Computational fluid dynamics simulations of light water reactor flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tzanos, C.P.; Weber, D.P.
1999-01-01
Advances in computational fluid dynamics (CFD), turbulence simulation, and parallel computing have made feasible the development of three-dimensional (3-D) single-phase and two-phase flow CFD codes that can simulate fluid flow and heat transfer in realistic reactor geometries with significantly reduced reliance, especially in single phase, on empirical correlations. The objective of this work was to assess the predictive power and computational efficiency of a CFD code in the analysis of a challenging single-phase light water reactor problem, as well as to identify areas where further improvements are needed
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of hot air flow ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Computational Fluid Dynamics simulation of air flow distribution, air velocity and pressure field pattern as it will affect moisture transient in a cabinet tray dryer is performed using SolidWorks Flow Simulation (SWFS) 2014 SP 4.0 program. The model used for the drying process in this experiment was designed with Solid ...
Investigation of Swirling Flow in Rod Bundle Subchannels Using Computational Fluid Dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holloway, Mary V.; Beasley, Donald E.; Conner, Michael E.
2006-01-01
The fluid dynamics for turbulent flow through rod bundles representative of those used in pressurized water reactors is examined using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The rod bundles of the pressurized water reactor examined in this study consist of a square array of parallel rods that are held on a constant pitch by support grids spaced axially along the rod bundle. Split-vane pair support grids are often used to create swirling flow in the rod bundle in an effort to improve the heat transfer characteristics for the rod bundle during both normal operating conditions and in accident condition scenarios. Computational fluid dynamics simulations for a two subchannel portion of the rod bundle were used to model the flow downstream of a split-vane pair support grid. A high quality computational mesh was used to investigate the choice of turbulence model appropriate for the complex swirling flow in the rod bundle subchannels. Results document a central swirling flow structure in each of the subchannels downstream of the split-vane pairs. Strong lateral flows along the surface of the rods, as well as impingement regions of lateral flow on the rods are documented. In addition, regions of lateral flow separation and low axial velocity are documented next to the rods. Results of the CFD are compared to experimental particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements documenting the lateral flow structures downstream of the split-vane pairs. Good agreement is found between the computational simulation and experimental measurements for locations close to the support grid. (authors)
Fast Virtual Fractional Flow Reserve Based Upon Steady-State Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Paul D. Morris, PhD
2017-08-01
Full Text Available Fractional flow reserve (FFR-guided percutaneous intervention is superior to standard assessment but remains underused. The authors have developed a novel “pseudotransient” analysis protocol for computing virtual fractional flow reserve (vFFR based upon angiographic images and steady-state computational fluid dynamics. This protocol generates vFFR results in 189 s (cf >24 h for transient analysis using a desktop PC, with <1% error relative to that of full-transient computational fluid dynamics analysis. Sensitivity analysis demonstrated that physiological lesion significance was influenced less by coronary or lesion anatomy (33% and more by microvascular physiology (59%. If coronary microvascular resistance can be estimated, vFFR can be accurately computed in less time than it takes to make invasive measurements.
Computational Fluid Dynamic Pressure Drop Estimation of Flow between Parallel Plates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Son, Hyung Min; Yang, Soo Hyung; Park, Jong Hark [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2014-10-15
Many pool type reactors have forced downward flows inside the core during normal operation; there is a chance of flow inversion when transients occur. During this phase, the flow undergo transition between turbulent and laminar regions where drastic changes take place in terms of momentum and heat transfer, and the decrease in safety margin is usually observed. Additionally, for high Prandtl number fluids such as water, an effect of the velocity profile inside the channel on the temperature distribution is more pronounced over the low Prandtl number ones. This makes the checking of its pressure drop estimation accuracy less important, assuming the code verification is complete. With an advent of powerful computer hardware, engineering applications of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods have become quite common these days. Especially for a fully-turbulent and single phase convective heat transfer, the predictability of the commercial codes has matured enough so that many well-known companies adopt those to accelerate a product development cycle and to realize an increased profitability. In contrast to the above, the transition models for the CFD code are still under development, and the most of the models show limited generality and prediction accuracy. Unlike the system codes, the CFD codes estimate the pressure drop from the velocity profile which is obtained by solving momentum conservation equations, and the resulting friction factor can be a representative parameter for a constant cross section channel flow. In addition, the flow inside a rectangular channel with a high span to gap ratio can be approximated by flow inside parallel plates. The computational fluid dynamics simulation on the flow between parallel plates showed reasonable prediction capability for the laminar and the turbulent regime.
Approaching multiphase flows from the perspective of computational fluid dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Banas, A.O.
1992-01-01
Thermalhydraulic simulation methodologies based on subchannel and porous-medium concepts are briefly reviewed and contrasted with the general approach of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). An outline of the advanced CFD methods for single-phase turbulent flows is followed by a short discussion of the unified formulation of averaged equations for turbulent and multiphase flows. Some of the recent applications of CFD at Chalk River Laboratories are discussed, and the complementary role of CFD with regard to the established thermalhydraulic methods of analysis is indicated. (author). 8 refs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bin Zhang
2017-01-01
Full Text Available To improve its working performance, the flow ripple characteristics of an axial piston pump were investigated with software which uses computational fluid dynamics (CFD technology. The simulation accuracy was significantly optimized through the use of the improved compressible fluid model. Flow conditions of the pump were tested using a pump flow ripple test rig, and the simulation results of the CFD model showed good agreement with the experimental data. Additionally, the composition of the flow ripple was analyzed using the improved CFD model, and the results showed that the compression ripple makes up 88% of the flow ripple. The flow dynamics of the piston pump is mainly caused by the pressure difference between the intake and discharge ports of the valve plates and the fluid oil compressibility.
Computational fluid dynamics modeling of two-phase flow in a BWR fuel assembly
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andrey Ioilev; Maskhud Samigulin; Vasily Ustinenko; Simon Lo; Adrian Tentner
2005-01-01
Full text of publication follows: The goal of this project is to develop an advanced Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) computer code (CFD-BWR) that allows the detailed analysis of the two-phase flow and heat transfer phenomena in a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) fuel bundle under various operating conditions. This code will include more fundamental physical models than the current generation of sub-channel codes and advanced numerical algorithms for improved computational accuracy, robustness, and speed. It is highly desirable to understand the detailed two-phase flow phenomena inside a BWR fuel bundle. These phenomena include coolant phase changes and multiple flow regimes which directly influence the coolant interaction with fuel assembly and, ultimately, the reactor performance. Traditionally, the best analysis tools for the analysis of two-phase flow phenomena inside the BWR fuel assembly have been the sub-channel codes. However, the resolution of these codes is still too coarse for analyzing the detailed intra-assembly flow patterns, such as flow around a spacer element. Recent progress in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), coupled with the rapidly increasing computational power of massively parallel computers, shows promising potential for the fine-mesh, detailed simulation of fuel assembly two-phase flow phenomena. However, the phenomenological models available in the commercial CFD programs are not as advanced as those currently being used in the sub-channel codes used in the nuclear industry. In particular, there are no models currently available which are able to reliably predict the nature of the flow regimes, and use the appropriate sub-models for those flow regimes. The CFD-BWR code is being developed as a customized module built on the foundation of the commercial CFD Code STAR-CD which provides general two-phase flow modeling capabilities. The paper describes the model development strategy which has been adopted by the development team for the
Reagan, Andrew J; Dubief, Yves; Dodds, Peter Sheridan; Danforth, Christopher M
2016-01-01
A thermal convection loop is a annular chamber filled with water, heated on the bottom half and cooled on the top half. With sufficiently large forcing of heat, the direction of fluid flow in the loop oscillates chaotically, dynamics analogous to the Earth's weather. As is the case for state-of-the-art weather models, we only observe the statistics over a small region of state space, making prediction difficult. To overcome this challenge, data assimilation (DA) methods, and specifically ensemble methods, use the computational model itself to estimate the uncertainty of the model to optimally combine these observations into an initial condition for predicting the future state. Here, we build and verify four distinct DA methods, and then, we perform a twin model experiment with the computational fluid dynamics simulation of the loop using the Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter (ETKF) to assimilate observations and predict flow reversals. We show that using adaptively shaped localized covariance outperforms static localized covariance with the ETKF, and allows for the use of less observations in predicting flow reversals. We also show that a Dynamic Mode Decomposition (DMD) of the temperature and velocity fields recovers the low dimensional system underlying reversals, finding specific modes which together are predictive of reversal direction.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrew J Reagan
Full Text Available A thermal convection loop is a annular chamber filled with water, heated on the bottom half and cooled on the top half. With sufficiently large forcing of heat, the direction of fluid flow in the loop oscillates chaotically, dynamics analogous to the Earth's weather. As is the case for state-of-the-art weather models, we only observe the statistics over a small region of state space, making prediction difficult. To overcome this challenge, data assimilation (DA methods, and specifically ensemble methods, use the computational model itself to estimate the uncertainty of the model to optimally combine these observations into an initial condition for predicting the future state. Here, we build and verify four distinct DA methods, and then, we perform a twin model experiment with the computational fluid dynamics simulation of the loop using the Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter (ETKF to assimilate observations and predict flow reversals. We show that using adaptively shaped localized covariance outperforms static localized covariance with the ETKF, and allows for the use of less observations in predicting flow reversals. We also show that a Dynamic Mode Decomposition (DMD of the temperature and velocity fields recovers the low dimensional system underlying reversals, finding specific modes which together are predictive of reversal direction.
Chen, Shu-Cheng S.
2017-01-01
A Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) investigation is conducted over a two-dimensional axial-flow turbine rotor blade row to study the phenomena of turbine rotor discharge flow overexpansion at subcritical, critical, and supercritical conditions. Quantitative data of the mean-flow Mach numbers, mean-flow angles, the tangential blade pressure forces, the mean-flow mass flux, and the flow-path total pressure loss coefficients, averaged or integrated across the two-dimensional computational domain encompassing two blade-passages, are obtained over a series of 14 inlet-total to exit-static pressure ratios, from 1.5 (un-choked; subcritical condition) to 10.0 (supercritical with excessively high pressure ratio.) Detailed flow features over the full domain-of-computation, such as the streamline patterns, Mach contours, pressure contours, blade surface pressure distributions, etc. are collected and displayed in this paper. A formal, quantitative definition of the limit loading condition based on the channel flow theory is proposed and explained. Contrary to the comments made in the historical works performed on this subject, about the deficiency of the theoretical methods applied in analyzing this phenomena, using modern CFD method for the study of this subject appears to be quite adequate and successful. This paper describes the CFD work and its findings.
Lantz, Jonas; Gupta, Vikas; Henriksson, Lilian; Karlsson, Matts; Persson, Ander; Carhall, Carljohan; Ebbers, Tino
2017-11-01
In this study, cardiac blood flow was simulated using Computational Fluid Dynamics and compared to in vivo flow measurements by 4D Flow MRI. In total, nine patients with various heart diseases were studied. Geometry and heart wall motion for the simulations were obtained from clinical CT measurements, with 0.3x0.3x0.3 mm spatial resolution and 20 time frames covering one heartbeat. The CFD simulations included pulmonary veins, left atrium and ventricle, mitral and aortic valve, and ascending aorta. Mesh sizes were on the order of 6-16 million cells, depending on the size of the heart, in order to resolve both papillary muscles and trabeculae. The computed flow field agreed visually very well with 4D Flow MRI, with characteristic vortices and flow structures seen in both techniques. Regression analysis showed that peak flow rate as well as stroke volume had an excellent agreement for the two techniques. We demonstrated the feasibility, and more importantly, fidelity of cardiac flow simulations by comparing CFD results to in vivo measurements. Both qualitative and quantitative results agreed well with the 4D Flow MRI measurements. Also, the developed simulation methodology enables ``what if'' scenarios, such as optimization of valve replacement and other surgical procedures. Funded by the Wallenberg Foundation.
Improving flow distribution in influent channels using computational fluid dynamics.
Park, No-Suk; Yoon, Sukmin; Jeong, Woochang; Lee, Seungjae
2016-10-01
Although the flow distribution in an influent channel where the inflow is split into each treatment process in a wastewater treatment plant greatly affects the efficiency of the process, and a weir is the typical structure for the flow distribution, to the authors' knowledge, there is a paucity of research on the flow distribution in an open channel with a weir. In this study, the influent channel of a real-scale wastewater treatment plant was used, installing a suppressed rectangular weir that has a horizontal crest to cross the full channel width. The flow distribution in the influent channel was analyzed using a validated computational fluid dynamics model to investigate (1) the comparison of single-phase and two-phase simulation, (2) the improved procedure of the prototype channel, and (3) the effect of the inflow rate on flow distribution. The results show that two-phase simulation is more reliable due to the description of the free-surface fluctuations. It should first be considered for improving flow distribution to prevent a short-circuit flow, and the difference in the kinetic energy with the inflow rate makes flow distribution trends different. The authors believe that this case study is helpful for improving flow distribution in an influent channel.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ko, Soon Heum; Kim, Na Yong; Nikitopoulos, Dimitris E.; Moldovan, Dorel; Jha, Shantenu
2014-01-01
Numerical approaches are presented to minimize the statistical errors inherently present due to finite sampling and the presence of thermal fluctuations in the molecular region of a hybrid computational fluid dynamics (CFD) - molecular dynamics (MD) flow solution. Near the fluid-solid interface the hybrid CFD-MD simulation approach provides a more accurate solution, especially in the presence of significant molecular-level phenomena, than the traditional continuum-based simulation techniques. It also involves less computational cost than the pure particle-based MD. Despite these advantages the hybrid CFD-MD methodology has been applied mostly in flow studies at high velocities, mainly because of the higher statistical errors associated with low velocities. As an alternative to the costly increase of the size of the MD region to decrease statistical errors, we investigate a few numerical approaches that reduce sampling noise of the solution at moderate-velocities. These methods are based on sampling of multiple simulation replicas and linear regression of multiple spatial/temporal samples. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each technique in the perspective of solution accuracy and computational cost.
Computational fluid dynamics modeling of mixed convection flows in buildings enclosures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kayne, Alexander; Agarwal, Ramesh K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States)
2013-07-01
In recent years Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations are increasingly used to model the air circulation and temperature environment inside the rooms of residential and office buildings to gain insight into the relative energy consumptions of various HVAC systems for cooling/heating for climate control and thermal comfort. This requires accurate simulation of turbulent flow and heat transfer for various types of ventilation systems using the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations of fluid dynamics. Large Eddy Simulation (LES) or Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of Navier-Stokes equations is computationally intensive and expensive for simulations of this kind. As a result, vast majority of CFD simulations employ RANS equations in conjunction with a turbulence model. In order to assess the modeling requirements (mesh, numerical algorithm, turbulence model etc.) for accurate simulations, it is critical to validate the calculations against the experimental data. For this purpose, we use three well known benchmark validation cases, one for natural convection in 2D closed vertical cavity, second for forced convection in a 2D rectangular cavity and the third for mixed convection in a 2D square cavity. The simulations are performed on a number of meshes of different density using a number of turbulence models. It is found that k-epsilon two-equation turbulence model with a second-order algorithm on a reasonable mesh gives the best results. This information is then used to determine the modeling requirements (mesh, numerical algorithm, turbulence model etc.) for flows in 3D enclosures with different ventilation systems. In particular two cases are considered for which the experimental data is available. These cases are (1) air flow and heat transfer in a naturally ventilated room and (2) airflow and temperature distribution in an atrium. Good agreement with the experimental data and computations of other investigators is obtained.
Sun, Q.; Groth, A.; Aach, T.
2012-01-01
Purpose: Recently, image-based computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations have been proposed to investigate the local hemodynamics inside human cerebral aneurysms. It is suggested that the knowledge ofthe computed three-dimensional flow fields can be used to assist clinical risk assessment and
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sandoval, Miguel A.; Fuentes, Rosalba; Walsh, Frank C.; Nava, José L.; Ponce de León, Carlos
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Computational fluid dynamic simulations in a filter-press stack of three cells. • The fluid velocity was different in each cell due to local turbulence. • The upper cell link pipe of the filter press cell acts as a fluid mixer. • The fluid behaviour tends towards a continuous mixing flow pattern. • Close agreement between simulations and experimental data was achieved. - Abstract: Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were carried out for single-phase flow in a pre-pilot filter press flow reactor with a stack of three cells. Velocity profiles and streamlines were obtained by solving the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations with a standard k − ε turbulence model. The flow behaviour shows the appearance of jet flow at the entrance to each cell. At lengths from 12 to 15 cm along the cells channels, a plug flow pattern is developed at all mean linear flow rates studied here, 1.2 ≤ u ≤ 2.1 cm s −1 . The magnitude of the velocity profiles in each cell was different, due to the turbulence generated by the change of flow direction in the last fluid manifold. Residence time distribution (RTD) simulations indicated that the fluid behaviour tends towards a continuous mixing flow pattern, owing to flow at the output of each cell across the upper cell link pipe, which acts as a mixer. Close agreement between simulations and experimental RTD was obtained.
Computational multi-fluid dynamics predictions of critical heat flux in boiling flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mimouni, S., E-mail: stephane.mimouni@edf.fr; Baudry, C.; Guingo, M.; Lavieville, J.; Merigoux, N.; Mechitoua, N.
2016-04-01
Highlights: • A new mechanistic model dedicated to DNB has been implemented in the Neptune-CFD code. • The model has been validated against 150 tests. • Neptune-CFD code is a CFD tool dedicated to boiling flows. - Abstract: Extensive efforts have been made in the last five decades to evaluate the boiling heat transfer coefficient and the critical heat flux in particular. Boiling crisis remains a major limiting phenomenon for the analysis of operation and safety of both nuclear reactors and conventional thermal power systems. As a consequence, models dedicated to boiling flows have being improved. For example, Reynolds Stress Transport Model, polydispersion and two-phase flow wall law have been recently implemented. In a previous work, we have evaluated computational fluid dynamics results against single-phase liquid water tests equipped with a mixing vane and against two-phase boiling cases. The objective of this paper is to propose a new mechanistic model in a computational multi-fluid dynamics tool leading to wall temperature excursion and onset of boiling crisis. Critical heat flux is calculated against 150 tests and the mean relative error between calculations and experimental values is equal to 8.3%. The model tested covers a large physics scope in terms of mass flux, pressure, quality and channel diameter. Water and R12 refrigerant fluid are considered. Furthermore, it was found that the sensitivity to the grid refinement was acceptable.
Computational multi-fluid dynamics predictions of critical heat flux in boiling flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mimouni, S.; Baudry, C.; Guingo, M.; Lavieville, J.; Merigoux, N.; Mechitoua, N.
2016-01-01
Highlights: • A new mechanistic model dedicated to DNB has been implemented in the Neptune_CFD code. • The model has been validated against 150 tests. • Neptune_CFD code is a CFD tool dedicated to boiling flows. - Abstract: Extensive efforts have been made in the last five decades to evaluate the boiling heat transfer coefficient and the critical heat flux in particular. Boiling crisis remains a major limiting phenomenon for the analysis of operation and safety of both nuclear reactors and conventional thermal power systems. As a consequence, models dedicated to boiling flows have being improved. For example, Reynolds Stress Transport Model, polydispersion and two-phase flow wall law have been recently implemented. In a previous work, we have evaluated computational fluid dynamics results against single-phase liquid water tests equipped with a mixing vane and against two-phase boiling cases. The objective of this paper is to propose a new mechanistic model in a computational multi-fluid dynamics tool leading to wall temperature excursion and onset of boiling crisis. Critical heat flux is calculated against 150 tests and the mean relative error between calculations and experimental values is equal to 8.3%. The model tested covers a large physics scope in terms of mass flux, pressure, quality and channel diameter. Water and R12 refrigerant fluid are considered. Furthermore, it was found that the sensitivity to the grid refinement was acceptable.
Mapping flow distortion on oceanographic platforms using computational fluid dynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. O'Sullivan
2013-10-01
Full Text Available Wind speed measurements over the ocean on ships or buoys are affected by flow distortion from the platform and by the anemometer itself. This can lead to errors in direct measurements and the derived parametrisations. Here we computational fluid dynamics (CFD to simulate the errors in wind speed measurements caused by flow distortion on the RV Celtic Explorer. Numerical measurements were obtained from the finite-volume CFD code OpenFOAM, which was used to simulate the velocity fields. This was done over a range of orientations in the test domain from −60 to +60° in increments of 10°. The simulation was also set up for a range of velocities, ranging from 5 to 25 m s−1 in increments of 0.5 m s−1. The numerical analysis showed close agreement to experimental measurements.
Fluid dynamics theory, computation, and numerical simulation
Pozrikidis, C
2017-01-01
This book provides an accessible introduction to the basic theory of fluid mechanics and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) from a modern perspective that unifies theory and numerical computation. Methods of scientific computing are introduced alongside with theoretical analysis and MATLAB® codes are presented and discussed for a broad range of topics: from interfacial shapes in hydrostatics, to vortex dynamics, to viscous flow, to turbulent flow, to panel methods for flow past airfoils. The third edition includes new topics, additional examples, solved and unsolved problems, and revised images. It adds more computational algorithms and MATLAB programs. It also incorporates discussion of the latest version of the fluid dynamics software library FDLIB, which is freely available online. FDLIB offers an extensive range of computer codes that demonstrate the implementation of elementary and advanced algorithms and provide an invaluable resource for research, teaching, classroom instruction, and self-study. This ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uehara, Yasushi; Uchida, Shunsuke; Naitoh, Masanori; Okada, Hidetoshi; Koshizuka, Seiichi
2009-01-01
In order to predict and mitigate flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) of carbon steel piping in PWR and BWR secondary systems, computer program packages for evaluating FAC have been developed by coupling one through three dimensional (1-3D) computational flow dynamics (CFD) models and corrosion models. To evaluate corrosive conditions, e.g., oxygen concentration and electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP) along the flow path, flow pattern and temperature in each elemental volume were obtained with 1D computational flow dynamics (CFD) codes. Precise flow turbulence and mass transfer coefficients at the structure surface were calculated with 3D CFD codes to determine wall thinning rates. One of the engineering options is application of k-ε calculation as a 3D CFD code, which has limitation of detail evaluation of flow distribution at very surface of large scale piping. A combination of k-ε calculation and wall function was proposed to evaluate precise distribution of mass transfer coefficients with reasonable CPU volume and computing time and, at the same time, reasonable accuracy. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Myeong, Hyeon Guk
1999-06-01
This book deals with computational fluid dynamics with basic and history of numerical fluid dynamics, introduction of finite volume method using one-dimensional heat conduction equation, solution of two-dimensional heat conduction equation, solution of Navier-Stokes equation, fluid with heat transport, turbulent flow and turbulent model, Navier-Stokes solution by generalized coordinate system such as coordinate conversion, conversion of basic equation, program and example of calculation, application of abnormal problem and high speed solution of numerical fluid dynamics.
An introduction to Computational Fluid Dynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt
1999-01-01
CFD is the shortname for Computational Fluid Dynamics and is a numerical method by means of which we can analyze systems containing fluids. For instance systems dealing with heat flow or smoke control systems acting when a fire occur in a building.......CFD is the shortname for Computational Fluid Dynamics and is a numerical method by means of which we can analyze systems containing fluids. For instance systems dealing with heat flow or smoke control systems acting when a fire occur in a building....
K-TIF: a two-fluid computer program for downcomer flow dynamics. [PWR
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Amsden, A.A.; Harlow, F.H.
1977-10-01
The K-TIF computer program has been developed for numerical solution of the time-varying dynamics of steam and water in a pressurized water reactor downcomer. The current status of physical and mathematical modeling is presented in detail. The report also contains a complete description of the numerical solution technique, a full description and listing of the computer program, instructions for its use, with a sample printout for a specific test problem. A series of calculations, performed with no change in the modeling parameters, shows consistent agreement with the experimental trends over a wide range of conditions, which gives confidence to the calculations as a basis for investigating the complicated physics of steam-water flows in the downcomer.
Othman, M. N. K.; Zuradzman, M. Razlan; Hazry, D.; Khairunizam, Wan; Shahriman, A. B.; Yaacob, S.; Ahmed, S. Faiz; Hussain, Abadalsalam T.
2014-12-01
This paper explain the analysis of internal air flow velocity of a bladeless vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) hemisphere body. In mechanical design, before produce a prototype model, several analyses should be done to ensure the product's effectiveness and efficiency. There are two types of analysis method can be done in mechanical design; mathematical modeling and computational fluid dynamic. In this analysis, I used computational fluid dynamic (CFD) by using SolidWorks Flow Simulation software. The idea came through to overcome the problem of ordinary quadrotor UAV which has larger size due to using four rotors and the propellers are exposed to environment. The bladeless MAV body is designed to protect all electronic parts, which means it can be used in rainy condition. It also has been made to increase the thrust produced by the ducted propeller compare to exposed propeller. From the analysis result, the air flow velocity at the ducted area increased to twice the inlet air. This means that the duct contribute to the increasing of air velocity.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Othman, M. N. K.; Zuradzman, M. Razlan; Hazry, D.; Khairunizam, Wan; Shahriman, A. B.; Yaacob, S.; Ahmed, S. Faiz
2014-01-01
This paper explain the analysis of internal air flow velocity of a bladeless vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) hemisphere body. In mechanical design, before produce a prototype model, several analyses should be done to ensure the product's effectiveness and efficiency. There are two types of analysis method can be done in mechanical design; mathematical modeling and computational fluid dynamic. In this analysis, I used computational fluid dynamic (CFD) by using SolidWorks Flow Simulation software. The idea came through to overcome the problem of ordinary quadrotor UAV which has larger size due to using four rotors and the propellers are exposed to environment. The bladeless MAV body is designed to protect all electronic parts, which means it can be used in rainy condition. It also has been made to increase the thrust produced by the ducted propeller compare to exposed propeller. From the analysis result, the air flow velocity at the ducted area increased to twice the inlet air. This means that the duct contribute to the increasing of air velocity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Othman, M. N. K., E-mail: najibkhir86@gmail.com, E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: hazry@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: shahriman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: syedfaiz@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Zuradzman, M. Razlan, E-mail: najibkhir86@gmail.com, E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: hazry@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: shahriman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: syedfaiz@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Hazry, D., E-mail: najibkhir86@gmail.com, E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: hazry@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: shahriman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: syedfaiz@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Khairunizam, Wan, E-mail: najibkhir86@gmail.com, E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: hazry@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: shahriman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: syedfaiz@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Shahriman, A. B., E-mail: najibkhir86@gmail.com, E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: hazry@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: shahriman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: syedfaiz@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Yaacob, S., E-mail: najibkhir86@gmail.com, E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: hazry@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: shahriman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: syedfaiz@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Ahmed, S. Faiz, E-mail: najibkhir86@gmail.com, E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: hazry@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: shahriman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: syedfaiz@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my [Centre of Excellence for Unmanned Aerial Systems, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 01000 Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); and others
2014-12-04
This paper explain the analysis of internal air flow velocity of a bladeless vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) hemisphere body. In mechanical design, before produce a prototype model, several analyses should be done to ensure the product's effectiveness and efficiency. There are two types of analysis method can be done in mechanical design; mathematical modeling and computational fluid dynamic. In this analysis, I used computational fluid dynamic (CFD) by using SolidWorks Flow Simulation software. The idea came through to overcome the problem of ordinary quadrotor UAV which has larger size due to using four rotors and the propellers are exposed to environment. The bladeless MAV body is designed to protect all electronic parts, which means it can be used in rainy condition. It also has been made to increase the thrust produced by the ducted propeller compare to exposed propeller. From the analysis result, the air flow velocity at the ducted area increased to twice the inlet air. This means that the duct contribute to the increasing of air velocity.
Morris, Paul D; Silva Soto, Daniel Alejandro; Feher, Jeroen F A; Rafiroiu, Dan; Lungu, Angela; Varma, Susheel; Lawford, Patricia V; Hose, D Rodney; Gunn, Julian P
2017-08-01
Fractional flow reserve (FFR)-guided percutaneous intervention is superior to standard assessment but remains underused. The authors have developed a novel "pseudotransient" analysis protocol for computing virtual fractional flow reserve (vFFR) based upon angiographic images and steady-state computational fluid dynamics. This protocol generates vFFR results in 189 s (cf >24 h for transient analysis) using a desktop PC, with <1% error relative to that of full-transient computational fluid dynamics analysis. Sensitivity analysis demonstrated that physiological lesion significance was influenced less by coronary or lesion anatomy (33%) and more by microvascular physiology (59%). If coronary microvascular resistance can be estimated, vFFR can be accurately computed in less time than it takes to make invasive measurements.
Minimum cost dynamic flows: The series-parallel case
Klinz, Bettina; Woeginger, Gerhard
2004-01-01
A dynamic network consists of a directed graph with capacities, costs, and integral transit times on the arcs. In the minimum-cost dynamic flow problem (MCDFP), the goal is to compute, for a given dynamic network with source s, sink t, and two integers v and T, a feasible dynamic flow from s to t of
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xue Yunjing; Gao Peiyi; Lin Yan
2007-01-01
Objective: To investigate flow patterns at carotid bifurcation in vivo by combining computational fluid dynamics (CFD)and MR angiography imaging. Methods: Seven subjects underwent contrast-enhanced MR angiography of carotid artery in Siemens 3.0 T MR. Flow patterns of the carotid artery bifurcation were calculated and visualized by combining MR vascular imaging post-processing and CFD. Results: The flow patterns of the carotid bifurcations in 7 subjects were varied with different phases of a cardiac cycle. The turbulent flow and back flow occurred at bifurcation and proximal of internal carotid artery (ICA) and external carotid artery (ECA), their occurrence and conformation were varied with different phase of a cardiac cycle. The turbulent flow and back flow faded out quickly when the blood flow to the distal of ICA and ECA. Conclusion: CFD combined with MR angiography can be utilized to visualize the cyclical change of flow patterns of carotid bifurcation with different phases of a cardiac cycle. (authors)
Joly, Florian; Soulez, Gilles; Garcia, Damien; Lessard, Simon; Kauffmann, Claude
2018-01-01
Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) are localized, commonly-occurring dilations of the aorta. When equilibrium between blood pressure (loading) and wall mechanical resistance is lost, rupture ensues, and patient death follows, if not treated immediately. Experimental and numerical analyses of flow patterns in arteries show direct correlations between wall shear stress and wall mechano-adaptation with the development of zones prone to thrombus formation. For further insights into AAA flow topology/growth interaction, a workout of patient-specific computational flow dynamics (CFD) is proposed to compute finite-time Lyapunov exponents and extract Lagrangian-coherent structures (LCS). This computational model was first compared with 4-D phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 5 patients. To better understand the impact of flow topology and transport on AAA growth, hyperbolic, repelling LCS were computed in 1 patient during 8-year follow-up, including 9 volumetric morphologic AAA measures by computed tomography-angiography (CTA). LCS defined barriers to Lagrangian jet cores entering AAA. Domains enclosed between LCS and the aortic wall were considered to be stagnation zones. Their evolution was studied during AAA growth. Good correlation - 2-D cross-correlation coefficients of 0.65, 0.86 and 0.082 (min, max, SD) - was obtained between numerical simulations and 4-D MRI acquisitions in 6 specific cross-sections from 4 patients. In follow-up study, LCS divided AAA lumens into 3 dynamically-isolated zones: 2 stagnation volumes lying in dilated portions of the AAA, and circulating volume connecting the inlet to the outlet. The volume of each zone was tracked over time. Although circulating volume remained unchanged during 8-year follow-up, the AAA lumen and main stagnation zones grew significantly (8 cm 3 /year and 6 cm 3 /year, respectively). This study reveals that transient transport topology can be quantified in patient-specific AAA during disease progression
Computational fluid dynamic applications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chang, S.-L.; Lottes, S. A.; Zhou, C. Q.
2000-04-03
The rapid advancement of computational capability including speed and memory size has prompted the wide use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes to simulate complex flow systems. CFD simulations are used to study the operating problems encountered in system, to evaluate the impacts of operation/design parameters on the performance of a system, and to investigate novel design concepts. CFD codes are generally developed based on the conservation laws of mass, momentum, and energy that govern the characteristics of a flow. The governing equations are simplified and discretized for a selected computational grid system. Numerical methods are selected to simplify and calculate approximate flow properties. For turbulent, reacting, and multiphase flow systems the complex processes relating to these aspects of the flow, i.e., turbulent diffusion, combustion kinetics, interfacial drag and heat and mass transfer, etc., are described in mathematical models, based on a combination of fundamental physics and empirical data, that are incorporated into the code. CFD simulation has been applied to a large variety of practical and industrial scale flow systems.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Okhotnikov, Ivan; Noroozi, Siamak; Sewell, Philip; Godfrey, Philip
2017-01-01
Highlights: • A novel design of a rotary flow control valve driven by a stepper motor is proposed. • The intended use of the valve in the high flow rate independent metering hydraulic system is suggested. • Pressure drops, steady flow torques of the valve for various flow rates and orifice openings are studied by means of computational fluid dynamics. • The discharge coefficient and flow jet angles dependencies on the orifice opening are obtained. • A design method to decrease the flow forces without reducing the flow rate in single-staged valves is demonstrated. - Abstract: In this paper, a novel design of a rotary hydraulic flow control valve has been presented for high flow rate fluid power systems. High flow rates in these systems account for substantial flow forces acting on the throttling elements of the valves and cause the application of mechanically sophisticated multi-staged servo valves for flow regulation. The suggested design enables utilisation of single-stage valves in power hydraulics operating at high flow rates regimes. A spool driver and auxiliary mechanisms of the proposed valve design were discussed and selection criteria were suggested. Analytical expressions for metering characteristics as well as steady flow torques have been derived. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of steady state flow regimes was conducted to evaluate the hydraulic behaviour of the proposed valve. This study represents a special case of an independent metering concept applied to the design of power hydraulic systems with direct proportional valve control operating at flow rates above 150 litres per minute. The result gained using parametric CFD simulations predicted the induced torque and the pressure drops due to a steady flow. Magnitudes of these values prove that by minimising the number of spool's mobile metering surfaces it is possible to reduce the flow-generated forces in the new generation of hydraulic valves proposed in this study
Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of a Lithium/Thionyl Chloride Battery with Electrolyte Flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gu, W.B.; Jungst, Rudolph G.; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Wang, C.Y.; Weidner, John.
1999-06-11
A two-dimensional model is developed to simulate discharge of a lithium/thionyl chloride primary battery. The model accounts for not only transport of species and charge, but also the electrode porosity variations and the electrolyte flow induced by the volume reduction caused by electrochemical reactions. Numerical simulations are performed using a finite volume method of computational fluid dynamics. The predicted discharge curves for various temperatures are compared to the experimental data with excellent agreement. Moreover, the simulation results. in conjunction with computer visualization and animation techniques, confirm that cell utilization in the temperature and current range of interest is limited by pore plugging or clogging of the front side of the cathode as a result of LiCl precipitation. The detailed two-dimensional flow simulation also shows that the electrolyte is replenished from the cell header predominantly through the separator into the front of the cathode during most parts of the discharge, especially for higher cell temperatures.
A Computational Fluid Dynamics Study of Swirling Flow Reduction by Using Anti-Vortex Baffle
Yang, H. Q.; Peugeot, John W.; West, Jeff S.
2017-01-01
An anti-vortex baffle is a liquid propellant management device placed adjacent to an outlet of the propellant tank. Its purpose is to substantially reduce or eliminate the formation of free surface dip and vortex, as well as prevent vapor ingestion into the outlet, as the liquid drains out through the flight. To design an effective anti-vortex baffle, Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) simulations were undertaken for the NASA Ares I vehicle LOX tank subjected to the simulated flight loads with and without the anti-vortex baffle. The Six Degree-Of-Freedom (6-DOF) dynamics experienced by the Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) during ascent were modeled by modifying the momentum equations in a CFD code to accommodate the extra body forces from the maneuvering in a non-inertial frame. The present analysis found that due to large moments, the CLV maneuvering has a significant impact on the vortical flow generation inside the tank. Roll maneuvering and side loading due to pitch and yaw are shown to induce swirling flow. The vortical flow due to roll is symmetrical with respect to the tank centerline, while those induced by pitch and yaw maneuverings showed two vortices side by side. The study found that without the anti-vortex baffle, the swirling flow caused surface dip during the late stage of drainage and hence early vapor ingestion. The flow can also be non-uniform in the drainage pipe as the secondary swirling flow velocity component can be as high as 10% of the draining velocity. An analysis of the vortex dynamics shows that the swirling flow in the drainage pipe during the Upper Stage burn is mainly the result of residual vortices inside the tank due to the conservation of angular momentum. The study demonstrated that the swirling flow in the drainage pipe can be effectively suppressed by employing the anti-vortex baffle.
Optimization of a new flow design for solid oxide cells using computational fluid dynamics modelling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Duhn, Jakob Dragsbæk; Jensen, Anker Degn; Wedel, Stig
2016-01-01
Design of a gas distributor to distribute gas flow into parallel channels for Solid Oxide Cells (SOC) is optimized, with respect to flow distribution, using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modelling. The CFD model is based on a 3d geometric model and the optimized structural parameters include...... the width of the channels in the gas distributor and the area in front of the parallel channels. The flow of the optimized design is found to have a flow uniformity index value of 0.978. The effects of deviations from the assumptions used in the modelling (isothermal and non-reacting flow) are evaluated...... and it is found that a temperature gradient along the parallel channels does not affect the flow uniformity, whereas a temperature difference between the channels does. The impact of the flow distribution on the maximum obtainable conversion during operation is also investigated and the obtainable overall...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rizzo, Enrico, E-mail: enrico.rizzo@kit.edu [Institute for Technical Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Heller, Reinhard [Institute for Technical Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Richard, Laura Savoldi; Zanino, Roberto [Dipartimento Energia, Politecnico di Torino, 10129 Torino (Italy)
2013-11-15
Highlights: • The laminar regime in the meander flow geometry has been analysed with a previously validated computational strategy. • Several meander flow geometries as well as flow conditions have been analysed. • A range for the Reynolds number has been defined in which the flow can be considered laminar. • Correlations for the pressure drop and the heat transfer coefficients in the laminar regime have been derived. • A comparison between the computed the experimental pressure drop of the W7-X HTS current lead prototype is presented. -- Abstract: The Karlsruhe Institute of Technology and the Politecnico di Torino have developed and validated a computational thermal-fluid dynamics (CtFD) strategy for the systematic analysis of the thermal-hydraulics inside the meander flow heat exchanger used in high-temperature superconducting current leads for fusion applications. In the recent past, the application of this CtFD technique has shown that some operating conditions occurring in these devices may not reach the turbulent regime region. With that motivation, the CtFD analysis of the helium thermal-fluid dynamics inside different meander flow geometries is extended here to the laminar flow regime. Our first aim is to clarify under which operative conditions the flow regime can be considered laminar and how the pressure drop as well as the heat transfer are related to the geometrical parameters and to the flow conditions. From the results of this analysis, correlations for the pressure drop and for the heat transfer coefficient in the meander flow geometry have been derived, which are applicable with good accuracy to the design of meander flow heat exchangers over a broad range of geometrical parameters.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rizzo, Enrico; Heller, Reinhard; Richard, Laura Savoldi; Zanino, Roberto
2013-01-01
Highlights: • The laminar regime in the meander flow geometry has been analysed with a previously validated computational strategy. • Several meander flow geometries as well as flow conditions have been analysed. • A range for the Reynolds number has been defined in which the flow can be considered laminar. • Correlations for the pressure drop and the heat transfer coefficients in the laminar regime have been derived. • A comparison between the computed the experimental pressure drop of the W7-X HTS current lead prototype is presented. -- Abstract: The Karlsruhe Institute of Technology and the Politecnico di Torino have developed and validated a computational thermal-fluid dynamics (CtFD) strategy for the systematic analysis of the thermal-hydraulics inside the meander flow heat exchanger used in high-temperature superconducting current leads for fusion applications. In the recent past, the application of this CtFD technique has shown that some operating conditions occurring in these devices may not reach the turbulent regime region. With that motivation, the CtFD analysis of the helium thermal-fluid dynamics inside different meander flow geometries is extended here to the laminar flow regime. Our first aim is to clarify under which operative conditions the flow regime can be considered laminar and how the pressure drop as well as the heat transfer are related to the geometrical parameters and to the flow conditions. From the results of this analysis, correlations for the pressure drop and for the heat transfer coefficient in the meander flow geometry have been derived, which are applicable with good accuracy to the design of meander flow heat exchangers over a broad range of geometrical parameters
A Computational Fluid Dynamics Algorithm on a Massively Parallel Computer
Jespersen, Dennis C.; Levit, Creon
1989-01-01
The discipline of computational fluid dynamics is demanding ever-increasing computational power to deal with complex fluid flow problems. We investigate the performance of a finite-difference computational fluid dynamics algorithm on a massively parallel computer, the Connection Machine. Of special interest is an implicit time-stepping algorithm; to obtain maximum performance from the Connection Machine, it is necessary to use a nonstandard algorithm to solve the linear systems that arise in the implicit algorithm. We find that the Connection Machine ran achieve very high computation rates on both explicit and implicit algorithms. The performance of the Connection Machine puts it in the same class as today's most powerful conventional supercomputers.
Computed Flow Through An Artificial Heart And Valve
Rogers, Stuart E.; Kwak, Dochan; Kiris, Cetin; Chang, I-Dee
1994-01-01
NASA technical memorandum discusses computations of flow of blood through artificial heart and through tilting-disk artificial heart valve. Represents further progress in research described in "Numerical Simulation of Flow Through an Artificial Heart" (ARC-12478). One purpose of research to exploit advanced techniques of computational fluid dynamics and capabilities of supercomputers to gain understanding of complicated internal flows of viscous, essentially incompressible fluids like blood. Another to use understanding to design better artificial hearts and valves.
Computational fluid dynamics modeling of a lithium/thionyl chloride battery with electrolyte flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gu, W.B.; Wang, C.Y.; Weidner, J.W.; Jungst, R.G.; Nagasubramanian, G.
2000-02-01
A two-dimensional model is developed to simulate discharge of a lithium/thionyl chloride primary battery. As in earlier one-dimensional models, the model accounts for transport of species and charge, and electrode porosity variations and electrolyte flow induced by the volume reduction caused by electrochemical reactions. Numerical simulations are performed using a finite volume method of computational fluid dynamics. The predicted discharge curves for various temperatures show good agreement with published experimental data, and are essentially identical to results published for one-dimensional models. The detailed two-dimensional flow simulations show that the electrolyte is replenished from the cell head space predominantly through the separator into the front of the cathode during most parts of the discharge, especially for higher cell temperatures.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mason, V.A.; Pettigrew, M.J.; Lelli, G.; Kates, L.; Reimer, E.
1978-10-01
A computer model, designed to predict the dynamic behaviour of nuclear fuel assemblies in axial flow, is described in this report. The numerical methods used to construct and solve the matrix equations of motion in the model are discussed together with an outline of the method used to interpret the fuel assembly stability data. The mathematics developed for forced response calculations are described in detail. Certain structural and hydrodynamic modelling parameters must be determined by experiment. These parameters are identified and the methods used for their evaluation are briefly described. Examples of typical applications of the dynamic model are presented towards the end of the report. (author)
Principles of computational fluid dynamics
Wesseling, Pieter
2001-01-01
The book is aimed at graduate students, researchers, engineers and physicists involved in flow computations. An up-to-date account is given of the present state-of-the-art of numerical methods employed in computational fluid dynamics. The underlying numerical principles are treated with a fair amount of detail, using elementary mathematical analysis. Attention is given to difficulties arising from geometric complexity of the flow domain and of nonuniform structured boundary-fitted grids. Uniform accuracy and efficiency for singular perturbation problems is studied, pointing the way to accurate computation of flows at high Reynolds number. Much attention is given to stability analysis, and useful stability conditions are provided, some of them new, for many numerical schemes used in practice. Unified methods for compressible and incompressible flows are discussed. Numerical analysis of the shallow-water equations is included. The theory of hyperbolic conservation laws is treated. Godunov's order barrier and ho...
The use of computers for instruction in fluid dynamics
Watson, Val
1987-01-01
Applications for computers which improve instruction in fluid dynamics are examined. Computers can be used to illustrate three-dimensional flow fields and simple fluid dynamics mechanisms, to solve fluid dynamics problems, and for electronic sketching. The usefulness of computer applications is limited by computer speed, memory, and software and the clarity and field of view of the projected display. Proposed advances in personal computers which will address these limitations are discussed. Long range applications for computers in education are considered.
Dietterich, Hannah; Lev, Einat; Chen, Jiangzhi; Richardson, Jacob A.; Cashman, Katharine V.
2017-01-01
Numerical simulations of lava flow emplacement are valuable for assessing lava flow hazards, forecasting active flows, designing flow mitigation measures, interpreting past eruptions, and understanding the controls on lava flow behavior. Existing lava flow models vary in simplifying assumptions, physics, dimensionality, and the degree to which they have been validated against analytical solutions, experiments, and natural observations. In order to assess existing models and guide the development of new codes, we conduct a benchmarking study of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models for lava flow emplacement, including VolcFlow, OpenFOAM, FLOW-3D, COMSOL, and MOLASSES. We model viscous, cooling, and solidifying flows over horizontal planes, sloping surfaces, and into topographic obstacles. We compare model results to physical observations made during well-controlled analogue and molten basalt experiments, and to analytical theory when available. Overall, the models accurately simulate viscous flow with some variability in flow thickness where flows intersect obstacles. OpenFOAM, COMSOL, and FLOW-3D can each reproduce experimental measurements of cooling viscous flows, and OpenFOAM and FLOW-3D simulations with temperature-dependent rheology match results from molten basalt experiments. We assess the goodness-of-fit of the simulation results and the computational cost. Our results guide the selection of numerical simulation codes for different applications, including inferring emplacement conditions of past lava flows, modeling the temporal evolution of ongoing flows during eruption, and probabilistic assessment of lava flow hazard prior to eruption. Finally, we outline potential experiments and desired key observational data from future flows that would extend existing benchmarking data sets.
Fluid dynamics applications of the Illiac IV computer
Maccormack, R. W.; Stevens, K. G., Jr.
1976-01-01
The Illiac IV is a parallel-structure computer with computing power an order of magnitude greater than that of conventional computers. It can be used for experimental tasks in fluid dynamics which can be simulated more economically, for simulating flows that cannot be studied by experiment, and for combining computer and experimental simulations. The architecture of Illiac IV is described, and the use of its parallel operation is demonstrated on the example of its solution of the one-dimensional wave equation. For fluid dynamics problems, a special FORTRAN-like vector programming language was devised, called CFD language. Two applications are described in detail: (1) the determination of the flowfield around the space shuttle, and (2) the computation of transonic turbulent separated flow past a thick biconvex airfoil.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Enayatollah Zangiabadi
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Flow characteristics in coastal regions are strongly influenced by the topography of the seabed and understanding the fluid dynamics is necessary before installation of tidal stream turbines (TST. In this paper, the bathymetry of a potential TST deployment site is used in the development of the a CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics model. The steady state k-ϵ and transient Large Eddy Simulation (LES turbulence methods are employed and compared. The simulations are conducted with a fixed representation of the ocean surface, i.e., a rigid lid representation. In the vicinity of Horse Rock a study of the pressure difference shows that the small change in height of the water column is negligible, providing confidence in the simulation results. The stream surface method employed to visualise the results has important inherent characteristics that can enhance the visual perception of complex flow structures. The results of all cases are compared with the flow data transect gathered by an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP. It has been understood that the k-ϵ method can predict the flow pattern relatively well near the main features of the domain and the LES model has the ability to simulate some important flow patterns caused by the bathymetry.
Computational fluid dynamics analysis and PIV validation of a bionic vortex flow pulsatile LVAD.
Xu, Liang; Yang, Ming; Ye, Lin; Dong, Zhaopeng
2015-01-01
Hemocompatibility is highly affected by the flow field in Left Ventricular Assistant Devices (LVAD). An asymmetric inflow and outflow channel arrangement with a 45° intersection angle with respect to the blood chamber is proposed to approximate the vascular structure of the aorta and left atrium on the left ventricle. The structure is expected to develop uninterruptible vortex flow state which is similar to the flow state in human left ventricle. The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) asymmetric model is simulated using ANSYS workbench. To validate the velocity field calculated by CFD, a Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) experiment is conducted. The CFD results show that the proposed blood chamber could generate a shifting vortex flow that would be redirected to the aorta during ejection to form a persistent recirculating flow state, which is similar to the echocardiographic flow state in left ventricle. Both the PIV and the CFD results show the development of a persistent vortex during the pulsatile period. Comparison of the qualitative flow pattern and quantitative probed velocity histories in a pulsatile period shows a good agreement between the CFD and PIV data. The goal of developing persistent quasi intra-ventricle vortex flow state in LVAD is realized.
Numerical computation of space shuttle orbiter flow field
Tannehill, John C.
1988-01-01
A new parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) code has been developed to compute the hypersonic, viscous chemically reacting flow fields around 3-D bodies. The flow medium is assumed to be a multicomponent mixture of thermally perfect but calorically imperfect gases. The new PNS code solves the gas dynamic and species conservation equations in a coupled manner using a noniterative, implicit, approximately factored, finite difference algorithm. The space-marching method is made well-posed by special treatment of the streamwise pressure gradient term. The code has been used to compute hypersonic laminar flow of chemically reacting air over cones at angle of attack. The results of the computations are compared with the results of reacting boundary-layer computations and show excellent agreement.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mains, Jill Rachel; Donskov, Frede; Pedersen, Erik Morre
2017-01-01
= 7). Using a prototype software program (Advanced Perfusion and Permeability Application, Philips Healthcare, Best, the Netherlands), blood volume (BV), blood flow (BF), and permeability surface area product (PS) were calculated for each tumor at baseline, week 5, and week 10. These parameters......OBJECTIVES: The aim was to explore the potential for using dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography as a noninvasive functional imaging biomarker before and during the early treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dynamic contrast-enhanced computed...
Boutsioukis, C; Verhaagen, B; Versluis, M; Kastrinakis, E; van der Sluis, L W M
2010-05-01
To compare the results of a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation of the irrigant flow within a prepared root canal, during final irrigation with a syringe and a needle, with experimental high-speed visualizations and theoretical calculations of an identical geometry and to evaluate the effect of off-centre positioning of the needle inside the root canal. A CFD model was created to simulate irrigant flow from a side-vented needle inside a prepared root canal. Calculations were carried out for four different positions of the needle inside a prepared root canal. An identical root canal model was made from poly-dimethyl-siloxane (PDMS). High-speed imaging of the flow seeded with particles and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) were combined to obtain the velocity field inside the root canal experimentally. Computational, theoretical and experimental results were compared to assess the validity of the computational model. Comparison between CFD computations and experiments revealed good agreement in the velocity magnitude and vortex location and size. Small lateral displacements of the needle inside the canal had a limited effect on the flow field. High-speed imaging experiments together with PIV of the flow inside a simulated root canal showed a good agreement with the CFD model, even though the flow was unsteady. Therefore, the CFD model is able to predict reliably the flow in similar domains.
Ranganathan, Panneerselvam; Savithri, Sivaraman
2018-06-01
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) technique is used in this work to simulate the hydrothermal liquefaction of Nannochloropsis sp. microalgae in a lab-scale continuous plug-flow reactor to understand the fluid dynamics, heat transfer, and reaction kinetics in a HTL reactor under hydrothermal condition. The temperature profile in the reactor and the yield of HTL products from the present simulation are obtained and they are validated with the experimental data available in the literature. Furthermore, the parametric study is carried out to study the effect of slurry flow rate, reactor temperature, and external heat transfer coefficient on the yield of products. Though the model predictions are satisfactory in comparison with the experimental results, it still needs to be improved for better prediction of the product yields. This improved model will be considered as a baseline for design and scale-up of large-scale HTL reactor. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Review of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) researches on nano fluid flow through micro channel
Dewangan, Satish Kumar
2018-05-01
Nanofluid is becoming a promising heat transfer fluids due to its improved thermo-physical properties and heat transfer performance. Micro channel heat transfer has potential application in the cooling high power density microchips in CPU system, micro power systems and many such miniature thermal systems which need advanced cooling capacity. Use of nanofluids enhances the effectiveness of t=scu systems. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is a very powerful tool in computational analysis of the various physical processes. It application to the situations of flow and heat transfer analysis of the nano fluids is catching up very fast. Present research paper gives a brief account of the methodology of the CFD and also summarizes its application on nano fluid and heat transfer for microchannel cases.
Computational analysis of turbulent flow in hydroelectric plant intakes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bouhadji, L.; Lemon, D.D.; Billenness, D.; Fissel, D. [ASL Environmental Sciences Inc., Sidney, British Columbia (Canada)]. E-mail: lbouhadji@aslenv.com; Djilali, N. [Univ. of Victoria, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada)]. E-mail: ndjilali@uvic.ca
2003-07-01
Turbulent flows in the Lower Monumental powerhouse intake are investigated using computational fluid dynamics. Simulations are carried out to gain an understanding into the impact of a grid-like trash rack on the downstream turbulent flow characteristics within the intake. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Braz Filho, Francisco A.; Caldeira, Alexandre D.; Borges, Eduardo M., E-mail: fbraz@ieav.cta.b, E-mail: alexdc@ieav.cta.b, E-mail: eduardo@ieav.cta.b [Instituto de Estudos Avancados (IEAv/CTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Div. de Energia Nuclear
2011-07-01
In a heated vertical channel, the subcooled flow boiling regime occurs when the bulk fluid temperature is lower than the saturation temperature, but the fluid temperature reaches the saturation point near the channel wall. This phenomenon produces a significant increase in heat flux, limited by the critical heat flux. This study is particularly important to the thermal-hydraulics analysis of pressurized water reactors. The purpose of this work is the validation of a multidimensional model to analyze the subcooled flow boiling comparing the results with experimental data found in literature. The computational fluid dynamics code FLUENT was used with Eulerian multiphase model option. The calculated values of wall temperature in the liquid-solid interface presented an excellent agreement when compared to the experimental data. Void fraction calculations presented satisfactory results in relation to the experimental data in pressures of 15, 30 and 45 bars. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Braz Filho, Francisco A.; Caldeira, Alexandre D.; Borges, Eduardo M.
2011-01-01
In a heated vertical channel, the subcooled flow boiling regime occurs when the bulk fluid temperature is lower than the saturation temperature, but the fluid temperature reaches the saturation point near the channel wall. This phenomenon produces a significant increase in heat flux, limited by the critical heat flux. This study is particularly important to the thermal-hydraulics analysis of pressurized water reactors. The purpose of this work is the validation of a multidimensional model to analyze the subcooled flow boiling comparing the results with experimental data found in literature. The computational fluid dynamics code FLUENT was used with Eulerian multiphase model option. The calculated values of wall temperature in the liquid-solid interface presented an excellent agreement when compared to the experimental data. Void fraction calculations presented satisfactory results in relation to the experimental data in pressures of 15, 30 and 45 bars. (author)
Zonal methods and computational fluid dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Atta, E.H.
1985-01-01
Recent advances in developing numerical algorithms for solving fluid flow problems, and the continuing improvement in the speed and storage of large scale computers have made it feasible to compute the flow field about complex and realistic configurations. Current solution methods involve the use of a hierarchy of mathematical models ranging from the linearized potential equation to the Navier Stokes equations. Because of the increasing complexity of both the geometries and flowfields encountered in practical fluid flow simulation, there is a growing emphasis in computational fluid dynamics on the use of zonal methods. A zonal method is one that subdivides the total flow region into interconnected smaller regions or zones. The flow solutions in these zones are then patched together to establish the global flow field solution. Zonal methods are primarily used either to limit the complexity of the governing flow equations to a localized region or to alleviate the grid generation problems about geometrically complex and multicomponent configurations. This paper surveys the application of zonal methods for solving the flow field about two and three-dimensional configurations. Various factors affecting their accuracy and ease of implementation are also discussed. From the presented review it is concluded that zonal methods promise to be very effective for computing complex flowfields and configurations. Currently there are increasing efforts to improve their efficiency, versatility, and accuracy
VISUALIZATION METHODS OF VORTICAL FLOWS IN COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. N. Volkov
2014-05-01
Full Text Available The paper deals with conceptions and methods for visual representation of research numerical results in the problems of fluid mechanics and gas. The three-dimensional nature of unsteady flow being simulated creates significant difficulties for the visual representation of results. It complicates control and understanding of numerical data, and exchange and processing of obtained information about the flow field. Approaches to vortical flows visualization with the usage of gradients of primary and secondary scalar and vector fields are discussed. An overview of visualization techniques for vortical flows using different definitions of the vortex and its identification criteria is given. Visualization examples for some solutions of gas dynamics problems related to calculations of jets and cavity flows are presented. Ideas of the vortical structure of the free non-isothermal jet and the formation of coherent vortex structures in the mixing layer are developed. Analysis of formation patterns for spatial flows inside large-scale vortical structures within the enclosed space of the cubic lid-driven cavity is performed. The singular points of the vortex flow in a cubic lid-driven cavity are found based on the results of numerical simulation; their type and location are identified depending on the Reynolds number. Calculations are performed with fine meshes and modern approaches to the simulation of vortical flows (direct numerical simulation and large-eddy simulation. Paradigm of graphical programming and COVISE virtual environment are used for the visual representation of computational results. Application that implements the visualization of the problem is represented as a network which links are modules and each of them is designed to solve a case-specific problem. Interaction between modules is carried out by the input and output ports (data receipt and data transfer giving the possibility to use various input and output devices.
Space-marching gridless computation of steady supersonic/hypersonic flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hui, W.H.; Hu, J.J.
2004-01-01
Most CFD work use Eulerian coordinates, which require generating a grid prior to flow filed computation. Despite three decades of research, grid generation is still a bottleneck of CFD, as it is time-consuming, tedious and requires specialized training. It will be shown in this paper that using the Unified Coordinates introduced by Hui et. al., there is no need for grid generation prior to flow computation; the grid is automatically generated while computing the flow. This greatly saves computing time. For steady supersonic/hypersonic flow, the Euler equations of gas dynamics are of hyperbolic type and a space-marching gridless computation along the streamlines - coordinate lines in the unified coordinates - is shown to be a complete success in that: (a) it is most robust, (b) it resolves both slip lines (also called contact lines) and shocks sharply, (c) its computing time is more than three orders of magnitude smaller than Eulerian computation and, (d) it by-passes the tedious and time-consuming grid generation stage which is needed in Eulerian computation. Three examples are given to justify these claims. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. S. Najiha
2012-12-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a two-dimensional steady-state incompressible analysis for the minimum quantity of lubricant flow in milling operations using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD approach. The analysis of flow and heat transfer in a four-teeth milling cutter operation was undertaken. The domain of the rotating cutter along with the spray nozzle is defined. Operating cutting and boundary conditions are taken from the literature. A steady-state, pressure-based, planar analysis was performed with a viscous, realizable k-ε model. A mixture of oils and air were sprayed on the tool, which is considered to be rotating and is at a temperature near the melting temperature of the workpiece. Flow fields are obtained from the study. The vector plot of the flow field shows that the flow is not evenly distributed over the cutter surface, as well as the uneven distribution of the lubricant in the direction of the cutter rotation. It can be seen that the cutting fluid has not completely penetrated the tool edges. The turbulence created by the cutter rotation in the proximity of the tool throws oil drops out of the cutting zone. The nozzle position in relation to the feed direction is very important in order to obtain the optimum effect of the MQL flow.
Principles of computational fluid dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wesseling, P.
2001-01-01
The book is aimed at graduate students, researchers, engineers and physicists involved in flow computations. An up-to-date account is given of the present state- of-the-art of numerical methods employed in computational fluid dynamics. The underlying numerical principles are treated with a fair amount of detail, using elementary mathematical analysis. Attention is given to difficulties arising from geometric complexity of the flow domain and of nonuniform structured boundary-fitted grids. Uniform accuracy and efficiency for singular perturbation problems is studied, pointing the way to accurate computation of flows at high Reynolds number. Much attention is given to stability analysis, and useful stability conditions are provided, some of them new, for many numerical schemes used in practice. Unified methods for compressible and incompressible flows are discussed. Numerical analysis of the shallow-water equations is included. The theory of hyperbolic conservation laws is treated. Godunov's order barrier and how to overcome it by means of slope-limited schemes is discussed. An introduction is given to efficient iterative solution methods, using Krylov subspace and multigrid acceleration. Many pointers are given to recent literature, to help the reader to quickly reach the current research frontier. (orig.)
Simulation of solid-liquid flows in a stirred bead mill based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD)
Winardi, S.; Widiyastuti, W.; Septiani, E. L.; Nurtono, T.
2018-05-01
The selection of simulation model is an important step in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to obtain an agreement with experimental work. In addition, computational time and processor speed also influence the performance of the simulation results. Here, we report the simulation of solid-liquid flow in a bead mill using Eulerian model. Multiple Reference Frame (MRF) was also used to model the interaction between moving (shaft and disk) and stationary (chamber exclude shaft and disk) zones. Bead mill dimension was based on the experimental work of Yamada and Sakai (2013). The effect of shaft rotation speed of 1200 and 1800 rpm on the particle distribution and the flow field was discussed. For rotation speed of 1200 rpm, the particles spread evenly throughout the bead mill chamber. On the other hand, for the rotation speed of 1800 rpm, the particles tend to be thrown to the near wall region resulting in the dead zone and found no particle in the center region. The selected model agreed well to the experimental data with average discrepancies less than 10%. Furthermore, the simulation was run without excessive computational cost.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rahatgaonkar, P. S.; Datta, D.; Malhotra, P. K.; Ghadge, S. G.
2012-01-01
Prediction of groundwater movement and contaminant transport in soil is an important problem in many branches of science and engineering. This includes groundwater hydrology, environmental engineering, soil science, agricultural engineering and also nuclear engineering. Specifically, in nuclear engineering it is applicable in the design of spent fuel storage pools and waste management sites in the nuclear power plants. Ground water modeling involves the simulation of flow and contaminant transport by groundwater flow. In the context of contaminated soil and groundwater system, numerical simulations are typically used to demonstrate compliance with regulatory standard. A one-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics code GFLOW had been developed based on the Finite Difference Method for simulating groundwater flow and contaminant transport through saturated and unsaturated soil. The code is validated with the analytical model and the benchmarking cases available in the literature. (authors)
Computational fluid dynamics modeling of two-phase flow in a BWR fuel assembly. Final CRADA Report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tentner, A.
2009-01-01
A direct numerical simulation capability for two-phase flows with heat transfer in complex geometries can considerably reduce the hardware development cycle, facilitate the optimization and reduce the costs of testing of various industrial facilities, such as nuclear power plants, steam generators, steam condensers, liquid cooling systems, heat exchangers, distillers, and boilers. Specifically, the phenomena occurring in a two-phase coolant flow in a BWR (Boiling Water Reactor) fuel assembly include coolant phase changes and multiple flow regimes which directly influence the coolant interaction with fuel assembly and, ultimately, the reactor performance. Traditionally, the best analysis tools for this purpose of two-phase flow phenomena inside the BWR fuel assembly have been the sub-channel codes. However, the resolution of these codes is too coarse for analyzing the detailed intra-assembly flow patterns, such as flow around a spacer element. Advanced CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) codes provide a potential for detailed 3D simulations of coolant flow inside a fuel assembly, including flow around a spacer element using more fundamental physical models of flow regimes and phase interactions than sub-channel codes. Such models can extend the code applicability to a wider range of situations, which is highly important for increasing the efficiency and to prevent accidents.
Rhodes, J. A.; Tiwari, S. N.; Vonlavante, E.
1988-01-01
A comparison of flow separation in transonic flows is made using various computational schemes which solve the Euler and the Navier-Stokes equations of fluid mechanics. The flows examined are computed using several simple two-dimensional configurations including a backward facing step and a bump in a channel. Comparison of the results obtained using shock fitting and flux vector splitting methods are presented and the results obtained using the Euler codes are compared to results on the same configurations using a code which solves the Navier-Stokes equations.
Computational fluid dynamic analysis of core bypass flow phenomena in a prismatic VHTR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sato, Hiroyuki; Johnson, Richard; Schultz, Richard
2010-01-01
The core bypass flow in a prismatic very high temperature reactor (VHTR) is an important design consideration and can have considerable impact on the condition of reactor core internals including fuels. The interstitial gaps are an inherent presence in the reactor core because of tolerances in manufacturing the blocks and the inexact nature of their installation. Furthermore, the geometry of the graphite blocks changes over the lifetime of the reactor because of thermal expansion and irradiation damage. The occurrence of hot spots in the core and lower plenum and hot streaking in the lower plenum (regions of very hot gas flow) are affected by bypass flow. In the present study, three-dimensional computational fluid dynamic (CFD) calculations of a typical prismatic VHTR are conducted to better understand bypass flow phenomena and establish an evaluation method for the reactor core using the commercial CFD code FLUENT. Parametric calculations changing several factors in a one-twelfth sector of a fuel column are performed. The simulations show the impact of each factor on bypass flow and the resulting flow and temperature distributions in the prismatic core. Factors include inter-column gap-width, turbulence model, axial heat generation profile and geometry change from irradiation-induced shrinkage in the graphite block region. It is shown that bypass flow provides a significant cooling effect on the prismatic block and that the maximum fuel and coolant channel outlet temperatures increase with an increase in gap-width, especially when a peak radial factor is applied to the total heat generation rate. Also, the presence of bypass flow causes a large lateral temperature gradient in the block and also dramatically increases the variation in coolant channel outlet temperatures for a given block that may have repercussions on the structural integrity of the graphite, the neutronics and the potential for hot streaking and hot spots occurring in the lower plenum.
Computational electrochemo-fluid dynamics modeling in a uranium electrowinning cell
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, K.R.; Choi, S.Y.; Kim, S.H.; Shim, J.B.; Paek, S.; Kim, I.T.
2014-01-01
A computational electrochemo-fluid dynamics model has been developed to describe the electrowinning behavior in an electrolyte stream through a planar electrode cell system. Electrode reaction of the uranium electrowinning process from a molten-salt electrolyte stream was modeled to illustrate the details of the flow-assisted mass transport of ions to the cathode. This modeling approach makes it possible to represent variations of the convective diffusion limited current density by taking into account the concentration profile at the electrode surface as a function of the flow characteristics and applied current density in a commercially available computational fluid dynamics platform. It was possible to predict the conventional current-voltage relation in addition to details of electrolyte fluid dynamics and electrochemical variables, such as the flow field, species concentrations, potential, and current distributions throughout the galvanostatic electrolysis cell. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Harders, Stefan Walbom; Madsen, Hans Henrik; Nellemann, Hanne Marie
2017-01-01
with suspected lung cancer and a lung tumor on their chest radiograph were included for DCE-CT. The tumors were categorized using structured qualitative analysis of tumor blood flow patterns. Histopathology was used as reference standard. RESULTS: Using structured qualitative analysis of tumor blood flow...... using structured qualitative analysis of tumor blood flow patterns is accurate as well as somewhat reproducible. However, there are significant limitations to DCE-CT.......BACKGROUND: Dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (DCE-CT) is a tool, which, in theory, can quantify the blood flow and blood volume of tissues. In structured qualitative analysis, parametric color maps yield a visual impression of the blood flow and blood volume within the tissue being...
Direct modeling for computational fluid dynamics
Xu, Kun
2015-06-01
All fluid dynamic equations are valid under their modeling scales, such as the particle mean free path and mean collision time scale of the Boltzmann equation and the hydrodynamic scale of the Navier-Stokes (NS) equations. The current computational fluid dynamics (CFD) focuses on the numerical solution of partial differential equations (PDEs), and its aim is to get the accurate solution of these governing equations. Under such a CFD practice, it is hard to develop a unified scheme that covers flow physics from kinetic to hydrodynamic scales continuously because there is no such governing equation which could make a smooth transition from the Boltzmann to the NS modeling. The study of fluid dynamics needs to go beyond the traditional numerical partial differential equations. The emerging engineering applications, such as air-vehicle design for near-space flight and flow and heat transfer in micro-devices, do require further expansion of the concept of gas dynamics to a larger domain of physical reality, rather than the traditional distinguishable governing equations. At the current stage, the non-equilibrium flow physics has not yet been well explored or clearly understood due to the lack of appropriate tools. Unfortunately, under the current numerical PDE approach, it is hard to develop such a meaningful tool due to the absence of valid PDEs. In order to construct multiscale and multiphysics simulation methods similar to the modeling process of constructing the Boltzmann or the NS governing equations, the development of a numerical algorithm should be based on the first principle of physical modeling. In this paper, instead of following the traditional numerical PDE path, we introduce direct modeling as a principle for CFD algorithm development. Since all computations are conducted in a discretized space with limited cell resolution, the flow physics to be modeled has to be done in the mesh size and time step scales. Here, the CFD is more or less a direct
Computational Analysis of Human Blood Flow
Panta, Yogendra; Marie, Hazel; Harvey, Mark
2009-11-01
Fluid flow modeling with commercially available computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software is widely used to visualize and predict physical phenomena related to various biological systems. In this presentation, a typical human aorta model was analyzed assuming the blood flow as laminar with complaint cardiac muscle wall boundaries. FLUENT, a commercially available finite volume software, coupled with Solidworks, a modeling software, was employed for the preprocessing, simulation and postprocessing of all the models.The analysis mainly consists of a fluid-dynamics analysis including a calculation of the velocity field and pressure distribution in the blood and a mechanical analysis of the deformation of the tissue and artery in terms of wall shear stress. A number of other models e.g. T branches, angle shaped were previously analyzed and compared their results for consistency for similar boundary conditions. The velocities, pressures and wall shear stress distributions achieved in all models were as expected given the similar boundary conditions. The three dimensional time dependent analysis of blood flow accounting the effect of body forces with a complaint boundary was also performed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sugiharto, S.; Kurniadi, R.; Abidin, Z.; Stegowski, Z.; Furman, L.
2013-01-01
Multiphase flow modeling presents great challenges due to its extreme importance in various industrial and environmental applications. In the present study, prediction of separation length of multiphase flow is examined experimentally by injection of two kinds of iodine-based radiotracer solutions into a hydrocarbon transport pipeline (HCT) having an inner diameter of 24 in (60,96 m). The main components of fluids in the pipeline are water 95%, crude oil 3% and gas 2%. A radiotracing experiment was carried out at the segment of pipe which is located far from branch points with assumptions that stratified flows in such segment were achieved. Two radiation detectors located at 80 and 100 m from injection point were used to generate residence time distribution (RTD) curve resulting from injection of radiotracer solutions. Multiphase computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations using Eulerian-Eulerian control volume and commercial CFD package Fluent 6.2 were employed to simulate separation length of multiphase flow. The results of study shows that the flow velocity of water is higher than the flow rate of crude oil in water-dominated system despite the higher density of water than the density of the crude oil. The separation length in multiphase flow predicted by Fluent mixture model is approximately 20 m, measured from injection point. This result confirms that the placement of the first radiation detector at the distance 80 m from the injection point was correct. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Sugiharto1
2013-04-01
Full Text Available Multiphase flow modeling presents great challenges due to its extreme importance in various industrial and environmental applications. In the present study, prediction of separation length of multiphase flow is examined experimentally by injection of two kinds of iodine-based radiotracer solutions into a hydrocarbon transport pipeline (HCT having an inner diameter of 24 in (60,96 m. The main components of fluids in the pipeline are water 95%, crude oil 3% and gas 2%. A radiotracing experiment was carried out at the segment of pipe which is located far from branch points with assumptions that stratified flows in such segment were achieved. Two radiation detectors located at 80 and 100 m from injection point were used to generate residence time distribution (RTD curve resulting from injection of radiotracer solutions. Multiphase computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations using Eulerian-Eulerian control volume and commercial CFD package Fluent 6.2 were employed to simulate separation length of multiphase flow. The results of study shows that the flow velocity of water is higher than the flow rate of crude oil in water-dominated system despite the higher density of water than the density of the crude oil. The separation length in multiphase flow predicted by Fluent mixture model is approximately 20 m, measured from injection point. This result confirms that the placement of the first radiation detector at the distance 80 m from the injection point was correct
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amirante, R.; Moscatelli, P.G.; Catalano, L.A.
2007-01-01
The aim of this paper is to investigate the fluid dynamic behaviour of a commercial hydraulic proportional valve in order to evaluate and justify its global performances and, in particular, to analyze the effects of some additional design features on the reduction of the force required to maintain the valve open. The proposed analysis has been performed by applying the commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code, Fluent, to the solution of the three dimensional turbulent flow field through a circumferential sector of the entire valve for different spool strokes. The reliability of the employed modelization is demonstrated by the comparison between the computed flow rate curve and the corresponding experimental data provided by the manufacturer. With regard to the metering edge design, it is shown that the cylindrical hole provided on the top of the hemi-spherical notch to improve metering at small valve openings has no influence on the flow force balance. The presented results also demonstrate that compensation techniques based on an adequate spool profiling are effective in balancing the flow forces mainly at medium and large valve openings, thanks to the pressure difference on the compensation profile; which also results in an increased axial momentum at the inlet of the high pressure chamber. The benefits of its presence are amplified by the adoption of two grooves machined on the valve body, which modify the flow field so as both to increase the axial momentum at the inlet of the high pressure chamber and to reduce it at the outlet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zou, Zhengping; Liu, Jingyuan; Zhang, Weihao; Wang, Peng
2016-01-01
Multi-dimensional coupling simulation is an effective approach for evaluating the flow and aero-thermal performance of shrouded turbines, which can balance the simulation accuracy and computing cost effectively. In this paper, 1D leakage models are proposed based on classical jet theories and dynamics equations, which can be used to evaluate most of the main features of shroud leakage flow, including the mass flow rate, radial and circumferential momentum, temperature and the jet width. Then, the 1D models are expanded to 2D distributions on the interface by using a multi-dimensional scaling method. Based on the models and multi-dimensional scaling, a multi-dimensional coupling simulation method for shrouded turbines is developed, in which, some boundary source and sink are set on the interface between the shroud and the main flow passage. To verify the precision, some simulations on the design point and off design points of a 1.5 stage turbine are conducted. It is indicated that the models and methods can give predictions with sufficient accuracy for most of the flow field features and will contribute to pursue deeper understanding and better design methods of shrouded axial turbines, which are the important devices in energy engineering. - Highlights: • Free and wall attached jet theories are used to model the leakage flow in shrouds. • Leakage flow rate is modeled by virtual labyrinth number and residual-energy factor. • A scaling method is applied to 1D model to obtain 2D distributions on interfaces. • A multi-dimensional coupling CFD method for shrouded turbines is proposed. • The proposed coupling method can give accurate predictions with low computing cost.
2009-01-01
At the 19th Annual Conference on Parallel Computational Fluid Dynamics held in Antalya, Turkey, in May 2007, the most recent developments and implementations of large-scale and grid computing were presented. This book, comprised of the invited and selected papers of this conference, details those advances, which are of particular interest to CFD and CFD-related communities. It also offers the results related to applications of various scientific and engineering problems involving flows and flow-related topics. Intended for CFD researchers and graduate students, this book is a state-of-the-art presentation of the relevant methodology and implementation techniques of large-scale computing.
Computational strategies for three-dimensional flow simulations on distributed computer systems
Sankar, Lakshmi N.; Weed, Richard A.
1995-08-01
This research effort is directed towards an examination of issues involved in porting large computational fluid dynamics codes in use within the industry to a distributed computing environment. This effort addresses strategies for implementing the distributed computing in a device independent fashion and load balancing. A flow solver called TEAM presently in use at Lockheed Aeronautical Systems Company was acquired to start this effort. The following tasks were completed: (1) The TEAM code was ported to a number of distributed computing platforms including a cluster of HP workstations located in the School of Aerospace Engineering at Georgia Tech; a cluster of DEC Alpha Workstations in the Graphics visualization lab located at Georgia Tech; a cluster of SGI workstations located at NASA Ames Research Center; and an IBM SP-2 system located at NASA ARC. (2) A number of communication strategies were implemented. Specifically, the manager-worker strategy and the worker-worker strategy were tested. (3) A variety of load balancing strategies were investigated. Specifically, the static load balancing, task queue balancing and the Crutchfield algorithm were coded and evaluated. (4) The classical explicit Runge-Kutta scheme in the TEAM solver was replaced with an LU implicit scheme. And (5) the implicit TEAM-PVM solver was extensively validated through studies of unsteady transonic flow over an F-5 wing, undergoing combined bending and torsional motion. These investigations are documented in extensive detail in the dissertation, 'Computational Strategies for Three-Dimensional Flow Simulations on Distributed Computing Systems', enclosed as an appendix.
Computational strategies for three-dimensional flow simulations on distributed computer systems
Sankar, Lakshmi N.; Weed, Richard A.
1995-01-01
This research effort is directed towards an examination of issues involved in porting large computational fluid dynamics codes in use within the industry to a distributed computing environment. This effort addresses strategies for implementing the distributed computing in a device independent fashion and load balancing. A flow solver called TEAM presently in use at Lockheed Aeronautical Systems Company was acquired to start this effort. The following tasks were completed: (1) The TEAM code was ported to a number of distributed computing platforms including a cluster of HP workstations located in the School of Aerospace Engineering at Georgia Tech; a cluster of DEC Alpha Workstations in the Graphics visualization lab located at Georgia Tech; a cluster of SGI workstations located at NASA Ames Research Center; and an IBM SP-2 system located at NASA ARC. (2) A number of communication strategies were implemented. Specifically, the manager-worker strategy and the worker-worker strategy were tested. (3) A variety of load balancing strategies were investigated. Specifically, the static load balancing, task queue balancing and the Crutchfield algorithm were coded and evaluated. (4) The classical explicit Runge-Kutta scheme in the TEAM solver was replaced with an LU implicit scheme. And (5) the implicit TEAM-PVM solver was extensively validated through studies of unsteady transonic flow over an F-5 wing, undergoing combined bending and torsional motion. These investigations are documented in extensive detail in the dissertation, 'Computational Strategies for Three-Dimensional Flow Simulations on Distributed Computing Systems', enclosed as an appendix.
Hepatic blood perfusion estimated by dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography in pigs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Winterdahl, Michael; Sørensen, Michael; Keiding, Inger Susanne
2012-01-01
The aim of this study was to determine whether dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (DCE-CT) and the slope method can provide absolute measures of hepatic blood perfusion from the hepatic artery (HA) and portal vein (PV) at experimentally varied blood flow rates.......The aim of this study was to determine whether dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (DCE-CT) and the slope method can provide absolute measures of hepatic blood perfusion from the hepatic artery (HA) and portal vein (PV) at experimentally varied blood flow rates....
Particle hopping vs. fluid-dynamical models for traffic flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nagel, K.
1995-12-31
Although particle hopping models have been introduced into traffic science in the 19509, their systematic use has only started recently. Two reasons for this are, that they are advantageous on modem computers, and that recent theoretical developments allow analytical understanding of their properties and therefore more confidence for their use. In principle, particle hopping models fit between microscopic models for driving and fluiddynamical models for traffic flow. In this sense, they also help closing the conceptual gap between these two. This paper shows connections between particle hopping models and traffic flow theory. It shows that the hydrodynamical limits of certain particle hopping models correspond to the Lighthill-Whitham theory for traffic flow, and that only slightly more complex particle hopping models produce already the correct traffic jam dynamics, consistent with recent fluid-dynamical models for traffic flow. By doing so, this paper establishes that, on the macroscopic level, particle hopping models are at least as good as fluid-dynamical models. Yet, particle hopping models have at least two advantages over fluid-dynamical models: they straightforwardly allow microscopic simulations, and they include stochasticity.
A paradigm for modeling and computation of gas dynamics
Xu, Kun; Liu, Chang
2017-02-01
In the continuum flow regime, the Navier-Stokes (NS) equations are usually used for the description of gas dynamics. On the other hand, the Boltzmann equation is applied for the rarefied flow. These two equations are based on distinguishable modeling scales for flow physics. Fortunately, due to the scale separation, i.e., the hydrodynamic and kinetic ones, both the Navier-Stokes equations and the Boltzmann equation are applicable in their respective domains. However, in real science and engineering applications, they may not have such a distinctive scale separation. For example, around a hypersonic flying vehicle, the flow physics at different regions may correspond to different regimes, where the local Knudsen number can be changed significantly in several orders of magnitude. With a variation of flow physics, theoretically a continuous governing equation from the kinetic Boltzmann modeling to the hydrodynamic Navier-Stokes dynamics should be used for its efficient description. However, due to the difficulties of a direct modeling of flow physics in the scale between the kinetic and hydrodynamic ones, there is basically no reliable theory or valid governing equations to cover the whole transition regime, except resolving flow physics always down to the mean free path scale, such as the direct Boltzmann solver and the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. In fact, it is an unresolved problem about the exact scale for the validity of the NS equations, especially in the small Reynolds number cases. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is usually based on the numerical solution of partial differential equations (PDEs), and it targets on the recovering of the exact solution of the PDEs as mesh size and time step converging to zero. This methodology can be hardly applied to solve the multiple scale problem efficiently because there is no such a complete PDE for flow physics through a continuous variation of scales. For the non-equilibrium flow study, the direct
Computation of Viscous Incompressible Flows
Kwak, Dochan
2011-01-01
This monograph is intended as a concise and self-contained guide to practitioners and graduate students for applying approaches in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to real-world problems that require a quantification of viscous incompressible flows. In various projects related to NASA missions, the authors have gained CFD expertise over many years by developing and utilizing tools especially related to viscous incompressible flows. They are looking at CFD from an engineering perspective, which is especially useful when working on real-world applications. From that point of view, CFD requires two major elements, namely methods/algorithm and engineering/physical modeling. As for the methods, CFD research has been performed with great successes. In terms of modeling/simulation, mission applications require a deeper understanding of CFD and flow physics, which has only been debated in technical conferences and to a limited scope. This monograph fills the gap by offering in-depth examples for students and engine...
Computational Fluid Dynamics model of stratified atmospheric boundary-layer flow
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Koblitz, Tilman; Bechmann, Andreas; Sogachev, Andrey
2015-01-01
For wind resource assessment, the wind industry is increasingly relying on computational fluid dynamics models of the neutrally stratified surface-layer. So far, physical processes that are important to the whole atmospheric boundary-layer, such as the Coriolis effect, buoyancy forces and heat...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Park, Sun Ho [Korea Maritime and Ocean University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Rhee, Shin Hyung [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2015-08-15
Incompressible flow solvers are generally used for numerical analysis of cavitating flows, but with limitations in handling compressibility effects on vapor phase. To study compressibility effects on vapor phase and cavity interface, pressure-based incompressible and isothermal compressible flow solvers based on a cell-centered finite volume method were developed using the OpenFOAM libraries. To validate the solvers, cavitating flow around a hemispherical head-form body was simulated and validated against the experimental data. The cavity shedding behavior, length of a re-entrant jet, drag history, and the Strouhal number were compared between the two solvers. The results confirmed that computations of the cavitating flow including compressibility effects improved the reproduction of cavitation dynamics.
Computational fluid dynamics incompressible turbulent flows
Kajishima, Takeo
2017-01-01
This textbook presents numerical solution techniques for incompressible turbulent flows that occur in a variety of scientific and engineering settings including aerodynamics of ground-based vehicles and low-speed aircraft, fluid flows in energy systems, atmospheric flows, and biological flows. This book encompasses fluid mechanics, partial differential equations, numerical methods, and turbulence models, and emphasizes the foundation on how the governing partial differential equations for incompressible fluid flow can be solved numerically in an accurate and efficient manner. Extensive discussions on incompressible flow solvers and turbulence modeling are also offered. This text is an ideal instructional resource and reference for students, research scientists, and professional engineers interested in analyzing fluid flows using numerical simulations for fundamental research and industrial applications. • Introduces CFD techniques for incompressible flow and turbulence with a comprehensive approach; • Enr...
Computational study of duct and pipe flows using the method of pseudocompressibility
Williams, Robert W.
1991-01-01
A viscous, three-dimensional, incompressible, Navier-Stokes Computational Fluid Dynamics code employing pseudocompressibility is used for the prediction of laminar primary and secondary flows in two 90-degree bends of constant cross section. Under study are a square cross section duct bend with 2.3 radius ratio and a round cross section pipe bend with 2.8 radius ratio. Sensitivity of predicted primary and secondary flow to inlet boundary conditions, grid resolution, and code convergence is investigated. Contour and velocity versus spanwise coordinate plots comparing prediction to experimental data flow components are shown at several streamwise stations before, within, and after the duct and pipe bends. Discussion includes secondary flow physics, computational method, computational requirements, grid dependence, and convergence rates.
Advances in Computational Fluid-Structure Interaction and Flow Simulation Conference
Takizawa, Kenji
2016-01-01
This contributed volume celebrates the work of Tayfun E. Tezduyar on the occasion of his 60th birthday. The articles it contains were born out of the Advances in Computational Fluid-Structure Interaction and Flow Simulation (AFSI 2014) conference, also dedicated to Prof. Tezduyar and held at Waseda University in Tokyo, Japan on March 19-21, 2014. The contributing authors represent a group of international experts in the field who discuss recent trends and new directions in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and fluid-structure interaction (FSI). Organized into seven distinct parts arranged by thematic topics, the papers included cover basic methods and applications of CFD, flows with moving boundaries and interfaces, phase-field modeling, computer science and high-performance computing (HPC) aspects of flow simulation, mathematical methods, biomedical applications, and FSI. Researchers, practitioners, and advanced graduate students working on CFD, FSI, and related topics will find this collection to be a defi...
Symposium on computational fluid dynamics: technology and applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1988-01-01
A symposium on the technology and applications of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was held in Pretoria from 21-23 Nov 1988. The following aspects were covered: multilevel adaptive methods and multigrid solvers in CFD, a symbolic processing approach to CFD, interplay between CFD and analytical approximations, CFD on a transfer array, the application of CFD in high speed aerodynamics, numerical simulation of laminar blood flow, two-phase flow modelling in nuclear accident analysis, and the finite difference scheme for the numerical solution of fluid flow
Computational and experimental investigation of dynamic shock reflection phenomena
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Naidoo, K
2007-07-01
Full Text Available wedge are used to analyse dynamic flow field phenomena and response of the triple point below and within the dual solution domain. Computed, unsteady pressure traces on the reflection plane are also analysed...
Experimental and computational analysis of pressure response in a multiphase flow loop
Morshed, Munzarin; Amin, Al; Rahman, Mohammad Azizur; Imtiaz, Syed
2016-07-01
The characteristics of multiphase fluid flow in pipes are useful to understand fluid mechanics encountered in the oil and gas industries. In the present day oil and gas exploration is successively inducing subsea operation in the deep sea and arctic condition. During the transport of petroleum products, understanding the fluid dynamics inside the pipe network is important for flow assurance. In this case the information regarding static and dynamic pressure response, pressure loss, optimum flow rate, pipe diameter etc. are the important parameter for flow assurance. The principal aim of this research is to represents computational analysis and experimental analysis of multi-phase (L/G) in a pipe network. This computational study considers a two-phase fluid flow through a horizontal flow loop with at different Reynolds number in order to determine the pressure distribution, frictional pressure loss profiles by volume of fluid (VOF) method. However, numerical simulations are validated with the experimental data. The experiment is conducted in 76.20 mm ID transparent circular pipe using water and air in the flow loop. Static pressure transducers are used to measure local pressure response in multiphase pipeline.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Premnath, Kannan N; Pattison, Martin J; Banerjee, Sanjoy
2013-01-01
Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is a kinetic based numerical scheme for the simulation of fluid flow. While the approach has attracted considerable attention during the last two decades, there is a need for systematic investigation of its applicability for complex canonical turbulent flow problems of engineering interest, where the nature of the numerical properties of the underlying scheme plays an important role for their accurate solution. In this paper, we discuss and evaluate a LBM based on a multiblock approach for efficient large eddy simulation of three-dimensional external flow past a circular cylinder in the transitional regime characterized by the presence of multiple scales. For enhanced numerical stability at higher Reynolds numbers, a multiple relaxation time formulation is considered. The effect of subgrid scales is represented by means of a Smagorinsky eddy-viscosity model, where the model coefficient is computed locally by means of a dynamic procedure, providing better representation of flow physics with reduced empiricism. Simulations are performed for a Reynolds number of 3900 based on the free stream velocity and cylinder diameter for which prior data is available for comparison. The presence of laminar boundary layer which separates into a pair of shear layers that evolve into turbulent wakes impose particular challenge for numerical methods for this condition. The relatively low numerical dissipation introduced by the inherently parallel and second-order accurate LBM is an important computational asset in this regard. Computations using five different grid levels, where the various blocks are suitably aligned to resolve multiscale flow features show that the structure of the recirculation region is well reproduced and the statistics of the mean flow and turbulent fluctuations are in satisfactory agreement with prior data. (paper)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Premnath, Kannan N [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado Denver, 1200 Larimer Street, Denver, CO 80217 (United States); Pattison, Martin J [HyPerComp Inc., 2629 Townsgate Road, Suite 105, Westlake Village, CA 91361 (United States); Banerjee, Sanjoy, E-mail: kannan.premnath@ucdenver.edu, E-mail: kannan.np@gmail.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, City College of New York, City University of New York, New York, NY 10031 (United States)
2013-10-15
Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is a kinetic based numerical scheme for the simulation of fluid flow. While the approach has attracted considerable attention during the last two decades, there is a need for systematic investigation of its applicability for complex canonical turbulent flow problems of engineering interest, where the nature of the numerical properties of the underlying scheme plays an important role for their accurate solution. In this paper, we discuss and evaluate a LBM based on a multiblock approach for efficient large eddy simulation of three-dimensional external flow past a circular cylinder in the transitional regime characterized by the presence of multiple scales. For enhanced numerical stability at higher Reynolds numbers, a multiple relaxation time formulation is considered. The effect of subgrid scales is represented by means of a Smagorinsky eddy-viscosity model, where the model coefficient is computed locally by means of a dynamic procedure, providing better representation of flow physics with reduced empiricism. Simulations are performed for a Reynolds number of 3900 based on the free stream velocity and cylinder diameter for which prior data is available for comparison. The presence of laminar boundary layer which separates into a pair of shear layers that evolve into turbulent wakes impose particular challenge for numerical methods for this condition. The relatively low numerical dissipation introduced by the inherently parallel and second-order accurate LBM is an important computational asset in this regard. Computations using five different grid levels, where the various blocks are suitably aligned to resolve multiscale flow features show that the structure of the recirculation region is well reproduced and the statistics of the mean flow and turbulent fluctuations are in satisfactory agreement with prior data. (paper)
Discrete Adjoint-Based Design Optimization of Unsteady Turbulent Flows on Dynamic Unstructured Grids
Nielsen, Eric J.; Diskin, Boris; Yamaleev, Nail K.
2009-01-01
An adjoint-based methodology for design optimization of unsteady turbulent flows on dynamic unstructured grids is described. The implementation relies on an existing unsteady three-dimensional unstructured grid solver capable of dynamic mesh simulations and discrete adjoint capabilities previously developed for steady flows. The discrete equations for the primal and adjoint systems are presented for the backward-difference family of time-integration schemes on both static and dynamic grids. The consistency of sensitivity derivatives is established via comparisons with complex-variable computations. The current work is believed to be the first verified implementation of an adjoint-based optimization methodology for the true time-dependent formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations in a practical computational code. Large-scale shape optimizations are demonstrated for turbulent flows over a tiltrotor geometry and a simulated aeroelastic motion of a fighter jet.
On Computational Fluid Dynamics Tools in Architectural Design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Hougaard, Mads; Stærdahl, Jesper Winther
engineering computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation program ANSYS CFX and a CFD based representative program RealFlow are investigated. These two programs represent two types of CFD based tools available for use during phases of an architectural design process. However, as outlined in two case studies...
Flow dynamics and energy efficiency of flow in the left ventricle during myocardial infarction.
Vasudevan, Vivek; Low, Adriel Jia Jun; Annamalai, Sarayu Parimal; Sampath, Smita; Poh, Kian Keong; Totman, Teresa; Mazlan, Muhammad; Croft, Grace; Richards, A Mark; de Kleijn, Dominique P V; Chin, Chih-Liang; Yap, Choon Hwai
2017-10-01
Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death worldwide, where myocardial infarction (MI) is a major category. After infarction, the heart has difficulty providing sufficient energy for circulation, and thus, understanding the heart's energy efficiency is important. We induced MI in a porcine animal model via circumflex ligation and acquired multiple-slice cine magnetic resonance (MR) images in a longitudinal manner-before infarction, and 1 week (acute) and 4 weeks (chronic) after infarction. Computational fluid dynamic simulations were performed based on MR images to obtain detailed fluid dynamics and energy dynamics of the left ventricles. Results showed that energy efficiency flow through the heart decreased at the acute time point. Since the heart was observed to experience changes in heart rate, stroke volume and chamber size over the two post-infarction time points, simulations were performed to test the effect of each of the three parameters. Increasing heart rate and stroke volume were found to significantly decrease flow energy efficiency, but the effect of chamber size was inconsistent. Strong complex interplay was observed between the three parameters, necessitating the use of non-dimensional parameterization to characterize flow energy efficiency. The ratio of Reynolds to Strouhal number, which is a form of Womersley number, was found to be the most effective non-dimensional parameter to represent energy efficiency of flow in the heart. We believe that this non-dimensional number can be computed for clinical cases via ultrasound and hypothesize that it can serve as a biomarker for clinical evaluations.
Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography Derived Fractional Flow Reserve and Plaque Stress
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nørgaard, Bjarne Linde; Leipsic, Jonathon; Koo, Bon-Kwon
2016-01-01
Fractional flow reserve (FFR) measured during invasive coronary angiography is an independent prognosticator in patients with coronary artery disease and the gold standard for decision making in coronary revascularization. The integration of computational fluid dynamics and quantitative anatomic...... and physiologic modeling now enables simulation of patient-specific hemodynamic parameters including blood velocity, pressure, pressure gradients, and FFR from standard acquired coronary computed tomography (CT) datasets. In this review article, we describe the potential impact on clinical practice...... and the science behind noninvasive coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography derived fractional flow reserve (FFRCT) as well as future applications of this technology in treatment planning and quantifying forces on atherosclerotic plaques....
Three-dimensional turbulent swirling flow in a cylinder: Experiments and computations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gupta, Amit; Kumar, Ranganathan
2007-01-01
Dynamics of the three-dimensional flow in a cyclone with tangential inlet and tangential exit were studied using particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) and a three-dimensional computational model. The PTV technique is described in this paper and appears to be well suited for the current flow situation. The flow was helical in nature and a secondary recirculating flow was observed and well predicted by computations using the RNG k-ε turbulence model. The secondary flow was characterized by a single vortex which circulated around the axis and occupied a large fraction of the cylinder diameter. The locus of the vortex center meandered around the cylinder axis, making one complete revolution for a cylinder aspect ratio of 2. Tangential velocities from both experiments and computations were compared and found to be in good agreement. The general structure of the flow does not vary significantly as the Reynolds number is increased. However, slight changes in all components of velocity and pressure were seen as the inlet velocity is increased. By increasing the inlet aspect ratio it was observed that the vortex meandering changed significantly
Three-dimensional turbulent swirling flow in a cylinder: Experiments and computations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gupta, Amit [Department of Mechanical, Materials and Aerospace Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); Kumar, Ranganathan [Department of Mechanical, Materials and Aerospace Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States)]. E-mail: rnkumar@mail.ucf.edu
2007-04-15
Dynamics of the three-dimensional flow in a cyclone with tangential inlet and tangential exit were studied using particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) and a three-dimensional computational model. The PTV technique is described in this paper and appears to be well suited for the current flow situation. The flow was helical in nature and a secondary recirculating flow was observed and well predicted by computations using the RNG k-{epsilon} turbulence model. The secondary flow was characterized by a single vortex which circulated around the axis and occupied a large fraction of the cylinder diameter. The locus of the vortex center meandered around the cylinder axis, making one complete revolution for a cylinder aspect ratio of 2. Tangential velocities from both experiments and computations were compared and found to be in good agreement. The general structure of the flow does not vary significantly as the Reynolds number is increased. However, slight changes in all components of velocity and pressure were seen as the inlet velocity is increased. By increasing the inlet aspect ratio it was observed that the vortex meandering changed significantly.
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Edge, Harris
1999-01-01
...), computational fluid dynamics (CFD) 6 project. Under the project, a proven zonal Navier-Stokes solver was rewritten for scalable parallel performance on both shared memory and distributed memory high performance computers...
Carlos Varas, Álvaro E; Peters, E A J F; Kuipers, J A M
2017-05-17
We report a computational fluid dynamics-discrete element method (CFD-DEM) simulation study on the interplay between mass transfer and a heterogeneous catalyzed chemical reaction in cocurrent gas-particle flows as encountered in risers. Slip velocity, axial gas dispersion, gas bypassing, and particle mixing phenomena have been evaluated under riser flow conditions to study the complex system behavior in detail. The most important factors are found to be directly related to particle cluster formation. Low air-to-solids flux ratios lead to more heterogeneous systems, where the cluster formation is more pronounced and mass transfer more influenced. Falling clusters can be partially circumvented by the gas phase, which therefore does not fully interact with the cluster particles, leading to poor gas-solid contact efficiencies. Cluster gas-solid contact efficiencies are quantified at several gas superficial velocities, reaction rates, and dilution factors in order to gain more insight regarding the influence of clustering phenomena on the performance of riser reactors.
Dynamics of nuclear fuel assemblies in vertical flow channels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mason, V.A.
1988-01-01
DYNMOD is a computer program designed to predict the dynamic behaviour of nuclear fuel assemblies in axial flow. The calculations performed by DYNMOD and the input data required by the program are described in this report. Examples of DYNMOD usage and a brief assessment of the accuracy of the dynamic model are also presented. It is intended that the report will be used as a reference manual by users of DYNMOD
Theoretical and Computational Analyses of Bernoulli Levitation Flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nam, Jong Soon; Kim, Gyu Wan; Kim, Jin Hyeon; Kim, Heuy Dong
2013-01-01
Pneumatic levitation is based upon Bernoulli's principle. However, this method is known to require a large gas flow rate that can lead to an increase in the cost of products. In this case, the gas flow rate should be increased, and the compressible effects of the gas may be of practical importance. In the present study, a computational fluid dynamics method has been used to obtain insights into Bernoulli levitation flows. Three-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations in combination with the SST k-ω turbulence model were solved using a fully implicit finite volume scheme. The gas flow rate, work piece diameter,and clearance gap between the work piece and the circular cylinder were varied to investigate the flow characteristics inside. It is known that there is an optimal clearance gap for the lifting force and that increasing the supply gas flow rate results in a larger lifting force
Theoretical and Computational Analyses of Bernoulli Levitation Flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nam, Jong Soon; Kim, Gyu Wan; Kim, Jin Hyeon; Kim, Heuy Dong [Andong Nat' l Univ., Andong (Korea, Republic of)
2013-07-15
Pneumatic levitation is based upon Bernoulli's principle. However, this method is known to require a large gas flow rate that can lead to an increase in the cost of products. In this case, the gas flow rate should be increased, and the compressible effects of the gas may be of practical importance. In the present study, a computational fluid dynamics method has been used to obtain insights into Bernoulli levitation flows. Three-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations in combination with the SST k-{omega} turbulence model were solved using a fully implicit finite volume scheme. The gas flow rate, work piece diameter,and clearance gap between the work piece and the circular cylinder were varied to investigate the flow characteristics inside. It is known that there is an optimal clearance gap for the lifting force and that increasing the supply gas flow rate results in a larger lifting force.
Computational issues in the analysis of nonlinear two-phase flow dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rosa, Mauricio A. Pinheiro [Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial (CTA-IEAv), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Estudos Avancados. Div. de Energia Nuclear], e-mail: pinheiro@ieav.cta.br; Podowski, Michael Z. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, New York, NY (United States)
2001-07-01
This paper is concerned with the issue of computer simulations of flow-induced instabilities in boiling channels and systems. A computational model is presented for the time-domain analysis of nonlinear oscillations in interconnected parallel boiling channels. The results of model testing and validation are shown. One of the main concerns here has been to show the importance in performing numerical testing regarding the selection of a proper numerical integration method and associated nodalization and time step as well as to demonstrate the convergence of the numerical solution prior to any analysis. (author)
Computational Flow Modeling of a Simplified Integrated Tractor-Trailer Geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salari, K.; McWherter-Payne, M.
2003-01-01
For several years, Sandia National Laboratories and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory have been part of a consortium funded by the Department of Energy to improve fuel efficiency of heavy vehicles such as Class 8 trucks through aerodynamic drag reduction. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility of using the steady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) approach to predict the flow field around heavy vehicles, with special emphasis on the base region of the trailer, and to compute the aerodynamic forces. In particular, Sandia's computational fluid dynamics code, SACCARA, was used to simulate the flow on a simplified model of a tractor-trailer vehicle. The results are presented and compared with NASA Ames experimental data to assess the predictive capability of RANS to model the flow field and predict the aerodynamic forces
Roozeboom, Nettie H.; Lee, Henry C.; Simurda, Laura J.; Zilliac, Gregory G.; Pulliam, Thomas H.
2016-01-01
Wing-body juncture flow fields on commercial aircraft configurations are challenging to compute accurately. The NASA Advanced Air Vehicle Program's juncture flow committee is designing an experiment to provide data to improve Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling in the juncture flow region. Preliminary design of the model was done using CFD, yet CFD tends to over-predict the separation in the juncture flow region. Risk reduction wind tunnel tests were requisitioned by the committee to obtain a better understanding of the flow characteristics of the designed models. NASA Ames Research Center's Fluid Mechanics Lab performed one of the risk reduction tests. The results of one case, accompanied by CFD simulations, are presented in this paper. Experimental results suggest the wall mounted wind tunnel model produces a thicker boundary layer on the fuselage than the CFD predictions, resulting in a larger wing horseshoe vortex suppressing the side of body separation in the juncture flow region. Compared to experimental results, CFD predicts a thinner boundary layer on the fuselage generates a weaker wing horseshoe vortex resulting in a larger side of body separation.
Groves, Curtis Edward
2014-01-01
Spacecraft thermal protection systems are at risk of being damaged due to airflow produced from Environmental Control Systems. There are inherent uncertainties and errors associated with using Computational Fluid Dynamics to predict the airflow field around a spacecraft from the Environmental Control System. This paper describes an approach to quantify the uncertainty in using Computational Fluid Dynamics to predict airflow speeds around an encapsulated spacecraft without the use of test data. Quantifying the uncertainty in analytical predictions is imperative to the success of any simulation-based product. The method could provide an alternative to traditional "validation by test only" mentality. This method could be extended to other disciplines and has potential to provide uncertainty for any numerical simulation, thus lowering the cost of performing these verifications while increasing the confidence in those predictions. Spacecraft requirements can include a maximum airflow speed to protect delicate instruments during ground processing. Computational Fluid Dynamics can be used to verify these requirements; however, the model must be validated by test data. This research includes the following three objectives and methods. Objective one is develop, model, and perform a Computational Fluid Dynamics analysis of three (3) generic, non-proprietary, environmental control systems and spacecraft configurations. Several commercially available and open source solvers have the capability to model the turbulent, highly three-dimensional, incompressible flow regime. The proposed method uses FLUENT, STARCCM+, and OPENFOAM. Objective two is to perform an uncertainty analysis of the Computational Fluid Dynamics model using the methodology found in "Comprehensive Approach to Verification and Validation of Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations". This method requires three separate grids and solutions, which quantify the error bars around Computational Fluid Dynamics
Groves, Curtis Edward
2014-01-01
Spacecraft thermal protection systems are at risk of being damaged due to airflow produced from Environmental Control Systems. There are inherent uncertainties and errors associated with using Computational Fluid Dynamics to predict the airflow field around a spacecraft from the Environmental Control System. This paper describes an approach to quantify the uncertainty in using Computational Fluid Dynamics to predict airflow speeds around an encapsulated spacecraft without the use of test data. Quantifying the uncertainty in analytical predictions is imperative to the success of any simulation-based product. The method could provide an alternative to traditional validation by test only mentality. This method could be extended to other disciplines and has potential to provide uncertainty for any numerical simulation, thus lowering the cost of performing these verifications while increasing the confidence in those predictions.Spacecraft requirements can include a maximum airflow speed to protect delicate instruments during ground processing. Computational Fluid Dynamics can be used to verify these requirements; however, the model must be validated by test data. This research includes the following three objectives and methods. Objective one is develop, model, and perform a Computational Fluid Dynamics analysis of three (3) generic, non-proprietary, environmental control systems and spacecraft configurations. Several commercially available and open source solvers have the capability to model the turbulent, highly three-dimensional, incompressible flow regime. The proposed method uses FLUENT, STARCCM+, and OPENFOAM. Objective two is to perform an uncertainty analysis of the Computational Fluid Dynamics model using the methodology found in Comprehensive Approach to Verification and Validation of Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations. This method requires three separate grids and solutions, which quantify the error bars around Computational Fluid Dynamics predictions
A parametric study of a solar calcinator using computational fluid dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fidaros, D.K.; Baxevanou, C.A.; Vlachos, N.S.
2007-01-01
In this work a horizontal rotating solar calcinator is studied numerically using computational fluid dynamics. The specific solar reactor is a 10 kW model designed and used for efficiency studies. The numerical model is based on the solution of the Navier-Stokes equations for the gas flow, and on Lagrangean dynamics for the discrete particles. All necessary mathematical models were developed and incorporated into a computational fluid dynamics model with the influence of turbulence simulated by a two-equation (RNG k-ε) model. The efficiency of the reactor was calculated for different thermal inputs, feed rates, rotational speeds and particle diameters. The numerically computed degrees of calcination compared well with equivalent experimental results
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pietrowski, Ronald L. [The Consolidated Edison Company of New York, Inc., New York, NY (United States)
2010-11-15
In 2009, Consolidated Edison's East River heat recovery steam generator units 10 and 20 both experienced economizer tube failures which forced each unit offline. Extensive inspections indicated that the primary failure mechanism was flow-accelerated corrosion (FAC). The inspections revealed evidence of active FAC in all 7 of the economizer modules, with the most advanced stages of degradation being noted in center modules. Analysis determined that various factors were influencing and enabling this corrosion mechanism. Computational fluid dynamics and full-scale air flow testing showed very turbulent feedwater flow prevalent in areas of the modules corresponding with the pattern of FAC damage observed through inspection. It also identified preferential flow paths, with higher flow velocities, in certain tubes directly under the inlet nozzles. A FAC risk analysis identified more general susceptibility to FAC in the areas experiencing damage due to feedwater pH, operating temperatures, local shear fluid forces, and the chemical composition of the original materials of construction. These, in combination, were the primary root causes of the failures. Corrective actions were identified, analyzed, and implemented, resulting in equipment replacements and repairs. (orig.)
Traffic flow dynamics data, models and simulation
Treiber, Martin
2013-01-01
This textbook provides a comprehensive and instructive coverage of vehicular traffic flow dynamics and modeling. It makes this fascinating interdisciplinary topic, which to date was only documented in parts by specialized monographs, accessible to a broad readership. Numerous figures and problems with solutions help the reader to quickly understand and practice the presented concepts. This book is targeted at students of physics and traffic engineering and, more generally, also at students and professionals in computer science, mathematics, and interdisciplinary topics. It also offers material for project work in programming and simulation at college and university level. The main part, after presenting different categories of traffic data, is devoted to a mathematical description of the dynamics of traffic flow, covering macroscopic models which describe traffic in terms of density, as well as microscopic many-particle models in which each particle corresponds to a vehicle and its driver. Focus chapters on ...
Particle Image Velocimetry and Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of Fuel Cell Manifold
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lebæk, Jesper; Blazniak Andreasen, Marcin; Andresen, Henrik Assenholm
2010-01-01
The inlet effect on the manifold flow in a fuel cell stack was investigated by means of numerical methods (computational fluid dynamics) and experimental methods (particle image velocimetry). At a simulated high current density situation the flow field was mapped on a 70 cell simulated cathode...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Karmonik, C.; Benndorf, G. [The Methodist Hospital Research Inst., Houston (United States). Radiology; Klucznik, R. [The Methodist Hospital, Houston (United States). Radiology
2008-03-15
Purpose: computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are increasingly used to model cerebral aneurysm hemodynamics. We investigated the capability of phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (pcMRI), guided by specialized software for optimal slice definition (NOVA, Vassol Inc.) as a non-invasive method to measure intra-aneurysmal blood flow patterns in-vivo. In a novel approach, these blood flow patterns measured with pcMRI were qualitatively compared to the ones calculated with CFD. Materials end methods: the volumetric inflow rates into three unruptured cerebral aneurysms and the temporal variations of the intra-aneurysmal blood flow patterns were recorded with pcMRI. Transient CFD simulations were performed on geometric models of these aneurysms derived from 3D digital subtraction angiograms. Calculated intra-aneurysmal blood flow patterns were compared at the times of maximum and minimum arterial inflow to the ones measured with pcMRI and the temporal variations of these patterns during the cardiac cycle were investigated. Results: in all three aneurysms, the main features of intra-aneurysmal flow patterns obtained with pcMRI consisted of areas with positive velocities components and areas with negative velocities components. The measured velocities ranged from approx. {+-}60 to {+-}100 cm/sec. Comparison with calculated CFD simulations showed good correlation with regard to the spatial distribution of these areas, while differences in calculated magnitudes of velocities were found. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karmonik, C.; Benndorf, G.; Klucznik, R.
2008-01-01
Purpose: computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are increasingly used to model cerebral aneurysm hemodynamics. We investigated the capability of phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (pcMRI), guided by specialized software for optimal slice definition (NOVA, Vassol Inc.) as a non-invasive method to measure intra-aneurysmal blood flow patterns in-vivo. In a novel approach, these blood flow patterns measured with pcMRI were qualitatively compared to the ones calculated with CFD. Materials end methods: the volumetric inflow rates into three unruptured cerebral aneurysms and the temporal variations of the intra-aneurysmal blood flow patterns were recorded with pcMRI. Transient CFD simulations were performed on geometric models of these aneurysms derived from 3D digital subtraction angiograms. Calculated intra-aneurysmal blood flow patterns were compared at the times of maximum and minimum arterial inflow to the ones measured with pcMRI and the temporal variations of these patterns during the cardiac cycle were investigated. Results: in all three aneurysms, the main features of intra-aneurysmal flow patterns obtained with pcMRI consisted of areas with positive velocities components and areas with negative velocities components. The measured velocities ranged from approx. ±60 to ±100 cm/sec. Comparison with calculated CFD simulations showed good correlation with regard to the spatial distribution of these areas, while differences in calculated magnitudes of velocities were found. (orig.)
Computational fluid dynamics simulations of blood flow regularized by 3D phase contrast MRI
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rispoli, Vinicius C; Nielsen, Jon; Nayak, Krishna S
2015-01-01
BACKGROUND: Phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI) is used clinically for quantitative assessment of cardiovascular flow and function, as it is capable of providing directly-measured 3D velocity maps. Alternatively, vascular flow can be estimated from model-based computation fluid dyn...
Kosaka, Ryo; Nishida, Masahiro; Maruyama, Osamu; Yamane, Takashi
2011-09-01
In order to monitor the condition of patients with implantable left ventricular assist systems (LVAS), it is important to measure pump flow rate continuously and noninvasively. However, it is difficult to measure the pump flow rate, especially in an implantable axial flow blood pump, because the power consumption has neither linearity nor uniqueness with regard to the pump flow rate. In this study, a miniaturized mass-flow meter for discharged patients with an implantable axial blood pump was developed on the basis of computational analysis, and was evaluated in in-vitro tests. The mass-flow meter makes use of centrifugal force produced by the mass-flow rate around a curved cannula. An optimized design was investigated by use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. On the basis of the computational analysis, a miniaturized mass-flow meter made of titanium alloy was developed. A strain gauge was adopted as a sensor element. The first strain gauge, attached to the curved area, measured both static pressure and centrifugal force. The second strain gauge, attached to the straight area, measured static pressure. By subtracting the output of the second strain gauge from the output of the first strain gauge, the mass-flow rate was determined. In in-vitro tests using a model circulation loop, the mass-flow meter was compared with a conventional flow meter. Measurement error was less than ±0.5 L/min and average time delay was 0.14 s. We confirmed that the miniaturized mass-flow meter could accurately measure the mass-flow rate continuously and noninvasively.
Nordgaard, Håvard; Swillens, Abigail; Nordhaug, Dag; Kirkeby-Garstad, Idar; Van Loo, Denis; Vitale, Nicola; Segers, Patrick; Haaverstad, Rune; Lovstakken, Lasse
2010-12-01
Competitive flow from native coronary vessels is considered a major factor in the failure of coronary bypass grafts. However, the pathophysiological effects are not fully understood. Low and oscillatory wall shear stress (WSS) is known to induce endothelial dysfunction and vascular disease, like atherosclerosis and intimal hyperplasia. The aim was to investigate the impact of competitive flow on WSS in mammary artery bypass grafts. Using computational fluid dynamics, WSS was calculated in a left internal mammary artery (LIMA) graft to the left anterior descending artery in a three-dimensional in vivo porcine coronary artery bypass graft model. The following conditions were investigated: high competitive flow (non-significant coronary lesion), partial competitive flow (significant coronary lesion), and no competitive flow (totally occluded coronary vessel). Time-averaged WSS of LIMA at high, partial, and no competitive flow were 0.3-0.6, 0.6-3.0, and 0.9-3.0 Pa, respectively. Further, oscillatory WSS quantified as the oscillatory shear index (OSI) ranged from (maximum OSI = 0.5 equals zero net WSS) 0.15 to 0.35, OSI similar to the no competitive flow condition. Graft flow is highly dependent on the degree of competitive flow. High competitive flow was found to produce unfavourable WSS consistent with endothelial dysfunction and subsequent graft narrowing and failure. Partial competitive flow, however, may be better tolerated as it was found to be similar to the ideal condition of no competitive flow.
On turbulence models for rod bundle flow computations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hazi, Gabor
2005-01-01
In commercial computational fluid dynamics codes there is more than one turbulence model built in. It is the user responsibility to choose one of those models, suitable for the problem studied. In the last decade, several computations were presented using computational fluid dynamics for the simulation of various problems of the nuclear industry. A common feature in a number of those simulations is that they were performed using the standard k-ε turbulence model without justifying the choice of the model. The simulation results were rarely satisfactory. In this paper, we shall consider the flow in a fuel rod bundle as a case study and discuss why the application of the standard k-ε model fails to give reasonable results in this situation. We also show that a turbulence model based on the Reynolds stress transport equations can provide qualitatively correct results. Generally, our aim is pedagogical, we would like to call the readers attention to the fact that turbulence models have to be selected based on theoretical considerations and/or adequate information obtained from measurements
High-performance computational fluid dynamics: a custom-code approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fannon, James; Náraigh, Lennon Ó; Loiseau, Jean-Christophe; Valluri, Prashant; Bethune, Iain
2016-01-01
We introduce a modified and simplified version of the pre-existing fully parallelized three-dimensional Navier–Stokes flow solver known as TPLS. We demonstrate how the simplified version can be used as a pedagogical tool for the study of computational fluid dynamics (CFDs) and parallel computing. TPLS is at its heart a two-phase flow solver, and uses calls to a range of external libraries to accelerate its performance. However, in the present context we narrow the focus of the study to basic hydrodynamics and parallel computing techniques, and the code is therefore simplified and modified to simulate pressure-driven single-phase flow in a channel, using only relatively simple Fortran 90 code with MPI parallelization, but no calls to any other external libraries. The modified code is analysed in order to both validate its accuracy and investigate its scalability up to 1000 CPU cores. Simulations are performed for several benchmark cases in pressure-driven channel flow, including a turbulent simulation, wherein the turbulence is incorporated via the large-eddy simulation technique. The work may be of use to advanced undergraduate and graduate students as an introductory study in CFDs, while also providing insight for those interested in more general aspects of high-performance computing. (paper)
High-performance computational fluid dynamics: a custom-code approach
Fannon, James; Loiseau, Jean-Christophe; Valluri, Prashant; Bethune, Iain; Náraigh, Lennon Ó.
2016-07-01
We introduce a modified and simplified version of the pre-existing fully parallelized three-dimensional Navier-Stokes flow solver known as TPLS. We demonstrate how the simplified version can be used as a pedagogical tool for the study of computational fluid dynamics (CFDs) and parallel computing. TPLS is at its heart a two-phase flow solver, and uses calls to a range of external libraries to accelerate its performance. However, in the present context we narrow the focus of the study to basic hydrodynamics and parallel computing techniques, and the code is therefore simplified and modified to simulate pressure-driven single-phase flow in a channel, using only relatively simple Fortran 90 code with MPI parallelization, but no calls to any other external libraries. The modified code is analysed in order to both validate its accuracy and investigate its scalability up to 1000 CPU cores. Simulations are performed for several benchmark cases in pressure-driven channel flow, including a turbulent simulation, wherein the turbulence is incorporated via the large-eddy simulation technique. The work may be of use to advanced undergraduate and graduate students as an introductory study in CFDs, while also providing insight for those interested in more general aspects of high-performance computing.
Lattice Boltzmann computation of creeping fluid flow in roll-coating applications
Rajan, Isac; Kesana, Balashanker; Perumal, D. Arumuga
2018-04-01
Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) has advanced as a class of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methods used to solve complex fluid systems and heat transfer problems. It has ever-increasingly attracted the interest of researchers in computational physics to solve challenging problems of industrial and academic importance. In this current study, LBM is applied to simulate the creeping fluid flow phenomena commonly encountered in manufacturing technologies. In particular, we apply this novel method to simulate the fluid flow phenomena associated with the "meniscus roll coating" application. This prevalent industrial problem encountered in polymer processing and thin film coating applications is modelled as standard lid-driven cavity problem to which creeping flow analysis is applied. This incompressible viscous flow problem is studied in various speed ratios, the ratio of upper to lower lid speed in two different configurations of lid movement - parallel and anti-parallel wall motion. The flow exhibits interesting patterns which will help in design of roll coaters.
Autonomic Closure for Turbulent Flows Using Approximate Bayesian Computation
Doronina, Olga; Christopher, Jason; Hamlington, Peter; Dahm, Werner
2017-11-01
Autonomic closure is a new technique for achieving fully adaptive and physically accurate closure of coarse-grained turbulent flow governing equations, such as those solved in large eddy simulations (LES). Although autonomic closure has been shown in recent a priori tests to more accurately represent unclosed terms than do dynamic versions of traditional LES models, the computational cost of the approach makes it challenging to implement for simulations of practical turbulent flows at realistically high Reynolds numbers. The optimization step used in the approach introduces large matrices that must be inverted and is highly memory intensive. In order to reduce memory requirements, here we propose to use approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) in place of the optimization step, thereby yielding a computationally-efficient implementation of autonomic closure that trades memory-intensive for processor-intensive computations. The latter challenge can be overcome as co-processors such as general purpose graphical processing units become increasingly available on current generation petascale and exascale supercomputers. In this work, we outline the formulation of ABC-enabled autonomic closure and present initial results demonstrating the accuracy and computational cost of the approach.
Computational methods for fluid dynamics
Ferziger, Joel H
2002-01-01
In its 3rd revised and extended edition the book offers an overview of the techniques used to solve problems in fluid mechanics on computers and describes in detail those most often used in practice. Included are advanced methods in computational fluid dynamics, like direct and large-eddy simulation of turbulence, multigrid methods, parallel computing, moving grids, structured, block-structured and unstructured boundary-fitted grids, free surface flows. The 3rd edition contains a new section dealing with grid quality and an extended description of discretization methods. The book shows common roots and basic principles for many different methods. The book also contains a great deal of practical advice for code developers and users, it is designed to be equally useful to beginners and experts. The issues of numerical accuracy, estimation and reduction of numerical errors are dealt with in detail, with many examples. A full-feature user-friendly demo-version of a commercial CFD software has been added, which ca...
Computational fluid dynamics for turbomachinery internal air systems.
Chew, John W; Hills, Nicholas J
2007-10-15
Considerable progress in development and application of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for aeroengine internal flow systems has been made in recent years. CFD is regularly used in industry for assessment of air systems, and the performance of CFD for basic axisymmetric rotor/rotor and stator/rotor disc cavities with radial throughflow is largely understood and documented. Incorporation of three-dimensional geometrical features and calculation of unsteady flows are becoming commonplace. Automation of CFD, coupling with thermal models of the solid components, and extension of CFD models to include both air system and main gas path flows are current areas of development. CFD is also being used as a research tool to investigate a number of flow phenomena that are not yet fully understood. These include buoyancy-affected flows in rotating cavities, rim seal flows and mixed air/oil flows. Large eddy simulation has shown considerable promise for the buoyancy-driven flows and its use for air system flows is expected to expand in the future.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parihar, A.; Kulkarni, A.; Stern, F.; Xing, T.; Moeykens, S.
2005-01-01
Flow over an Ahmed body is a key benchmark case for validating the complex turbulent flow field around vehicles. In spite of the simple geometry, the flow field around an Ahmed body retains critical features of real, external vehicular flow. The present study is an attempt to implement such a real life example into the course curriculum for undergraduate engineers. FlowLab, which is a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tool developed by Fluent Inc. for use in engineering education, allows students to conduct interactive application studies. This paper presents a synopsis of FlowLab, a description of one FlowLab exercise, and an overview of the educational experience gained by students through using FlowLab, which is understood through student surveys and examinations. FlowLab-based CFD exercises were implemented into 57:020 Mechanics of Fluids and Transport Processes and 58:160 Intermediate Mechanics of Fluids courses at the University of Iowa in the fall of 2004, although this report focuses only on experiences with the Ahmed body exercise, which was used only in the intermediate-level fluids class, 58:160. This exercise was developed under National Science Foundation funding by the authors of this paper. The focus of this study does not include validating the various turbulence models used for the Ahmed body simulation, because a two-dimensional simplification was applied. With the two-dimensional simplification, students may setup, run, and post process this model in a 50 minute class period using a single-CPU PC, as required for the 58:160 class at the University of Iowa. It is educational for students to understand the implication of a two- dimensional approximation for essentially a three-dimensional flow field, along with the consequent variation in both qualitative and quantitative results. Additionally, through this exercise, students may realize that the choice of the respective turbulence model will affect simulation prediction. (author)
van Heerwaarden, Chiel C.; van Stratum, Bart J. H.; Heus, Thijs; Gibbs, Jeremy A.; Fedorovich, Evgeni; Mellado, Juan Pedro
2017-08-01
This paper describes MicroHH 1.0, a new and open-source (www.microhh.org) computational fluid dynamics code for the simulation of turbulent flows in the atmosphere. It is primarily made for direct numerical simulation but also supports large-eddy simulation (LES). The paper covers the description of the governing equations, their numerical implementation, and the parameterizations included in the code. Furthermore, the paper presents the validation of the dynamical core in the form of convergence and conservation tests, and comparison of simulations of channel flows and slope flows against well-established test cases. The full numerical model, including the associated parameterizations for LES, has been tested for a set of cases under stable and unstable conditions, under the Boussinesq and anelastic approximations, and with dry and moist convection under stationary and time-varying boundary conditions. The paper presents performance tests showing good scaling from 256 to 32 768 processes. The graphical processing unit (GPU)-enabled version of the code can reach a speedup of more than an order of magnitude for simulations that fit in the memory of a single GPU.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chabard, J.P.; Viollet, P.L.
1991-01-01
Most of the computational fluid dynamics applications which are encountered at the Research Branch of EDF (DER) are dealing with thermal exchanges. The development of numerical tools for the simulation of flows, devoted to this class of application, has been under way for 15 years. At the beginning this work was mainly concerned with a good simulation of the dynamics of the flow. Now these tools can be used to compute flows with thermal exchanges. The presentation will be limited to incompressible and one phase flows (the DER developments on two phase flows are discussed in the paper by MM. Hery, Boivin et Viollet (in the present magazine). First the softwares developed at DER will be presented. Then some applications of these tools to flows with thermal exchanges will be discussed. To conclude, the paper will treat the general case of the CFD codes. The challenges for the next years will be detailed in order to make these tools available for users involved in complex physical modeling [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chabard, J.P.; Viollet, P.L.
1991-08-01
Most of the computational fluid dynamics applications which are encountered at the Research and Development Division of EDF (RDD) are dealing with thermal exchanges. The development of numerical tools for the simulation of flows, devoted to this class of application, has been under way for 15 years. At the beginning this work was mainly concerned with a good simulation of the dynamics of the flow. Now these tools can be used to compute flows with thermal exchanges. The presentation will be limited to incompressible and one phase flows. First the softwares developed at RDD will be presented. Then some applications of these tools to flows with thermal exchanges will be discussed. To conclude, the paper will treat be general case of the CFD codes. The challenges for the next years will be detailed in order to make these tools available for users involved in complex physical modeling
Husain, Taha Murtuza
Large (1--4 x 106 m3) to major (> 4 x 106 m3) dome collapses for andesitic lava domes such as Soufriere Hills Volcano, Montserrat are observed for elevated magma discharge rates (6--13 m3/s). The gas rich magma pulses lead to pressure build up in the lava dome that result in structural failure of the over steepened canyon-like walls which may lead to rockfall or pyroclastic flow. This indicates that dome collapse intimately related to magma extrusion rate. Variation in magma extrusion rate for open-system magma chambers is observed to follow alternating periods of high and low activity. Periodic behavior of magma exhibits a rich diversity in the nature of its eruptive history due to variation in magma chamber size, total crystal content, linear crystal growth rate and magma replenishment rate. Distinguished patterns of growth were observed at different magma flow rates ranging from endogenous to exogenous dome growth for magma with varying strengths. Determining the key parameters that control the transition in flow pattern of the magma during its lava dome building eruption is the main focus. This dissertation examines the mechanical effects on the morphology of the evolving lava dome on the extrusion of magma from a central vent using a 2D particle dynamics model. The particle dynamics model is coupled with a conduit flow model that incorporates the kinetics of crystallization and rheological stiffening to investigate important mechanisms during lava dome building eruptions. Chapter I of this dissertation explores lava dome growth and failure mechanics using a two-dimensional particle-dynamics model. The model follows the evolution of fractured lava, with solidification driven by degassing induced crystallization of magma. The particle-dynamics model emulates the natural development of dome growth and rearrangement of the lava dome which is difficult in mesh-based analyses due to mesh entanglement effects. The deformable talus evolves naturally as a frictional
Computational fluid dynamics analysis of a maglev centrifugal left ventricular assist device.
Burgreen, Greg W; Loree, Howard M; Bourque, Kevin; Dague, Charles; Poirier, Victor L; Farrar, David; Hampton, Edward; Wu, Z Jon; Gempp, Thomas M; Schöb, Reto
2004-10-01
The fluid dynamics of the Thoratec HeartMate III (Thoratec Corp., Pleasanton, CA, U.S.A.) left ventricular assist device are analyzed over a range of physiological operating conditions. The HeartMate III is a centrifugal flow pump with a magnetically suspended rotor. The complete pump was analyzed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis and experimental particle imaging flow visualization (PIFV). A comparison of CFD predictions to experimental imaging shows good agreement. Both CFD and experimental PIFV confirmed well-behaved flow fields in the main components of the HeartMate III pump: inlet, volute, and outlet. The HeartMate III is shown to exhibit clean flow features and good surface washing across its entire operating range.
Hydrodynamically Coupled Brownian Dynamics simulations for flow on non-Newtonian fluids
Ahuja, Vishal Raju
2018-01-01
This thesis deals with model development for particle-based flow simulations of non-Newtonian fluids such as polymer solutions. A novel computational technique called Hydrodynamically Coupled Brownian Dynamics (HCBD) is presented in this thesis. This technique essentially couples the Brownian motion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amirante, R.; Del Vescovo, G.; Lippolis, A.
2006-01-01
The aim of the present paper is the evaluation of the driving forces acting on a 4/3 hydraulic open center directional control valve spool by means of a complete numerical analysis. In a previous paper by the same authors, the valve was inserted in a closed hydraulic circuit and was tested with different pump flow rate values to obtain experimental results about the driving forces. The experimental results are used in this paper to evaluate and validate the numerical analysis of the valve. The obtained numerical results show important differences between an open center valve and a closed center one, the latter being extensively analyzed in the literature. The numerical analysis is performed by using the commercial code 'Fluent', and the numerical results show the complete flow field inside the valve. The aim of this analysis is to evaluate the valve fluid dynamic performance, exploiting computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques, in order to give the reliable indications needed to define the valve design criteria and avoid expensive experimental tests
On the Mutual Dynamics of Interregional Gross Migration Flows in Space and Time
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mitze, Timo
2016-01-01
This paper applies spatial dynamic panel data models to analyse the labor market dimension of interregional population flows among German federal states in the period 1993–2009. Making use of recent improvements in the estimation of space-time dynamic panel data models and the computation of mean...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anderson Chun On Tsang
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to validate a computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulation of flow-diverter treatment through Doppler ultrasonography measurements in patient-specific models of intracranial bifurcation and side-wall aneurysms. Methods: Computational and physical models of patient-specific bifurcation and sidewall aneurysms were constructed from computed tomography angiography with use of stereolithography, a three-dimensional printing technology. Flow dynamics parameters before and after flow-diverter treatment were measured with pulse-wave and color Doppler ultrasonography, and then compared with CFD simulations. Results: CFD simulations showed drastic flow reduction after flow-diverter treatment in both aneurysms. The mean volume flow rate decreased by 90% and 85% for the bifurcation aneurysm and the side-wall aneurysm, respectively. Velocity contour plots from computer simulations before and after flow diversion closely resembled the patterns obtained by color Doppler ultrasonography. Conclusion: The CFD estimation of flow reduction in aneurysms treated with a flow-diverting stent was verified by Doppler ultrasonography in patient-specific phantom models of bifurcation and side-wall aneurysms. The combination of CFD and ultrasonography may constitute a feasible and reliable technique in studying the treatment of intracranial aneurysms with flow-diverting stents.
COMPUTATIONAL ANALYSIS OF BACKWARD-FACING STEP FLOW
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Erhan PULAT
2001-01-01
Full Text Available In this study, backward-facing step flow that are encountered in electronic systems cooling, heat exchanger design, and gas turbine cooling are investigated computationally. Steady, incompressible, and two-dimensional air flow is analyzed. Inlet velocity is assumed uniform and it is obtained from parabolic profile by using maximum velocity. In the analysis, the effects of channel expansion ratio and Reynolds number to reattachment length are investigated. In addition, pressure distribution throughout the channel length is also obtained and flow is analyzed for the Reynolds number values of 50 and 150 and channel expansion ratios of 1.5 and 2. Governing equations are solved by using Galerkin finite element mothod of ANSYS-FLOTRAN code. Obtained results are compared with the solutions of lattice BGK method that is relatively new method in fluid dynamics and other numerical and experimental results. It is concluded that reattachment length increases with increasing Reynolds number and at the same Reynolds number it decreases with increasing channel expansion ratio.
Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) Analysis of a Generic Missile With Grid Fins
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
DeSpirito, James
2000-01-01
This report presents the results of a study demonstrating an approach for using viscous computational fluid dynamic simulations to calculate the flow field and aerodynamic coefficients for a missile with grid fin...
Simulation of Tailrace Hydrodynamics Using Computational Fluid Dynamics Models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cook, Christopher B.; Richmond, Marshall C.
2001-05-01
This report investigates the feasibility of using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools to investigate hydrodynamic flow fields surrounding the tailrace zone below large hydraulic structures. Previous and ongoing studies using CFD tools to simulate gradually varied flow with multiple constituents and forebay/intake hydrodynamics have shown that CFD tools can provide valuable information for hydraulic and biological evaluation of fish passage near hydraulic structures. These studies however are incapable of simulating the rapidly varying flow fields that involving breakup of the free-surface, such as those through and below high flow outfalls and spillways. Although the use of CFD tools for these types of flow are still an active area of research, initial applications discussed in this report show that these tools are capable of simulating the primary features of these highly transient flow fields.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Damm, F.C.
1975-01-01
The unique gas dynamic laser provides outward radial supersonic flow from a toroidal shaped stacked array of a plurality of nozzles, through a diffuser having ring shaped and/or linear shaped vanes, and through a cavity which is cylindrical and concentric with the stacked array, with the resultant laser beam passing through the housing parallel to the central axis of the diffuser which is coincident with the axis of the gas dynamic laser. Therefore, greater beam extraction flexibility is attainable, because of fewer flow shock disturbances, as compared to the conventional unidirectional flow gas dynamic laser in which unidirectional supersonic flow sweeps through a rectangular cavity and is exhausted through a two-dimensional diffuser. (auth)
Computational analysis of the flow field downstream of flow conditioners
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Erdal, Asbjoern
1997-12-31
Technological innovations are essential for maintaining the competitiveness for the gas companies and here metering technology is one important area. This thesis shows that computational fluid dynamic techniques can be a valuable tool for examination of several parameters that may affect the performance of a flow conditioner (FC). Previous design methods, such as screen theory, could not provide fundamental understanding of how a FC works. The thesis shows, among other things, that the flow pattern through a complex geometry, like a 19-hole plate FC, can be simulated with good accuracy by a k-{epsilon} turbulence model. The calculations illuminate how variations in pressure drop, overall porosity, grading of porosity across the cross-section and the number of holes affects the performance of FCs. These questions have been studied experimentally by researchers for a long time. Now an understanding of the important mechanisms behind efficient FCs emerges from the predictions. 179 ref., 110 figs., 8 tabs.
Autogenic dynamics of debris-flow fans
van den Berg, Wilco; de Haas, Tjalling; Braat, Lisanne; Kleinhans, Maarten
2015-04-01
Alluvial fans develop their semi-conical shape by cyclic avulsion of their geomorphologically active sector from a fixed fan apex. These cyclic avulsions have been attributed to both allogenic and autogenic forcings and processes. Autogenic dynamics have been extensively studied on fluvial fans through physical scale experiments, and are governed by cyclic alternations of aggradation by unconfined sheet flow, fanhead incision leading to channelized flow, channel backfilling and avulsion. On debris-flow fans, however, autogenic dynamics have not yet been directly observed. We experimentally created debris-flow fans under constant extrinsic forcings, and show that autogenic dynamics are a fundamental intrinsic process on debris-flow fans. We found that autogenic cycles on debris-flow fans are driven by sequences of backfilling, avulsion and channelization, similar to the cycles on fluvial fans. However, the processes that govern these sequences are unique for debris-flow fans, and differ fundamentally from the processes that govern autogenic dynamics on fluvial fans. We experimentally observed that backfilling commenced after the debris flows reached their maximum possible extent. The next debris flows then progressively became shorter, driven by feedbacks on fan morphology and flow-dynamics. The progressively decreasing debris-flow length caused in-channel sedimentation, which led to increasing channel overflow and wider debris flows. This reduced the impulse of the liquefied flow body to the flow front, which then further reduced flow velocity and runout length, and induced further in-channel sedimentation. This commenced a positive feedback wherein debris flows became increasingly short and wide, until the channel was completely filled and the apex cross-profile was plano-convex. At this point, there was no preferential transport direction by channelization, and the debris flows progressively avulsed towards the steepest, preferential, flow path. Simultaneously
Interface tracking computations of bubble dynamics in nucleate flow boiling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Giustini, G.
2015-01-01
The boiling process is of utter importance for the design and operation of water-cooled nuclear reactors. Despite continuous effort over the past decades, a fully mechanistic model of boiling in the presence of a solid surface has not yet been achieved. Uncertainties exist at fundamental level, since the microscopic phenomena governing nucleate boiling are still not understood, and as regards 'component scale' modelling, which relies heavily on empirical representations of wall boiling. Accurate models of these phenomena at sub-milli-metric scale are capable of elucidating the various processes and to produce quantitative data needed for up-scaling. Within this context, Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) represents a powerful tool for CFD analysis of boiling flows. In this contribution, DNS coupled with an Interface Tracking method (Y. Sato, B. Niceno, Journal of Computational Physics, Volume 249, 15 September 2013, Pages 127-161) are used to analyse the hydrodynamics and heat transfer associated with heat diffusion controlled bubble growth at a solid substrate during nucleate flow boiling. The growth of successive bubbles from a single nucleation site is simulated with a computational model that includes heat conduction in the solid substrate and evaporation from the liquid film (micro-layer) present beneath the bubble. Bubble evolution is investigated and the additional (with respect to single phase convection) heat transfer mechanisms due to the ebullition cycle are quantified. The simulations show that latent heat exchange due to evaporation in the micro-layer and sensible heat exchange during the waiting time after bubble departure are the main heat transfer mechanisms. It is found that the presence of an imposed flow normal to the bubble rising path determines a complex velocity and temperature distribution near the nucleation site. This conditions can result in bubble sliding, and influence bubble shape, departure diameter and departure frequency
IHT: Tools for Computing Insolation Absorption by Particle Laden Flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grout, R. W.
2013-10-01
This report describes IHT, a toolkit for computing radiative heat exchange between particles. Well suited for insolation absorption computations, it is also has potential applications in combustion (sooting flames), biomass gasification processes and similar processes. The algorithm is based on the 'Photon Monte Carlo' approach and implemented in a library that can be interfaced with a variety of computational fluid dynamics codes to analyze radiative heat transfer in particle-laden flows. The emphasis in this report is on the data structures and organization of IHT for developers seeking to use the IHT toolkit to add Photon Monte Carlo capabilities to their own codes.
Improved Flow Modeling in Transient Reactor Safety Analysis Computer Codes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holowach, M.J.; Hochreiter, L.E.; Cheung, F.B.
2002-01-01
A method of accounting for fluid-to-fluid shear in between calculational cells over a wide range of flow conditions envisioned in reactor safety studies has been developed such that it may be easily implemented into a computer code such as COBRA-TF for more detailed subchannel analysis. At a given nodal height in the calculational model, equivalent hydraulic diameters are determined for each specific calculational cell using either laminar or turbulent velocity profiles. The velocity profile may be determined from a separate CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) analysis, experimental data, or existing semi-empirical relationships. The equivalent hydraulic diameter is then applied to the wall drag force calculation so as to determine the appropriate equivalent fluid-to-fluid shear caused by the wall for each cell based on the input velocity profile. This means of assigning the shear to a specific cell is independent of the actual wetted perimeter and flow area for the calculational cell. The use of this equivalent hydraulic diameter for each cell within a calculational subchannel results in a representative velocity profile which can further increase the accuracy and detail of heat transfer and fluid flow modeling within the subchannel when utilizing a thermal hydraulics systems analysis computer code such as COBRA-TF. Utilizing COBRA-TF with the flow modeling enhancement results in increased accuracy for a coarse-mesh model without the significantly greater computational and time requirements of a full-scale 3D (three-dimensional) transient CFD calculation. (authors)
Computational fluid-dynamic model of laser-induced breakdown in air
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dors, Ivan G.; Parigger, Christian G.
2003-01-01
Temperature and pressure profiles are computed by the use of a two-dimensional, axially symmetric, time-accurate computational fluid-dynamic model for nominal 10-ns optical breakdown laser pulses. The computational model includes a kinetics mechanism that implements plasma equilibrium kinetics in ionized regions and nonequilibrium, multistep, finite-rate reactions in nonionized regions. Fluid-physics phenomena following laser-induced breakdown are recorded with high-speed shadowgraph techniques. The predicted fluid phenomena are shown by direct comparison with experimental records to agree with the flow patterns that are characteristic of laser spark decay
Harders, Stefan Walbom; Madsen, Hans Henrik; Nellemann, Hanne Marie; Rasmussen, Torben Riis; Thygesen, Jesper; Hager, Henrik; Andersen, Niels Trolle; Rasmussen, Finn
2017-05-01
Dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (DCE-CT) is a tool, which, in theory, can quantify the blood flow and blood volume of tissues. In structured qualitative analysis, parametric color maps yield a visual impression of the blood flow and blood volume within the tissue being studied, allowing for quick identification of the areas with the highest or lowest blood flow and blood volume. To examine whether DCE-CT could be used to distinguish between malignant and benign lung tumors in patients with suspected lung cancer. Fifty-nine patients with suspected lung cancer and a lung tumor on their chest radiograph were included for DCE-CT. The tumors were categorized using structured qualitative analysis of tumor blood flow patterns. Histopathology was used as reference standard. Using structured qualitative analysis of tumor blood flow patterns, it was possible to distinguish between malignant and benign lung tumors (Fisher-Freeman-Halton exact test, P = 0.022). The inter-reader agreement of this method of analysis was slight to moderate (kappa = 0.30; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.13-0.46). DCE-CT in suspected lung cancer using structured qualitative analysis of tumor blood flow patterns is accurate as well as somewhat reproducible. However, there are significant limitations to DCE-CT.
Body dynamics and hydrodynamics of swimming larvae: a computational study
Li, G.; Müller, U.K.; Leeuwen, van J.L.; Liu, H.
2012-01-01
To understand the mechanics of fish swimming, we need to know the forces exerted by the fluid and how these forces affect the motion of the fish. To this end, we developed a 3-D computational approach that integrates hydrodynamics and body dynamics. This study quantifies the flow around a swimming
Computed Flow Through An Artificial Heart Valve
Rogers, Stewart E.; Kwak, Dochan; Kiris, Cetin; Chang, I-Dee
1994-01-01
Report discusses computations of blood flow through prosthetic tilting disk valve. Computational procedure developed in simulation used to design better artificial hearts and valves by reducing or eliminating following adverse flow characteristics: large pressure losses, which prevent hearts from working efficiently; separated and secondary flows, which causes clotting; and high turbulent shear stresses, which damages red blood cells. Report reiterates and expands upon part of NASA technical memorandum "Computed Flow Through an Artificial Heart and Valve" (ARC-12983). Also based partly on research described in "Numerical Simulation of Flow Through an Artificial Heart" (ARC-12478).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Donkor, M. O.
2013-06-01
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique was adopted to investigate the hydrodynamics of gold leaching tanks. Comsol multiphysics code 3.4 provided the platform for modelling and simulation of the flow pattern of the gold leaching process. The impeller motion was integrated in the geometry using the simplified numerical method technique. The k-ε model was used to solve the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations and velocity distributions in the vertical and horizontal section in the tank was obtained. It was found that the flow distribution in the simulated flow field was consistent with the characteristic down pumping flow pattern of the axial impellers. The convergence of the iterative procedure was tested and reasonable predictions were achieved for an industrial reactor. There were significant variations in velocity magnitudes with the impeller discharge region recording the highest. CFD modelling was consistent with the tracer test results and demonstrated the use of reactors active volume. The obtained CFD results showed a good agreement with literature information. Because CFD is capable of predicting the complete velocity distribution and simulating the tracer experiment in a tank, it provided a good alternative to carry out resistance time distribution (RDT) studies. CFD modelling was useful and informative tool for analyzing problematic hydrodynamics of gold leaching tanks and for the design of theoretical corrective measures and can be extended to other plants like water treatment plant and oil processing plant. (author)
The computer simulation of 3d gas dynamics in a gas centrifuge
Borman, V. D.; Bogovalov, S. V.; Borisevich, V. D.; Tronin, I. V.; Tronin, V. N.
2016-09-01
We argue on the basis of the results of 2D analysis of the gas flow in gas centrifuges that a reliable calculation of the circulation of the gas and gas content in the gas centrifuge is possible only in frameworks of 3D numerical simulation of gas dynamics in the gas centrifuge (hereafter GC). The group from National research nuclear university, MEPhI, has created a computer code for 3D simulation of the gas flow in GC. The results of the computer simulations of the gas flows in GC are presented. A model Iguassu centrifuge is explored for the simulations. A nonaxisymmetric gas flow is produced due to interaction of the hypersonic rotating flow with the scoops for extraction of the product and waste flows from the GC. The scoops produce shock waves penetrating into a working camera of the GC and form spiral waves there.
The computer simulation of 3d gas dynamics in a gas centrifuge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borman, V D; Bogovalov, S V; Borisevich, V D; Tronin, I V; Tronin, V N
2016-01-01
We argue on the basis of the results of 2D analysis of the gas flow in gas centrifuges that a reliable calculation of the circulation of the gas and gas content in the gas centrifuge is possible only in frameworks of 3D numerical simulation of gas dynamics in the gas centrifuge (hereafter GC). The group from National research nuclear university, MEPhI, has created a computer code for 3D simulation of the gas flow in GC. The results of the computer simulations of the gas flows in GC are presented. A model Iguassu centrifuge is explored for the simulations. A nonaxisymmetric gas flow is produced due to interaction of the hypersonic rotating flow with the scoops for extraction of the product and waste flows from the GC. The scoops produce shock waves penetrating into a working camera of the GC and form spiral waves there. (paper)
A future for computational fluid dynamics at CERN
Battistin, M
2005-01-01
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is an analysis of fluid flow, heat transfer and associated phenomena in physical systems using computers. CFD has been used at CERN since 1993 by the TS-CV group, to solve thermo-fluid related problems, particularly during the development, design and construction phases of the LHC experiments. Computer models based on CFD techniques can be employed to reduce the effort required for prototype testing, saving not only time and money but offering possibilities of additional investigations and design optimisation. The development of a more efficient support team at CERN depends on to two important factors: available computing power and experienced engineers. Available computer power IS the limiting resource of CFD. Only the recent increase of computer power had allowed important high tech and industrial applications. Computer Grid is already now (OpenLab at CERN) and will be more so in the future natural environment for CFD science. At CERN, CFD activities have been developed by...
A computational technique for turbulent flow of wastewater sludge.
Bechtel, Tom B
2005-01-01
A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique applied to the turbulent flow of wastewater sludge in horizontal, smooth-wall, circular pipes is presented. The technique uses the Crank-Nicolson finite difference method in conjunction with the variable secant method, an algorithm for determining the pressure gradient of the flow. A simple algebraic turbulence model is used. A Bingham-plastic rheological model is used to describe the shear stress/shear rate relationship for the wastewater sludge. The method computes velocity gradient and head loss, given a fixed volumetric flow, pipe size, and solids concentration. Solids concentrations ranging from 3 to 10% (by weight) and nominal pipe sizes from 0.15 m (6 in.) to 0.36 m (14 in.) are studied. Comparison of the CFD results for water to established values serves to validate the numerical method. The head loss results are presented in terms of a head loss ratio, R(hl), which is the ratio of sludge head loss to water head loss. An empirical equation relating R(hl) to pipe velocity and solids concentration, derived from the results of the CFD calculations, is presented. The results are compared with published values of Rhl for solids concentrations of 3 and 6%. A new expression for the Fanning friction factor for wastewater sludge flow is also presented.
The coupling of fluids, dynamics, and controls on advanced architecture computers
Atwood, Christopher
1995-01-01
This grant provided for the demonstration of coupled controls, body dynamics, and fluids computations in a workstation cluster environment; and an investigation of the impact of peer-peer communication on flow solver performance and robustness. The findings of these investigations were documented in the conference articles.The attached publication, 'Towards Distributed Fluids/Controls Simulations', documents the solution and scaling of the coupled Navier-Stokes, Euler rigid-body dynamics, and state feedback control equations for a two-dimensional canard-wing. The poor scaling shown was due to serialized grid connectivity computation and Ethernet bandwidth limits. The scaling of a peer-to-peer communication flow code on an IBM SP-2 was also shown. The scaling of the code on the switched fabric-linked nodes was good, with a 2.4 percent loss due to communication of intergrid boundary point information. The code performance on 30 worker nodes was 1.7 (mu)s/point/iteration, or a factor of three over a Cray C-90 head. The attached paper, 'Nonlinear Fluid Computations in a Distributed Environment', documents the effect of several computational rate enhancing methods on convergence. For the cases shown, the highest throughput was achieved using boundary updates at each step, with the manager process performing communication tasks only. Constrained domain decomposition of the implicit fluid equations did not degrade the convergence rate or final solution. The scaling of a coupled body/fluid dynamics problem on an Ethernet-linked cluster was also shown.
A computational fluid dynamics simulation framework for ventricular catheter design optimization.
Weisenberg, Sofy H; TerMaath, Stephanie C; Barbier, Charlotte N; Hill, Judith C; Killeffer, James A
2017-11-10
OBJECTIVE Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunts are the primary treatment for patients suffering from hydrocephalus. While proven effective in symptom relief, these shunt systems are plagued by high failure rates and often require repeated revision surgeries to replace malfunctioning components. One of the leading causes of CSF shunt failure is obstruction of the ventricular catheter by aggregations of cells, proteins, blood clots, or fronds of choroid plexus that occlude the catheter's small inlet holes or even the full internal catheter lumen. Such obstructions can disrupt CSF diversion out of the ventricular system or impede it entirely. Previous studies have suggested that altering the catheter's fluid dynamics may help to reduce the likelihood of complete ventricular catheter failure caused by obstruction. However, systematic correlation between a ventricular catheter's design parameters and its performance, specifically its likelihood to become occluded, still remains unknown. Therefore, an automated, open-source computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation framework was developed for use in the medical community to determine optimized ventricular catheter designs and to rapidly explore parameter influence for a given flow objective. METHODS The computational framework was developed by coupling a 3D CFD solver and an iterative optimization algorithm and was implemented in a high-performance computing environment. The capabilities of the framework were demonstrated by computing an optimized ventricular catheter design that provides uniform flow rates through the catheter's inlet holes, a common design objective in the literature. The baseline computational model was validated using 3D nuclear imaging to provide flow velocities at the inlet holes and through the catheter. RESULTS The optimized catheter design achieved through use of the automated simulation framework improved significantly on previous attempts to reach a uniform inlet flow rate distribution using
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2005-01-01
The Thirteenth Annual Conference of the Computational Fluid Dynamics Society of Canada, CFD 2005, was held in St. John's, Newfoundland from July 31 to August 3, 2005. The conference covers a variety of disciplines, including hydrodynamics, aerodynamics/aero-acoustics/aero-elasticity, combustion and heat transfer, hydrology, automotive, nuclear and other industrial application areas. Flows considered include non-Newtonian and multiphase flows, subsonic, supersonic and hypersonic flows, cavitating flows, free-surface flows, jet flows, vortex flows, detonation flows, plasma arc flows and porous media flows. A major theme of these flows is turbulence, and there are many papers that consider Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) and Large Eddy Simulation (LES), although Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes methods remain popular. There is a strong interest in high performance computing (HPC) because of the increased throughput it affords. Flow visualization and post processing is also highlighted in many papers
Validation of a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Code for Supersonic Axisymmetric Base Flow
Tucker, P. Kevin
1993-01-01
The ability to accurately and efficiently calculate the flow structure in the base region of bodies of revolution in supersonic flight is a significant step in CFD code validation for applications ranging from base heating for rockets to drag for protectives. The FDNS code is used to compute such a flow and the results are compared to benchmark quality experimental data. Flowfield calculations are presented for a cylindrical afterbody at M = 2.46 and angle of attack a = O. Grid independent solutions are compared to mean velocity profiles in the separated wake area and downstream of the reattachment point. Additionally, quantities such as turbulent kinetic energy and shear layer growth rates are compared to the data. Finally, the computed base pressures are compared to the measured values. An effort is made to elucidate the role of turbulence models in the flowfield predictions. The level of turbulent eddy viscosity, and its origin, are used to contrast the various turbulence models and compare the results to the experimental data.
PIV-measured versus CFD-predicted flow dynamics in anatomically realistic cerebral aneurysm models.
Ford, Matthew D; Nikolov, Hristo N; Milner, Jaques S; Lownie, Stephen P; Demont, Edwin M; Kalata, Wojciech; Loth, Francis; Holdsworth, David W; Steinman, David A
2008-04-01
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of nominally patient-specific cerebral aneurysms is increasingly being used as a research tool to further understand the development, prognosis, and treatment of brain aneurysms. We have previously developed virtual angiography to indirectly validate CFD-predicted gross flow dynamics against the routinely acquired digital subtraction angiograms. Toward a more direct validation, here we compare detailed, CFD-predicted velocity fields against those measured using particle imaging velocimetry (PIV). Two anatomically realistic flow-through phantoms, one a giant internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysm and the other a basilar artery (BA) tip aneurysm, were constructed of a clear silicone elastomer. The phantoms were placed within a computer-controlled flow loop, programed with representative flow rate waveforms. PIV images were collected on several anterior-posterior (AP) and lateral (LAT) planes. CFD simulations were then carried out using a well-validated, in-house solver, based on micro-CT reconstructions of the geometries of the flow-through phantoms and inlet/outlet boundary conditions derived from flow rates measured during the PIV experiments. PIV and CFD results from the central AP plane of the ICA aneurysm showed a large stable vortex throughout the cardiac cycle. Complex vortex dynamics, captured by PIV and CFD, persisted throughout the cardiac cycle on the central LAT plane. Velocity vector fields showed good overall agreement. For the BA, aneurysm agreement was more compelling, with both PIV and CFD similarly resolving the dynamics of counter-rotating vortices on both AP and LAT planes. Despite the imposition of periodic flow boundary conditions for the CFD simulations, cycle-to-cycle fluctuations were evident in the BA aneurysm simulations, which agreed well, in terms of both amplitudes and spatial distributions, with cycle-to-cycle fluctuations measured by PIV in the same geometry. The overall good agreement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Itai, Y.; Moss, A.A.; Goldberg, H.I.
1982-01-01
Dynamic computed tomography of hepatic tumors revealed a transient attenuation difference of the liver in a lobar or segmental distribution in three cases. The difference was most prominent during the hepatogram phase. It was attributed to siphonage of arterial blood by hepatic tumors in two cases, while an increase of arterial flow induced by portal vein occlusion was inferred in the other case. Results indicate dynamic computed tomography will be usful in analysis of geometrical hemodynamics
High performance parallel computing of flows in complex geometries: I. Methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gourdain, N; Gicquel, L; Montagnac, M; Vermorel, O; Staffelbach, G; Garcia, M; Boussuge, J-F; Gazaix, M; Poinsot, T
2009-01-01
Efficient numerical tools coupled with high-performance computers, have become a key element of the design process in the fields of energy supply and transportation. However flow phenomena that occur in complex systems such as gas turbines and aircrafts are still not understood mainly because of the models that are needed. In fact, most computational fluid dynamics (CFD) predictions as found today in industry focus on a reduced or simplified version of the real system (such as a periodic sector) and are usually solved with a steady-state assumption. This paper shows how to overcome such barriers and how such a new challenge can be addressed by developing flow solvers running on high-end computing platforms, using thousands of computing cores. Parallel strategies used by modern flow solvers are discussed with particular emphases on mesh-partitioning, load balancing and communication. Two examples are used to illustrate these concepts: a multi-block structured code and an unstructured code. Parallel computing strategies used with both flow solvers are detailed and compared. This comparison indicates that mesh-partitioning and load balancing are more straightforward with unstructured grids than with multi-block structured meshes. However, the mesh-partitioning stage can be challenging for unstructured grids, mainly due to memory limitations of the newly developed massively parallel architectures. Finally, detailed investigations show that the impact of mesh-partitioning on the numerical CFD solutions, due to rounding errors and block splitting, may be of importance and should be accurately addressed before qualifying massively parallel CFD tools for a routine industrial use.
Online traffic flow model applying dynamic flow-density relation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Y.
2002-01-01
This dissertation describes a new approach of the online traffic flow modelling based on the hydrodynamic traffic flow model and an online process to adapt the flow-density relation dynamically. The new modelling approach was tested based on the real traffic situations in various homogeneous motorway sections and a motorway section with ramps and gave encouraging simulation results. This work is composed of two parts: first the analysis of traffic flow characteristics and second the development of a new online traffic flow model applying these characteristics. For homogeneous motorway sections traffic flow is classified into six different traffic states with different characteristics. Delimitation criteria were developed to separate these states. The hysteresis phenomena were analysed during the transitions between these traffic states. The traffic states and the transitions are represented on a states diagram with the flow axis and the density axis. For motorway sections with ramps the complicated traffic flow is simplified and classified into three traffic states depending on the propagation of congestion. The traffic states are represented on a phase diagram with the upstream demand axis and the interaction strength axis which was defined in this research. The states diagram and the phase diagram provide a basis for the development of the dynamic flow-density relation. The first-order hydrodynamic traffic flow model was programmed according to the cell-transmission scheme extended by the modification of flow dependent sending/receiving functions, the classification of cells and the determination strategy for the flow-density relation in the cells. The unreasonable results of macroscopic traffic flow models, which may occur in the first and last cells in certain conditions are alleviated by applying buffer cells between the traffic data and the model. The sending/receiving functions of the cells are determined dynamically based on the classification of the
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD-Based Droplet Size Estimates in Emulsification Equipment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jo Janssen
2016-12-01
Full Text Available While academic literature shows steady progress in combining multi-phase computational fluid dynamics (CFD and population balance modelling (PBM of emulsification processes, the computational burden of this approach is still too large for routine use in industry. The challenge, thus, is to link a sufficiently detailed flow analysis to the droplet behavior in a way that is both physically relevant and computationally manageable. In this research article we propose the use of single-phase CFD to map out the local maximum stable droplet diameter within a given device, based on well-known academic droplet break-up studies in quasi-steady 2D linear flows. The results of the latter are represented by analytical correlations for the critical capillary number, which are valid across a wide viscosity ratio range. Additionally, we suggest a parameter to assess how good the assumption of quasi-steady 2D flow is locally. The approach is demonstrated for a common lab-scale rotor-stator device (Ultra-Turrax, IKA-Werke GmbH, Staufen, Germany. It is found to provide useful insights with minimal additional user coding and little increase in computational effort compared to the single-phase CFD simulations of the flow field, as such. Some suggestions for further development are briefly discussed.
Cardioplegia heat exchanger design modelling using computational fluid dynamics.
van Driel, M R
2000-11-01
A new cardioplegia heat exchanger has been developed by Sorin Biomedica. A three-dimensional computer-aided design (CAD) model was optimized using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling. CFD optimization techniques have commonly been applied to velocity flow field analysis, but CFD analysis was also used in this study to predict the heat exchange performance of the design before prototype fabrication. The iterative results of the optimization and the actual heat exchange performance of the final configuration are presented in this paper. Based on the behaviour of this model, both the water and blood fluid flow paths of the heat exchanger were optimized. The simulation predicted superior heat exchange performance using an optimal amount of energy exchange surface area, reducing the total contact surface area, the device priming volume and the material costs. Experimental results confirm the empirical results predicted by the CFD analysis.
An autonomous dynamical system captures all LCSs in three-dimensional unsteady flows.
Oettinger, David; Haller, George
2016-10-01
Lagrangian coherent structures (LCSs) are material surfaces that shape the finite-time tracer patterns in flows with arbitrary time dependence. Depending on their deformation properties, elliptic and hyperbolic LCSs have been identified from different variational principles, solving different equations. Here we observe that, in three dimensions, initial positions of all variational LCSs are invariant manifolds of the same autonomous dynamical system, generated by the intermediate eigenvector field, ξ 2 (x 0 ), of the Cauchy-Green strain tensor. This ξ 2 -system allows for the detection of LCSs in any unsteady flow by classical methods, such as Poincaré maps, developed for autonomous dynamical systems. As examples, we consider both steady and time-aperiodic flows, and use their dual ξ 2 -system to uncover both hyperbolic and elliptic LCSs from a single computation.
Distributed interactive graphics applications in computational fluid dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rogers, S.E.; Buning, P.G.; Merritt, F.J.
1987-01-01
Implementation of two distributed graphics programs used in computational fluid dynamics is discussed. Both programs are interactive in nature. They run on a CRAY-2 supercomputer and use a Silicon Graphics Iris workstation as the front-end machine. The hardware and supporting software are from the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation project. The supercomputer does all numerically intensive work and the workstation, as the front-end machine, allows the user to perform real-time interactive transformations on the displayed data. The first program was written as a distributed program that computes particle traces for fluid flow solutions existing on the supercomputer. The second is an older post-processing and plotting program modified to run in a distributed mode. Both programs have realized a large increase in speed over that obtained using a single machine. By using these programs, one can learn quickly about complex features of a three-dimensional flow field. Some color results are presented
Extensive use of computational fluid dynamics in the upgrading of hydraulic turbines
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sabourin, M.; De Henau, V. [GEC Alsthom Electromechanical Inc., Tracy, PQ (Canada); Eremeef, R. [GEC Alsthom Neyrpic, Grenoble (France)
1995-12-31
The use of computational fluid flow dynamics (CFD) and the Navier Stokes equations by GEC Alsthom for turbine rehabilitation were discussed. The process of runner rehabilitation was discussed from a fluid flow perspective, which accounts for the spiral case-distributor set and draft tube. The Kootenay turbine rehabilitation was described with regard to it spiral case and stay vane. The numerical analysis used to model upstream components was explained. The influence of draft tube effects was emphasized as an important efficiency factor. The differences between draft tubes at Sir Adam Beck 2 and La Grande 2 were discussed. Computational fluid flow modelling was claimed to have produced global performance enhancements in a reasonably short time, and at a reasonable cost. 6 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.
CFDLIB05, Computational Fluid Dynamics Library
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kashiwa, B.A.; Padial, N.T.; Rauenzahn, R.M.; VanderHeyden, W.B.
2007-01-01
1 - Description of program or function: CFDLib05 is the Los Alamos Computational Fluid Dynamics Library. This is a collection of hydro-codes using a common data structure and a common numerical method, for problems ranging from single-field, incompressible flow, to multi-species, multi-field, compressible flow. The data structure is multi-block, with a so-called structured grid in each block. The numerical method is a Finite-Volume scheme employing a state vector that is fully cell-centered. This means that the integral form of the conversation laws is solved on the physical domain that is represented by a mesh of control volumes. The typical control volume is an arbitrary quadrilateral in 2D and an arbitrary hexahedron in 3D. The Finite-Volume scheme is for time-unsteady flow and remains well coupled by means of time and space centered fluxes; if a steady state solution is required, the problem is integrated forward in time until the user is satisfied that the state is stationary. 2 - Methods: Cells-centered Implicit Continuous-fluid Eulerian (ICE) method
Unified solver for fluid dynamics and aeroacoustics in isentropic gas flows
Pont, Arnau; Codina, Ramon; Baiges, Joan; Guasch, Oriol
2018-06-01
The high computational cost of solving numerically the fully compressible Navier-Stokes equations, together with the poor performance of most numerical formulations for compressible flow in the low Mach number regime, has led to the necessity for more affordable numerical models for Computational Aeroacoustics. For low Mach number subsonic flows with neither shocks nor thermal coupling, both flow dynamics and wave propagation can be considered isentropic. Therefore, a joint isentropic formulation for flow and aeroacoustics can be devised which avoids the need for segregating flow and acoustic scales. Under these assumptions density and pressure fluctuations are directly proportional, and a two field velocity-pressure compressible formulation can be derived as an extension of an incompressible solver. Moreover, the linear system of equations which arises from the proposed isentropic formulation is better conditioned than the homologous incompressible one due to the presence of a pressure time derivative. Similarly to other compressible formulations the prescription of boundary conditions will have to deal with the backscattering of acoustic waves. In this sense, a separated imposition of boundary conditions for flow and acoustic scales which allows the evacuation of waves through Dirichlet boundaries without using any tailored damping model will be presented.
Reconstruction of dynamical equations for traffic flow
Kriso, S.; Friedrich, R.; Peinke, J.; Wagner, P.
2001-01-01
Traffic flow data collected by an induction loop detector on the highway close to Koeln-Nord are investigated with respect to their dynamics including the stochastic content. In particular we present a new method, with which the flow dynamics can be extracted directly from the measured data. As a result a Langevin equation for the traffic flow is obtained. From the deterministic part of the flow dynamics, stable fixed points are extracted and set into relation with common features of the fund...
Benchmarking Computational Fluid Dynamics for Application to PWR Fuel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, L.D. III; Conner, M.E.; Liu, B.; Dzodzo, B.; Paramonov, D.V.; Beasley, D.E.; Langford, H.M.; Holloway, M.V.
2002-01-01
The present study demonstrates a process used to develop confidence in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) as a tool to investigate flow and temperature distributions in a PWR fuel bundle. The velocity and temperature fields produced by a mixing spacer grid of a PWR fuel assembly are quite complex. Before using CFD to evaluate these flow fields, a rigorous benchmarking effort should be performed to ensure that reasonable results are obtained. Westinghouse has developed a method to quantitatively benchmark CFD tools against data at conditions representative of the PWR. Several measurements in a 5 x 5 rod bundle were performed. Lateral flow-field testing employed visualization techniques and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Heat transfer testing involved measurements of the single-phase heat transfer coefficient downstream of the spacer grid. These test results were used to compare with CFD predictions. Among the parameters optimized in the CFD models based on this comparison with data include computational mesh, turbulence model, and boundary conditions. As an outcome of this effort, a methodology was developed for CFD modeling that provides confidence in the numerical results. (authors)
Fluid dynamics parallel computer development at NASA Langley Research Center
Townsend, James C.; Zang, Thomas A.; Dwoyer, Douglas L.
1987-01-01
To accomplish more detailed simulations of highly complex flows, such as the transition to turbulence, fluid dynamics research requires computers much more powerful than any available today. Only parallel processing on multiple-processor computers offers hope for achieving the required effective speeds. Looking ahead to the use of these machines, the fluid dynamicist faces three issues: algorithm development for near-term parallel computers, architecture development for future computer power increases, and assessment of possible advantages of special purpose designs. Two projects at NASA Langley address these issues. Software development and algorithm exploration is being done on the FLEX/32 Parallel Processing Research Computer. New architecture features are being explored in the special purpose hardware design of the Navier-Stokes Computer. These projects are complementary and are producing promising results.
Computational Fluid Dynamics and Building Energy Performance Simulation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm; Tryggvason, T.
1998-01-01
An interconnection between a building energy performance simulation program and a Computational Fluid Dynamics program (CFD) for room air distribution will be introduced for improvement of the predictions of both the energy consumption and the indoor environment. The building energy performance...... simulation program requires a detailed description of the energy flow in the air movement which can be obtained by a CFD program. The paper describes an energy consumption calculation in a large building, where the building energy simulation program is modified by CFD predictions of the flow between three...... zones connected by open areas with pressure and buoyancy driven air flow. The two programs are interconnected in an iterative procedure. The paper shows also an evaluation of the air quality in the main area of the buildings based on CFD predictions. It is shown that an interconnection between a CFD...
Fluid flow dynamics in MAS systems
Wilhelm, Dirk; Purea, Armin; Engelke, Frank
2015-08-01
The turbine system and the radial bearing of a high performance magic angle spinning (MAS) probe with 1.3 mm-rotor diameter has been analyzed for spinning rates up to 67 kHz. We focused mainly on the fluid flow properties of the MAS system. Therefore, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations and fluid measurements of the turbine and the radial bearings have been performed. CFD simulation and measurement results of the 1.3 mm-MAS rotor system show relatively low efficiency (about 25%) compared to standard turbo machines outside the realm of MAS. However, in particular, MAS turbines are mainly optimized for speed and stability instead of efficiency. We have compared MAS systems for rotor diameter of 1.3-7 mm converted to dimensionless values with classical turbomachinery systems showing that the operation parameters (rotor diameter, inlet mass flow, spinning rate) are in the favorable range. This dimensionless analysis also supports radial turbines for low speed MAS probes and diagonal turbines for high speed MAS probes. Consequently, a change from Pelton type MAS turbines to diagonal turbines might be worth considering for high speed applications. CFD simulations of the radial bearings have been compared with basic theoretical values proposing considerably smaller frictional loss values. The discrepancies might be due to the simple linear flow profile employed for the theoretical model. Frictional losses generated inside the radial bearings result in undesired heat-up of the rotor. The rotor surface temperature distribution computed by CFD simulations show a large temperature gradient over the rotor.
Hussaini, M. Y. (Editor); Kumar, A. (Editor); Salas, M. D. (Editor)
1993-01-01
The purpose here is to assess the state of the art in the areas of numerical analysis that are particularly relevant to computational fluid dynamics (CFD), to identify promising new developments in various areas of numerical analysis that will impact CFD, and to establish a long-term perspective focusing on opportunities and needs. Overviews are given of discretization schemes, computational fluid dynamics, algorithmic trends in CFD for aerospace flow field calculations, simulation of compressible viscous flow, and massively parallel computation. Also discussed are accerelation methods, spectral and high-order methods, multi-resolution and subcell resolution schemes, and inherently multidimensional schemes.
Monitoring of Shadow Cash Flows Using Computer Modelling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Evgeniya Vladimirovna Baturina
2018-03-01
Full Text Available The computer simulation of economic systems is a promising tool in the development of the theory of the country’s economic security. We have examined the Russian banking legislation and synthesized judicial economic expertise. This has allowed to develop an algorithm for the investigation of the marker pattern of shadow cash flows. The authors’ algorithm of marker monitoring of cash flow consists of the following sequences. Firstly, we set the time of the first receipt of money and the first withdrawals. Secondly, we compare cash balance of an organization at the beginning of the period with the first withdrawals. Thirdly, under the given condition, the minimum value of interested money flow in these withdrawals is calculated. This value is characterized by the marker parameters and forms a table containing data on the cash flow, recipients and payers, spheres of their activity. And last, on the basis of this table, we build a graph of relationships between the subjects of the shadow economy. The graph’s vertices represent these subjects. The visual representation of the graph is a marker pattern of shadow cash flow. The practical importance of this algorithm is due to its applicability in the investigation of economic crimes both at the stage of intelligence operations, and when obtaining proofs of the brought criminal cases in the form of the conclusions of expertseconomists. In addition, marker patterns of shadow cash flows can describe the state of the shadow economy of a region as a whole including its dynamics. This expands its parameterization. The created database of the shadow flows of the economy can be also useful for the scientific community. On the basis of the received results, we have developed management decisions to create and administer the information resource of the Bank of Russia “Shadow economy of a region”. This information resource ensures tracking the marker trace of cash flow in the bank environment by the
Information flow dynamics in the brain
Rabinovich, Mikhail I.; Afraimovich, Valentin S.; Bick, Christian; Varona, Pablo
2012-03-01
Timing and dynamics of information in the brain is a hot field in modern neuroscience. The analysis of the temporal evolution of brain information is crucially important for the understanding of higher cognitive mechanisms in normal and pathological states. From the perspective of information dynamics, in this review we discuss working memory capacity, language dynamics, goal-dependent behavior programming and other functions of brain activity. In contrast with the classical description of information theory, which is mostly algebraic, brain flow information dynamics deals with problems such as the stability/instability of information flows, their quality, the timing of sequential processing, the top-down cognitive control of perceptual information, and information creation. In this framework, different types of information flow instabilities correspond to different cognitive disorders. On the other hand, the robustness of cognitive activity is related to the control of the information flow stability. We discuss these problems using both experimental and theoretical approaches, and we argue that brain activity is better understood considering information flows in the phase space of the corresponding dynamical model. In particular, we show how theory helps to understand intriguing experimental results in this matter, and how recent knowledge inspires new theoretical formalisms that can be tested with modern experimental techniques.
Experimental and Computational Analysis of Unidirectional Flow Through Stirling Engine Heater Head
Wilson, Scott D.; Dyson, Rodger W.; Tew, Roy C.; Demko, Rikako
2006-01-01
A high efficiency Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG) is being developed for possible use in long-duration space science missions. NASA s advanced technology goals for next generation Stirling convertors include increasing the Carnot efficiency and percent of Carnot efficiency. To help achieve these goals, a multi-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code is being developed to numerically model unsteady fluid flow and heat transfer phenomena of the oscillating working gas inside Stirling convertors. In the absence of transient pressure drop data for the zero mean oscillating multi-dimensional flows present in the Technology Demonstration Convertors on test at NASA Glenn Research Center, unidirectional flow pressure drop test data is used to compare against 2D and 3D computational solutions. This study focuses on tracking pressure drop and mass flow rate data for unidirectional flow though a Stirling heater head using a commercial CFD code (CFD-ACE). The commercial CFD code uses a porous-media model which is dependent on permeability and the inertial coefficient present in the linear and nonlinear terms of the Darcy-Forchheimer equation. Permeability and inertial coefficient were calculated from unidirectional flow test data. CFD simulations of the unidirectional flow test were validated using the porous-media model input parameters which increased simulation accuracy by 14 percent on average.
Development of a dynamic flow imaging phantom for dynamic contrast-enhanced CT
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Driscoll, B.; Keller, H.; Coolens, C.
2011-01-01
Purpose: Dynamic contrast enhanced CT (DCE-CT) studies with modeling of blood flow and tissue perfusion are becoming more prevalent in the clinic, with advances in wide volume CT scanners allowing the imaging of an entire organ with sub-second image frequency and sub-millimeter accuracy. Wide-spread implementation of perfusion DCE-CT, however, is pending fundamental validation of the quantitative parameters that result from dynamic contrast imaging and perfusion modeling. Therefore, the goal of this work was to design and construct a novel dynamic flow imaging phantom capable of producing typical clinical time-attenuation curves (TACs) with the purpose of developing a framework for the quantification and validation of DCE-CT measurements and kinetic modeling under realistic flow conditions. Methods: The phantom is based on a simple two-compartment model and was printed using a 3D printer. Initial analysis of the phantom involved simple flow measurements and progressed to DCE-CT experiments in order to test the phantoms range and reproducibility. The phantom was then utilized to generate realistic input TACs. A phantom prediction model was developed to compute the input and output TACs based on a given set of five experimental (control) parameters: pump flow rate, injection pump flow rate, injection contrast concentration, and both control valve positions. The prediction model is then inversely applied to determine the control parameters necessary to generate a set of desired input and output TACs. A protocol was developed and performed using the phantom to investigate image noise, partial volume effects and CT number accuracy under realistic flow conditionsResults: This phantom and its surrounding flow system are capable of creating a wide range of physiologically relevant TACs, which are reproducible with minimal error between experiments (σ/μ 2 ) for the input function between 0.95 and 0.98, while the maximum enhancement differed by no more than 3.3%. The
Sesti, Erika L.; Alaniva, Nicholas; Rand, Peter W.; Choi, Eric J.; Albert, Brice J.; Saliba, Edward P.; Scott, Faith J.; Barnes, Alexander B.
2018-01-01
We report magic angle spinning (MAS) up to 8.5 kHz with a sample temperature below 6 K using liquid helium as a variable temperature fluid. Cross polarization 13C NMR spectra exhibit exquisite sensitivity with a single transient. Remarkably, 1H saturation recovery experiments show a 1H T1 of 21 s with MAS below 6 K in the presence of trityl radicals in a glassy matrix. Leveraging the thermal spin polarization available at 4.2 K versus 298 K should result in 71 times higher signal intensity. Taking the 1H longitudinal relaxation into account, signal averaging times are therefore predicted to be expedited by a factor of >500. Computer assisted design (CAD) and finite element analysis were employed in both the design and diagnostic stages of this cryogenic MAS technology development. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models describing temperature gradients and fluid flow are presented. The CFD models bearing and drive gas maintained at 100 K, while a colder helium variable temperature fluid stream cools the center of a zirconia rotor. Results from the CFD were used to optimize the helium exhaust path and determine the sample temperature. This novel cryogenic experimental platform will be integrated with pulsed dynamic nuclear polarization and electron decoupling to interrogate biomolecular structure within intact human cells.
Kordilla, J.; Bresinsky, L. T.
2017-12-01
The physical mechanisms that govern preferential flow dynamics in unsaturated fractured rock formations are complex and not well understood. Fracture intersections may act as an integrator of unsaturated flow, leading to temporal delay, intermittent flow and partitioning dynamics. In this work, a three-dimensional Pairwise-Force Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (PF-SPH) model is being applied in order to simulate gravity-driven multiphase flow at synthetic fracture intersections. SPH, as a meshless Lagrangian method, is particularly suitable for modeling deformable interfaces, such as three-phase contact dynamics of droplets, rivulets and free-surface films. The static and dynamic contact angle can be recognized as the most important parameter of gravity-driven free-surface flow. In SPH, surface tension and adhesion naturally emerges from the implemented pairwise fluid-fluid (sff) and solid-fluid (ssf) interaction force. The model was calibrated to a contact angle of 65°, which corresponds to the wetting properties of water on Poly(methyl methacrylate). The accuracy of the SPH simulations were validated against an analytical solution of Poiseuille flow between two parallel plates and against laboratory experiments. Using the SPH model, the complex flow mode transitions from droplet to rivulet flow of an experimental study were reproduced. Additionally, laboratory dimensionless scaling experiments of water droplets were successfully replicated in SPH. Finally, SPH simulations were used to investigate the partitioning dynamics of single droplets into synthetic horizontal fractures with various apertures (Δdf = 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0 mm) and offsets (Δdoff = -1.5, -1.0, -0.5, 0, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 mm). Fluid masses were measured in the domains R1, R2 and R3. The perfect conditions of ideally smooth surfaces and the SPH inherent advantage of particle tracking allow the recognition of small scale partitioning mechanisms and its importance for bulk flow
Littleton, Helen X; Daigger, Glen T; Strom, Peter F
2007-06-01
A full-scale, closed-loop bioreactor (Orbal oxidation ditch, Envirex brand technologies, Siemens, Waukesha, Wisconsin), previously examined for simultaneous biological nutrient removal (SBNR), was further evaluated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). A CFD model was developed first by imparting the known momentum (calculated by tank fluid velocity and mass flowrate) to the fluid at the aeration disc region. Oxygen source (aeration) and sink (consumption) terms were introduced, and statistical analysis was applied to the CFD simulation results. The CFD model was validated with field data obtained from a test tank and a full-scale tank. The results indicated that CFD could predict the mixing pattern in closed-loop bioreactors. This enables visualization of the flow pattern, both with regard to flow velocity and dissolved-oxygen-distribution profiles. The velocity and oxygen-distribution gradients suggested that the flow patterns produced by directional aeration in closed-loop bioreactors created a heterogeneous environment that can result in dissolved oxygen variations throughout the bioreactor. Distinct anaerobic zones on a macroenvironment scale were not observed, but it is clear that, when flow passed around curves, a secondary spiral flow was generated. This second current, along with the main recirculation flow, could create alternating anaerobic and aerobic conditions vertically and horizontally, which would allow SBNR to occur. Reliable SBNR performance in Orbal oxidation ditches may be a result, at least in part, of such a spatially varying environment.
Open-end tube dynamic flow model with an oscillatory extortion
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tulwin Tytus
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a derivation of dynamic 2d mathematical model for open end tube with oscillatory extortion in the region of the closed end. The aim the research is to investigate possible uses of the increased pressure in the enclosed tube chamber, especially for energy efficient lift generation. The mathematical model allows to test and predict how flow modifications impact the resultant lifting force. A derivation of the proposed mathematical model is shown. The mathematical model is then compared to the computational fluid dynamics discrete model. The results prove the accuracy of the mathematical physical model.
Thielen, Kent R; Sillery, John C; Morris, Jonathan M; Hoxworth, Joseph M; Diehn, Felix E; Wald, John T; Rosebrock, Richard E; Yu, Lifeng; Luetmer, Patrick H
2015-03-01
Precise localization and understanding of the origin of spontaneous high-flow spinal CSF leaks is required prior to targeted treatment. This study demonstrates the utility of ultrafast dynamic CT myelography for the precise localization of high-flow CSF leaks caused by spiculated spinal osteophytes. This study reports a series of 14 patients with high-flow CSF leaks caused by spiculated spinal osteophytes who underwent ultrafast dynamic CT myelography between March 2009 and December 2010. There were 10 male and 4 female patients, with an average age of 49 years (range 37-74 years). The value of ultrafast dynamic CT myelography in depicting the CSF leak site was qualitatively assessed. In all 14 patients, ultrafast dynamic CT myelography was technically successful at precisely demonstrating the site of the CSF leak, the causative spiculated osteophyte piercing the dura, and the relationship of the implicated osteophyte to adjacent structures. Leak sites included 3 cervical, 11 thoracic, and 0 lumbar levels, with 86% of the leaks occurring from C-5 to T-7. Information obtained from the ultrafast dynamic CT myelogram was considered useful in all treated CSF leaks. Spinal osteophytes piercing the dura are a more frequent cause of high-flow CSF leaks than previously recognized. Ultrafast dynamic CT myelography adds value beyond standard dynamic myelography or digital subtraction myelography in the diagnosis and anatomical characterization of high-flow spinal CSF leaks caused by these osteophytes. This information allows for appropriate planning for percutaneous or surgical treatment.
Computational Modeling of Blood Flow in the TrapEase Inferior Vena Cava Filter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Singer, M A; Henshaw, W D; Wang, S L
2008-02-04
To evaluate the flow hemodynamics of the TrapEase vena cava filter using three dimensional computational fluid dynamics, including simulated thrombi of multiple shapes, sizes, and trapping positions. The study was performed to identify potential areas of recirculation and stagnation and areas in which trapped thrombi may influence intrafilter thrombosis. Computer models of the TrapEase filter, thrombi (volumes ranging from 0.25mL to 2mL, 3 different shapes), and a 23mm diameter cava were constructed. The hemodynamics of steady-state flow at Reynolds number 600 was examined for the unoccluded and partially occluded filter. Axial velocity contours and wall shear stresses were computed. Flow in the unoccluded TrapEase filter experienced minimal disruption, except near the superior and inferior tips where low velocity flow was observed. For spherical thrombi in the superior trapping position, stagnant and recirculating flow was observed downstream of the thrombus; the volume of stagnant flow and the peak wall shear stress increased monotonically with thrombus volume. For inferiorly trapped spherical thrombi, marked disruption to the flow was observed along the cava wall ipsilateral to the thrombus and in the interior of the filter. Spherically shaped thrombus produced a lower peak wall shear stress than conically shaped thrombus and a larger peak stress than ellipsoidal thrombus. We have designed and constructed a computer model of the flow hemodynamics of the TrapEase IVC filter with varying shapes, sizes, and positions of thrombi. The computer model offers several advantages over in vitro techniques including: improved resolution, ease of evaluating different thrombus sizes and shapes, and easy adaptation for new filter designs and flow parameters. Results from the model also support a previously reported finding from photochromic experiments that suggest the inferior trapping position of the TrapEase IVC filter leads to an intra-filter region of recirculating
Computational Fluid Dynamic Modeling of Rocket Based Combined Cycle Engine Flowfields
Daines, Russell L.; Merkle, Charles L.
1994-01-01
Computational Fluid Dynamic techniques are used to study the flowfield of a fixed geometry Rocket Based Combined Cycle engine operating in rocket ejector mode. Heat addition resulting from the combustion of injected fuel causes the subsonic engine flow to choke and go supersonic in the slightly divergent combustor-mixer section. Reacting flow computations are undertaken to predict the characteristics of solutions where the heat addition is determined by the flowfield. Here, adaptive gridding is used to improve resolution in the shear layers. Results show that the sonic speed is reached in the unheated portions of the flow first, while the heated portions become supersonic later. Comparison with results from another code show reasonable agreement. The coupled solutions show that the character of the combustion-based thermal choking phenomenon can be controlled reasonably well such that there is opportunity to optimize the length and expansion ratio of the combustor-mixer.
Dynamics of Information as Natural Computation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gordana Dodig Crnkovic
2011-08-01
Full Text Available Processes considered rendering information dynamics have been studied, among others in: questions and answers, observations, communication, learning, belief revision, logical inference, game-theoretic interactions and computation. This article will put the computational approaches into a broader context of natural computation, where information dynamics is not only found in human communication and computational machinery but also in the entire nature. Information is understood as representing the world (reality as an informational web for a cognizing agent, while information dynamics (information processing, computation realizes physical laws through which all the changes of informational structures unfold. Computation as it appears in the natural world is more general than the human process of calculation modeled by the Turing machine. Natural computing is epitomized through the interactions of concurrent, in general asynchronous computational processes which are adequately represented by what Abramsky names “the second generation models of computation” [1] which we argue to be the most general representation of information dynamics.
Applied Computational Fluid Dynamics at NASA Ames Research Center
Holst, Terry L.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)
1994-01-01
The field of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has advanced to the point where it can now be used for many applications in fluid mechanics research and aerospace vehicle design. A few applications being explored at NASA Ames Research Center will be presented and discussed. The examples presented will range in speed from hypersonic to low speed incompressible flow applications. Most of the results will be from numerical solutions of the Navier-Stokes or Euler equations in three space dimensions for general geometry applications. Computational results will be used to highlight the presentation as appropriate. Advances in computational facilities including those associated with NASA's CAS (Computational Aerosciences) Project of the Federal HPCC (High Performance Computing and Communications) Program will be discussed. Finally, opportunities for future research will be presented and discussed. All material will be taken from non-sensitive, previously-published and widely-disseminated work.
Flow Mapping in a Gas-Solid Riser via Computer Automated Radioactive Particle Tracking (CARPT)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Muthanna Al-Dahhan; Milorad P. Dudukovic; Satish Bhusarapu; Timothy J. O' hern; Steven Trujillo; Michael R. Prairie
2005-06-04
Statement of the Problem: Developing and disseminating a general and experimentally validated model for turbulent multiphase fluid dynamics suitable for engineering design purposes in industrial scale applications of riser reactors and pneumatic conveying, require collecting reliable data on solids trajectories, velocities ? averaged and instantaneous, solids holdup distribution and solids fluxes in the riser as a function of operating conditions. Such data are currently not available on the same system. Multiphase Fluid Dynamics Research Consortium (MFDRC) was established to address these issues on a chosen example of circulating fluidized bed (CFB) reactor, which is widely used in petroleum and chemical industry including coal combustion. This project addresses the problem of lacking reliable data to advance CFB technology. Project Objectives: The objective of this project is to advance the understanding of the solids flow pattern and mixing in a well-developed flow region of a gas-solid riser, operated at different gas flow rates and solids loading using the state-of-the-art non-intrusive measurements. This work creates an insight and reliable database for local solids fluid-dynamic quantities in a pilot-plant scale CFB, which can then be used to validate/develop phenomenological models for the riser. This study also attempts to provide benchmark data for validation of Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) codes and their current closures. Technical Approach: Non-Invasive Computer Automated Radioactive Particle Tracking (CARPT) technique provides complete Eulerian solids flow field (time average velocity map and various turbulence parameters such as the Reynolds stresses, turbulent kinetic energy, and eddy diffusivities). It also gives directly the Lagrangian information of solids flow and yields the true solids residence time distribution (RTD). Another radiation based technique, Computed Tomography (CT) yields detailed time averaged local holdup profiles at
Computational fluid dynamics applied to flows in an internal combustion engine
Griffin, M. D.; Diwakar, R.; Anderson, J. D., Jr.; Jones, E.
1978-01-01
The reported investigation is a continuation of studies conducted by Diwakar et al. (1976) and Griffin et al. (1976), who reported the first computational fluid dynamic results for the two-dimensional flowfield for all four strokes of a reciprocating internal combustion (IC) engine cycle. An analysis of rectangular and cylindrical three-dimensional engine models is performed. The working fluid is assumed to be inviscid air of constant specific heats. Calculations are carried out of a four-stroke IC engine flowfield wherein detailed finite-rate chemical combustion of a gasoline-air mixture is included. The calculations remain basically inviscid, except that in some instances thermal conduction is included to allow a more realistic model of the localized sparking of the mixture. All the results of the investigation are obtained by means of an explicity time-dependent finite-difference technique, using a high-speed digital computer.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1988-08-01
This bibliography contains citations concerning computational fluid dynamics (CFD), a new method in computational science to perform complex flow simulations in three dimensions. Applications include aerodynamic design and analysis for aircraft, rockets, and missiles, and automobiles; heat-transfer studies; and combustion processes. Included are references to supercomputers, array processors, and parallel processors where needed for complete, integrated design. Also included are software packages and grid-generation techniques required to apply CFD numerical solutions. Numerical methods for fluid dynamics, not requiring supercomputers, are found in a separate published search. (Contains 83 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)
Schwenke, M; Hennemuth, A; Fischer, B; Friman, O
2012-01-01
Phase-contrast MRI (PC MRI) can be used to assess blood flow dynamics noninvasively inside the human body. The acquired images can be reconstructed into flow vector fields. Traditionally, streamlines can be computed based on the vector fields to visualize flow patterns and particle trajectories. The traditional methods may give a false impression of precision, as they do not consider the measurement uncertainty in the PC MRI images. In our prior work, we incorporated the uncertainty of the measurement into the computation of particle trajectories. As a major part of the contribution, a novel numerical scheme for solving the anisotropic Fast Marching problem is presented. A computing time comparison to state-of-the-art methods is conducted on artificial tensor fields. A visual comparison of healthy to pathological blood flow patterns is given. The comparison shows that the novel anisotropic Fast Marching solver outperforms previous schemes in terms of computing time. The visual comparison of flow patterns directly visualizes large deviations of pathological flow from healthy flow. The novel anisotropic Fast Marching solver efficiently resolves even strongly anisotropic path costs. The visualization method enables the user to assess the uncertainty of particle trajectories derived from PC MRI images.
LES And URANS simulations of the swirling flow in a dynamic model of a uniflow-scavenged cylinder
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hemmingsen, Casper Schytte; Ingvorsen, Kristian Mark; Mayer, Stefan
2016-01-01
The turbulent swirling flow in a uniflow-scavenged two-stroke engine cylinder is investigated using computational fluid dynamics. The investigation is based on the flow in a scale model with a moving piston. Two numerical approaches are tested; a large eddy simulation (LES) approach with the wall...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M Garcia-Vilchez
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Trochoidal gear pumps produce significant flow pulsations that result in pressure pulsations, which interact with the system where they are connected, shortening the life of both the pump and circuit components. The complicated aspects of the operation of a gerotor pump make computational fluid dynamics the proper tool for modelling and simulating its flow characteristics. A three-dimensional model with deforming mesh computational fluid dynamics is presented, including the effects of the manufacturing tolerance and the leakage inside the pump. A new boundary condition is created for the simulation of the solid contact in the interteeth radial clearance. The experimental study of the pump is carried out by means of time-resolved particle image velocimetry, and results are qualitatively evaluated, thanks to the numerical simulation results. Time-resolved particle image velocimetry is developed in order to adapt it to the gerotor pump, and it is proved to be a feasible alternative to obtain the instantaneous flow of the pump in a direct mode, which would allow the determination of geometries that minimize the non-desired flow pulsations. Thus, a new methodology involving computational fluid dynamics and time-resolved particle image velocimetry is presented, which allows the obtaining of the instantaneous flow of the pump in a direct mode without altering its behaviour significantly.
Gohean, Jeffrey R; George, Mitchell J; Pate, Thomas D; Kurusz, Mark; Longoria, Raul G; Smalling, Richard W
2013-01-01
The purpose of this investigation is to use a computational model to compare a synchronized valveless pulsatile left ventricular assist device with continuous flow left ventricular assist devices at the same level of device flow, and to verify the model with in vivo porcine data. A dynamic system model of the human cardiovascular system was developed to simulate the support of a healthy or failing native heart from a continuous flow left ventricular assist device or a synchronous pulsatile valveless dual-piston positive displacement pump. These results were compared with measurements made during in vivo porcine experiments. Results from the simulation model and from the in vivo counterpart show that the pulsatile pump provides higher cardiac output, left ventricular unloading, cardiac pulsatility, and aortic valve flow as compared with the continuous flow model at the same level of support. The dynamic system model developed for this investigation can effectively simulate human cardiovascular support by a synchronous pulsatile or continuous flow ventricular assist device.
Particle and Blood Cell Dynamics in Oscillatory Flows Final Report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Restrepo, Juan M.
2008-01-01
Our aim has been to uncover fundamental aspects of the suspension and dislodgement of particles in wall-bounded oscillatory flows, in flows characterized by Reynolds numbers encompassing the situation found in rivers and near shores (and perhaps in some industrial processes). Our research tools are computational and our coverage of parameter space fairly broad. Computational means circumvent many complications that make the measurement of the dynamics of particles in a laboratory setting an impractical task, especially on the broad range of parameter space we plan to report upon. The impact of this work on the geophysical problem of sedimentation is boosted considerably by the fact that the proposed calculations can be considered ab-initio, in the sense that little to no modeling is done in generating dynamics of the particles and of the moving fluid: we use a three-dimensional Navier Stokes solver along with straightforward boundary conditions. Hence, to the extent that Navier Stokes is a model for an ideal incompressible isotropic Newtonian fluid, the calculations yield benchmark values for such things as the drag, buoyancy, and lift of particles, in a highly controlled environment. Our approach will be to make measurements of the lift, drag, and buoyancy of particles, by considering progressively more complex physical configurations and physics.
High-Performance Java Codes for Computational Fluid Dynamics
Riley, Christopher; Chatterjee, Siddhartha; Biswas, Rupak; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
The computational science community is reluctant to write large-scale computationally -intensive applications in Java due to concerns over Java's poor performance, despite the claimed software engineering advantages of its object-oriented features. Naive Java implementations of numerical algorithms can perform poorly compared to corresponding Fortran or C implementations. To achieve high performance, Java applications must be designed with good performance as a primary goal. This paper presents the object-oriented design and implementation of two real-world applications from the field of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD): a finite-volume fluid flow solver (LAURA, from NASA Langley Research Center), and an unstructured mesh adaptation algorithm (2D_TAG, from NASA Ames Research Center). This work builds on our previous experience with the design of high-performance numerical libraries in Java. We examine the performance of the applications using the currently available Java infrastructure and show that the Java version of the flow solver LAURA performs almost within a factor of 2 of the original procedural version. Our Java version of the mesh adaptation algorithm 2D_TAG performs within a factor of 1.5 of its original procedural version on certain platforms. Our results demonstrate that object-oriented software design principles are not necessarily inimical to high performance.
Analytical, Computational Fluid Dynamics and Flight Dynamics of Coandă MAV
Djojodihardjo, H.; Ahmed, RI
2016-11-01
The paper establishes the basic working relationships among various relevant variables and parameters governing the aerodynamics forces and performance measures of Coandă MAV in hover and translatory motion. With such motivation, capitalizing on the basic fundamental principles, the Fluid Dynamics and Flight Mechanics of semi-spherical Coandă MAV configurations are revisited and analyzed as a baseline. To gain better understanding on the principle of Coandă MAV lift generation, a mathematical model for a spherical Coandă MAV is developed and analyzed from first physical principles. To gain further insight into the prevailing flow field around a Coandă MAV, as well as to verify the theoretical prediction presented in the work, a computational fluid dynamic CFD simulation for a Coandă MAV generic model are elaborated using commercial software FLUENT®. In addition, the equation of motion for translatory motion of Coandă MAV is elaborated. The mathematical model and derived performance measures are shown to be capable in describing the physical phenomena of the flow field of the semi-spherical Coandă MAV. The relationships between the relevant parameters of the mathematical model of the Coandă MAV to the forces acting on it are elaborated subsequently.
Blocken, B.J.E.; Gualtieri, C.
2012-01-01
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is increasingly used to study a wide variety of complex Environmental Fluid Mechanics (EFM) processes, such as water flow and turbulent mixing of contaminants in rivers and estuaries and wind flow and air pollution dispersion in urban areas. However, the accuracy
Numerical simulation of 3D unsteady flow in a rotating pump by dynamic mesh technique
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang, S; Guo, J; Yang, F X
2013-01-01
In this paper, the numerical simulation of unsteady flow for three kinds of typical rotating pumps, roots blower, roto-jet pump and centrifugal pump, were performed using the three-dimensional Dynamic Mesh technique. In the unsteady simulation, all the computational domains, as stationary, were set in one inertial reference frame. The motions of the solid boundaries were defined by the Profile file in FLUENT commercial code, in which the rotational orientation and speed of the rotors were specified. Three methods (Spring-based Smoothing, Dynamic Layering and Local Re-meshing) were used to achieve mesh deformation and re-meshing. The unsteady solutions of flow field and pressure distribution were solved. After a start-up stage, the flow parameters exhibit time-periodic behaviour corresponding to blade passing frequency of rotor. This work shows that Dynamic Mesh technique could achieve numerical simulation of three-dimensional unsteady flow field in various kinds of rotating pumps and have a strong versatility and broad application prospects
Landgrebe, Anton J.
1987-01-01
An overview of research activities at the United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) in the area of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is presented. The requirement and use of various levels of computers, including supercomputers, for the CFD activities is described. Examples of CFD directed toward applications to helicopters, turbomachinery, heat exchangers, and the National Aerospace Plane are included. Helicopter rotor codes for the prediction of rotor and fuselage flow fields and airloads were developed with emphasis on rotor wake modeling. Airflow and airload predictions and comparisons with experimental data are presented. Examples are presented of recent parabolized Navier-Stokes and full Navier-Stokes solutions for hypersonic shock-wave/boundary layer interaction, and hydrogen/air supersonic combustion. In addition, other examples of CFD efforts in turbomachinery Navier-Stokes methodology and separated flow modeling are presented. A brief discussion of the 3-tier scientific computing environment is also presented, in which the researcher has access to workstations, mid-size computers, and supercomputers.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Donevski, Bozin; Saga, Tetsuo; Kobayashi, Toshio; Segawa, Shigeki
1998-01-01
This study presents the development of an image processing technique for studying the dynamic behavior of vapor bubbles in a two-phase bubbly flow. It focuses on the quantitative assessment of some basic parameters such as a local bubble size and size distribution in the range of void fraction between 0.03 < a < 0.07. The image processing methodology is based upon the computer evaluation of high speed motion pictures obtained from the flow field in the region of underdeveloped subcooled flow boiling for a variety of experimental conditions. This technique has the advantage of providing computer measurements and extracting the bubbles of the two-phase bubbly flow. This method appears to be promising for determining the governing mechanisms in subcooled flow boiling, particularly near the point of net vapor generation. The data collected by the image analysis software can be incorporated into the new models and computer codes currently under development which are aimed at incorporating the effect of vapor generation and condensation separately. (author)
APPLICATION OF COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS MODELLING TO A HORIZONTAL SEDIMENTATION TANK IN IRAQ
Ali Hadi GHAWI
2017-01-01
Computational Fluid Dynamics modeling has been applied to examine the hydrodynamic behavior of water treatment sedimentation tanks at Baghdad Water Works, operated by Alkurech Water in Baghdad in Iraq. The existing tanks perform poorly at current flows and flow is unevenly split among online tanks, Therefore, CFD was used to investigate velocity profiles at current and projected loadings for the existing basins. Results from the CFD analysis were used to develop retrofit strategies to improve...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clarisse, J.M.
2007-01-01
A numerical scheme for computing linear Lagrangian perturbations of spherically symmetric flows of gas dynamics is proposed. This explicit first-order scheme uses the Roe method in Lagrangian coordinates, for computing the radial spherically symmetric mean flow, and its linearized version, for treating the three-dimensional linear perturbations. Fulfillment of the geometric conservation law discrete formulations for both the mean flow and its perturbation is ensured. This scheme capabilities are illustrated by the computation of free-surface mode evolutions at the boundaries of a spherical hollow shell undergoing an homogeneous cumulative compression, showing excellent agreement with reference results. (author)
Extensive use of computational fluid dynamics in the upgrading of hydraulic turbines
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sabourin, M.; Eremeef, R.; De Henau, V.
1995-12-31
Computational fluid dynamics codes, based on turbulent Navier-Stokes equations, allow evaluation of the hydraulic losses of each turbine component with precision. Using those codes with the new generation of computers enables a wide variety of component geometries to be modelled and compared to the original designs under flow conditions obtained from testing, at a reasonable cost and in a relatively short time. This paper reviews the actual method used in the design of a solution to a turbine rehabilitation project involving runner replacement, redesign of upstream components (stay vanes and wicket gates), and downstream components (draft tubes and runner outlets). The paper shows how computational fluid dynamics can help hydraulic engineers to obtain valuable information not only on performance enhancement but also on the phenomena that produce the enhancement, and to reduce the variety of modifications to be tested.
Fluid dynamic computations of the flue-gas channel in an evaporative gas turbine
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Engdar, Ulf
1999-12-01
A new pilot power plant, based on an advanced thermodynamic cycle, called Evaporative Gas Turbine (EvGT), has been erected at the department for Heat- and Power Engineering, Lund University. The pilot plant is a part of the Evaporative Gas Turbine project, a cooperation between universities and industry in Sweden. The fluid dynamics layout of the plant is not optimized and hence no pressure drop reduction modifications have been made on the plant. A pressure drop will decrease the efficiency of the plant. Temperature measurements have shown that there maybe is a temperature stratification of the flow on the flue-gas side downstream the recuperator. A temperature stratification will influence the measurements and heat exchangers. The objective of this thesis is to investigate pressure drops and temperature stratification in the flue-gas channel between the recuperator and the economizer at the present pilot plant. Further, suggest modifications that can reduce pressure drops and/or a temperature stratification of the flow. The way of dealing with these problems was to utilize computational fluid dynamics (CFD), which makes it possible to compute the flue-gas channel in detail. The CFD-computations were conducted with a commercial computer program, called Star-CD. The pressure drop was calculated as the sum of the static- and the dynamic- pressure drop. No information about the shape of the temperature stratification was available to investigate whether a stratification will sustain or vanish. Therefore, two different temperature profiles was applied at the outlet of the recuperator. To compare modifications with the present plant, concerning the temperature stratification, a temperature rms-value was utilized as a measure of the deviation from a flow with constant temperature over a cross-section. The computations show that the pressure drop in the flue-gas channel is small compared to the pressure drop over the recuperator. Therefore, no pressure drop reducing
Experimental and computational investigation of the NASA low-speed centrifugal compressor flow field
Hathaway, Michael D.; Chriss, Randall M.; Wood, Jerry R.; Strazisar, Anthony J.
1993-01-01
An experimental and computational investigation of the NASA Lewis Research Center's low-speed centrifugal compressor (LSCC) flow field was conducted using laser anemometry and Dawes' three-dimensional viscous code. The experimental configuration consisted of a backswept impeller followed by a vaneless diffuser. Measurements of the three-dimensional velocity field were acquired at several measurement planes through the compressor. The measurements describe both the throughflow and secondary velocity field along each measurement plane. In several cases the measurements provide details of the flow within the blade boundary layers. Insight into the complex flow physics within centrifugal compressors is provided by the computational fluid dynamics analysis (CFD), and assessment of the CFD predictions is provided by comparison with the measurements. Five-hole probe and hot-wire surveys at the inlet and exit to the impeller as well as surface flow visualization along the impeller blade surfaces provided independent confirmation of the laser measurement technique. The results clearly document the development of the throughflow velocity wake that is characteristic of unshrouded centrifugal compressors.
Three-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics Investigation of a Spinning Helicopter Slung Load
Theorn, J. N.; Duque, E. P. N.; Cicolani, L.; Halsey, R.
2005-01-01
After performing steady-state Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) calculations using OVERFLOW to validate the CFD method against static wind-tunnel data of a box-shaped cargo container, the same setup was used to investigate unsteady flow with a moving body. Results were compared to flight test data previously collected in which the container is spinning.
Dynamic Modeling Strategy for Flow Regime Transition in Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Flows
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xia Wang
2012-12-01
Full Text Available In modeling gas-liquid two-phase flows, the concept of flow regimes has been widely used to characterize the global interfacial structure of the flows. Nearly all constitutive relations that provide closures to the interfacial transfers in two-phase flow models, such as the two-fluid model, are flow regime dependent. Current nuclear reactor safety analysis codes, such as RELAP5, classify flow regimes using flow regime maps or transition criteria that were developed for steady-state, fully-developed flows. As two-phase flows are dynamic in nature, it is important to model the flow regime transitions dynamically to more accurately predict the two-phase flows. The present work aims to develop a dynamic modeling strategy to determine flow regimes in gas-liquid two-phase flows through introduction of interfacial area transport equations (IATEs within the framework of a two-fluid model. The IATE is a transport equation that models the interfacial area concentration by considering the creation of the interfacial area, fluid particle (bubble or liquid droplet disintegration, boiling and evaporation, and the destruction of the interfacial area, fluid particle coalescence and condensation. For flow regimes beyond bubbly flows, a two-group IATE has been proposed, in which bubbles are divided into two groups based on their size and shapes, namely group-1 and group-2 bubbles. A preliminary approach to dynamically identify the flow regimes is discussed, in which discriminators are based on the predicted information, such as the void fraction and interfacial area concentration. The flow regime predicted with this method shows good agreement with the experimental observations.
A computational fluid dynamics model for designing heat exchangers based on natural convection
Dirkse, M.H.; Loon, van W.K.P.; Walle, van der T.; Speetjens, S.L.; Bot, G.P.A.
2006-01-01
A computational fluid dynamics model was created for the design of a natural convection shell-and-tube heat exchanger with baffles. The flow regime proved to be turbulent and this was modelled using the k¿¿ turbulence model. The features of the complex geometry were simplified considerably resulting
Dynamical duality of type- and token-computation as an abstract brain
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gunji, Yukio-Pegio [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Faculty of Science, Kobe University (Japan); Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kobe University (Japan)] e-mail: yukio@kobe-u.ac.jp; Miyoshi, Hiroyuki [Department of Computer Sciences, Faculty of Science, Kyoto Sangyo University (Japan); Takahashi, Tatsuji [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kobe University (Japan); Kamiura, Moto [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kobe University (Japan)
2006-03-01
In brain science, there are few researches focusing on the theoretical relation between cognition (top-down processing) and perception (bottom-up processing). Philosophically they were regarded as the alternative leading to the dualism of mind and body, while it is an adequate problem for the endo-physics. Qualia are conjectured as the hard problem under those situations. To overcome such an impasse, we propose an abstract brain model featuring the dynamical duality of two parts of computations in a brain, in a term of endo-physics and internal measurement. Two parts of computations are expressed as binary relations, and the relationship between them is expressed as a pair of maps, called an infomorphism [Barwise J, Seligman J. Information flow, the logic of distributed systems. Cambridge University Press 1997]. Dynamical duality is implemented by the interaction between a binary relation and an infomorphism, and that leads to a dynamical change of a pair of binary relations. When a binary relation is expressed as a partial ordered set, one can check whether a part of computation is closed with respect to logical operations (i.e., a lattice) or not. By estimating a binary relation in terms of properties of lattice, we show that dynamical infomorphism robustly develops to a pair of logical computations corresponding to type cognition and non-logical one corresponding to qualia perception. It implies origin of differentiation and robust co-existence of type-cognition and qualia-perception. It is easy to see that dynamical infomorphism can also develop to a pair of singleton sets corresponding to savants' special cognitive style.
Dynamical duality of type- and token-computation as an abstract brain
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gunji, Yukio-Pegio; Miyoshi, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Tatsuji; Kamiura, Moto
2006-01-01
In brain science, there are few researches focusing on the theoretical relation between cognition (top-down processing) and perception (bottom-up processing). Philosophically they were regarded as the alternative leading to the dualism of mind and body, while it is an adequate problem for the endo-physics. Qualia are conjectured as the hard problem under those situations. To overcome such an impasse, we propose an abstract brain model featuring the dynamical duality of two parts of computations in a brain, in a term of endo-physics and internal measurement. Two parts of computations are expressed as binary relations, and the relationship between them is expressed as a pair of maps, called an infomorphism [Barwise J, Seligman J. Information flow, the logic of distributed systems. Cambridge University Press 1997]. Dynamical duality is implemented by the interaction between a binary relation and an infomorphism, and that leads to a dynamical change of a pair of binary relations. When a binary relation is expressed as a partial ordered set, one can check whether a part of computation is closed with respect to logical operations (i.e., a lattice) or not. By estimating a binary relation in terms of properties of lattice, we show that dynamical infomorphism robustly develops to a pair of logical computations corresponding to type cognition and non-logical one corresponding to qualia perception. It implies origin of differentiation and robust co-existence of type-cognition and qualia-perception. It is easy to see that dynamical infomorphism can also develop to a pair of singleton sets corresponding to savants' special cognitive style
Nonlinear dynamics as an engine of computation.
Kia, Behnam; Lindner, John F; Ditto, William L
2017-03-06
Control of chaos teaches that control theory can tame the complex, random-like behaviour of chaotic systems. This alliance between control methods and physics-cybernetical physics-opens the door to many applications, including dynamics-based computing. In this article, we introduce nonlinear dynamics and its rich, sometimes chaotic behaviour as an engine of computation. We review our work that has demonstrated how to compute using nonlinear dynamics. Furthermore, we investigate the interrelationship between invariant measures of a dynamical system and its computing power to strengthen the bridge between physics and computation.This article is part of the themed issue 'Horizons of cybernetical physics'. © 2017 The Author(s).
Turbulent swirling flow in a dynamic model of a uniflow-scavenged two-stroke engine
Ingvorsen, K. M.; Meyer, K. E.; Walther, J. H.; Mayer, S.
2014-06-01
It is desirable to use computational fluid dynamics for optimization of the in-cylinder processes in low-speed two-stroke uniflow-scavenged marine diesel engines. However, the complex nature of the turbulent swirling in-cylinder flow necessitates experimental data for validation of the used turbulence models. In the present work, the flow in a dynamic scale model of a uniflow-scavenged cylinder is investigated experimentally. The model has a transparent cylinder and a moving piston driven by a linear motor. The flow is investigated using phase-locked stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (PIV) and time-resolved laser Doppler anemometry (LDA). Radial profiles of the phase-locked mean and rms velocities are computed from the velocity fields recorded with PIV, and the accuracy of the obtained profiles is demonstrated by comparison with reference LDA measurements. Measurements are carried out at five axial positions for 15 different times during the engine cycle and show the temporal and spatial development of the swirling in-cylinder flow. The tangential velocity profiles in the bottom of the cylinder near the end of the scavenge process are characterized by a concentrated swirl resulting in wake-like axial velocity profiles and the occurrence of a vortex breakdown. After scavenge port closing, the axial velocity profiles indicate that large transient swirl-induced structures exist in the cylinder. Comparison with profiles obtained under steady-flow conditions shows that the scavenge flow cannot be assumed to be quasi-steady. The temporal development of the swirl strength is investigated by computing the angular momentum. The swirl strength shows an exponential decay from scavenge port closing to scavenge port opening corresponding to a reduction of 34 %, which is in good agreement with theoretical predictions.
Analysis of molten salt thermal-hydraulics using computational fluid dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamaji, B.; Csom, G.; Aszodi, A.
2003-01-01
To give a good solution for the problem of high level radioactive waste partitioning and transmutation is expected to be a pro missing option. Application of this technology also could extend the possibilities of nuclear energy. Large number of liquid-fuelled reactor concepts or accelerator driven subcritical systems was proposed as transmutors. Several of these consider fluoride based molten salts as the liquid fuel and coolant medium. The thermal-hydraulic behaviour of these systems is expected to be fundamentally different than the behaviour of widely used water-cooled reactors with solid fuel. Considering large flow domains three-dimensional thermal-hydraulic analysis is the method seeming to be applicable. Since the fuel is the coolant medium as well, one can expect a strong coupling between neutronics and thermal-hydraulics too. In the present paper the application of Computational Fluid Dynamics for three-dimensional thermal-hydraulics simulations of molten salt reactor concepts is introduced. In our past and recent works several calculations were carried out to investigate the capabilities of Computational Fluid Dynamics through the analysis of different molten salt reactor concepts. Homogenous single region molten salt reactor concept is studied and optimised. Another single region reactor concept is introduced also. This concept has internal heat exchanges in the flow domain and the molten salt is circulated by natural convection. The analysis of the MSRE experiment is also a part of our work since it may form a good background from the validation point of view. In the paper the results of the Computational Fluid Dynamics calculations with these concepts are presented. In the further work our objective is to investigate the thermal-hydraulics of the multi-region molten salt reactor (Authors)
Computational domain discretization in numerical analysis of flow within granular materials
Sosnowski, Marcin
2018-06-01
The discretization of computational domain is a crucial step in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) because it influences not only the numerical stability of the analysed model but also the agreement of obtained results and real data. Modelling flow in packed beds of granular materials is a very challenging task in terms of discretization due to the existence of narrow spaces between spherical granules contacting tangentially in a single point. Standard approach to this issue results in a low quality mesh and unreliable results in consequence. Therefore the common method is to reduce the diameter of the modelled granules in order to eliminate the single-point contact between the individual granules. The drawback of such method is the adulteration of flow and contact heat resistance among others. Therefore an innovative method is proposed in the paper: single-point contact is extended to a cylinder-shaped volume contact. Such approach eliminates the low quality mesh elements and simultaneously introduces only slight distortion to the flow as well as contact heat transfer. The performed analysis of numerous test cases prove the great potential of the proposed method of meshing the packed beds of granular materials.
Benson, Thomas J.
1988-01-01
Supersonic external compression inlets are introduced, and the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes and tests needed to study flow associated with these inlets are outlined. Normal shock wave turbulent boundary layer interaction is discussed. Boundary layer control is considered. Glancing sidewall shock interaction is treated. The CFD validation of hypersonic inlet configurations is explained. Scramjet inlet modules are shown.
Studies on variable swirl intake system for DI diesel engine using computational fluid dynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jebamani Rathnaraj David
2008-01-01
Full Text Available It is known that a helical port is more effective than a tangential port to attain the required swirl ratio with minimum sacrifice in the volumetric efficiency. The swirl port is designed for lesser swirl ratio to reduce emissions at higher speeds. But this condition increases the air fuel mixing time and particulate smoke emissions at lower speeds. Optimum swirl ratio is necessary according to the engine operating condition for optimum combustion and emission reduction. Hence the engine needs variable swirl to enhance the combustion in the cylinder according to its operating conditions, for example at partial load or low speed condition it requires stronger swirl, while the air quantity is more important than the swirl under very high speed or full load and maximum torque conditions. The swirl and charging quantity can easily trade off and can be controlled by the opening of the valve. Hence in this study the steady flow rig experiment is used to evaluate the swirl of a helical intake port design for different operating conditions. The variable swirl plate set up of the W06DTIE2 engine is used to experimentally study the swirl variation for different openings of the valve. The sliding of the swirl plate results in the variation of the area of inlet port entry. Therefore in this study a swirl optimized combustion system varying according to the operating conditions by a variable swirl plate mechanism is studied experimentally and compared with the computational fluid dynamics predictions. In this study the fluent computational fluid dynamics code has been used to evaluate the flow in the port-cylinder system of a DI diesel engine in a steady flow rig. The computational grid is generated directly from 3-D CAD data and in cylinder flow simulations, with inflow boundary conditions from experimental measurements, are made using the fluent computational fluid dynamics code. The results are in very good agreement with experimental results.
Thermo-Fluid Dynamics of Two-Phase Flow
Ishii, Mamrou
2011-01-01
"Thermo-fluid Dynamics of Two-Phase Flow, Second Edition" is focused on the fundamental physics of two-phase flow. The authors present the detailed theoretical foundation of multi-phase flow thermo-fluid dynamics as they apply to: Nuclear reactor transient and accident analysis; Energy systems; Power generation systems; Chemical reactors and process systems; Space propulsion; Transport processes. This edition features updates on two-phase flow formulation and constitutive equations and CFD simulation codes such as FLUENT and CFX, new coverage of the lift force model, which is of part
Utilisation of computational fluid dynamics techniques for design of molybdenum target specification
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yeoh, G.H.; Wassink, D.
2003-01-01
A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model to investigate the hydraulic behaviour within a model of the liner and irradiation rig, located in the central portion of the HIFAR fuel element is described. Flow visualisation and LDV measurements are performed to better understand the fluid flow around the narrow spaces within the irradiation rig, annular target cans and liner. Based on the unstructured meshing consisted of triangular elements and tetrahedrons within the flow space generated for the geometrical structure, the CFD model was able to predict complex flow structures inside the liner containing the irradiation rig and target cans. The reliability of the model was validated against experiments. The predicted flow behaviour was comparable to the experimental observations. Predicted velocities were also found to be in good agreement with LDV measurements. (author)
Torque converter transient characteristics prediction using computational fluid dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamaguchi, T; Tanaka, K
2012-01-01
The objective of this research is to investigate the transient torque converter performance used in an automobile. A new technique in computational fluid dynamics is introduced, which includes the inertia of the turbine in a three dimensional simulation of the torque converter during a launch condition. The simulation results are compared to experimental test data with good agreement across the range of data. In addition, the simulated flow structure inside the torque converter is visualized and compared to results from a steady-state calculation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yonghui Xie
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A three-dimensional fluid-thermal-structural coupled analysis for a radial inflow micro gas turbine is conducted. First, a fluid-thermal coupled analysis of the flow and temperature fields of the nozzle passage and the blade passage is performed by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD. The flow and heat transfer characteristics of different sections are analyzed in detail. The thermal load and the aerodynamic load are then obtained from the temperature field and the pressure distribution. The stress distributions of the blade are finally studied by using computational solid mechanics (CSM considering three cases of loads: thermal load, aerodynamics load combined with centrifugal load, and all the three types of loads. The detailed parameters of the flow, temperature, and the stress are obtained and analyzed. The numerical results obtained provide a useful knowledge base for further exploration of radial gas turbine design.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hunter KS
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Kendall S Hunter,1 Todd Fjield,2 Hal Heitzmann,2 Robin Shandas,1 Malik Y Kahook3 1Department of Bioengineering, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO, USA; 2Glaukos Corporation, Laguna Hills, CA, USA; 3University of Colorado Hospital Eye Center, Aurora, CO, USA Abstract: Micro-invasive glaucoma surgery with the Glaukos iStent® or iStent inject® (Glaukos Corporation, Laguna Hills, CA, USA is intended to create a bypass through the trabecular meshwork to Schlemm's canal to improve aqueous outflow through the natural physiologic pathway. While the iStent devices have been evaluated in ex vivo anterior segment models, they have not previously been evaluated in whole eye perfusion models nor characterized by computational fluid dynamics. Intraocular pressure (IOP reduction with the iStent was evaluated in an ex vivo whole human eye perfusion model. Numerical modeling, including computational fluid dynamics, was used to evaluate the flow through the stents over physiologically relevant boundary conditions. In the ex vivo model, a single iStent reduced IOP by 6.0 mmHg from baseline, and addition of a second iStent further lowered IOP by 2.9 mmHg, for a total IOP reduction of 8.9 mmHg. Computational modeling showed that simulated flow through the iStent or iStent inject is smooth and laminar at physiological flow rates. Each stent was computed to have a negligible flow resistance consistent with an expected significant decrease in IOP. The present perfusion results agree with prior clinical and laboratory studies to show that both iStent and iStent inject therapies are potentially titratable, providing clinicians with the opportunity to achieve lower target IOPs by implanting additional stents. Keywords: glaucoma, iStent, trabecular bypass, intraocular pressure, ab-interno, CFD
State diagram for adhesion dynamics of deformable capsules under shear flow.
Luo, Zheng Yuan; Bai, Bo Feng
2016-08-17
Due to the significance of understanding the underlying mechanisms of cell adhesion in biological processes and cell capture in biomedical applications, we numerically investigate the adhesion dynamics of deformable capsules under shear flow by using a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamic model. This model is based on the coupling of the front tracking-finite element method for elastic mechanics of the capsule membrane and the adhesion kinetics simulation for adhesive interactions between capsules and functionalized surfaces. Using this model, three distinct adhesion dynamic states are predicted, such as detachment, rolling and firm-adhesion. Specifically, the effects of capsule deformability quantified by the capillary number on the transitions of these three dynamic states are investigated by developing an adhesion dynamic state diagram for the first time. At low capillary numbers (e.g. Ca state no longer appears, since capsules exhibit large deviation from the spherical shape.
A dynamic model of gas flow in a non-uniform pipe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mensah, S.; Lepp, R.M.
1979-08-01
A gas-line model, based on the analysis of compressible flow with friction, has been developed to describe the dynamics of gas flow in a non-uniform line, i.e. one comprising segments of different lengths and diameters. Acoustic wave analysis was used in a novel way, by considering the line as a cascaded connection of uniform pipes separated by discontinuities. The transmission matrix representing this non-uniform line is the product of the matrices for each element in the system. To facilitate implementation of the theoretical model on a hybrid computer, modal approximatons to its transfer functions were derived. Both models were validated against experimental data. (author)
Direct numerical simulation of reactor two-phase flows enabled by high-performance computing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fang, Jun; Cambareri, Joseph J.; Brown, Cameron S.; Feng, Jinyong; Gouws, Andre; Li, Mengnan; Bolotnov, Igor A.
2018-04-01
Nuclear reactor two-phase flows remain a great engineering challenge, where the high-resolution two-phase flow database which can inform practical model development is still sparse due to the extreme reactor operation conditions and measurement difficulties. Owing to the rapid growth of computing power, the direct numerical simulation (DNS) is enjoying a renewed interest in investigating the related flow problems. A combination between DNS and an interface tracking method can provide a unique opportunity to study two-phase flows based on first principles calculations. More importantly, state-of-the-art high-performance computing (HPC) facilities are helping unlock this great potential. This paper reviews the recent research progress of two-phase flow DNS related to reactor applications. The progress in large-scale bubbly flow DNS has been focused not only on the sheer size of those simulations in terms of resolved Reynolds number, but also on the associated advanced modeling and analysis techniques. Specifically, the current areas of active research include modeling of sub-cooled boiling, bubble coalescence, as well as the advanced post-processing toolkit for bubbly flow simulations in reactor geometries. A novel bubble tracking method has been developed to track the evolution of bubbles in two-phase bubbly flow. Also, spectral analysis of DNS database in different geometries has been performed to investigate the modulation of the energy spectrum slope due to bubble-induced turbulence. In addition, the single-and two-phase analysis results are presented for turbulent flows within the pressurized water reactor (PWR) core geometries. The related simulations are possible to carry out only with the world leading HPC platforms. These simulations are allowing more complex turbulence model development and validation for use in 3D multiphase computational fluid dynamics (M-CFD) codes.
Finite element simulation of dynamic wetting flows as an interface formation process
Sprittles, J.E.
2013-01-01
A mathematically challenging model of dynamic wetting as a process of interface formation has been, for the first time, fully incorporated into a numerical code based on the finite element method and applied, as a test case, to the problem of capillary rise. The motivation for this work comes from the fact that, as discovered experimentally more than a decade ago, the key variable in dynamic wetting flows - the dynamic contact angle - depends not just on the velocity of the three-phase contact line but on the entire flow field/geometry. Hence, to describe this effect, it becomes necessary to use the mathematical model that has this dependence as its integral part. A new physical effect, termed the \\'hydrodynamic resist to dynamic wetting\\', is discovered where the influence of the capillary\\'s radius on the dynamic contact angle, and hence on the global flow, is computed. The capabilities of the numerical framework are then demonstrated by comparing the results to experiments on the unsteady capillary rise, where excellent agreement is obtained. Practical recommendations on the spatial resolution required by the numerical scheme for a given set of non-dimensional similarity parameters are provided, and a comparison to asymptotic results available in limiting cases confirms that the code is converging to the correct solution. The appendix gives a user-friendly step-by-step guide specifying the entire implementation and allowing the reader to easily reproduce all presented results, including the benchmark calculations. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang, Long; Lee, Moon Soo; Saleh, Khaled; Aute, Vikrant; Radermacher, Reinhard
2014-01-01
Refrigerant flow mal-distribution is a practical challenge in most microchannel heat exchangers (MCHXs) applications. Geometry design, uneven heat transfer and pressure drop in the different microchannel tubes are three main reasons leading to the flow mal-distribution. To efficiently and accurately account for these three effects, a new MCHX co-simulation approach is proposed in this paper. The proposed approach combines a detailed header simulation based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and a robust effectiveness-based finite volume tube-side heat transfer and refrigerant flow modeling tool. The co-simulation concept is demonstrated on a ten-tube MCHX case study. Gravity effect and uneven airflow effect were numerically analyzed using both water and condensing R134a as the working fluids. The approach was validated against experimental data for an automotive R134a condenser. The inlet header was cut open after the experimental data had been collected. The detailed header geometry was reproduced using the proposed CFD header model. Good prediction accuracy was achieved compared to the experimental data. The presented co-simulation approach is capable of predicting detailed refrigerant flow behavior while accurately predicts the overall heat exchanger performance. - Highlights: •MCHX header flow distribution is analyzed by a co-simulation approach. •The proposed method is capable of simulating both single-phase and two-phase flow. •An actual header geometry is reproduced in the CFD header model. •The modeling work is experimentally validated with good accuracy. •Gravity effect and air side mal-distribution are accounted for
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arabidze, G.G.; Pogrebnaya, G.N.; Todua, F.I.; Sokolova, R.I.; Kozdoba, O.A.
1989-01-01
Dynamic computed tomography was conducted by the original methods; the findings were analyzed by taking into account time-density curves which made it possible to gain an insight into the status of blood flow and filtration in each individual kidney. Computed tomography and dynamic computed tomography revealed that hypertensive disease was characterized by normal volume and thickness of the renal cortical layer and symmetric time-density curves, whereas a hypertensive type of chronic glomerulonephritis featured lower renal cartical layer thickness, reduced renal volume, symmetrically decrease amplitudes of the first and second peaks of the time-density curve, chronic pyelonephritis showed asymmetric time-density diagrams due to the lower density areas in the afflicted kidney
Practice in multi-disciplinary computing. Transonic aero-structural dynamics of semi-monocoque wing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Onishi, Ryoichi; Guo, Zhihong; Kimura, Toshiya; Iwamiya, Toshiyuki
2000-01-01
Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute is currently involved in expanding the application areas of its distributed parallel computing facility. One of the most anticipated areas of applications is multi-disciplinary interaction problem. This paper introduces the status quo of the system for fluid-structural interaction analysis on the institute's parallel computers by exploring multi-disciplinary engineering methodology. Current application is focused on a transonic aero-elastic analysis of a three dimensional wing. The distinctive features of the system are: (1) Simultaneous executions of fluid and structural codes by exploiting distributed-and-parallel processing technologies. (2) Construction of a computational fluid (aero)-structural dynamics model which combines flow-field grid with a wing structure composed of the external surface and the internal reinforcements. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the basic concepts, analytical methods, and their implementations along with the computed aero-structural properties of a swept-back wing at March, 7 flow condition. (author)
Cantero, Francisco; Castro-Orgaz, Oscar; Garcia-Marín, Amanda; Ayuso, José Luis; Dey, Subhasish
2015-10-01
Is the energy equation for gradually-varied flow the best approximation for the free surface profile computations in river flows? Determination of flood inundation in rivers and natural waterways is based on the hydraulic computation of flow profiles. This is usually done using energy-based gradually-varied flow models, like HEC-RAS, that adopts a vertical division method for discharge prediction in compound channel sections. However, this discharge prediction method is not so accurate in the context of advancements over the last three decades. This paper firstly presents a study of the impact of discharge prediction on the gradually-varied flow computations by comparing thirteen different methods for compound channels, where both energy and momentum equations are applied. The discharge, velocity distribution coefficients, specific energy, momentum and flow profiles are determined. After the study of gradually-varied flow predictions, a new theory is developed to produce higher-order energy and momentum equations for rapidly-varied flow in compound channels. These generalized equations enable to describe the flow profiles with more generality than the gradually-varied flow computations. As an outcome, results of gradually-varied flow provide realistic conclusions for computations of flow in compound channels, showing that momentum-based models are in general more accurate; whereas the new theory developed for rapidly-varied flow opens a new research direction, so far not investigated in flows through compound channels.
CISM-IUTAM School on Advanced Turbulent Flow Computations
Krause, Egon
2000-01-01
This book collects the lecture notes concerning the IUTAM School on Advanced Turbulent Flow Computations held at CISM in Udine September 7–11, 1998. The course was intended for scientists, engineers and post-graduate students interested in the application of advanced numerical techniques for simulating turbulent flows. The topic comprises two closely connected main subjects: modelling and computation, mesh pionts necessary to simulate complex turbulent flow.
Physically-based interactive Schlieren flow visualization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mccormick, Patrick S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brownlee, Carson S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pegoraro, Vincent [UNIV OF UTAH; Shankar, Siddharth [UNIV OF UTAH; Hansen, Charles D [UNIV OF UTAH
2009-01-01
Understanding fluid flow is a difficult problem and of increasing importance as computational fluid dynamics produces an abundance of simulation data. Experimental flow analysis has employed techniques such as shadowgraph and schlieren imaging for centuries which allow empirical observation of inhomogeneous flows. Shadowgraphs provide an intuitive way of looking at small changes in flow dynamics through caustic effects while schlieren cutoffs introduce an intensity gradation for observing large scale directional changes in the flow. The combination of these shading effects provides an informative global analysis of overall fluid flow. Computational solutions for these methods have proven too complex until recently due to the fundamental physical interaction of light refracting through the flow field. In this paper, we introduce a novel method to simulate the refraction of light to generate synthetic shadowgraphs and schlieren images of time-varying scalar fields derived from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) data. Our method computes physically accurate schlieren and shadowgraph images at interactive rates by utilizing a combination of GPGPU programming, acceleration methods, and data-dependent probabilistic schlieren cutoffs. Results comparing this method to previous schlieren approximations are presented.
Numerical Simulation Of Flow Through An Artificial Heart
Rogers, Stuart; Kutler, Paul; Kwak, Dochan; Kiris, Centin
1991-01-01
Research in both artificial hearts and fluid dynamics benefits from computational studies. Algorithm that implements Navier-Stokes equations of flow extended to simulate flow of viscous, incompressible blood through articifial heart. Ability to compute details of such flow important for two reasons: internal flows with moving boundaries of academic interest in their own right, and many of deficiencies of artificial hearts attributable to dynamics of flow.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Asim Rizvi
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Invasive fractional flow reserve (FFR measurement is currently the gold standard for coronary intervention. FFR measurement by coronary computed tomography angiography (FFRCT is a novel and promising imaging technology that permits noninvasive assessment of physiologically significant coronary lesions. FFRCT is capable of combining the anatomic information provided by coronary computed tomography angiography with computational fluid dynamics to compute FFR. To date, several studies have reported the diagnostic performance of FFRCT compared with invasive FFR measurement as the reference standard. Further studies are now being implemented to determine the clinical feasibility and economic implications of FFRCT techniques. This article provides an overview and discusses the available evidence as well as potential future directions of FFRCT.
Discrete event dynamic system (DES)-based modeling for dynamic material flow in the pyroprocess
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Hyo Jik; Kim, Kiho; Kim, Ho Dong; Lee, Han Soo
2011-01-01
A modeling and simulation methodology was proposed in order to implement the dynamic material flow of the pyroprocess. Since the static mass balance provides the limited information on the material flow, it is hard to predict dynamic behavior according to event. Therefore, a discrete event system (DES)-based model named, PyroFlow, was developed at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). PyroFlow is able to calculate dynamic mass balance and also show various dynamic operational results in real time. By using PyroFlow, it is easy to rapidly predict unforeseeable results, such as throughput in unit process, accumulated product in buffer and operation status. As preliminary simulations, bottleneck analyses in the pyroprocess were carried out and consequently it was presented that operation strategy had influence on the productivity of the pyroprocess.
Nonlinear dynamics of two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rizwan-uddin
1986-01-01
Unstable flow conditions can occur in a wide variety of laboratory and industry equipment that involve two-phase flow. Instabilities in industrial equipment, which include boiling water reactor (BWR) cores, steam generators, heated channels, cryogenic fluid heaters, heat exchangers, etc., are related to their nonlinear dynamics. These instabilities can be of static (Ledinegg instability) or dynamic (density wave oscillations) type. Determination of regions in parameters space where these instabilities can occur and knowledge of system dynamics in or near these regions is essential for the safe operation of such equipment. Many two-phase flow engineering components can be modeled as heated channels. The set of partial differential equations that describes the dynamics of single- and two-phase flow, for the special case of uniform heat flux along the length of the channel, can be reduced to a set of two coupled ordinary differential equations [in inlet velocity v/sub i/(t) and two-phase residence time tau(t)] involving history integrals: a nonlinear ordinary functional differential equation and an integral equation. Hence, to solve these equations, the dependent variables must be specified for -(nu + tau) ≤ t ≤ 0, where nu is the single-phase residence time. This system of nonlinear equations has been solved analytically using asymptotic expansion series for finite but small perturbations and numerically using finite difference techniques
Computation of tokamak equilibria with steady flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kerner, W.; Tokuda, Shinji
1987-08-01
The equations for ideal MHD equilibria with stationary flow are reexamined and addressed as numerically applied to tokamak configurations with a free plasma boundary. Both the isothermal (purely toroidal flow) and the poloidal flow cases are treated. Experiment-relevant states with steady flow (so far only in the toroidal direction) are computed by the modified SELENE40 code. (author)
Crowell, Andrew Rippetoe
This dissertation describes model reduction techniques for the computation of aerodynamic heat flux and pressure loads for multi-disciplinary analysis of hypersonic vehicles. NASA and the Department of Defense have expressed renewed interest in the development of responsive, reusable hypersonic cruise vehicles capable of sustained high-speed flight and access to space. However, an extensive set of technical challenges have obstructed the development of such vehicles. These technical challenges are partially due to both the inability to accurately test scaled vehicles in wind tunnels and to the time intensive nature of high-fidelity computational modeling, particularly for the fluid using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The aim of this dissertation is to develop efficient and accurate models for the aerodynamic heat flux and pressure loads to replace the need for computationally expensive, high-fidelity CFD during coupled analysis. Furthermore, aerodynamic heating and pressure loads are systematically evaluated for a number of different operating conditions, including: simple two-dimensional flow over flat surfaces up to three-dimensional flows over deformed surfaces with shock-shock interaction and shock-boundary layer interaction. An additional focus of this dissertation is on the implementation and computation of results using the developed aerodynamic heating and pressure models in complex fluid-thermal-structural simulations. Model reduction is achieved using a two-pronged approach. One prong focuses on developing analytical corrections to isothermal, steady-state CFD flow solutions in order to capture flow effects associated with transient spatially-varying surface temperatures and surface pressures (e.g., surface deformation, surface vibration, shock impingements, etc.). The second prong is focused on minimizing the computational expense of computing the steady-state CFD solutions by developing an efficient surrogate CFD model. The developed two
Multiphase integral reacting flow computer code (ICOMFLO): User`s guide
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chang, S.L.; Lottes, S.A.; Petrick, M.
1997-11-01
A copyrighted computational fluid dynamics computer code, ICOMFLO, has been developed for the simulation of multiphase reacting flows. The code solves conservation equations for gaseous species and droplets (or solid particles) of various sizes. General conservation laws, expressed by elliptic type partial differential equations, are used in conjunction with rate equations governing the mass, momentum, enthalpy, species, turbulent kinetic energy, and turbulent dissipation. Associated phenomenological submodels of the code include integral combustion, two parameter turbulence, particle evaporation, and interfacial submodels. A newly developed integral combustion submodel replacing an Arrhenius type differential reaction submodel has been implemented to improve numerical convergence and enhance numerical stability. A two parameter turbulence submodel is modified for both gas and solid phases. An evaporation submodel treats not only droplet evaporation but size dispersion. Interfacial submodels use correlations to model interfacial momentum and energy transfer. The ICOMFLO code solves the governing equations in three steps. First, a staggered grid system is constructed in the flow domain. The staggered grid system defines gas velocity components on the surfaces of a control volume, while the other flow properties are defined at the volume center. A blocked cell technique is used to handle complex geometry. Then, the partial differential equations are integrated over each control volume and transformed into discrete difference equations. Finally, the difference equations are solved iteratively by using a modified SIMPLER algorithm. The results of the solution include gas flow properties (pressure, temperature, density, species concentration, velocity, and turbulence parameters) and particle flow properties (number density, temperature, velocity, and void fraction). The code has been used in many engineering applications, such as coal-fired combustors, air
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yonghui Xie
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Air turbines are widely used to convert kinetic energy into power output in power engineering. The unsteady performance of air turbines with partial admission not only influences the aerodynamic performance and thermodynamic efficiency of turbine but also generates strong excitation force on blades to impair the turbine safely operating. Based on three-dimensional viscous compressible Navier-stokes equations, the present study employs RNG (Renormalization group k-ε turbulence model with finite volume discretization on air turbine with partial admission. Numerical models of four different admission rates with full annulus are built and analyzed via CFD (computational fluid dynamics modeling unsteady flows. Results indicate that the unsteady time-averaged isentropic efficiency is lower than the steady isentropic efficiency, and this difference rises as unsteady isentropic efficiency fluctuates stronger when the admission rate is reduced. The rotor axial and tangential forces with time are provided for all four admission rates. The low frequency excitation forces generated by partial admission are extraordinarily higher than the high frequency excitation forces by stator wakes.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sun Qi; Groth, Alexandra; Bertram, Matthias; Waechter, Irina; Bruijns, Tom; Hermans, Roel; Aach, Til [Philips Research Europe, Weisshausstrasse 2, 52066 Aachen (Germany) and Institute of Imaging and Computer Vision, RWTH Aachen University, Sommerfeldstrasse 24, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Philips Research Europe, Weisshausstrasse 2, 52066 Aachen (Germany); Philips Healthcare, X-Ray Pre-Development, Veenpluis 4-6, 5684PC Best (Netherlands); Institute of Imaging and Computer Vision, RWTH Aachen University, Sommerfeldstrasse 24, 52074 Aachen (Germany)
2010-09-15
Purpose: Recently, image-based computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation has been applied to investigate the hemodynamics inside human cerebral aneurysms. The knowledge of the computed three-dimensional flow fields is used for clinical risk assessment and treatment decision making. However, the reliability of the application specific CFD results has not been thoroughly validated yet. Methods: In this work, by exploiting a phantom aneurysm model, the authors therefore aim to prove the reliability of the CFD results obtained from simulations with sufficiently accurate input boundary conditions. To confirm the correlation between the CFD results and the reality, virtual angiograms are generated by the simulation pipeline and are quantitatively compared to the experimentally acquired angiograms. In addition, a parametric study has been carried out to systematically investigate the influence of the input parameters associated with the current measuring techniques on the flow patterns. Results: Qualitative and quantitative evaluations demonstrate good agreement between the simulated and the real flow dynamics. Discrepancies of less than 15% are found for the relative root mean square errors of time intensity curve comparisons from each selected characteristic position. The investigated input parameters show different influences on the simulation results, indicating the desired accuracy in the measurements. Conclusions: This study provides a comprehensive validation method of CFD simulation for reproducing the real flow field in the cerebral aneurysm phantom under well controlled conditions. The reliability of the CFD is well confirmed. Through the parametric study, it is possible to assess the degree of validity of the associated CFD model based on the parameter values and their estimated accuracy range.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun Qi; Groth, Alexandra; Bertram, Matthias; Waechter, Irina; Bruijns, Tom; Hermans, Roel; Aach, Til
2010-01-01
Purpose: Recently, image-based computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation has been applied to investigate the hemodynamics inside human cerebral aneurysms. The knowledge of the computed three-dimensional flow fields is used for clinical risk assessment and treatment decision making. However, the reliability of the application specific CFD results has not been thoroughly validated yet. Methods: In this work, by exploiting a phantom aneurysm model, the authors therefore aim to prove the reliability of the CFD results obtained from simulations with sufficiently accurate input boundary conditions. To confirm the correlation between the CFD results and the reality, virtual angiograms are generated by the simulation pipeline and are quantitatively compared to the experimentally acquired angiograms. In addition, a parametric study has been carried out to systematically investigate the influence of the input parameters associated with the current measuring techniques on the flow patterns. Results: Qualitative and quantitative evaluations demonstrate good agreement between the simulated and the real flow dynamics. Discrepancies of less than 15% are found for the relative root mean square errors of time intensity curve comparisons from each selected characteristic position. The investigated input parameters show different influences on the simulation results, indicating the desired accuracy in the measurements. Conclusions: This study provides a comprehensive validation method of CFD simulation for reproducing the real flow field in the cerebral aneurysm phantom under well controlled conditions. The reliability of the CFD is well confirmed. Through the parametric study, it is possible to assess the degree of validity of the associated CFD model based on the parameter values and their estimated accuracy range.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohsen Mehrabi
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This study focuses on the behavior of blood flow in the stenosed vessels. Blood is modelled as an incompressible non-Newtonian fluid which is based on the power law viscosity model. A numerical technique based on the finite difference method is developed to simulate the blood flow taking into account the transient periodic behaviour of the blood flow in cardiac cycles. Also, pulsatile blood flow in the stenosed vessel is based on the Womersley model, and fluid flow in the lumen region is governed by the continuity equation and the Navier-Stokes equations. In this study, the stenosis shape is cosine by using Tu and Devil model. Comparing the results obtained from three stenosed vessels with 30%, 50%, and 75% area severity, we find that higher percent-area severity of stenosis leads to higher extrapressure jumps and higher blood speeds around the stenosis site. Also, we observe that the size of the stenosis in stenosed vessels does influence the blood flow. A little change on the cross-sectional value makes vast change on the blood flow rate. This simulation helps the people working in the field of physiological fluid dynamics as well as the medical practitioners.
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) investigation onto passenger car disk brake design
Munisamy, Kannan M.; Kanasan Moorthy, Shangkari K.
2013-06-01
The aim of this study is to investigate the flow and heat transfer in ventilated disc brakes using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). NACA Series blade is designed for ventilated disc brake and the cooling characteristic is compared to the baseline design. The ventilated disc brakes are simulated using commercial CFD software FLUENTTM using simulation configuration that was obtained from experiment data. The NACA Series blade design shows improvements in Nusselt number compared to baseline design.
Development of a 3-D flow analysis computer program for integral reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Youn, H. Y.; Lee, K. H.; Kim, H. K.; Whang, Y. D.; Kim, H. C.
2003-01-01
A 3-D computational fluid dynamics program TASS-3D is being developed for the flow analysis of primary coolant system consists of complex geometries such as SMART. A pre/post processor also is being developed to reduce the pre/post processing works such as a computational grid generation, set-up the analysis conditions and analysis of the calculated results. TASS-3D solver employs a non-orthogonal coordinate system and FVM based on the non-staggered grid system. The program includes the various models to simulate the physical phenomena expected to be occurred in the integral reactor and will be coupled with core dynamics code, core T/H code and the secondary system code modules. Currently, the application of TASS-3D is limited to the single phase of liquid, but the code will be further developed including 2-phase phenomena expected for the normal operation and the various transients of the integrator reactor in the next stage
Fluid dynamics following flow shut-off in bottle filling
Thete, Sumeet; Appathurai, Santosh; Gao, Haijing; Basaran, Osman
2012-11-01
Bottle filling is ubiquitous in industry. Examples include filling of bottles with shampoos and cleaners, engine oil and pharmaceuticals. In these examples, fluid flows out of a nozzle to fill bottles in an assembly line. Once the required volume of fluid has flowed out of the nozzle, the flow is shut off. However, an evolving fluid thread or string may remain suspended from the nozzle following flow shut-off and persist. This stringing phenomenon can be detrimental to a bottle filling operation because it can adversely affect line speed and filling accuracy by causing uncertainty in fill volume, product loss and undesirable marring of the bottles' exterior surfaces. The dynamics of stringing are studied numerically primarily by using the 1D, slender-jet approximation of the flow equations. A novel feature entails development and use of a new boundary condition downstream of the nozzle exit to expedite the computations. While the emphasis is on stringing of Newtonian fluids and use of 1D approximations, results will also be presented for situations where (a) the fluids are non-Newtonian and (b) the full set of equations are solved without invoking the 1D approximation. Phase diagrams will be presented that identify conditions for which stringing can be problematic.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liles, D.R.
1982-01-01
Internal boundaries in multiphase flow greatly complicate fluid-dynamic and heat-transfer descriptions. Different flow regimes or topological configurations can have radically dissimilar interfacial and wall mass, momentum, and energy exchanges. To model the flow dynamics properly requires estimates of these rates. In this paper the common flow regimes for gas-liquid systems are defined and the techniques used to estimate the extent of a particular regime are described. Also, the current computer-code procedures are delineated and introduce a potentially better method is introduced
Computed tomography for the quantitative characterization of flow through a porous medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Auzerais, F.M.; Dussan, E.B.; Reischer, A.J.
1991-01-01
X-ray computer tomography (CT) has become an increasingly popular research tool in petroleum engineering for characterizing porous media. Its highly detailed images have been used to construct maps of porosity, saturation and atomic composition, and to visualize the displacement of fluids. However, extracting data necessary to characterize flow through porous media is both time consuming and dependent on the availability of extensive computational resources - - a consequence of the large size of the image files. The authors of this paper applied to known technique, based upon the ability to recognize regions with similar features, which avoids these difficulties. It allows the authors to substitute for the image, the pixel location of the boundaries of the recognized regions, reducing considerably the computer storage requirements. The authors this technique to study the dynamics of two miscible liquids of different densities flowing through a porous medium where buoyancy plays an important role. The authors' specific concern is the movement of mud filtrate as it penetrates a permeable formation in the vicinity of a recently drilled wellbore. The authors quantify the manner in which impermeable horizontal barriers influence the movement of the filtrate
Modeling axisymmetric flows dynamics of films, jets, and drops
Middleman, Stanley
1995-01-01
This concise book is intended to fulfill two purposes: to provide an important supplement to classic texts by carrying fluid dynamics students on into the realm of free boundary flows; and to demonstrate the art of mathematical modeling based on knowledge, intuition, and observation. In the authors words, the overall goal is make the complex simple, without losing the essence--the virtue--of the complexity.Modeling Axisymmetric Flows: Dynamics of Films, Jets, and Drops is the first book to cover the topics of axisymmetric laminar flows; free-boundary flows; and dynamics of drops, jets, and films. The text also features comparisons of models to experiments, and it includes a large selection of problems at the end of each chapter.Key Features* Contains problems at the end of each chapter* Compares real-world experimental data to theory* Provides one of the first comprehensive examinations of axisymmetric laminar flows, free-boundary flows, and dynamics of drops, jets, and films* Includes development of basic eq...
Fluid Dynamics Theory, Computation, and Numerical Simulation
Pozrikidis, Constantine
2009-01-01
Fluid Dynamics: Theory, Computation, and Numerical Simulation is the only available book that extends the classical field of fluid dynamics into the realm of scientific computing in a way that is both comprehensive and accessible to the beginner. The theory of fluid dynamics, and the implementation of solution procedures into numerical algorithms, are discussed hand-in-hand and with reference to computer programming. This book is an accessible introduction to theoretical and computational fluid dynamics (CFD), written from a modern perspective that unifies theory and numerical practice. There are several additions and subject expansions in the Second Edition of Fluid Dynamics, including new Matlab and FORTRAN codes. Two distinguishing features of the discourse are: solution procedures and algorithms are developed immediately after problem formulations are presented, and numerical methods are introduced on a need-to-know basis and in increasing order of difficulty. Matlab codes are presented and discussed for ...
Helicopter Rotor Blade Computation in Unsteady Flows Using Moving Overset Grids
Ahmad, Jasim; Duque, Earl P. N.
1996-01-01
An overset grid thin-layer Navier-Stokes code has been extended to include dynamic motion of helicopter rotor blades through relative grid motion. The unsteady flowfield and airloads on an AH-IG rotor in forward flight were computed to verify the methodology and to demonstrate the method's potential usefulness towards comprehensive helicopter codes. In addition, the method uses the blade's first harmonics measured in the flight test to prescribe the blade motion. The solution was impulsively started and became periodic in less than three rotor revolutions. Detailed unsteady numerical flow visualization techniques were applied to the entire unsteady data set of five rotor revolutions and exhibited flowfield features such as blade vortex interaction and wake roll-up. The unsteady blade loads and surface pressures compare well against those from flight measurements. Details of the method, a discussion of the resulting predicted flowfield, and requirements for future work are presented. Overall, given the proper blade dynamics, this method can compute the unsteady flowfield of a general helicopter rotor in forward flight.
Vesicle dynamics in shear and capillary flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Noguchi, Hiroshi; Gompper, Gerhard
2005-01-01
The deformation of vesicles in flow is studied by a mesoscopic simulation technique, which combines multi-particle collision dynamics for the solvent with a dynamically triangulated surface model for the membrane. Shape transitions are investigated both in simple shear flows and in cylindrical capillary flows. We focus on reduced volumes, where the discocyte shape of fluid vesicles is stable, and the prolate shape is metastable. In simple shear flow at low membrane viscosity, the shear induces a transformation from discocyte to prolate with increasing shear rate, while at high membrane viscosity, the shear induces a transformation from prolate to discocyte, or tumbling motion accompanied by oscillations between these two morphologies. In capillary flow, at small flow velocities the symmetry axis of the discocyte is found not to be oriented perpendicular to the cylinder axis. With increasing flow velocity, a transition to a prolate shape occurs for fluid vesicles, while vesicles with shear-elastic membranes (like red blood cells) transform into a coaxial parachute-like shape
IN-CYLINDER MASS FLOW ESTIMATION AND MANIFOLD PRESSURE DYNAMICS FOR STATE PREDICTION IN SI ENGINES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wojnar Sławomir
2014-06-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present a simple model of the intake manifold dynamics of a spark ignition (SI engine and its possible application for estimation and control purposes. We focus on pressure dynamics, which may be regarded as the foundation for estimating future states and for designing model predictive control strategies suitable for maintaining the desired air fuel ratio (AFR. The flow rate measured at the inlet of the intake manifold and the in-cylinder flow estimation are considered as parts of the proposed model. In-cylinder flow estimation is crucial for engine control, where an accurate amount of aspired air forms the basis for computing the manipulated variables. The solutions presented here are based on the mean value engine model (MVEM approach, using the speed-density method. The proposed in-cylinder flow estimation method is compared to measured values in an experimental setting, while one-step-ahead prediction is illustrated using simulation results.
Rarefield gas dynamics fundamentals, simulations and micro flows
Shen, Ching
2006-01-01
This book elucidates the methods of molecular gas dynamics or rarefied gas dynamics which treat the problems of gas flows when the discrete molecular effects of the gas prevail under the circumstances of low density, the emphasis being on the basis of the methods, the direct simulation Monte Carlo method applied to the simulation of non-equilibrium effects and the frontier subjects related to low speed microscale rarefied gas flows. It provides a solid basis for the study of molecular gas dynamics for senior students and graduates in the aerospace and mechanical engineering departments of universities and colleges. It gives a general acquaintance of modern developments of rarefied gas dynamics in various regimes and leads to the frontier topics of non-equilibrium rarefied gas dynamics and low speed microscale gas dynamics. It will be also of benefit to the scientific and technical researchers engaged in aerospace high altitude aerodynamic force and heating design and in the research on gas flow in MEMS.
Data Point Averaging for Computational Fluid Dynamics Data
Norman, Jr., David (Inventor)
2016-01-01
A system and method for generating fluid flow parameter data for use in aerodynamic heating analysis. Computational fluid dynamics data is generated for a number of points in an area on a surface to be analyzed. Sub-areas corresponding to areas of the surface for which an aerodynamic heating analysis is to be performed are identified. A computer system automatically determines a sub-set of the number of points corresponding to each of the number of sub-areas and determines a value for each of the number of sub-areas using the data for the sub-set of points corresponding to each of the number of sub-areas. The value is determined as an average of the data for the sub-set of points corresponding to each of the number of sub-areas. The resulting parameter values then may be used to perform an aerodynamic heating analysis.
Dynamic electro-thermal modeling of all-vanadium redox flow battery with forced cooling strategies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wei, Zhongbao; Zhao, Jiyun; Xiong, Binyu
2014-01-01
Highlights: • A dynamic electro-thermal model is proposed for VRB with forced cooling. • The Foster network is adopted to model the battery cooling process. • Both the electrolyte temperature and terminal voltage can be accurately predicted. • The flow rate of electrolyte and coolant significantly impact battery performance. - Abstract: The present study focuses on the dynamic electro-thermal modeling for the all-vanadium redox flow battery (VRB) with forced cooling strategies. The Foster network is adopted to dynamically model the heat dissipation of VRB with heat exchangers. The parameters of Foster network are extracted by fitting the step response of it to the results of linearized CFD model. Then a complete electro-thermal model is proposed by coupling the heat generation model, Foster network and electrical model. Results show that the established model has nearly the same accuracy with the nonlinear CFD model in electrolyte temperature prediction but drastically improves the computational efficiency. The modeled terminal voltage is also benchmarked with the experimental data under different current densities. The electrolyte temperature is found to be significantly influenced by the flow rate of coolant. As compared, although the electrolyte flow rate has unremarkable impact on electrolyte temperature, its effect on system pressure drop and battery efficiency is significant. Increasing the electrolyte flow rate improves the coulombic efficiency, voltage efficiency and energy efficiency simultaneously but at the expense of higher pump power demanded. An optimal flow rate exists for each operating condition to maximize the system efficiency
Mahmoudzadeh, Javid; Wlodarczyk, Marta; Cassel, Kevin
2017-11-01
Development of excessive intimal hyperplasia (IH) in the cephalic vein of renal failure patients who receive chronic hemodialysis treatment results in vascular access failure and multiple treatment complications. Specifically, cephalic arch stenosis (CAS) is known to exacerbate hypertensive blood pressure, thrombosis, and subsequent cardiovascular incidents that would necessitate costly interventional procedures with low success rates. It has been hypothesized that excessive blood flow rate post access maturation which strongly violates the venous homeostasis is the main hemodynamic factor that orchestrates the onset and development of CAS. In this article, a computational framework based on a strong coupling of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and shape optimization is proposed that aims to identify the effective blood flow rate on a patient-specific basis that avoids the onset of CAS while providing the adequate blood flow rate required to facilitate hemodialysis. This effective flow rate can be achieved through implementation of Miller's surgical banding method after the maturation of the arteriovenous fistula and is rooted in the relaxation of wall stresses back to a homeostatic target value. The results are indicative that this optimized hemodialysis blood flow rate is, in fact, a subject-specific value that can be assessed post vascular access maturation and prior to the initiation of chronic hemodialysis treatment as a mitigative action against CAS-related access failure. This computational technology can be employed for individualized dialysis treatment.
Hepatic blood flow mapping by dynamic CT method in liver diseases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sugano, Shigeo; Mizuyosi, Hideo; Okajima, Tsugio; Ishii, Kouji; Abei, Tohru; Machida, Keiichi
1986-01-01
Two parameters of dynamic CT, peak time (PT) and first moment (M1), were compared among healthy control, chronic hepatitis (CH) and liver cirrhosis (LC). The means of PT and M1 in each 9 (3 x 3) pixels on a slice of hepatic CT were computed and converted to gray spots by gray scale, so that deep gray represented high values and light gray low values of these parameters. The distribution of these gray spots in each pixels was depicted on the slice as a blood flow mapping, and it was compared among the groups. In normal control, dynamic CT showed the shortest PT and deep gray spots were distributed diffusely in the slice. In CH, where PT was longer than control, lighter gray spots were diffusely seen. LC had the longest PT and its mapping showed mottles of light gray and black, the latter indicating the presence of spots with scanty blood flow, scattering throughout the slice. The mapping of M1 gave almost the same picture as PT for each group, revieling that the disappearring time of the media in CH and LC was impaired in the same manner as in PT. This method of hepatic blood flow mapping was thought to be useful to add evidences for the understanding of abnormal blood flow in liver diseases. (author)
Turko, Nir A.; Roitshtain, Darina; Blum, Omry; Kemper, Björn; Shaked, Natan T.
2017-06-01
We present highly dynamic photothermal interferometric phase microscopy for quantitative, selective contrast imaging of live cells during flow. Gold nanoparticles can be biofunctionalized to bind to specific cells, and stimulated for local temperature increase due to plasmon resonance, causing a rapid change of the optical phase. These phase changes can be recorded by interferometric phase microscopy and analyzed to form an image of the binding sites of the nanoparticles in the cells, gaining molecular specificity. Since the nanoparticle excitation frequency might overlap with the sample dynamics frequencies, photothermal phase imaging was performed on stationary or slowly dynamic samples. Furthermore, the computational analysis of the photothermal signals is time consuming. This makes photothermal imaging unsuitable for applications requiring dynamic imaging or real-time analysis, such as analyzing and sorting cells during fast flow. To overcome these drawbacks, we utilized an external interferometric module and developed new algorithms, based on discrete Fourier transform variants, enabling fast analysis of photothermal signals in highly dynamic live cells. Due to the self-interference module, the cells are imaged with and without excitation in video-rate, effectively increasing signal-to-noise ratio. Our approach holds potential for using photothermal cell imaging and depletion in flow cytometry.
Fluid dynamics theory, computation, and numerical simulation
Pozrikidis, C
2001-01-01
Fluid Dynamics Theory, Computation, and Numerical Simulation is the only available book that extends the classical field of fluid dynamics into the realm of scientific computing in a way that is both comprehensive and accessible to the beginner The theory of fluid dynamics, and the implementation of solution procedures into numerical algorithms, are discussed hand-in-hand and with reference to computer programming This book is an accessible introduction to theoretical and computational fluid dynamics (CFD), written from a modern perspective that unifies theory and numerical practice There are several additions and subject expansions in the Second Edition of Fluid Dynamics, including new Matlab and FORTRAN codes Two distinguishing features of the discourse are solution procedures and algorithms are developed immediately after problem formulations are presented, and numerical methods are introduced on a need-to-know basis and in increasing order of difficulty Matlab codes are presented and discussed for a broad...
Babu, C. Rajesh; Kumar, P.; Rajamohan, G.
2017-07-01
Computation of fluid flow and heat transfer in an economizer is simulated by a porous medium approach, with plain tubes having a horizontal in-line arrangement and cross flow arrangement in a coal-fired thermal power plant. The economizer is a thermal mechanical device that captures waste heat from the thermal exhaust flue gasses through heat transfer surfaces to preheat boiler feed water. In order to evaluate the fluid flow and heat transfer on tubes, a numerical analysis on heat transfer performance is carried out on an 110 t/h MCR (Maximum continuous rating) boiler unit. In this study, thermal performance is investigated using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation using ANSYS FLUENT. The fouling factor ε and the overall heat transfer coefficient ψ are employed to evaluate the fluid flow and heat transfer. The model demands significant computational details for geometric modeling, grid generation, and numerical calculations to evaluate the thermal performance of an economizer. The simulation results show that the overall heat transfer coefficient 37.76 W/(m2K) and economizer coil side pressure drop of 0.2 (kg/cm2) are found to be conformity within the tolerable limits when compared with existing industrial economizer data.
Computational Fluid Dynamics of Choanoflagellate Filter-Feeding
Asadzadeh, Seyed Saeed; Walther, Jens; Nielsen, Lasse Tore; Kiorboe, Thomas; Dolger, Julia; Andersen, Anders
2017-11-01
Choanoflagellates are unicellular aquatic organisms with a single flagellum that drives a feeding current through a funnel-shaped collar filter on which bacteria-sized prey are caught. Using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) we model the beating flagellum and the complex filter flow of the choanoflagellate Diaphanoeca grandis. Our CFD simulations based on the current understanding of the morphology underestimate the experimentally observed clearance rate by more than an order of magnitude: The beating flagellum is simply unable to draw enough water through the fine filter. Our observations motivate us to suggest a radically different filtration mechanism that requires a flagellar vane (sheet), and addition of a wide vane in our CFD model allows us to correctly predict the observed clearance rate.
Energy flow theory of nonlinear dynamical systems with applications
Xing, Jing Tang
2015-01-01
This monograph develops a generalised energy flow theory to investigate non-linear dynamical systems governed by ordinary differential equations in phase space and often met in various science and engineering fields. Important nonlinear phenomena such as, stabilities, periodical orbits, bifurcations and chaos are tack-led and the corresponding energy flow behaviors are revealed using the proposed energy flow approach. As examples, the common interested nonlinear dynamical systems, such as, Duffing’s oscillator, Van der Pol’s equation, Lorenz attractor, Rössler one and SD oscillator, etc, are discussed. This monograph lights a new energy flow research direction for nonlinear dynamics. A generalised Matlab code with User Manuel is provided for readers to conduct the energy flow analysis of their nonlinear dynamical systems. Throughout the monograph the author continuously returns to some examples in each chapter to illustrate the applications of the discussed theory and approaches. The book can be used as ...
All-Particle Multiscale Computation of Hypersonic Rarefied Flow
Jun, E.; Burt, J. M.; Boyd, I. D.
2011-05-01
This study examines a new hybrid particle scheme used as an alternative means of multiscale flow simulation. The hybrid particle scheme employs the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method in rarefied flow regions and the low diffusion (LD) particle method in continuum flow regions. The numerical procedures of the low diffusion particle method are implemented within an existing DSMC algorithm. The performance of the LD-DSMC approach is assessed by studying Mach 10 nitrogen flow over a sphere with a global Knudsen number of 0.002. The hybrid scheme results show good overall agreement with results from standard DSMC and CFD computation. Subcell procedures are utilized to improve computational efficiency and reduce sensitivity to DSMC cell size in the hybrid scheme. This makes it possible to perform the LD-DSMC simulation on a much coarser mesh that leads to a significant reduction in computation time.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Razali Jidin
2017-10-01
Full Text Available The main feature of a run-off river hydroelectric system is a small size intake pond that overspills when river flow is more than turbines’ intake. As river flow fluctuates, a large proportion of the potential energy is wasted due to the spillages which can occur when turbines are operated manually. Manual operation is often adopted due to unreliability of water level-based controllers at many remote and unmanned run-off river hydropower plants. In order to overcome these issues, this paper proposes a novel method by developing a controller that derives turbine output set points from computed mass flow rate of rivers that feed the hydroelectric system. The computed flow is derived by summation of pond volume difference with numerical integration of both turbine discharge flows and spillages. This approach of estimating river flow allows the use of existing sensors rather than requiring the installation of new ones. All computations, including the numerical integration, have been realized as ladder logics on a programmable logic controller. The implemented controller manages the dynamic changes in the flow rate of the river better than the old point-level based controller, with the aid of a newly installed water level sensor. The computed mass flow rate of the river also allows the controller to straightforwardly determine the number of turbines to be in service with considerations of turbine efficiencies and auxiliary power conservation.
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) investigation onto passenger car disk brake design
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Munisamy, Kannan M; Moorthy, Shangkari K Kanasan
2013-01-01
The aim of this study is to investigate the flow and heat transfer in ventilated disc brakes using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). NACA Series blade is designed for ventilated disc brake and the cooling characteristic is compared to the baseline design. The ventilated disc brakes are simulated using commercial CFD software FLUENT TM using simulation configuration that was obtained from experiment data. The NACA Series blade design shows improvements in Nusselt number compared to baseline design.
Turbulent swirling flow in a dynamic model of a uniflow-scavenged two-stroke engine
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ingvorsen, Kristian Mark; Meyer, Knud Erik; Walther, Jens Honore
2014-01-01
turbulence models. In the present work, the flow in a dynamic scale model of a uniflowscavenged cylinder is investigated experimentally. The model has a transparent cylinder and a moving piston driven by a linear motor. The flow is investigated using phase-locked stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (PIV...... cannot be assumed to be quasi-steady. The temporal development of the swirl strength is investigated by computing the angular momentum. The swirl strength shows an exponential decay from scavenge port closing to scavenge port opening corresponding to a reduction of 34 %, which is in good agreement...
A dynamic model of renal blood flow autoregulation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Marsh, D J
1994-01-01
To test whether a mathematical model combining dynamic models of the tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) mechanism and the myogenic mechanism was sufficient to explain dynamic autoregulation of renal blood flow, we compared model simulations with experimental data. To assess the dynamic characteristics...... of renal autoregulation, a broad band perturbation of the arterial pressure was employed in both the simulations and the experiments. Renal blood flow and tubular pressure were used as response variables in the comparison. To better approximate the situation in vivo where a large number of individual...... data, which shows a unimodal curve for the admittance phase. The ability of the model to reproduce the experimental data supports the hypothesis that dynamic autoregulation of renal blood flow is due to the combined action of TGF and the myogenic response....
Modelling flow and heat transfer around a seated human body by computational fluid dynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Dan Nørtoft; Voigt, Lars Peter Kølgaard
2003-01-01
A database (http://www.ie.dtu.dk/manikin) containing a detailed representation of the surface geometry of a seated female human body was created from a surface scan of a thermal manikin (minus clothing and hair). The radiative heat transfer coefficient and the natural convection flow around...... of the computational manikin has all surface features of a human being; (2) the geometry is an exact copy of an experimental thermal manikin, enabling detailed comparisons between calculations and experiments....
Suboptimal RED Feedback Control for Buffered TCP Flow Dynamics in Computer Network
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. U. Ahmed
2007-01-01
Full Text Available We present an improved dynamic system that simulates the behavior of TCP flows and active queue management (AQM system. This system can be modeled by a set of stochastic differential equations driven by a doubly stochastic point process with intensities being the controls. The feedback laws proposed monitor the status of buffers and multiplexor of the router, detect incipient congestion by sending warning signals to the sources. The simulation results show that the optimal feedback control law from the class of linear as well as quadratic polynomials can improve the system performance significantly in terms of maximizing the link utilization, minimizing congestion, packet losses, as well as global synchronization. The optimization process used is based on random recursive search technique known as RRS.
Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of the Human Pulmonary Arteries with Experimental Validation.
Bordones, Alifer D; Leroux, Matthew; Kheyfets, Vitaly O; Wu, Yu-An; Chen, Chia-Yuan; Finol, Ender A
2018-05-21
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a chronic progressive disease characterized by elevated pulmonary arterial pressure, caused by an increase in pulmonary arterial impedance. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can be used to identify metrics representative of the stage of PH disease. However, experimental validation of CFD models is often not pursued due to the geometric complexity of the model or uncertainties in the reproduction of the required flow conditions. The goal of this work is to validate experimentally a CFD model of a pulmonary artery phantom using a particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique. Rapid prototyping was used for the construction of the patient-specific pulmonary geometry, derived from chest computed tomography angiography images. CFD simulations were performed with the pulmonary model with a Reynolds number matching those of the experiments. Flow rates, the velocity field, and shear stress distributions obtained with the CFD simulations were compared to their counterparts from the PIV flow visualization experiments. Computationally predicted flow rates were within 1% of the experimental measurements for three of the four branches of the CFD model. The mean velocities in four transversal planes of study were within 5.9 to 13.1% of the experimental mean velocities. Shear stresses were qualitatively similar between the two methods with some discrepancies in the regions of high velocity gradients. The fluid flow differences between the CFD model and the PIV phantom are attributed to experimental inaccuracies and the relative compliance of the phantom. This comparative analysis yielded valuable information on the accuracy of CFD predicted hemodynamics in pulmonary circulation models.
Robust second-order scheme for multi-phase flow computations
Shahbazi, Khosro
2017-06-01
A robust high-order scheme for the multi-phase flow computations featuring jumps and discontinuities due to shock waves and phase interfaces is presented. The scheme is based on high-order weighted-essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) finite volume schemes and high-order limiters to ensure the maximum principle or positivity of the various field variables including the density, pressure, and order parameters identifying each phase. The two-phase flow model considered besides the Euler equations of gas dynamics consists of advection of two parameters of the stiffened-gas equation of states, characterizing each phase. The design of the high-order limiter is guided by the findings of Zhang and Shu (2011) [36], and is based on limiting the quadrature values of the density, pressure and order parameters reconstructed using a high-order WENO scheme. The proof of positivity-preserving and accuracy is given, and the convergence and the robustness of the scheme are illustrated using the smooth isentropic vortex problem with very small density and pressure. The effectiveness and robustness of the scheme in computing the challenging problem of shock wave interaction with a cluster of tightly packed air or helium bubbles placed in a body of liquid water is also demonstrated. The superior performance of the high-order schemes over the first-order Lax-Friedrichs scheme for computations of shock-bubble interaction is also shown. The scheme is implemented in two-dimensional space on parallel computers using message passing interface (MPI). The proposed scheme with limiter features approximately 50% higher number of inter-processor message communications compared to the corresponding scheme without limiter, but with only 10% higher total CPU time. The scheme is provably second-order accurate in regions requiring positivity enforcement and higher order in the rest of domain.
Nonequilibrium Langevin dynamics: A demonstration study of shear flow fluctuations in a simple fluid
Belousov, Roman; Cohen, E. G. D.; Rondoni, Lamberto
2017-08-01
The present paper is based on a recent success of the second-order stochastic fluctuation theory in describing time autocorrelations of equilibrium and nonequilibrium physical systems. In particular, it was shown to yield values of the related deterministic parameters of the Langevin equation for a Couette flow in a microscopic molecular dynamics model of a simple fluid. In this paper we find all the remaining constants of the stochastic dynamics, which then is simulated numerically and compared directly with the original physical system. By using these data, we study in detail the accuracy and precision of a second-order Langevin model for nonequilibrium physical systems theoretically and computationally. We find an intriguing relation between an applied external force and cumulants of the resulting flow fluctuations. This is characterized by a linear dependence of an athermal cumulant ratio, an apposite quantity introduced here. In addition, we discuss how the order of a given Langevin dynamics can be raised systematically by introducing colored noise.
Fluid dynamics of cryogenic two-phase flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Verfondern, K.; Jahn, W.
2004-01-01
The objective of this study was to examine the flow behavior of a methane hydrate/methane-liquid hydrogen dispersed two-phase fluid through a given design of a moderator chamber for the ESS target system. The calculations under simplified conditions, e.g., taking no account of heat input from outside, have shown that the computer code used, CFX, was able to simulate the behavior of the two-phase flow through the moderator chamber, producing reasonable results up to a certain level of the solid phase fraction, that allowed a continuous flow process through the chamber. Inlet flows with larger solid phase fractions than 40 vol% were found to be a ''problem'' for the computer code. From the computer runs based on fractions between 20 and 40 vol%, it was observed that with increasing solid phase fraction at the inlet, the resulting flow pattern revealed a strong tendency for blockage within the chamber, supported by the ''heavy weight'' of the pellets compared to the carrying liquid. Locations which are prone to the development of such uneven flow behavior are the areas around the turning points in the semispheres and near the exit of the moderator. The considered moderator chamber with horizontal inlet and outlet flow for a solid-liquid two-phase fluid does not seem to be an appropriate design. (orig.)
Dynamics and computation in functional shifts
Namikawa, Jun; Hashimoto, Takashi
2004-07-01
We introduce a new type of shift dynamics as an extended model of symbolic dynamics, and investigate the characteristics of shift spaces from the viewpoints of both dynamics and computation. This shift dynamics is called a functional shift, which is defined by a set of bi-infinite sequences of some functions on a set of symbols. To analyse the complexity of functional shifts, we measure them in terms of topological entropy, and locate their languages in the Chomsky hierarchy. Through this study, we argue that considering functional shifts from the viewpoints of both dynamics and computation gives us opposite results about the complexity of systems. We also describe a new class of shift spaces whose languages are not recursively enumerable.
Modelling flow dynamics in water distribution networks using ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
One such approach is the Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) technique. The advantage of ANNs is that they are robust and can be used to model complex linear and non-linear systems without making implicit assumptions. ANNs can be trained to forecast flow dynamics in a water distribution network. Such flow dynamics ...
Computational methods for two-phase flow and particle transport
Lee, Wen Ho
2013-01-01
This book describes mathematical formulations and computational methods for solving two-phase flow problems with a computer code that calculates thermal hydraulic problems related to light water and fast breeder reactors. The physical model also handles the particle and gas flow problems that arise from coal gasification and fluidized beds. The second part of this book deals with the computational methods for particle transport.
Chen, Hudong
2001-06-01
There have been considerable advances in Lattice Boltzmann (LB) based methods in the last decade. By now, the fundamental concept of using the approach as an alternative tool for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been substantially appreciated and validated in mainstream scientific research and in industrial engineering communities. Lattice Boltzmann based methods possess several major advantages: a) less numerical dissipation due to the linear Lagrange type advection operator in the Boltzmann equation; b) local dynamic interactions suitable for highly parallel processing; c) physical handling of boundary conditions for complicated geometries and accurate control of fluxes; d) microscopically consistent modeling of thermodynamics and of interface properties in complex multiphase flows. It provides a great opportunity to apply the method to practical engineering problems encountered in a wide range of industries from automotive, aerospace to chemical, biomedical, petroleum, nuclear, and others. One of the key challenges is to extend the applicability of this alternative approach to regimes of highly turbulent flows commonly encountered in practical engineering situations involving high Reynolds numbers. Over the past ten years, significant efforts have been made on this front at Exa Corporation in developing a lattice Boltzmann based commercial CFD software, PowerFLOW. It has become a useful computational tool for the simulation of turbulent aerodynamics in practical engineering problems involving extremely complex geometries and flow situations, such as in new automotive vehicle designs world wide. In this talk, we present an overall LB based algorithm concept along with certain key extensions in order to accurately handle turbulent flows involving extremely complex geometries. To demonstrate the accuracy of turbulent flow simulations, we provide a set of validation results for some well known academic benchmarks. These include straight channels, backward
Bender, Jason D.
Understanding hypersonic aerodynamics is important for the design of next-generation aerospace vehicles for space exploration, national security, and other applications. Ground-level experimental studies of hypersonic flows are difficult and expensive; thus, computational science plays a crucial role in this field. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of extremely high-speed flows require models of chemical and thermal nonequilibrium processes, such as dissociation of diatomic molecules and vibrational energy relaxation. Current models are outdated and inadequate for advanced applications. We describe a multiscale computational study of gas-phase thermochemical processes in hypersonic flows, starting at the atomic scale and building systematically up to the continuum scale. The project was part of a larger effort centered on collaborations between aerospace scientists and computational chemists. We discuss the construction of potential energy surfaces for the N4, N2O2, and O4 systems, focusing especially on the multi-dimensional fitting problem. A new local fitting method named L-IMLS-G2 is presented and compared with a global fitting method. Then, we describe the theory of the quasiclassical trajectory (QCT) approach for modeling molecular collisions. We explain how we implemented the approach in a new parallel code for high-performance computing platforms. Results from billions of QCT simulations of high-energy N2 + N2, N2 + N, and N2 + O2 collisions are reported and analyzed. Reaction rate constants are calculated and sets of reactive trajectories are characterized at both thermal equilibrium and nonequilibrium conditions. The data shed light on fundamental mechanisms of dissociation and exchange reactions -- and their coupling to internal energy transfer processes -- in thermal environments typical of hypersonic flows. We discuss how the outcomes of this investigation and other related studies lay a rigorous foundation for new macroscopic models for
Three dimensional computations of the flow around a LM19 rotor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hambraeus, T. [FFA, Bromma (Sweden)
1997-12-31
To achieve insight in the flow phenomenon occurring in wind power engineering modeling of the flow through the basic governing equations, Navier-Stokes and Euler, can be a great complement to experiments and other computational methods such as the BEM (Blade Element Momentum). Navier-Stokes methods is regularly used in prediction of air-foil flows but then mostly under attached flow conditions. One of the main differences between air-foil computations for aircraft industry and computations for wind turbine applications is that the former is not very interested in separated flow while for the latter case this is part of the operating conditions. It has been noted that separated flow poses problems since the most popular turbulence models such as Baldwin-Lomax and the {kappa}-{epsilon} model seems to over estimate the amount of turbulent viscosity produced and thus suppressing the separation. The work with finding better turbulence models is presently an area with large amount of research offering improved models. However, in the present report only the two mentioned turbulence models have been used. The present report shows computational results obtained with the Navier-Stokes solver EU-RANUS. First the results from a two-dimensional verification cases are shown to verify that the solver produces results comparable with other solvers. The flow computed is attached flow and slightly separated flow over the so called Profile-A. Secondly three dimensional computations of the flow over a full three dimensional rotor at attached and stalled conditions is shown. The computed results are compared with measured power data from field experiments. (EG)
Matveev, V. N.; Baturin, O. V.; Kolmakova, D. A.; Popov, G. M.
2017-01-01
Circumferential nonuniformity of gas flow is one of the main problems in the gas turbine engine. Usually, the flow circumferential nonuniformity appears near the annular frame located in the flow passage of the engine. The presence of circumferential nonuniformity leads to the increased dynamic stresses in the blade rows and the blade damage. The goal of this research was to find the ways of the flow non-uniformity reduction, which would not require a fundamental changing of the engine design. A new method for reducing the circumferential nonuniformity of the gas flow was proposed that allows the prediction of the pressure peak values of the rotor blades without computationally expensive CFD calculations.
Flow dynamics of volume-heated boiling pools
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ginsberg, T.; Jones, O.C.; Chen, J.C.
1979-01-01
Safety analyses of fast breeder reactors require understanding of the two-phase fluid dynamic and heat transfer characteristics of volume-heated boiling pool systems. Design of direct contact three-phase boilers, of practical interest in the chemical industries also requires understanding of the fundamental two-phase flow and heat transfer behavior of volume boiling systems. Several experiments have been recently reported relevant to the boundary heat-loss mechanisms of boiling pool systems. Considerably less is known about the two-phase fluid dynamic behavior of such systems. This paper describes an experimental investigation of the steady-state flow dynamics of volume-heated boiling pool systems
AN OVERVIEW ON PULSATILE FLOW DYNAMICS
Çarpinlioğlu, Melda Özdinç
2015-01-01
Pulsatile flow dynamics in reference to the relevant experimental research on the manner between the time periods of 1997- 2015 is presented in this paper. The flow field under discussion is generated through a rigid circular cross-sectional pipe as an axial slightly- compressible and sinusoidal one in a controlled range of the oscillation parameters. Laminar and turbulent flow regimes are considered with a particular emphasis devoted to the transitional characteristics of laminar pulsatile f...
RICE: a computer program for multicomponent chemically reactive flows at all speeds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rivard, W.C.; Farmer, O.A.; Butler, T.D.
1974-11-01
The fluid dynamics of chemically reactive mixtures are calculated at arbitrary flow speeds with the RICE program. The dynamics are governed by the two-dimensional, time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations together with the species transport equations and the mass-action rate equations for the chemical reactions. The mass and momentum equations for the mixture are solved implicitly by the ICE technique. The equations for total energy and species transport are solved explicitly while the chemical rate equations are solved implicitly with a time step that may be a submultiple of the hydrodynamic time step. Application is made to continuous wave HF chemical lasers to compute the supersonic mixing and chemical reactions that take place in the lasing cavity. (U.S.)
Computational neuropharmacology: dynamical approaches in drug discovery.
Aradi, Ildiko; Erdi, Péter
2006-05-01
Computational approaches that adopt dynamical models are widely accepted in basic and clinical neuroscience research as indispensable tools with which to understand normal and pathological neuronal mechanisms. Although computer-aided techniques have been used in pharmaceutical research (e.g. in structure- and ligand-based drug design), the power of dynamical models has not yet been exploited in drug discovery. We suggest that dynamical system theory and computational neuroscience--integrated with well-established, conventional molecular and electrophysiological methods--offer a broad perspective in drug discovery and in the search for novel targets and strategies for the treatment of neurological and psychiatric diseases.
Multiphase Flow Dynamics 2 Mechanical Interactions
Kolev, Nikolay Ivanov
2012-01-01
Multi-phase flows are part of our natural environment such as tornadoes, typhoons, air and water pollution and volcanic activities as well as part of industrial technology such as power plants, combustion engines, propulsion systems, or chemical and biological industry. The industrial use of multi-phase systems requires analytical and numerical strategies for predicting their behavior. .In its fourth extended edition the successful monograph package “Multiphase Flow Daynmics” contains theory, methods and practical experience for describing complex transient multi-phase processes in arbitrary geometrical configurations, providing a systematic presentation of the theory and practice of numerical multi-phase fluid dynamics. In the present second volume the methods for describing the mechanical interactions in multiphase dynamics are provided. This fourth edition includes various updates, extensions, improvements and corrections. "The literature in the field of multiphase flows is numerous. Therefore, it i...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Serkowski, John A.; Richmond, Marshall C.
2010-12-01
The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers-Portland District (CENWP) has ongoing work to improve the survival of juvenile salmonids (smolt) migrating past The Dalles Dam. As part of that effort, a spillwall was constructed to improve juvenile egress through the tailrace downstream of the stilling basin. The spillwall was designed to improve smolt survival by decreasing smolt retention time in the spillway tailrace and the exposure to predators on the spillway shelf. The spillwall guides spillway flows, and hence smolt, more quickly into the thalweg. In this study, an existing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was modified and used to characterize tailrace hydraulics between the new spillwall and the Washington shore for six different total river flows. The effect of spillway flow distribution was simulated for three spill patterns at the lowest total river flow. The commercial CFD solver, STAR-CD version 4.1, was used to solve the unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations together with the k-epsilon turbulence model. Free surface motion was simulated using the volume-of-fluid (VOF) technique. The model results were used in two ways. First, results graphics were provided to CENWP and regional fisheries agency representatives for use and comparison to the same flow conditions at a reduced-scale physical model. The CFD results were very similar in flow pattern to that produced by the reduced-scale physical model but these graphics provided a quantitative view of velocity distribution. During the physical model work, an additional spill pattern was tested. Subsequently, that spill pattern was also simulated in the numerical model. The CFD streamlines showed that the hydraulic conditions were likely to be beneficial to fish egress at the higher total river flows (120 kcfs and greater, uniform flow distribution). At the lowest flow case, 90 kcfs, it was necessary to use a non-uniform distribution. Of the three distributions tested, splitting the flow evenly between
Event-Based Computation of Motion Flow on a Neuromorphic Analog Neural Platform.
Giulioni, Massimiliano; Lagorce, Xavier; Galluppi, Francesco; Benosman, Ryad B
2016-01-01
Estimating the speed and direction of moving objects is a crucial component of agents behaving in a dynamic world. Biological organisms perform this task by means of the neural connections originating from their retinal ganglion cells. In artificial systems the optic flow is usually extracted by comparing activity of two or more frames captured with a vision sensor. Designing artificial motion flow detectors which are as fast, robust, and efficient as the ones found in biological systems is however a challenging task. Inspired by the architecture proposed by Barlow and Levick in 1965 to explain the spiking activity of the direction-selective ganglion cells in the rabbit's retina, we introduce an architecture for robust optical flow extraction with an analog neuromorphic multi-chip system. The task is performed by a feed-forward network of analog integrate-and-fire neurons whose inputs are provided by contrast-sensitive photoreceptors. Computation is supported by the precise time of spike emission, and the extraction of the optical flow is based on time lag in the activation of nearby retinal neurons. Mimicking ganglion cells our neuromorphic detectors encode the amplitude and the direction of the apparent visual motion in their output spiking pattern. Hereby we describe the architectural aspects, discuss its latency, scalability, and robustness properties and demonstrate that a network of mismatched delicate analog elements can reliably extract the optical flow from a simple visual scene. This work shows how precise time of spike emission used as a computational basis, biological inspiration, and neuromorphic systems can be used together for solving specific tasks.
A novel patient-specific model to compute coronary fractional flow reserve.
Kwon, Soon-Sung; Chung, Eui-Chul; Park, Jin-Seo; Kim, Gook-Tae; Kim, Jun-Woo; Kim, Keun-Hong; Shin, Eun-Seok; Shim, Eun Bo
2014-09-01
The fractional flow reserve (FFR) is a widely used clinical index to evaluate the functional severity of coronary stenosis. A computer simulation method based on patients' computed tomography (CT) data is a plausible non-invasive approach for computing the FFR. This method can provide a detailed solution for the stenosed coronary hemodynamics by coupling computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with the lumped parameter model (LPM) of the cardiovascular system. In this work, we have implemented a simple computational method to compute the FFR. As this method uses only coronary arteries for the CFD model and includes only the LPM of the coronary vascular system, it provides simpler boundary conditions for the coronary geometry and is computationally more efficient than existing approaches. To test the efficacy of this method, we simulated a three-dimensional straight vessel using CFD coupled with the LPM. The computed results were compared with those of the LPM. To validate this method in terms of clinically realistic geometry, a patient-specific model of stenosed coronary arteries was constructed from CT images, and the computed FFR was compared with clinically measured results. We evaluated the effect of a model aorta on the computed FFR and compared this with a model without the aorta. Computationally, the model without the aorta was more efficient than that with the aorta, reducing the CPU time required for computing a cardiac cycle to 43.4%. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Multigrid Computation of Stratified Flow over Two-Dimensional Obstacles
Paisley, M. F.
1997-09-01
A robust multigrid method for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations is presented and applied to the computation of viscous flow over obstacles in a bounded domain under conditions of neutral stability and stable density stratification. Two obstacle shapes have been used, namely a vertical barrier, for which the grid is Cartesian, and a smooth cosine-shaped obstacle, for which a boundary-conforming transformation is incorporated. Results are given for laminar flows at low Reynolds numbers and turbulent flows at a high Reynolds number, when a simple mixing length turbulence model is included. The multigrid algorithm is used to compute steady flows for each obstacle at low and high Reynolds numbers in conditions of weak static stability, defined byK=ND/πU≤ 1, whereU,N, andDare the upstream velocity, bouyancy frequency, and domain height respectively. Results are also presented for the vertical barrier at low and high Reynolds number in conditions of strong static stability,K> 1, when lee wave motions ensure that the flow is unsteady, and the multigrid algorithm is used to compute the flow at each timestep.
SAFSIM theory manual: A computer program for the engineering simulation of flow systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dobranich, D.
1993-12-01
SAFSIM (System Analysis Flow SIMulator) is a FORTRAN computer program for simulating the integrated performance of complex flow systems. SAFSIM provides sufficient versatility to allow the engineering simulation of almost any system, from a backyard sprinkler system to a clustered nuclear reactor propulsion system. In addition to versatility, speed and robustness are primary SAFSIM development goals. SAFSIM contains three basic physics modules: (1) a fluid mechanics module with flow network capability; (2) a structure heat transfer module with multiple convection and radiation exchange surface capability; and (3) a point reactor dynamics module with reactivity feedback and decay heat capability. Any or all of the physics modules can be implemented, as the problem dictates. SAFSIM can be used for compressible and incompressible, single-phase, multicomponent flow systems. Both the fluid mechanics and structure heat transfer modules employ a one-dimensional finite element modeling approach. This document contains a description of the theory incorporated in SAFSIM, including the governing equations, the numerical methods, and the overall system solution strategies.
Dynamic exercise enhances regional cerebral artery mean flow velocity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Linkis, P; Jørgensen, L G; Olesen, H L
1995-01-01
Dynamic exercise enhances regional cerebral artery mean flow velocity. J. Appl. Physiol. 78(1): 12-16, 1995.--Anterior (ACA) and middle (MCA) cerebral artery mean flow velocities (Vmean) and pulsatility indexes were determined using transcranial Doppler in 14 subjects during dynamic exercise afte...
Generalized flow and determinism in measurement-based quantum computation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Browne, Daniel E [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Kashefi, Elham [Computing Laboratory and Christ Church College, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QD (United Kingdom); Mhalla, Mehdi [Laboratoire d' Informatique de Grenoble, CNRS - Centre national de la recherche scientifique, Universite de Grenoble (France); Perdrix, Simon [Preuves, Programmes et Systemes (PPS), Universite Paris Diderot, Paris (France)
2007-08-15
We extend the notion of quantum information flow defined by Danos and Kashefi (2006 Phys. Rev. A 74 052310) for the one-way model (Raussendorf and Briegel 2001 Phys. Rev. Lett. 86 910) and present a necessary and sufficient condition for the stepwise uniformly deterministic computation in this model. The generalized flow also applied in the extended model with measurements in the (X, Y), (X, Z) and (Y, Z) planes. We apply both measurement calculus and the stabiliser formalism to derive our main theorem which for the first time gives a full characterization of the stepwise uniformly deterministic computation in the one-way model. We present several examples to show how our result improves over the traditional notion of flow, such as geometries (entanglement graph with input and output) with no flow but having generalized flow and we discuss how they lead to an optimal implementation of the unitaries. More importantly one can also obtain a better quantum computation depth with the generalized flow rather than with flow. We believe our characterization result is particularly valuable for the study of the algorithms and complexity in the one-way model.
Generalized flow and determinism in measurement-based quantum computation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Browne, Daniel E; Kashefi, Elham; Mhalla, Mehdi; Perdrix, Simon
2007-01-01
We extend the notion of quantum information flow defined by Danos and Kashefi (2006 Phys. Rev. A 74 052310) for the one-way model (Raussendorf and Briegel 2001 Phys. Rev. Lett. 86 910) and present a necessary and sufficient condition for the stepwise uniformly deterministic computation in this model. The generalized flow also applied in the extended model with measurements in the (X, Y), (X, Z) and (Y, Z) planes. We apply both measurement calculus and the stabiliser formalism to derive our main theorem which for the first time gives a full characterization of the stepwise uniformly deterministic computation in the one-way model. We present several examples to show how our result improves over the traditional notion of flow, such as geometries (entanglement graph with input and output) with no flow but having generalized flow and we discuss how they lead to an optimal implementation of the unitaries. More importantly one can also obtain a better quantum computation depth with the generalized flow rather than with flow. We believe our characterization result is particularly valuable for the study of the algorithms and complexity in the one-way model
A dynamic global-coefficient mixed subgrid-scale model for large-eddy simulation of turbulent flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, Satbir; You, Donghyun
2013-01-01
Highlights: ► A new SGS model is developed for LES of turbulent flows in complex geometries. ► A dynamic global-coefficient SGS model is coupled with a scale-similarity model. ► Overcome some of difficulties associated with eddy-viscosity closures. ► Does not require averaging or clipping of the model coefficient for stabilization. ► The predictive capability is demonstrated in a number of turbulent flow simulations. -- Abstract: A dynamic global-coefficient mixed subgrid-scale eddy-viscosity model for large-eddy simulation of turbulent flows in complex geometries is developed. In the present model, the subgrid-scale stress is decomposed into the modified Leonard stress, cross stress, and subgrid-scale Reynolds stress. The modified Leonard stress is explicitly computed assuming a scale similarity, while the cross stress and the subgrid-scale Reynolds stress are modeled using the global-coefficient eddy-viscosity model. The model coefficient is determined by a dynamic procedure based on the global-equilibrium between the subgrid-scale dissipation and the viscous dissipation. The new model relieves some of the difficulties associated with an eddy-viscosity closure, such as the nonalignment of the principal axes of the subgrid-scale stress tensor and the strain rate tensor and the anisotropy of turbulent flow fields, while, like other dynamic global-coefficient models, it does not require averaging or clipping of the model coefficient for numerical stabilization. The combination of the global-coefficient eddy-viscosity model and a scale-similarity model is demonstrated to produce improved predictions in a number of turbulent flow simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boure, J.A.
1974-12-01
Two-phase flow instabilities are classified according to three criteria: the static or dynamic nature of the phenomenon, the necessity or not of a triggering phenomenon, and the pure or compound character of the phenomenon. Tables give the elementary instability phenomena, and the practical types of instability. Flow oscillations (or dynamic instabilities) share a number of characteristics which are dealt with, they are caused by the dynamic interactions between the flow parameters (flow rate, density, pressure, enthalpy and their distributions). Oscillation types are discussed: pure oscillations are density wave oscillations, acoustic oscillations may also occur, various compound oscillations involve either the density wave or the acoustic wave mechanism, interacting with some of the boundary conditions in the device. The analysis of slow oscillations has been made either by means of a simplified model (prediction of the thresholds) or of computer codes. Numerous computer codes are available [fr
Moving on to the modeling and simulation using computational fluid dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Norasalwa Zakaria; Rohyiza Baan; Muhd Noor Muhd Yunus
2006-01-01
The heat is on but not at the co-combustor plant. Using the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), modeling and simulation of an incinerator has been made easy and possible from the comfort of cozy room. CFD has become an important design tool in nearly every industrial field because it provides understanding of flow patterns. CFD provide values for fluid velocity, fluid temperature, pressure and species concentrations throughout a flow domain. MINT has acquired a complete CFD software recently, consisting of GAMBIT, which is use to build geometry and meshing, and FLUENT as the processor or solver. This paper discusses on several trial runs that was carried out on several parts of the co-combustor plant namely the under fire section and the mixing chamber section
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Duan
1997-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper we study Lagrangian transport in the near wake of the flow around an obstacle, which we take to be a cylinder. In this case, for the range of Reynolds numbers investigated, the flow is two-dimensional and time periodic. We use ideas and methods from transport theory in dynamical systems to describe and quantify transport in the near wake. We numerically solve the Navier-Stokes equations for the velocity field and apply these methods to the resulting numerical representation of the velocity field. We show that the method of lobe dynamics can be used in conjunction with computational fluid dynamics methods to give very detailed and quantitative information about Lagrangian transport. In particular, we show how the stable and unstable manifolds of certain saddle-type stagnation points on the cylinder, and one in the wake, can be used to divide the flow into three distinct regions, an upper wake, a lower wake, and a wake cavity. The significance of the division using stable and unstable manifolds lies in the fact that these invariant manifolds form a template on which the transport occurs. Using this, we compute fluxes from the upper and lower wakes into the wake cavity using the associated turnstile lobes. We also compute escape time distributions as well as compare transport properties for two different Reynolds numbers.
Dynamic stability calculations for power grids employing a parallel computer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schmidt, K
1982-06-01
The aim of dynamic contingency calculations in power systems is to estimate the effects of assumed disturbances, such as loss of generation. Due to the large dimensions of the problem these simulations require considerable computing time and costs, to the effect that they are at present only used in a planning state but not for routine checks in power control stations. In view of the homogeneity of the problem, where a multitude of equal generator models, having different parameters, are to be integrated simultaneously, the use of a parallel computer looks very attractive. The results of this study employing a prototype parallel computer (SMS 201) are presented. It consists of up to 128 equal microcomputers bus-connected to a control computer. Each of the modules is programmed to simulate a node of the power grid. Generators with their associated control are represented by models of 13 states each. Passive nodes are complemented by 'phantom'-generators, so that the whole power grid is homogenous, thus removing the need for load-flow-iterations. Programming of microcomputers is essentially performed in FORTRAN.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
He Kongde
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Computational model and numerical simulation for submerged mooring monitoring platform were formulated aimed at the dynamical response by the action of flow force, which based on Hopkinson impact load theory, taken into account the catenoid effect of mooring cable and revised the difference of tension and tangential direction action force by equivalent modulus of elasticity. Solved the equation by hydraulics theory and structural mechanics theory of oceaneering, studied the response of buoy on flow force. The validity of model were checked and the results were in good agreement; the result show the buoy will engender biggish heave and swaying displacement, but the swaying displacement got stable quickly and the heaven displacement cause vibration for the vortex-induced action by the flow.
Dynamic Flow Management Problems in Air Transportation
Patterson, Sarah Stock
1997-01-01
In 1995, over six hundred thousand licensed pilots flew nearly thirty-five million flights into over eighteen thousand U.S. airports, logging more than 519 billion passenger miles. Since demand for air travel has increased by more than 50% in the last decade while capacity has stagnated, congestion is a problem of undeniable practical significance. In this thesis, we will develop optimization techniques that reduce the impact of congestion on the national airspace. We start by determining the optimal release times for flights into the airspace and the optimal speed adjustment while airborne taking into account the capacitated airspace. This is called the Air Traffic Flow Management Problem (TFMP). We address the complexity, showing that it is NP-hard. We build an integer programming formulation that is quite strong as some of the proposed inequalities are facet defining for the convex hull of solutions. For practical problems, the solutions of the LP relaxation of the TFMP are very often integral. In essence, we reduce the problem to efficiently solving large scale linear programming problems. Thus, the computation times are reasonably small for large scale, practical problems involving thousands of flights. Next, we address the problem of determining how to reroute aircraft in the airspace system when faced with dynamically changing weather conditions. This is called the Air Traffic Flow Management Rerouting Problem (TFMRP) We present an integrated mathematical programming approach for the TFMRP, which utilizes several methodologies, in order to minimize delay costs. In order to address the high dimensionality, we present an aggregate model, in which we formulate the TFMRP as a multicommodity, integer, dynamic network flow problem with certain side constraints. Using Lagrangian relaxation, we generate aggregate flows that are decomposed into a collection of flight paths using a randomized rounding heuristic. This collection of paths is used in a packing integer
HTTR plant dynamic simulation using a hybrid computer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shimazaki, Junya; Suzuki, Katsuo; Nabeshima, Kunihiko; Watanabe, Koichi; Shinohara, Yoshikuni; Nakagawa, Shigeaki.
1990-01-01
A plant dynamic simulation of High-Temperature Engineering Test Reactor has been made using a new-type hybrid computer. This report describes a dynamic simulation model of HTTR, a hybrid simulation method for SIMSTAR and some results obtained from dynamics analysis of HTTR simulation. It concludes that the hybrid plant simulation is useful for on-line simulation on account of its capability of computation at high speed, compared with that of all digital computer simulation. With sufficient accuracy, 40 times faster computation than real time was reached only by changing an analog time scale for HTTR simulation. (author)
Computable Types for Dynamic Systems
P.J. Collins (Pieter); K. Ambos-Spies; B. Loewe; W. Merkle
2009-01-01
textabstractIn this paper, we develop a theory of computable types suitable for the study of dynamic systems in discrete and continuous time. The theory uses type-two effectivity as the underlying computational model, but we quickly develop a type system which can be manipulated abstractly, but for
Complete all-atom hydrodynamics of protein unfolding in uniform flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Guan M; Sandberg, William C
2010-01-01
The unfolding dynamics of a protein, ubiquitin, pinned in several uniform flows, was studied at low and high flow rates in an all-atom style through a non-equilibrium molecular dynamics approach with explicit water molecules included. Atomic hydrodynamic force components on individual amino acids, as a function of time, due to the collisional interactions with the flowing water molecules were calculated explicitly. The protein conformational change in response to those time-varying forces was computed completely at the high flow rate up to nanosecond until the fully stretched state was reached. The end-to-end length of the single ubiquitin protein molecule at high flow rate is smoothly increasing. The step-like jumps between metastable states that describe the μm ms -1 scale force pulling experiments conducted on polyubiquitins at low flow rates, are not seen at the high flow speeds necessary to computationally probe the ns nm -1 scale regime. No unfolding was observed in the low flow rate atomic computations at nanosecond scale while partial and complete unfolding was observed in the coarse-grained low flow rate computations at microsecond scale. Examination of the all-atom computation of the time variation of the hydrodynamic forces on, and the velocity components of, the protein molecule unveiled to some extent the details of the complexity of the hydrodynamic friction variation in the nm ns -1 regime of high rate flow-driven protein unfolding. This demonstrates quantitatively that all-atom computations are more suitable than the Langevin equation or Brownian dynamics methods for probing the interaction dynamics and resulting conformational dynamics of protein unfolding in strong flows on nm ns -1 time/length scales while the reverse is true for investigation of slow, diffusively driven systems.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rajeev Thankappan Nair
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Integration of renewable energy sources into the electric grid in the domestic sector results in bidirectional energy flow from the supply side of the consumer to the grid. Traditional pricing methods are difficult to implement in such a situation of bidirectional energy flow and they face operational challenges on the application of price-based demand side management programme because of the intermittent characteristics of renewable energy sources. In this study, a dynamic pricing method using real-time data based on a cloud computing framework is proposed to address the aforementioned issues. The case study indicates that the dynamic pricing captures the variation of energy flow in the household. The dynamic renewable factor introduced in the model supports consumer oriented pricing. A new method is presented in this study to determine the appropriate level of photovoltaic (PV penetration in the distribution system based on voltage stability aspect. The load flow study result for the electric grid in Kerala, India, indicates that the overvoltage caused by various PV penetration levels up to 33% is within the voltage limits defined for distribution feeders. The result justifies the selected level of penetration.
Rigatelli, Gianluca; Dell'Avvocata, Fabio; Zuin, Marco; Giatti, Sara; Duong, Khanh; Pham, Trung; Tuan, Nguyen Si; Vassiliev, Dobrin; Daggubati, Ramesh; Nguyen, Thach
2017-12-01
Provisional and culotte are the most commonly used techniques in left main (LM) stenting. The impact of different post-dilation techniques on fluid dynamic of LM bifurcation has not been yet investigated. The aim of this study is to evaluate, by means of computational fluid dynamic analysis (CFD), the impact of different post-dilation techniques including proximal optimization technique (POT), kissing balloon (KB), POT-Side-POT and POT-KB-POT, 2-steps Kissing (2SK) and Snuggle Kissing balloon (SKB) on flow dynamic profile after LM provisional or culotte stenting. We considered an LM-LCA-LCX bifurcation reconstructed after reviewing 100 consecutive patients (mean age 71.4 ± 9.3 years, 49 males) with LM distal disease. The diameters of LAD and LCX were modelled according to the Finnet's law as following: LM 4.5 mm, LAD 3.5 mm, LCX 2.75 mm, with bifurcation angle set up at 55°. Xience third-generation stent (Abbot Inc., USA) was reconstructed and virtually implanted in provisional/cross-over and culotte fashion. POT, KB, POT-side-POT, POT-KB-POT, 2SK and SKB were virtually applied and analyzed in terms of the wall shear stress (WSS). Analyzing the provisional stenting, the 2SK and KB techniques had a statistically significant lower impact on the WSS at the carina, while POT seemed to obtain a neutral effect. In the wall opposite to the carina, the more physiological profile has been obtained by KB and POT with higher WSS value and smaller surface area of the lower WSS. In culotte stenting, at the carina, POT-KB-POT and 2SK had a very physiological profile; while at the wall opposite to the carina, 2SK and POT-KB-POT decreased significantly the surface area of the lower WSS compared to the other techniques. From the fluid dynamic point of view in LM provisional stenting, POT, 2SK and KB showed a similar beneficial impact on the bifurcation rheology, while in LM culotte stenting, POT-KB-POT and 2SK performed slightly better than the other techniques, probably
Dynamic Characteristics of The DSI-Type Constant-Flow Valves
Kang, Yuan; Hu, Sheng-Yan; Chou, Hsien-Chin; Lee, Hsing-Han
Constant flow valves have been presented in industrial applications or academic studies, which compensate recess pressures of a hydrostatic bearing to resist load fluctuating. The flow rate of constant-flow valves can be constant in spite of the pressure changes in recesses, however the design parameters must be specified. This paper analyzes the dynamic responses of DSI-type constant-flow valves that is designed as double pistons on both ends of a spool with single feedback of working pressure and regulating restriction at inlet. In this study the static analysis presents the specific relationships among design parameters for constant flow rate and the dynamic analyses give the variations around the constant flow rate as the working pressure fluctuates.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cline, M.C.
1981-08-01
VNAP2 is a computer program for calculating turbulent (as well as laminar and inviscid), steady, and unsteady flow. VNAP2 solves the two-dimensional, time-dependent, compressible Navier-Stokes equations. The turbulence is modeled with either an algebraic mixing-length model, a one-equation model, or the Jones-Launder two-equation model. The geometry may be a single- or a dual-flowing stream. The interior grid points are computed using the unsplit MacCormack scheme. Two options to speed up the calculations for high Reynolds number flows are included. The boundary grid points are computed using a reference-plane-characteristic scheme with the viscous terms treated as source functions. An explicit artificial viscosity is included for shock computations. The fluid is assumed to be a perfect gas. The flow boundaries may be arbitrary curved solid walls, inflow/outflow boundaries, or free-jet envelopes. Typical problems that can be solved concern nozzles, inlets, jet-powered afterbodies, airfoils, and free-jet expansions. The accuracy and efficiency of the program are shown by calculations of several inviscid and turbulent flows. The program and its use are described completely, and six sample cases and a code listing are included.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pimpun Tongpun
2014-08-01
Full Text Available This study estimated entrance length of circular and noncircular conduits, including circle, triangle, square and hexagon cross-sectional conduit, by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD. For simulation condition, the length of noncircular conduit was 10 m and the hydraulic diameter was 0.2 m. The laminar flow with Reynolds number of 500 and turbulent flow with Reynolds number of 50,000 were applied to investigate water flow in conduits. The governing equations were solved iteratively by using ANSYS FLUENT 14.0. For turbulent flow simulation, standard k-epsilon and RNG k-epsilon model were employed to simulate turbulence. The preliminary results were validated by comparison with theoretical data. At first, grid independency was evaluated to optimize the model. Norm* was employed to investigate the entrance length, which is related to velocity. The simulated results revealed that the entrance length for laminar flow was longer than turbulent flow.
Issues in computational fluid dynamics code verification and validation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oberkampf, W.L.; Blottner, F.G.
1997-09-01
A broad range of mathematical modeling errors of fluid flow physics and numerical approximation errors are addressed in computational fluid dynamics (CFD). It is strongly believed that if CFD is to have a major impact on the design of engineering hardware and flight systems, the level of confidence in complex simulations must substantially improve. To better understand the present limitations of CFD simulations, a wide variety of physical modeling, discretization, and solution errors are identified and discussed. Here, discretization and solution errors refer to all errors caused by conversion of the original partial differential, or integral, conservation equations representing the physical process, to algebraic equations and their solution on a computer. The impact of boundary conditions on the solution of the partial differential equations and their discrete representation will also be discussed. Throughout the article, clear distinctions are made between the analytical mathematical models of fluid dynamics and the numerical models. Lax`s Equivalence Theorem and its frailties in practical CFD solutions are pointed out. Distinctions are also made between the existence and uniqueness of solutions to the partial differential equations as opposed to the discrete equations. Two techniques are briefly discussed for the detection and quantification of certain types of discretization and grid resolution errors.
Anderson, B. H.; Putt, C. W.; Giamati, C. C.
1981-01-01
Color coding techniques used in the processing of remote sensing imagery were adapted and applied to the fluid dynamics problems associated with turbofan mixer nozzles. The computer generated color graphics were found to be useful in reconstructing the measured flow field from low resolution experimental data to give more physical meaning to this information and in scanning and interpreting the large volume of computer generated data from the three dimensional viscous computer code used in the analysis.
Computational fluid dynamics principles and applications
Blazek, J
2005-01-01
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is an important design tool in engineering and also a substantial research tool in various physical sciences as well as in biology. The objective of this book is to provide university students with a solid foundation for understanding the numerical methods employed in today's CFD and to familiarise them with modern CFD codes by hands-on experience. It is also intended for engineers and scientists starting to work in the field of CFD or for those who apply CFD codes. Due to the detailed index, the text can serve as a reference handbook too. Each chapter includes an extensive bibliography, which provides an excellent basis for further studies. The accompanying companion website contains the sources of 1-D and 2-D Euler and Navier-Stokes flow solvers (structured and unstructured) as well as of grid generators. Provided are also tools for Von Neumann stability analysis of 1-D model equations. Finally, the companion website includes the source code of a dedicated visualisation so...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baek, Seung Man; Nam, Jin Hyun; Hong, Hiki; Kim, Charn-Jung
2011-01-01
This study numerically investigates the effect of the brine flow rate on the thermal performance of a spiral-jacketed thermal storage tank (TST) installed in a solar domestic hot water (SDHW) system. The spiral-jacketed TST is a TST with a mantle heat exchanger, consisting of a vertical, cylindrical water tank for energy storage and a spiral brine flow path attached to the tank wall for heat transfer. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was constructed based on the actual geometry of a spiral-jacketed TST. In addition, the boundary conditions were defined by considering solar radiation and ambient temperature data that were measured during experimental operation of the SDHW system. The numerical results demonstrated that an increase in the brine flow rate enhances the thermal efficiency of the TST due to higher heat transfer coefficients in the spiral path, and also leads to reduced thermal stratification in the TST. On the other hand, a lower brine flow rate increased the heat transfer rate at the inlet of the spiral path near the top of the TST, which resulted in enhanced thermal stratification. The optimal range for the rate of brine flow rate is discussed with respect to the thermal efficiency of the TST and the required pumping power for brine circulation in the spiral flow path. - Highlights: → A CFD model was developed for a spiral-jacketed thermal storage tank (TST) installed in a solar domestic hot water (SDHW) system. → Effects of brine flow rate on the overall performance of the spiral-jacketed TST were numerically investigated. → Higher brine flow rates slightly increased the solar energy acquired by the TST, but it also increased the pump power required to circulate the brine. → Lower brine flow rates were found to be a better option for the spiral-jacketed TST, by maximizing the exergy of the SDHW system.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Arivazhagan M.
2009-03-01
Full Text Available The contact of two or more immiscible liquids is encountered widely in the chemical and petroleum industries. Studies on operating characteristics of control valves with two phase flow have not been given much attention in the literature despite its industrial importance during design and selection as well as plant operations .The present work attempts to study experimentally the effect of two phase flow on pressure drop across pipe and control valve in series and compare with simulated results. Two-phase computational fluid dynamics (CFD calculations, using commercial CFD package FLUENT 6.2.16, were employed to calculate the simulated the pressure drop in Air–Palm oil flow in pipes and control valves. The Air flow rate varied from 25 to100 l/h flow rate. For constant valve position and Air flow rate, the Palm oil flow rate was varied from 50 to 150 l/h. The numerical results were validated against experimental data. The prediction of the pressure drop characteristics in pipe and valve were within an average error of about ± 3 %. A comparison of experimental and computed profiles was found to be in good agreement.
Flow-pattern identification and nonlinear dynamics of gas-liquid two-phase flow in complex networks.
Gao, Zhongke; Jin, Ningde
2009-06-01
The identification of flow pattern is a basic and important issue in multiphase systems. Because of the complexity of phase interaction in gas-liquid two-phase flow, it is difficult to discern its flow pattern objectively. In this paper, we make a systematic study on the vertical upward gas-liquid two-phase flow using complex network. Three unique network construction methods are proposed to build three types of networks, i.e., flow pattern complex network (FPCN), fluid dynamic complex network (FDCN), and fluid structure complex network (FSCN). Through detecting the community structure of FPCN by the community-detection algorithm based on K -mean clustering, useful and interesting results are found which can be used for identifying five vertical upward gas-liquid two-phase flow patterns. To investigate the dynamic characteristics of gas-liquid two-phase flow, we construct 50 FDCNs under different flow conditions, and find that the power-law exponent and the network information entropy, which are sensitive to the flow pattern transition, can both characterize the nonlinear dynamics of gas-liquid two-phase flow. Furthermore, we construct FSCN and demonstrate how network statistic can be used to reveal the fluid structure of gas-liquid two-phase flow. In this paper, from a different perspective, we not only introduce complex network theory to the study of gas-liquid two-phase flow but also indicate that complex network may be a powerful tool for exploring nonlinear time series in practice.
Three-Dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Haworth, D.C.; O' Rourke, P.J.; Ranganathan, R.
1998-09-01
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is one discipline falling under the broad heading of computer-aided engineering (CAE). CAE, together with computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM), comprise a mathematical-based approach to engineering product and process design, analysis and fabrication. In this overview of CFD for the design engineer, our purposes are three-fold: (1) to define the scope of CFD and motivate its utility for engineering, (2) to provide a basic technical foundation for CFD, and (3) to convey how CFD is incorporated into engineering product and process design.
van den Wijngaard, Ido R.; Boiten, Jelis; Holswilder, Ghislaine; Algra, Ale; Dippel, Diederik W J; Velthuis, Birgitta K.; Wermer, Marieke J H; van Walderveen, Marianne A A
2015-01-01
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE—: Status of collateral circulation is a strong predictor of outcome after acute ischemic stroke. Our aim was to compare the predictive value of strategies for collateral blood flow assessment with dynamic computed tomographic angiography (CTA) and conventional single-phase CT
Asymmetric energy flow in liquid alkylbenzenes: A computational study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leitner, David M.; Pandey, Hari Datt
2015-01-01
Ultrafast IR-Raman experiments on substituted benzenes [B. C. Pein et al., J. Phys. Chem. B 117, 10898–10904 (2013)] reveal that energy can flow more efficiently in one direction along a molecule than in others. We carry out a computational study of energy flow in the three alkyl benzenes, toluene, isopropylbenzene, and t-butylbenzene, studied in these experiments, and find an asymmetry in the flow of vibrational energy between the two chemical groups of the molecule due to quantum mechanical vibrational relaxation bottlenecks, which give rise to a preferred direction of energy flow. We compare energy flow computed for all modes of the three alkylbenzenes over the relaxation time into the liquid with energy flow through the subset of modes monitored in the time-resolved Raman experiments and find qualitatively similar results when using the subset compared to all the modes
Dynamic self-organization in particle-laden channel flow
Geurts, Bernardus J.; Vreman, A.W.
2006-01-01
We study dynamic flow-structuring and mean-flow properties of turbulent particle-laden riser-flow at significant particle volume fractions of about 1.5%. We include particle–particle as well as particle–fluid interactions through inelastic collisions and drag forces, in a so-called four-way coupled
Liu, Yushi; Poh, Hee Joo
2014-11-01
The Computational Fluid Dynamics analysis has become increasingly important in modern urban planning in order to create highly livable city. This paper presents a multi-scale modeling methodology which couples Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model with open source CFD simulation tool, OpenFOAM. This coupling enables the simulation of the wind flow and pollutant dispersion in urban built-up area with high resolution mesh. In this methodology meso-scale model WRF provides the boundary condition for the micro-scale CFD model OpenFOAM. The advantage is that the realistic weather condition is taken into account in the CFD simulation and complexity of building layout can be handled with ease by meshing utility of OpenFOAM. The result is validated against the Joint Urban 2003 Tracer Field Tests in Oklahoma City and there is reasonably good agreement between the CFD simulation and field observation. The coupling of WRF- OpenFOAM provide urban planners with reliable environmental modeling tool in actual urban built-up area; and it can be further extended with consideration of future weather conditions for the scenario studies on climate change impact.
Zhao, Lifei; Li, Zhen; Caswell, Bruce; Ouyang, Jie; Karniadakis, George Em
2018-06-01
We simulate complex fluids by means of an on-the-fly coupling of the bulk rheology to the underlying microstructure dynamics. In particular, a continuum model of polymeric fluids is constructed without a pre-specified constitutive relation, but instead it is actively learned from mesoscopic simulations where the dynamics of polymer chains is explicitly computed. To couple the bulk rheology of polymeric fluids and the microscale dynamics of polymer chains, the continuum approach (based on the finite volume method) provides the transient flow field as inputs for the (mesoscopic) dissipative particle dynamics (DPD), and in turn DPD returns an effective constitutive relation to close the continuum equations. In this multiscale modeling procedure, we employ an active learning strategy based on Gaussian process regression (GPR) to minimize the number of expensive DPD simulations, where adaptively selected DPD simulations are performed only as necessary. Numerical experiments are carried out for flow past a circular cylinder of a non-Newtonian fluid, modeled at the mesoscopic level by bead-spring chains. The results show that only five DPD simulations are required to achieve an effective closure of the continuum equations at Reynolds number Re = 10. Furthermore, when Re is increased to 100, only one additional DPD simulation is required for constructing an extended GPR-informed model closure. Compared to traditional message-passing multiscale approaches, applying an active learning scheme to multiscale modeling of non-Newtonian fluids can significantly increase the computational efficiency. Although the method demonstrated here obtains only a local viscosity from the polymer dynamics, it can be extended to other multiscale models of complex fluids whose macro-rheology is unknown.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hassan, Ashraf Aly; Li, Zhen; Sahle-Demessie, Endalkachew; Sorial, George A.
2013-01-01
Highlights: ► Breakthrough curves used to study fate of NPs in slow sand filters (SSF). ► CFD simulate transport, attachment/detachment of NPs in SSFs. ► CFD predicted spatial and temporal changes for transient concentrations of NPs. ► CFD predicts low concentrations and steady NP influx would not be retained by SSFs. ► Pulse input is retained with outlet concentration of 0.2% of the inlet. -- Abstract: Experimental and computational investigation of the transport parameters of nanoparticles (NPs) flowing through porous media has been made. This work intends to develop a simulation applicable to the transport and retention of NPs in saturated porous media for investigating the effect of process conditions and operating parameters such, as ion strength, and filtration efficiency. Experimental data obtained from tracer and nano-ceria, CeO 2 , breakthrough studies were used to characterize dispersion of nanoparticle with the flow and their interaction with sand packed columns with different heights. Nanoparticle transport and concentration dynamics were solved using the Eulerian computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver ANSYS/FLUENT ® based on a scaled down flow model. A numerical study using the Navier–Stokes equation with second order interaction terms was used to simulate the process. Parameters were estimated by fitting tracer, experimental NP transport data, and interaction of NP with the sand media. The model considers different concentrations of steady state inflow of NPs and different amounts of spike concentrations. Results suggest that steady state flow of dispersant-coated NPs would not be retained by a sand filter, while spike concentrations could be dampened effectively. Unlike analytical solutions, the CFD allows estimating flow profiles for structures with complex irregular geometry and uneven packing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hassan, Ashraf Aly [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, 26 W. Martin Luther King Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States); Li, Zhen [School of Energy, Environmental, Biological, and Medical Engineering, Environmental Engineering Program, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Sahle-Demessie, Endalkachew, E-mail: sahle-demessie.endalkachew@epa.gov [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, 26 W. Martin Luther King Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States); Sorial, George A. [School of Energy, Environmental, Biological, and Medical Engineering, Environmental Engineering Program, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH (United States)
2013-01-15
Highlights: ► Breakthrough curves used to study fate of NPs in slow sand filters (SSF). ► CFD simulate transport, attachment/detachment of NPs in SSFs. ► CFD predicted spatial and temporal changes for transient concentrations of NPs. ► CFD predicts low concentrations and steady NP influx would not be retained by SSFs. ► Pulse input is retained with outlet concentration of 0.2% of the inlet. -- Abstract: Experimental and computational investigation of the transport parameters of nanoparticles (NPs) flowing through porous media has been made. This work intends to develop a simulation applicable to the transport and retention of NPs in saturated porous media for investigating the effect of process conditions and operating parameters such, as ion strength, and filtration efficiency. Experimental data obtained from tracer and nano-ceria, CeO{sub 2}, breakthrough studies were used to characterize dispersion of nanoparticle with the flow and their interaction with sand packed columns with different heights. Nanoparticle transport and concentration dynamics were solved using the Eulerian computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver ANSYS/FLUENT{sup ®} based on a scaled down flow model. A numerical study using the Navier–Stokes equation with second order interaction terms was used to simulate the process. Parameters were estimated by fitting tracer, experimental NP transport data, and interaction of NP with the sand media. The model considers different concentrations of steady state inflow of NPs and different amounts of spike concentrations. Results suggest that steady state flow of dispersant-coated NPs would not be retained by a sand filter, while spike concentrations could be dampened effectively. Unlike analytical solutions, the CFD allows estimating flow profiles for structures with complex irregular geometry and uneven packing.
Computational Fluid Dynamics of Whole-Body Aircraft
Agarwal, Ramesh
1999-01-01
The current state of the art in computational aerodynamics for whole-body aircraft flowfield simulations is described. Recent advances in geometry modeling, surface and volume grid generation, and flow simulation algorithms have led to accurate flowfield predictions for increasingly complex and realistic configurations. As a result, computational aerodynamics has emerged as a crucial enabling technology for the design and development of flight vehicles. Examples illustrating the current capability for the prediction of transport and fighter aircraft flowfields are presented. Unfortunately, accurate modeling of turbulence remains a major difficulty in the analysis of viscosity-dominated flows. In the future, inverse design methods, multidisciplinary design optimization methods, artificial intelligence technology, and massively parallel computer technology will be incorporated into computational aerodynamics, opening up greater opportunities for improved product design at substantially reduced costs.
An evaluation of Dynamic TOPMODEL for low flow simulation
Coxon, G.; Freer, J. E.; Quinn, N.; Woods, R. A.; Wagener, T.; Howden, N. J. K.
2015-12-01
Hydrological models are essential tools for drought risk management, often providing input to water resource system models, aiding our understanding of low flow processes within catchments and providing low flow predictions. However, simulating low flows and droughts is challenging as hydrological systems often demonstrate threshold effects in connectivity, non-linear groundwater contributions and a greater influence of water resource system elements during low flow periods. These dynamic processes are typically not well represented in commonly used hydrological models due to data and model limitations. Furthermore, calibrated or behavioural models may not be effectively evaluated during more extreme drought periods. A better understanding of the processes that occur during low flows and how these are represented within models is thus required if we want to be able to provide robust and reliable predictions of future drought events. In this study, we assess the performance of dynamic TOPMODEL for low flow simulation. Dynamic TOPMODEL was applied to a number of UK catchments in the Thames region using time series of observed rainfall and potential evapotranspiration data that captured multiple historic droughts over a period of several years. The model performance was assessed against the observed discharge time series using a limits of acceptability framework, which included uncertainty in the discharge time series. We evaluate the models against multiple signatures of catchment low-flow behaviour and investigate differences in model performance between catchments, model diagnostics and for different low flow periods. We also considered the impact of surface water and groundwater abstractions and discharges on the observed discharge time series and how this affected the model evaluation. From analysing the model performance, we suggest future improvements to Dynamic TOPMODEL to improve the representation of low flow processes within the model structure.
Computational Fluid Dynamics for nuclear applications: from CFD to multi-scale CMFD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yadigaroglu, G.
2005-01-01
New trends in computational methods for nuclear reactor thermal-hydraulics are discussed; traditionally, these have been based on the two-fluid model. Although CFD computations for single phase flows are commonplace, Computational Multi-Fluid Dynamics (CMFD) is still under development. One-fluid methods coupled with interface tracking techniques provide interesting opportunities and enlarge the scope of problems that can be solved. For certain problems, one may have to conduct 'cascades' of computations at increasingly finer scales to resolve all issues. The case study of condensation of steam/air mixtures injected from a downward-facing vent into a pool of water and a proposed CMFD initiative to numerically model Critical Heat Flux (CHF) illustrate such cascades. For the venting problem, a variety of tools are used: a system code for system behaviour; an interface-tracking method (Volume of Fluid, VOF) to examine the behaviour of large bubbles; direct-contact condensation can be treated either by Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) or by analytical methods
Computational Fluid Dynamics for nuclear applications: from CFD to multi-scale CMFD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yadigaroglu, G. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology-Zurich (ETHZ), Nuclear Engineering Laboratory, ETH-Zentrum, CLT CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland)]. E-mail: yadi@ethz.ch
2005-02-01
New trends in computational methods for nuclear reactor thermal-hydraulics are discussed; traditionally, these have been based on the two-fluid model. Although CFD computations for single phase flows are commonplace, Computational Multi-Fluid Dynamics (CMFD) is still under development. One-fluid methods coupled with interface tracking techniques provide interesting opportunities and enlarge the scope of problems that can be solved. For certain problems, one may have to conduct 'cascades' of computations at increasingly finer scales to resolve all issues. The case study of condensation of steam/air mixtures injected from a downward-facing vent into a pool of water and a proposed CMFD initiative to numerically model Critical Heat Flux (CHF) illustrate such cascades. For the venting problem, a variety of tools are used: a system code for system behaviour; an interface-tracking method (Volume of Fluid, VOF) to examine the behaviour of large bubbles; direct-contact condensation can be treated either by Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) or by analytical methods.
Characterization of Flow Dynamics and Reduced-Order Description of Experimental Two-Phase Pipe Flow
Viggiano, Bianca; SkjæRaasen, Olaf; Tutkun, Murat; Cal, Raul Bayoan
2017-11-01
Multiphase pipe flow is investigated using proper orthogonal decomposition for tomographic X-ray data, where holdup, cross sectional phase distributions and phase interface characteristics are obtained. Instantaneous phase fractions of dispersed flow and slug flow are analyzed and a reduced order dynamical description is generated. The dispersed flow displays coherent structures in the first few modes near the horizontal center of the pipe, representing the liquid-liquid interface location while the slug flow case shows coherent structures that correspond to the cyclical formation and breakup of the slug in the first 10 modes. The reconstruction of the fields indicate that main features are observed in the low order dynamical descriptions utilizing less than 1 % of the full order model. POD temporal coefficients a1, a2 and a3 show interdependence for the slug flow case. The coefficients also describe the phase fraction holdup as a function of time for both dispersed and slug flow. These flows are highly applicable to petroleum transport pipelines, hydroelectric power and heat exchanger tubes to name a few. The mathematical representations obtained via proper orthogonal decomposition will deepen the understanding of fundamental multiphase flow characteristics.
Computational Fluid Dynamic Analysis of the VHTR Lower Plenum Standard Problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnson, Richard W.; Schultz, Richard R.
2009-01-01
The United States Department of Energy is promoting the resurgence of nuclear power in the U. S. for both electrical power generation and production of process heat required for industrial processes such as the manufacture of hydrogen for use as a fuel in automobiles. The DOE project is called the next generation nuclear plant (NGNP) and is based on a Generation IV reactor concept called the very high temperature reactor (VHTR), which will use helium as the coolant at temperatures ranging from 450 C to perhaps 1000 C. While computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has not been used for past safety analysis for nuclear reactors in the U.S., it is being considered for safety analysis for existing and future reactors. It is fully recognized that CFD simulation codes will have to be validated for flow physics reasonably close to actual fluid dynamic conditions expected in normal and accident operational situations. To this end, experimental data have been obtained in a scaled model of a narrow slice of the lower plenum of a prismatic VHTR. The present report presents results of CFD examinations of these data to explore potential issues with the geometry, the initial conditions, the flow dynamics and the data needed to fully specify the inlet and boundary conditions; results for several turbulence models are examined. Issues are addressed and recommendations about the data are made
VFLOW2D - A Vorte-Based Code for Computing Flow Over Elastically Supported Tubes and Tube Arrays
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
WOLFE,WALTER P.; STRICKLAND,JAMES H.; HOMICZ,GREGORY F.; GOSSLER,ALBERT A.
2000-10-11
A numerical flow model is developed to simulate two-dimensional fluid flow past immersed, elastically supported tube arrays. This work is motivated by the objective of predicting forces and motion associated with both deep-water drilling and production risers in the oil industry. This work has other engineering applications including simulation of flow past tubular heat exchangers or submarine-towed sensor arrays and the flow about parachute ribbons. In the present work, a vortex method is used for solving the unsteady flow field. This method demonstrates inherent advantages over more conventional grid-based computational fluid dynamics. The vortex method is non-iterative, does not require artificial viscosity for stability, displays minimal numerical diffusion, can easily treat moving boundaries, and allows a greatly reduced computational domain since vorticity occupies only a small fraction of the fluid volume. A gridless approach is used in the flow sufficiently distant from surfaces. A Lagrangian remap scheme is used near surfaces to calculate diffusion and convection of vorticity. A fast multipole technique is utilized for efficient calculation of velocity from the vorticity field. The ability of the method to correctly predict lift and drag forces on simple stationary geometries over a broad range of Reynolds numbers is presented.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frauenfelder, Thomas; Lotfey, Mourad; Boehm, Thomas; Wildermuth, Simon
2006-01-01
The aim of this study was to demonstrate quantitatively and qualitatively the hemodynamic changes in abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) after stent-graft placement based on multidetector CT angiography (MDCT-A) datasets using the possibilities of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Eleven patients with AAA and one patient with left-side common iliac aneurysm undergoing MDCT-A before and after stent-graft implantation were included. Based on the CT datasets, three-dimensional grid-based models of AAA were built. The minimal size of tetrahedrons was determined for grid-independence simulation. The CFD program was validated by comparing the calculated flow with an experimentally generated flow in an identical, anatomically correct silicon model of an AAA. Based on the results, pulsatile flow was simulated. A laminar, incompressible flow-based inlet condition, zero traction-force outlet boundary, and a no-slip wall boundary condition was applied. The measured flow volume and visualized flow pattern, wall pressure, and wall shear stress before and after stent-graft implantation were compared. The experimentally and numerically generated streamlines are highly congruent. After stenting, the simulation shows a reduction of wall pressure and wall shear stress and a more equal flow through both external iliac arteries after stenting. The postimplantation flow pattern is characterized by a reduction of turbulences. New areas of high pressure and shear stress appear at the stent bifurcation and docking area. CFD is a versatile and noninvasive tool to demonstrate changes of flow rate and flow pattern caused by stent-graft implantation. The desired effect and possible complications of a stent-graft implantation can be visualized. CFD is a highly promising technique and improves our understanding of the local structural and fluid dynamic conditions for abdominal aortic stent placement
Traffic flow dynamics. Data, models and simulation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Treiber, Martin [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Wirtschaft und Verkehr; Kesting, Arne [TomTom Development Germany GmbH, Berlin (Germany)
2013-07-01
First comprehensive textbook of this fascinating interdisciplinary topic which explains advances in a way that it is easily accessible to engineering, physics and math students. Presents practical applications of traffic theory such as driving behavior, stability analysis, stop-and-go waves, and travel time estimation. Presents the topic in a novel and systematic way by addressing both microscopic and macroscopic models with a focus on traffic instabilities. Revised and extended edition of the German textbook ''Verkehrsdynamik und -simulation''. This textbook provides a comprehensive and instructive coverage of vehicular traffic flow dynamics and modeling. It makes this fascinating interdisciplinary topic, which to date was only documented in parts by specialized monographs, accessible to a broad readership. Numerous figures and problems with solutions help the reader to quickly understand and practice the presented concepts. This book is targeted at students of physics and traffic engineering and, more generally, also at students and professionals in computer science, mathematics, and interdisciplinary topics. It also offers material for project work in programming and simulation at college and university level. The main part, after presenting different categories of traffic data, is devoted to a mathematical description of the dynamics of traffic flow, covering macroscopic models which describe traffic in terms of density, as well as microscopic many-particle models in which each particle corresponds to a vehicle and its driver. Focus chapters on traffic instabilities and model calibration/validation present these topics in a novel and systematic way. Finally, the theoretical framework is shown at work in selected applications such as traffic-state and travel-time estimation, intelligent transportation systems, traffic operations management, and a detailed physics-based model for fuel consumption and emissions.
Schwing, Alan Michael
For computational fluid dynamics, the governing equations are solved on a discretized domain of nodes, faces, and cells. The quality of the grid or mesh can be a driving source for error in the results. While refinement studies can help guide the creation of a mesh, grid quality is largely determined by user expertise and understanding of the flow physics. Adaptive mesh refinement is a technique for enriching the mesh during a simulation based on metrics for error, impact on important parameters, or location of important flow features. This can offload from the user some of the difficult and ambiguous decisions necessary when discretizing the domain. This work explores the implementation of adaptive mesh refinement in an implicit, unstructured, finite-volume solver. Consideration is made for applying modern computational techniques in the presence of hanging nodes and refined cells. The approach is developed to be independent of the flow solver in order to provide a path for augmenting existing codes. It is designed to be applicable for unsteady simulations and refinement and coarsening of the grid does not impact the conservatism of the underlying numerics. The effect on high-order numerical fluxes of fourth- and sixth-order are explored. Provided the criteria for refinement is appropriately selected, solutions obtained using adapted meshes have no additional error when compared to results obtained on traditional, unadapted meshes. In order to leverage large-scale computational resources common today, the methods are parallelized using MPI. Parallel performance is considered for several test problems in order to assess scalability of both adapted and unadapted grids. Dynamic repartitioning of the mesh during refinement is crucial for load balancing an evolving grid. Development of the methods outlined here depend on a dual-memory approach that is described in detail. Validation of the solver developed here against a number of motivating problems shows favorable
Fach, S; Sitzenfrei, R; Rauch, W
2009-01-01
It is state of the art to evaluate and optimise sewer systems with urban drainage models. Since spill flow data is essential in the calibration process of conceptual models it is important to enhance the quality of such data. A wide spread approach is to calculate the spill flow volume by using standard weir equations together with measured water levels. However, these equations are only applicable to combined sewer overflow (CSO) structures, whose weir constructions correspond with the standard weir layout. The objective of this work is to outline an alternative approach to obtain spill flow discharge data based on measurements with a sonic depth finder. The idea is to determine the relation between water level and rate of spill flow by running a detailed 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. Two real world CSO structures have been chosen due to their complex structure, especially with respect to the weir construction. In a first step the simulation results were analysed to identify flow conditions for discrete steady states. It will be shown that the flow conditions in the CSO structure change after the spill flow pipe acts as a controlled outflow and therefore the spill flow discharge cannot be described with a standard weir equation. In a second step the CFD results will be used to derive rating curves which can be easily applied in everyday practice. Therefore the rating curves are developed on basis of the standard weir equation and the equation for orifice-type outlets. Because the intersection of both equations is not known, the coefficients of discharge are regressed from CFD simulation results. Furthermore, the regression of the CFD simulation results are compared with the one of the standard weir equation by using historic water levels and hydrographs generated with a hydrodynamic model. The uncertainties resulting of the wide spread use of the standard weir equation are demonstrated.
Dynamic subgrid scale model of large eddy simulation of cross bundle flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hassan, Y.A.; Barsamian, H.R.
1996-01-01
The dynamic subgrid scale closure model of Germano et. al (1991) is used in the large eddy simulation code GUST for incompressible isothermal flows. Tube bundle geometries of staggered and non-staggered arrays are considered in deep bundle simulations. The advantage of the dynamic subgrid scale model is the exclusion of an input model coefficient. The model coefficient is evaluated dynamically for each nodal location in the flow domain. Dynamic subgrid scale results are obtained in the form of power spectral densities and flow visualization of turbulent characteristics. Comparisons are performed among the dynamic subgrid scale model, the Smagorinsky eddy viscosity model (that is used as the base model for the dynamic subgrid scale model) and available experimental data. Spectral results of the dynamic subgrid scale model correlate better with experimental data. Satisfactory turbulence characteristics are observed through flow visualization
de Boer, Anne H; Hagedoorn, Paul; Woolhouse, Robert; Wynn, Ed
2012-09-01
To use computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for evaluating and understanding the performance of the high-dose disposable Twincer™ dry powder inhaler, as well as to learn the effect of design modifications on dose entrainment, powder dispersion and retention behaviour. Comparison of predicted flow and particle behaviour from CFD computations with experimental data obtained with cascade impactor and laser diffraction analysis. Inhaler resistance, flow split, particle trajectories and particle residence times can well be predicted with CFD for a multiple classifier based inhaler like the Twincer™. CFD computations showed that the flow split of the Twincer™ is independent of the pressure drop across the inhaler and that the total flow rate can be decreased without affecting the dispersion efficacy or retention behaviour. They also showed that classifier symmetry can be improved by reducing the resistance of one of the classifier bypass channels, which for the current concept does not contribute to the swirl in the classifier chamber. CFD is a highly valuable tool for development and optimisation of dry powder inhalers. CFD can assist adapting the inhaler design to specific physico-chemical properties of the drug formulation with respect to dispersion and retention behaviour. © 2012 The Authors. JPP © 2012 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.
A new algorithm for extended nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of mixed flow
Hunt, T.A.; Hunt, Thomas A.; Bernardi, Stefano; Todd, B.D.
2010-01-01
In this work, we develop a new algorithm for nonequilibrium molecular dynamics of fluids under planar mixed flow, a linear combination of planar elongational flow and planar Couette flow. To date, the only way of simulating mixed flow using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics techniques was to impose
Parallel computation of rotating flows
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lundin, Lars Kristian; Barker, Vincent A.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær
1999-01-01
This paper deals with the simulation of 3‐D rotating flows based on the velocity‐vorticity formulation of the Navier‐Stokes equations in cylindrical coordinates. The governing equations are discretized by a finite difference method. The solution is advanced to a new time level by a two‐step process....... In the first step, the vorticity at the new time level is computed using the velocity at the previous time level. In the second step, the velocity at the new time level is computed using the new vorticity. We discuss here the second part which is by far the most time‐consuming. The numerical problem...
Nonlinear dynamics in flow through unsaturated fractured porous media: Status and perspectives
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Faybishenko, Boris
2002-01-01
The need has long been recognized to improve predictions of flow and transport in partially saturated heterogeneous soils and fractured rock of the vadose zone for many practical applications, such as remediation of contaminated sites, nuclear waste disposal in geological formations, and climate predictions. Until recently, flow and transport processes in heterogeneous subsurface media with oscillating irregularities were assumed to be random and were not analyzed using methods of nonlinear dynamics. The goals of this paper are to review the theoretical concepts, present the results, and provide perspectives on investigations of flow and transport in unsaturated heterogeneous soils and fractured rock, using the methods of nonlinear dynamics and deterministic chaos. The results of laboratory and field investigations indicate that the nonlinear dynamics of flow and transport processes in unsaturated soils and fractured rocks arise from the dynamic feedback and competition between various nonlinear physical processes along with complex geometry of flow paths. Although direct measurements of variables characterizing the individual flow processes are not technically feasible, their cumulative effect can be characterized by analyzing time series data using the models and methods of nonlinear dynamics and chaos. Identifying flow through soil or rock as a nonlinear dynamical system is important for developing appropriate short- and long-time predictive models, evaluating prediction uncertainty, assessing the spatial distribution of flow characteristics from time series data, and improving chemical transport simulations. Inferring the nature of flow processes through the methods of nonlinear dynamics could become widely used in different areas of the earth sciences
Nonlinear dynamics in flow through unsaturated fractured-porous media: Status and perspectives
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Faybishenko, Boris
2002-11-27
The need has long been recognized to improve predictions of flow and transport in partially saturated heterogeneous soils and fractured rock of the vadose zone for many practical applications, such as remediation of contaminated sites, nuclear waste disposal in geological formations, and climate predictions. Until recently, flow and transport processes in heterogeneous subsurface media with oscillating irregularities were assumed to be random and were not analyzed using methods of nonlinear dynamics. The goals of this paper are to review the theoretical concepts, present the results, and provide perspectives on investigations of flow and transport in unsaturated heterogeneous soils and fractured rock, using the methods of nonlinear dynamics and deterministic chaos. The results of laboratory and field investigations indicate that the nonlinear dynamics of flow and transport processes in unsaturated soils and fractured rocks arise from the dynamic feedback and competition between various nonlinear physical processes along with complex geometry of flow paths. Although direct measurements of variables characterizing the individual flow processes are not technically feasible, their cumulative effect can be characterized by analyzing time series data using the models and methods of nonlinear dynamics and chaos. Identifying flow through soil or rock as a nonlinear dynamical system is important for developing appropriate short- and long-time predictive models, evaluating prediction uncertainty, assessing the spatial distribution of flow characteristics from time series data, and improving chemical transport simulations. Inferring the nature of flow processes through the methods of nonlinear dynamics could become widely used in different areas of the earth sciences.
A Computation Fluid Dynamic Model for Gas Lift Process Simulation in a Vertical Oil Well
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kadivar Arash
2017-03-01
Full Text Available Continuous gas-lift in a typical oil well was simulated using computational fluid dynamic (CFD technique. A multi fluid model based on the momentum transfer between liquid and gas bubbles was employed to simulate two-phase flow in a vertical pipe. The accuracy of the model was investigated through comparison of numerical predictions with experimental data. The model then was used to study the dynamic behaviour of the two-phase flow around injection point in details. The predictions by the model were compared with other empirical correlations, as well. To obtain an optimum condition of gas-lift, the influence of the effective parameters including the quantity of injected gas, tubing diameter and bubble size distribution were investigated. The results revealed that increasing tubing diameter, the injected gas rate and decreasing bubble diameter improve gas-lift performance.
Aeroacoustic computation of low mach number flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Skriver Dahl, K. [Risoe National Laboratory, Roskilde (Denmark)
1997-12-31
The possibilities of applying a recently developed numerical technique to predict aerodynamically generated sound from wind turbines is explored. The technique is a perturbation technique that has the advantage that the underlying flow field and the sound field are computed separately. Solution of the incompressible, time dependent flow field yields a hydrodynamic density correction to the incompressible constant density. The sound field is calculated from a set of equations governing the inviscid perturbations about the corrected flow field. Here, the emphasis is placed on the computation of the sound field. The nonlinear partial differential equations governing the sound fields are solved numerically using an explicit MacCormack scheme. Two types of non-reflecting boundary conditions are applied; one based on the asymptotic solution of the governing equations and the other based on a characteristic analysis of the governing equations. The former condition is easy to use and it performs slightly better than the charcteristic based condition. The technique is applied to the problems of the sound generation of a co-rotating vortex pair, which is a quadrupole, and the viscous flow over a circular cylinder, which is a dipole. Numerical results agree very well with the analytical solution for the problem of the co-rotating vortex pair. Numerical results for the viscous flow over a cylinder are presented and evaluated qualitatively. (au)
Dynamics of zonal flows and self-regulating drift-wave turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Diamond, P.H.; Fleischer, J.; Rosenbluth, M.N.; Hinton, F.L.; Malkov, M.; Smolyakov, A.
1999-01-01
We present a theory of zonal flow - drift wave dynamics. Zonal flows are generated by modulational instability of a drift wave spectrum, and are damped by collisions. Drift waves undergo random shearing-induced refraction, resulting in increased mean square radial wavenumber. Drift waves and zonal flows together form a simple dynamical system, which has a single stable fixed point. In this state, the fluctuation intensity and turbulent diffusivity are ultimately proportional to the collisional zonal flow damping. The implications of these results for transport models is discussed. (author)
Dynamics of zonal flows and self-regulating drift-wave turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Diamond, P.H.; Fleischer, J.; Rosenbluth, M.; Hinton, F.L.; Malkov, M.; Smolyakov, A.
2001-01-01
We present a theory of zonal flow - drift wave dynamics. Zonal flows are generated by modulational instability of a drift wave spectrum, and are damped by collisions. Drift waves undergo random shearing-induced refraction, resulting in increased mean square radial wavenumber. Drift waves and zonal flows together form a simple dynamical system, which has a single stable fixed point. In this state, the fluctuation intensity and turbulent diffusivity are ultimately proportional to the collisional zonal flow damping. The implications of these results for transport models is discussed. (author)
Computational Fluid Dynamics and Room Air Movement
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm
2004-01-01
on the mass fraction transport equation. The importance of ?false? or numerical diffusion is also addressed in connection with the simple description of a supply opening. The different aspects of boundary conditions in the indoor environment as e.g. the simulation of Air Terminal Devices and the simulation......Nielsen, P.V. Computational Fluid Dynamics and Room Air Movement. Indoor Air, International Journal of Indoor Environment and Health, Vol. 14, Supplement 7, pp. 134-143, 2004. ABSTRACT Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and new developments of CFD in the indoor environment as well as quality...... considerations are important elements in the study of energy consumption, thermal comfort and indoor air quality in buildings. The paper discusses the quality level of Computational Fluid Dynamics and the involved schemes (first, second and third order schemes) by the use of the Smith and Hutton problem...
Computer processing of dynamic scintigraphic studies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ullmann, V.
1985-01-01
The methods are discussed of the computer processing of dynamic scintigraphic studies which were developed, studied or implemented by the authors within research task no. 30-02-03 in nuclear medicine within the five year plan 1981 to 85. This was mainly the method of computer processing radionuclide angiography, phase radioventriculography, regional lung ventilation, dynamic sequential scintigraphy of kidneys and radionuclide uroflowmetry. The problems are discussed of the automatic definition of fields of interest, the methodology of absolute volumes of the heart chamber in radionuclide cardiology, the design and uses are described of the multipurpose dynamic phantom of heart activity for radionuclide angiocardiography and ventriculography developed within the said research task. All methods are documented with many figures showing typical clinical (normal and pathological) and phantom measurements. (V.U.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Francesco Clavica
Full Text Available Double-J stenting is the most common clinical method employed to restore the upper urinary tract drainage, in the presence of a ureteric obstruction. After implant, stents provide an immediate pain relief by decreasing the pressure in the renal pelvis (P. However, their long-term usage can cause infections and encrustations, due to bacterial colonization and crystal deposition on the stent surface, respectively. The performance of double-J stents - and in general of all ureteric stents - is thought to depend significantly on urine flow field within the stented ureter. However very little fundamental research about the role played by fluid dynamic parameters on stent functionality has been conducted so far. These parameters are often difficult to assess in-vivo, requiring the implementation of laborious and expensive experimental protocols. The aim of the present work was therefore to develop an artificial model of the ureter (i.e. ureter model, UM to mimic the fluid dynamic environment in a stented ureter. The UM was designed to reflect the geometry of pig ureters, and to investigate the values of fluid dynamic viscosity (μ, volumetric flow rate (Q and severity of ureteric obstruction (OB% which may cause critical pressures in the renal pelvis. The distributed obstruction derived by the sole stent insertion was also quantified. In addition, flow visualisation experiments and computational simulations were performed in order to further characterise the flow field in the UM. Unique characteristics of the flow dynamics in the obstructed and stented ureter have been revealed with using the developed UM.
Multiphase Flow Dynamics 5 Nuclear Thermal Hydraulics
Kolev, Nikolay Ivanov
2012-01-01
The present Volume 5 of the successful book package "Multiphase Flow Dynamics" is devoted to nuclear thermal hydraulics which is a substantial part of nuclear reactor safety. It provides knowledge and mathematical tools for adequate description of the process of transferring the fission heat released in materials due to nuclear reactions into its environment. It step by step introduces into the heat release inside the fuel, temperature fields in the fuels, the "simple" boiling flow in a pipe described using ideas of different complexity like equilibrium, non equilibrium, homogeneity, non homogeneity. Then the "simple" three-fluid boiling flow in a pipe is described by gradually involving the mechanisms like entrainment and deposition, dynamic fragmentation, collisions, coalescence, turbulence. All heat transfer mechanisms are introduced gradually discussing their uncertainty. Different techniques are introduced like boundary layer treatments or integral methods. Comparisons with experimental data at each step...
Multiphase flow dynamics 5 nuclear thermal hydraulics
Kolev, Nikolay Ivanov
2015-01-01
This Volume 5 of the successful book package "Multiphase Flow Dynamics" is devoted to nuclear thermal hydraulics which is a substantial part of nuclear reactor safety. It provides knowledge and mathematical tools for adequate description of the process of transferring the fission heat released in materials due to nuclear reactions into its environment. It step by step introduces into the heat release inside the fuel, temperature fields in the fuels, the "simple" boiling flow in a pipe described using ideas of different complexity like equilibrium, non equilibrium, homogeneity, non homogeneity. Then the "simple" three-fluid boiling flow in a pipe is described by gradually involving the mechanisms like entrainment and deposition, dynamic fragmentation, collisions, coalescence, turbulence. All heat transfer mechanisms are introduced gradually discussing their uncertainty. Different techniques are introduced like boundary layer treatments or integral methods. Comparisons with experimental data at each step demons...
Computer Modelling of Dynamic Processes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. Rybakin
2000-10-01
Full Text Available Results of numerical modeling of dynamic problems are summed in the article up. These problems are characteristic for various areas of human activity, in particular for problem solving in ecology. The following problems are considered in the present work: computer modeling of dynamic effects on elastic-plastic bodies, calculation and determination of performances of gas streams in gas cleaning equipment, modeling of biogas formation processes.
The multi-stream flows and the dynamics of the cosmic web
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shandarin, Sergei F.
2011-01-01
A new numerical technique to identify the cosmic web is proposed. It is based on locating multi-stream flows, i.e. the places where the velocity field is multi-valued. The method is local in Eulerian space, simple and computationally efficient. This technique uses the velocities of particles and thus takes into account the dynamical information. This is in contrast with the majority of standard methods that use the coordinates of particles only. Two quantities are computed in every mesh cell: the mean and variance of the velocity field. Ideally in the cells where the velocity is single-valued the variance must be equal to zero exactly, therefore the cells with non-zero variance are identified as multi-stream flows. The technique has been tested in the Zel'dovich approximation and in the N-body simulation of the ΛCDM model. The effect of numerical noise is discussed. The web identified by the new method has been compared with the web identified by the standard technique using only the particle coordinates. The comparison has shown overall similarity of two webs as expected, however they by no means are identical. For example, the isocontours of the corresponding fields have significantly different shapes and some density peaks of similar heights exhibit significant differences in the velocity variance and vice versa. This suggests that the density and velocity variance have a significant degree of independence. The shape of the two-dimensional pdf of density and velocity variance confirms this proposition. Thus, we conclude that the dynamical information probed by this technique introduces an additional dimension into analysis of the web
The multi-stream flows and the dynamics of the cosmic web
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shandarin, Sergei F., E-mail: sergei@ku.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kansas, 10082 Malott Hall, 1251 Wescoe Hall Dr, Lawrence, Kansas, 66045 (United States)
2011-05-01
A new numerical technique to identify the cosmic web is proposed. It is based on locating multi-stream flows, i.e. the places where the velocity field is multi-valued. The method is local in Eulerian space, simple and computationally efficient. This technique uses the velocities of particles and thus takes into account the dynamical information. This is in contrast with the majority of standard methods that use the coordinates of particles only. Two quantities are computed in every mesh cell: the mean and variance of the velocity field. Ideally in the cells where the velocity is single-valued the variance must be equal to zero exactly, therefore the cells with non-zero variance are identified as multi-stream flows. The technique has been tested in the Zel'dovich approximation and in the N-body simulation of the ΛCDM model. The effect of numerical noise is discussed. The web identified by the new method has been compared with the web identified by the standard technique using only the particle coordinates. The comparison has shown overall similarity of two webs as expected, however they by no means are identical. For example, the isocontours of the corresponding fields have significantly different shapes and some density peaks of similar heights exhibit significant differences in the velocity variance and vice versa. This suggests that the density and velocity variance have a significant degree of independence. The shape of the two-dimensional pdf of density and velocity variance confirms this proposition. Thus, we conclude that the dynamical information probed by this technique introduces an additional dimension into analysis of the web.
Computation of high Reynolds number internal/external flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cline, M.C.; Wilmoth, R.G.
1981-01-01
A general, user oriented computer program, called VNAP2, has been developed to calculate high Reynolds number, internal/external flows. VNAP2 solves the two-dimensional, time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations. The turbulence is modeled with either a mixing-length, a one transport equation, or a two transport equation model. Interior grid points are computed using the explicit MacCormack scheme with special procedures to speed up the calculation in the fine grid. All boundary conditions are calculated using a reference plane characteristic scheme with the viscous terms treated as source terms. Several internal, external, and internal/external flow calculations are presented
Computation of high Reynolds number internal/external flows
Cline, M. C.; Wilmoth, R. G.
1981-01-01
A general, user oriented computer program, called VNAP2, was developed to calculate high Reynolds number, internal/ external flows. The VNAP2 program solves the two dimensional, time dependent Navier-Stokes equations. The turbulence is modeled with either a mixing-length, a one transport equation, or a two transport equation model. Interior grid points are computed using the explicit MacCormack Scheme with special procedures to speed up the calculation in the fine grid. All boundary conditions are calculated using a reference plane characteristic scheme with the viscous terms treated as source terms. Several internal, external, and internal/external flow calculations are presented.
Computer modeling of flow induced in-reactor vibrations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turula, P.; Mulcahy, T.M.
1977-01-01
An assessment of the reliability of finite element method computer models, as applied to the computation of flow induced vibration response of components used in nuclear reactors, is presented. The prototype under consideration was the Fast Flux Test Facility reactor being constructed for US-ERDA. Data were available from an extensive test program which used a scale model simulating the hydraulic and structural characteristics of the prototype components, subjected to scaled prototypic flow conditions as well as to laboratory shaker excitations. Corresponding analytical solutions of the component vibration problems were obtained using the NASTRAN computer code. Modal analyses and response analyses were performed. The effect of the surrounding fluid was accounted for. Several possible forcing function definitions were considered. Results indicate that modal computations agree well with experimental data. Response amplitude comparisons are good only under conditions favorable to a clear definition of the structural and hydraulic properties affecting the component motion. 20 refs
Parallel computation of Euler and Navier-Stokes flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Swisshelm, J.M.; Johnson, G.M.; Kumar, S.P.
1986-01-01
A multigrid technique useful for accelerating the convergence of Euler and Navier-Stokes flow computations has been restructured to improve its performance on both SIMD and MIMD computers. The new algorithm allows both the construction of longer coarse-grid vectors and the multitasking of entire grids. Computational results are presented for the CDC Cyber 205, Cray X-MP, and Denelcor HEP I. 15 references
Energy saving during bulb storage applying modeling with computational fluid dynamics (CFD)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sapounas, A.A.; Campen, J.B.; Wildschut, J.; Bot, G.P. [Wageningen UR Greenhouse Horticutlure and Applied Plant Research, Wageningen (Netherlands)
2010-07-01
Tulip bulbs are stored in ventilated containers to avoid high ethylene concentration between the bulbs. A commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code was used in this study to examine the distribution of air flow between the containers and the potential energy saving by applying simple solutions concerning the design of the air inlet area and the adjustment of the ventilation rate. The variation in container ventilation was calculated to be between 60 and 180 per cent, with 100 per cent being the average flow through the containers. Various improvement measures were examined. The study showed that 7 per cent energy can be saved by smoothing the sharp corners of the entrance channels of the ventilation wall. The most effective and simple improvement was to cover the open top containers. In this case, the variation was between 80 and 120 per cent. The energy saving was about 38 per cent by adjusting the overall ventilation to the container with the minimal acceptable air flow.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Jong Woon
2010-01-01
This paper provides a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis method on the evaluation of debris transport under emergency recirculation mode after loss of coolant accident of a nuclear power plant. Three dimensional reactor building floor geometrical model is constructed including flow obstacles larger than 6 inches such as mechanical components and equipments and considering various inlet flow paths from the upper reactor building such as break and spray flow. In the modeling of the inlet flows from the upper floors, effect of gravitational force was also reflected. For the precision of the analysis, 3 millions of tetrahedral-shaped meshes were generated. Reference calculation showed physically reasonable results. Sensitivity studies for mesh type and turbulence model showed very similar results to the reference case. This study provides useful information on the application of CFD to the evaluation of debris transport fraction for the design of new emergency sump filters. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kreisig, T.
1986-01-01
The usefulness of dynamic single-photon emission computed tomography was evaluated in 50 volunteers with unobtrusive cerebral findings, who were to provide the relevant standard values. It was found that the values measured were easily reproducible. Measurements in patients showing cerebrovascular disease that were carried out before and after extracranial bypass surgery did mostly not suggest any perceivable improvement of cerebral blood flow. In isolated cases the cerebral reserve was influenced favourably, as judged from measurements after administration of acetazolamide. (MBC) [de
Computer simulation of hopper flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Potapov, A.V.; Campbell, C.S.
1996-01-01
This paper describes two-dimensional computer simulations of granular flow in plane hoppers. The simulations can reproduce an experimentally observed asymmetric unsteadiness for monodispersed particle sizes, but also could eliminate it by adding a small amount of polydispersity. This appears to be a result of the strong packings that may be formed by monodispersed particles and is thus a noncontinuum effect. The internal stress state was also sampled, which among other things, allows an evaluation of common assumptions made in granular material models. These showed that the internal friction coefficient is far from a constant, which is in contradiction to common models based on plasticity theory which assume that the material is always at the point of imminent yield. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that rapid granular flow theory, another common modeling technique, is inapplicable to this problem even near the exit where the flow is moving its fastest. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nichols, B.D.; Mueller, C.; Necker, G.A.; Travis, J.R.; Spore, J.W.; Lam, K.L.; Royl, P.; Redlinger, R.; Wilson, T.L.
1998-01-01
Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FzK) are developing GASFLOW, a three-dimensional (3D) fluid dynamics field code as a best-estimate tool to characterize local phenomena within a flow field. Examples of 3D phenomena include circulation patterns; flow stratification; hydrogen distribution mixing and stratification; combustion and flame propagation; effects of noncondensable gas distribution on local condensation and evaporation; and aerosol entrainment, transport, and deposition. An analysis with GASFLOW will result in a prediction of the gas composition and discrete particle distribution in space and time throughout the facility and the resulting pressure and temperature loadings on the walls and internal structures with or without combustion. A major application of GASFLOW is for predicting the transport, mixing, and combustion of hydrogen and other gases in nuclear reactor containments and other facilities. It has been applied to situations involving transporting and distributing combustible gas mixtures. It has been used to study gas dynamic behavior (1) in low-speed, buoyancy-driven flows, as well as sonic flows or diffusion dominated flows; and (2) during chemically reacting flows, including deflagrations. The effects of controlling such mixtures by safety systems can be analyzed. The code version described in this manual is designated GASFLOW 2.1, which combines previous versions of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission code HMS (for Hydrogen Mixing Studies) and the Department of Energy and FzK versions of GASFLOW. The code was written in standard Fortran 90. This manual comprises three volumes. Volume I describes the governing physical equations and computational model. Volume II describes how to use the code to set up a model geometry, specify gas species and material properties, define initial and boundary conditions, and specify different outputs, especially graphical displays. Sample problems are included
Dynamic response characteristics of dual flow-path integrally bladed rotors
Beck, Joseph A.; Brown, Jeffrey M.; Scott-Emuakpor, Onome E.; Cross, Charles J.; Slater, Joseph C.
2015-02-01
New turbine engine designs requiring secondary flow compression often look to dual flow-path integrally bladed rotors (DFIBRs) since these stages have the ability to perform work on the secondary, or bypassed, flow-field. While analogous to traditional integrally bladed rotor stages, DFIBR designs have many differences that result in unique dynamic response characteristics that must be understood to avoid fatigue. This work investigates these characteristics using reduced-order models (ROMs) that incorporate mistuning through perturbations to blade frequencies. This work provides an alternative to computationally intensive geometric-mistuning approaches for DFIBRs by utilizing tuned blade mode reductions and substructure coupling in cyclic coordinates. Free and forced response results are compared to full finite element model (FEM) solutions to determine if any errors are related to the reduced-order model formulation reduction methods. It is shown that DFIBRs have many more frequency veering regions than their single flow-path integrally blade rotor (IBR) counterparts. Modal families are shown to transition between system, inner-blade, and outer-blade motion. Furthermore, findings illustrate that while mode localization of traditional IBRs is limited to a single or small subset of blades, DFIBRs can have modal energy localized to either an inner- or outer-blade set resulting in many blades responding above tuned levels. Lastly, ROM forced response predictions compare well to full FEM predictions for the two test cases shown.
Computational plasticity algorithm for particle dynamics simulations
Krabbenhoft, K.; Lyamin, A. V.; Vignes, C.
2018-01-01
The problem of particle dynamics simulation is interpreted in the framework of computational plasticity leading to an algorithm which is mathematically indistinguishable from the common implicit scheme widely used in the finite element analysis of elastoplastic boundary value problems. This algorithm provides somewhat of a unification of two particle methods, the discrete element method and the contact dynamics method, which usually are thought of as being quite disparate. In particular, it is shown that the former appears as the special case where the time stepping is explicit while the use of implicit time stepping leads to the kind of schemes usually labelled contact dynamics methods. The framing of particle dynamics simulation within computational plasticity paves the way for new approaches similar (or identical) to those frequently employed in nonlinear finite element analysis. These include mixed implicit-explicit time stepping, dynamic relaxation and domain decomposition schemes.
MEASUREMENTS AND COMPUTATIONS OF FUEL DROPLET TRANSPORT IN TURBULENT FLOWS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Joseph Katz and Omar Knio
2007-01-10
The objective of this project is to study the dynamics of fuel droplets in turbulent water flows. The results are essential for development of models capable of predicting the dispersion of slightly light/heavy droplets in isotropic turbulence. Since we presently do not have any experimental data on turbulent diffusion of droplets, existing mixing models have no physical foundations. Such fundamental knowledge is essential for understanding/modeling the environmental problems associated with water-fuel mixing, and/or industrial processes involving mixing of immiscible fluids. The project has had experimental and numerical components: 1. The experimental part of the project has had two components. The first involves measurements of the lift and drag forces acting on a droplet being entrained by a vortex. The experiments and data analysis associated with this phase are still in progress, and the facility, constructed specifically for this project is described in Section 3. In the second and main part, measurements of fuel droplet dispersion rates have been performed in a special facility with controlled isotropic turbulence. As discussed in detail in Section 2, quantifying and modeling the of droplet dispersion rate requires measurements of their three dimensional trajectories in turbulent flows. To obtain the required data, we have introduced a new technique - high-speed, digital Holographic Particle Image Velocimetry (HPIV). The technique, experimental setup and results are presented in Section 2. Further information is available in Gopalan et al. (2005, 2006). 2. The objectives of the numerical part are: (1) to develop a computational code that combines DNS of isotropic turbulence with Lagrangian tracking of particles based on integration of a dynamical equation of motion that accounts for pressure, added mass, lift and drag forces, (2) to perform extensive computations of both buoyant (bubbles) and slightly buoyant (droplets) particles in turbulence conditions
Programming Unconventional Computers: Dynamics, Development, Self-Reference
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Susan Stepney
2012-10-01
Full Text Available Classical computing has well-established formalisms for specifying, refining, composing, proving, and otherwise reasoning about computations. These formalisms have matured over the past 70 years or so. Unconventional Computing includes the use of novel kinds of substrates–from black holes and quantum effects, through to chemicals, biomolecules, even slime moulds–to perform computations that do not conform to the classical model. Although many of these unconventional substrates can be coerced into performing classical computation, this is not how they “naturally” compute. Our ability to exploit unconventional computing is partly hampered by a lack of corresponding programming formalisms: we need models for building, composing, and reasoning about programs that execute in these substrates. What might, say, a slime mould programming language look like? Here I outline some of the issues and properties of these unconventional substrates that need to be addressed to find “natural” approaches to programming them. Important concepts include embodied real values, processes and dynamical systems, generative systems and their meta-dynamics, and embodied self-reference.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ingvorsen, Kristian Mark; Meyer, Knud Erik; Walther, Jens Honore
2013-01-01
It is desirable to use computational fluid dynamics for the optimization of in-cylinder processes in large two-stroke low-speed uniflowscavenged marine diesel engines. However, the complex nature of the turbulent swirling in-cylinder flow necessitates experimental data for validation of the used...... profiles in general will not be representative for the dynamic conditions. The temporal development of the swirl strength is investigated by computing the angular momentum. The swirl strength shows an exponential decay from scavenge port closing to scavenge port opening corresponding to a reduction of 34%....
Applications of automatic differentiation in computational fluid dynamics
Green, Lawrence L.; Carle, A.; Bischof, C.; Haigler, Kara J.; Newman, Perry A.
1994-01-01
Automatic differentiation (AD) is a powerful computational method that provides for computing exact sensitivity derivatives (SD) from existing computer programs for multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) or in sensitivity analysis. A pre-compiler AD tool for FORTRAN programs called ADIFOR has been developed. The ADIFOR tool has been easily and quickly applied by NASA Langley researchers to assess the feasibility and computational impact of AD in MDO with several different FORTRAN programs. These include a state-of-the-art three dimensional multigrid Navier-Stokes flow solver for wings or aircraft configurations in transonic turbulent flow. With ADIFOR the user specifies sets of independent and dependent variables with an existing computer code. ADIFOR then traces the dependency path throughout the code, applies the chain rule to formulate derivative expressions, and generates new code to compute the required SD matrix. The resulting codes have been verified to compute exact non-geometric and geometric SD for a variety of cases. in less time than is required to compute the SD matrix using centered divided differences.
Hirt, Stephanie M.; Reich, David B.; O'Connor, Michael B.
2012-01-01
Computational fluid dynamics was used to study the effectiveness of micro-ramp vortex generators to control oblique shock boundary layer interactions. Simulations were based on experiments previously conducted in the 15- by 15-cm supersonic wind tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Four micro-ramp geometries were tested at Mach 2.0 varying the height, chord length, and spanwise spacing between micro-ramps. The overall flow field was examined. Additionally, key parameters such as boundary-layer displacement thickness, momentum thickness and incompressible shape factor were also examined. The computational results predicted the effects of the microramps well, including the trends for the impact that the devices had on the shock boundary layer interaction. However, computing the shock boundary layer interaction itself proved to be problematic since the calculations predicted more pronounced adverse effects on the boundary layer due to the shock than were seen in the experiment.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Woodward, P. R.
2003-03-26
This report summarizes the results of the project entitled, ''Piecewise-Parabolic Methods for Parallel Computation with Applications to Unstable Fluid Flow in 2 and 3 Dimensions'' This project covers a span of many years, beginning in early 1987. It has provided over that considerable period the core funding to my research activities in scientific computation at the University of Minnesota. It has supported numerical algorithm development, application of those algorithms to fundamental fluid dynamics problems in order to demonstrate their effectiveness, and the development of scientific visualization software and systems to extract scientific understanding from those applications.
Simulations of fluid flow through porous media based on cellular automata and non-linear dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Paulson, K V
1992-05-15
A study is being carried out to apply cellular automata and non-linear dynamics in the construction of efficient and accurate computer simulations of multiphase fluid flow through porous media, with the objective of application to reservoir modelling for hydrocarbon recovery. An algorithm based on Boolean operations has been developed which transforms a PC clone into a highly efficient vector processor capable of cellular automata simulation of single fluid flow through two-dimensional rock matrix models of varying porosities. Macroscopic flow patterns have been established through spatial and temporal averaging with no floating point operations. Permeabilities of the different models have been calculated. Hardware allows the algorithm to function on dual processors on a PC platform using a video recording and editing facility. Very encouraging results have been obtained. 4 figs.
Wall Shear Stress Estimation of Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm Using Computational Fluid Dynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Febina
2018-01-01
Full Text Available An attempt has been made to evaluate the effects of wall shear stress (WSS on thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD. Aneurysm is an excessive localized swelling of the arterial wall due to many physiological factors and it may rupture causing shock or sudden death. The existing imaging modalities such as MRI and CT assist in the visualization of anomalies in internal organs. However, the expected dynamic behaviour of arterial bulge under stressed condition can only be effectively evaluated through mathematical modelling. In this work, a 3D aneurysm model is reconstructed from the CT scan slices and eventually the model is imported to Star CCM+ (Siemens, USA for intensive CFD analysis. The domain is discretized using polyhedral mesh with prism layers to capture the weakening boundary more accurately. When there is flow reversal in TAA as seen in the velocity vector plot, there is a chance of cell damage causing clots. This is because of the shear created in the system due to the flow pattern. It is observed from the proposed mathematical modelling that the deteriorating WSS is an indicator for possible rupture and its value oscillates over a cardiac cycle as well as over different stress conditions. In this model, the vortex formation pattern and flow reversals are also captured. The non-Newtonian model, including a pulsatile flow instead of a steady average flow, does not overpredict the WSS (15.29 Pa compared to 16 Pa for the Newtonian model. Although in a cycle the flow behaviour is laminar-turbulent-laminar (LTL, utilizing the non-Newtonian model along with LTL model also overpredicted the WSS with a value of 20.1 Pa. The numerical study presented here provides good insight of TAA using a systematic approach to numerical modelling and analysis.
Visual cortex activation recorded by dynamic emission computed tomography of inhaled xenon 133
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Henriksen, L; Paulson, O B; Lassen, N A
1981-01-01
to be well suited for detecting focal ischemia. In the present study its ability to detect focal hyperemia was investigated in 13 normal subjects studied during rest and during visual stimulation. A flickering light "seen' with eyes open and closed, increased blood flow in the visual cortex by 35% and 22......Regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) was studied tomographically with 133Xe administered by inhalation over a 1-min period at a concentration of 10 mCi/l. A fast rotating ("dynamic') single-photon emission computed tomograph with four detector heads was used, an instrument that has been found......% respectively. Looking at different pictures displayed on a screen raised regional CBF by 26%. The most complex task, reading and copying a text, increased blood flow by 45%. Averaging the different tasks resulted in a mean regional CBF increase in the visual cortex of 35%. The result is comparable...
Aeroacoustic computation of low Mach number flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dahl, K.S.
1996-12-01
This thesis explores the possibilities of applying a recently developed numerical technique to predict aerodynamically generated sound from wind turbines. The technique is a perturbation technique that has the advantage that the underlying flow field and the sound field are computed separately. Solution of the incompressible, time dependent flow field yields a hydrodynamic density correction to the incompressible constant density. The sound field is calculated from a set of equations governing the inviscid perturbations about the corrected flow field. Here, the emphasis is placed on the computation of the sound field. The nonlinear partial differential equations governing the sound field are solved numerically using an explicit MacCormack scheme. Two types of non-reflecting boundary conditions are applied; one based on the asymptotic solution of the governing equations and the other based on a characteristic analysis of the governing equations. The former condition is easy to use and it performs slightly better than the characteristic based condition. The technique is applied to the problems of the sound generation of a pulsating sphere, which is a monopole; a co-rotating vortex pair, which is a quadrupole, and the viscous flow over a circular cylinder, which is a dipole. The governing equations are written and solved for spherical, Cartesian, and cylindrical coordinates, respectively, thus, representing three common orthogonal coordinate systems. Numerical results agree very well with the analytical solutions for the problems of the pulsating sphere and the co-rotating vortex pair. Numerical results for the viscous flow over a cylinder are presented and evaluated qualitatively. The technique has potential for applications to airfoil flows as they are on a wind turbine blade, as well as for other low Mach number flows. (au) 2 tabs., 33 ills., 48 refs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Benkenida, Adlene
1999-01-01
This work is devoted to the development and the use of a numerical code aimed to compute complex two-phase flows in which the topology of the interfaces evolves in time. The solution strategy makes use of a fixed grid on which interfaces evolve freely. The governing equations of the model (one-fluid model) are obtained by adding the local, instantaneous Navier-Stokes equations of each phase after a spatial filtering. The use of an Eulerian approach yields difficulties in estimating several of the two-phase quantities, especially the viscous stress tensor. This problem is overcome by deriving and validating an expression of the stress tensor valid for any Eulerian treatment and whatever the orientation of the interfaces with respect to the grid. To simplify the governing equations of the model, it is assumed that no phase change occurs, that no local slip exists between both phases, and that no small-scale turbulence is present. The possibility to remove some of these hypotheses is discussed, especially with the future aim of developing a large-eddy simulation approach of two-phase flows in which the motion and the effects of small-scale two-phase structures could be taken into account. Interface transport is performed by using a FCT front capturing method without any interface reconstruction procedure. It is shown through several tests that the version of Zalesak's (1979) algorithm in which each direction is treated independently yields the best results, even though a tendency for interfacial regions to thicken artificially is observed in regions with high stretching rates.The code is validated by performing simulations on some simple two-phase flows and by comparing numerical results with available analytical solutions, experiments, or previous computations. Among the results of these tests, those concerning the bouncing of a bubble on a rigid wall are the most original and shed new light on this phenomenon, especially by revealing the time evolution of the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Birchall, Daniel; Zaman, Azfar; Hacker, Jacob; Davies, Gavin; Mendelow, David
2006-01-01
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) provides a means for the quantitative analysis of haemodynamic disturbances in vivo, but most work has used phantoms or idealised geometry. Our purpose was to use CFD to analyse flow in carotid atherosclerosis using patient-specific geometry and flow data. Eight atherosclerotic carotid arteries and one healthy control artery were imaged with magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and duplex ultrasound, and the data used to construct patient-specific computational models used for CFD and wall shear stress (WSS) analysis. There is a progressive change in three-dimensional (3-D) velocity profile and WSS profile with increasing severity of stenosis, characterised by increasing restriction of areas of low WSS, change in oscillation patterns, and progressive rise in WSS within stenoses and downstream jets. Areas of turbulent, retrograde flow and of low WSS are demonstrated in the lee of the stenoses. This study presents the largest CFD analysis of abnormal haemodynamics at the atheromatous carotid bifurcation using patient-specific data and provides the basis for further investigation of causal links between haemodynamic variables and atherogenesis and formation of unstable plaque. We propose that this provides a means for the prospective assessment of relative stroke risk in patients with carotid atherosclerosis. (orig.)
Multiphase Flow Dynamics 3 Thermal Interactions
Kolev, Nikolay Ivanov
2012-01-01
Multi-phase flows are part of our natural environment such as tornadoes, typhoons, air and water pollution and volcanic activities as well as part of industrial technology such as power plants, combustion engines, propulsion systems, or chemical and biological industry. The industrial use of multi-phase systems requires analytical and numerical strategies for predicting their behavior. .In its fourth extended edition the successful monograph package “Multiphase Flow Daynmics” contains theory, methods and practical experience for describing complex transient multi-phase processes in arbitrary geometrical configurations, providing a systematic presentation of the theory and practice of numerical multi-phase fluid dynamics. In the present third volume methods for describing of the thermal interactions in multiphase dynamics are provided. In addition a large number of valuable experiments is collected and predicted using the methods introduced in this monograph. In this way the accuracy of the methods is reve...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Ha Youn; Park, Sung Tae; Bae, Won Kyoung; Goo, Dong Erk [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2014-12-15
We studied the influence of proximal geometry on the results of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). We made five models of different proximal geometry from three dimensional angiography of 63-year-old women with intracranial aneurysm. CFD results were analyzed as peak systolic velocity (PSV) at inlet and outlet as well as flow velocity profile at proximal level of internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysm. Modified model of cavernous one with proximal tubing showed faster PSV at outlet than that at inlet. The PSV of outlets of other models were slower than that of inlets. The flow velocity profiles at immediate proximal to ICA aneurysm showed similar patterns in all models, suggesting that proximal vessel geometries could affect CFD results.
The Dynamic Geometrisation of Computer Programming
Sinclair, Nathalie; Patterson, Margaret
2018-01-01
The goal of this paper is to explore dynamic geometry environments (DGE) as a type of computer programming language. Using projects created by secondary students in one particular DGE, we analyse the extent to which the various aspects of computational thinking--including both ways of doing things and particular concepts--were evident in their…
Particle algorithms for population dynamics in flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perlekar, Prasad; Toschi, Federico; Benzi, Roberto; Pigolotti, Simone
2011-01-01
We present and discuss particle based algorithms to numerically study the dynamics of population subjected to an advecting flow condition. We discuss few possible variants of the algorithms and compare them in a model compressible flow. A comparison against appropriate versions of the continuum stochastic Fisher equation (sFKPP) is also presented and discussed. The algorithms can be used to study populations genetics in fluid environments.
ON THE ANALYSIS OF IMPEDANCE-DRIVEN REVERSE FLOW DYNAMICS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
LEE V. C.-C.
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Impedance pump is a simple valve-less pumping mechanism, where an elastic tube is joined to a more rigid tube, at both ends. By inducing a periodic asymmetrical compression on the elastic tube will produce a unidirectional flow within the system. This pumping concept offers a low energy, low noise alternative, which makes it an effective driving mechanism, especially for micro-fluidic systems. In addition, the wave-based mechanism through which pumping occurs infers many benefits in terms of simplicity of design and manufacturing. Adjustment of simple parameters such as the excitation frequencies or compression locations will reverse the direction of flow, providing a very versatile range of flow outputs. This paper describes the experimental analysis of such impedance-driven flow with emphasis on the dynamical study of the reverse flow in open-loop environment. In this study, tapered section with converging steps is introduced at both ends of the elastic tube to amplify the magnitude of reverse flow. Study conducted shows that the reverse peak flow is rather significant with estimate of 23% lower than the forward peak flow. The flow dynamics on the other hand has shown to exhibit different characteristics as per the forward peak flow. The flow characteristics is then studied and showed that the tapered sections altered the impedance within the system and hence induce a higher flow in the reverse direction.
Class of reconstructed discontinuous Galerkin methods in computational fluid dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luo, Hong; Xia, Yidong; Nourgaliev, Robert
2011-01-01
A class of reconstructed discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods is presented to solve compressible flow problems on arbitrary grids. The idea is to combine the efficiency of the reconstruction methods in finite volume methods and the accuracy of the DG methods to obtain a better numerical algorithm in computational fluid dynamics. The beauty of the resulting reconstructed discontinuous Galerkin (RDG) methods is that they provide a unified formulation for both finite volume and DG methods, and contain both classical finite volume and standard DG methods as two special cases of the RDG methods, and thus allow for a direct efficiency comparison. Both Green-Gauss and least-squares reconstruction methods and a least-squares recovery method are presented to obtain a quadratic polynomial representation of the underlying linear discontinuous Galerkin solution on each cell via a so-called in-cell reconstruction process. The devised in-cell reconstruction is aimed to augment the accuracy of the discontinuous Galerkin method by increasing the order of the underlying polynomial solution. These three reconstructed discontinuous Galerkin methods are used to compute a variety of compressible flow problems on arbitrary meshes to assess their accuracy. The numerical experiments demonstrate that all three reconstructed discontinuous Galerkin methods can significantly improve the accuracy of the underlying second-order DG method, although the least-squares reconstructed DG method provides the best performance in terms of both accuracy, efficiency, and robustness. (author)
Development of dynamic PIV for droplet jet flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Okamoto, K.; Hong, S. D.; Bi, W. T.; Sugii, Y.; Madarame, H.; Hayami, H.
2003-01-01
The Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) can capture velocity vector fields with high spatial resolution. In this study, the Dynamic PIV system up to 10kHz temporal resolution was developed with combining the High-speed camera and high speed Laser with Double pulse option. The 1024 x 1024 pixel images with frame straddling were captured in 2kHz. Also, PIV data were measured in 512 x 256 pixel in 10kHz. The system had been applied to capture the water droplet flow. The transient characteristics of the droplet flow can be clearly captured using the developed Dynamic PIV System
Nishida, Masahiro; Yamane, Takashi
A monopivot magnetic suspension blood pump has been developed in our laboratory. The flow patterns within the pump should be carefully examined in order to prevent thrombogenesis, especially around the pivot bearing. Therefore, the effects of the pump geometry on the local flow were analyzed using computational fluid dynamics together with the experimental flow visualization. The engineering goal was to reduce the area of stagnation around the pivot in order to prevent thrombus formation. As a result, the stagnation area and the flow rate through the washout holes were found to be highly affected by the size and geometry of the washout holes. Secondary flow was revealed to form a jet-like wash against the pivot, thus preventing thrombus formation. The flow rate through the washout holes was estimated to be up to one fifth of the pump flow rate, depending on the cross-sectional areas of the washout holes. Furthermore, an anti-thrombogenic effect was attained by removing a small gap between the male and female pivots.
Aeroacoustic Computations for Turbulent Airfoil Flows
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shen, Wen Zhong; Zhu, Wei Jun; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær
2009-01-01
a NACA 0015 airfoil at a Mach number of 0.2 and a Reynolds number of 1.6 x 10(5) for different angles of attack. The flow solutions are validated by comparing lift and drag characteristics with experimental data. The comparisons show good agreements between the computed and measured airfoil lift...
Computational System For Rapid CFD Analysis In Engineering
Barson, Steven L.; Ascoli, Edward P.; Decroix, Michelle E.; Sindir, Munir M.
1995-01-01
Computational system comprising modular hardware and software sub-systems developed to accelerate and facilitate use of techniques of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in engineering environment. Addresses integration of all aspects of CFD analysis process, including definition of hardware surfaces, generation of computational grids, CFD flow solution, and postprocessing. Incorporates interfaces for integration of all hardware and software tools needed to perform complete CFD analysis. Includes tools for efficient definition of flow geometry, generation of computational grids, computation of flows on grids, and postprocessing of flow data. System accepts geometric input from any of three basic sources: computer-aided design (CAD), computer-aided engineering (CAE), or definition by user.
Topological fluid dynamics of interfacial flows
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brøns, Morten
1994-01-01
The topological description of flows in the vicinity of a solid boundary, that is familiar from the aerodynamics literature, has recently been extended to the case of flow at a liquid–gas interface or a free surface by Lugt [Phys. Fluids 30, 3647 (1987)]. Lugt's work is revisited in a more general...... setting, including nonconstant curvature of the interface and gradients of surface tension, using tools of modern nonlinear dynamics. Bifurcations of the flow pattern occur at degenerate configurations. Using the theory of unfolding, this paper gives a complete description of the bifurcations that depend...... on terms up to the second order. The general theory of this paper is applied to the topology of streamlines during the breaking of a wave and to the flow below a stagnant surface film. Physics of Fluids is copyrighted by The American Institute of Physics....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Clemens C Cyran
Full Text Available To investigate dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography for monitoring the effects of regorafenib on experimental colon carcinomas in rats by quantitative assessments of tumor microcirculation parameters with immunohistochemical validation.Colon carcinoma xenografts (HT-29 implanted subcutaneously in female athymic rats (n = 15 were imaged at baseline and after a one-week treatment with regorafenib by dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (128-slice dual-source computed tomography. The therapy group (n = 7 received regorafenib daily (10 mg/kg bodyweight. Quantitative parameters of tumor microcirculation (plasma flow, mL/100 mL/min, endothelial permeability (PS, mL/100 mL/min, and tumor vascularity (plasma volume, % were calculated using a 2-compartment uptake model. Dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography parameters were validated with immunohistochemical assessments of tumor microvascular density (CD-31, tumor cell apoptosis (TUNEL, and proliferation (Ki-67.Regorafenib suppressed tumor vascularity (15.7±5.3 to 5.5±3.5%; p<0.05 and tumor perfusion (12.8±2.3 to 8.8±2.9 mL/100 mL/min; p = 0.063. Significantly lower microvascular density was observed in the therapy group (CD-31; 48±10 vs. 113±25, p<0.05. In regorafenib-treated tumors, significantly more apoptotic cells (TUNEL; 11844±2927 vs. 5097±3463, p<0.05 were observed. Dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography tumor perfusion and tumor vascularity correlated significantly (p<0.05 with microvascular density (CD-31; r = 0.84 and 0.66 and inversely with apoptosis (TUNEL; r = -0.66 and -0.71.Regorafenib significantly suppressed tumor vascularity (plasma volume quantified by dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography in experimental colon carcinomas in rats with good-to-moderate correlations to an immunohistochemical gold standard. Tumor response biomarkers assessed by dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography may be a promising future
Computer-graphic visualization of dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stewart, H.B.
1986-01-01
As engineered systems become increasingly sophisticated and complex, questions of efficiency, reliability, and safety demand the application of more powerful methods of analysis. One indication of this is the accelerating trend away from purely static or quasi-steady system modeling toward models that include essentially dynamic behavior. It is here that the qualitative ideas of nonlinear dynamics, dealing as they do with the most typical behavior in real dynamical systems, can be expected to play an increasingly prominent role. As part of a continuing investigation of the most important low-order differential equations, an interactive computer graphics environment has been created for the study of systems in three-dimensional phase space. This environment makes available the basic control of both numerical simulation and graphic visualization by a specially designed menu system. A key ingredient in this environment is the possibility of graphic communication not only from machine to man, but also from man to machine. Thus to specify the starting point for a numerical integration, for example, the user points to a location in phase space on the screen of the graphics terminal (using crosshairs or a mouse and cursor), bypassing the necessity to give numerical values of the phase-space coordinates. By devising a flexible computer interface which implements conceptual approaches to phase-space analysis of dynamical systems, significant advances in understanding of prototypical differential equations have been achieved
Experimental and computational investigation of flow of pebbles in a pebble bed nuclear reactor
Khane, Vaibhav B.
The Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR) is a 4th generation nuclear reactor which is conceptually similar to moving bed reactors used in the chemical and petrochemical industries. In a PBR core, nuclear fuel in the form of pebbles moves slowly under the influence of gravity. Due to the dynamic nature of the core, a thorough understanding about slow and dense granular flow of pebbles is required from both a reactor safety and performance evaluation point of view. In this dissertation, a new integrated experimental and computational study of granular flow in a PBR has been performed. Continuous pebble re-circulation experimental set-up, mimicking flow of pebbles in a PBR, is designed and developed. Experimental investigation of the flow of pebbles in a mimicked test reactor was carried out for the first time using non-invasive radioactive particle tracking (RPT) and residence time distribution (RTD) techniques to measure the pebble trajectory, velocity, overall/zonal residence times, flow patterns etc. The tracer trajectory length and overall/zonal residence time is found to increase with change in pebble's initial seeding position from the center towards the wall of the test reactor. Overall and zonal average velocities of pebbles are found to decrease from the center towards the wall. Discrete element method (DEM) based simulations of test reactor geometry were also carried out using commercial code EDEM(TM) and simulation results were validated using the obtained benchmark experimental data. In addition, EDEM(TM) based parametric sensitivity study of interaction properties was carried out which suggests that static friction characteristics play an important role from a packed/pebble beds structural characterization point of view. To make the RPT technique viable for practical applications and to enhance its accuracy, a novel and dynamic technique for RPT calibration was designed and developed. Preliminary feasibility results suggest that it can be implemented as a non
Shrestha, U; Sciammarella, M; Alhassen, F; Yeghiazarians, Y; Ellin, J; Verdin, E; Boyle, A; Seo, Y; Botvinick, EH; Gullberg, GT
2017-01-01
© 2015, American Society of Nuclear Cardiology. Background: The objective of this study was to measure myocardial blood flow (MBF) in humans using 99m Tc-tetrofosmin and dynamic single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Methods: Dynamic SPECT using 99m Tc-tetrofosmin and dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) was performed on a group of 16 patients. The SPECT data were reconstructed using a 4D-spatiotemporal iterative reconstruction method. The data corresponding to 9 patients w...
Kordilla, J.; Noffz, T.; Dentz, M.; Sauter, M.
2017-12-01
To assess the vulnerability of an aquifer system it is of utmost importance to recognize the high potential for a rapid mass transport offered by ow through unsaturated fracture networks. Numerical models have to reproduce complex effects of gravity-driven flow dynamics to generate accurate predictions of flow and transport. However, the non-linear characteristics of free surface flow dynamics and partitioning behaviour at unsaturated fracture intersections often exceed the capacity of classical volume-effective modelling approaches. Laboratory experiments that manage to isolate single aspects of the mass partitioning process can enhance the understanding of underlying dynamics, which ultimately influence travel time distributions on multiple scales. Our analogue fracture network consists of synthetic cubes with dimensions of 20 x 20 x 20 cm creating simple geometries of a single or a cascade of consecutive horizontal fractures. Gravity-driven free surface flow (droplets; rivulets) is established via a high precision multichannel dispenser at flow rates ranging from 1.5 to 4.5 ml/min. Single-inlet experiments show the influence of variable flow rate, atmospheric pressure and temperature on the stability of flow modes and allow to delineate a droplet and rivulet regime. The transition between these regimes exhibits mixed flow characteristics. In addition, multi-inlet setups with constant total infow rates decrease the variance induced by erratic free-surface flow dynamics. We investigate the impacts of variable aperture widths, horizontal offsets of vertical fracture surfaces, and alternating injection methods for both flow regimes. Normalized fracture inflow rates allow to demonstrate and compare the effects of variable geometric features. Firstly, the fracture filling can be described by plug flow. At later stages it transitions into a Washburn-type flow, which we compare to an analytical solution for the case of rivulet flow. Observations show a considerably
Computational Analysis of the G-III Laminar Flow Glove
Malik, Mujeeb R.; Liao, Wei; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Li, Fei; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Chang, Chau-Lyan
2011-01-01
Under NASA's Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project, flight experiments are planned with the primary objective of demonstrating the Discrete Roughness Elements (DRE) technology for passive laminar flow control at chord Reynolds numbers relevant to transport aircraft. In this paper, we present a preliminary computational assessment of the Gulfstream-III (G-III) aircraft wing-glove designed to attain natural laminar flow for the leading-edge sweep angle of 34.6deg. Analysis for a flight Mach number of 0.75 shows that it should be possible to achieve natural laminar flow for twice the transition Reynolds number ever achieved at this sweep angle. However, the wing-glove needs to be redesigned to effectively demonstrate passive laminar flow control using DREs. As a by-product of the computational assessment, effect of surface curvature on stationary crossflow disturbances is found to be strongly stabilizing for the current design, and it is suggested that convex surface curvature could be used as a control parameter for natural laminar flow design, provided transition occurs via stationary crossflow disturbances.
Hong, Seunghyuck; Speth, Raymond L.; Shanbhogue, Santosh J.; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.
2013-01-01
In this paper, we experimentally investigate the combustion dynamics in lean premixed flames in a laboratory scale backward-facing step combustor in which flame-vortex driven dynamics are observed. A series of tests was conducted using propane/hydrogen/air mixtures for various mixture compositions at the inlet temperature ranging from 300K to 500K and at atmospheric pressure. Pressure measurements and high speed particle image velocimetry (PIV) are used to generate pressure response curves and phase-averaged vorticity and streamlines as well as the instantaneous flame front, respectively, which describe unsteady flame and flow dynamics in each operating regime. This work was motivated in part by our earlier study where we showed that the strained flame consumption speed Sc can be used to collapse the pressure response curves over a wide range of operating conditions. In previous studies, the stretch rate at which Sc was computed was determined by trial and error. In this study, flame stretch is estimated using the instantaneous flame front and velocity field from the PIV measurement. Independently, we also use computed strained flame speed and the experimental data to determine the characteristic values of stretch rate near the mode transition points at which the flame configuration changes. We show that a common value of the characteristic stretch rate exists across all the flame configurations. The consumption speed computed at the characteristic stretch rate captures the impact of different operating parameters on the combustor dynamics. These results suggest that the unsteady interactions between the turbulent flow and the flame dynamics can be encapsulated in the characteristic stretch rate, which governs the critical flame speed at the mode transitions and thereby plays an important role in determining the stability characteristics of the combustor. © 2013 The Combustion Institute.
Hong, Seunghyuck
2013-08-01
In this paper, we experimentally investigate the combustion dynamics in lean premixed flames in a laboratory scale backward-facing step combustor in which flame-vortex driven dynamics are observed. A series of tests was conducted using propane/hydrogen/air mixtures for various mixture compositions at the inlet temperature ranging from 300K to 500K and at atmospheric pressure. Pressure measurements and high speed particle image velocimetry (PIV) are used to generate pressure response curves and phase-averaged vorticity and streamlines as well as the instantaneous flame front, respectively, which describe unsteady flame and flow dynamics in each operating regime. This work was motivated in part by our earlier study where we showed that the strained flame consumption speed Sc can be used to collapse the pressure response curves over a wide range of operating conditions. In previous studies, the stretch rate at which Sc was computed was determined by trial and error. In this study, flame stretch is estimated using the instantaneous flame front and velocity field from the PIV measurement. Independently, we also use computed strained flame speed and the experimental data to determine the characteristic values of stretch rate near the mode transition points at which the flame configuration changes. We show that a common value of the characteristic stretch rate exists across all the flame configurations. The consumption speed computed at the characteristic stretch rate captures the impact of different operating parameters on the combustor dynamics. These results suggest that the unsteady interactions between the turbulent flow and the flame dynamics can be encapsulated in the characteristic stretch rate, which governs the critical flame speed at the mode transitions and thereby plays an important role in determining the stability characteristics of the combustor. © 2013 The Combustion Institute.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Taymaz Imdat
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The Lattice Boltzmann Method is applied to computationally investigate the laminar flow and heat transfer of an incompressible fluid with constant material properties in a two-dimensional channel with a built-in bluff body. In this study, a triangular prism is taken as the bluff body. Not only the momentum transport, but also the energy transport is modeled by the Lattice Boltzmann Method. A uniform lattice structure with a single time relaxation rule is used. For obtaining a higher flexibility on the computational grid, interpolation methods are applied, where the information is transferred from the lattice structure to the computational grid by Lagrange interpolation. The flow is investigated for different Reynolds numbers, while keeping the Prandtl number at the constant value of 0.7. The results show how the presence of a triangular prism effects the flow and heat transfer patterns for the steady-state and unsteady-periodic flow regimes. As an assessment of the accuracy of the developed Lattice Boltzmann code, the results are compared with those obtained by a commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics code. It is observed that the present Lattice Boltzmann code delivers results that are of similar accuracy to the well-established Computational Fluid Dynamics code, with much smaller computational time for the prediction of the unsteady phenomena.
[Application of optical flow dynamic texture in land use/cover change detection].
Yan, Li; Gong, Yi-Long; Zhang, Yi; Duan, Wei
2014-11-01
In the present study, a novel change detection approach for high resolution remote sensing images is proposed based on the optical flow dynamic texture (OFDT), which could achieve the land use & land cover change information automatically with a dynamic description of ground-object changes. This paper describes the ground-object gradual change process from the principle using optical flow theory, which breaks the ground-object sudden change hypothesis in remote sensing change detection methods in the past. As the steps of this method are simple, it could be integrated in the systems and software such as Land Resource Management and Urban Planning software that needs to find ground-object changes. This method takes into account the temporal dimension feature between remote sensing images, which provides a richer set of information for remote sensing change detection, thereby improving the status that most of the change detection methods are mainly dependent on the spatial dimension information. In this article, optical flow dynamic texture is the basic reflection of changes, and it is used in high resolution remote sensing image support vector machine post-classification change detection, combined with spectral information. The texture in the temporal dimension which is considered in this article has a smaller amount of data than most of the textures in the spatial dimensions. The highly automated texture computing has only one parameter to set, which could relax the onerous manual evaluation present status. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is evaluated with the 2011 and 2012 QuickBird datasets covering Duerbert Mongolian Autonomous County of Daqing City, China. Then, the effects of different optical flow smooth coefficient and the impact on the description of the ground-object changes in the method are deeply analyzed: The experiment result is satisfactory, with an 87.29% overall accuracy and an 0.850 7 Kappa index, and the method achieves better
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Good, W.F.; Gur, D.
1987-01-01
The errors associated with derivation of cerebral blood flow values by the xenon-enhanced computed tomography (CT) method have been evaluated as a function of tissue heterogeneity and CT noise. The results of this study indicate that CT noise introduces large errors in the derived flow value when data for a single, unprocessed voxel are used for this purpose. CT noise increases the derived flow values in a systematic way. Tissue heterogeneity results in a systematic error which lowers the derived flow values. Errors due to both parameters are computed for typical and extreme conditions
Development of real-time visualization system for Computational Fluid Dynamics on parallel computers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Muramatsu, Kazuhiro; Otani, Takayuki; Matsumoto, Hideki; Takei, Toshifumi; Doi, Shun
1998-03-01
A real-time visualization system for computational fluid dynamics in a network connecting between a parallel computing server and the client terminal was developed. Using the system, a user can visualize the results of a CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulation on the parallel computer as a client terminal during the actual computation on a server. Using GUI (Graphical User Interface) on the client terminal, to user is also able to change parameters of the analysis and visualization during the real-time of the calculation. The system carries out both of CFD simulation and generation of a pixel image data on the parallel computer, and compresses the data. Therefore, the amount of data from the parallel computer to the client is so small in comparison with no compression that the user can enjoy the swift image appearance comfortably. Parallelization of image data generation is based on Owner Computation Rule. GUI on the client is built on Java applet. A real-time visualization is thus possible on the client PC only if Web browser is implemented on it. (author)
Calculation of the dynamic air flow resistivity of fibre materials
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tarnow, Viggo
1997-01-01
The acoustic attenuation of acoustic fiber materials is mainly determined by the dynamic resistivity to an oscillating air flow. The dynamic resistance is calculated for a model with geometry close to the geometry of real fibre material. The model constists of parallel cylinders placed randomly.......The second procedure is an extension to oscillating air flow of the Brinkman self-consistent procedure for dc flow. The procedures are valid for volume concentrations of cylinders less than 0.1. The calculations show that for the density of fibers of interest for acoustic fibre materials the simple self...
Computational Analysis of Material Flow During Friction Stir Welding of AA5059 Aluminum Alloys
Grujicic, M.; Arakere, G.; Pandurangan, B.; Ochterbeck, J. M.; Yen, C.-F.; Cheeseman, B. A.; Reynolds, A. P.; Sutton, M. A.
2012-09-01
Workpiece material flow and stirring/mixing during the friction stir welding (FSW) process are investigated computationally. Within the numerical model of the FSW process, the FSW tool is treated as a Lagrangian component while the workpiece material is treated as an Eulerian component. The employed coupled Eulerian/Lagrangian computational analysis of the welding process was of a two-way thermo-mechanical character (i.e., frictional-sliding/plastic-work dissipation is taken to act as a heat source in the thermal-energy balance equation) while temperature is allowed to affect mechanical aspects of the model through temperature-dependent material properties. The workpiece material (AA5059, solid-solution strengthened and strain-hardened aluminum alloy) is represented using a modified version of the classical Johnson-Cook model (within which the strain-hardening term is augmented to take into account for the effect of dynamic recrystallization) while the FSW tool material (AISI H13 tool steel) is modeled as an isotropic linear-elastic material. Within the analysis, the effects of some of the FSW key process parameters are investigated (e.g., weld pitch, tool tilt-angle, and the tool pin-size). The results pertaining to the material flow during FSW are compared with their experimental counterparts. It is found that, for the most part, experimentally observed material-flow characteristics are reproduced within the current FSW-process model.
Application of GPU to computational multiphase fluid dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nagatake, T; Kunugi, T
2010-01-01
The MARS (Multi-interfaces Advection and Reconstruction Solver) [1] is one of the surface volume tracking methods for multi-phase flows. Nowadays, the performance of GPU (Graphics Processing Unit) is much higher than the CPU (Central Processing Unit). In this study, the GPU was applied to the MARS in order to accelerate the computation of multi-phase flows (GPU-MARS), and the performance of the GPU-MARS was discussed. From the performance of the interface tracking method for the analyses of one-directional advection problem, it is found that the computing time of GPU(single GTX280) was around 4 times faster than that of the CPU (Xeon 5040, 4 threads parallelized). From the performance of Poisson Solver by using the algorithm developed in this study, it is found that the performance of the GPU showed around 30 times faster than that of the CPU. Finally, it is confirmed that the GPU showed the large acceleration of the fluid flow computation (GPU-MARS) compared to the CPU. However, it is also found that the double-precision computation of the GPU must perform with very high precision.
Masuzawa, Toru; Ohta, Akiko; Tanaka, Nobuatu; Qian, Yi; Tsukiya, Tomonori
2009-01-01
The effect of the hydraulic force on magnetically levitated (maglev) pumps should be studied carefully to improve the suspension performance and the reliability of the pumps. A maglev centrifugal pump, developed at Ibaraki University, was modeled with 926 376 hexahedral elements for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses. The pump has a fully open six-vane impeller with a diameter of 72.5 mm. A self-bearing motor suspends the impeller in the radial direction. The maximum pressure head and flow rate were 250 mmHg and 14 l/min, respectively. First, a steady-state analysis was performed using commercial code STAR-CD to confirm the model's suitability by comparing the results with the real pump performance. Second, transient analysis was performed to estimate the hydraulic force on the levitated impeller. The impeller was rotated in steps of 1 degrees using a sliding mesh. The force around the impeller was integrated at every step. The transient analysis revealed that the direction of the radial force changed dynamically as the vane's position changed relative to the outlet port during one circulation, and the magnitude of this force was about 1 N. The current maglev pump has sufficient performance to counteract this hydraulic force. Transient CFD analysis is not only useful for observing dynamic flow conditions in a centrifugal pump but is also effective for obtaining information about the levitation dynamics of a maglev pump.
Hydro-dynamic damping theory in flowing water
Monette, C.; Nennemann, B.; Seeley, C.; Coutu, A.; Marmont, H.
2014-03-01
Fluid-structure interaction (FSI) has a major impact on the dynamic response of the structural components of hydroelectric turbines. On mid-head to high-head Francis runners, the rotor-stator interaction (RSI) phenomenon always has to be considered carefully during the design phase to avoid operational issues later on. The RSI dynamic response amplitudes are driven by three main factors: (1) pressure forcing amplitudes, (2) excitation frequencies in relation to natural frequencies and (3) damping. The prediction of the two first factors has been largely documented in the literature. However, the prediction of fluid damping has received less attention in spite of being critical when the runner is close to resonance. Experimental damping measurements in flowing water on hydrofoils were presented previously. Those results showed that the hydro-dynamic damping increased linearly with the flow. This paper presents development and validation of a mathematical model, based on momentum exchange, to predict damping due to fluid structure interaction in flowing water. The model is implemented as an analytical procedure for simple structures, such as cantilever beams, but is also implemented in more general ways using three different approaches for more complex structures such as runner blades: a finite element procedure, a CFD modal work based approach and a CFD 1DOF approach. The mathematical model and all three implementation approaches are shown to agree well with experimental results.
Wang, C. R.; Towne, C. E.; Hippensteele, S. A.; Poinsatte, P. E.
1997-01-01
This study investigated the Navier-Stokes computations of the surface heat transfer coefficients of a transition duct flow. A transition duct from an axisymmetric cross section to a non-axisymmetric cross section, is usually used to connect the turbine exit to the nozzle. As the gas turbine inlet temperature increases, the transition duct is subjected to the high temperature at the gas turbine exit. The transition duct flow has combined development of hydraulic and thermal entry length. The design of the transition duct required accurate surface heat transfer coefficients. The Navier-Stokes computational method could be used to predict the surface heat transfer coefficients of a transition duct flow. The Proteus three-dimensional Navier-Stokes numerical computational code was used in this study. The code was first studied for the computations of the turbulent developing flow properties within a circular duct and a square duct. The code was then used to compute the turbulent flow properties of a transition duct flow. The computational results of the surface pressure, the skin friction factor, and the surface heat transfer coefficient were described and compared with their values obtained from theoretical analyses or experiments. The comparison showed that the Navier-Stokes computation could predict approximately the surface heat transfer coefficients of a transition duct flow.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Barzegar Ramin
2013-01-01
Full Text Available In the present paper, the combustion process and emission formation in the Lister 8.1 I.D.I Diesel engine have been investigated using a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD code. The utilized model includes detailed spray atomization, mixture formation and distribution model which enable modeling the combustion process in spray/wall and spray/swirl interactions along with flow configurations. The analysis considers both part load and full load states. The global properties are presented separately resolved for the swirl chamber (pre-chamber and the main chamber. The results of model verify the fact that the equal amount of the fuel is burned in the main and pre-chamber at full load state while at part load the majority of the fuel is burned in the main chamber. Also, it is shown that the adherence of fuel spray on the pre-chamber walls is due to formation of a stagnation zone which prevents quick spray evaporation and plays an important role in the increase of soot mass fractions at this zone at full load conditions. The simulation results, such as the mean in-cylinder pressure, heat release rate and exhaust emissions are compared with the experimental data and show good agreement. This work also demonstrates the usefulness of multidimensional modeling for complex chamber geometries, such as in I.D.I Diesel engines, to gain more insight into the flow field, combustion process and emission formation.
Propulsion efficiency and imposed flow fields of a copepod jump
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jiang, H.; Kiørboe, Thomas
2011-01-01
Pelagic copepods jump to relocate, to attack prey and to escape predators. However, there is a price to be paid for these jumps in terms of their energy costs and the hydrodynamic signals they generate to rheotactic predators. Using observed kinematics of various types of jumps, we computed...... the imposed flow fields and associated energetics of jumps by means of computational fluid dynamics simulations by modeling the copepod as a self-propelled body. The computational fluid dynamics simulation was validated by particle image velocimetry data. The flow field generated by a repositioning jump...... the flow structure. The flow field associated with an escape jump sequence also includes two dominant vortex structures: one leading wake vortex generated as a result of the first jump and one around the body, but between these two vortex structures is an elongated, long-lasting flow trail with flow...
Flow and air conditioning simulations of computer turbinectomized nose models.
Pérez-Mota, J; Solorio-Ordaz, F; Cervantes-de Gortari, J
2018-04-16
Air conditioning for the human respiratory system is the most important function of the nose. When obstruction occurs in the nasal airway, turbinectomy is used to correct such pathology. However, mucosal atrophy may occur sometime after this surgery when it is overdone. There is not enough information about long-term recovery of nasal air conditioning performance after partial or total surgery. The purpose of this research was to assess if, based on the flow and temperature/humidity characteristics of the air intake to the choana, partial resection of turbinates is better than total resection. A normal nasal cavity geometry was digitized from tomographic scans and a model was printed in 3D. Dynamic (sinusoidal) laboratory tests and computer simulations of airflow were conducted with full agreement between numerical and experimental results. Computational adaptations were subsequently performed to represent six turbinectomy variations and a swollen nasal cavity case. Streamlines along the nasal cavity and temperature and humidity distributions at the choana indicated that the middle turbinate partial resection is the best alternative. These findings may facilitate the diagnosis of nasal obstruction and can be useful both to plan a turbinectomy and to reduce postoperative discomfort. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.
Computer Programme for the Dynamic Analysis of Tall Regular ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The traditional method of dynamic analysis of tall rigid frames assumes the shear frame model. Models that allow joint rotations with/without the inclusion of the column axial loads give improved results but pose much more computational difficulty. In this work a computer program Natfrequency that determines the dynamic ...
An Experimental study on a Method of Computing Minimum flow rate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cho, Yeon Sik; Kim, Tae Hyun; Kim, Chang Hyun
2009-01-01
Many pump reliability problems in the Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) are being attributed to the operation of the pump at flow rates well below its best efficiency point(BEP). Generally, the manufacturer and the user try to avert such problems by specifying a minimum flow, below which the pump should not be operated. Pump minimum flow usually involves two considerations. The first consideration is normally termed the 'thermal minimum flow', which is that flow required to prevent the fluid inside the pump from reaching saturation conditions. The other consideration is often referred to as 'mechanical minimum flow', which is that flow required to prevent mechanical damage. However, the criteria for specifying such a minimum flow are not clearly understood by all parties concerned. Also various factor and information for computing minimum flow are not easily available as considering for the pump manufacturer' proprietary. The objective of this study is to obtain experimental data for computing minimum flow rate and to understand the pump performances due to low flow operation. A test loop consisted of the pump to be used in NPPs, water tank, flow rate measurements and piping system with flow control devices was established for this study
Lindner, Michael; Donner, Reik V
2017-03-01
We study the Lagrangian dynamics of passive tracers in a simple model of a driven two-dimensional vortex resembling real-world geophysical flow patterns. Using a discrete approximation of the system's transfer operator, we construct a directed network that describes the exchange of mass between distinct regions of the flow domain. By studying different measures characterizing flow network connectivity at different time-scales, we are able to identify the location of dynamically invariant structures and regions of maximum dispersion. Specifically, our approach allows us to delimit co-existing flow regimes with different dynamics. To validate our findings, we compare several network characteristics to the well-established finite-time Lyapunov exponents and apply a receiver operating characteristic analysis to identify network measures that are particularly useful for unveiling the skeleton of Lagrangian chaos.
Efficient multigrid computation of steady hypersonic flows
Koren, B.; Hemker, P.W.; Murthy, T.K.S.
1991-01-01
In steady hypersonic flow computations, Newton iteration as a local relaxation procedure and nonlinear multigrid iteration as an acceleration procedure may both easily fail. In the present chapter, same remedies are presented for overcoming these problems. The equations considered are the steady,
A computational approach to modeling cellular-scale blood flow in complex geometry
Balogh, Peter; Bagchi, Prosenjit
2017-04-01
We present a computational methodology for modeling cellular-scale blood flow in arbitrary and highly complex geometry. Our approach is based on immersed-boundary methods, which allow modeling flows in arbitrary geometry while resolving the large deformation and dynamics of every blood cell with high fidelity. The present methodology seamlessly integrates different modeling components dealing with stationary rigid boundaries of complex shape, moving rigid bodies, and highly deformable interfaces governed by nonlinear elasticity. Thus it enables us to simulate 'whole' blood suspensions flowing through physiologically realistic microvascular networks that are characterized by multiple bifurcating and merging vessels, as well as geometrically complex lab-on-chip devices. The focus of the present work is on the development of a versatile numerical technique that is able to consider deformable cells and rigid bodies flowing in three-dimensional arbitrarily complex geometries over a diverse range of scenarios. After describing the methodology, a series of validation studies are presented against analytical theory, experimental data, and previous numerical results. Then, the capability of the methodology is demonstrated by simulating flows of deformable blood cells and heterogeneous cell suspensions in both physiologically realistic microvascular networks and geometrically intricate microfluidic devices. It is shown that the methodology can predict several complex microhemodynamic phenomena observed in vascular networks and microfluidic devices. The present methodology is robust and versatile, and has the potential to scale up to very large microvascular networks at organ levels.
Computational fluid dynamic modeling of fluidized-bed polymerization reactors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rokkam, Ram [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)
2012-01-01
Polyethylene is one of the most widely used plastics, and over 60 million tons are produced worldwide every year. Polyethylene is obtained by the catalytic polymerization of ethylene in gas and liquid phase reactors. The gas phase processes are more advantageous, and use fluidized-bed reactors for production of polyethylene. Since they operate so close to the melting point of the polymer, agglomeration is an operational concern in all slurry and gas polymerization processes. Electrostatics and hot spot formation are the main factors that contribute to agglomeration in gas-phase processes. Electrostatic charges in gas phase polymerization fluidized bed reactors are known to influence the bed hydrodynamics, particle elutriation, bubble size, bubble shape etc. Accumulation of electrostatic charges in the fluidized-bed can lead to operational issues. In this work a first-principles electrostatic model is developed and coupled with a multi-fluid computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model to understand the effect of electrostatics on the dynamics of a fluidized-bed. The multi-fluid CFD model for gas-particle flow is based on the kinetic theory of granular flows closures. The electrostatic model is developed based on a fixed, size-dependent charge for each type of particle (catalyst, polymer, polymer fines) phase. The combined CFD model is first verified using simple test cases, validated with experiments and applied to a pilot-scale polymerization fluidized-bed reactor. The CFD model reproduced qualitative trends in particle segregation and entrainment due to electrostatic charges observed in experiments. For the scale up of fluidized bed reactor, filtered models are developed and implemented on pilot scale reactor.
Turbulent Flow and Sand Dune Dynamics: Identifying Controls on Aeolian Sediment Transport
Weaver, C. M.; Wiggs, G.
2007-12-01
Sediment transport models are founded on cubic power relationships between the transport rate and time averaged flow parameters. These models have achieved limited success and recent aeolian and fluvial research has focused on the modelling and measurement of sediment transport by temporally varying flow conditions. Studies have recognised turbulence as a driving force in sediment transport and have highlighted the importance of coherent flow structures in sediment transport systems. However, the exact mechanisms are still unclear. Furthermore, research in the fluvial environment has identified the significance of turbulent structures for bedform morphology and spacing. However, equivalent research in the aeolian domain is absent. This paper reports the findings of research carried out to characterise the importance of turbulent flow parameters in aeolian sediment transport and determine how turbulent energy and turbulent structures change in response to dune morphology. The relative importance of mean and turbulent wind parameters on aeolian sediment flux was examined in the Skeleton Coast, Namibia. Measurements of wind velocity (using sonic anemometers) and sand transport (using grain impact sensors) at a sampling frequency of 10 Hz were made across a flat surface and along transects on a 9 m high barchan dune. Mean wind parameters and mass sand flux were measured using cup anemometers and wedge-shaped sand traps respectively. Vertical profile data from the sonic anemometers were used to compute turbulence and turbulent stress (Reynolds stress; instantaneous horizontal and vertical fluctuations; coherent flow structures) and their relationship with respect to sand transport and evolving dune morphology. On the flat surface time-averaged parameters generally fail to characterise sand transport dynamics, particularly as the averaging interval is reduced. However, horizontal wind speed correlates well with sand transport even with short averaging times. Quadrant
A proposed framework for computational fluid dynamics code calibration/validation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oberkampf, W.L.
1993-01-01
The paper reviews the terminology and methodology that have been introduced during the last several years for building confidence n the predictions from Computational Fluid Dynamics (CID) codes. Code validation terminology developed for nuclear reactor analyses and aerospace applications is reviewed and evaluated. Currently used terminology such as ''calibrated code,'' ''validated code,'' and a ''validation experiment'' is discussed along with the shortcomings and criticisms of these terms. A new framework is proposed for building confidence in CFD code predictions that overcomes some of the difficulties of past procedures and delineates the causes of uncertainty in CFD predictions. Building on previous work, new definitions of code verification and calibration are proposed. These definitions provide more specific requirements for the knowledge level of the flow physics involved and the solution accuracy of the given partial differential equations. As part of the proposed framework, categories are also proposed for flow physics research, flow modeling research, and the application of numerical predictions. The contributions of physical experiments, analytical solutions, and other numerical solutions are discussed, showing that each should be designed to achieve a distinctively separate purpose in building confidence in accuracy of CFD predictions. A number of examples are given for each approach to suggest methods for obtaining the highest value for CFD code quality assurance
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations of a Heisenberg Vortex Tube
Bunge, Carl; Sitaraman, Hariswaran; Leachman, Jake
2017-11-01
A 3D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation of a Heisenberg Vortex Tube (HVT) is performed to estimate cooling potential with cryogenic hydrogen. The main mechanism driving operation of the vortex tube is the use of fluid power for enthalpy streaming in a highly turbulent swirl in a dual-outlet tube. This enthalpy streaming creates a temperature separation between the outer and inner regions of the flow. Use of a catalyst on the peripheral wall of the centrifuge enables endothermic conversion of para-ortho hydrogen to aid primary cooling. A κ- ɛ turbulence model is used with a cryogenic, non-ideal equation of state, and para-orthohydrogen species evolution. The simulations are validated with experiments and strategies for parametric optimization of this device are presented.
FAST - A multiprocessed environment for visualization of computational fluid dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bancroft, G.V.; Merritt, F.J.; Plessel, T.C.; Kelaita, P.G.; Mccabe, R.K.
1991-01-01
The paper presents the Flow Analysis Software Toolset (FAST) to be used for fluid-mechanics analysis. The design criteria for FAST including the minimization of the data path in the computational fluid-dynamics (CFD) process, consistent user interface, extensible software architecture, modularization, and the isolation of three-dimensional tasks from the application programmer are outlined. Each separate process communicates through the FAST Hub, while other modules such as FAST Central, NAS file input, CFD calculator, surface extractor and renderer, titler, tracer, and isolev might work together to generate the scene. An interprocess communication package making it possible for FAST to operate as a modular environment where resources could be shared among different machines as well as a single host is discussed. 20 refs
Discrete Adjoint-Based Design for Unsteady Turbulent Flows On Dynamic Overset Unstructured Grids
Nielsen, Eric J.; Diskin, Boris
2012-01-01
A discrete adjoint-based design methodology for unsteady turbulent flows on three-dimensional dynamic overset unstructured grids is formulated, implemented, and verified. The methodology supports both compressible and incompressible flows and is amenable to massively parallel computing environments. The approach provides a general framework for performing highly efficient and discretely consistent sensitivity analysis for problems involving arbitrary combinations of overset unstructured grids which may be static, undergoing rigid or deforming motions, or any combination thereof. General parent-child motions are also accommodated, and the accuracy of the implementation is established using an independent verification based on a complex-variable approach. The methodology is used to demonstrate aerodynamic optimizations of a wind turbine geometry, a biologically-inspired flapping wing, and a complex helicopter configuration subject to trimming constraints. The objective function for each problem is successfully reduced and all specified constraints are satisfied.
Numerical investigation on vibration and noise induced by unsteady flow in an axial-flow pump
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Eryun; Ma, Zui Ling; Yang, Ai Ling; Nan, Guo Fang [School of Energy and Power Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai (China); Zhao, Gai Ping [School of Medical Instruments and Food Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai (China); Li, Guo Ping [Shanghai Marine Equipment Research Institute, Shanghai (China)
2016-12-15
Full-scale structural vibration and noise induced by flow in an axial-flow pump was simulated by a hybrid numerical method. An unsteady flow field was solved by a large eddy simulation-based computational fluid dynamics commercial code, Fluent. An experimental validation on pressure fluctuations was performed to impose an appropriate vibration exciting source. The consistency between the computed results and experimental tests were interesting. The modes of the axial-flow pump were computed by the finite element method. After that, the pump vibration and sound field were solved using a coupled vibro-acoustic model. The numerical results indicated that the the blade-passing frequency was the dominant frequency of the vibration acceleration of the pump. This result was consistent with frequency spectral characteristics of unsteady pressure fluctuation. Finally, comparisons of the vibration acceleration between the computed results and the experimental test were conducted. These comparisons validated the computed results. This study shows that using the hybrid numerical method to evaluate the flow-induced vibration and noise generated in an axial-flow pump is feasible.
Interface between computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and plant analysis computer codes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coffield, R.D.; Dunckhorst, F.F.; Tomlinson, E.T.; Welch, J.W.
1993-01-01
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can provide valuable input to the development of advanced plant analysis computer codes. The types of interfacing discussed in this paper will directly contribute to modeling and accuracy improvements throughout the plant system and should result in significant reduction of design conservatisms that have been applied to such analyses in the past
Dynamic membrane filtration in tangential flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1993-01-01
Oil-containing waste water is produced in many cleaning processes and also on production of compressed air. Dynamic membrane filtration in the tangential flow mode has proved effective in the treatment of these stable emulsions. The possible applications of ceramic membrane filters are illustrated for a variety of examples. (orig.) [de
Dynamics of flow behind backward-facing step in a narrow channel
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Uruba V.
2013-04-01
Full Text Available The results and their analysis from experiments obtained by TR-PIV are presented on the model of backward-facing step in a narrow channel. The recirculation zone is studied in details. Mean structures are evaluated from fluctuating velocity fields. Then dynamics of the flow is characterized with help of POD (BOD technique. Substantial differences in high energy dynamical structures behaviour within the back-flow region and further downstream behind the flow reattachment have been found.
Marków, Magdalena; Janecki, Daniel; Orecka, Bogusława; Misiołek, Maciej; Warmuziński, Krzysztof
2017-09-01
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD), a rapidly developing instrument with a number of practical applications, allows calculation and visualization of the changing parameters of airflow in the upper respiratory tract. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the advantages of CFD as an instrument for noninvasive tests of the larynx in patients who had undergone surgical treatment due to bilateral vocal fold paralysis. Surface measurements of the glottic space were made during maximum adduction of the vocal folds. Additionally, the following spirometric parameters were determined: forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1), and peak expiratory flow (PEF) rate. Based on the measurements, commercial mesh generation software was used to develop a geometrical model of the glottic space. The computations were carried out using a general purpose CFD code. The analysis included patients who were surgically treated for BVFP in the authors' department between 1999 and 2012. The study group consisted of 22 women (91.67%) and 2 men (8.33%). It was observed that the pressure drop calculated for free breathing depends on the area of the glottis and is independent of its shape. Importantly, for areas below approx. 40 mm2, a sudden rise occurred in the resistance to flow; for the smallest glottic areas studied, the pressure drop was almost 6 times higher than for an area of 40 mm2. Consequently, in cases of areas below 40 mm2 even minor enlargement of the glottic opening can lead to a marked improvement in breathing comfort. Computational fluid dynamics is a useful method for calculating and visualizing the changing parameters of airflow in the upper respiratory tract.
High performance parallel computing of flows in complex geometries: II. Applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gourdain, N; Gicquel, L; Staffelbach, G; Vermorel, O; Duchaine, F; Boussuge, J-F; Poinsot, T
2009-01-01
Present regulations in terms of pollutant emissions, noise and economical constraints, require new approaches and designs in the fields of energy supply and transportation. It is now well established that the next breakthrough will come from a better understanding of unsteady flow effects and by considering the entire system and not only isolated components. However, these aspects are still not well taken into account by the numerical approaches or understood whatever the design stage considered. The main challenge is essentially due to the computational requirements inferred by such complex systems if it is to be simulated by use of supercomputers. This paper shows how new challenges can be addressed by using parallel computing platforms for distinct elements of a more complex systems as encountered in aeronautical applications. Based on numerical simulations performed with modern aerodynamic and reactive flow solvers, this work underlines the interest of high-performance computing for solving flow in complex industrial configurations such as aircrafts, combustion chambers and turbomachines. Performance indicators related to parallel computing efficiency are presented, showing that establishing fair criterions is a difficult task for complex industrial applications. Examples of numerical simulations performed in industrial systems are also described with a particular interest for the computational time and the potential design improvements obtained with high-fidelity and multi-physics computing methods. These simulations use either unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes methods or large eddy simulation and deal with turbulent unsteady flows, such as coupled flow phenomena (thermo-acoustic instabilities, buffet, etc). Some examples of the difficulties with grid generation and data analysis are also presented when dealing with these complex industrial applications.
Instantaneous aerosol dynamics in a turbulent flow
Zhou, Kun
2012-01-01
Dibutyl phthalate aerosol particles evolution dynamics in a turbulent mixing layer is simulated by means of direct numerical simulation for the flow field and the direct quadrature method of moments for the aerosol evolution. Most par
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pitta Srinivasa Rao
2008-01-01
Full Text Available The main objective of the present work is to make a computational study of stratified scavenging system in two-stroke medium capacity engines to reduce or to curb the emissions from the two-stroke engines. The 3-D flows within the cylinder are simulated using computational fluid dynamics and the code Fluent 6. Flow structures in the transfer ports and the exhaust port are predicted without the stratification and with the stratification, and are well predicted. The total pressure and velocity map from computation provided comprehensive information on the scavenging and stratification phenomenon. Analysis is carried out for the transfer ports flow and the extra port in the transfer port along with the exhaust port when the piston is moving from the top dead center to the bottom dead center, as the ports are closed, half open, three forth open, and full port opening. An unstructured cell is adopted for meshing the geometry created in CATIA software. Flow is simulated by solving governing equations namely conservation of mass momentum and energy using SIMPLE algorithm. Turbulence is modeled by high Reynolds number version k-e model. Experimental measurements are made for validating the numerical prediction. Good agreement is observed between predicted result and experimental data; that the stratification had significantly reduced the emissions and fuel economy is achieved.
Separation Dynamics of Controlled Internal Flow in an Adverse Pressure Gradient
Peterson, C. J.; Vukasinovic, B.; Glezer, A.
2017-11-01
The effects of fluidic actuation on the dynamic evolution of aggressive internal flow separation is investigated at speeds up to M = 0.4 within a constant-width diffuser branching off of a primary flow duct. It is shown that a spanwise array of fluidic actuators upstream of the separation actively controls the flow constriction (and losses) within the diffuser and consequently the local pressure gradient at its entrance. The effectiveness of the actuation, as may be measured by the increased flow rate that is diverted through the diffuser, scales with its flow rate coefficient. In the presence of actuation (0.7% mass fraction), the mass flow rate in the primary duct increases by 10% while the fraction of the diverted mass flow rate in the diffuser increases by more than 45%. The flow dynamics near separation in the absence and presence of actuation are characterized using high speed particle image velocimetry and analyzed using proper orthogonal and spectral decompositions. In particular, the spectral contents of the incipient boundary layer separation are compared in the absence and presence of actuation with emphasis on the changes in local dynamics near separation as the characteristic cross stream scale of the boundary layer increases with separation delay.
Deep Learning with Dynamic Computation Graphs
Looks, Moshe; Herreshoff, Marcello; Hutchins, DeLesley; Norvig, Peter
2017-01-01
Neural networks that compute over graph structures are a natural fit for problems in a variety of domains, including natural language (parse trees) and cheminformatics (molecular graphs). However, since the computation graph has a different shape and size for every input, such networks do not directly support batched training or inference. They are also difficult to implement in popular deep learning libraries, which are based on static data-flow graphs. We introduce a technique called dynami...
Computation of unsteady flow and aerodynamic noise of NACA0018 airfoil using large-eddy simulation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, H.-J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Inha University, 253 Yonghyun-dong, Nam-gu, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Inha University, 253 Yonghyun-dong, Nam-gu, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: sbaelee@inha.ac.kr; Fujisawa, N. [Department of Mechanical and Production Engineering, Niigata University, 8050 Ikarashi-2, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan)
2006-04-15
The flow field around a symmetrical NACA airfoil in the uniform flow under generation of noise was numerically studied. The numerical simulation was carried out by a large-eddy simulation that employs a deductive dynamic model as the subgrid-scale model. The results at small angle of attack {alpha} = 3-6{sup o} indicate that the discrete frequency noise is generated when the separated laminar flow reattaches near the trailing edge of pressure side and the strong instability thereafter affects positive vortices shed near the trailing edge. The quasi-periodic behavior of negative vortex formation on the suction side is affected by the strength and the periodicity of positive vortices near the trailing edge. The computation using aero-acoustic analogy indicates the primary discrete peak at the Strouhal frequency (=2f . {delta}/U ) of 0.15 by the vortex shedding from the trailing edge, which is in a close agreement with the experiment.
Lattice fluid dynamics from perfect discretizations of continuum flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Katz, E.; Wiese, U.
1998-01-01
We use renormalization group methods to derive equations of motion for large scale variables in fluid dynamics. The large scale variables are averages of the underlying continuum variables over cubic volumes and naturally exist on a lattice. The resulting lattice dynamics represents a perfect discretization of continuum physics, i.e., grid artifacts are completely eliminated. Perfect equations of motion are derived for static, slow flows of incompressible, viscous fluids. For Hagen-Poiseuille flow in a channel with a square cross section the equations reduce to a perfect discretization of the Poisson equation for the velocity field with Dirichlet boundary conditions. The perfect large scale Poisson equation is used in a numerical simulation and is shown to represent the continuum flow exactly. For nonsquare cross sections one can use a numerical iterative procedure to derive flow equations that are approximately perfect. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society
Visual Analysis of Inclusion Dynamics in Two-Phase Flow.
Karch, Grzegorz Karol; Beck, Fabian; Ertl, Moritz; Meister, Christian; Schulte, Kathrin; Weigand, Bernhard; Ertl, Thomas; Sadlo, Filip
2018-05-01
In single-phase flow visualization, research focuses on the analysis of vector field properties. In two-phase flow, in contrast, analysis of the phase components is typically of major interest. So far, visualization research of two-phase flow concentrated on proper interface reconstruction and the analysis thereof. In this paper, we present a novel visualization technique that enables the investigation of complex two-phase flow phenomena with respect to the physics of breakup and coalescence of inclusions. On the one hand, we adapt dimensionless quantities for a localized analysis of phase instability and breakup, and provide detailed inspection of breakup dynamics with emphasis on oscillation and its interplay with rotational motion. On the other hand, we present a parametric tightly linked space-time visualization approach for an effective interactive representation of the overall dynamics. We demonstrate the utility of our approach using several two-phase CFD datasets.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Farinnas Wong, E. Y.; Jauregui Rigo, S.; Betancourt Mena, J.
2009-01-01
In this paper we describe different approaches to solving problems computational fluid dynamics using the finite element method, there is a perspective what are the different problems that must be addressed when choose a path to develop a code that solves the problems of boundary layer and turbulence to simulate the transport equipment and fluid handling. In principle, the turbulent flow is governed by the equations of dynamics fluids. The nonlinearity of the Navier-Stokes equations, make the solution analytical is only possible in a few very specific cases and for senior Reynolds numbers the flow equations become a more complex, for it is necessary to use certain models dependent on some settings, usually obtained experimentally. Existing in the powerful techniques present numerical resolution of these equations such as the direct numerical simulation (DNS) and large eddy simulation or vertices (RES), discussed for use in solving problems flow machines. (author)
Supercritical droplet dynamics and emission in low speed cross-flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chae, J. W.; Yang, H. S.; Yoon, W. S.
2008-01-01
Droplet dynamics and emission of a supercritical droplet in crossing gas stream are numerically investigated. Effects of ambient pressure and velocity of nitrogen gas on the dynamics of the supercritical oxygen droplet are parametrically examined. Unsteady conservative axisymmetric Navier-Stokes equations in curvilinear coordinates are preconditioned and solved by dual-time stepping method. A unified property evaluation scheme based on a fundamental equation of state and extended corresponding-state principle is established to deal with thermodynamic non-idealities and transport anomalies. At lower pressures and velocities of nitrogen cross flows, both the diffusion and the convection are important in determining the droplet dynamics. Relative flow motion causes a secondary breakup and cascading vortices, and the droplet lifetime is reduced with increasing in ambient pressure. At higher ambient pressures and velocities, however, the droplet dynamics become convection-controlled while the secondary breakup is hindered by reduced diffusivity of the oxygen. Gas-phase mixing depends on the convection and diffusion velocities in conjunction with corresponding droplet deformation and flow interaction. Supercritical droplet dynamics and emission is not similar with respect to the pressure and velocity of the ambient gas and thus provides no scale
Implicit upwind schemes for computational fluid dynamics. Solution by domain decomposition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clerc, S.
1998-01-01
In this work, the numerical simulation of fluid dynamics equations is addressed. Implicit upwind schemes of finite volume type are used for this purpose. The first part of the dissertation deals with the improvement of the computational precision in unfavourable situations. A non-conservative treatment of some source terms is studied in order to correct some shortcomings of the usual operator-splitting method. Besides, finite volume schemes based on Godunov's approach are unsuited to compute low Mach number flows. A modification of the up-winding by preconditioning is introduced to correct this defect. The second part deals with the solution of steady-state problems arising from an implicit discretization of the equations. A well-posed linearized boundary value problem is formulated. We prove the convergence of a domain decomposition algorithm of Schwartz type for this problem. This algorithm is implemented either directly, or in a Schur complement framework. Finally, another approach is proposed, which consists in decomposing the non-linear steady state problem. (author)
Computational fluid dynamics a practical approach
Tu, Jiyuan; Liu, Chaoqun
2018-01-01
Computational Fluid Dynamics: A Practical Approach, Third Edition, is an introduction to CFD fundamentals and commercial CFD software to solve engineering problems. The book is designed for a wide variety of engineering students new to CFD, and for practicing engineers learning CFD for the first time. Combining an appropriate level of mathematical background, worked examples, computer screen shots, and step-by-step processes, this book walks the reader through modeling and computing, as well as interpreting CFD results. This new edition has been updated throughout, with new content and improved figures, examples and problems.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jardini, Andre L.; Bineli, Aulus R.R.; Viadana, Adriana M.; Maciel, Maria Regina Wolf; Maciel Filho, Rubens [State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). School of Chemical Engineering; Medina, Lilian C.; Gomes, Alexandre de O. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES); Barros, Ricardo S. [University Foundation Jose Bonifacio (FUJB), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
2008-07-01
In this paper, the design of microreactor with microfluidics channels has been carried out in Computer Aided Design Software (CAD) and constructed in rapid prototyping system to be used in chemical reaction processing of the heavy oil fractions. The flow pattern properties of microreactor (fluid dynamics, mixing behavior) have been considered through CFD (computational fluid dynamics) simulations. CFD calculations are also used to study the design and specification of new microreactor developments. The potential advantages of using a microreactor include better control of reaction conditions, improved safety and portability. A more detailed crude assay of the raw national oil, whose importance was evidenced by PETROBRAS/CENPES allows establishing the optimum strategies and processing conditions, aiming at a maximum utilization of the heavy oil fractions, towards valuable products. These residues are able to be processed in microreactor, in which conventional process like as hydrotreating, catalytic and thermal cracking may be carried out in a much more intensified fashion. The whole process development involves a prior thermal study to define the possible operating conditions for a particular task, the microreactor design through computational fluid dynamics and construction using rapid prototyping. This gives high flexibility for process development, shorter time, and costumer/task oriented process/product development. (author)
Low-order dynamical system model of a fully developed turbulent channel flow
Hamilton, Nicholas; Tutkun, Murat; Cal, Raúl Bayoán
2017-06-01
A reduced order model of a turbulent channel flow is composed from a direct numerical simulation database hosted at the Johns Hopkins University. Snapshot proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) is used to identify the Hilbert space from which the reduced order model is obtained, as the POD basis is defined to capture the optimal energy content by mode. The reduced order model is defined by coupling the evolution of the dynamic POD mode coefficients through their respective time derivative with a least-squares polynomial fit of terms up to third order. Parameters coupling the dynamics of the POD basis are defined in analog to those produced in the classical Galerkin projection. The resulting low-order dynamical system is tested for a range of basis modes demonstrating that the non-linear mode interactions do not lead to a monotonic decrease in error propagation. A basis of five POD modes accounts for 50% of the integrated turbulence kinetic energy but captures only the largest features of the turbulence in the channel flow and is not able to reflect the anticipated flow dynamics. Using five modes, the low-order model is unable to accurately reproduce Reynolds stresses, and the root-mean-square error of the predicted stresses is as great as 30%. Increasing the basis to 28 modes accounts for 90% of the kinetic energy and adds intermediate scales to the dynamical system. The difference between the time derivatives of the random coefficients associated with individual modes and their least-squares fit is amplified in the numerical integration leading to unstable long-time solutions. Periodic recalibration of the dynamical system is undertaken by limiting the integration time to the range of the sampled data and offering the dynamical system new initial conditions. Renewed initial conditions are found by pushing the mode coefficients in the end of the integration time toward a known point along the original trajectories identified through a least-squares projection. Under
Iverson, Richard M.; LeVeque, Randall J.
2009-01-01
A recent workshop at the University of Washington focused on mathematical and computational aspects of modeling the dynamics of dense, gravity-driven mass movements such as rock avalanches and debris flows. About 30 participants came from seven countries and brought diverse backgrounds in geophysics; geology; physics; applied and computational mathematics; and civil, mechanical, and geotechnical engineering. The workshop was cosponsored by the U.S. Geological Survey Volcano Hazards Program, by the U.S. National Science Foundation through a Vertical Integration of Research and Education (VIGRE) in the Mathematical Sciences grant to the University of Washington, and by the Pacific Institute for the Mathematical Sciences. It began with a day of lectures open to the academic community at large and concluded with 2 days of focused discussions and collaborative work among the participants.
Multi-dimensional two-fluid flow computation. An overview
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carver, M.B.
1992-01-01
This paper discusses a repertoire of three-dimensional computer programs developed to perform critical analysis of single-phase, two-phase and multi-fluid flow in reactor components. The basic numerical approach to solving the governing equations common to all the codes is presented and the additional constitutive relationships required for closure are discussed. Particular applications are presented for a number of computer codes. (author). 12 refs
Computational fluid dynamics in ventilation: Practical approach
Fontaine, J. R.
The potential of computation fluid dynamics (CFD) for conceiving ventilation systems is shown through the simulation of five practical cases. The following examples are considered: capture of pollutants on a surface treating tank equipped with a unilateral suction slot in the presence of a disturbing air draft opposed to suction; dispersion of solid aerosols inside fume cupboards; performances comparison of two general ventilation systems in a silkscreen printing workshop; ventilation of a large open painting area; and oil fog removal inside a mechanical engineering workshop. Whereas the two first problems are analyzed through two dimensional numerical simulations, the three other cases require three dimensional modeling. For the surface treating tank case, numerical results are compared to laboratory experiment data. All simulations are carried out using EOL, a CFD software specially devised to deal with air quality problems in industrial ventilated premises. It contains many analysis tools to interpret the results in terms familiar to the industrial hygienist. Much experimental work has been engaged to validate the predictions of EOL for ventilation flows.
Flow-based model of computer hackers' motivation.
Voiskounsky, Alexander E; Smyslova, Olga V
2003-04-01
Hackers' psychology, widely discussed in the media, is almost entirely unexplored by psychologists. In this study, hackers' motivation is investigated, using the flow paradigm. Flow is likely to motivate hackers, according to views expressed by researchers and by hackers themselves. Taken as granted that hackers experience flow, it was hypothesized that flow increases with the increase of hackers' competence in IT use. Self-selected subjects were recruited on specialized web sources; 457 hackers filled out a web questionnaire. Competence in IT use, specific flow experience, and demographic data were questioned. An on-line research was administered within the Russian-speaking community (though one third of Ss are non-residents of Russian Federation); since hacking seems to be international, the belief is expressed that the results are universal. The hypothesis is not confirmed: flow motivation characterizes the least and the most competent hackers, and the members of an intermediate group, that is, averagely competent Ss report the "flow crisis"-no (or less) flow experience. Two differing strategies of task choice were self-reported by Ss: a step-by-step increase of the difficulty of choices leads to a match of challenges and skills (and to preserving the flow experience); putting choices irrespective of the likelihood of solution leads to a "flow crisis." The findings give productive hints on processes of hackers' motivational development. The flow-based model of computer hackers' motivation was developed. It combines both empirically confirmed and theoretically possible ways of hackers' "professional" growth.
Numerical fluid dynamics calculations of nonequilibrium steam-water flows with entrained droplets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Williams, K.A.
1984-01-01
The present work has developed a computational fluid dynamics formulation that efficiently solves the conservation laws for a vapor field, a continuous liquid field, and two dispersed droplet fields. The thermal-hydraulic effects resulting from the exchange of mass, momentum and energy between the vapor and the dispersed droplet phases has been accurately modeled. This work is an advancement of the state-of-the-art for engineering analyses of nonequilibrium steam-water-droplet flows in heated channels. It is particularly applicable for boiling steam-water flows in which it is important to represent the effects of significant thermal nonequilibrium between the vapor and the liquid phases. This work was shown to be in good agreement with unique experimental measurements of significant thermal nonequilibrium between the vapor and dispersed droplets. The tests analyzed covered a range of mass fluxes and wall heating rates, and were all at low pressures where nonequilibrium effects are most pronounced
Thermohydrodynamic analysis of cryogenic liquid turbulent flow fluid film bearings
Andres, Luis San
1993-01-01
A thermohydrodynamic analysis is presented and a computer code developed for prediction of the static and dynamic force response of hydrostatic journal bearings (HJB's), annular seals or damper bearing seals, and fixed arc pad bearings for cryogenic liquid applications. The study includes the most important flow characteristics found in cryogenic fluid film bearings such as flow turbulence, fluid inertia, liquid compressibility and thermal effects. The analysis and computational model devised allow the determination of the flow field in cryogenic fluid film bearings along with the dynamic force coefficients for rotor-bearing stability analysis.
Neural Computations in a Dynamical System with Multiple Time Scales.
Mi, Yuanyuan; Lin, Xiaohan; Wu, Si
2016-01-01
Neural systems display rich short-term dynamics at various levels, e.g., spike-frequency adaptation (SFA) at the single-neuron level, and short-term facilitation (STF) and depression (STD) at the synapse level. These dynamical features typically cover a broad range of time scales and exhibit large diversity in different brain regions. It remains unclear what is the computational benefit for the brain to have such variability in short-term dynamics. In this study, we propose that the brain can exploit such dynamical features to implement multiple seemingly contradictory computations in a single neural circuit. To demonstrate this idea, we use continuous attractor neural network (CANN) as a working model and include STF, SFA and STD with increasing time constants in its dynamics. Three computational tasks are considered, which are persistent activity, adaptation, and anticipative tracking. These tasks require conflicting neural mechanisms, and hence cannot be implemented by a single dynamical feature or any combination with similar time constants. However, with properly coordinated STF, SFA and STD, we show that the network is able to implement the three computational tasks concurrently. We hope this study will shed light on the understanding of how the brain orchestrates its rich dynamics at various levels to realize diverse cognitive functions.
Multiphase flow dynamics 1 fundamentals
Kolev, Nikolay Ivanov
2004-01-01
Multi-phase flows are part of our natural environment such as tornadoes, typhoons, air and water pollution and volcanic activities as well as part of industrial technology such as power plants, combustion engines, propulsion systems, or chemical and biological industry. The industrial use of multi-phase systems requires analytical and numerical strategies for predicting their behavior. In its third extended edition this monograph contains theory, methods and practical experience for describing complex transient multi-phase processes in arbitrary geometrical configurations, providing a systematic presentation of the theory and practice of numerical multi-phase fluid dynamics. In the present first volume the fundamentals of multiphase dynamics are provided. This third edition includes various updates, extensions and improvements in all book chapters.
High-order hydrodynamic algorithms for exascale computing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Morgan, Nathaniel Ray [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2016-02-05
Hydrodynamic algorithms are at the core of many laboratory missions ranging from simulating ICF implosions to climate modeling. The hydrodynamic algorithms commonly employed at the laboratory and in industry (1) typically lack requisite accuracy for complex multi- material vortical flows and (2) are not well suited for exascale computing due to poor data locality and poor FLOP/memory ratios. Exascale computing requires advances in both computer science and numerical algorithms. We propose to research the second requirement and create a new high-order hydrodynamic algorithm that has superior accuracy, excellent data locality, and excellent FLOP/memory ratios. This proposal will impact a broad range of research areas including numerical theory, discrete mathematics, vorticity evolution, gas dynamics, interface instability evolution, turbulent flows, fluid dynamics and shock driven flows. If successful, the proposed research has the potential to radically transform simulation capabilities and help position the laboratory for computing at the exascale.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Istvan Farkas
2016-08-01
Full Text Available The aim of this work is to simulate the thermohydraulic consequences of a main steam line break and to compare the obtained results with Rossendorf Coolant Mixing Model (ROCOM 1.1 experimental results. The objective is to utilize data from steady-state mixing experiments and computational fluid dynamics (CFD calculations to determine the flow distribution and the effect of thermal mixing phenomena in the primary loops for the improvement of normal operation conditions and structural integrity assessment of pressurized water reactors. The numerical model of ROCOM was developed using the FLUENT code. The positions of the inlet and outlet boundary conditions and the distribution of detailed velocity/turbulence parameters were determined by preliminary calculations. The temperature fields of transient calculation were averaged in time and compared with time-averaged experimental data. The perforated barrel under the core inlet homogenizes the flow, and therefore, a uniform temperature distribution is formed in the pressure vessel bottom. The calculated and measured values of lowest temperature were equal. The inlet temperature is an essential parameter for safety assessment. The calculation predicts precisely the experimental results at the core inlet central region. CFD results showed a good agreement (both qualitatively and quantitatively with experimental results.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pradeep, Chaminda; Yan, Ru; Mylvaganam, Saba; Vestøl, Sondre; Melaaen, Morten C
2014-01-01
The electrical capacitance tomographic (ECT) approach is increasingly seen as attractive for measurement and control applications in the process industries. Recently, there is increased interest in using the tomographic details from ECT for comparing with and validating and tuning CFD models of multiphase flow. Collaboration with researchers working in the field of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of multiphase flows gives valuable information for both groups of researchers in the field of ECT and CFD. By studying the ECT tomograms of multiphase flows under carefully monitored inflow conditions of the different media and by obtaining the capacitance values, C(i, j, t) with i = 1…N, j = 1, 2,…N and i ≠ j obtained from ECT modules with N electrodes, it is shown how the interface heights in a pipe with stratified flow of oil and air can be fruitfully compared to the values of those obtained from ECT and gamma radiation meter (GRM) for improving CFD modeling. Monitored inflow conditions in this study are flow rates of air, water and oil into a pipe which can be positioned at varying inclinations to the horizontal, thus emulating the pipelines laid in subsea installations. It is found that ECT-based tomograms show most of the features seen in the GRM-based visualizations with nearly one-to-one correspondence to interface heights obtained from these two methods, albeit some anomalies at the pipe wall. However, there are some interesting features the ECT manages to capture: features which the GRM or the CFD modeling apparently do not show, possibly due to parameters not defined in the inputs to the CFD model or much slower response of the GRM. Results presented in this paper indicate that a combination of ECT and GRM and preferably with other modalities with enhanced data fusion and analysis combined with CFD modeling can help to improve the modeling, measurement and control of multiphase flow in the oil and gas industries and in the process industries
Dynamic behaviors of cavitation bubble for the steady cavitating flow
Cai, Jun; Huai, Xiulan; Li, Xunfeng
2009-12-01
In this paper, by introducing the flow velocity item into the classical Rayleigh-Plesset dynamic equation, a new equation, which does not involve the time term and can describe the motion of cavitation bubble in the steady cavitating flow, has been obtained. By solving the new motion equation using Runge-Kutta fourth order method with adaptive step size control, the dynamic behaviors of cavitation bubble driven by the varying pressure field downstream of a venturi cavitation reactor are numerically simulated. The effects of liquid temperature (corresponding to the saturated vapor pressure of liquid), cavitation number and inlet pressure of venturi on radial motion of bubble and pressure pulse due to the radial motion are analyzed and discussed in detail. Some dynamic behaviors of bubble different from those in previous papers are displayed. In addition, the internal relationship between bubble dynamics and process intensification is also discussed. The simulation results reported in this work reveal the variation laws of cavitation intensity with the flow conditions of liquid, and will lay a foundation for the practical application of hydrodynamic cavitation technology.
Modeling Computer Virus and Its Dynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mei Peng
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Based on that the computer will be infected by infected computer and exposed computer, and some of the computers which are in suscepitible status and exposed status can get immunity by antivirus ability, a novel coumputer virus model is established. The dynamic behaviors of this model are investigated. First, the basic reproduction number R0, which is a threshold of the computer virus spreading in internet, is determined. Second, this model has a virus-free equilibrium P0, which means that the infected part of the computer disappears, and the virus dies out, and P0 is a globally asymptotically stable equilibrium if R01 then this model has only one viral equilibrium P*, which means that the computer persists at a constant endemic level, and P* is also globally asymptotically stable. Finally, some numerical examples are given to demonstrate the analytical results.
Dynamics and statistics of heavy particles in turbulent flows
Cencini, M.; Bec, J.; Biferale, L.; Boffetta, G.; Celani, A.; Lanotte, A.; Musacchio, S.; Toschi, F.
2006-01-01
We present the results of direct numerical simulations (DNS) of turbulent flows seeded with millions of passive inertial particles. The maximum Reynolds number is Re¿~ 200. We consider particles much heavier than the carrier flow in the limit when the Stokes drag force dominates their dynamical
Coupling-constant flows and dynamical symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamagishi, H.
1981-01-01
The Coleman-Weinberg theory is reformulated in terms of flows in coupling-constant space. It is shown that the existence of dynamical symmetry breaking is governed essentially by the b functions. An application is made to the massless Weinberg-Salam model
Dynamical Models for Computer Viruses Propagation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
José R. C. Piqueira
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Nowadays, digital computer systems and networks are the main engineering tools, being used in planning, design, operation, and control of all sizes of building, transportation, machinery, business, and life maintaining devices. Consequently, computer viruses became one of the most important sources of uncertainty, contributing to decrease the reliability of vital activities. A lot of antivirus programs have been developed, but they are limited to detecting and removing infections, based on previous knowledge of the virus code. In spite of having good adaptation capability, these programs work just as vaccines against diseases and are not able to prevent new infections based on the network state. Here, a trial on modeling computer viruses propagation dynamics relates it to other notable events occurring in the network permitting to establish preventive policies in the network management. Data from three different viruses are collected in the Internet and two different identification techniques, autoregressive and Fourier analyses, are applied showing that it is possible to forecast the dynamics of a new virus propagation by using the data collected from other viruses that formerly infected the network.
Shaded computer graphic techniques for visualizing and interpreting analytic fluid flow models
Parke, F. I.
1981-01-01
Mathematical models which predict the behavior of fluid flow in different experiments are simulated using digital computers. The simulations predict values of parameters of the fluid flow (pressure, temperature and velocity vector) at many points in the fluid. Visualization of the spatial variation in the value of these parameters is important to comprehend and check the data generated, to identify the regions of interest in the flow, and for effectively communicating information about the flow to others. The state of the art imaging techniques developed in the field of three dimensional shaded computer graphics is applied to visualization of fluid flow. Use of an imaging technique known as 'SCAN' for visualizing fluid flow, is studied and the results are presented.
Statistical properties of dynamical systems – Simulation and abstract computation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Galatolo, Stefano; Hoyrup, Mathieu; Rojas, Cristóbal
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► A survey on results about computation and computability on the statistical properties of dynamical systems. ► Computability and non-computability results for invariant measures. ► A short proof for the computability of the convergence speed of ergodic averages. ► A kind of “constructive” version of the pointwise ergodic theorem. - Abstract: We survey an area of recent development, relating dynamics to theoretical computer science. We discuss some aspects of the theoretical simulation and computation of the long term behavior of dynamical systems. We will focus on the statistical limiting behavior and invariant measures. We present a general method allowing the algorithmic approximation at any given accuracy of invariant measures. The method can be applied in many interesting cases, as we shall explain. On the other hand, we exhibit some examples where the algorithmic approximation of invariant measures is not possible. We also explain how it is possible to compute the speed of convergence of ergodic averages (when the system is known exactly) and how this entails the computation of arbitrarily good approximations of points of the space having typical statistical behaviour (a sort of constructive version of the pointwise ergodic theorem).
Differences in dynamic autoregulation of renal blood flow between SHR and WKY rats
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chen, Y M; Holstein-Rathlou, N H
1993-01-01
by chaotic fluctuations. We sought to determine whether this change was associated with a change in the dynamic autoregulation of renal blood flow. In halothane-anesthetized 250- to 320-g SHR and WKY rats, renal blood flow was measured during "white noise" forcing of arterial blood pressure. The frequency...... conclude that the change in the dynamics of TGF leads to a change in the dynamic autoregulation of renal blood flow between SHR and WKY rats. This change results in a more efficient dynamic autoregulation of renal blood flow in the SHR compared with the WKY rats. The functional consequences of this......In halothane-anesthetized Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats the single-nephron blood flow and the proximal tubule pressure oscillate at a frequency of 35-50 mHz because of the operation of the tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) mechanism. In spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) the oscillations are replaced...
Flight control of fruit flies: dynamic response to optic flow and headwind.
Lawson, Kiaran K K; Srinivasan, Mandyam V
2017-06-01
Insects are magnificent fliers that are capable of performing many complex tasks such as speed regulation, smooth landings and collision avoidance, even though their computational abilities are limited by their small brain. To investigate how flying insects respond to changes in wind speed and surrounding optic flow, the open-loop sensorimotor response of female Queensland fruit flies ( Bactrocera tryoni ) was examined. A total of 136 flies were exposed to stimuli comprising sinusoidally varying optic flow and air flow (simulating forward movement) under tethered conditions in a virtual reality arena. Two responses were measured: the thrust and the abdomen pitch. The dynamics of the responses to optic flow and air flow were measured at various frequencies, and modelled as a multicompartment linear system, which accurately captured the behavioural responses of the fruit flies. The results indicate that these two behavioural responses are concurrently sensitive to changes of optic flow as well as wind. The abdomen pitch showed a streamlining response, where the abdomen was raised higher as the magnitude of either stimulus was increased. The thrust, in contrast, exhibited a counter-phase response where maximum thrust occurred when the optic flow or wind flow was at a minimum, indicating that the flies were attempting to maintain an ideal flight speed. When the changes in the wind and optic flow were in phase (i.e. did not contradict each other), the net responses (thrust and abdomen pitch) were well approximated by an equally weighted sum of the responses to the individual stimuli. However, when the optic flow and wind stimuli were presented in counterphase, the flies seemed to respond to only one stimulus or the other, demonstrating a form of 'selective attention'. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Instabilities and vortex dynamics in shear flow of magnetized plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tajima, T.; Horton, W.; Morrison, P.J.; Schutkeker, J.; Kamimura, T.; Mima, K.; Abe, Y.
1990-03-01
Gradient-driven instabilities and the subsequent nonlinear evolution of generated vortices in sheared E x B flows are investigated for magnetized plasmas with and without gravity (magnetic curvature) and magnetic shear by using theory and implicit particle simulations. In the linear eigenmode analysis, the instabilities considered are the Kelvin-Helmholtz (K-H) instability and the resistive interchange instability. The presence of the shear flow can stabilize these instabilities. The dynamics of the K-H instability and the vortex dynamics can be uniformly described by the initial flow pattern with a vorticity localization parameter ε. The observed growth of the K-H modes is exponential in time for linearly unstable modes, secular for marginal mode, and absent until driven nonlinearly for linearly stable modes. The distance between two vortex centers experiences rapid merging while the angle θ between the axis of vortices and the external shear flow increases. These vortices proceed toward their overall coalescence, while shedding small-scale vortices and waves. The main features of vortex dynamics of the nonlinear coalescence and the tilt or the rotational instabilities of vortices are shown to be given by using a low dimension Hamiltonian representation for interacting vortex cores in the shear flow. 24 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab
Static/dynamic fluid-structure interaction analysis for 3-D rotary blade model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Dong Hyun; Kim, Yu Sung; Kim, Dong Man; Park, Kang Kyun
2009-01-01
In this study, static/dynamic fluid-structure interaction analyses have been conducted for a 3D rotary blade model like a turbo-machinery or wind turbine blade. Advanced computational analysis system based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Computational Structural Dynamics (CSD) has been developed in order to investigate detailed dynamic responses of rotary type models. Fluid domains are modeled using the computational grid system with local grid deforming techniques. Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with various turbulence model are solved for unsteady flow problems of the rotating blade model. Detailed static/dynamic responses and instantaneous pressure contours on the blade surfaces considering flow-separation effects are presented to show the multi-physical phenomenon of the rotating blades.
Are international fund flows related to exchange rate dynamics?
Li, Suxiao; de Haan, Jakob; Scholtens, Bert
2018-01-01
Employing monthly data for 53 countries between 1996 and 2015, we investigate the relationship between international fund flows and exchange rate dynamics. We find strong co-movement between funds flows (as measured with the EPFR Global data base) and bilateral real exchange rates vis-à-vis the USD.
Universal dynamics in the onset of a Hagen-Poiseuille flow
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mortensen, Asger; Bruus, Henrik
2006-01-01
The dynamics in the onset of a Hagen-Poiseuille flow of an incompressible liquid in a channel of circular cross section is well-studied theoretically. We use an eigenfunction expansion in a Hilbert space formalism to generalize the results to channels of an arbitrary cross section. We find that t...... that the steady state is reached after a characteristic time scale tau=(A/P)(2)(1/nu), where A and P are the cross-sectional area and perimeter, respectively, and nu is the kinematic viscosity of the liquid. For the initial dynamics of the flow rate Q for t......The dynamics in the onset of a Hagen-Poiseuille flow of an incompressible liquid in a channel of circular cross section is well-studied theoretically. We use an eigenfunction expansion in a Hilbert space formalism to generalize the results to channels of an arbitrary cross section. We find...
SD-CAS: Spin Dynamics by Computer Algebra System.
Filip, Xenia; Filip, Claudiu
2010-11-01
A computer algebra tool for describing the Liouville-space quantum evolution of nuclear 1/2-spins is introduced and implemented within a computational framework named Spin Dynamics by Computer Algebra System (SD-CAS). A distinctive feature compared with numerical and previous computer algebra approaches to solving spin dynamics problems results from the fact that no matrix representation for spin operators is used in SD-CAS, which determines a full symbolic character to the performed computations. Spin correlations are stored in SD-CAS as four-entry nested lists of which size increases linearly with the number of spins into the system and are easily mapped into analytical expressions in terms of spin operator products. For the so defined SD-CAS spin correlations a set of specialized functions and procedures is introduced that are essential for implementing basic spin algebra operations, such as the spin operator products, commutators, and scalar products. They provide results in an abstract algebraic form: specific procedures to quantitatively evaluate such symbolic expressions with respect to the involved spin interaction parameters and experimental conditions are also discussed. Although the main focus in the present work is on laying the foundation for spin dynamics symbolic computation in NMR based on a non-matrix formalism, practical aspects are also considered throughout the theoretical development process. In particular, specific SD-CAS routines have been implemented using the YACAS computer algebra package (http://yacas.sourceforge.net), and their functionality was demonstrated on a few illustrative examples. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
A scalable approach to modeling groundwater flow on massively parallel computers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ashby, S.F.; Falgout, R.D.; Tompson, A.F.B.
1995-12-01
We describe a fully scalable approach to the simulation of groundwater flow on a hierarchy of computing platforms, ranging from workstations to massively parallel computers. Specifically, we advocate the use of scalable conceptual models in which the subsurface model is defined independently of the computational grid on which the simulation takes place. We also describe a scalable multigrid algorithm for computing the groundwater flow velocities. We axe thus able to leverage both the engineer's time spent developing the conceptual model and the computing resources used in the numerical simulation. We have successfully employed this approach at the LLNL site, where we have run simulations ranging in size from just a few thousand spatial zones (on workstations) to more than eight million spatial zones (on the CRAY T3D)-all using the same conceptual model
Brownlee, C.
2011-11-01
Understanding fluid flow is a difficult problem and of increasing importance as computational fluid dynamics (CFD) produces an abundance of simulation data. Experimental flow analysis has employed techniques such as shadowgraph, interferometry, and schlieren imaging for centuries, which allow empirical observation of inhomogeneous flows. Shadowgraphs provide an intuitive way of looking at small changes in flow dynamics through caustic effects while schlieren cutoffs introduce an intensity gradation for observing large scale directional changes in the flow. Interferometry tracks changes in phase-shift resulting in bands appearing. The combination of these shading effects provides an informative global analysis of overall fluid flow. Computational solutions for these methods have proven too complex until recently due to the fundamental physical interaction of light refracting through the flow field. In this paper, we introduce a novel method to simulate the refraction of light to generate synthetic shadowgraph, schlieren and interferometry images of time-varying scalar fields derived from computational fluid dynamics data. Our method computes physically accurate schlieren and shadowgraph images at interactive rates by utilizing a combination of GPGPU programming, acceleration methods, and data-dependent probabilistic schlieren cutoffs. Applications of our method to multifield data and custom application-dependent color filter creation are explored. Results comparing this method to previous schlieren approximations are finally presented. © 2011 IEEE.
Computation of turbulent flow and heat transfer in subassemblies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Slagter, W.
1979-01-01
This research is carried out in order to provide information on the thermohydraulic behaviour of fast reactor subassemblies. The research work involves the development of versatile computation methods and the evaluation of combined theoretical and experimental work on fluid flow and heat transfer in fuel rod bundles. The computation method described here rests on the application of the distributed parameter approach. The conditions considered cover steady, turbulent flow and heat transfer of incompressible fluids in bundles of bare rods. Throughout 1978 main efforts were given to the development of the VITESSE program and to the validation of the hydrodynamic part of the code. In its present version the VITESSE program is applicable to predict the fully developed turbulent flow and heat transfer in the subchannels of a bundle with bare rods. In this paper the main features of the code are described as well as the present status of development
Piatti, Filippo; Palumbo, Maria Chiara; Consolo, Filippo; Pluchinotta, Francesca; Greiser, Andreas; Sturla, Francesco; Votta, Emiliano; Siryk, Sergii V; Vismara, Riccardo; Fiore, Gianfranco Beniamino; Lombardi, Massimo; Redaelli, Alberto
2018-02-08
The performance of blood-processing devices largely depends on the associated fluid dynamics, which hence represents a key aspect in their design and optimization. To this aim, two approaches are currently adopted: computational fluid-dynamics, which yields highly resolved three-dimensional data but relies on simplifying assumptions, and in vitro experiments, which typically involve the direct video-acquisition of the flow field and provide 2D data only. We propose a novel method that exploits space- and time-resolved magnetic resonance imaging (4D-flow) to quantify the complex 3D flow field in blood-processing devices and to overcome these limitations. We tested our method on a real device that integrates an oxygenator and a heat exchanger. A dedicated mock loop was implemented, and novel 4D-flow sequences with sub-millimetric spatial resolution and region-dependent velocity encodings were defined. Automated in house software was developed to quantify the complex 3D flow field within the different regions of the device: region-dependent flow rates, pressure drops, paths of the working fluid and wall shear stresses were computed. Our analysis highlighted the effects of fine geometrical features of the device on the local fluid-dynamics, which would be unlikely observed by current in vitro approaches. Also, the effects of non-idealities on the flow field distribution were captured, thanks to the absence of the simplifying assumptions that typically characterize numerical models. To the best of our knowledge, our approach is the first of its kind and could be extended to the analysis of a broad range of clinically relevant devices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Singularities in Free Surface Flows
Thete, Sumeet Suresh
Free surface flows where the shape of the interface separating two or more phases or liquids are unknown apriori, are commonplace in industrial applications and nature. Distribution of drop sizes, coalescence rate of drops, and the behavior of thin liquid films are crucial to understanding and enhancing industrial practices such as ink-jet printing, spraying, separations of chemicals, and coating flows. When a contiguous mass of liquid such as a drop, filament or a film undergoes breakup to give rise to multiple masses, the topological transition is accompanied with a finite-time singularity . Such singularity also arises when two or more masses of liquid merge into each other or coalesce. Thus the dynamics close to singularity determines the fate of about-to-form drops or films and applications they are involved in, and therefore needs to be analyzed precisely. The primary goal of this thesis is to resolve and analyze the dynamics close to singularity when free surface flows experience a topological transition, using a combination of theory, experiments, and numerical simulations. The first problem under consideration focuses on the dynamics following flow shut-off in bottle filling applications that are relevant to pharmaceutical and consumer products industry, using numerical techniques based on Galerkin Finite Element Methods (GFEM). The second problem addresses the dual flow behavior of aqueous foams that are observed in oil and gas fields and estimates the relevant parameters that describe such flows through a series of experiments. The third problem aims at understanding the drop formation of Newtonian and Carreau fluids, computationally using GFEM. The drops are formed as a result of imposed flow rates or expanding bubbles similar to those of piezo actuated and thermal ink-jet nozzles. The focus of fourth problem is on the evolution of thinning threads of Newtonian fluids and suspensions towards singularity, using computations based on GFEM and experimental
Computer network prepared to handle massive data flow
2006-01-01
"Massive quantities of data will soon begin flowing from the largest scientific instrument ever built into an internationl network of computer centers, including one operated jointly by the University of Chicago and Indiana University." (2 pages)
Dynamic X-ray computed tomography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grangeat, P.
2003-01-01
Paper Dynamic computed tomography (CT) imaging aims at reconstructing image sequences where the dynamic nature of the living human body is of primary interest. Main concerned applications are image-guided interventional procedures, functional studies and cardiac imaging. The introduction of ultra-fast rotating gantries along with multi-row detectors and in near future area detectors allows a huge progress toward the imaging of moving organs with low-contrast resolution. This paper gives an overview of the different concepts used in dynamic CT. A new reconstruction algorithm based on a voxel-specific dynamic evolution compensation is also presented. It provides four-dimensional image sequences with accurate spatio-temporal information, where each frame is reconstructed using a long-scan acquisition mode on several half-turns. In the same time, this technique permits to reduce the dose delivered per rotation while keeping the same signal to noise ratio for every frame using an adaptive motion-compensated temporal averaging. Results are illustrated on simulated data. (authors)
Computer simulation of two-phase flow in nuclear reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wulff, W.
1993-01-01
Two-phase flow models dominate the requirements of economic resources for the development and use of computer codes which serve to analyze thermohydraulic transients in nuclear power plants. An attempt is made to reduce the effort of analyzing reactor transients by combining purpose-oriented modelling with advanced computing techniques. Six principles are presented on mathematical modeling and the selection of numerical methods, along with suggestions on programming and machine selection, all aimed at reducing the cost of analysis. Computer simulation is contrasted with traditional computer calculation. The advantages of run-time interactive access operation in a simulation environment are demonstrated. It is explained that the drift-flux model is better suited than the two-fluid model for the analysis of two-phase flow in nuclear reactors, because of the latter's closure problems. The advantage of analytical over numerical integration is demonstrated. Modeling and programming techniques are presented which minimize the number of needed arithmetical and logical operations and thereby increase the simulation speed, while decreasing the cost. (orig.)
Computations of the Magnus effect for slender bodies in supersonic flow
Sturek, W. B.; Schiff, L. B.
1980-01-01
A recently reported Parabolized Navier-Stokes code has been employed to compute the supersonic flow field about spinning cone, ogive-cylinder, and boattailed bodies of revolution at moderate incidence. The computations were performed for flow conditions where extensive measurements for wall pressure, boundary layer velocity profiles and Magnus force had been obtained. Comparisons between the computational results and experiment indicate excellent agreement for angles of attack up to six degrees. The comparisons for Magnus effects show that the code accurately predicts the effects of body shape and Mach number for the selected models for Mach numbers in the range of 2-4.
Dynamic single photon emission computed tomography-basic principles and cardiac applications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gullberg, Grant T; Reutter, Bryan W; Maltz, Jonathan S; Budinger, Thomas F [E O Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Sitek, Arkadiusz, E-mail: gtgullberg@lbl.go [Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)
2010-10-21
The very nature of nuclear medicine, the visual representation of injected radiopharmaceuticals, implies imaging of dynamic processes such as the uptake and wash-out of radiotracers from body organs. For years, nuclear medicine has been touted as the modality of choice for evaluating function in health and disease. This evaluation is greatly enhanced using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), which permits three-dimensional (3D) visualization of tracer distributions in the body. However, to fully realize the potential of the technique requires the imaging of in vivo dynamic processes of flow and metabolism. Tissue motion and deformation must also be addressed. Absolute quantification of these dynamic processes in the body has the potential to improve diagnosis. This paper presents a review of advancements toward the realization of the potential of dynamic SPECT imaging and a brief history of the development of the instrumentation. A major portion of the paper is devoted to the review of special data processing methods that have been developed for extracting kinetics from dynamic cardiac SPECT data acquired using rotating detector heads that move as radiopharmaceuticals exchange between biological compartments. Recent developments in multi-resolution spatiotemporal methods enable one to estimate kinetic parameters of compartment models of dynamic processes using data acquired from a single camera head with slow gantry rotation. The estimation of kinetic parameters directly from projection measurements improves bias and variance over the conventional method of first reconstructing 3D dynamic images, generating time-activity curves from selected regions of interest and then estimating the kinetic parameters from the generated time-activity curves. Although the potential applications of SPECT for imaging dynamic processes have not been fully realized in the clinic, it is hoped that this review illuminates the potential of SPECT for dynamic imaging
Dynamic single photon emission computed tomography-basic principles and cardiac applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gullberg, Grant T; Reutter, Bryan W; Maltz, Jonathan S; Budinger, Thomas F; Sitek, Arkadiusz
2010-01-01
The very nature of nuclear medicine, the visual representation of injected radiopharmaceuticals, implies imaging of dynamic processes such as the uptake and wash-out of radiotracers from body organs. For years, nuclear medicine has been touted as the modality of choice for evaluating function in health and disease. This evaluation is greatly enhanced using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), which permits three-dimensional (3D) visualization of tracer distributions in the body. However, to fully realize the potential of the technique requires the imaging of in vivo dynamic processes of flow and metabolism. Tissue motion and deformation must also be addressed. Absolute quantification of these dynamic processes in the body has the potential to improve diagnosis. This paper presents a review of advancements toward the realization of the potential of dynamic SPECT imaging and a brief history of the development of the instrumentation. A major portion of the paper is devoted to the review of special data processing methods that have been developed for extracting kinetics from dynamic cardiac SPECT data acquired using rotating detector heads that move as radiopharmaceuticals exchange between biological compartments. Recent developments in multi-resolution spatiotemporal methods enable one to estimate kinetic parameters of compartment models of dynamic processes using data acquired from a single camera head with slow gantry rotation. The estimation of kinetic parameters directly from projection measurements improves bias and variance over the conventional method of first reconstructing 3D dynamic images, generating time-activity curves from selected regions of interest and then estimating the kinetic parameters from the generated time-activity curves. Although the potential applications of SPECT for imaging dynamic processes have not been fully realized in the clinic, it is hoped that this review illuminates the potential of SPECT for dynamic imaging
Tjahjana, Dominicus Danardono Dwi Prija; Purbaningrum, Pradityasari; Hadi, Syamsul; Wicaksono, Yoga Arob; Adiputra, Dimas
2018-02-01
Cross flow turbine can be one of the alternative energies for regions with low wind speed. Collision between wind and the blades which happened two times caused the cross flow turbine to have high power coefficient. Some factors that influence the turbine power coefficient are diameter ratio and blade number. The objective of the research was to study the effect of the diameter ratio and the blade number to the cross flow wind turbine performance. The study was done in two dimensional (2D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation method using the ANSYS-Fluent software. The turbine diameter ratio were 0.58, 0.63, 0.68 and 0.73. The diameter ratio resulting in the highest power coefficient value was then simulated by varying the number of blades, namely 16, 20 and 24. Each variation was tested on the wind speed of 2 m/s and at the tip speed ratio (TSR) of 0.1 to 0.4 with the interval of 0.1. The wind turbine with the ratio diameter of 0.68 and the number of blades of 20 generated the highest power coefficient of 0.5 at the TSR of 0.3.
Computational investigations of blunt body drag-reduction spikes in hypersonic flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kamran, N.; Zahir, S.; Khan, M.A.
2003-01-01
Drag is an important parameter in the designing of high-speed vehicles. Such vehicles include hypervelocity projectiles, reentry modules, and hypersonic aircrafts. Therefore, there exists an active or passive technique to reduce drag due to the high pressures at nosetip region of the vehicle. Drag can be reduced by attaching a forward facing spike on the nose of the vehicle. The present study reviews and deals with the CFD analysis made on a standard blunt body to reduce aerodynamic drag due to the attachment of forward facing spikes for High-Speed vehicles. Different spike lengths have been examined to study the forebody flowfield. The investigation concludes that spikes are an effective way to reduce the aerodynamic drag due to reduced dynamic pressure on the nose caused by the separated flow on the spikes. With the accomplishment of confidence on computational data, study was extended in hypersonic Mach range with a drag prediction accuracy of ± 10%. In the present work, viscous fluid dynamics studies were performed for a complete freestream Mach number range of 5.0, 6.0, 7.0 and 8.0 for different spike lengths and zero degree angle of attack. (author)
Dynamic Transitions and Baroclinic Instability for 3D Continuously Stratified Boussinesq Flows
Şengül, Taylan; Wang, Shouhong
2018-02-01
The main objective of this article is to study the nonlinear stability and dynamic transitions of the basic (zonal) shear flows for the three-dimensional continuously stratified rotating Boussinesq model. The model equations are fundamental equations in geophysical fluid dynamics, and dynamics associated with their basic zonal shear flows play a crucial role in understanding many important geophysical fluid dynamical processes, such as the meridional overturning oceanic circulation and the geophysical baroclinic instability. In this paper, first we derive a threshold for the energy stability of the basic shear flow, and obtain a criterion for local nonlinear stability in terms of the critical horizontal wavenumbers and the system parameters such as the Froude number, the Rossby number, the Prandtl number and the strength of the shear flow. Next, we demonstrate that the system always undergoes a dynamic transition from the basic shear flow to either a spatiotemporal oscillatory pattern or circle of steady states, as the shear strength of the basic flow crosses a critical threshold. Also, we show that the dynamic transition can be either continuous or catastrophic, and is dictated by the sign of a transition number, fully characterizing the nonlinear interactions of different modes. Both the critical shear strength and the transition number are functions of the system parameters. A systematic numerical method is carried out to explore transition in different flow parameter regimes. In particular, our numerical investigations show the existence of a hypersurface which separates the parameter space into regions where the basic shear flow is stable and unstable. Numerical investigations also yield that the selection of horizontal wave indices is determined only by the aspect ratio of the box. We find that the system admits only critical eigenmodes with roll patterns aligned with the x-axis. Furthermore, numerically we encountered continuous transitions to multiple
Computational Fluid Dynamics in Ventilation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Peter V.; Allard, Francis; Awbi, Hazim B.
2008-01-01
Computational Fluid Dynamics in Ventilation Design is a new title in the is a new title in the REHVA guidebook series. The guidebook is written for people who need to use and discuss results based on CFD predictions, and it gives insight into the subject for those who are not used to work with CFD...
A Dynamic Growth Model for Flows of Foreign Direct Investment
Yi-Hui Chiang; Yiming Li; Chih-Young Hung
2007-01-01
In this work, we for the first time study the dynamic flows of the foreign direct investment (FDI) with a dynamic growth theory. We define the FDI flow as a process which transmits throughout a given social system by way of diverse communication channels. In model formulation, seven assumptions are thus proposed and the foreign capital policy of the host country is considered as an external influence; in addition, the investment policy of the investing country is modeled as an internal influe...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Potchen, E. J.; Bentley, R.; Gerth, W.; Hill, R. L.; Davis, D. O. [Washington University School Of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)
1969-05-15
The use of freely diffusable inert radioactive gas as a washout indicator to measure regional cerebral blood flow has become a standardized kinetic procedure in many laboratories. Recent investigations with this technique have led us to conclude that we can reliably distinguish regional flow with perfusion against regional flow without perfusion from the early portion of the curve. Based on a detailed study of the early curve kinetics in patients with and without cerebral vascular disease we have defined the sampling duration necessary for application of the Anger gamma camera imaging process to regional changes in cerebral radioactivity. Using a standard camera and a small computer, a procedure has been developed and based upon entire field to determine the time of maximum height followed by analysis of the data in a matrix. This will permit a contour plot presentation of calculated regional cerebral blood flow in millilitres per 100 grams perfused brain per minute. In addition, we propose to augment this data by the display of regional non-perfusion blood flow versus regional cerebral flow with perfusion. Preliminary investigation on sampling duration, and Compton scattering were prerequisite to clinical scintigraphy of regional cerebral blood flow. In addition, the method of interface for the conventional Anger gamma camera to digital computers used in this procedure are discussed. Applications to further assess regional cerebral dynamics by scintigraphy are presented. (author)
Computation of two-dimensional isothermal flow in shell-and-tube heat exchangers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carlucci, L.N.; Galpin, P.F.; Brown, J.D.; Frisina, V.
1983-07-01
A computational procedure is outlined whereby two-dimensional isothermal shell-side flow distributions can be calculated for tube bundles having arbitrary boundaries and flow blocking devices, such as sealing strips, defined in arbitrary locations. The procedure is described in some detail and several computed results are presented to illustrate the robustness and generality of the method
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Analysis for the Reduction of Impeller Discharge Flow Distortion
Garcia, R.; McConnaughey, P. K.; Eastland, A.
1993-01-01
The use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) in the design and analysis of high performance rocket engine pumps has increased in recent years. This increase has been aided by the activities of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Pump Stage Technology Team (PSTT). The team's goals include assessing the accuracy and efficiency of several methodologies and then applying the appropriate methodology(s) to understand and improve the flow inside a pump. The PSTT's objectives, team membership, and past activities are discussed in Garcia1 and Garcia2. The PSTT is one of three teams that form the NASA/MSFC CFD Consortium for Applications in Propulsion Technology (McConnaughey3). The PSTT first applied CFD in the design of the baseline consortium impeller. This impeller was designed for the Space Transportation Main Engine's (STME) fuel turbopump. The STME fuel pump was designed with three impeller stages because a two-stage design was deemed to pose a high developmental risk. The PSTT used CFD to design an impeller whose performance allowed for a two-stage STME fuel pump design. The availability of this design would have lead to a reduction in parts, weight, and cost had the STME reached production. One sample of the baseline consortium impeller was manufactured and tested in a water rig. The test data showed that the impeller performance was as predicted and that a two-stage design for the STME fuel pump was possible with minimal risk. The test data also verified another CFD predicted characteristic of the design that was not desirable. The classical 'jet-wake' pattern at the impeller discharge was strengthened by two aspects of the design: by the high head coefficient necessary for the required pressure rise and by the relatively few impeller exit blades, 12, necessary to reduce manufacturing cost. This 'jet-wake pattern produces an unsteady loading on the diffuser vanes and has, in past rocket engine programs, lead to diffuser structural failure. In industrial
Holden, Jacob R.
Descending maple seeds generate lift to slow their fall and remain aloft in a blowing wind; have the wings of these seeds evolved to descend as slowly as possible? A unique energy balance equation, experimental data, and computational fluid dynamics simulations have all been developed to explore this question from a turbomachinery perspective. The computational fluid dynamics in this work is the first to be performed in the relative reference frame. Maple seed performance has been analyzed for the first time based on principles of wind turbine analysis. Application of the Betz Limit and one-dimensional momentum theory allowed for empirical and computational power and thrust coefficients to be computed for maple seeds. It has been determined that the investigated species of maple seeds perform near the Betz limit for power conversion and thrust coefficient. The power coefficient