer in design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuman, J.; Ward, G.


    Electronic information processing is becoming a necessity in today's complex design environment, but what is an appropriate role for the computer in the design process Computation should be applied throughout all design phases, but practicing designers today rarely use computers beyond simple word processing and drafting tasks. While many design tasks are poorly matched to the computer, other pragmatic and productive avenues remain unexploited. We discuss the need to recognize which elements of the design process are most suited to computer assistance. The authors define a role for the computer as an objective assistant to the designer, and discuss practical approaches in two application areas for computers in design: design simulation and resource information management.

  1. [The future of psychotherapy in psychosomatic medicine]. (United States)

    Beutel, Manfred E; Kruse, Johannes; Michal, Matthias; Herzog, Wolfgang


    To review the current perspectives and trends of psychotherapy as a key area of psychosomatic medicine with regard to both societal and scientific challenges as well as patient health care services. Also, to draw conclusions regarding the future training and practice of psychosomatic medicine and psychotherapy. Psychotherapy is confronted with many new challenges because of the high prevalence of mental and psychosomatic disorders, because of their increasing recognition as major health problems and because of the rapid technological and demographic changes going on in modern society. Despite its growth, psychotherapeutic care is still limited in many, especially rural, regions and for patients with complex psychosomatic and somatopsychic disorders. New models of training as well as integrated and multimodal care are needed in order to provide both, rapid, low-threshold and specialized, disorder-specific care.

  2. [Penitentiary medicine and the Rights of Man]. (United States)

    Troisier, S


    Penitentiary medicine combines preventive medicine and treatment which are for the most part carried out in renovated structures. Other than the usual illnesses, these services and their personal are confronted with specific pathologies due to stress, tobacco consumption, insomnia, inactivity, distress, but also hunger strikes and self-mutilation. One particular concern is AIDS and its formidable complications, notably tuberculosis. The important role played by psychiatry and psychotherapeutic support in penitentiary medicine cannot be emphasized enough. Not only are many of the inmates alcoholics or drugs users, many of them are also starved for communication. The Ahens statement (1987), a true codicil of Human Rights, developed by the International Council of Penitentiary Medical Services, formally prohibits doctors to practice any form of torture or experimental medical operations on inmates, and puts medical priority above and beyond any administrative or judiciary considerations. This message is applicable to all prisons, regardless of countries: Europe, the Americas, Africa, Pacific or other. As President of the Council, we have distributed this message throughout the world, to all the various United Nations Agencies, thus teaching Human Rights, including prisoners' rights, in a concrete fashion.

  3. The management of pneumonia in internal medicine. (United States)

    Bouza, E; Giannella, M; Pinilla, B; Pujol, R; Capdevila, J A; Muñoz, P


    Pneumonia generates a high workload for internal medicine departments. Management of this disease is challenging, because patients are usually elderly and have multiple comorbid conditions. Furthermore, the interpretation and adherence to guidelines are far from clear in this setting. We report the opinion of 43 internists especially interested in infectious diseases that were questioned at the 2011 XXXII National Conference of Spanish Society of Internal Medicine about the main issues involved in the management of pneumonia in the internal medicine departments, namely, classification, admission criteria, microbiological workup, therapeutic management, discharge policy, and prevention of future episodes. Participants were asked to choose between 2 options for each statement by 4 investigators. Consensus could not be reached in many cases. The most controversial issues concerned recognition and management of healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP). Most participants were aware of the differences in terms of underlying diseases, etiological distribution, and outcome of HCAP compared with community-acquired pneumonia, but only a minority agreed to manage HCAP as hospital-acquired pneumonia, as suggested by some guidelines. A clinical patient-to-patient approach proved to be the option preferred by internists in the management of HCAP. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  4. Food or medicine? The food-medicine interface in households in Sylhet. (United States)

    Jennings, Hannah Maria; Merrell, Joy; Thompson, Janice L; Heinrich, Michael


    Bangladesh has a rich traditional plant-medicine use, drawing on Ayurveda and Unami medicine. How these practices translate into people׳s homes and lives vary. Furthermore, the overlap between food and medicine is blurred and context-specific. This paper explores the food-medicine interface as experienced by Bengali women in their homes, in the context of transnational and generational changes. The aim is to explore the overlap of food and medicines in homes of Bengali women in Sylhet. The objectives are to explore the influences on medicinal plant practice and to scrutinise how catagories of food and medicine are decided. The paper draws on in-depth ethnographic research conducted in Sylhet, North-east Bangladesh as part of a wider project looking at food and medicine use among Bengali women in both the UK and Bangladesh. Methods included participant observation, unstructured interviews and semi-structured interviews with a total of thirty women. The study indicates that the use of plants as food and medicine is common among Bengali women in Sylhet. What is consumed as a food and/or a medicine varies between individuals, generations and families. The use and perceptions of food-medicines is also dependent on multiple factors such as age, education and availability of both plants and biomedicine. Where a plant may fall on the food-medicine spectrum depends on a range of factors including its purpose, consistency and taste. Previous academic research has concentrated on the nutritional and pharmacological properties of culturally constructed food-medicines (Etkin and Ross, 1982; Owen and Johns, 2002, Pieroni and Quave, 2006). However, our findings indicate a contextualisation of the food-plant spectrum based on both local beliefs and wider structural factors, and thus not necessarily characteristics intrinsic to the products׳ pharmacological or nutritional properties. The implications of this research are of both academic relevance and practical importance to

  5. Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in the United States (United States)

    ... X Y Z The Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in the United States Share: On This Page ... new findings on Americans' use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). The findings are from the 2007 National ...

  6. Holistic medicine or the humane doctor?


    Charlton, B. G.


    The holistic doctor is sometimes proposed as an ideal. However, holism involves an expansion of medical categories to encompass most of 'normal' life as well as sickness. The humane doctor is suggested as a better ideal. He or she is wise, compassionate and liberally educated; and knows that there is more to life than medicine-both for doctors and their patients. Humane practice is promoted by a broad and rigorous education but inhibited by excessive busyness and pressurized conditions of wor...

  7. History of medicine: the metamorphosis of scientific medicine in the ever-present past. (United States)

    Cruse, J M


    Hippocrates (460-370 BCE), the father of medicine, developed principles for medical diagnosis and treatment together with a code of ethics. When the first Ptolemy ruled Egypt, he created a great library of 700,000 rolls at Alexandria, which became a repository for the works of Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Hippocrates, and all the writings of the known world, but it was destroyed by a great fire. Galen of Pergamum (129-216), who lived 500 years after Hippocrates, was well educated and studied anatomy, surgery, drugs and Hippocratic medicine. His ideas influenced medical thinking for the next 1500 years. The Arabic physician Ibn Sina (Avicenna) wrote a great medical work entitled Canon of Medicine. After the Dark Ages (500 to 1050), academic medicine was reestablished in Europe, especially at Salerno, Bologna, Padua, Paris, Montpellier, and Oxford. The greatest medical disaster of the Middle Ages was the Black Death. Other diseases of note were leprosy, smallpox, tuberculosis, typhus, measles, diarrhea, meningitis, and colic. As interest in human dissection increased, the study of anatomy became popular. With development of the printing press, medical knowledge became more widely disseminated and technical advances in science flourished. Advances in medicine occurred in concert with developments in technology. These included the microscope, the stethoscope, anesthetic agents, discoveries in bacteriology, a carbolic acid spray to reduce infection during surgery, the clinical thermometer, blood transfusions, electrocardiography, X-rays, and the sphygmomanometer. Johns Hopkins University was established at the end of the 19th century to train scientifically knowledgeable physicians. The first faculty included Welch, Osler, Halstead, Kelly, Mall, and Abel. Graduates of the new school carried scientific medicine to universities throughout America. More medical advances have been made during the 20th century than in all the other centuries combined. Advances in medical

  8. Shadows behind the computers

    CERN Multimedia


    EGEE organized a shadowing day to spur female students to take up careers in the IT field. Eleven female staff from CERN’s IT Department were kept under close surveillance last week, shadowed by female students from the Collège du Léman International School as part of the Enabling Grids for E-sciencE project Gender Action Plan. The shadowing day was aimed at inspiring young women to think of careers in information technology, by passing on the message that careers in science are open to both men and women and can be rewarding and fun. The students were given a tour of the ATLAS physics experiment and the CERN Computer Centre, as well as the opportunity for one-to-one interaction with CERN IT staff. Traditionally, fewer women work in the IT sector; women currently represent 21% of EGEE staff. The shadowing day was held as part of the EGEE Gender Action Plan, reflecting a commitment to reducing this gender gap. Other initiatives in...

  9. The Applications of Genetic Algorithms in Medicine (United States)

    Ghaheri, Ali; Shoar, Saeed; Naderan, Mohammad; Hoseini, Sayed Shahabuddin


    A great wealth of information is hidden amid medical research data that in some cases cannot be easily analyzed, if at all, using classical statistical methods. Inspired by nature, metaheuristic algorithms have been developed to offer optimal or near-optimal solutions to complex data analysis and decision-making tasks in a reasonable time. Due to their powerful features, metaheuristic algorithms have frequently been used in other fields of sciences. In medicine, however, the use of these algorithms are not known by physicians who may well benefit by applying them to solve complex medical problems. Therefore, in this paper, we introduce the genetic algorithm and its applications in medicine. The use of the genetic algorithm has promising implications in various medical specialties including radiology, radiotherapy, oncology, pediatrics, cardiology, endocrinology, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, pulmonology, infectious diseases, orthopedics, rehabilitation medicine, neurology, pharmacotherapy, and health care management. This review introduces the applications of the genetic algorithm in disease screening, diagnosis, treatment planning, pharmacovigilance, prognosis, and health care management, and enables physicians to envision possible applications of this metaheuristic method in their medical career.] PMID:26676060

  10. The Applications of Genetic Algorithms in Medicine. (United States)

    Ghaheri, Ali; Shoar, Saeed; Naderan, Mohammad; Hoseini, Sayed Shahabuddin


    A great wealth of information is hidden amid medical research data that in some cases cannot be easily analyzed, if at all, using classical statistical methods. Inspired by nature, metaheuristic algorithms have been developed to offer optimal or near-optimal solutions to complex data analysis and decision-making tasks in a reasonable time. Due to their powerful features, metaheuristic algorithms have frequently been used in other fields of sciences. In medicine, however, the use of these algorithms are not known by physicians who may well benefit by applying them to solve complex medical problems. Therefore, in this paper, we introduce the genetic algorithm and its applications in medicine. The use of the genetic algorithm has promising implications in various medical specialties including radiology, radiotherapy, oncology, pediatrics, cardiology, endocrinology, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, pulmonology, infectious diseases, orthopedics, rehabilitation medicine, neurology, pharmacotherapy, and health care management. This review introduces the applications of the genetic algorithm in disease screening, diagnosis, treatment planning, pharmacovigilance, prognosis, and health care management, and enables physicians to envision possible applications of this metaheuristic method in their medical career.].

  11. Is laboratory medicine ready for the era of personalized medicine? A survey addressed to laboratory directors of hospitals/academic schools of medicine in Europe. (United States)

    Malentacchi, Francesca; Mancini, Irene; Brandslund, Ivan; Vermeersch, Pieter; Schwab, Matthias; Marc, Janja; van Schaik, Ron H N; Siest, Gerard; Theodorsson, Elvar; Pazzagli, Mario; Di Resta, Chiara


    Developments in "-omics" are creating a paradigm shift in laboratory medicine leading to personalized medicine. This allows the increase in diagnostics and therapeutics focused on individuals rather than populations. In order to investigate whether laboratory medicine is ready to play a key role in the integration of personalized medicine in routine health care and set the state-of-the-art knowledge about personalized medicine and laboratory medicine in Europe, a questionnaire was constructed under the auspices of the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM) and the European Society of Pharmacogenomics and Personalised Therapy (ESPT). The answers of the participating laboratory medicine professionals indicate that they are aware that personalized medicine can represent a new and promising health model, and that laboratory medicine should play a key role in supporting the implementation of personalized medicine in the clinical setting. Participants think that the current organization of laboratory medicine needs additional/relevant implementations such as (i) new technological facilities in -omics; (ii) additional training for the current personnel focused on the new methodologies; (iii) incorporation in the laboratory of new competencies in data interpretation and counseling; and (iv) cooperation and collaboration among professionals of different disciplines to integrate information according to a personalized medicine approach.

  12. Education in family medicine at the University of Mostar School of Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edita Černi Obrdalj


    Full Text Available Department of Family medicine has been formed in academic year2002/2003, few years later after the foundation of the School of Medicine University of Mostar. The formal members of department areprofessor and assistants who lecture and lead seminars. In addition,physicians in rural practices contribute to teaching of family medicine. Clinical teaching of family medicine at Mostar School of Medicine is organized in the summer semester of sixth year of the study. It lasts six weeks and contains lectures, seminars and practices. Every student has right and obligation to evaluate educational process at the end of the course in a form of questionnaire and essay. Family medicine continuously receives high marks by students, especially practices. Evaluation of teaching by students is good way of giving feedback about teaching. We believe that student opinion can revise and improve teaching practice. Our good experience and good marks may prompt the changing our educational curriculum to include family medicine at each study year of medical program.

  13. Chapter 5. Assessing the Aquatic Hazards of Veterinary Medicines (United States)

    In recent years, there has been increasing awareness of the widespread distribution of low concentrations of veterinary medicine products and other pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment. While aquatic hazard for a select group of veterinary medicines has received previous s...

  14. The place of avicenna in the history of medicine. (United States)

    Moosavi, Jamal


    Avicenna, a Muslim scientist of the tenth and eleventh centuries has an important place in the history of medicine in Iran and the world. Furthermore, the modern medicine is laid upon the infrastructure of his medicine. In this article, the position of Avicenna in the medical history and the scientific influence of his medical works in particular Al-Canon in the development of medical literature and medical educational programs have been studied in a historical approach. In reviewing the position of Avicenna in the history of medicine in the Islamic world and the Europe, it was concluded that during 11th to 17th centuries, the scientific and educational activities of medicine in the world were moving on the pivot of Avicenna medicine or was under its intensive influence.

  15. The Middle Ages Contributions to Cardiovascular Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Silva Ranhel

    Full Text Available Abstract The historical period called the Middle Ages, a long interval between the 5th and the 15th centuries, is still commonly known as the Dark Ages, especially in the area of health sciences. In the last decades, this "classic" view of the Middle Ages has been gradually modified with advances in historiographical studies and the history of science. During that period in Western Europe, knowledge about the human body suffered a regression in terms of anatomy and physiology, with the predominance of religious conceptions mainly about diseases and their treatments. Knowledge on the cardiovascular system and heart diseases has been classically described as a repetition of the concepts developed by Galen from the dissection of animals and his keen sense of observation. However, the Middle East, especially Persia, was the birth place of a lot of intellectuals who preserved the ancient knowledge of the Greeks while building new knowledge and practices, especially from the 8th to the 13th century. The invasion of the Arabs in North of Africa and the Iberian Peninsula and the eclosion of the Crusades resulted in a greater contact between the East and the West, which in turn brought on the arrival of the Arab medical knowledge, among others, to 12th century Europe. Such fact contributed to an extremely important change in the scientific medical knowledge in the West, leading to the incorporation of different concepts and practices in the field of cardiovascular Medicine. The new way of teaching and practicing Medicine of the great Arab doctors, together with the teaching hospitals and foundations in the Koran, transformed the Medicine practiced in Europe definitely. The objective of this paper is to describe the knowledge drawn up from the Middle Ages about the cardiovascular system, its understanding and therapeutic approach to cardiologists and cardiovascular surgeons.

  16. Artemisaiae as medicinal and herbal medicinal plants from ancient times to the present day. (United States)

    Koulu, Markku; Örmä, Simo; Liljeblad, Arto; Niemelä, Pekka

    The 2015 Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine was awarded to Chinese Youyou Tu for her work on an antimalarial drug that she isolated from sweet wormwood (Artemisia annua L) and absinthe (Artemisia absinthium L) belonging to the genus of Artemisia. In this article we deal with the use of Artemisiae as medicinal plants through the ages, and several pharmacologically active compounds can be obtained from species of the genus Artemisia. We will particularly focus on two medicinally interesting species of Artemisiae - sweet wormwood and absinthe - as well as two pharmacologically significant compounds found in them, artemisin and thujone.

  17. Acupuncture-Related Quality of Life Changes Using PROMIS Computer Adaptive Tests in a Pragmatic Trial with Oncology and General Integrative Medicine Patients: The Role of Baseline Acupuncture Expectations. (United States)

    Victorson, David; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Mahadevan, Rupa; Grimone, Ania; Burns, Virginia; Murry, Wendy; Gutierrez, Sandra; Schuette, Stephanie; Brady, Caitlin; Ring, Melinda


    Acupuncture has been shown to alleviate symptoms and increase general well-being in different medical patient samples. A major challenge in acupuncture clinical research is the availability of comparable and standardized patient-reported outcome measurement (PRO) tools. This study used a pragmatic design to examine longitudinal changes in quality of life (QOL) in a medical patient sample following acupuncture using PROs from the National Institutes of Health's Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) initiative. It also examined the role of acupuncture expectancies, as well as patient and provider perceptions of acupuncture benefit. Following informed consent, patients completed baseline QOL measures (T1) prior to their first acupuncture session. Subsequent assessments (up to 20) were completed immediately following ensuing acupuncture sessions. Patients completed assessments either on a touch-screen computer at the clinic or from their home computer. Compared with acupuncture-naïve participants, those who received prior acupuncture treatment reported significantly higher anxiety, fatigue, sleep disturbance, and lower positive affect at baseline. By the second assessment, however, these differences became nonexistent. Participants who held greater baseline acupuncture expectations (e.g., their situation would improve a lot, they would have improved coping skills, their symptoms would disappear, their energy would increase) reported significantly higher fatigue, pain interference, and problems with physical functioning. Between T1 and T2, all participants reported significant improvements in anxiety, depression, and fatigue. Exploratory longitudinal models demonstrated significant linear improvements over time in anxiety (p = 0.006), depression (p = 0.007), pain interference (p acupuncture expectations highlighted subgroup differences in outcomes at baseline, linear-growth models demonstrated the positive effects of acupuncture

  18. The skewness of computer science

    CERN Document Server

    Franceschet, Massimo


    Computer science is a relatively young discipline combining science, engineering, and mathematics. The main flavors of computer science research involve the theoretical development of conceptual models for the different aspects of computing and the more applicative building of software artifacts and assessment of their properties. In the computer science publication culture, conferences are an important vehicle to quickly move ideas, and journals often publish deeper versions of papers already presented at conferences. These peculiarities of the discipline make computer science an original research field within the sciences, and, therefore, the assessment of classical bibliometric laws is particularly important for this field. In this paper, we study the skewness of the distribution of citations to journals and conference papers published in computer science venues. We find that the skewness in the distribution of mean citedness of different journals combines with the asymmetry in citedness of articles in eac...

  19. From evidence based medicine to mechanism based medicine. Reviewing the role of pharmacogenetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilffert, Bob; Swen, Jesse; Mulder, Hans; Touw, Daan; Maitland-Van der Zee, Anke-Hilse; Deneer, Vera

    Aim of the review The translation of evidence based medicine to a specific patient presents a considerable challenge. We present by means of the examples nortriptyline, tramadol, clopidogrel, coumarins, abacavir and antipsychotics the discrepancy between available pharmacogenetic information and its

  20. From evidence based medicine to mechanism based medicine : Reviewing the role of pharmacogenetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilffert, Bob; Swen, Jesse; Mulder, Hans; Touw, Daan; Maitland-Van Der Zee, Anke-Hilse; Deneer, Vera

    Aim of the review The translation of evidence based medicine to a specific patient presents a considerable challenge. We present by means of the examples nortriptyline, tramadol, clopidogrel, coumarins, abacavir and antipsychotics the discrepancy between available pharmacogenetic information and its

  1. Computer science of the high performance; Informatica del alto rendimiento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraleda, A.


    The high performance computing is taking shape as a powerful accelerator of the process of innovation, to drastically reduce the waiting times for access to the results and the findings in a growing number of processes and activities as complex and important as medicine, genetics, pharmacology, environment, natural resources management or the simulation of complex processes in a wide variety of industries. (Author)

  2. The challenge of computer mathematics. (United States)

    Barendregt, Henk; Wiedijk, Freek


    Progress in the foundations of mathematics has made it possible to formulate all thinkable mathematical concepts, algorithms and proofs in one language and in an impeccable way. This is not in spite of, but partially based on the famous results of Gödel and Turing. In this way statements are about mathematical objects and algorithms, proofs show the correctness of statements and computations, and computations are dealing with objects and proofs. Interactive computer systems for a full integration of defining, computing and proving are based on this. The human defines concepts, constructs algorithms and provides proofs, while the machine checks that the definitions are well formed and the proofs and computations are correct. Results formalized so far demonstrate the feasibility of this 'computer mathematics'. Also there are very good applications. The challenge is to make the systems more mathematician-friendly, by building libraries and tools. The eventual goal is to help humans to learn, develop, communicate, referee and apply mathematics.

  3. Price and availability survey of essential medicines in the Harare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: In both sectors, availability of the selected medicines (Low Priced Generics) was high (>80%). Fewer innovator brands were found for the selected medicines. Median Price Ratios (MPR) of Lowest Priced Generics (LPG) showed better access to essential medicines is hindered by the high prices obtaining in the ...



    Borshchevskiy GI; Railko ZО; Reida VP


    Dosage form - spray is one of the most advanced and modern methods of medicines administration in the human body. The advantage of airborne mode of medicines delivery (inhalation) than injection and enterable methods is the ability to direct and rapid impact on the area of inflammation of the mucous membranes or when fine evaporation - on the bronchi and lungs. When finished medicinal product itself has not a sufficient antimicrobial activity, in its composition can be...

  5. A Student's Perspective on Community Medicine and the Health Crisis (United States)

    Lowenstein, Steven R.


    Problems of teaching and learning community medicine are discussed. Community medicine curricula must include experiential learning, with real patients and problems, in order to prove that health is affected by culture, politics, the environment, and individual behavior. (Author/LBH)

  6. Implementing Personalized Medicine in the Academic Health Center


    Weiss, Scott T.


    Recently we at Partners Health Care had a series of articles in the Journal of Personalized Medicine describing how we are going about implementing Personalized Medicine in an academic health care system [1–10].[...

  7. Implementing Personalized Medicine in the Academic Health Center. (United States)

    Weiss, Scott T


    Recently we at Partners Health Care had a series of articles in the Journal of Personalized Medicine describing how we are going about implementing Personalized Medicine in an academic health care system [1-10].[...].

  8. Nuclear Medicine Physics: The Basics. 7th ed. (United States)

    Mihailidis, Dimitris


    Nuclear Medicine Physics: The Basics. 7th ed. Ramesh Chandra, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, a Wolters Kluwer Business. Philadelphia, 2012. Softbound, 224 pp. Price: $69.99. ISBN: 9781451109412. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  9. Use of the computer program in a cloud computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović Sanja


    Full Text Available Cloud computing represents a specific networking, in which a computer program simulates the operation of one or more server computers. In terms of copyright, all technological processes that take place within the cloud computing are covered by the notion of copying computer programs, and exclusive right of reproduction. However, this right suffers some limitations in order to allow normal use of computer program by users. Based on the fact that the cloud computing is virtualized network, the issue of normal use of the computer program requires to put all aspects of the permitted copying into the context of a specific computing environment and specific processes within the cloud. In this sense, the paper pointed out that the user of a computer program in cloud computing, needs to obtain the consent of the right holder for any act which he undertakes using the program. In other words, the copyright in the cloud computing is a full scale, and thus the freedom of contract (in the case of this particular restriction as well.

  10. The Future of Laboratory Medicine: Understanding the New Pressures


    Panteghini, Mauro


    Since the future role of Laboratory Medicine is strongly and equally challenged by economic and new technological pressures, it is essential to take a broad view of the discipline and present to the administrators and other decision-makers the full spectrum of activities and benefits Laboratory Medicine can provide. In particular, the importance and the true impact of Laboratory Medicine can only be achieved by adding value to laboratory tests, represented by their effectiveness in influencin...

  11. X-ray computed tomography and additive manufacturing in medicine: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson Adam


    Full Text Available The use of X-ray computed tomography (XCT with additive manufacture (AM within a medical context is examined in this review. The seven AM process families and various XCT scanning techniques are explained in brief, and the use of these technologies together is detailed over time. The transition of these technologies from a simple method of medical modelling to a robust method of customised implant manufacture is described, and the state-of-the-art for XCT and AM is examined in detail. XCT and AM are identified as having the potential to improve gold standards in both modelling and implant production, and in the conclusions of this review, primary barriers to the increased adoption of AM and XCT technologies are identified in reference to the main applications of XCT and AM technologies. The primary prohibitive factors generally relate to the cost of production across all of the examined applications, as well as the need for further clinical trials in surgical guidance and applications involving implantation.

  12. Generation to Generation: The Heart of Family Medicine (United States)

    Winter, Robin O.


    According to the American Board of Family Medicine, "The scope of family medicine encompasses all ages, both sexes, each organ system and every disease entity." What makes the seemingly daunting task of practicing family medicine possible is that family physicians learn to utilize similar clinical reasoning for all of their patients regardless of…

  13. Prescriptions of traditional Chinese medicine, western medicine, and integrated Chinese-Western medicine for allergic rhinitis under the National Health Insurance in Taiwan. (United States)

    Huang, Sheng-Kang; Ho, Yu-Ling; Chang, Yuan-Shiun


    Allergic rhinitis has long been a worldwide health problem with a global growth trend. The use of traditional Chinese medicines alone or integrated Chinese-Western medicines for its treatment is quite common in Taiwan. Respiratory diseases account for the majority of outpatient traditional Chinese medicine treatment, while allergic rhinitis accounts for the majority of respiratory diseases. We hereby conduct a comparative analysis between traditional Chinese medicine treatments and western medicine treatments for allergic rhinitis in Taiwan. The results of the analysis on the prescription difference of traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine treatments would be helpful to clinical guide and health policy decision making of ethnopharmacological therapy. Patients diagnosed as allergic rhinitis with diagnostic code 470-478 (ICD-9-CM) were selected as subjects from 2009-2010 National Health Insurance Research Database based on the claim data from the nationwide National Health Insurance in Taiwan. This retrospective study used Chi-Square test to test the effects of gender and age on visit of traditional Chinese medicine, western medicine, and integrated Chinese-Western medicine treatments. A total of 45,804 patients diagnosed as allergic rhinitis with ICD-9-CM 470-478 were identified from 2009-2010 NHIRD. There were 36,874 subjects for western medicine treatment alone, 5829 subjects for traditional Chinese medicine treatment alone, and 3101 subjects for integrated Chinese-Western medicine treatment. Female patients were more than male in three treatments. 0-9 years children had the highest visit frequency in western medicine and integrated Chinese-Western medicine groups, while 10-19 years young-age rank the highest in traditional Chinese medicine group. The Chi-square test of independence showed that the effects of gender and age on visit of three treatments were significant. The prescription drugs of western medicine treatment alone were almost for

  14. The Computational Sensorimotor Systems Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Computational Sensorimotor Systems Lab focuses on the exploration, analysis, modeling and implementation of biological sensorimotor systems for both scientific...

  15. Marijuana and medicine: assessing the science base: a summary of the 1999 Institute of Medicine report. (United States)

    Watson, S J; Benson, J A; Joy, J E


    In response to public pressure to allow the medical use of marijuana, the Office of National Drug Control Policy, Washington, DC, funded a study by the Institute of Medicine evaluating the scientific evidence for benefits and risks of using marijuana as a medicine. The report used scientific reviews, public hearings, and reports from other agencies, and was evaluated by knowledgeable advisors and reviewers. It called for heavier investment in research on the biology of cannabinoid systems, careful clinical studies of cannabinoids in clinical syndromes, analysis of cannabinoids' psychological effects on symptoms, and evaluations of the health consequences of heavy marijuana use; recommends against the use of smoked marijuana in medicine and for the development of a medical cannabinoid inhaler; and recommends that compassionate use of marijuana be considered under carefully reviewed protocols. Finally, the report evaluates the abuse potential, tolerance, withdrawal, and gateway risks of medical use of cannabinoid drugs.

  16. The Effect of Computer Assisted and Computer Based Teaching Methods on Computer Course Success and Computer Using Attitudes of Students (United States)

    Tosun, Nilgun; Sucsuz, Nursen; Yigit, Birol


    The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of the computer-assisted and computer-based instructional methods on students achievement at computer classes and on their attitudes towards using computers. The study, which was completed in 6 weeks, were carried out with 94 sophomores studying in formal education program of Primary…

  17. The neurosciences in Averroes principles of medicine. (United States)

    Delgado, Fernando


    One of the fundamental advances of the transition of the Middle Ages to the Renaissance was the rediscovery of the Greek philosophers. Among the greatest representatives of this epoch we find the Cordovan doctor and philosopher Averroes (Ibn Rushd) who, with his commentaries on the works of Aristotle, brought a new philosophical vision to Western Europe. His contribution to medicine has been overshadowed to some extent by this great work of philosophy. Our intention is to evaluate, in the context of the neurosciences, the vision of health and sickness that he left us in his book "The Book of the Principles of Medicine. The organisation of the Kulliyat is based on Aristotelian concepts. Averroes regarded the nervous system not as single entity but rather as a complex of various elements. The anatomy of the nervous system is studied in two parts: the encephalus and the periphery. Both the encephalic nervous system and the sensory organs are regarded as heterogeneous organs. Averroes structures the anatomical order without taking into account the local movements of the living body. The mission of the senses is to maintain contact between external reality and the structure of the organism. This requires an external process, a point of union and an internal process. The ultimate goal is the preservation of health in a balanced disposition and the cure of disease in the organism in disequilibrium.

  18. Celebrating Leadership in Public Health and Medicine Friends of the National Library of Medicine (FNLM) | NIH ... (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Celebrating Leadership in Public Health and Medicine Friends of the ... Hospital Dr. Braunwald was honored for his outstanding leadership and contributions to the world of cardiology as ...

  19. Musings on genome medicine: the Obama effect redux (United States)


    From the point of view of genome medicine, Barack Obama has made two vital policy decisions: he has chosen a new director of the National Institutes of Health, and his proposed change in United States healthcare policy will have profound effects on genome medicine and, indeed, all of academic medicine. PMID:19769781

  20. Evidence-Based Medicine in the Education of Psychiatrists (United States)

    Srihari, Vinod


    Objective: Evidence-based medicine has an important place in the teaching and practice of psychiatry. Attempts to teach evidence-based medicine skills can be weakened by conceptual confusions feeding a false polarization between traditional clinical skills and evidence-based medicine. Methods: The author develops a broader conception of clinical…

  1. Proceedings of the Korean Society Nuclear Medicine Autumn Meeting 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This proceedings contains articles of 2000 autumn meeting of the Korean Society Nuclear Medicine. It was held on November 18, 2000 in Seoul, Korean. This proceedings is comprised of 3 sessions. The subject titles of session are as follows: nuclear medicine: cost-benefit analysis, radiology, general nuclear medicine and so on. (Yi, J. H.)

  2. Proceedings of the Korean Society Nuclear Medicine Autumn Meeting 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This proceedings contains articles of 2001 autumn meeting of the Korean Society Nuclear Medicine. It was held on November 16-17, 2001 in Seoul, Korea. This proceedings is comprised of 6 sessions. The subject titles of session are as follows: Cancer, Physics of nuclear medicine, Neurology, Radiopharmacy and biology, Nuclear cardiology, General nuclear medicine. (Yi, J. H.)

  3. Proceedings of the Korean Society Nuclear Medicine Autumn Meeting 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This proceedings contains articles of 2002 autumn meeting of the Korean Society Nuclear Medicine. It was held on November 15-16, 2002 in Seoul, Korea. This proceedings is comprised of 5 sessions. The subject titles of session are as follows: Cancer, Physics of nuclear medicine, Neurology, Radiopharmacy and biology, General nuclear medicine. (Yi, J. H.)

  4. The information infrastructure that supports evidence-based veterinary medicine: a comparison with human medicine. (United States)

    Toews, Lorraine


    In human medicine, the information infrastructure that supports the knowledge translation processes of exchange, synthesis, dissemination, and application of the best clinical intervention research has developed significantly in the past 15 years, facilitating the uptake of research evidence by clinicians as well as the practice of evidence-based medicine. Seven of the key elements of this improved information infrastructure are clinical trial registries, research reporting standards, systematic reviews, organizations that support the production of systematic reviews, the indexing of clinical intervention research in MEDLINE, clinical search filters for MEDLINE, and point-of-care decision support information resources. The objective of this paper is to describe why these elements are important for evidence-based medicine, the key developments and issues related to these seven information infrastructure elements in human medicine, how these 7 elements compare with the corresponding infrastructure elements in veterinary medicine, and how all of these factors affect the translation of clinical intervention research into clinical practice. A focused search of the Ovid MEDLINE database was conducted for English language journal literature published between 2000 and 2010. Two bibliographies were consulted and selected national and international Web sites were searched using Google. The literature reviewed indicates that the information infrastructure supporting evidence-based veterinary medicine practice in all of the 7 elements reviewed is significantly underdeveloped in relation to the corresponding information infrastructure in human medicine. This lack of development creates barriers to the timely translation of veterinary medicine research into clinical practice and also to the conduct of both primary clinical intervention research and synthesis research.

  5. Medicinal plants of the family Caryophyllaceae: a review of ethno-medicinal uses and pharmacological properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Chandra


    Full Text Available Several species of the family Caryophyllaceae are widely used by many ethnic communities as traditional medicine throughout the world. The highest number of plants of the family are used in Chinese traditional medicine. The ethnopharmacologial studies of this family indicate that plants of the family possess anticancer, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. Other miscellaneous properties reported are ribosome inactivation properties, inhibition of prostatic enlargement in rats, and inhibition of intestinal enzyme carboxyelasterase in rats, cerebro-protective activity, and antiobesity in rats. Few reviews have been published yet, providing information regarding medicinal plants of the family and their biomedical properties. All published reviews have focused either on a particular taxa or a few species. The present review is focused on the traditional medicinal uses of the plants of the family Caryophyllaceae along with phytochemical and pharmacological studies of the family. A study of the literature revealed significant traditional medicinal importance of the family. Major chemical constituents of Caryophyllceae are saponins, Phytoecdysteroids, benzenoids, phenyl propanoids, and nitrogen containing compounds. The most important property of plants of the family is anticancer activity and is shown by the large number of plant species studied. This review of traditional medicinal and pharmacological uses of plants of the family, provide a ground for future research in the family.

  6. Defensive medicine in neurosurgery: the Canadian experience. (United States)

    Smith, Timothy R; Hulou, M Maher; Yan, Sandra C; Cote, David J; Nahed, Brian V; Babu, Maya A; Das, Sunit; Gormley, William B; Rutka, James T; Laws, Edward R; Heary, Robert F


    OBJECT Recent studies have examined the impact of perceived medicolegal risk and compared how this perception impacts defensive practices within the US. To date, there have been no published data on the practice of defensive medicine among neurosurgeons in Canada. METHODS An online survey containing 44 questions was sent to 170 Canadian neurosurgeons and used to measure Canadian neurosurgeons' perception of liability risk and their practice of defensive medicine. The survey included questions on the following domains: surgeon demographics, patient characteristics, type of physician practice, surgeon liability profile, policy coverage, defensive behaviors, and perception of the liability environment. Survey responses were analyzed and summarized using counts and percentages. RESULTS A total of 75 neurosurgeons completed the survey, achieving an overall response rate of 44.1%. Over one-third (36.5%) of Canadian neurosurgeons paid less than $5000 for insurance annually. The majority (87%) of Canadian neurosurgeons felt confident with their insurance coverage, and 60% reported that they rarely felt the need to practice defensive medicine. The majority of the respondents reported that the perceived medicolegal risk environment has no bearing on their preferred practice location. Only 1 in 5 respondent Canadian neurosurgeons (21.8%) reported viewing patients as a potential lawsuit. Only 4.9% of respondents would have selected a different career based on current medicolegal risk factors, and only 4.1% view the cost of annual malpractice insurance as a major burden. CONCLUSIONS Canadian neurosurgeons perceive their medicolegal risk environment as more favorable and their patients as less likely to sue than their counterparts in the US do. Overall, Canadian neurosurgeons engage in fewer defensive medical behaviors than previously reported in the US.

  7. Evaluation of age estimation in forensic medicine by examination of medial clavicular ossification from thin-slice computed tomography images. (United States)

    Gurses, Murat Serdar; Inanir, Nursel Turkmen; Gokalp, Gokhan; Fedakar, Recep; Tobcu, Eren; Ocakoglu, Gokhan


    Forensic age estimation, a recent topic of research in forensic medicine, is of primary importance to criminal and civil law. Previous studies indicate that the observation of medial clavicular ossification allows for age discrimination along the completed 18th and 21st years of life. Experts recommend that the Schmeling and Kellinghaus methods be used together. In this study, we used these staging methods to retrospectively analyze 725 case studies (385 males, 340 females) of thin-slice computed tomography (CT) images, ranging from 0.6 to 1 mm in thickness, from individuals aged 10 to 35 years. Stage 1 was found at 18 years of age maximum for males, whereas it was found at 17 years of age for females. Stage 2a was found at 18 years of age maximum for both genders. Stage 3c was initially observed at 18 years for both genders. Stage 4 was initially found at 21 years for males and 20 years for females. Stage 5 was initially observed at 25 years for both genders. Of note, stage 3c was found close to 19 years of age for both genders (18.92 years for male, 18.99 years for female), and it may be employed to differentiate along the age majority cutoff. The data obtained from our study were consistent with previous studies. We believe that such a comprehensive database will greatly contribute to future studies focusing on medial clavicular ossification based on thin-slice CT. Moreover, we also recommend that if medial clavicular ossification based on CT is to be examined for forensic age estimation, both methods should be employed together.

  8. Medicinal cannabis: moving the debate forward. (United States)

    Newton-Howes, Giles; McBride, Sam


    There has been increased interest in cannabis as a medicine both nationally and internationally. Internationally, cannabis is accepted as a medication for a variety of purposes in a variety of legal guises and this, associated with anecdotes of the utility of cannabis as medication has led for calls for it to be 'medicalised' in New Zealand. This viewpoint discusses the issues associated with this approach to accessing cannabis and some of the difficulties that may be associated with it. It is important doctors are at the forefront of the debate surrounding medicalised cannabis. Recommendations as to the ongoing debate are offered.

  9. The medicinal chemistry of Chikungunya virus. (United States)

    da Silva-Júnior, Edeildo F; Leoncini, Giovanni O; Rodrigues, Érica E S; Aquino, Thiago M; Araújo-Júnior, João X


    Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are an important threat to human and animal health globally. Among these, zoonotic diseases account for billions of cases of human illness and millions of deaths every year, representing an increasing public health problem. Chikungunya virus belongs to the genus Alphavirus of the family Togariridae, and is transmitted mainly by the bite of female mosquitoes of the Aedes aegypti and/or A. albopictus species. The focus of this review will be on the medicinal chemistry of Chikungunya virus, including synthetic and natural products, as well as rationally designed compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Clinical implications of the recent homeopathic medicine and its application to oriental medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Objectives : The purpose of this study is to analyze the practical implications of homeopathic medicines, their status, their preparation systems and registration rules, recognized by the European Union and other countries. Contents : This paper covers the background of homeopathic medical principle, homeopathy throughout the world, the medicine status and clinical research, increases of the drug potency, the practical regulation of treatment, preparation techniques of homeopathic drugs and registration rules and the clinical practice. Homeopathy has been currently practised in over eighty countries throughout the world, especially in Europe. It had attracted considerable attentions in South and North America (notably in USA, Brazil, and Argentina, India and Pakistan. Although it is not dominantly popular in North America, constant growth has been nevertheless noted. Over the last thirty years, homeopathy has also developed or appeared in South Africa, Tunisia, Morocco, Venezuela, Israel, and Australia, etc. Result & suggestion : As over 300 million patients have put their trust in homeopathy, the study of the integration of homeopathy to oriental medicine, its development and feasibility in Korea are urgently needed. The products, substances, compositions of Homeopathic drugs are very similar to those of oriental medicine theory. Therefore their preparations and applications should prescribed and practised exclusively by oriental doctors. Applying the homeopathic theory and its preparation techniques to oriental medicine, the herbal acupuncture preparation should be modernized and various oriental products are to be developed. To this end, government and herbal acupuncture society need to interact each other for the development of oriental medicine.

  11. Exploring simulation in the internal medicine clerkship. (United States)

    Kwan, Brian; Bui, Glory; Jain, Paul; Shah, Nilesh; Juang, Derek


    Simulation-based medical education has been shown to produce substantial educational benefits; however, the integration and effectiveness of high-fidelity simulation within the internal medicine (IM) clerkship remains largely unexplored. Investigators sought to determine the effectiveness of simulation in improving student confidence in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and the Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) curriculum. Secondary goals included examining student perceptions of the role of simulation in medical education. Investigators implemented a formative high-fidelity simulation curriculum in the IM clerkship at a large teaching institution. Third-year medical students enrolled in the IM clerkship between January and June 2014 attended a simulation course during their ambulatory block. Following a 2-hour session, participants completed a 17-item questionnaire. Descriptive statistical analyses and a thematic qualitative analysis were performed. Integration of high-fidelity simulation within the internal medicine clerkship remains largely unexplored RESULTS: The response rate was 100 per cent (n = 43). Students reported improvements in their ability to identify and manage ACS and ACLS before and after the simulation course: 93 per cent felt that simulation boosted their self-confidence in performing these tasks on a real patient; 86 per cent reported receiving useful feedback during the training sessions; 98 per cent agreed that their experience was enjoyable; and 95 per cent would recommend this course to other students. Internal medicine (IM) clerkship students participating in our pilot course demonstrated increased confidence in identifying and managing pathologies associated with ACS and arrhythmias. Students viewed simulation as an engaging and useful activity, desiring additional training sessions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  12. Aerospace Medicine (United States)

    Michaud, Vince


    NASA Aerospace Medicine overview - Aerospace Medicine is that specialty area of medicine concerned with the determination and maintenance of the health, safety, and performance of those who fly in the air or in space.

  13. Can Compute, Won't Compute: Women's Participation in the Culture of Computing. (United States)

    Wilson, Fiona


    Surveys of 130 psychology students and 52 computer science students (20 of the latter were interviewed) indicated that more males read computer magazines and were confident in computer use. Many did not perceive an equity problem. Men seemed to feel the equity situation is improving. Some felt that women do not enjoy computing as much as men and…

  14. The consequences of quantum computing


    Malenko, Kokan


    Quantum computing is a new promising field that might bring great improvements to present day technology. But it might also break some currently used cryptography algorithms. Usable and stable quantum computers do not exist yet, but their potential power and usefulness has spurred a great interest. In this work, we explain the basic properties of a quantum computer, which uses the following quantum properties: superposition, interference and entanglement. We talk about qubits,...

  15. Developing Traditional Chinese Medicine in the Era of Evidence-Based Medicine: Current Evidences and Challenges


    Fung, Foon Yin; Linn, Yeh Ching


    Evidence-based medicine (EBM), by integrating individual clinical expertise with the best available clinical evidence from systematic research, has in recent years been established as the standard of modern medical practice for greater treatment efficacy and safety. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), on the other hand, evolved as a system of medical practice from ancient China more than 2000 years ago based on empirical knowledge as well as theories and concepts which are yet to be mapped by...

  16. The essential materials paradigms for regenerative medicine (United States)

    Williams, David


    Medical technology is changing rapidly. Several disease states can now be treated very effectively by implantable devices that restore mechanical and physical functionality, such as replacement of hip joints or restoration of heart rhythms by pacemakers. These techniques, however, are rather limited, and no biological functionality can be restored through the use of inert materials and devices. This paper explores the role of new types of biomaterials within the emerging area of regenerative medicine, where they are able to play a powerful role in persuading the human body to regenerate itself.

  17. Normality and naturalness: a comparison of the meanings of concepts used within veterinary medicine and human medicine. (United States)

    Lerner, Henrik; Hofmann, Bjørn


    This article analyses the different connotations of "normality" and "being natural," bringing together the theoretical discussion from both human medicine and veterinary medicine. We show how the interpretations of the concepts in the different areas could be mutually fruitful. It appears that the conceptions of "natural" are more elaborate in veterinary medicine, and can be of value to human medicine. In particular they can nuance and correct conceptions of nature in human medicine that may be too idealistic. Correspondingly, the wide ranging conceptions of "normal" in human medicine may enrich conceptions in veterinary medicine, where the discussions seem to be sparse. We do not argue that conceptions from veterinary medicine should be used in human medicine and vice versa, but only that it could be done and that it may well be fruitful. Moreover, there are overlaps between some notions of normal and natural, and further conceptual analysis on this overlap is needed.

  18. Biomedical Science, Unit IV: The Nervous System in Health and Medicine. The Nervous System; Disorders of the Brain and Nervous System; Application of Computer Science to Diagnosis; Drugs and Pharmacology; The Human Senses; Electricity. Laboratory Manual. Revised Version, 1976. (United States)

    Biomedical Interdisciplinary Curriculum Project, Berkeley, CA.

    Designed to accompany the student text on the nervous system, this manual presents laboratory activities dealing with concepts presented in the text. Thirty-seven activities are described. Four supplementary activities dealing with concepts in electricity are also included. Laboratory activities are divided into several parts, each part covering a…

  19. [The gender gap in Italian medicine]. (United States)

    De Simone, Silvia; Podda, Daiana; Lampis, Jessica


    This study is collocated in the debate about the gender gap in Medicine giving voice to female physicians who have damaged the "glass ceiling". Our research offers a contribute to the exploration about the motivations of persistence of gender gap in Medicine despite current changes. This study is based on 21 biographical interviews to female physicians who are managers in Italian hospitals. The themes emerged by data analysis concerned the participants 'discrimination experiences in their hierarchical advancement, the evidences of a persistence of horizontal segregation in some medical specializations, the difficult to find a work-life balance and the effects of this difficult on the female physicians' health. Our research confirmed a persistence of gender gap in the medical world, which disadvantages women in their career choices and in their hierarchical advancement and which appears in the form of invisible barriers impregnated of stereotypes and prejudices that are taken for granted by many men and women, especially those who have the power; these barriers make the female doctors 'health more vulnerable to the event of work-related stress. By the dates emerged the necessity of cultural and institutional interventions, actions for deconstruction of gender stereotypes, and the necessity of intervention for a more flexible and functioning work organization that satisfies the female physicians' needs.


    Pasleau, F


    The fundamentals of Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) are the clinical experience, the application of best evidences from research and the consideration of patient expectations. It enabled significant progresses in the management of diseases with a low or multifactorial causality. But it has also led to unintended negative consequences, partly related to conflicts of interest. The objective of this article is to bring the attention back to the scientific rigor that must sustain the medical practice, namely in the occurrence : 1) formulating a question that addresses all the elements of an individual clinical situation; 2) exploring the literature systematically; 3) estimating the degree of confidence in the conclusions of clinical trials. EBM provides intuitive tools to address some uncomfortable concepts of biostatistics and to identify the biases and the embellished data that invalidate many studies. However, it is difficult to decide of the care of a single patient from observations issued from the comparison of'heterogeneous groups. Personalized medicine should help to overcome this difficulty and should facilitate clinical decision making by targeting the patients who are most likely to benefit from an intervention without much inconvenience.

  1. Simulations to Evaluate Accuracy and Patient Dose in Neutron-Stimulated, Emission-Computed Tomography (NSECT) for Diagnosis of Breast Cancer (United States)


    Alzheimer’s disease ," Arch Gerontol Geriatr 21(1), 89-97 (1995). Proc. of SPIE Vol. 6913 691309-6 [9] Bomboi, G., Marchione, F., Sepe-Monti, M., De Carolis ...Distribution Unlimited The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author( s ) and should not be...Computed Tomography (NSECT) for Diagnosis of Breast Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-06-1-0484 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) 5d. PROJECT

  2. The Rehabilitation Medicine Scientist Training Program (United States)

    Whyte, John; Boninger, Michael; Helkowski, Wendy; Braddom-Ritzler, Carolyn


    Physician scientists are seen as important in healthcare research. However, the number of physician scientists and their success in obtaining NIH funding have been declining for many years. The shortage of physician scientists in Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation is particularly severe, and can be attributed to many of the same factors that affect physician scientists in general, as well as to the lack of well developed models for research training. In 1995, the Rehabilitation Medicine Scientist Training Program (RMSTP) was funded by a K12 grant from the National Center of Medical Rehabilitation Research (NCMRR), as one strategy for increasing the number of research-productive physiatrists. The RMSTP's structure was revised in 2001 to improve the level of preparation of incoming trainees, and to provide a stronger central mentorship support network. Here we describe the original and revised structure of the RMSTP and review subjective and objective data on the productivity of the trainees who have completed the program. These data suggest that RMSTP trainees are, in general, successful in obtaining and maintaining academic faculty positions and that the productivity of the cohort trained after the revision, in particular, shows impressive growth after about 3 years of training. PMID:19847126

  3. Introducing considerations in the Translation of Chinese Medicine. (United States)

    Pritzker, Sonya E; Hui, Ka-Kit


    This article introduces the document, Considerations in the Translation of Chinese Medicine, published in PDF form online in both Chinese and English. This 20-page document includes several sections describing why the Considerations is necessary, the specificity of texts in Chinese medicine; the history of translation in Chinese medicine; who constitutes an ideal translator of Chinese medicine; what types of language exist in Chinese medicine; and specific issues in the translation of Chinese medicine, such as domestication versus foreignization, technical terminology, period-specific language, style, polysemy, and etymological translation. The final section offers a brief advisory for consumers, and concludes with a call to further discussion, and action, specifically in the development of international collaborative efforts towards the creation of more rigorous guidelines for the translation of Chinese medicine. The current article provides an overview of several of these sections, and includes links to the original document.

  4. Out of the shadow of medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Helge


    Modern chemistry, so alarming, so necessary, so ubiquitous, became a mature science in nineteenth-century Europe. As it developed, often from a lowly position in medicine or in industry, so chemists established themselves as professional men; but differently in different countries. In 1820...... chemistry was an autonomous science of great prestige but chemists had no corporate identity. It was 1840 before national chemical societies were first formed; and many countries lagged fifty years behind. Chemists are the largest of scientific groups; and in this book we observe the social history...

  5. American Internal Medicine in the 21st Century (United States)

    Huddle, Thomas S; Centor, Robert; Heudebert, Gustavo R


    American internal medicine suffers a confusion of identity as we enter the 21st century. The subspecialties prosper, although unevenly, and retain varying degrees of connection to their internal medicine roots. General internal medicine, identified with primary care since the 1970s, retains an affinity for its traditional consultant-generalist ideal even as primary care further displaces that ideal. We discuss the origins and importance of the consultant-generalist ideal of internal medicine as exemplified by Osler, and its continued appeal in spite of the predominant role played by clinical science and accompanying subspecialism in determining the academic leadership of American internal medicine since the 1920s. Organizing departmental clinical work along subspecialty lines diminished the importance of the consultant-generalist ideal in academic departments of medicine after 1950. General internists, when they joined the divisions of general internal medicine that appeared in departments of medicine in the 1970s, could sometimes emulate Osler in practicing a general medicine of complexity, but often found themselves in a more limited role doing primary care. As we enter the 21st century, managed care threatens what remains of the Oslerian ideal, both in departments of medicine and in clinical practice. Twenty-first century American internists will have to adjust their conditions of work should they continue to aspire to practice Oslerian internal medicine. PMID:12950486

  6. Emergency medicine techniques and the forensic autopsy. (United States)

    Buschmann, Claas; Schulz, Thomas; Tsokos, Michael; Kleber, Christian


    Emergency medicine measures often have to be carried out under suboptimal conditions in emergency situations and require invasive patient treatment. In the case of a fatal outcome these measures have to be evaluated at autopsy, regarding indications, correct implementation and possible complications. As well, alongside the more familiar procedures--such as endotracheal intubation, insertion of chest drains, external cardiac massage and cannulation of central and peripheral veins--there are alternative techniques being increasingly applied, that include new tools for the management of hemorrhagic shock, drug delivery and alternative airway management devices. On the one hand, all of these measures are essential for the survival and appropriate treatment of the injured and/or sick patient, but on the other hand they can damage the patient and thus contain a significant risk of both medical and forensic relevance for the patient and the physician. In the following review we provide an overview of established, new and alternative techniques for emergency airway management, administration of drugs and management of hemorrhagic shock. The aim is to facilitate the understanding and autopsy evaluation of current emergency medicine techniques.

  7. The quality of medicines: an ethical issue? (United States)

    Ravinetto, Raffaella; Schiavett, Benedetta


    The Hippocratic maxim, "Do no harm," is a long-standing fundamental principle of medical ethics, encompassing both medical practice and medical research. Yet, not enough attention is given to the implications of this principle for sectors related to medical research and practice, such as the pharmaceutical sector. The regulation of the standards of quality in pharmaceutical production and distribution, for instance, is generally considered a purely technical - rather than ethical - subject. Poor enforcement of regulatory supervision of manufacturers and wholesalers of medicine exposes the end-users to low-quality pharmaceutical products, which will result in avoidable "harm", such as therapeutic failure, emergence of resistance and even direct toxicity. A glaring example of this in recent times was the death, in Pakistan, of 120 cardiovascular patients who had received a medicine contaminated with pyrimethamine (1). Due to the globalisation of the pharmaceutical supply chain and the lack of international regulatory oversight, stringent drug regulatory authorities in affluent countries are also exposed to challenges related to quality. In the USA, for instance, at least four patients died after using contaminated heparin from China (2). These and other unnecessary deaths, caused by medical products which harmed rather than benefited the patients, are unacceptable and should be questioned on ethical grounds.

  8. Medicine in Balkans during the Roman Period. (United States)

    Baykan, Daniş


    The aim of this study is to investigate the archaeological finds to enlighten the medical methods of treatments and operations applied in Balkans during Roman Period. Some independent local and regional find groups, taken from existing publications will be grouped together and a holistic point-of-view will be taken against medicine in Balkan Geography during Roman Period. Due to basic differences it contained, the data before Roman Period are excluded. Most of Greece and Aegean Islands are also excluded since the topic selected is "Medicine of Roman Period." Greece and Aegean Islands should be evaluated in another study in connection with West Anatolia which is closer than the Balkan Geography in terms of social relations. The spread of medical tools in Balkans during Roman Period is concentrated around military garrisons, and in settlements built around military pathways, and in settlements containing an amphitheater associated with gladiators. This spread is verified by the studies on Bulgaria in general. The data is also compatible with the assertion suggesting that the amount of application of pharmaceutical treatment increases when one moves away from the military centres.

  9. The business of pediatric hospital medicine. (United States)

    Percelay, Jack M; Zipes, David G


    Pediatric hospital medicine (PHM) programs are mission driven, not margin driven. Very rarely do professional fee revenues exceed physician billing collections. In general, inpatient hospital care codes reimburse less than procedures, payer mix is poor, and pediatric inpatient care is inherently time-consuming. Using traditional accounting principles, almost all PHM programs will have a negative bottom line in the narrow sense of program costs and revenues generated. However, well-run PHM programs contribute positively to the bottom line of the system as a whole through the value-added services hospitalists provide and hospitalists' ability to improve overall system efficiency and productivity. This article provides an overview of the business of hospital medicine with emphasis on the basics of designing and maintaining a program that attends carefully to physician staffing (the major cost component of a program) and physician charges (the major revenue component of the program). Outside of these traditional calculations, resource stewardship is discussed as a way to reduce hospital costs in a capitated or diagnosis-related group reimbursement model and further improve profit-or at least limit losses. Shortening length of stay creates bed capacity for a program already running at capacity. The article concludes with a discussion of how hospitalists add value to the system by making other providers and other parts of the hospital more efficient and productive. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. Computer aided design of medicinal products based on interactive chemical/herbal ingredients - An R&D approach (United States)

    Siontorou, Christina G.


    Herbal products have gained increasing popularity in the last decades, and are now broadly used to treat illness and improve health. Notwithstanding the public opinion, both, safety and efficacy, are major sources of dispute among the scientific community, mainly due to lack of (or scarcity or scattered) conclusive data linking a herbal constituent to pharmacological action in vivo, in a way that benefit overrides risk. This paper presents a methodological framework for addressing natural medicine in a systematic and holistic way with a view to providing medicinal products based on interactive chemical/herbal ingredients.

  11. Streamlining the path from physics to medicine

    CERN Multimedia


    We all know them: the well-established cases of knowledge transfer from physics to medicine in which CERN has played an important role. From technology for PET scanners to dedicated accelerator designs for cancer therapy, we have contributed a lot over the years. But until recently, the pathway has been a little ad hoc, depending largely on enthusiastic individuals. That’s about to change.   CERN’s commitment to formalising the transfer of knowledge to the field of medicine has been growing over recent years. Notable successes are the establishment of a new conference series, ICTR-PHE, that brings together medical practitioners and members of the physics community, and the establishment of cancer therapy centres like CNAO in Italy and MedAustron in Austria, built on CERN accelerator technology. These are important, but there’s still more that we can and should do. To this end, we’ve created a new Office for CERN Medical Applications, whose first head w...

  12. Precision medicine: The future in diabetes care? (United States)

    Scheen, André J


    Personalized medicine aims at better targeting therapeutic intervention to the individual to maximize benefit and minimize harm. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a heterogeneous disease from a genetic, pathophysiological and clinical point of view. Thus, the response to any antidiabetic medication may considerably vary between individuals. Numerous glucose-lowering agents, with different mechanisms of action, have been developed, a diversified armamentarium that offers the possibility of a patient-centred therapeutic approach. In the current clinical practice, a personalized approach is only based upon phenotype, taking into account patient and disease individual characteristics. If this approach may help increase both efficacy and safety outcomes, there remains considerable room for improvement. In recent years, many efforts were taken to identify genetic and genotype SNP's (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism's) variants that influence the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and ultimately the therapeutic response of oral glucose-lowering drugs. This approach mainly concerns metformin, sulphonylureas, meglitinides and thiazolidinediones, with only scarce data concerning gliptins and gliflozins yet. However, the contribution of pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics to personalized therapy still needs to mature greatly before routine clinical implementation is possible. This review discusses both opportunities and challenges of precision medicine and how this new paradigm may lead to a better individualized treatment of T2D. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  13. Women in Veterinary Medicine: The Myths and the Reality (United States)

    Andberg, Wendy L.


    For the years 1969-75, there was no significant difference in the proportions of male and female applicants admitted to the College of Veterinary Medicine at the University of Minnesota. It is hoped that the sex-typing of veterinary medicine by counselors, teachers, parents, and veterinarians will diminish. (LBH)

  14. Cloud computing assessing the risks

    CERN Document Server

    Carstensen, Jared; Golden, Bernard


    Cloud Computing: Assessing the risks answers these questions and many more. Using jargon-free language and relevant examples, analogies and diagrams, it is an up-to-date, clear and comprehensive guide the security, governance, risk, and compliance elements of Cloud Computing.

  15. Teaching Computation Across the Curriculum (United States)

    Caballero, Marcos


    Computation has revolutionized how modern science is done. Modern physicists use computational techniques to reduce mountains of data, to simulate impossible experiments, and to develop intuition about the behavior of complex systems. Much of the research completed by modern physicists would be impossible without the use of computation. And yet, while computation is a crucial tool of practicing physicists, modern physics curricula do not reflect its importance and utility. In this talk, I will discuss the urgent need to construct such curricula and present recently completed work that demonstrates that curricula can be developed into existing course structures at a variety of levels. I will also discuss how physics education research can be leveraged to investigate student proficiency with computation and to document how students draw from physics, mathematics, and computing knowledge to construct working computational models. This research will help develop effective teaching practices, research-based course activities, and valid assessment tools. This work is fundamentally new within the field of physics education research and these initial studies will frame future projects to incorporate computation in physics courses. Funding for the work presented was provided by the National Science Foundation (DUE 1431776, 1524128, 1504786), the Science Education Initiative, and Michigan State University.

  16. Medicinal plants and food medicines in the folk traditions of the upper Lucca Province, Italy. (United States)

    Pieroni, A


    An ethnopharmacobotanical survey of the medicinal plants and food medicines of the northern part of Lucca Province, north-west Tuscany, central Italy, was carried out. The geographical isolation of this area has permitted the survival of a rich folk phytotherapy involving medicinal herbs and also vegetable resources used by locals as food medicine. Among these are the uncommon use of Ballota nigra leaves as a trophic protective; the use of Lilium candidum bulbs as an antiviral to treat shingles (Herpes zoster); Parmelia sp. as a cholagogue; Crocus napolitanus flowers as antiseptic; Prunus laurocerasus drupes as a hypotensive; and the consumption of chestnut flour polenta cooked with new wine as bechic. Many wild gathered greens are eaten raw in salads, or in boiled mixtures, as 'blood cleansing' and 'intestine cleansing' agents. Of particular interest is the persistence of the archaic use of Bryonia dioica root against sciatica, and the use of ritual plant therapeuticals as good omens, or against the 'evil eye.' Over 120 species represent the heritage of the local folk pharmacopoeia in upper Garfagnana. Anthropological and ethnopharmacological considerations of the collected data are also discussed.

  17. Computed tomography of the cervical compartments on the computer tomogram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaunbauer, W.; Haertel, M.


    The computed tomographic anatomy of the cervical compartments, with emphasis on the fascial planes of the neck, is described. Typical disease processes within these fascial confined compartments have been documented.

  18. The Master in Addiction Medicine Program in the Netherlands (United States)

    De Jong, Cornelis; Luycks, Lonneke; Delicat, Jan-Wilm


    Since 2007 there is a full-time, 2-year professional training in addiction medicine in the Netherlands. The aim of this article is to describe in detail the development and present status of the Dutch Master in Addiction Medicine (MiAM) program. In this competency-based professional training, theoretical courses are integrated with learning in…

  19. Psychosomatic Medicine: The Scientific Foundation of the Biopsychosocial Model (United States)

    Novack, Dennis H.; Cameron, Oliver; Epel, Elissa; Ader, Robert; Waldstein, Shari R.; Levenstein, Susan; Antoni, Michael H.; Wainer, Alicia Rojas


    Objective: This article presents major concepts and research findings from the field of psychosomatic medicine that the authors believe should be taught to all medical students. Method: The authors asked senior scholars involved in psychosomatic medicine to summarize key findings in their respective fields. Results: The authors provide an overview…

  20. Precision wildlife medicine: applications of the human-centred precision medicine revolution to species conservation. (United States)

    Whilde, Jenny; Martindale, Mark Q; Duffy, David J


    The current species extinction crisis is being exacerbated by an increased rate of emergence of epizootic disease. Human-induced factors including habitat degradation, loss of biodiversity and wildlife population reductions resulting in reduced genetic variation are accelerating disease emergence. Novel, efficient and effective approaches are required to combat these epizootic events. Here, we present the case for the application of human precision medicine approaches to wildlife medicine in order to enhance species conservation efforts. We consider how the precision medicine revolution, coupled with the advances made in genomics, may provide a powerful and feasible approach to identifying and treating wildlife diseases in a targeted, effective and streamlined manner. A number of case studies of threatened species are presented which demonstrate the applicability of precision medicine to wildlife conservation, including sea turtles, amphibians and Tasmanian devils. These examples show how species conservation could be improved by using precision medicine techniques to determine novel treatments and management strategies for the specific medical conditions hampering efforts to restore population levels. Additionally, a precision medicine approach to wildlife health has in turn the potential to provide deeper insights into human health and the possibility of stemming and alleviating the impacts of zoonotic diseases. The integration of the currently emerging Precision Medicine Initiative with the concepts of EcoHealth (aiming for sustainable health of people, animals and ecosystems through transdisciplinary action research) and One Health (recognizing the intimate connection of humans, animal and ecosystem health and addressing a wide range of risks at the animal-human-ecosystem interface through a coordinated, collaborative, interdisciplinary approach) has great potential to deliver a deeper and broader interdisciplinary-based understanding of both wildlife and human

  1. Integrative Medicine A Meeting Of The Minds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Healy BA


    unable to do. Hypnosis and guided imagery historically have been used in Eastern medicine but looked down upon in the Western sector. Complimentary alternative or Integrative medicine as it is now called has brought the Western world into a new means of healing as well as complimenting conventional Medicine. Hippocrates the father of modern medicine used the bark of the willow tree to treat his patients for pain or other maladies. He was aware of the healing and pain relief this bark brought to patients of his century. This was common practice yet it was centuries before The Bayer Company in Germany developed the first aspirin. The reason for the story is that Salicylates the main ingredient in non steroidal anti- inflammatory drugs i.e. aspirin is derived from the bark of the willow tree developed centuries before and used successfully. a delayed recognition of healing therapies used and proven to have positive effects for a patient borders on negligence in medicine. It is vital when something is used successfully to recognize its validity and importance and bring it to the forefront. Alternative therapies used successfully for centuries in the Eastern world are now in the Western world being used in hospitals and clinics across the country but still not at the status it deserves. Western medicine does not give it more than a complimentary status perhaps out of fear of replacing modern methods. It should be accepted and welcomed as it makes a difference and perhaps could preclude more invasive treatments in the future.These therapies including hypnosis and guided imagery are used throughout the world and are available to patients as complimentary but they need recognition and more importantly a board to regulate the practice of them as they are integrated into modern medicine. There needs to be a certification for practicing hypnosis and hypnotherapy. A board equal to the status of the State Medical Boards empowered to enforce strict adherence to the ethical and

  2. The National Library of Medicine Programs and Services, Fiscal Year 1974. (United States)

    National Library of Medicine (DHEW), Bethesda, MD.

    The activities and projects of the National Library of Medicine are described. New and continuing programs in library services and operations, on-line computer retrieval services, grants for library assistance, audiovisual programs, and health communications research are included. International activities of the Library are outlined. Summary…

  3. The COMPASS computing farm project

    CERN Document Server

    Lamanna, M


    The COMPASS experiment at CERN is building a large facility for off-line computing in close collaboration with the CERN IT division: the COMPASS Computing Farm. The motivations, the experience, and the plans for deploying a 2,000 Spec INT95 computing farm are discussed. The main technical points are the use of Intel-based Linux PCs for both the I/O and the CPU intensive tasks, and the use of an object data base to store all the data.

  4. Choosing the right computer system. (United States)

    Freydberg, B K; Seltzer, S M; Walker, B


    We are living in a world where virtually any information you desire can be acquired in a matter of moments with the click of a mouse. The computer is a ubiquitous fixture in elementary schools, universities, small companies, large companies, and homes. Many dental offices have incorporated computers as an integral part of their management systems. However, the role of the computer is expanding in the dental office as new hardware and software advancements emerge. The growing popularity of digital radiography and photography is making the possibility of a completely digital patient record more desirable. The trend for expanding the role of dental office computer systems is reflected in the increased number of companies that offer computer packages. The purchase of one of these new systems represents a significant commitment on the part of the dentist and staff. Not only do the systems have a substantial price tag, but they require a great deal of time and effort to become fully integrated into the daily office routine. To help the reader gain some clarity on the blur of new hardware and software available, I have enlisted the help of three recognized authorities on the subject of office organization and computer systems. This article is not intended to provide a ranking of features and shortcomings of specific products that are available, but rather to present a process by which the reader might be able to make better choices when selecting or upgrading a computer system.

  5. [Medicine in the Giornale de'letterati]. (United States)

    Conforti, M


    The Giornale de' letterati published in Rome from 1668 to 1681 was the first Italian scientific journal. It was meant to be the Italian version of the French Journal des Sçavans or the English Philosophical Transactions. Unlike these two, it was not backed by a formal or informal scientific institution, even if one of its editors, Giovanni Giustino Ciampini, was the founder of the Accademia Fisico-Matematica, the leading scientific academy in Rome in the second half of the XVIIth century. The paper, a preliminary step in a study on the diffusion and communication of European medical culture in Rome in this period, indexes and broadly examines the articles pertaining to medicine published in the journal.

  6. Digitization of medicine: how radiology can take advantage of the digital revolution. (United States)

    Li, King C; Marcovici, Peter; Phelps, Andrew; Potter, Christopher; Tillack, Allison; Tomich, Jennifer; Tridandapani, Srini


    In the era of medical cost containment, radiologists must continually maintain their actual and perceived value to patients, payers, and referring providers. Exploitation of current and future digital technologies may be the key to defining and promoting radiology's "brand" and assure our continued relevance in providing predictive, preventive, personalized, and participatory medicine. The Association of University of Radiologists Radiology Research Alliance Digitization of Medicine Task Force was formed to explore the opportunities and challenges of the digitization of medicine that are relevant to radiologists, which include the reporting paradigm, computational biology, and imaging informatics. In addition to discussing these opportunities and challenges, we consider how change occurs in medicine, and how change may be effected in medical imaging community. This review article is a summary of the research of the task force and hopefully can be used as a stimulus for further discussions and development of action plans by radiology leaders. Copyright © 2013 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    CERN Multimedia

    Miguel Marquina


    You may find it useful to glue the information below, e.g. near/at your computer, for those occasions when access to computer services is not possible. It presents the way to contact the Computing Help Desk (hosted by IT Division as an entry point for general computing issues). Do not hesitate to contact us (by email to for additional information or feedback regarding this matter.Your contact for general computing problems or queriesPhone number:(+41 22 76) 78888Opening Hours:From Monday to Friday 8:30-17:30Email:Helpdesk@cern.chWeb: MarquinaIT Division/UserSupport

  8. The impact of nuclear science on medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Kraft, G


    From the very beginning, i.e. from the discovery of the natural radioactivity by H. Becquerel and the production of radium by M. Curie, nuclear physics had a strong impact on medicine: Radioactive sources were immediately made use of in tumor therapy long before the action mechanisms of ionizing radiation were understood. The invention of the tracer technique by G. Hevesy opened a new field for the study of chemokinetics as well as for the in-vivo measurement of various organ functions. In the percutane tumor therapy hadrons like neutrons, pions, protons and heavier ions were tested. Presently, proton therapy is a great success and is spreading all over the world. The new techniques of target-conform treatment using heavy ions for an improved tumor targeting and control represent the latest great improvement of radiation tumor therapy.

  9. Reliability in the utility computing era: Towards reliable Fog computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik; Burtschy, Bernard; Albeanu, G.


    This paper considers current paradigms in computing and outlines the most important aspects concerning their reliability. The Fog computing paradigm as a non-trivial extension of the Cloud is considered and the reliability of the networks of smart devices are discussed. Combining the reliability...... requirements of grid and cloud paradigms with the reliability requirements of networks of sensor and actuators it follows that designing a reliable Fog computing platform is feasible....

  10. The social impact of computers

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Richard S


    The Social Impact of Computers should be read as a guide to the social implications of current and future applications of computers. Among the basic themes presented are the following: the changing nature of work in response to technological innovation as well as the threat to jobs; personal freedom in the machine age as manifested by challenges to privacy, dignity, and work; the relationship between advances in computer and communications technology and the possibility of increased centralization of authority; and the emergence and influence of artificial intelligence and its role in decision

  11. Disciplines, models, and computers: the path to computational quantum chemistry. (United States)

    Lenhard, Johannes


    Many disciplines and scientific fields have undergone a computational turn in the past several decades. This paper analyzes this sort of turn by investigating the case of computational quantum chemistry. The main claim is that the transformation from quantum to computational quantum chemistry involved changes in three dimensions. First, on the side of instrumentation, small computers and a networked infrastructure took over the lead from centralized mainframe architecture. Second, a new conception of computational modeling became feasible and assumed a crucial role. And third, the field of computa- tional quantum chemistry became organized in a market-like fashion and this market is much bigger than the number of quantum theory experts. These claims will be substantiated by an investigation of the so-called density functional theory (DFT), the arguably pivotal theory in the turn to computational quantum chemistry around 1990.

  12. The High Performance Computing Initiative (United States)

    Holcomb, Lee B.; Smith, Paul H.; Macdonald, Michael J.


    The paper discusses NASA High Performance Computing Initiative (HPCI), an essential component of the Federal High Performance Computing Program. The HPCI program is designed to provide a thousandfold increase in computing performance, and apply the technologies to NASA 'Grand Challenges'. The Grand Challenges chosen include integrated multidisciplinary simulations and design optimizations of aerospace vehicles throughout the mission profiles; the multidisciplinary modeling and data analysis of the earth and space science physical phenomena; and the spaceborne control of automated systems, handling, and analysis of sensor data and real-time response to sensor stimuli.

  13. Radiotherapy in the Era of Precision Medicine. (United States)

    Yard, Brian; Chie, Eui Kyu; Adams, Drew J; Peacock, Craig; Abazeed, Mohamed E


    Current predictors of radiation response are largely limited to clinical and histopathologic parameters, and extensive systematic analyses of the correlation between radiation sensitivity and genomic parameters remain lacking. In the era of precision medicine, the lack of -omic determinants of radiation response has hindered the personalization of radiation delivery to the unique characteristics of each patient׳s cancer and impeded the discovery of new therapies that can be administered concurrently with radiation therapy. The cataloging of the -omic determinants of radiation sensitivity of cancer has great potential in enhancing efficacy and limiting toxicity in the context of a new approach to precision radiotherapy. Herein, we review concepts and data that contribute to the delineation of the radiogenomic landscape of cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. "The medicine from behind": The frequent use of enemas in western African traditional medicine. (United States)

    van Andel, Tinde; van Onselen, Sabine; Myren, Britt; Towns, Alexandra; Quiroz, Diana


    Purgative enemas form an integral part of African traditional medicine. Besides possible benefits, serious health risks of rectal herbal therapy have been described in literature. To design appropriate health education programs, it is essential to understand traditional herbal practices and local perceptions of health and illness. Little is known about the herbal ingredients of enemas in Sub-Saharan Africa and consumers' personal reasons to use them. To analyze the importance of enema use with regard to plant species used and illnesses treated in West and Central Africa, to understand the local health beliefs that underlie frequent enema use and to evaluate which recipes and practices could be beneficial or harmful. We extracted data from 266 ethnobotanical questionnaires on medicinal (in particular women's health and childcare) and ritual plant use in Ghana, Benin and Gabon. Plants mentioned during interviews were vouchered and identified in herbaria. Health issues treated by means of enemas were ranked according to the number of plant species used for a specific illness. We compared our results with findings of medical research on benefits and risks of enema use in Sub-Saharan Africa. We recorded ca. 213 different plant species used in hundreds of recipes for rectal insertions, mostly in Ghana and Gabon. Stomachache, abdominal pain, female infertility and birth facilitation were treated with the highest number of plants species. Cleansing the intestines of young children to promote their health by getting rid of 'dirt', instead of treating constipation, was an important cultural practice that required the rectal application of herbal medicine, as well as other cultural bound health issues like stimulating children to walk at an early age. Tradition, the bitter taste of herbal medicine and the rapid effect of enemas were frequently mentioned reasons for enema use. Literature indicates that although enemas can help to improve the hygienic conditions of a household


    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    Overview In autumn the main focus was to process and handle CRAFT data and to perform the Summer08 MC production. The operational aspects were well covered by regular Computing Shifts, experts on duty and Computing Run Coordination. At the Computing Resource Board (CRB) in October a model to account for service work at Tier 2s was approved. The computing resources for 2009 were reviewed for presentation at the C-RRB. The quarterly resource monitoring is continuing. Facilities/Infrastructure operations Operations during CRAFT data taking ran fine. This proved to be a very valuable experience for T0 workflows and operations. The transfers of custodial data to most T1s went smoothly. A first round of reprocessing started at the Tier-1 centers end of November; it will take about two weeks. The Computing Shifts procedure was tested full scale during this period and proved to be very efficient: 30 Computing Shifts Persons (CSP) and 10 Computing Resources Coordinators (CRC). The shift program for the shut down w...

  16. Ethnoveterinary medicine of the Shervaroy Hills of Eastern Ghats, India as alternative medicine for animals. (United States)

    Usha, Swaminathan; Rajasekaran, Chandrasekaran; Siva, Ramamoorthy


    The Eastern Ghats of India is well known for its wealth of natural vegetation and Shervaroy is a major hill range of the Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu. Ethnomedicinal studies in the Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu or the Shervaroy Hills have been carried out by various researchers. However, there is not much information available on ethnoveterinary medicine in the Eastern Ghats of India. The aim of this study was to examine the potential use of folk plants as alternative medicine for cattle to cure various diseases in the Shervaroy Hills of the Eastern Ghats. Based on interactions with traditional medicine practitioners, it has been observed that a total of 21 medicinal plants belonging to 16 families are used to cure various diseases such as mastitis, enteritis, arthritis, stomatitis, salivation from the mouth, wounding, and conjunctivitis in animals. It has been observed that the traditional knowledge of ethnoveterinary medicine is now confined only among the surviving older people and a few practitioners in the tribal communities of the Shervaroy Hills. Unfortunately, no serious attempts have been made to document and preserve this immense treasure of traditional knowledge.

  17. Getting to the core of medicine: Developing undergraduate forensic medicine and pathology teaching. (United States)

    Jones, Richard Martin


    Teaching and learning of forensic medicine and pathology in the undergraduate medical curriculum has been in decline for decades in the UK, and yet graduates are expected to be able to recognise, and protect, those who are most vulnerable in society - i.e. at risk of abuse or neglect - a matter highly relevant to the role of the forensic medical practitioner. When Cardiff University School of Medicine created a new 'learner-centred' undergraduate curriculum, championing case-based discussion in small groups, and earlier clinical contact, residual teaching on 'the pathology of trauma' disappeared. An opportunity to create a new course for the year 3 core curriculum, however, led to re-emergence of forensic medicine and pathology, with a focus on identification, and protection, of the 'vulnerable patient'. This paper describes the development process of the first two iterations of that course, and the influence of 'listening to the student voice'. Forensic medicine and pathology remain relevant in undergraduate medical education; effective, and ethical, safeguarding of the vulnerable is an essential 'core' skill of the modern medical graduate, and forensic medical practitioners can play an integral role in the preparation of medical students for their future clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  18. Ethnoveterinary medicine of the Shervaroy Hills of Eastern Ghats, India as alternative medicine for animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swaminathan Usha


    Full Text Available The Eastern Ghats of India is well known for its wealth of natural vegetation and Shervaroy is a major hill range of the Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu. Ethnomedicinal studies in the Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu or the Shervaroy Hills have been carried out by various researchers. However, there is not much information available on ethnoveterinary medicine in the Eastern Ghats of India. The aim of this study was to examine the potential use of folk plants as alternative medicine for cattle to cure various diseases in the Shervaroy Hills of the Eastern Ghats. Based on interactions with traditional medicine practitioners, it has been observed that a total of 21 medicinal plants belonging to 16 families are used to cure various diseases such as mastitis, enteritis, arthritis, stomatitis, salivation from the mouth, wounding, and conjunctivitis in animals. It has been observed that the traditional knowledge of ethnoveterinary medicine is now confined only among the surviving older people and a few practitioners in the tribal communities of the Shervaroy Hills. Unfortunately, no serious attempts have been made to document and preserve this immense treasure of traditional knowledge.

  19. Opportunities and Challenges Facing the Integrated Physician Workforce of Emergency Medicine and Hospice and Palliative Medicine. (United States)

    Lamba, Sangeeta; DeSandre, Paul L; Quest, Tammie E


    The American Board of Emergency Medicine joined nine other American Board of Medical Specialties member boards to sponsor the subspecialty of Hospice and Palliative Medicine; the first subspecialty examination was administered in 2008. Since then an increasing number of emergency physicians has sought this certification and entered the workforce. There has been limited discussion regarding the experiences and challenges facing this new workforce. We use excerpts from conversations with emergency physicians to highlight the challenges in hospice and palliative medicine training and practice that are commonly being identified by these physicians, at varying phases of their careers. The lessons learned from this initial dual-certified physician cohort in real practice fills a current literature gap. Practical guidance is offered for the increasing number of trainees and mid-career emergency physicians who may have an interest in the subspecialty pathway but are seeking answers to what a future integrated practice will look like in order to make informed career decisions. The Emergency and Hospice and Palliative Medicine integrated workforce is facing novel challenges, opportunities, and growth. The first few years have seen a growing interest in the field among emergency medicine resident trainees. As the dual certified workforce matures, it is expected to impact the clinical practice, research, and education related to emergency palliative care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. American medicine and the politics of race. (United States)

    Bloche, M Gregg


    Straw men play a major role in the debate over racial disparity in American medicine. Most have been deployed by the disparities-denying right, but progressives intent on "outing" racism have sent forth their share. This essay flushes out the straw men while attempting to understand the competing moral premises that drive the politics of health care disparity. At bottom, arguments about the scope of disparity and discrimination in medical care are disputes about the appropriate scope of personal responsibility for life circumstances. Further research into the factors that correlate with racial differences in health care can shed light on the circumstances that bring about these differences. Whether these circumstances, once understood, should be deemed acceptable is a moral and political matter, and sharp differences over the scope of personal and public responsibility for these circumstances are inevitable. Such disagreements, however, distract us from efforts to reach common ground solutions to agreed-upon inequities in health care.

  1. The Concept of Wind in Traditional Chinese Medicine. (United States)

    Dashtdar, Mehrab; Dashtdar, Mohammad Reza; Dashtdar, Babak; Kardi, Karima; Shirazi, Mohammad Khabaz


    The use of folk medicine has been widely embraced in many developed countries under the name of traditional, complementary and alternative medicine (TCAM) and is now becoming the mainstream in the UK and the rest of Europe, as well as in North America and Australia. Diversity, easy accessibility, broad continuity, relatively low cost, base levels of technological inputs, fewer side effects, and growing economic importance are some of the positive features of folk medicine. In this framework, a critical need exists to introduce the practice of folk medicine into public healthcare if the goal of reformed access to healthcare facilities is to be achieved. The amount of information available to public health practitioners about traditional medicine concepts and the utilization of that information are inadequate and pose many problems for the delivery of primary healthcare globally. Different societies have evolved various forms of indigenous perceptions that are captured under the broad concept of folk medicine, e.g., Persian, Chinese, Grecian, and African folk medicines, which explain the lack of universally accepted definitions of terms. Thus, the exchange of information on the diverse forms of folk medicine needs to be facilitated. Various concepts of Wind are found in books on traditional medicine, and many of those go beyond the boundaries established in old manuscripts and are not easily understood. This study intends to provide information, context, and guidance for the collection of all important information on the different concepts of Wind and for their simplification. This new vision for understanding earlier Chinese medicine will benefit public health specialists, traditional and complementary medicine practitioners, and those who are interested in historical medicine by providing a theoretical basis for the traditional medicines and the acupuncture that is used to eliminate Wind in order to treat various diseases.

  2. The Impact of Biomechanics in Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine (United States)

    Butler, David L.; Goldstein, Steven A.; Guo, X. Edward; Kamm, Roger; Laurencin, Cato T.; McIntire, Larry V.; Mow, Van C.; Nerem, Robert M.; Sah, Robert L.; Soslowsky, Louis J.; Spilker, Robert L.; Tranquillo, Robert T.


    Biomechanical factors profoundly influence the processes of tissue growth, development, maintenance, degeneration, and repair. Regenerative strategies to restore damaged or diseased tissues in vivo and create living tissue replacements in vitro have recently begun to harness advances in understanding of how cells and tissues sense and adapt to their mechanical environment. It is clear that biomechanical considerations will be fundamental to the successful development of clinical therapies based on principles of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine for a broad range of musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, craniofacial, skin, urinary, and neural tissues. Biomechanical stimuli may in fact hold the key to producing regenerated tissues with high strength and endurance. However, many challenges remain, particularly for tissues that function within complex and demanding mechanical environments in vivo. This paper reviews the present role and potential impact of experimental and computational biomechanics in engineering functional tissues using several illustrative examples of past successes and future grand challenges. PMID:19583462

  3. The Role of Grid Computing Technologies in Cloud Computing (United States)

    Villegas, David; Rodero, Ivan; Fong, Liana; Bobroff, Norman; Liu, Yanbin; Parashar, Manish; Sadjadi, S. Masoud

    The fields of Grid, Utility and Cloud Computing have a set of common objectives in harnessing shared resources to optimally meet a great variety of demands cost-effectively and in a timely manner Since Grid Computing started its technological journey about a decade earlier than Cloud Computing, the Cloud can benefit from the technologies and experience of the Grid in building an infrastructure for distributed computing. Our comparison of Grid and Cloud starts with their basic characteristics and interaction models with clients, resource consumers and providers. Then the similarities and differences in architectural layers and key usage patterns are examined. This is followed by an in depth look at the technologies and best practices that have applicability from Grid to Cloud computing, including scheduling, service orientation, security, data management, monitoring, interoperability, simulation and autonomic support. Finally, we offer insights on how these techniques will help solve the current challenges faced by Cloud computing.

  4. Antidiabetic effects of the medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleska C. Dornas

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is a chronic metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemy that has a significant impact for their patients. Its incidence is raising leading to an increase in the cost of the cares of the disease and of its complications. The treatment involves, besides dietary control and physical activity, the use of drugs that cause side effects to reach wanted pharmacological actions. However, products of plants are, frequently, considered less poisonous and with fewer side effects than synthetic drugs and widely used by the population. In this paper, several species of plants, used experimentally or in the popular medicine, acting by different ways to control glycemia and/or to inhibit symptoms and characteristic complications of the diabetes, they will be reviewed for evaluation of their supposed therapeutic effects.

  5. The malaria scourge: the place of complementary traditional medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical plants will continue to provide mankind with a dynamic natural laboratory as sources of important medicines, food, cosmetics, and natural pharmaceutical excipients. The WHO recognizes Medicinal Plants as whole plant species or parts thereof whose extracts, decoctions in especially aqueous vehicles whose ...

  6. The Computational Physics Program of the national MFE Computer Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirin, A.A.


    Since June 1974, the MFE Computer Center has been engaged in a significant computational physics effort. The principal objective of the Computational Physics Group is to develop advanced numerical models for the investigation of plasma phenomena and the simulation of present and future magnetic confinement devices. Another major objective of the group is to develop efficient algorithms and programming techniques for current and future generations of supercomputers. The Computational Physics Group has been involved in several areas of fusion research. One main area is the application of Fokker-Planck/quasilinear codes to tokamaks. Another major area is the investigation of resistive magnetohydrodynamics in three dimensions, with applications to tokamaks and compact toroids. A third area is the investigation of kinetic instabilities using a 3-D particle code; this work is often coupled with the task of numerically generating equilibria which model experimental devices. Ways to apply statistical closure approximations to study tokamak-edge plasma turbulence have been under examination, with the hope of being able to explain anomalous transport. Also, we are collaborating in an international effort to evaluate fully three-dimensional linear stability of toroidal devices. In addition to these computational physics studies, the group has developed a number of linear systems solvers for general classes of physics problems and has been making a major effort at ascertaining how to efficiently utilize multiprocessor computers. A summary of these programs are included in this paper. 6 tabs.

  7. Insights into the background of autonomic medicine. (United States)

    Laranjo, Sérgio; Geraldes, Vera; Oliveira, Mário; Rocha, Isabel


    Knowledge of the physiology underlying the autonomic nervous system is pivotal for understanding autonomic dysfunction in clinical practice. Autonomic dysfunction may result from primary modifications of the autonomic nervous system or be secondary to a wide range of diseases that cause severe morbidity and mortality. Together with a detailed history and physical examination, laboratory assessment of autonomic function is essential for the analysis of various clinical conditions and the establishment of effective, personalized and precise therapeutic schemes. This review summarizes the main aspects of autonomic medicine that constitute the background of cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.


    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    Overview During the past three months activities were focused on data operations, testing and re-enforcing shift and operational procedures for data production and transfer, MC production and on user support. Planning of the computing resources in view of the new LHC calendar in ongoing. Two new task forces were created for supporting the integration work: Site Commissioning, which develops tools helping distributed sites to monitor job and data workflows, and Analysis Support, collecting the user experience and feedback during analysis activities and developing tools to increase efficiency. The development plan for DMWM for 2009/2011 was developed at the beginning of the year, based on the requirements from the Physics, Computing and Offline groups (see Offline section). The Computing management meeting at FermiLab on February 19th and 20th was an excellent opportunity discussing the impact and for addressing issues and solutions to the main challenges facing CMS computing. The lack of manpower is particul...

  9. Realizing the promise of personalized medicine. (United States)

    Aspinall, Mara G; Hamermesh, Richard G


    Scientific advances have begun to give doctors the power to customize therapy for individuals. However, adoption of this approach has progressed slowly and unevenly because the trial-and-error treatment model still governs how the health care system develops, regulates, pays for, and delivers therapies. Aspinall, the president of Genzyme Genetics, and Hamermesh, chair of a Harvard Business School initiative to improve leadership in health care organizations, discuss the barriers to personalized medicine and suggest ways to overcome them. The blockbuster model for developing drugs, the authors point out, is still what most major pharmaceutical companies follow, even though its days are numbered. What the industry must embrace in its place is a business model based on a larger portfolio of targeted--and therefore more effective and profitable--treatments, not a limited palette of one-size-fits-all drugs. The current regulatory environment overemphasizes large-scale clinical trials of broad-based therapies. Instead, the focus should be on enrolling subpopulations, based on diagnostic testing, in trials of targeted drug treatments and on monitoring and assessing effectiveness after drugs are approved. A dysfunctional payment system complicates matters by rewarding providers for performance of procedures rather than for accurate diagnosis and effective prevention. Aspinall and Hamermesh call for coordinating regulation and reimbursement so that incentives are provided for the right outcomes. Finally, the authors urge changing physicians' habits through education about genomics, diagnostic testing, and targeted therapies. They say that medical schools and physician organizations must become committed advocates of personalized medicine so that patients and the medical industry can get all the benefits it offers.

  10. Incorporating the Arts and Humanities in Palliative Medicine Education


    Marchand, Lucille R


    The arts and humanities allow the teaching of palliative medicine to come alive by exploring what is often regarded as the most frightening outcome of the illness experience – death and dying. Palliative medicine focuses on the relief of suffering, but how can suffering be understood if the story of the patient is not told through prose, poetry, music, and images? This article describes how teaching can incorporate the power of story through the arts to enrich the palliative medicine curric...

  11. The Future of Family Medicine: a collaborative project of the family medicine community. (United States)

    Martin, James C; Avant, Robert F; Bowman, Marjorie A; Bucholtz, John R; Dickinson, John R; Evans, Kenneth L; Green, Larry A; Henley, Douglas E; Jones, Warren A; Matheny, Samuel C; Nevin, Janice E; Panther, Sandra L; Puffer, James C; Roberts, Richard G; Rodgers, Denise V; Sherwood, Roger A; Stange, Kurt C; Weber, Cynthia W


    Recognizing fundamental flaws in the fragmented US health care systems and the potential of an integrative, generalist approach, the leadership of 7 national family medicine organizations initiated the Future of Family Medicine (FFM) project in 2002. The goal of the project was to develop a strategy to transform and renew the discipline of family medicine to meet the needs of patients in a changing health care environment. A national research study was conducted by independent research firms. Interviews and focus groups identified key issues for diverse constituencies, including patients, payers, residents, students, family physicians, and other clinicians. Subsequently, interviews were conducted with nationally representative samples of 9 key constituencies. Based in part on these data, 5 task forces addressed key issues to meet the project goal. A Project Leadership Committee synthesized the task force reports into the report presented here. The project identified core values, a New Model of practice, and a process for development, research, education, partnership, and change with great potential to transform the ability of family medicine to improve the health and health care of the nation. The proposed New Model of practice has the following characteristics: a patient-centered team approach; elimination of barriers to access; advanced information systems, including an electronic health record; redesigned, more functional offices; a focus on quality and outcomes; and enhanced practice finance. A unified communications strategy will be developed to promote the New Model of family medicine to multiple audiences. The study concluded that the discipline needs to oversee the training of family physicians who are committed to excellence, steeped in the core values of the discipline, competent to provide family medicine's basket of services within the New Model, and capable of adapting to varying patient needs and changing care technologies. Family medicine education

  12. The principles of computer hardware

    CERN Document Server

    Clements, Alan


    Principles of Computer Hardware, now in its third edition, provides a first course in computer architecture or computer organization for undergraduates. The book covers the core topics of such a course, including Boolean algebra and logic design; number bases and binary arithmetic; the CPU; assembly language; memory systems; and input/output methods and devices. It then goes on to cover the related topics of computer peripherals such as printers; the hardware aspects of the operating system; and data communications, and hence provides a broader overview of the subject. Its readable, tutorial-based approach makes it an accessible introduction to the subject. The book has extensive in-depth coverage of two microprocessors, one of which (the 68000) is widely used in education. All chapters in the new edition have been updated. Major updates include: powerful software simulations of digital systems to accompany the chapters on digital design; a tutorial-based introduction to assembly language, including many exam...


    Morales, Fátima; Padilla, Susana; Falconí, Félix


    Phyto-therapy studies on Chimborazo province in Ecuador are really limited. This area, located within the Andes, is considered a millenarian and intercultural province, where multiples cultures and ethnic groups coexist. The study was conducted through direct interviews with 84 ancestral healers from the Province of Chimborazo, Ecuador. We presented ten most used species by ancestral healers of Chimborazo province to cure different illnesses and their medicinal uses. We also provided the application mode and some features of healing that should be emphasized. The nettle was the medicinal plant employed for more different illness and the chamomile was the one with higher prevalence. We could confirm that the Native Ecuadorians have a vast variety of traditions and popular medicinal practices that have great value and are needed to be researched and studied extensively.

  14. [The art of therapy in Islamic medicine]. (United States)

    Masić, I


    History is a witness of the great importance and influence of islamic science from the period of "Golden Age of Arabic Civilisation". A famous scientist said: "Sciences has no country, it is international; we all share in fruits of investigations of people from different traditions and all ages." Scientists from the early period of islamic era had set fire of a stream of man's thought and progress, observation, experiments and tradition, that have become a weapon of modern science. All of that was based upon Quran and Hadiths, that have been their guidelines when setting free human mind from taboos. Medieval Arabian scientists have followed the words of Holly Prophet Mohammad s.a.v.s., saying that searching for knowledge have had to be the most important task for people, and that ink more saint than blood of the saints. These attitudes of Holly Prophet have awaken desire for studying with muslim scientists. The result of that desire became a key of scientific progress. There are many worldwide famous arabian scientists: El-Kindi, Er-Razi, Ibn Sina, El-Biruni, Ibu Hajsem, Ez-Zahravi, El-Farabi, Ibn Zuhr, Ibn Ruzd etc. These names, among several hundreds of arabian physicians, attribute "Golden Age" of islamic science. That period was characterised by movements, reprocessing of ideas. That reprocessing of ideas has gained the great minds together, and that process is continuous. That is why we have to be grateful to them. Famous Muslim physicians defined medicine as skill that dealt in keeping good health, coped with ills and health recovering. They have also modified many Greek writings and established basic principles of the art of medicine. What is significant is that, regardless of historical past and modern technical and technological presence, these principles are still accurate for understanding of medical science. These principles are what the author is discussing in detail in this paper about.

  15. Family medicine training--the international experience. (United States)

    Roberts, Richard G; Hunt, Vincent R; Kulie, Teresa I; Schmidt, Wesley; Schirmer, Julie M; Villanueva, Tiago; Wilson, C Ruth


    Family medicine is undergoing dramatic transformation around the world. Its organisation, delivery, and funding are changing in profound ways. While the specifics of primary care reform vary, a common emerging strategy involves establishment of primary health care teams that provide improved access, use electronic records, are networked with other teams, and are paid using blended payment schemes. More family doctors are needed in all countries. New approaches beyond the traditional apprenticeships or residency programs will be required to meet global demand. Training of family doctors must change to prepare tomorrow's family physician for a different practice reality. Curricula are more competency-oriented, rather than time-focused. Today's trainees can anticipate a career that includes periodic reassessment of their knowledge base and competency. This article explores these trends and offers some strategies that have proved effective in various parts of the world for training increased numbers of qualified family doctors.


    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk


    Introduction CMS distributed computing system performed well during the 2011 start-up. The events in 2011 have more pile-up and are more complex than last year; this results in longer reconstruction times and harder events to simulate. Significant increases in computing capacity were delivered in April for all computing tiers, and the utilisation and load is close to the planning predictions. All computing centre tiers performed their expected functionalities. Heavy-Ion Programme The CMS Heavy-Ion Programme had a very strong showing at the Quark Matter conference. A large number of analyses were shown. The dedicated heavy-ion reconstruction facility at the Vanderbilt Tier-2 is still involved in some commissioning activities, but is available for processing and analysis. Facilities and Infrastructure Operations Facility and Infrastructure operations have been active with operations and several important deployment tasks. Facilities participated in the testing and deployment of WMAgent and WorkQueue+Request...

  17. Computers and computations in the neurosciences

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    ... were attributed to each polygon according to its area. Photo courtesy of Professor Charles Duyckaerts, Hôpital de la Salpêtrière, Paris, France. For more detail see the legend for the lower panel of Figure 6 of Chapter [32]. This book is printed on acid-free paper. © Copyright © 1992 by ACADEMIC PRESS, INC. All Rights Reserved. No ...

  18. Improvement for equipment in the practices of basic veterinary medicine


    市原, 伸恒


    The practices (veterinary anatomy laboratory, veterinarian physiology laboratory I, veterinarian physiology laboratory II, and veterinarian physiology chemistry laboratory) in the area of basic veterinary medicine are important subjects for acquiring knowledge and the technique by the process of shifting from the liberal arts subject to a specialized subjects for the area of applied veterinary medicine and clinical veterinary medicine. The number of equipment is insufficient to practice effec...


    CERN Multimedia

    P. McBride

    The Computing Project is preparing for a busy year where the primary emphasis of the project moves towards steady operations. Following the very successful completion of Computing Software and Analysis challenge, CSA06, last fall, we have reorganized and established four groups in computing area: Commissioning, User Support, Facility/Infrastructure Operations and Data Operations. These groups work closely together with groups from the Offline Project in planning for data processing and operations. Monte Carlo production has continued since CSA06, with about 30M events produced each month to be used for HLT studies and physics validation. Monte Carlo production will continue throughout the year in the preparation of large samples for physics and detector studies ramping to 50 M events/month for CSA07. Commissioning of the full CMS computing system is a major goal for 2007. Site monitoring is an important commissioning component and work is ongoing to devise CMS specific tests to be included in Service Availa...

  20. Nanotechnology for the Environment and Medicine. (United States)

    Formoso, Patrizia; Muzzalupo, Rita; Tavano, Lorena; De Filpo, Giovanni; Nicoletta, Fiore Pasquale


    Nanotechnology encompasses the production and applications of physical, chemical, and biological systems at scales ranging from individual atoms or molecules to around 100 nanometres, as well as the integration of the resulting nanostructures into larger systems. Nanomaterials differ from bulk materials for their relatively larger surface-area-to-mass ratio, consequently they become more chemically reactive and can show different optical, magnetic and electrical behaviours. In recent years, engineered nanomaterials have gained a particular attention in some fields such as environmental protection (soil, air and water remediation/treatment) and medicine (bio-sensing, imaging, and drug delivery). Nanoparticles can be used to monitor in real-time some pollutants (including heavy metal ions, organic compounds, microbiological pathogens, etc.) present even at extremely low concentrations in different environments. The use of nanomaterials for waste remediation/treatment results in a technology more cost-effective and rapid than current conventional approaches thanks to their enhanced surface area, transport properties, and sequestration characteristics. In addition, the integration of molecular biology and medicine with nanotechnology has resulted in new active nanostructures able to interact with biological systems. Nanocarriers based on carbon nanotubes, fumed silica (SiO2), titanium dioxide (TiO2), and magnetite and maghemite (Fe3O4, and γ-Fe2O3) nanoparticles have a distinct advantage over other drug carriers as they can be opportunely designed to reach the desired targets. As a consequence, such nanostructures can represent an important platform for enhanced medical imaging and controlled drug delivery. Here, some applications of nanomaterials as water purifying agents and drug delivery systems are reported.

  1. The computed cranial focal point

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, G.A. de; Maal, T.J.J.; Delye, H.


    INTRODUCTION: Stereophotogrammetry is a radiation-free method for monitoring skull development after craniosynostosis repair. Lack of clear fixed reference points complicate longitudinal comparison of 3D photographs. Therefore we developed the 'computed cranial focal point' (CCFP). METHODS: The CCFP

  2. World integrated medicine forum on the regulation of homoeopathic medicinal products: National and global strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harleen Kaur


    Full Text Available The first World Integrated Medicine Forum on the regulation of homoeopathic medicinal products included 50 delegates from 25 countries to discuss the current state of regulation of homoeopathic medicinal products (HMPs. The stakeholders in attendance included government officials, manufacturers, pharmacopoeia organisations, pharmacists, and healthcare providers worldwide. The Minister of Ayurveda, Yoga, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy from India, who is likely the only high ranking national official in the world specifically dedicated to oversight of traditional medicines including Homoeopathy, was the keynote speaker for the meeting. The core presentations delivered information on the country-to-country variance in regulatory requirements for homoeopathic medicine manufacture and marketing. Different speakers addressed the current pharmacopeia structures in various countries, variance in premarket approval process, regulatory frameworks for homoeopathic medicines, labelling requirements, safety requirements, marketing approaches and good manufacturing practices. Debates focused on quality control testing, stability of intermediate stocks, shelf life of finished products, pre-market approval process and labelling and they shed light on regional differences in regulation. A lengthy discussion was held on the potential value of harmonisation of pharmacopoeias, manufacturing standards, safety evaluation and labelling. The group consensus was to meet again to pursue specific topics. Daily summaries of take-away points are provided at the end of each day's talk summaries. Much acclaim was won by the organisers for materialising this unique forum which proved to be an apt platform for rigorous discussions on lesser discussed, but very vital points such as regulations of HMPs, harmonisation of pharmacopeias and linking industry and regulators' sectors for unified efforts for global development of Homoeopathy.

  3. The new curriculum for family medicine at the University of Split, School of Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivančica Pavličević


    Full Text Available According to the new curriculum at the University of Split School ofMedicine for the 2010/2011 academic year, the Department of FamilyMedicine based its teaching on its own expert and research work. Theadequacy of the communication with the patient, his or her familyand the social environment, as well as the concept of evidence-basedmedicine (EBM have been defined as the foundation of expert andresearch work in family medicine. In accordance with this strategy,the members of the Department are involved in conducting journalclubs, Cochrane systematic reviews, research into the health of families where the father is absent working abroad (there are many such families with emigrant fathers in the region, and some are working on developing student letters to patients as an instrument for encouraging communication and empathy. The proportion of theoreticalclasses was reduced to provide more time for practice-based classes for students. The Work Diary was also introduced, as well as the student letter to the patient, practice of clinical skills and objective, structured, clinical examination (OSCE. The assessment of students is performed in four parts: the grade given by the student’s practice supervisor, the grade for student letters to patients, the OSCE exam grade and the written exam grade. Students achieved, on average, very high grades. The Department is also involved in the course on clinical and social skills to first and second year students, taking on the task of introducing students to patients and their surroundings.

  4. Annual meeting of the Japan Traditional Chinese Medicine Association: Quantifying and objectifying traditional Chinese medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh Iwasaki


    Full Text Available Five researchers reported on their studies to quantify and objectify traditional medicine at the symposium “Verification of Traditional Chinese Medicine” during the 2016 annual meeting of the Japan Traditional Chinese Medicine Association. Takao Namiki reported on a methodology to quantify tongue diagnosis. Tetsuhiro Yoshino presented work on predictive prescribing two Kampo formulas for dysmenorrhea, Tangkuei and Peony Powder (Danggui Shaoyao San and Cinnamon Twig and Poria Pill (Guizhi Fuling Wan. Koh Iwasaki presented work on validation of a questionnaire for assessing qi stagnation and Mitsuyuki Takamura reported on application of the questionnaire to evaluate the efficacy of Pinellia and Magnolia Bark Decoction (Banxia Houpo Tang. Kaoru Sakatani presented research on near-infrared spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool for wei bing, a concept of pre-symptomatic state in traditional Chinese medicine.

  5. The current status of knowledge of herbal medicine and medicinal plants in Fiche, Ethiopia. (United States)

    d'Avigdor, Elizabeth; Wohlmuth, Hans; Asfaw, Zemede; Awas, Tesfaye


    A majority of Ethiopians rely on traditional medicine as their primary form of health care, yet they are in danger of losing both their knowledge and the plants they have used as medicines for millennia. This study, conducted in the rural town of Fiche in Ethiopia, was undertaken with the support of Southern Cross University (SCU) Australia, Addis Ababa University (AAU) Ethiopia, and the Ethiopian Institute of Biodiversity (EIB), Ethiopia. The aim of this study, which included an ethnobotanical survey, was to explore the maintenance of tradition in the passing on of knowledge, the current level of knowledge about medicinal herbs and whether there is awareness and concern about the potential loss of both herbal knowledge and access to traditional medicinal plants. This study was conducted using an oral history framework with focus groups, unstructured and semi-structured interviews, field-walk/discussion sessions, and a market survey. Fifteen people were selected via purposeful and snowball sampling. Analysis was undertaken using a grounded theory methodology. Fourteen lay community members and one professional herbalist provided information about 73 medicinal plants used locally. An ethnobotanical survey was performed and voucher specimens of 53 of the plants, representing 33 families, were collected and deposited at the EIB Herbarium. The community members are knowledgeable about recognition of medicinal plants and their usage to treat common ailments, and they continue to use herbs to treat sickness as they have in the past. A willingness to share knowledge was demonstrated by both the professional herbalist and lay informants. Participants are aware of the threat to the continued existence of the plants and the knowledge about their use, and showed willingness to take steps to address the situation. There is urgent need to document the valuable knowledge of medicinal herbs in Ethiopia. Ethnobotanical studies are imperative, and concomitant sustainable programmes

  6. The Ethics of Cloud Computing


    de Bruin, Boudewijn; Floridi, Luciano


    Cloud computing is rapidly gaining traction in business. It offers businesses online services on demand (such as Gmail, iCloud and Salesforce) and allows them to cut costs on hardware and IT support. This is the first paper in business ethics dealing with this new technology. It analyzes the informational duties of hosting companies that own and operate cloud computing datacentres (e.g., Amazon). It considers the cloud services providers leasing ‘space in the cloud’ from hosting companies (e....

  7. Clinical holistic medicine: the "new medicine", the multiparadigmatic physician, and the medical record. (United States)

    Ventegodt, Søren; Morad, Mohammed; Merrick, Joav


    The modern physician is often multiparadigmatic as he serves many different types of people in many different existential circumstances. The physician basically often has three, very different sets of technologies or "toolboxes" at his disposal, derived from three different medical paradigms: classical, manual medicine; biomedicine; and holistic or consciousness-oriented medicine. For lack of a better term, we have called the extended medical science--integrating these three different paradigms and their three strands of tools and methods--the "new medicine". The excellent physician, mastering the "new medicine", uses the most efficient way to help every patient, giving him or her exactly what is needed under the circumstances. The excellent physician will choose the right paradigm(s) for the person, the illness, or the situation, and will use the case record to keep track of all the subjective and objective factors and events involved in the process of healing through time. The case or medical record has the following purposes: A. REFLECTION: To keep track of facts, to provide an overview, to encourage causal analysis, to support research and learning, and to reveal mistakes easily. B. To communicate with the patient with a printout of the case record to create trust and help the patient to remember all assignments and exercises. C. EVIDENCE AND SAFETY: To provide evidence and safety for the patient or to be used in case of legal questions. D. SELF-DISCIPLINE: To encourage discipline, as a good case record is basically honest, sober, brief, and sticks to the point. It forces the physician to make an effort to be more diligent and careful than a busy day usually allows. The intention of the case or medical record is ethical: to be sure that you, as a physician, give the best possible treatment to your patient. It helps you to reflect deeply, communicate efficiently, provide evidence and safety, and back your self-discipline, never to be carried away by the high

  8. Ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants used in traditional medicine by the communities of Mount Hermon, Lebanon. (United States)

    Baydoun, Safaa; Chalak, Lamis; Dalleh, Helena; Arnold, Nelly


    Medicinal plant species in Lebanon are experiencing severe threats because of various environmental conditions, human expansion footprints and recent growing global demand. Organized research and information on indigenous medicinal plants and knowledge have been very limited and little efforts have been invested to develop a complete inventory for native medicinal plants and associated traditional knowledge in the country. Recognized as a key biodiversity area of the Mediterranean Basin, Mount Hermon hosts important richness of medicinal plants that has been traditionally used in treatment of many illnesses since generations. Novel knowledge gathered by the present investigation is important in preserving indigenous knowledge of Mount Hermon community and revitalizing traditional herbal medicines. Ethnopharmacological information was collected by semi-structured interviews with 53 native informants (herbalists, traditional healers, midwives and local adult villagers) in 13 towns and villages surrounding Mount Hermon. The interviews were conducted through guided field visits and discussion groups whilst collecting plants specimens. Taxonomical identification of plant species was based on the determination keys of the "New Flora of Lebanon and Syria" and specimens were deposited at the herbarium of the Research Center for Environment and Development at Beirut Arab University. The results obtained indicate that 124 plant species of Mount flora are still used in traditional medicine by the local communities as an important source of primary health care and treatment of a wide range of different illnesses. These species belonged to 42 families and 102 genera. Compositae (19 species), Labiatae (18 species), Rosaceae (11) and Umbelliferae (11) formed the dominant families. Informants' Consensus Factor (FIC) analysis revealed that among the 14 illness categories used, respiratory (0.94), gastrointestinal and renal (0.93), genital systems (0.92) had the highest FIC values

  9. Distributed Computing Beyond The Grid

    CERN Document Server

    Klimentov, A; The ATLAS collaboration


    This note will summarize the Software development and operational experience and improvements of the ATLAS Distributed Computing in the past years. Grid model was successfully deployed for all HEP experiments and after the first two years of very successful LHC data-taking and processing on the Grid we need to assess our experience and to find a good balance between stability and innovation. Several Research and Development (RnD) pilot projects were launched by ATLAS (and HEP) computing communities, namely 'cloud computing', data storage federation. HEP experiments are also adopted data popularity model and it allows to migrate from planned data placement to the dynamic model. This talk will also present an overview of HEP experiments computing model evolution and increasing role of networking as one of major resources (in addition to storage and CPU) which should be taken into account by workload management and data management systems.

  10. Aligning the Economic Value of Companion Diagnostics and Stratified Medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward D. Blair


    Full Text Available The twin forces of payors seeking fair pricing and the rising costs of developing new medicines has driven a closer relationship between pharmaceutical companies and diagnostics companies, because stratified medicines, guided by companion diagnostics, offer better commercial, as well as clinical, outcomes. Stratified medicines have created clinical success and provided rapid product approvals, particularly in oncology, and indeed have changed the dynamic between drug and diagnostic developers. The commercial payback for such partnerships offered by stratified medicines has been less well articulated, but this has shifted as the benefits in risk management, pricing and value creation for all stakeholders become clearer. In this larger healthcare setting, stratified medicine provides both physicians and patients with greater insight on the disease and provides rationale for providers to understand cost-effectiveness of treatment. This article considers how the economic value of stratified medicine relationships can be recognized and translated into better outcomes for all healthcare stakeholders.

  11. Rejecting medical humanism: medical humanities and the metaphysics of medicine. (United States)

    Bishop, Jeffrey P


    The call for a narrative medicine has been touted as the cure-all for an increasingly mechanical medicine. It has been claimed that the humanities might create more empathic, reflective, professional and trustworthy doctors. In other words, we can once again humanise medicine through the addition of humanities. In this essay, I explore how the humanities, particularly narrative medicine, appeals to the metaphysical commitments of the medical institution in order to find its justification, and in so doing, perpetuates a dualism of humanity that would have humanism as the counterpoint to the biopsychosociologisms of our day.

  12. The Future of Music in Therapy and Medicine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library



    A bstract : The understanding of music's role and function in therapy and medicine is undergoing a rapid transformation, based on neuroscientific research showing the reciprocal relationship between studying...

  13. Computational Physics Across the Disciplines (United States)

    Crespi, Vincent; Lammert, Paul; Engstrom, Tyler; Owen, Ben


    In this informal talk, I will present two case studies of the unexpected convergence of computational techniques across disciplines. First, the marriage of neutron star astrophysics and the materials theory of the mechanical and thermal response of crystalline solids. Although the lower reaches of a neutron star host exotic nuclear physics, the upper few meters of the crust exist in a regime that is surprisingly amenable to standard molecular dynamics simulation, albeit in a physical regime of density order of magnitude of orders of magnitude different from those familiar to most condensed matter folk. Computational results on shear strength, thermal conductivity, and other properties here are very relevant to possible gravitational wave signals from these sources. The second example connects not two disciplines of computational physics, but experimental and computational physics, and not from the traditional direction of computational progressively approaching experiment. Instead, experiment is approaching computation: regular lattices of single-domain magnetic islands whose magnetic microstates can be exhaustively enumerated by magnetic force microscopy. There resulting images of island magnetization patterns look essentially like the results of Monte Carlo simulations of Ising systems... statistical physics with the microstate revealed.

  14. Medical History in the Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine. (United States)

    Otte, Andreas


    biological views of the "atomic" philosophers, Leucippus and Democritus. E. Magiorkinis. A. Beloukas, A. Diamantis. 2010; 13(2): 111-117. Correspondence. Neuroimaging in mild traumatic brain injury and M. Ravel's injury. A. Otte. 2012; 15(1): 76. http://nuclmed. Selected Brief Contributions. The "atomic theory" of Leucippus, and its impact on medicine before Hippocrates. G. Tsoucalas, K. Laios et al. 2013; 16(1): 68-9. Selected Brief Contributions. Computed tomography alone reveals the secrets of ancient mummies in medical archaeology. A. Otte, T. Thieme et al. 2013; 16(2): 148-9. Editorial. The timeless influence of Hippocratic ideas on diet, salicylates and personalized medicine. T.C. Karagiannis. 2014; 17(1): 2-6. Historical Article. The physician who first applied radiotherapy, Victor Despeignes, on 1896. M. Sgantzos, G. Tsoucalas et al. 2014; 17(1): 45-6. Original Articles. Medical practice applied in the ancient Asclepeion in Kos island. M. Mironidou-Tzouveleki, P.M. Tzitzis. 2014; 17(3): 167-70. Special Historical Article. How a tertiary medical nuclear medicine department at the Himalayan area in India can be established and function in an exemplary manner. Basic rules revisited. V.K. Dhingra, S. Saini et al. 2015; 18(3): 252-6. http:// Historical and Commentary Note. Johann Sebastian Bach's "Goldberg variations" to treat insomnia from renal lithiasis pain. Sleep research in Nuclear Medicine. A. Otte. 2016; 19(1): 13-4. Historical Review. The first medical ethics and deontology in Europe as derived from Greek mythology

  15. Personalized medicine. Closing the gap between knowledge and clinical practice. (United States)

    Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Duarte-Rey, Carolina; Sarmiento-Monroy, Juan C; Bardey, David; Castiblanco, John; Rojas-Villarraga, Adriana


    Personalized medicine encompasses a broad and evolving field informed by a patient distinctive information and biomarker profile. Although terminology is evolving and some semantic interpretations exist (e.g., personalized, individualized, precision), in a broad sense personalized medicine can be coined as: "To practice medicine as it once used to be in the past using the current biotechnological tools." A humanized approach to personalized medicine would offer the possibility of exploiting systems biology and its concept of P5 medicine, where predictive factors for developing a disease should be examined within populations in order to establish preventive measures on at-risk individuals, for whom healthcare should be personalized and participatory. Herein, the process of personalized medicine is presented together with the options that can be offered in health care systems with limited resources for diseases like rheumatoid arthritis and type 1 diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. [Precision medicine : a required approach for the general internist]. (United States)

    Waeber, Gérard; Cornuz, Jacques; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Guessous, Idris; Mooser, Vincent; Perrier, Arnaud; Simonet, Martine Louis


    The general internist cannot be a passive bystander of the anticipated medical revolution induced by precision medicine. This latter aims to improve the predictive and/or clinical course of an individual by integrating all biological, genetic, environmental, phenotypic and psychosocial knowledge of a person. In this article, national and international initiatives in the field of precision medicine are discussed as well as the potential financial, ethical and limitations of personalized medicine. The question is not to know if precision medicine will be part of everyday life but rather to integrate early the general internist in multidisciplinary teams to ensure optimal information and shared-decision process with patients and individuals.

  17. Herbal medicine in the treatment of ulcerative colitis. (United States)

    Ke, Fei; Yadav, Praveen Kumar; Ju, Liu Zhan


    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a refractory, chronic, and nonspecific disease occurred usually in the rectum and the entire colon. The etiopathology is probably related to dysregulation of the mucosal immune response toward the resident bacterial flora together with genetic and environmental factors. Several types of medications are used to control the inflammation or reduce symptoms. Herbal medicine includes a wide range of practices and therapies outside the realms of conventional Western medicine. However, there are limited controlled evidences indicating the efficacy of traditional Chinese medicines, such as aloe vera gel, wheat grass juice, Boswellia serrata, and bovine colostrum enemas in the treatment of UC. Although herbal medicines are not devoid of risk, they could still be safer than synthetic drugs. The potential benefits of herbal medicine could lie in their high acceptance by patients, efficacy, relative safety, and relatively low cost. Patients worldwide seem to have adopted herbal medicine in a major way, and the efficacy of herbal medicine has been tested in hundreds of clinical trials in the management of UC. The evidences on herbal medicine are incomplete, complex, and confusing, and certainly associated with both risks and benefits. There is a need for further controlled clinical trials of the potential efficacy of herbal medicine approaches in the treatment of UC, together with enhanced legislation to maximize their quality and safety.

  18. Development of family medicine in the middle East. (United States)

    Abyad, Abdulrazak; Al-Baho, Abeer Khaled; Unluoglu, Ilhami; Tarawneh, Mohammed; Al Hilfy, Thamer Kadum Yousif


    This paper outlines the development of family medicine in seven Middle Eastern countries. Some of the first family medicine activity occurred in Turkey in 1961, in Bahrain in 1978, in Lebanon in 1979, in Jordan in 1981, and in Kuwait in 1983. Family medicine programs have also been established in Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, Libya, and Iraq. In most programs, family medicine training occurs largely in hospitals, even though few Middle Eastern family physicians practice in hospitals after completion of residency training. Thus, there is a need for better outpatient training, but resistance from those responsible for traditional medical education makes it difficult to change the current model of family medicine education. There is also need for better opportunities for professional development after graduation and for establishing research activity in family medicine.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unita Lucian


    Full Text Available The concerns with respect to healthy life styles, preventive medical approaches, safe environment, and early warning systems represents the Millennium Development Goals, the United Nations Organization's so called Decade for Education for Sustainable Development, the European Union's sustainability strategy, the Global Environmental Outlook of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP and the ten Principles of the UN Global Compact, all aiming to attain the sustainable global health, which is possible only through collective multilevel efforts for the sake of human wellbeing, equity, livelihood, and worldwide sustainable development and stability. Romania, as an EU Member States, have to take into consideration the fact that health is a precondition for economic growth and sustainable development, and this way, it has to promote the EU common approaches to health policy. Between these approaches, the prevention plays a key role when addressing to the global health challenges such as the pandemics control, and the rising tide of non-communicable diseases. For these purposes, preventive strategies need to include promoting polices that foster a healthy environment, healthy life styles and equitable access to health care and information, so, it is necessary to meet the requests towards sustainable global health. From this perspective, for the empirical research pursued in this paper, we have considered the Global Challenge Index, which focuses on seven global challenges of the new millennium, and on this basis, we have compared Romania with the other EU Member States. Then, we have computed the index for Oradea and its neighbour region, including the framework of a comprehensive analysis of political, economic and social target system. The key issues we have considered in this context were referring to lifestyles, life care and education for lifelong well-being, partnerships for health, institutions and related policy areas, alternative

  20. The validity and reliability of attending evaluations of medicine residents


    Jackson, Jeffrey L.; Cynthia Kay; Michael Frank


    Objectives: To assess the reliability and validity of faculty evaluations of medicine residents. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study (2004–2012) involving 228 internal medicine residency graduates at the Medical College of Wisconsin who were evaluated by 334 attendings. Measures included evaluations of residents by attendings, based on six competencies and interns and residents’ performance on the American Board of Internal Medicine certification exam and annual in-service training ex...

  1. Antimicrobial fungal endophytes from the botanical medicine goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis)


    Joseph M Egan; Kaur, Amninder; Raja, Huzefa A.; Kellogg, Joshua J.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.; Cech., Nadja B.


    The potential of fungal endophytes to alter or contribute to plant chemistry and biology has been the topic of a great deal of recent interest. For plants that are used medicinally, it has been proposed that endophytes might play an important role in biological activity. With this study, we sought to identify antimicrobial fungal endophytes from the medicinal plant goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis L., Ranunculaceae), a plant used in traditional medicine to treat infection. A total of 23 funga...

  2. Nuclear medicine training and practice in the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminek, Milan; Koranda, Pavel [University Hospital Olomouc, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Olomouc (Czech Republic)


    Nuclear medicine in the Czech Republic is a full specialty with an exclusive practice. Since the training program was organized and structured in recent years, residents have had access to the specialty of nuclear medicine, starting with a two-year general internship (in internal medicine or radiology). At present, nuclear medicine services are provided in 45 departments. In total, 119 nuclear medicine specialists are currently registered. In order to obtain the title of Nuclear Medicine Specialist, five years of training are necessary; the first two years consist of a general internship in internal medicine or radiology. The remaining three years consist of training in the nuclear medicine specialty itself, but includes three months of practice in radiology. Twenty-one physicians are currently in nuclear medicine training and a mean of three specialists pass the final exam per year. The syllabus is very similar to that of the European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS), namely concerning the minimum recommended numbers for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. In principle, the Czech law requires continuous medical education for all practicing doctors. The Czech Medical Chamber has provided a continuing medical education (CME) system. Other national CMEs are not accepted in Czech Republic. (orig.)

  3. The Current State of Pediatric Sports Medicine: A Workforce Analysis. (United States)

    Engelman, Glenn; Koutures, Chris; Provance, Aaron


    Pediatric sports medicine is an evolving pediatric subspecialty. No workforce data currently exists describing the current state of pediatric sports medicine. The goal of this survey is to contribute information to the practicing pediatric sports medicine specialist, employers and other stakeholders regarding the current state of pediatric sports medicine. The Workforce Survey was conducted by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) Division of Workforce and Medical Education Policy (WMEP) and included a 44-item standard questionnaire online addressing training, clinical practice and demographic characteristics as well as the 24-item AAP Council on Sports Medicine and Fitness (COSMF) questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize all survey responses. Bivariate relationships were tested for statistical significance using Chi square. 145 surveys were returned, which represented a 52.7% response rate for eligible COSMF members and board certified non-council responders. The most common site of employment among respondents was university-based clinics. The respondents board certified in sports medicine were significantly more likely to perform fracture management, casting and splinting, neuropsychological testing and injections compared to those not board certified in sports medicine. A large proportion of respondents held an academic/medical school appointment. Increases were noted in both patient volume and the complexity of the injuries the specialists were treating. This pediatric sports medicine workforce study provides previously unappreciated insight into practice arrangements, weekly duties, procedures, number of patients seen, referral patterns, and potential future trends of the pediatric sports medicine specialist.

  4. Nuclear medicine training and practice in the Czech Republic. (United States)

    Kamínek, Milan; Koranda, Pavel


    Nuclear medicine in the Czech Republic is a full specialty with an exclusive practice. Since the training program was organized and structured in recent years, residents have had access to the specialty of nuclear medicine, starting with a two-year general internship (in internal medicine or radiology). At present, nuclear medicine services are provided in 45 departments. In total, 119 nuclear medicine specialists are currently registered. In order to obtain the title of Nuclear Medicine Specialist, five years of training are necessary; the first two years consist of a general internship in internal medicine or radiology. The remaining three years consist of training in the nuclear medicine specialty itself, but includes three months of practice in radiology. Twenty-one physicians are currently in nuclear medicine training and a mean of three specialists pass the final exam per year. The syllabus is very similar to that of the European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS), namely concerning the minimum recommended numbers for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. In principle, the Czech law requires continuous medical education for all practicing doctors. The Czech Medical Chamber has provided a continuing medical education (CME) system. Other national CMEs are not accepted in Czech Republic.

  5. Pharmacovigilance and the Italian Medicines Agency (United States)

    Pimpinella, Giuseppe; Tartaglia, Loriana


    The new European Union (EU) regulations on pharmacovigilance require that the national systems are strengthened in order to fit the new requirements. The Italian Pharmacovigilance System, coordinated by the Italian Medicines Agency (AIFA), is made by local and regional structures. In 2007, a program for funding active pharmacovigilance projects in the Italian Regions was established by the National law. The AIFA is responsible for the preparation of guidelines aimed at the identification of research areas and for the approval of the projects submitted by the regions. In April 2012, the AIFA started a program of visits at the regional pharmacovigilance centers (RPCs), aimed at monitoring their performances, evaluating the quality of the activities in order to understand the main differences and discrepancies and with a view to start a program of harmonization of the procedures in place. The outcome of the visits program highlighted major differences among the quality management systems of the various centers; hence, AIFA has decided to launch an initiative to promote in the next months the harmonization of procedures. The synergy among AIFA, regional structures, RPCs, and local structure responsible for pharmacovigilance is needed in order to establish a robust pharmacovigilance system working in full compliance with the provisions of the new EU legislation. PMID:24347980

  6. The role of general nuclear medicine in breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, Lacey R, E-mail: [Faculty of Science, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, New South Wales (Australia); Wilkinson, Deborah [Faculty of Health, Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, West Virginia (United States); Faculty of Science, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, New South Wales (Australia)


    The rising incidence of breast cancer worldwide has prompted many improvements to current care. Routine nuclear medicine is a major contributor to a full gamut of clinical studies such as early lesion detection and stratification; guiding, monitoring, and predicting response to therapy; and monitoring progression, recurrence or metastases. Developments in instrumentation such as the high-resolution dedicated breast device coupled with the diagnostic versatility of conventional cameras have reinserted nuclear medicine as a valuable tool in the broader clinical setting. This review outlines the role of general nuclear medicine, concluding that targeted radiopharmaceuticals and versatile instrumentation position nuclear medicine as a powerful modality for patients with breast cancer.

  7. Team Physicians, Sports Medicine, and the Law: An Update. (United States)

    Koller, Dionne L


    The recognition of sports medicine and promulgation of practice guidelines for team physicians will push general medical malpractice standards to evolve into a more specialized standard of care for those who practice in this area. To the extent that practicing medicine in the sports context involves calculations that do not arise in typical medical practice, the sports medicine community can help elucidate those issues and create appropriate guidelines that can serve to inform athlete-patients and educate courts. Doing so will help best set the terms by which those who practice sports medicine are judged. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Medicinal plants used as excipients in the history in Ghanaian herbal medicine. (United States)

    Freiesleben, Sara Holm; Soelberg, Jens; Jäger, Anna K


    The present study was carried out to investigate the traditional use, pharmacology and active compounds of four plants commonly used as excipients in herbal medicine in Ghana. A comprehensive literature search was conducted to gain knowledge about the traditional use, pharmacology and active compounds of the four plant excipients. The broth dilution antibacterial assay and the DPPH radical scavenging antioxidant assay were used to evaluate the antibacterial and antioxidant activity of the plants, respectively. Ethanol, warm water and cold water extracts were prepared from the dried seeds/fruits of Aframomum melegueta, Piper guineense, Xylopia aethiopica and Monodora myristica, and tested in the assays. A. melegueta and P. guineense seemed to act as pharmacoenhancers, since they have been shown to inhibit specific CYP-enzymes. A. melegueta could act as an antioxidant to preserve herbal preparations. None of the plant excipients had antibacterial activity against the bacteria tested in this study. Compounds with an aromatic or pungent smell had been identified in all the plant excipients. An explanation for the use of the plants as excipients could rely on their taste properties. The present study suggests that there may be more than one simple explanation for the use of these four plants as excipients. Plausible explanations have been proven to be: (1) a way to increase the effect of the medicine, (2) a way to make the medicine more palatable or (3) a way to preserve the activity of the medicinal preparation over time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cold Medicines for Kids: What's the Risk? (United States)

    ... Accessed Oct. 18, 2017. Green JL, et al. Safety profile of cough and ... 2017 Original article: . ...

  10. Ultrasound Training in the Emergency Medicine Clerkship. (United States)

    Favot, Mark; Courage, Cheryl; Mantouffel, Jacob; Amponsah, David


    The curriculum in most emergency medicine (EM) clerkships includes very little formalized training in point-of-care ultrasound. Medical schools have begun to implement ultrasound training in the pre-clinical curriculum, and the EM clerkship is an appropriate place to build upon this training. The objectives are (1) to evaluate the effectiveness of implementing a focused ultrasound curriculum within an established EM clerkship and (2) to obtain feedback from medical students regarding the program. We conducted a prospective cohort study of medical students during an EM clerkship year from July 1, 2011, to June 30, 2012. Participants included fourth-year medical students (n=45) enrolled in the EM clerkship at our institution. The students underwent a structured program focused on the focused assessment with sonography for trauma exam and ultrasound-guided vascular access. At the conclusion of the rotation, they took a 10-item multiple choice test assessing knowledge and image interpretation skills. A cohort of EM residents (n=20) also took the multiple choice test but did not participate in the training with the students. We used an independent samples t-test to examine differences in test scores between the groups. The medical students in the ultrasound training program scored significantly higher on the multiple-choice test than the EM residents, t(63)=2.3, ptraining program for medical students in the EM clerkship. After completing the training, students were able to perform similarly to EM residents on a knowledge-based exam.

  11. Laboratory Medicine is Faced with the Evolution of Medical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collinson Paul


    Full Text Available Laboratory medicine and clinical medicine are co-dependent components of medicine. Laboratory medicine functions most effectively when focused through a clinical lens. Me dical practice as a whole undergoes change. New drugs, treatments and changes in management strategies are introduced. New techniques, new technologies and new tests are developed. These changes may be either clinically or laboratory initiated, and so their introduction requires dialogue and interaction between clinical and laboratory medicine specialists. Treatment monitoring is integral to laboratory medicine, varying from direct drug measurement to monitoring cholesterol levels in response to treatment. The current trend to »personalised medicine« is an extension of this process with the development of companion diagnostics. Technological innovation forms part of modern laboratory practice. Introduction of new technology both facilitates standard laboratory approaches and permits introduction of new tests and testing strategies previously confined to the research laboratory only. The revolution in cardiac biomarker testing has been largely a laboratory led change. Flexibility in service provision in response to changing clinical practice or evolving technology provides a significant laboratory management challenge in the light of increasing expectations, shifts in population demographics and constraint in resource availability. Laboratory medicine practitioners are adept at meeting these challenges. One thing remains constant, that there will be a constant need laboratory medicine to meet the challenges of novel clinical challenges from infectious diseases to medical conditions developing from lifestyle and longevity.

  12. [The National School of Medicine at the centenary times]. (United States)

    Rodríguez, Martha Eugenia


    It analyzes the National School of Medicine situation in the period of 1910 to 1916, when two historical events rebound in their working; firstly the opening of National University of Mexico, and, in the other hand, the beginning of Mexican Revolution. Despite of the uneven political, economical, and academic situation, the Medicine School kept its interest in the development of excellent medical doctors, reviewing subject of study and improving its buildings.

  13. Know Your Personal Computer The Personal Computer System ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 4. Know Your Personal Computer The Personal Computer System Software. Siddhartha Kumar Ghoshal. Series Article Volume 1 Issue 4 April 1996 pp 31-36. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  14. Know Your Personal Computer The Personal Computer Hardware

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 2. Know Your Personal Computer The Personal Computer Hardware. Siddhartha Kumar ... Author Affiliations. Siddhartha Kumar Ghoshal1. Supercomputer Education and Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India.

  15. A Computer Security Course in the Undergraduate Computer Science Curriculum. (United States)

    Spillman, Richard


    Discusses the importance of computer security and considers criminal, national security, and personal privacy threats posed by security breakdown. Several examples are given, including incidents involving computer viruses. Objectives, content, instructional strategies, resources, and a sample examination for an experimental undergraduate computer…

  16. Evaluation of Clinical Medicine in the Final Postgraduate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The Family Medicine Department, University of the Free State (UFS) recently supervised the MFGP assessments of the College of Medicine in South Africa (first sitting), as well as the final assessment of the M Med Fam programme of the UFS (second sitting). The examinations, which took place in October and ...

  17. Evaluation of Clinical Medicine in the Final Postgraduate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: The Family Medicine Department, University of the Free State (UFS) recently supervised the MFGP assessments of the College of Medicine in South Africa (first sitting), as well as the final assessment of the M Med Fam programme of the UFS. (second sitting). The examinations, which took place in ...

  18. The Space Medicine Exploration Medical Condition List (United States)

    Watkins, Sharmi; Barr, Yael; Kerstman, Eric


    Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) is an element of NASA s Human Research Program (HRP). ExMC's goal is to address the risk of the "Inability to Adequately Recognize or Treat an Ill or Injured Crewmember." This poster highlights the approach ExMC has taken to address this risk. The Space Medicine Exploration Medical Condition List (SMEMCL) was created to define the set of medical conditions that are most likely to occur during exploration space flight missions. The list was derived from the International Space Station Medical Checklist, the Shuttle Medical Checklist, in-flight occurrence data from the Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health, and NASA subject matter experts. The list of conditions was further prioritized for eight specific design reference missions with the assistance of the ExMC Advisory Group. The purpose of the SMEMCL is to serve as an evidence-based foundation for the conditions that could affect a crewmember during flight. This information is used to ensure that the appropriate medical capabilities are available for exploration missions.

  19. Drug metabolism for the perplexed medicinal chemist. (United States)

    Testa, Bernard


    Two related and significant issues may elicit perplexity in medicinal chemists and are discussed here. First, a broad presentation of the pharmacological and toxicological consequences of drug metabolism should justify the significance of drug metabolism and serve as an incentive to further study. When comparing the pharmacological activities of a drug and its metabolite(s), a continuum is found which ranges from soft drugs (no active metabolites) to prodrugs (inactive per se, as illustrated here with clopidogrel and prasugrel). Innumerable intermediate cases document drugs whose activity is shared by one or more metabolites, as exemplified with tamoxifen. The toxicological consequences of metabolism at the molecular, macromolecular, and macroscopic levels are manyfold. A brief overview is offered together with a summary of the reactions of toxification and detoxification of the antiepileptic valproic acid. The second issue discussed in the review is a comparison of the relative significance of cytochromes P450 and other oxidoreductases (EC 1), hydrolases (EC 3), and transferases (EC 2) in drug metabolism, based on a 'guesstimate' of the number of drug metabolites that are known to be produced by them. The conclusion is that oxidoreductases are the main enzymes responsible for the formation of toxic or active metabolites, whereas transferases play the major role in producing inactive and nontoxic metabolites.


    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk


    Computing activity had ramped down after the completion of the reprocessing of the 2012 data and parked data, but is increasing with new simulation samples for analysis and upgrade studies. Much of the Computing effort is currently involved in activities to improve the computing system in preparation for 2015. Operations Office Since the beginning of 2013, the Computing Operations team successfully re-processed the 2012 data in record time, not only by using opportunistic resources like the San Diego Supercomputer Center which was accessible, to re-process the primary datasets HTMHT and MultiJet in Run2012D much earlier than planned. The Heavy-Ion data-taking period was successfully concluded in February collecting almost 500 T. Figure 3: Number of events per month (data) In LS1, our emphasis is to increase efficiency and flexibility of the infrastructure and operation. Computing Operations is working on separating disk and tape at the Tier-1 sites and the full implementation of the xrootd federation ...

  1. A comparative analysis of the Libyan national essential medicines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: The concordance between generic medicines listed in the WMLEM 2009 (standard reference list) and the LPLEM 2006 (comparator list) was evaluated. ... Antituberculosis medications had the highest discrepancy rate for antibacterial BEMs with one-third of the single medicines recommended by the WHO in the ...

  2. Incorporating the Arts and Humanities in Palliative Medicine Education (United States)

    Marchand, Lucille R.


    The arts and humanities allow the teaching of palliative medicine to come alive by exploring what is often regarded as the most frightening outcome of the illness experience--death and dying. Palliative medicine focuses on the relief of suffering, but how can suffering be understood if the story of the patient is not told through prose, poetry,…

  3. Sleep medicine services in Saudi Arabia: The 2013 national survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed S Bahammam


    Conclusion: The sleep medicine services provided in the KSA have improved since the 2005 survey; however, these services are still below the level of service provided in developed countries. Organized efforts are needed to overcome the identified obstacles and challenges to the progress of sleep medicine in the KSA.

  4. The use of the R language for medicinal chemistry applications. (United States)

    Mente, Scot; Kuhn, Max


    This manuscript serves as a review of how the R language has been used in the last decade to address problems related to medicinal chemistry design. This includes the use of the R language for chemoinformatics applications and interfaces, as well as statistical modeling for ADMET and potency endpoints. Additionally, a few examples of R code are provided to demonstrate the ability of this language to make available cutting-edge statistical analysis to the medicinal chemistry design community.

  5. The genetics of gout: towards personalised medicine? (United States)

    Dalbeth, Nicola; Stamp, Lisa K; Merriman, Tony R


    Over the last decade, there have been major advances in the understanding of the genetic basis of hyperuricaemia and gout as well as of the pharmacogenetics of urate-lowering therapy. Key findings include the reporting of 28 urate-associated loci, the discovery that ABCG2 plays a central role on extra-renal uric acid excretion, the identification of genes associated with development of gout in the context of hyperuricaemia, recognition that ABCG2 variants influence allopurinol response, and the impact of HLA-B*5801 testing in reducing the prevalence of allopurinol hypersensitivity in high-risk populations. These advances, together with the reducing cost of whole genome sequencing, mean that integrated personalised medicine approaches may soon be possible in clinical practice. Genetic data may inform assessment of disease prognosis in individuals with hyperuricaemia or established gout, personalised lifestyle advice, selection and dosing of urate-lowering therapy, and prevention of serious medication adverse effects. In this article, we summarise the discoveries from genome-wide association studies and discuss the potential for translation of these findings into clinical practice.

  6. The endemic medicinal plants of Northern Balochistan, Pakistan and their uses in traditional medicine. (United States)

    Bibi, Tahira; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Mohammad Tareen, Niaz; Jabeen, Rukhsana; Sultana, Shazia; Zafar, Muhammad; Zain-ul-Abidin, Sheikh


    The highlands of Northern Balochistan are the hot spots of medicinal and endemic plant in Pakistan. These plants are still commonly used for medicinal purposes by local people in their daily lives. This study first documented the information about the medicinal uses of endemic species of Balochistan-province Pakistan. A survey was performed using open ended questionnaires, free listening and personal observations with 152 informants (54% female, 46% male). In addition, the use value (MUV), use report (UR), fidelity level (FL), frequency citation (FC), relative frequency citation (RFC), family importance value (FIV) of species were determined and the informant consensus factor (ICF) was calculated for the medicinal plants included in the study. A total of 24 endemic plants belonging to 19 genera and 14 families were used by the local inhabitants to treat 12 categories of various diseases. The most common families of endemic plant species as depicted by its number of species (6 species) and FIV (9.9) was Fabaceae as the dominant family. The endemic plant species comprised perennial herbs (30%), annual herbs (25%), shrubs (29%) and under shrubs (16% each), no endemic tree species was reported in the study area. The highest number of species were used in the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases (12 species). The main route of administration is oral injection (62%) while the most frequently used form of external administration of herbal medicine was paste (5.4%) and the most commonly applied methods of preparation are powder (48.2%). Highest use report were calculated for Allium baluchistanicum and Viola makranica, (8 UR each), and least use report were calculated for two species Heliotropium remotiflorum and Tetracme stocksii (1 UR for each). Use values of the recorded plant species have been calculated which showed a highest use value of (0.73) for A. baluchistanicum and (0.56) for Berberis baluchistanica while the lowest UVs were attained for T. stocksii (0

  7. The history of medicine and the scientific revolution. (United States)

    Cook, Harold J


    The "new philosophy" of the seventeenth century has continued to be explained mainly on its own terms: as a major philosophical turn. Twentieth-century modernism gave pride of place to big ideas and reinforced the tendency to explain the rise of science in light of new ideas. Such orientations subordinated medicine (and technology) to sciences that appeared to be more theoretical. In attempts to persuade historians of science of the importance of medicine, then, many authors took an approach arguing that the major changes in the history of medicine during the so-called scientific revolution arose from philosophical commitments. Yet because medicine is also intimately connected to other aspects of life, its histories proved to be recalcitrant to such reductions and so continue to offer many possibilities for those who seek fresh means to address histories of body and mind united rather than divided.

  8. Introduction to Integrative Medicine in the Primary Care Setting. (United States)

    Ring, Melinda; Mahadevan, Rupa


    Integrative Medicine has been described as "healing oriented medicine that takes account of the whole person (body, mind, and spirit) including all aspects of lifestyle. It emphasizes therapeutic relationships and makes use of all appropriate therapies, both conventional and alternative." National surveys consistently report that approximately one-third of adults and 12% of children use complementary and integrative medicine approaches. Although there are barriers to primary care professionals engaging in discussions about lifestyle change and complementary and integrative medicine options, there is also great potential to impact patient well-being. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. An Advocacy for the Integration of Bloodless Medicine and Surgery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    wars gave further impetus to the concept and the practice of bloodless medicine and surgery. Today the practice of ... The components of such protocols are given are. 15 listed in Table III below. The informed consent: ... Table III : Protocols and techniques in the practice of bloodless medicine and surgery. OBTAIN A ...

  10. Potential cost savings from generic medicines – protecting the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One way to do this would be to limit the costs of medicines provided for the management of chronic conditions listed in the PMBs. This study assessed the potential savings that would be achievable by substituting generics for brand name (originator) medicines listed in the chronic disease algorithms set out by the CMS.

  11. Evidence based medicine and the plastic surgery literature in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The principles of evidence-based medicine places case reports in the lower level of the hierarchy of scientific evidence. With the increased advocacy of evidence-based medicine, the survival of the case report has been threatened, prompting several authors to call for its preservation. Materials and methods: ...

  12. Constructing the ASCI computational grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI) computational grid is being constructed to interconnect the high performance computing resources of the nuclear weapons complex. The grid will simplify access to the diverse computing, storage, network, and visualization resources, and will enable the coordinated use of shared resources regardless of location. To match existing hardware platforms, required security services, and current simulation practices, the Globus MetaComputing Toolkit was selected to provide core grid services. The ASCI grid extends Globus functionality by operating as an independent grid, incorporating Kerberos-based security, interfacing to Sandia's Cplant{trademark},and extending job monitoring services. To fully meet ASCI's needs, the architecture layers distributed work management and criteria-driven resource selection services on top of Globus. These services simplify the grid interface by allowing users to simply request ''run code X anywhere''. This paper describes the initial design and prototype of the ASCI grid.

  13. The Latin American Social Medicine database. (United States)

    Eldredge, Jonathan D; Waitzkin, Howard; Buchanan, Holly S; Teal, Janis; Iriart, Celia; Wiley, Kevin; Tregear, Jonathan


    Public health practitioners and researchers for many years have been attempting to understand more clearly the links between social conditions and the health of populations. Until recently, most public health professionals in English-speaking countries were unaware that their colleagues in Latin America had developed an entire field of inquiry and practice devoted to making these links more clearly understood. The Latin American Social Medicine (LASM) database finally bridges this previous gap. This public health informatics case study describes the key features of a unique information resource intended to improve access to LASM literature and to augment understanding about the social determinants of health. This case study includes both quantitative and qualitative evaluation data. Currently the LASM database at The University of New Mexico brings important information, originally known mostly within professional networks located in Latin American countries to public health professionals worldwide via the Internet. The LASM database uses Spanish, Portuguese, and English language trilingual, structured abstracts to summarize classic and contemporary works. This database provides helpful information for public health professionals on the social determinants of health and expands access to LASM.

  14. The Latin American Social Medicine database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiley Kevin


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public health practitioners and researchers for many years have been attempting to understand more clearly the links between social conditions and the health of populations. Until recently, most public health professionals in English-speaking countries were unaware that their colleagues in Latin America had developed an entire field of inquiry and practice devoted to making these links more clearly understood. The Latin American Social Medicine (LASM database finally bridges this previous gap. Description This public health informatics case study describes the key features of a unique information resource intended to improve access to LASM literature and to augment understanding about the social determinants of health. This case study includes both quantitative and qualitative evaluation data. Currently the LASM database at The University of New Mexico brings important information, originally known mostly within professional networks located in Latin American countries to public health professionals worldwide via the Internet. The LASM database uses Spanish, Portuguese, and English language trilingual, structured abstracts to summarize classic and contemporary works. Conclusion This database provides helpful information for public health professionals on the social determinants of health and expands access to LASM.

  15. Music, musicians, medicine, and the kidney. (United States)

    Raghavan, Rajeev; Eknoyan, Garabed


    The relationship between music, medicine and nephrology is ancient; ranging from musicians afflicted with kidney disease, contributors to nephrology who were musicians, and the use of music to treat renal maladies. Musicians have long been afflicted by diseases of the kidney, particularly nephrolithiasis, for which Marin Marais in 1725 composed a unique piece for the viol detailing the harrowing experience of 'cutting for stone.' Beethoven and Mozart were afflicted by kidney disease, as are several current musicians. Where past musicians succumbed to their failing kidneys, the advent of renal replacement therapy has given today's musicians, such as James DePreist and Natalie Cole, the opportunity to continue performing and composing. Several notable physicians of old have excelled as musicians; one example is Jacob Henle (1809-1885), for whom the loop of Henle is named, another is Robert Christison, a contemporary of Richard Bright, who is considered a 'founder of nephrology'. Importantly, music therapy, as used in the times of Hippocrates and King David, has evolved from an empiric to a well-established scientific discipline. Given the recent enlarging body of scholarly studies of music therapy, its rudimentary role in nephrology deserves further exploration. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. CADD medicine: design is the potion that can cure my disease (United States)

    Manas, Eric S.; Green, Darren V. S.


    The acronym "CADD" is often used interchangeably to refer to "Computer Aided Drug Discovery" and "Computer Aided Drug Design". While the former definition implies the use of a computer to impact one or more aspects of discovering a drug, in this paper we contend that computational chemists are most effective when they enable teams to apply true design principles as they strive to create medicines to treat human disease. We argue that teams must bring to bear multiple sub-disciplines of computational chemistry in an integrated manner in order to utilize these principles to address the multi-objective nature of the drug discovery problem. Impact, resourcing principles, and future directions for the field are also discussed, including areas of future opportunity as well as a cautionary note about hype and hubris.

  17. Computing power on the move

    CERN Multimedia

    Joannah Caborn Wengler


    You might sit right next to your computer as you work, use the GRID’s computing power sitting in another part of the world or share CPU time with the Cloud: actual and virtual machines communicate and exchange information, and the place where they are located is a detail of only marginal importance. CERN’s new remote computer centre will open in Hungary in 2013.   Artist's impression of the new Wigner Data Centre. (Image: Wigner). CERN’s computing department has been aiming to minimise human contact with the machines for a while now. “The problem is that people going in creates dust, and simply touching things may cause damage,” explains Wayne Salter, Leader of the IT Computing Facilities Group. A first remote centre on the other side of Geneva was opened in June 2010 and a new one will open in Hungary next year. “Once the centre in Budapest is running, we will not be going there to operate it. As far as possible, w...

  18. Mechanisms of action of traditional herbal medicines used in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is increasing rapidly in both developed and developing countries. There are various conventional medicines used for the management of the disease, but there is also increased interest in the use of traditional herbal medicines. Although the concepts of illness and diseases ...

  19. [The domestic aviation and space medicine reflected in phaleristics]. (United States)

    Zhdan'ko, I M; Ryzhenko, S P; Khomenko, M N; Golosov, S Iu; Sobolenko, D A


    The article is devoted to the connection between the badges of medical institutions that are material evidence of formation and development of domestic aviation and space medicine and the history of Armed forces. The authors describe development of aviation and space medicine phaleristics, which is an important factor for patriotic education of modem scientific and military medical personnel.

  20. Virtual alternative to the oral examination for emergency medicine residents. (United States)

    McGrath, Jillian; Kman, Nicholas; Danforth, Douglas; Bahner, David P; Khandelwal, Sorabh; Martin, Daniel R; Nagel, Rollin; Verbeck, Nicole; Way, David P; Nelson, Richard


    The oral examination is a traditional method for assessing the developing physician's medical knowledge, clinical reasoning and interpersonal skills. The typical oral examination is a face-to-face encounter in which examiners quiz examinees on how they would confront a patient case. The advantage of the oral exam is that the examiner can adapt questions to the examinee's response. The disadvantage is the potential for examiner bias and intimidation. Computer-based virtual simulation technology has been widely used in the gaming industry. We wondered whether virtual simulation could serve as a practical format for delivery of an oral examination. For this project, we compared the attitudes and performance of emergency medicine (EM) residents who took our traditional oral exam to those who took the exam using virtual simulation. EM residents (n=35) were randomized to a traditional oral examination format (n=17) or a simulated virtual examination format (n=18) conducted within an immersive learning environment, Second Life (SL). Proctors scored residents using the American Board of Emergency Medicine oral examination assessment instruments, which included execution of critical actions and ratings on eight competency categories (1-8 scale). Study participants were also surveyed about their oral examination experience. We observed no differences between virtual and traditional groups on critical action scores or scores on eight competency categories. However, we noted moderate effect sizes favoring the Second Life group on the clinical competence score. Examinees from both groups thought that their assessment was realistic, fair, objective, and efficient. Examinees from the virtual group reported a preference for the virtual format and felt that the format was less intimidating. The virtual simulated oral examination was shown to be a feasible alternative to the traditional oral examination format for assessing EM residents. Virtual environments for oral examinations