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Sample records for compulsive personality disorder

  1. Conscientiousness and Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel, Douglas B; Widiger, Thomas A

    2011-01-01

    A dimensional perspective on personality disorder hypothesizes that the current diagnostic categories represent maladaptive variants of general personality traits. However, a fundamental foundation of this viewpoint is that dimensional models can adequately account for the pathology currently described by these categories. While most of the personality disorders have well established links to dimensional models that buttress this hypothesis, obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) ha...

  2. Obsessive compulsive personality disorder and Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoletti, Alessandra; Luca, Antonina; Raciti, Loredana; Contrafatto, Donatella; Bruno, Elisa; Dibilio, Valeria; Sciacca, Giorgia; Mostile, Giovanni; Petralia, Antonio; Zappia, Mario

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the frequency of personality disorders in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and in a group of healthy controls. Patients affected by PD diagnosed according to the United Kingdom Parkinson's disease Society Brain Bank diagnostic criteria and a group of healthy controls were enrolled in the study. PD patients with cognitive impairment were excluded from the study. Structured Clinical Interview for Personality Disorders-II (SCID-II) has been performed to evaluate the presence of personality disorders. Presence of personality disorders, diagnosed according to the DSM-IV, was confirmed by a psychiatric interview. Clinical and pharmacological data were also recorded using a standardized questionnaire. 100 PD patients (57 men; mean age 59.0 ± 10.2 years) and 100 healthy subjects (52 men; mean age 58.1 ± 11.4 years) were enrolled in the study. The most common personality disorder was the obsessive-compulsive personality disorder diagnosed in 40 PD patients and in 10 controls subjects (p-valuepersonality disorder recorded in 14 PD patients and 4 control subjects (p-value 0.02). Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder was also found in 8 out of 16 de novo PD patients with a short disease duration. PD patients presented a high frequency of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder that does not seem to be related with both disease duration and dopaminergic therapy.

  3. Understanding Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Steven C. Hertler

    2013-01-01

    With the ultimate goal of better understanding Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD), the present work is a review and critique of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., DSM-IV) diagnostic criteria at the end of their 18 years of use. Problems of specificity (polythetic criteria and failure to employ a hallmark feature) make OCPD an indistinct diagnostic category that consequently co...

  4. Response Inhibition Function of Obsessive-Compulsive Patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Lei

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the effect of comorbid obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD on response inhibition functions in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD. Methods: Forty-five obsessive-compulsive patients with obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCD + OCPD, 42 obsessive-compulsive patients without obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCD - OCPD and 54 healthy volunteers were selected for the stop-signal task. Results: Obsessive-compulsive patients with obsessive-compulsive personality disorder had a higher score of depression and anxiety and more severe obsessive-compulsive symptoms than that of obsessive-compulsive patients without obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. The two groups of obsessive-compulsive patients of had a greater stop-signal reaction time (SSRT during the inhibition process than the healthy volunteers of the control group (OCD + OCPD: 221.45 ± 31.78; OCD - OCPD: 218.36 ± 31.78; Controls: 199.29 ± 22.80; p < 0.05. However, no significant difference was found between the two groups of obsessive-compulsive patients. Conclusion: The findings show that the comorbid obsessive-compulsive personality disorder has no effect on response inhibition function of obsessive-compulsive patients.

  5. Conscientiousness and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Douglas B; Widiger, Thomas A

    2011-07-01

    A dimensional perspective on personality disorder hypothesizes that the current diagnostic categories represent maladaptive variants of general personality traits. However, a fundamental foundation of this viewpoint is that dimensional models can adequately account for the pathology currently described by these categories. While most of the personality disorders have well established links to dimensional models that buttress this hypothesis, obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) has obtained only inconsistent support. The current study administered multiple measures of 1) conscientiousness-related personality traits, 2) DSM-IV OCPD, and 3) specific components of OCPD (e.g., compulsivity and perfectionism) to a sample of 536 undergraduates who were oversampled for elevated OCPD scores. Six existing measures of conscientiousness-related personality traits converged strongly with each other supporting their assessment of a common trait. These measures of conscientiousness correlated highly with scales assessing specific components of OCPD, but obtained variable relationships with measures of DSM-IV OCPD. More specifically, there were differences within the conscientiousness instruments such that those designed to assess general personality functioning had small to medium relationships with OCPD, but those assessing more maladaptive variants obtained large effect sizes. These findings support the view that OCPD does represent a maladaptive variant of normal-range conscientiousness.

  6. CLARIFYING THE CONVERGENCE BETWEEN OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVE PERSONALITY DISORDER CRITERIA AND OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVE DISORDER

    OpenAIRE

    Eisen, Jane L.; Coles, Meredith E.; Shea, M. Tracie; Pagano, Maria E.; Stout, Robert L.; Yen, Shirley; Grilo, Carlos M.; Rasmussen, Steven A.

    2006-01-01

    In this study we examined the convergence between obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) criteria and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Baseline assessments of 629 participants of the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study were used to examine the associations between OCPD criteria and diagnoses of OCD. Three of the eight OCPD criteria—hoarding, perfectionism, and preoccupation with details—were significantly more frequent in subjects with OCD (n = 89) than in sub...

  7. Understanding Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven C. Hertler

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available With the ultimate goal of better understanding Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD, the present work is a review and critique of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., DSM-IV diagnostic criteria at the end of their 18 years of use. Problems of specificity (polythetic criteria and failure to employ a hallmark feature make OCPD an indistinct diagnostic category that consequently contains a plurality of types. Problems of sensitivity (missing elements and concrete expression of signs make it more difficult to cull OCPD persons from the population at large. Collectively, these problems of specificity and sensitivity have undermined the efficiency of the DSM-IV criteria set; but more importantly, these problems continue to distort the clinical understanding of OCPD generally.

  8. Does obsessive-compulsive personality disorder belong within the obsessive-compulsive spectrum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fineberg, Naomi A; Sharma, Punita; Sivakumaran, Thanusha; Sahakian, Barbara; Chamberlain, Sam R; Chamberlain, Sam

    2007-06-01

    It has been proposed that certain Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition Axis I disorders share overlapping clinical features, genetic contributions, and treatment response and fall within an "obsessive-compulsive" spectrum. Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) resembles obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and other spectrum disorders in terms of phenomenology, comorbidity, neurocognition, and treatment response. This article critically examines the nosological profile of OCPD with special reference to OCD and related disorders. By viewing OCPD as a candidate member of the obsessive-compulsive spectrum, we gain a fresh approach to understanding its neurobiology, etiology, and potential treatments.

  9. Prevalence of Childhood Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Traits in Adults with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder versus Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Anthony; Greene, Ashley L.; Storch, Eric A.; Simpson, H. Blair

    2014-01-01

    Identifying risk factors of psychopathology has been an important research challenge. Prior studies examining the impact of childhood temperament on adult disorder have largely focused on undercontrolled and inhibited presentations, with little study of overcontrolled traits such as obsessive-compulsive personality traits (OCPTs). We compared rates of childhood OCPTs in adults with OCD (without OCPD) (n = 28) to adults with OCPD (without OCD) (n = 27), adults with both OCD and OCPD (n = 28), ...

  10. The correlates of obsessive-compulsive, schizotypal, and borderline personality disorders in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melca, Isabela A; Yücel, Murat; Mendlowicz, Mauro V; de Oliveira-Souza, Ricardo; Fontenelle, Leonardo F

    2015-06-01

    We assessed correlates of obsessive-compulsive (OCPD), schizotypal (SPD) and borderline (BPD) personality disorders in 110 obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients. We found OCD patients with OCPD (20.9%) to exhibit higher rates of hoarding and bipolar disorders, increased severity of hoarding and symmetry, lower prevalence of unacceptable thoughts involving sex and religion and less non-planning impulsivity. Conversely, OCD patients with SPD (13.6%) displayed more frequently bipolar disorder, increased severity of depression and OCD neutralization, greater prevalence of "low-order" behaviors (i.e., touching), lower low-planning impulsivity and greater "behavioral" compulsivity. Finally, in exploratory analyses, OCD patients with BPD (21.8%) exhibited lower education, higher rates of several comorbid psychiatric disorders, greater frequency of compulsions involving interpersonal domains (e.g. reassurance seeking), increased severity of depression, anxiety and OCD dimensions other than symmetry and hoarding, more motor and non-planning impulsivity, and greater "cognitive" compulsivity. These findings highlight the importance of assessing personality disorders in OCD samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Interpersonal Functioning in Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Cain, Nicole M.; Ansell, Emily B.; Simpson, H. Blair; Pinto, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    The core symptoms of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) often lead to interpersonal difficulties. However, little research has explored interpersonal functioning in OCPD. The current study examined interpersonal problems, interpersonal sensitivities, empathy, and systemizing, the drive to analyze and derive underlying rules for systems, in a sample of 25 OCPD individuals, 25 individuals with comorbid OCPD and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and 25 healthy controls. We found...

  12. Stability of the pregnancy obsessive compulsive personality disorder symptoms checklist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Broekhoven, K.E.M.; Karreman, A.; Hartman, E.E.; Pop, V.J.M.

    2018-01-01

    Because stability over time is central to the definition of personality disorder, aim of the current study was to determine the stability of the Pregnancy Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD) Symptoms Checklist (N = 199 women). Strong positive correlations between assessments at 32 weeks

  13. Relationship between obsessive-compulsive personality disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaferia, G; Bianchi, I; Bianchi, M L; Cavedini, P; Erzegovesi, S; Bellodi, L

    1997-01-01

    This study investigated the presence of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) in a group of 277 patients (88 with obsessive-compulsive disorder [OCD], 58 with major depressive disorder [MDD], and 131 with panic disorder [Panic]) to test the specificity of the relationship between OCPD and OCD. OCPD is statistically significantly more frequent in patients with OCD than in those with Panic and MDD. The distribution of single criteria of OCPD in the three groups does not differ significantly. Discriminant analysis selects a list of items that provide a correct classification rate of 66% based on OCPD criteria selected by canonical function. OCD patients with and without OCPD do not differ in sex, age of onset, duration of illness, positive family history for Tics disorder/Tourette syndrome (TS), or morbidity risk for OCD.

  14. Obsessive compulsive personality disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder: clinical characteristics, diagnostic difficulties, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancebo, Maria C; Eisen, Jane L; Grant, Jon E; Rasmussen, Steven A

    2005-01-01

    The overlap between obsessive compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) has received increasing recognition and continues to be a source of much debate. With the advent of new research methodologies, researchers have attempted to distinguish whether OCPD and OCD are two distinct phenomena that can co-occur or whether they are similar, overlapping constructs. MEDLINE was used to systematically review the OCPD and OCD literature published between 1991 and 2004. Using the more stringent DSM-IV criteria, results from OCD clinical samples suggest that the majority of individuals with OCD (75%) do not have OCPD. Similarly, results from personality disorder samples suggest that the majority of individuals with OCPD (80%) do not have OCD. While there is evidence that OCD and OCPD are linked, the literature does not support either one as a necessary or sufficient component of the other.

  15. Capacity to Delay Reward Differentiates Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Anthony; Steinglass, Joanna E.; Greene, Ashley L.; Weber, Elke U.; Simpson, H. Blair

    2013-01-01

    Background Although the relationship between obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and obsessive compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) has long been debated, clinical samples of OCD (without OCPD) and OCPD (without OCD) have never been systematically compared. We studied whether individuals with OCD, OCPD, or both conditions differ on symptomatology, functioning, and a measure of self-control: the capacity to delay reward. Methods 25 OCD, 25 OCPD, 25 comorbid OCD+OCPD, and 25 healthy controls (HC) completed clinical assessments and a validated intertemporal choice task that measures capacity to forego small immediate rewards for larger delayed rewards. Results OCD and OCPD subjects both showed impairment in psychosocial functioning and quality of life, as well as compulsive behavior, but only subjects with OCD reported obsessions. Individuals with OCPD, with or without comorbid OCD, discounted the value of delayed monetary rewards significantly less than OCD and HC. This excessive capacity to delay reward discriminates OCPD from OCD, and is associated with perfectionism and rigidity. Conclusions OCD and OCPD are both impairing disorders marked by compulsive behaviors, but they can be differentiated by the presence of obsessions in OCD and by excessive capacity to delay reward in OCPD. That individuals with OCPD show less temporal discounting (suggestive of excessive self-control) whereas prior studies have shown that individuals with substance use disorders show greater discounting (suggestive of impulsivity) supports the premise that this component of self-control lies on a continuum in which both extremes (impulsivity and overcontrol) contribute to psychopathology. PMID:24199665

  16. The Pregnancy Obsession-Compulsion-Personality Disorder Symptom Checklist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Broekhoven, K.; Hartman, E.; Spek, V.; Bergink, V.; van Son, M.J.M.; Karreman, A.; Pop, V.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Up until now, very little research has been undertaken on the possible role of personality traits, such as perfectionism and obsessive compulsive personality disorder (OCPD), on pregnancy distress. This is possibly due to the fact that no appropriate instruments are available for use

  17. The pregnancy obsession-compulsion-personality disorder symptom checklist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Broekhoven, K.; Hartman, E.E.; Spek, V.R.M.; Bergink, V.; van Son, M.; Karreman, A.; Pop, V.J.M.

    Background: Up until now, very little research has been undertaken on the possible role of personality traits, such as perfectionism and obsessive compulsive personality disorder (OCPD), on pregnancy distress. This is possibly due to the fact that no appropriate instruments are available for use

  18. The Impact of Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder on Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Olivia M; Salkovskis, Paul M; Bream, Victoria

    2016-07-01

    It is often suggested that, in general, co-morbid personality disorders are likely to interfere with CBT based treatment of Axis I disorders, given that personality disorders are regarded as dispositional and are therefore considered less amenable to change than axis I psychiatric disorders. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of co-occurring obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) on cognitive-behavioural treatment for OCD. 92 individuals with a diagnosis of OCD participated in this study. Data were drawn from measures taken at initial assessment and following cognitive-behavioural treatment at a specialist treatment centre for anxiety disorders. At assessment, participants with OCD and OCPD had greater overall OCD symptom severity, as well as doubting, ordering and hoarding symptoms relative to those without OCPD; however, participants with co-morbid OCD and OCPD demonstrated greater treatment gains in terms of OCD severity, checking and ordering than those without OCPD. Individuals with OCD and OCPD had higher levels of checking, ordering and overall OCD severity at initial assessment; however, at post-treatment they had similar scores to those without OCPD. The implications of these findings are discussed in the light of research on axis I and II co-morbidity and the impact of axis II disorders on treatment for axis I disorders.

  19. Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder as a Predictor of Exposure and Ritual Prevention Outcome for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Anthony; Liebowitz, Michael R.; Foa, Edna B.; Simpson, H. Blair

    2011-01-01

    Despite elevated rates of obsessive compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), no study has specifically examined comorbid OCPD as a predictor of exposure and ritual prevention (EX/RP) outcome. Participants were adult outpatients (n = 49) with primary OCD and a Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS) total score ≥ 16 despite a therapeutic serotonin reuptake inhibitor dose for at least 12 weeks prior to entry. Participants received 17 ses...

  20. Clarifying the convergence between obsessive compulsive personality disorder criteria and obsessive compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Jane L; Coles, Meredith E; Shea, M Tracie; Pagano, Maria E; Stout, Robert L; Yen, Shirley; Grilo, Carlos M; Rasmussen, Steven A

    2006-06-01

    In this study we examined the convergence between obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) criteria and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Baseline assessments of 629 participants of the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study were used to examine the associations between OCPD criteria and diagnoses of OCD. Three of the eight OCPD criteria--hoarding, perfectionism, and preoccupation with details--were significantly more frequent in subjects with OCD (n = 89) than in subjects without OCD (n = 540). Logistic regressions were used to predict the probability of each OCPD criterion as a function of Axis I diagnoses (OCD, additional anxiety disorders, and major depressive disorder). Associations between OCD and these three OCPD criteria remained significant in the logistic regressions, showing unique associations with OCD and odds ratios ranging from 2.71 to 2.99. In addition, other anxiety disorders and major depressive disorder showed few associations with specific OCPD criteria. This study suggests variability in the strength of the relationships between specific OCPD criteria and OCD. The findings also support a unique relationship between OCPD symptoms and OCD, compared to other anxiety disorders or major depression. Future efforts to explore the link between Axis I and Axis II disorders may be enriched by conducting analyses at the symptom level.

  1. Personality disorders and normal personality dimensions in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, J; Nestadt, G; Bienvenu, O J; Costa, P T; Riddle, M A; Liang, K Y; Hoehn-Saric, R; Grados, M A; Cullen, B A

    2000-11-01

    Little is known about personality disorders and normal personality dimensions in relatives of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). To determine whether specific personality characteristics are part of a familial spectrum of OCD. Clinicians evaluated personality disorders in 72 OCD case and 72 control probands and 198 case and 207 control first-degree relatives. The selfcompleted Revised NEO Personality Inventory was used for assessment of normal personality dimensions. The prevalence of personality disorders and scores on normal personality dimensions were compared between case and control probands and between case and control relatives. Case probands and case relatives had a high prevalence of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) and high neuroticism scores. Neuroticism was associated with OCPD in case but not control relatives. Neuroticism and OCPD may share a common familial aetiology with OCD.

  2. Capacity to delay reward differentiates obsessive-compulsive disorder and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Anthony; Steinglass, Joanna E; Greene, Ashley L; Weber, Elke U; Simpson, H Blair

    2014-04-15

    Although the relationship between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) has long been debated, clinical samples of OCD (without OCPD) and OCPD (without OCD) have never been systematically compared. We studied whether individuals with OCD, OCPD, or both conditions differ on symptomatology, functioning, and a measure of self-control: the capacity to delay reward. Twenty-five OCD, 25 OCPD, 25 comorbid OCD + OCPD, and 25 healthy control subjects completed clinical assessments and a validated intertemporal choice task that measures capacity to forego small immediate rewards for larger delayed rewards. OCD and OCPD subjects both showed impairment in psychosocial functioning and quality of life, as well as compulsive behavior, but only subjects with OCD reported obsessions. Individuals with OCPD, with or without comorbid OCD, discounted the value of delayed monetary rewards significantly less than OCD and healthy control subjects. This excessive capacity to delay reward discriminates OCPD from OCD and is associated with perfectionism and rigidity. OCD and OCPD are both impairing disorders marked by compulsive behaviors, but they can be differentiated by the presence of obsessions in OCD and by excessive capacity to delay reward in OCPD. That individuals with OCPD show less temporal discounting (suggestive of excessive self-control), whereas prior studies have shown that individuals with substance use disorders show greater discounting (suggestive of impulsivity), supports the premise that this component of self-control lies on a continuum in which both extremes (impulsivity and overcontrol) contribute to psychopathology. © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry Published by Society of Biological Psychiatry All rights reserved.

  3. Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder and behavioral disinhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villemarette-Pittman, Nicole R; Stanford, Matthew S; Greve, Kevin W; Houston, Rebecca J; Mathias, Charles W

    2004-01-01

    Although obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) is an Axis II diagnosis that is not commonly associated with behavioral disinhibition, the literature contains reports of occasional explosive aggressive outbursts. Existing explanations of OCPD etiology do not address the coexistence of compulsive and impulsive features witnessed in some subpopulations of patients. In this study, the authors present a compensatory theory of OCPD in an effort to explain clinical observations of an unexpectedly large number of OCPD diagnoses among patients clinic referred and self-referred for aggression problems.

  4. The relation among perfectionism, obsessive-compulsive personality disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder in individuals with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halmi, Katherine A; Tozzi, Federica; Thornton, Laura M; Crow, Scott; Fichter, Manfred M; Kaplan, Allan S; Keel, Pamela; Klump, Kelly L; Lilenfeld, Lisa R; Mitchell, James E; Plotnicov, Katherine H; Pollice, Christine; Rotondo, Alessandro; Strober, Michael; Woodside, D Blake; Berrettini, Wade H; Kaye, Walter H; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2005-12-01

    Perfectionism and obsessionality are core features of eating disorders (ED), yet the nature of their relation remains unknown. Understanding the relation between these traits may enhance our ability to identify relevant behavioral endophenotypes for ED. Six-hundred seven individuals with anorexia and bulimia nervosa from the International Price Foundation Genetic Study were assessed for perfectionism, obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). No differences were found across ED subtypes in the prevalence of OCPD and OCD, nor with the association between OCD and OCPD. Perfectionism scores were highest in individuals with OCPD whether alone or in combination with OCD. Perfectionism appears to be more closely associated with obsessive-compulsive personality symptoms rather than OCD. The pairing of perfectionism with OCPD may be a relevant core behavioral feature underlying vulnerability to ED. Copyright 2005 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Prevalence of Childhood Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Traits in Adults with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder versus Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Anthony; Greene, Ashley L; Storch, Eric A; Simpson, H Blair

    2015-01-01

    Identifying risk factors of psychopathology has been an important research challenge. Prior studies examining the impact of childhood temperament on adult disorder have largely focused on undercontrolled and inhibited presentations, with little study of overcontrolled traits such as obsessive-compulsive personality traits (OCPTs). We compared rates of childhood OCPTs in adults with OCD (without OCPD) (n = 28) to adults with OCPD (without OCD) (n = 27), adults with both OCD and OCPD (n = 28), and healthy controls (HC) (n= 28), using the Childhood Retrospective Perfectionism Questionnaire, a validated measure of perfectionism, inflexibility, and drive for order. Adults with OCPD (both with and without comorbid OCD) reported higher rates of all three childhood OCPTs relative to HC. Individuals with OCD (without OCPD) reported higher rates of inflexibility and drive for order relative to HC, suggesting that these traits may presage the development of OCD, independent of OCPD. Childhood OCPTs were associated with particular OCD symptom dimensions in adulthood (contamination/cleaning, doubt/checking, and symmetry/ordering), independent of OCD onset age and OCPD diagnosis. Longitudinal prospective studies evaluating OCPTs in children are needed to better understand the progression of these traits from childhood to adulthood and their ability to predict future psychopathology.

  6. Comorbid obsessive-compulsive personality disorder in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD): a marker of severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochner, Christine; Serebro, Paul; van der Merwe, Lize; Hemmings, Sian; Kinnear, Craig; Seedat, Soraya; Stein, Dan J

    2011-06-01

    Comorbid obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) is well-described in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). It remains unclear, however, whether OCPD in OCD represents a distinct subtype of OCD or whether it is simply a marker of severity in OCD. The aim of this study was to compare a large sample of OCD subjects (n=403) with and without OCPD on a range of demographic, clinical and genetic characteristics to evaluate whether comorbid OCPD in OCD represents a distinct subtype of OCD, or is a marker of severity. Our findings suggest that OCD with and without OCPD are similar in terms of gender distribution and age at onset of OC symptoms. Compared to OCD-OCPD (n=267, 66%), those with OCD+OCPD (n=136, 34%) are more likely to present with the OC symptom dimensions which reflect the diagnostic criteria for OCPD (e.g., hoarding), and have significantly greater OCD severity, comorbidity, functional impairment, and poorer insight. Furthermore there are no differences in distribution of gene variants, or response to treatment in the two groups. The majority of our findings suggest that in OCD, patients with OCPD do not have a highly distinctive phenomenological or genetic profile, but rather that OCPD represents a marker of severity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Interpersonal functioning in obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Nicole M; Ansell, Emily B; Simpson, H Blair; Pinto, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    The core symptoms of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) often lead to interpersonal difficulties. However, little research has explored interpersonal functioning in OCPD. This study examined interpersonal problems, interpersonal sensitivities, empathy, and systemizing, the drive to analyze and derive underlying rules for systems, in a sample of 25 OCPD individuals, 25 individuals with comorbid OCPD and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and 25 healthy controls. We found that OCPD individuals reported hostile-dominant interpersonal problems and sensitivities with warm-dominant behavior by others, whereas OCPD+OCD individuals reported submissive interpersonal problems and sensitivities with warm-submissive behavior by others. Individuals with OCPD, with and without OCD, reported less empathic perspective taking relative to healthy controls. Finally, we found that OCPD males reported a higher drive to analyze and derive rules for systems than OCPD females. Overall, results suggest that there are interpersonal deficits associated with OCPD and the clinical implications of these deficits are discussed.

  8. Interpersonal Functioning in Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Nicole M.; Ansell, Emily B.; Simpson, H. Blair; Pinto, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    The core symptoms of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) often lead to interpersonal difficulties. However, little research has explored interpersonal functioning in OCPD. The current study examined interpersonal problems, interpersonal sensitivities, empathy, and systemizing, the drive to analyze and derive underlying rules for systems, in a sample of 25 OCPD individuals, 25 individuals with comorbid OCPD and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and 25 healthy controls. We found that OCPD individuals reported hostile-dominant interpersonal problems and sensitivities with warm-dominant behavior by others while OCPD+OCD individuals reported submissive interpersonal problems and sensitivities with warm-submissive behavior by others. Individuals with OCPD, with and without OCD, reported less empathic perspective taking relative to healthy controls. Finally, we found that OCPD males reported a higher drive to analyze and derive rules for systems than OCPD females. Overall, results suggest that there are interpersonal deficits associated with OCPD and the clinical implications of these deficits are discussed. PMID:25046040

  9. The association between obsessive compulsive disorder and obsessive compulsive personality disorder: prevalence and clinical presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Olivia M; Salkovskis, Paul M; Oldfield, Victoria B; Carter, Natalie

    2013-09-01

    The relationship between Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD) has been the subject of interest for some time due to the historical assumption that OCPD causes OCD. This study systematically examined the association between OCD and OCPD in terms of prevalence and clinical presentation. The specificity of the association between OCD and OCPD was investigated relative to another axis I anxiety disorder (Panic disorder). Data for this study were drawn from measures taken at initial assessment at a specialist treatment centre for anxiety disorders. Of the 359 participants included in this study, 189 had a principal diagnosis of OCD, while 170 had a principal diagnosis of Panic disorder. Measures included SCID I and II interview modules and self-report measures of anxiety, depression, and OCD syptomatology. Significantly elevated rates of OCPD were found in OCD relative to Panic disorder. Regardless of axis I disorder, individuals with comorbid OCPD reported more severe depression relative to those without. Participants with both OCD and OCPD had greater self-reported OCD symptom severity, doubting, ordering, and hoarding symptoms at assessment relative to those without OCPD. Participants with OCD and comorbid OCPD also reported significantly higher levels of alcohol consumption. There appears to be a significant and specific association between OCD and OCPD. Co-occurring OCD and OCPD is associated with greater severity of impairment in terms of certain OCD symptoms. The significant and specific association between OCD and OCPD suggests that OCPD occurs more frequently with OCD than previously suggested. A comorbid OCPD diagnosis is associated with a greater degree of depression, regardless of axis I disorder, either OCD or Panic disorder. This is an important consideration, as depression can interfere with therapeutic progress (Foa, 1979). Participants with OCD and OCPD had greater self-reported OCD severity, along

  10. Disentangling depressive personality disorder from avoidant, borderline, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huprich, Steven K; Zimmerman, Mark; Chelminski, Iwona

    2006-01-01

    Several studies have found that 3 personality disorders (PDs) tend to share moderate rates of comorbidity with depressive PD: avoidant, borderline, and obsessive-compulsive. This study sought to evaluate the diagnostic criteria of each disorder in an effort to understand where areas of overlap may occur and to modify criteria sets where reasonable to reduce any degree of overlap. One thousand two hundred psychiatric outpatients were interviewed with the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders. The highest degree of comorbidity was observed between avoidant PD and depressive PD. Logistic regression analyses indicated that 2 criteria-avoidant criterion 5 and depressive criterion 2-could be removed from the diagnostic criteria sets and reduce the rates of overlap by as much as 15%. A factor analysis of the criteria of all 4 PDs indicated that there is a common clustering of many of the symptoms of avoidant, borderline, depressive, and obsessive-compulsive PDs and that borderline symptoms tend to cluster together most consistently. Avoidant and obsessive-compulsive personality symptoms clustered in ways that may reflect a problem of how to engage with others, suggestive of an approach-avoidance conflict. Depressive PD symptoms clustered in a way suggestive of problems with anger that is directed toward oneself and others. The factor analysis results suggest that an organization of symptoms around themes of conflict may provide useful ways of understanding the personality patterns of these 4 disorders.

  11. OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE PERSONALITY DISORDER: EVIDENCE FOR TWO DIMENSIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, Mark A; Maher, Brion S; Wang, Ying; Grados, Marco; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Goes, Fernando S; Cullen, Bernadette; Murphy, Dennis L; Rauch, Scott L; Greenberg, Benjamin D; Knowles, James A; McCracken, James T; Pinto, Anthony; Piacentini, John; Pauls, David L; Rasmussen, Steven A; Shugart, Yin Yao; Nestadt, Gerald; Samuels, Jack

    2016-02-01

    To determine possible dimensions that underlie obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) and to investigate their clinical correlates, familiality, and genetic linkage. Participants were selected from 844 adults assessed with the Structured Instrument for the Diagnosis of DSM-IV Personality Disorders (SIDP) in the OCD Collaborative Genetics Study (OCGS) that targeted families with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) affected sibling pairs. We conducted an exploratory factor analysis, which included the eight SIDP-derived DSM-IV OCPD traits and the indecision trait from the DSM-III, assessed clinical correlates, and estimated sib-sib correlations to evaluate familiality of the factors. Using MERLIN and MINX, we performed genome-wide quantitative trait locus (QTL) linkage analysis to test for allele sharing among individuals. Two factors were identified: Factor 1: order/control (perfectionism, excessive devotion to work, overconscientiousness, reluctance to delegate, and rigidity); and Factor 2: hoarding/indecision (inability to discard and indecisiveness). Factor 1 score was associated with poor insight, whereas Factor 2 score was associated with task incompletion. A significant sib-sib correlation was found for Factor 2 (rICC = .354, P OCPD, order/control and hoarding/indecision. The hoarding/indecision factor is familial and shows modest linkage to a region on chromosome 10. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Impact of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) symptoms in Internet users

    OpenAIRE

    Chamberlain, Samuel R.; Leppink, Eric W.; Redden, Sarah A.; Stein, Dan J.; Lochner, Christine; Grant, Jon E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Internet use is pervasive in many cultures. Little is known about the impact of Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD) symptoms on impulsive and compulsive psychopathologies in people who use the Internet. Method: 1323 adult Internet users completed an online questionnaire quantifying OCPD symptoms, likely occurrence of select mental disorders (OCD, ADHD, problematic Internet use, anxiety), and personality questionnaires of impulsivity (Barratt) and compulsivity (Pad...

  13. Enhanced visual performance in obsessive compulsive personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Zohreh; Fadardi, Javad Salehi

    2016-12-01

    Visual performance is considered as commanding modality in human perception. We tested whether Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) people do differently in visual performance tasks than people without OCPD. One hundred ten students of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad and non-student participants were tested by Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders (SCID-II), among whom 18 (mean age = 29.55; SD = 5.26; 84% female) met the criteria for OCPD classification; controls were 20 persons (mean age = 27.85; SD = 5.26; female = 84%), who did not met the OCPD criteria. Both groups were tested on a modified Flicker task for two dimensions of visual performance (i.e., visual acuity: detecting the location of change, complexity, and size; and visual contrast sensitivity). The OCPD group had responded more accurately on pairs related to size, complexity, and contrast, but spent more time to detect a change on pairs related to complexity and contrast. The OCPD individuals seem to have more accurate visual performance than non-OCPD controls. The findings support the relationship between personality characteristics and visual performance within the framework of top-down processing model. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. A comparison of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Douglas B; Widiger, Thomas A

    2010-05-01

    In this study, we utilized a large undergraduate sample (N = 536), oversampled for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text revision [DSM-IV-TR]; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) pathology, to compare 8 self-report measures of OCPD. No prior study has compared more than 3 measures, and the results indicate that the scales had only moderate convergent validity. We also went beyond the existing literature to compare these scales to 2 external reference points: their relationships with a well-established measure of the five-factor model of personality (FFM) and clinicians' ratings of their coverage of the DSM-IV-TR criterion set. When the FFM was used as a point of comparison, the results suggest important differences among the measures with respect to their divergent representation of conscientiousness, neuroticism, and agreeableness. Additionally, an analysis of the construct coverage indicated that the measures also varied in terms of their representation of particular diagnostic criteria. For example, whereas some scales contained items distributed across the diagnostic criteria, others were concentrated more heavily on particular features of the DSM-IV-TR disorder.

  15. Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder: a current review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrich, Alice; Voderholzer, Ulrich

    2015-02-01

    This review provides a current overview on the diagnostics, epidemiology, co-occurrences, aetiology and treatment of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD). The diagnostic criteria for OCPD according to the recently published Fifth Edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) include an official set of criteria for clinical practice and a new, alternative set of criteria for research purposes. OCPD is a personality disorder prevalent in the general population (3-8 %) that is more common in older and less educated individuals. Findings on sex distribution and course of OCPD are inconsistent. OCPD is comorbid with several other medical and psychological conditions. As for causes of OCPD, most empirical evidence provides support for disturbed attachment as well as the heritability of OCPD. So far, cognitive (behavioural) therapy is the best validated treatment of OCPD. Self-esteem variability, stronger early alliances as well as the distress level seem to predict cognitive (behavioural) therapy outcome. Future research is needed to further advance knowledge in OCPD and to resolve inconsistencies.

  16. Emotional Functioning in Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder: Comparison to Borderline Personality Disorder and Healthy Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenkamp, Maria M; Suvak, Michael K; Dickstein, Benjamin D; Shea, M Tracie; Litz, Brett T

    2015-12-01

    Few studies have investigated emotional functioning in obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD). To explore the nature and extent of emotion difficulties in OCPD, the authors examined four domains of self-reported emotional functioning--negative affectivity, anger, emotion regulation, and emotion expressivity--in women with OCPD and compared them to a borderline personality disorder (BPD) group and a healthy control group. Data were collected as part of a larger psychophysiological experimental study on emotion regulation and personality. Compared to healthy controls, participants with OCPD reported significantly higher levels of negative affectivity, trait anger, emotional intensity, and emotion regulation difficulties. Emotion regulation difficulties included lack of emotional clarity, nonacceptance of emotional responses, and limited access to effective emotion regulation strategies. Participants with OCPD scored similarly to participants with BPD on only one variable, namely, problems engaging in goal-directed behavior when upset. Results suggest that OCPD may be characterized by notable difficulties in several emotional domains.

  17. Attachment Style and Resiliency in Patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakiei, Ali; Alikhani, Mostafa; Farnia, Vahid; Khkian, Zinab; Shakeri, Jalal; Golshani, Sanobar

    2017-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to determine the relationships between attachment styles and resiliency in obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. A random sample of 260 subjects was obtained from the population of undergraduate students of the Nour Branch of Islamic Azad University, which is located in Mazandaran, and these subjects were enrolled in this descriptive and correlational study. The collected data included the subjects' responses to an adult attachment style questionnaire, resilience scale, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder questionnaire. The data were analyzed with Pearson correlation coefficient indices and multiple regressions. The results of the data analysis showed a positive correlation (relationship) between ambivalent/avoidant attachment styles and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder and a negative correlation between resilience and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. Furthermore, these results demonstrated that attachment style and resiliency can predict obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. In addition, no significant relationships were found between the demographic variables (convertibles) and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. These results suggested that attachment style and resiliency contribute to the development of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.

  18. Comorbidity of obsessive-compulsive disorder with obsessive-compulsive personality disorder: Does it imply a specific subtype of obsessive-compulsive disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garyfallos, George; Katsigiannopoulos, Konstantinos; Adamopoulou, Aravela; Papazisis, Georgios; Karastergiou, Anastasia; Bozikas, Vasilios P

    2010-05-15

    The present study examined whether the comorbidity of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) constitute a specific subtype of OCD. The study sample consisted of 146 consecutive outpatients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of OCD. Diagnoses were established using MINI, IPDE, YBOCS and YBOCS-SC. OCD patients with comorbid OCPD were compared with OCD patients without OCPD on various sociodemographic and clinical variables. Almost one third of the OCD subjects met criteria for comorbid OCPD. OCD+OCPD patients had a significantly earlier age at onset of initial OC symptoms, earlier age at onset of OCD and more obsessions and compulsions than pure obsessions compared to the patients with OCDOCPD. OCD+OCPD patients also had a higher rate of comorbidity with avoidant personality disorder and showed more impairment in global functioning. There were not differences between the two sub-groups on severity of OCD symptoms and also on type of OCD onset. Our results indicate that the comorbidity of OCD with OCPD is associated with a number of specific clinical characteristics of OCD. These findings in conjunction with of current clinical, family and genetic studies provide some initial evidence that OCD comorbid with OCPD constitute a specific subtype of OCD. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder co-occurring with obsessive-compulsive disorder: Conceptual and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starcevic, Vladan; Berle, David; Brakoulias, Vlasios; Sammut, Peter; Moses, Karen; Milicevic, Denise; Hannan, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    There are ongoing uncertainties in the relationship between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD). This study aimed to test the proposition that OCPD may be a marker of severity of OCD by comparing groups of OCD individuals with and without OCPD on a number of variables. A total of 148 adults with a principal diagnosis of OCD were administered the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, Sheehan Disability Scale, Vancouver Obsessional Compulsive Inventory and Symptom Checklist 90-Revised. Participants with a DSM-IV diagnosis of OCPD were compared with those without OCPD. Some 70 (47.3%) participants were diagnosed with OCPD. The groups of participants with and without OCPD did not differ significantly with respect to any of the demographic variables, clinician-rated severity of OCD, levels of disability and mean age of onset of OCD. All self-rated OCD symptom dimensions except for contamination and checking were significantly more prominent in participants with OCPD, as were all self-rated dimensions of psychopathology. Participants with OCPD had significantly more frequent hoarding compulsions and obsessions involving a need to collect and keep objects. Of Axis I disorders, only panic disorder was significantly more frequent in participants with OCPD than in those without OCPD. A high frequency of OCPD among individuals with OCD suggests a strong, although not necessarily a unique, relationship between the two conditions. This finding may also be a consequence of the blurring of the boundary between OCD and OCPD by postulating that hoarding and hoarding-like behaviours characterise both disorders. Results of this study do not support the notion that OCD with OCPD is a marker of clinician-rated severity of OCD. However, individuals with OCPD had more prominent OCD symptoms, they were more distressed and exhibited various other psychopathological phenomena more intensely

  20. Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder: a review of current empirical findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Reus, R.J.M.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to review the literature on aetiology, epidemiology and course, assessment and treatment of the obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD). OCPD is a rather prevalent personality disorder, being one of the most prevalent personality disorders in the general

  1. Personality Disorders in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Comparative Study versus Other Anxiety Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Pena-Garijo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this paper is to provide evidence for the relationship between personality disorders (PDs, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD, and other anxiety disorders different from OCD (non-OCD symptomatology. Method. The sample consisted of a group of 122 individuals divided into three groups (41 OCD; 40 non-OCD, and 41 controls matched by sex, age, and educational level. All the individuals answered the IPDE questionnaire and were evaluated by means of the SCID-I and SCID-II interviews. Results. Patients with OCD and non-OCD present a higher presence of PD. There was an increase in cluster C diagnoses in both groups, with no statistically significant differences between them. Conclusions. Presenting anxiety disorder seems to cause a specific vulnerability for PD. Most of the PDs that were presented belonged to cluster C. Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD is the most common among OCD. However, it does not occur more frequently among OCD patients than among other anxious patients, which does not confirm the continuum between obsessive personality and OCD. Implications for categorical and dimensional diagnoses are discussed.

  2. Personality Disorders in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Comparative Study versus Other Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena-Garijo, Josep; Edo Villamón, Silvia; Ruipérez, M. Ángeles

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this paper is to provide evidence for the relationship between personality disorders (PDs), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and other anxiety disorders different from OCD (non-OCD) symptomatology. Method. The sample consisted of a group of 122 individuals divided into three groups (41 OCD; 40 non-OCD, and 41 controls) matched by sex, age, and educational level. All the individuals answered the IPDE questionnaire and were evaluated by means of the SCID-I and SCID-II interviews. Results. Patients with OCD and non-OCD present a higher presence of PD. There was an increase in cluster C diagnoses in both groups, with no statistically significant differences between them. Conclusions. Presenting anxiety disorder seems to cause a specific vulnerability for PD. Most of the PDs that were presented belonged to cluster C. Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD) is the most common among OCD. However, it does not occur more frequently among OCD patients than among other anxious patients, which does not confirm the continuum between obsessive personality and OCD. Implications for categorical and dimensional diagnoses are discussed. PMID:24453917

  3. Personality traits and smoking in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejerot, S; von Knorring, L; Ekselius, L

    2000-11-01

    As opposed to other psychiatric populations, subjects with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) smoke less than the general population. The present study aims at further investigating the relationship between smoking in OCD subjects and personality traits. Sixty-four subjects with OCD were interviewed concerning their smoking habits. Personality traits were evaluated using the Karolinska Scales of Personality, and specific obsessive-compulsive personality traits were elicited through self-report questionnaires. Non-smokers were more easily fatigued, more inclined to worry, more remorseful, less self-confident, less impulsive and became uneasy more frequently when urged to speed up, than smokers with OCD. Additionally, non-smokers fulfilled significantly more obsessive-compulsive personality disorder criteria as compared to the smokers (P < 0.001). We propose a clinical subtype of OCD related to non-smoking, psychasthenia, anxiety, and pronounced obsessive-compulsive personality disorder traits.

  4. Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder traits and personality dimensions in parents of children with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Rosa; Lázaro, Luisa; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Font, Elena; Moreno, Elena; Toro, J

    2009-04-01

    To compare patterns of temperament and character and the prevalence of Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD) and OCPD traits in parents of children with OCD and parents of healthy controls. TCI and SCID-II were administered to 63 parents of 32 children with OCD and 63 parents of age- and sex-matched controls with no psychiatric diagnosis. Interviewers were not blind to proband status. Personality dimension scores and frequencies of OCPD criteria in both groups were compared after excluding parents with a diagnosis of OCD. Relationships between TCI dimensions and OCPD symptoms in parents and the clinical characteristics of OCD children were also studied. Parents of OCD children presented significantly higher scores in harm avoidance and lower scores in self-directedness, cooperativeness and reward dependence than parents of healthy children. A higher incidence of OCPD was found in parents of probands (pOCPD criteria in these parents in comparison to parents of healthy children highlight the importance of the role of personality factors in familial OCD.

  5. Impact of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder symptoms in Internet users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Samuel R; Redden, Sarah A; Stein, Dan J; Lochner, Christine; Grant, Jon E

    2017-08-01

    Internet use is pervasive in many cultures. Little is known about the impact of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) symptoms on impulsive and compulsive psychopathologies in people who use the Internet. Adult Internet users (N = 1,323) completed an online questionnaire quantifying OCPD symptoms, likely occurrence of select mental disorders (obsessive-compulsive disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], problematic Internet use, generalized anxiety disorder), and personality questionnaires of impulsivity and compulsivity. Predictors of the presence of OCPD symptoms (endorsement of at least 4 of 8 DSM-5 criteria) were identified using binary logistic regression. In regression (P OCPD symptoms were significantly associated with (in order of decreasing effect size) lower non-planning impulsivity, higher ADHD symptoms, problematic Internet use, avoidant personality disorder, female sex, generalized anxiety disorder, and some types of compulsions (checking, dressing/washing). These data suggest that OCPD symptoms, defined in terms of at least 4 of 8 DSM criteria being met, are common in Internet users. OCPD symptoms were associated with considerably higher levels of psychopathology relating to both impulsive (ADHD) and compulsive (OCD-related and problematic Internet use) disorders. These data merit replication and extension using standard in-person clinical assessments, because the current study relied on self-report over the Internet.

  6. The Relationship between Obsessive Compulsive Personality and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Treatment Outcomes: Predictive Utility and Clinically Significant Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadri, Shalane K; McEvoy, Peter M; Egan, Sarah J; Kane, Robert T; Rees, Clare S; Anderson, Rebecca A

    2017-09-01

    The evidence regarding whether co-morbid obsessive compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) is associated with treatment outcomes in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is mixed, with some research indicating that OCPD is associated with poorer response, and some showing that it is associated with improved response. We sought to explore the role of OCPD diagnosis and the personality domain of conscientiousness on treatment outcomes for exposure and response prevention for OCD. The impact of co-morbid OCPD and conscientiousness on treatment outcomes was examined in a clinical sample of 46 participants with OCD. OCPD diagnosis and scores on conscientiousness were not associated with poorer post-treatment OCD severity, as indexed by Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS) scores, although the relative sample size of OCPD was small and thus generalizability is limited. This study found no evidence that OCPD or conscientiousness were associated with treatment outcomes for OCD. Further research with larger clinical samples is required.

  7. Obsessive compulsive personality disorder as a predictor of exposure and ritual prevention outcome for obsessive compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Anthony; Liebowitz, Michael R; Foa, Edna B; Simpson, H Blair

    2011-08-01

    Despite elevated rates of obsessive compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), no study has specifically examined comorbid OCPD as a predictor of exposure and ritual prevention (EX/RP) outcome. Participants were adult outpatients (n = 49) with primary OCD and a Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS) total score ≥ 16 despite a therapeutic serotonin reuptake inhibitor dose for at least 12 weeks prior to entry. Participants received 17 sessions of EX/RP over 8 weeks. OCD severity was assessed with the YBOCS pre- and post-treatment by independent evaluators. At baseline, 34.7% of the OCD sample met criteria for comorbid DSM-IV OCPD, assessed by structured interview. OCPD was tested as a predictor of outcome both as a diagnostic category and as a dimensional score (severity) based on the total number of OCPD symptoms coded as present and clinically significant at baseline. Both OCPD diagnosis and greater OCPD severity predicted worse EX/RP outcome, controlling for baseline OCD severity, Axis I and II comorbidity, prior treatment, quality of life, and gender. When the individual OCPD criteria were tested separately, only perfectionism predicted worse treatment outcome, over and above the previously mentioned covariates. These findings highlight the importance of assessing OCPD and suggest a need to directly address OCPD-related traits, especially perfectionism, in the context of EX/RP to minimize their interference in outcome. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder in the context of an avoidant personality disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reich, James; Simonsen, Erik

    2008-01-01

    Presents a case study of a 66-year old single white male who presented for treatment of his obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), which had become progressively worse since his retirement four years prior. He described a secondary social isolation, which did not appear to be his major concern. He ...... with the personality traits they have. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)...

  9. Comparison of cognitive flexibility and planning ability in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder, patients with obsessive compulsive personality disorder, and healthy controls

    OpenAIRE

    PAAST, Negin; KHOSRAVI, Zohreh; MEMARI, Amir Hossein; SHAYESTEHFAR, Monir; ARBABI, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background Cognitive functioning in individuals with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and with Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD) has not been adequately studied. Aim Examine the cognitive flexibility and planning ability of individuals with OCD and OCPD. Methods Twenty patients with OCD and 25 patients with OCPD who had not taken medication in the previous two weeks were identified in an outpatient psychology clinic in Tehran, and 25 healthy control subjects were identified ...

  10. Incompleteness as a link between obsessive-compulsive personality traits and specific symptom dimensions of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Willi; Kupfer, Jochen; Gönner, Sascha

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the contribution of incompleteness/'not just right experiences' (NJREs) to an understanding of the relationship between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and obsessive-compulsive personality traits (OCPTs). It investigates the association of specific OCD symptom dimensions with OCPTs, conceptualized as continuous phenomena that are also observable below the diagnostic threshold. As empirical findings and clinical observation suggest that incompleteness feelings/NJREs may play a significant affective and motivational role for certain OCD subtypes, but also for patients with accentuated OCPTs, we hypothesized that OCPTs are selectively linked with incompleteness-associated OCD symptom dimensions (ordering, checking, hoarding and counting). Moreover, we assumed that this selective relationship cannot be demonstrated any more after statistical control of incompleteness, whereas it is preserved after statistical control of anxiety, depression, pathological worry and harm avoidance. Results from a study with a large clinical sample (n = 185) partially support these hypotheses and suggest that NJREs may be an important connecting link between specific OCD symptom dimensions, in particular ordering and checking, and accentuated OCPTs. Obsessive-compulsive personality traits (OCPTs) are positively related to obsessive-compulsive disorder symptom dimensions (ordering, checking, hoarding and counting) hypothesized or found to be associated with incompleteness/'not just right experiences' (NJREs), but not to washing and obsessions. This positive relationship, which is strongest for ordering and checking, is eliminated when NJREs are statistically controlled. Ordering, checking and accentuated OCPTs may share NJREs as a common affective-motivational underpinning.Dysfunctional behaviour patterns of people with accentuated OCPTs or obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) may be viewed as efforts to avoid or reduce subjectively intolerable NJREs

  11. Impact of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) symptoms in Internet users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Samuel R.; Leppink, Eric W.; Redden, Sarah A.; Stein, Dan J.; Lochner, Christine; Grant, Jon E.

    2017-01-01

    Background Internet use is pervasive in many cultures. Little is known about the impact of Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD) symptoms on impulsive and compulsive psychopathologies in people who use the Internet. Method 1323 adult Internet users completed an online questionnaire quantifying OCPD symptoms, likely occurrence of select mental disorders (OCD, ADHD, problematic Internet use, anxiety), and personality questionnaires of impulsivity (Barratt) and compulsivity (Padua). Predictors of presence of OCPD symptoms (endorsement of at least 4 of 8 DSM criteria) were identified using binary logistic regression. Results In regression (pOCPD symptoms were significantly associated with (in order of decreasing effect size): lower non-planning impulsivity, higher ADHD symptoms, problematic Internet use, avoidant personality disorder, female gender, generalized anxiety disorder, and some types of compulsions (checking, dressing/washing). Conclusions These data suggest that OCPD symptoms, defined in terms of at least 4 of 8 DSM tick-list criteria being met, are common in Internet users. OCPD symptoms were associated with considerably higher levels of psychopathology relating to both impulsive (ADHD) and compulsive (OC-related and problematic Internet use) disorders. These data merit replication and extension using gold-standard in-person clinical assessments, as the current study relied on self-report over the Internet. PMID:28738097

  12. Obsessive-compulsive (anankastic personality disorder: toward the ICD-11 classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi A. Fineberg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD is an early-onset disorder characterized by perfectionism, need for control, and cognitive rigidity. Its nosological status is currently under review. Historically, OCPD has been conceptualized as bearing a close relationship with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD. In this article, we discuss the diagnosis of OCPD in anticipation of its review for the ICD-11, from the perspective of clinical utility, global applicability, and research planning. Considering the recent establishment of an obsessive-compulsive and related disorders (OCRD category in DSM-5, we focus on the relationship between OCPD and the disorders that are currently thought to bear a close relationship with OCD, including DSM-5 OCRD, and other compulsive disorders such as eating disorder and autistic spectrum disorder (that were not included in the DSM-5 OCRD category, as well as with the personality disorders, focusing on nosological determinants such as phenomenology, course of illness, heritability, environmental risk factors, comorbidity, neurocognitive endophenotypes, and treatment response. Based on this analysis, we attempt to draw conclusions as to its optimal placement in diagnostic systems and draw attention to key research questions that could be explored in field trials.

  13. Obsessive-compulsive (anankastic) personality disorder: toward the ICD-11 classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fineberg, Naomi A; Reghunandanan, Samar; Kolli, Sangeetha; Atmaca, Murad

    2014-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) is an early-onset disorder characterized by perfectionism, need for control, and cognitive rigidity. Its nosological status is currently under review. Historically, OCPD has been conceptualized as bearing a close relationship with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In this article, we discuss the diagnosis of OCPD in anticipation of its review for the ICD-11, from the perspective of clinical utility, global applicability, and research planning. Considering the recent establishment of an obsessive-compulsive and related disorders (OCRD) category in DSM-5, we focus on the relationship between OCPD and the disorders that are currently thought to bear a close relationship with OCD, including DSM-5 OCRD, and other compulsive disorders such as eating disorder and autistic spectrum disorder (that were not included in the DSM-5 OCRD category), as well as with the personality disorders, focusing on nosological determinants such as phenomenology, course of illness, heritability, environmental risk factors, comorbidity, neurocognitive endophenotypes, and treatment response. Based on this analysis, we attempt to draw conclusions as to its optimal placement in diagnostic systems and draw attention to key research questions that could be explored in field trials.

  14. Relations between Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and personality: beyond Axis I-Axis II comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kevin D; Clark, Lee Anna; Watson, David

    2006-01-01

    Most research on relations between Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and personality addresses only comorbidity rates between OCD and Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD). We first investigated empirical OCD-OCPD relations, but then also examined patterns of dimensional traits in OCD patients versus students and general outpatients. Results did not support a specific OCD-OCPD relation and the implications of this conclusion are discussed. Regarding traits, OCD patients shared with other patients elevated negative affectivity and lower positive affectivity. Differences on several lower order dimensions, including lower scores on manipulativeness, mistrust, and disinhibition distinguished the personality profile of OCD patients from others. Also noteworthy was a pattern of very low self-image for OCD patients, as suggested by the combination of low self-esteem and low entitlement scores. Overall, OCD patients showed a more specific pattern of personality pathology than did general outpatients, who were elevated more generally across personality disorders and negative affectivity scales.

  15. Two-Year Stability and Change of Schizotypal, Borderline, Avoidant, and Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, Carlos M.; Sanislow, Charles A.; Gunderson, John G.; Pagano, Maria E.; Yen, Shirley; Zanarini, Mary C.; Shea, Tracie M.; Skodol, Andrew E.; Stout, Robert L.; Morey, Leslie C.; McGlashan, Thomas H.

    2004-01-01

    The authors examined the stability of schizotypal (STPD), borderline (BPD), avoidant (AVPD) and obsessive-compulsive (OCPD) personality disorders (PDs) over 2 years of prospective multiwave follow-up. Six hundred thirty-three participants recruited at 4 collaborating sites who met criteria for 1 or more of the 4 PDs or for major depressive…

  16. Implicit self- and other-associations in obsessive-compulsive personality disorder traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weertman, A.; Arntz, A.R.; Jong, P.J. de; Rinck, M.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated automatic associations with the self and with others in the context of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD). Participants scoring high (n=20) or low (n=20) on DSM-IV OCPD traits performed three irrelevant-feature tasks in which language of the words (Dutch vs.

  17. Pattern of comorbidity among anxious and odd personality disorders: the case of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, A; Marinangeli, M G; Butti, G; Kalyvoka, A; Petruzzi, C

    2000-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the pattern of comorbidity among obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) and other personality disorders (PDs) in a sample of 400 psychiatric inpatients. PDs were assessed using the Semistructured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R Personality Disorders (SCID-II). Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated to determine significant comorbidity among OCPD and other axis II disorders. The most elevated odds ratios were found for the cooccurrence of OCPD with cluster A PDs (the "odd" PDs, or paranoid and schizoid PDs). These results are consistent with those of previous studies showing a higher cooccurrence of OCPD with cluster A than with cluster C ("anxious") PDs. In light of these observations, issues associated with the nosologic status of OCPD within the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders clustering system remain unsettled.

  18. The neuropsychology of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder: a new analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fineberg, Naomi A; Day, Grace A; de Koenigswarter, Nica; Reghunandanan, Samar; Kolli, Sangeetha; Jefferies-Sewell, Kiri; Hranov, Georgi; Laws, Keith R

    2015-10-01

    Obsessive compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) is characterized by perfectionism, need for control, and cognitive rigidity. Currently, little neuropsychological data exist on this condition, though emerging evidence does suggest that disorders marked by compulsivity, including obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), are associated with impairment in cognitive flexibility and executive planning on neurocognitive tasks. The current study investigated the neurocognitive profile in a nonclinical community-based sample of people fulfilling diagnostic criteria for OCPD in the absence of major psychiatric comorbidity. Twenty-one nonclinical subjects who fulfilled Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria for OCPD were compared with 15 healthy controls on selected clinical and neurocognitive tasks. OCPD was measured using the Compulsive Personality Assessment Scale (CPAS). Participants completed tests from the Cambridge Automated Neuropsychological Test Battery including tests of set shifting (Intra-Extra Dimensional [IED] Set Shifting) executive planning (Stockings of Cambridge [SOC]), and decision making (Cambridge Gamble Task [CGT]). The OCPD group made significantly more IED-ED shift errors and total shift errors, and also showed longer mean initial thinking time on the SOC at moderate levels of difficulty. No differences emerged on the CGT. Nonclinical cases of OCPD showed significant cognitive inflexibility coupled with executive planning deficits, whereas decision-making remained intact. This profile of impairment overlaps with that of OCD and implies that common neuropsychological changes affect individuals with these disorders.

  19. Early-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder and personality disorders in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maina, Giuseppe; Albert, Umberto; Salvi, Virginio; Pessina, Enrico; Bogetto, Filippo

    2008-03-15

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) often emerges in childhood or adolescence. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether adult patients with prepuberal onset differ from subjects with later onset in terms of personality disorder comorbidity. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Disorders was used to assess 148 patients with a principal diagnosis of OCD according to the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders. The following two subgroups of subjects were selected according to the age at onset of symptomatology: patients with an early-onset ( or =17 years). Of the 148 patients screened for the present study, 33 (22.3%) had an early onset and 1369 (46.6%) had a later onset. With regard to personality disorders, early-onset patients showed more OC personality disorders (OCPD) than later onset patients. Our finding suggests that OCD in childhood increases the risk for developing OCPD in adulthood, or that early-onset OCD and OCPD share a common pathogenesis.

  20. Mortality Among Persons With Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Sandra M; Mattheisen, Manuel; Mors, Ole

    2016-01-01

    .7 years. The risk of death by natural or unnatural causes was significantly higher among persons with OCD (MRR, 1.68 [95% CI, 1.31-2.12] for natural causes; MRR, 2.61 [95% CI, 1.91-3.47] for unnatural causes) than among the general population. After the exclusion of persons with comorbid anxiety disorders...... risk of death. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Using data from Danish registers, we conducted a nationwide prospective cohort study with 30 million person-years of follow-up. The data were collected from Danish longitudinal registers. A total of 3 million people born between 1955 and 2006 were...... followed up from January 1, 2002, through December 31, 2011. During this period, 27,236 people died. The data were analyzed primarily in June 2015. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: We estimated mortality rate ratios (MRRs), adjusted for calendar year, age, sex, maternal and paternal age, place of residence...

  1. The prevalence and structure of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder in Hispanic psychiatric outpatients

    OpenAIRE

    Ansell, Emily B.; Pinto, Anthony; Crosby, Ross D.; Becker, Daniel F.; Añez, Luis M.; Paris, Manuel; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2010-01-01

    This study sought to confirm a multi-factor model of Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) in a Hispanic outpatient sample and to explore associations of the OCPD factors with aggression, depression, and suicidal thoughts. One hundred and thirty monolingual, Spanish-speaking participants were recruited from a community mental health center and were assessed by bilingual doctoral level clinicians. OCPD was highly prevalent (26%) in this sample. Multi-factor models of OCPD were teste...

  2. Attachment Style and Resiliency in Patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Zakiei, Ali; Alikhani, Mostafa; Farnia, Vahid; Khkian, Zinab; Shakeri, Jalal; Golshani, Sanobar

    2017-01-01

    Background The goal of the present study was to determine the relationships between attachment styles and resiliency in obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. Methods A random sample of 260 subjects was obtained from the population of undergraduate students of the Nour Branch of Islamic Azad University, which is located in Mazandaran, and these subjects were enrolled in this descriptive and correlational study. The collected data included the subjects' responses to an adult attachment sty...

  3. Stability of the Pregnancy Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder Symptoms Checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Broekhoven, Kiki E M; Karreman, Annemiek; Hartman, Esther E; Pop, Victor J M

    2018-02-01

    Because stability over time is central to the definition of personality disorder, aim of the current study was to determine the stability of the Pregnancy Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD) Symptoms Checklist (N = 199 women). Strong positive correlations between assessments at 32 weeks of pregnancy and 2 and 3-3.5 years after childbirth were found (r between .62-.72), and the group mean score did not change over time. The Pregnancy OCPD Symptoms Checklist assesses stable, trait-like symptoms of OCPD.

  4. New diagnostic perspectives on obsessive-compulsive personality disorder and its links with other conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starcevic, Vladan; Brakoulias, Vlasios

    2014-01-01

    This review examines the conceptualization of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD), its epidemiology and efforts to better understand the relationships between OCPD and other conditions. The alternative Fifth Edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders conceptualization of OCPD is radically different in that it combines categorical and dimensional diagnostic approaches and introduces a hierarchy of diagnostic criteria. OCPD is one of the most common personality disorders in the general population. The relationship between OCPD and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is important, but to a large extent obfuscated by the overlap between their diagnostic criteria. Frequent changes in the OCPD diagnostic criteria make it difficult to ascertain the 'true' relationship between OCPD and OCD. It is not uncommon for OCPD to occur with anorexia nervosa, depression, hypochondriasis, certain other personality disorders and Parkinson's disease, but further research is necessary to understand the implications of these links. OCPD is yet to be conceptualized consistently and in the manner that would make a clear and well supported distinction between its core and peripheral features. Future studies need to separate a genuine from overlap-driven co-occurrence of OCPD and other conditions, as that would give a better insight into the way in which OCPD relates to other disorders.

  5. Mental health literacy and obsessive--compulsive personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutoufa, Iakovina; Furnham, Adrian

    2014-01-30

    An opportunistic sample of 342 participants completed a vignette identification task that required them to name the possible psychological problem of an individual described in vignettes describing people with depression, schizophrenia, OCD and OCPD. Participants rated the degree to which they believed the individual experienced distress, they felt sympathetic towards the described individual, and the degree to which they believed the individual was well-adjusted in the community. There were very low recognition rates of OCPD, with participants more likely to identify depression, schizophrenia and OCD. Analysis of distress, sympathy and adjustment ratings also revealed significant differences between the disorders. The findings highlight the necessity of greater mental health awareness and the importance of psycho-education in order to increase successful treatment seeking of OCPD patients. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The continuity between DSM-5 obsessive-compulsive personality disorder traits and obsessive-compulsive symptoms in adolescence: an item response theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Caluwé, Elien; Rettew, David C; De Clercq, Barbara

    2014-11-01

    Various studies have shown that obsessive-compulsive symptoms exist as part of not only obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) but also obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD). Despite these shared characteristics, there is an ongoing debate on the inclusion of OCPD into the recently developed DSM-5 obsessive-compulsive and related disorders (OCRDs) category. The current study aims to clarify whether this inclusion can be justified from an item response theory approach. The validity of the continuity model for understanding the association between OCD and OCPD was explored in 787 Dutch community and referred adolescents (70% female, 12-20 years old, mean = 16.16, SD = 1.40) studied between July 2011 and January 2013, relying on item response theory (IRT) analyses of self-reported OCD symptoms (Youth Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms Scale [YOCSS]) and OCPD traits (Personality Inventory for DSM-5 [PID-5]). The results support the continuity hypothesis, indicating that both OCD and OCPD can be represented along a single underlying spectrum. OCD, and especially the obsessive symptom domain, can be considered as the extreme end of OCPD traits. The current study empirically supports the classification of OCD and OCPD along a single dimension. This integrative perspective in OC-related pathology addresses the dimensional nature of traits and psychopathology and may improve the transparency and validity of assessment procedures. © Copyright 2014 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  7. Compelled to Risk: Does Sexual Compulsivity Explain the Connection Between Borderline Personality Disorder Features and Number of Sexual Partners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardin, Charles; Sharp, Carla; Garey, Lorra; Vanwoerden, Salome; Crist, Nic; Elhai, Jon D; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2017-12-01

    Having more sexual partners increases the likelihood of new HIV infections among women. Women with more borderline personality disorder (BPD) features have been known to have greater numbers of sexual partners. However, the mechanisms linking BPD features with more sexual partners remain to be clarified. Sexual compulsivity (lack of control, increased distress over sexual behavior) may be one such explanatory factor, as it overlaps with BPD features (e.g., impulsivity, negative affectivity). The present study examined whether sexual compulsivity explained the relation of BPD features with number of sexual partners among a diverse sample of college females (N = 1,326). Results demonstrated a significant indirect effect of BPD features via sexual compulsivity on number of sexual partners. These findings support the relation between BPD features and sexual compulsivity and suggest sexual compulsivity as a target in the promotion of the sexual health of women with BPD who demonstrate risky sexual practices.

  8. Compulsive buying disorder clustering based on sex, age, onset and personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granero, Roser; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Baño, Marta; Steward, Trevor; Mestre-Bach, Gemma; Del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Moragas, Laura; Mallorquí-Bagué, Núria; Aymamí, Neus; Goméz-Peña, Mónica; Tárrega, Salomé; Menchón, José M; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana

    2016-07-01

    In spite of the revived interest in compulsive buying disorder (CBD), its classification into the contemporary nosologic systems continues to be debated, and scarce studies have addressed heterogeneity in the clinical phenotype through methodologies based on a person-centered approach. To identify empirical clusters of CBD employing personality traits, as well as patients' sex, age and the age of CBD onset as indicators. An agglomerative hierarchical clustering method defining a combination of the Schwarz Bayesian Information Criterion and log-likelihood was used. Three clusters were identified in a sample of n=110 patients attending a specialized CBD unit a) "male compulsive buyers" reported the highest prevalence of comorbid gambling disorder and the lowest levels of reward dependence; b) "female low-dysfunctional" mainly included employed women, with the highest level of education, the oldest age of onset, the lowest scores in harm avoidance and the highest levels of persistence, self-directedness and cooperativeness; and c) "female highly-dysfunctional" with the youngest age of onset, the highest levels of comorbid psychopathology and harm avoidance, and the lowest score in self-directedness. Sociodemographic characteristics and personality traits can be used to determine CBD clusters which represent different clinical subtypes. These subtypes should be considered when developing assessment instruments, preventive programs and treatment interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessment of DSM-IV personality disorders in obsessive-compulsive disorder: comparison of clinical diagnosis, self-report questionnaire, and semi-structured interview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tenney, Nienke H.; Schotte, Chris K. W.; Denys, Damiaan A. J. P.; van Megen, Harold J. G. M.; Westenberg, Herman G. M.

    2003-01-01

    In patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder, personality disorders are not many times assessed according to DSM-IV criteria. The purpose of the present study is to examine the prevalence of personality disorders diagnosed according to the DSM-IV in a severely disordered OCD population (n=65) with

  10. Comparison of cognitive flexibility and planning ability in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder, patients with obsessive compulsive personality disorder, and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paast, Negin; Khosravi, Zohreh; Memari, Amir Hossein; Shayestehfar, Monir; Arbabi, Mohammad

    2016-02-25

    Cognitive functioning in individuals with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and with Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD) has not been adequately studied. Examine the cognitive flexibility and planning ability of individuals with OCD and OCPD. Twenty patients with OCD and 25 patients with OCPD who had not taken medication in the previous two weeks were identified in an outpatient psychology clinic in Tehran, and 25 healthy control subjects were identified from the university staff and local community residents. All participants were administered the 28-item version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), and the Tower of London (TOL) test. Two measures of the WCTS (number of perseverative errors and number of categories completed) were used to assess cognitive flexibility and three measures of the TOL (total number of moves in 12 trials, total response time, and planning time) were used to assess planning ability. The level of current psychological distress in the two patient groups was significantly greater than that in the control group. After adjusting for demographic variables and the level of psychological distress, both OCD patients and OCPD patients made more perseverative errors on the WCST than control subjects, and the OCD patients (but not the OCPD patients) completed significantly fewer categories than the control subjects. Both the OCD patients and OCPD patients required significantly more moves than control subjects to complete the 12 TOL tasks and OCD patients took significantly longer than both OCPD patients and control subjects to complete the tasks. Individuals with OCD and OCPD have impaired cognitive flexibility and planning ability compared to healthy controls, and there are some differences in these measures of cognitive functioning between OCD and OCPD. Long term follow-up studies of OCD and OCPD that assess changes in cognitive measures as the severity of obsessive compulsive

  11. A Review and Critique of Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder Etiologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Charles Hertler

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present review and critique of extant etiological theories centers on a single finding: Obsessive-compulsive personality is highly heritable (0.78 and not significantly influenced by “common, shared-in-families environmental factors” (Torgersen et al., 2000, p. 424. This finding, though twelve years old, has remained dissociated from existing etiological accounts. Psychoanalytic theories anachronistically maintain that obsessive personality is familially forged. Biological theories, few, unelaborated and weakened by postulating proximate instead of ultimate explanations, fail to seriously reckon with Torgersen’s findings. Truly integrating heritability estimates into a functional etiological account of obsessive character, it is argued in the discussion section, will come from an evolutionary model that understands obsessive personality to be an evolved strategy rather than a dysfunctional disorder.

  12. Psychiatric, behavioral, and attitudinal correlates of avoidant and obsessive-compulsive personality pathology in patients with binge-eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Daniel F; Masheb, Robin M; White, Marney A; Grilo, Carlos M

    2010-01-01

    We examined correlates of avoidant and obsessive-compulsive personality pathology--with respect to psychiatric comorbidity, eating disorder psychopathology, and associated psychologic factors--in patients with binge-eating disorder (BED). Three hundred forty-seven treatment-seeking patients who met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), research criteria for BED were reliably assessed with semistructured interviews to evaluate DSM-IV Axis I disorders, personality disorders, and behavioral and attitudinal features of eating disorder psychopathology. Fifteen percent of subjects had avoidant personality disorder features, 12% had obsessive-compulsive personality disorder features, 8% had features of both disorders, and 66% had features of neither. These groups differed significantly in the frequencies of depressive and anxiety disorders, as well as on measures of psychologic functioning (negative/depressive affect and self-esteem) and eating disorder attitudes (shape and weight concerns). There were no group differences on measures of eating behaviors. The avoidant and obsessive-compulsive groups had more psychiatric comorbidity than the group without these personality features but less than the combined group. The group without these features scored significantly lower than all other groups on negative/depressive affect and significantly higher than the avoidant and combined groups on self-esteem. The combined group had the greatest severity on shape and weight concerns. Avoidant and obsessive-compulsive personality features are common in patients with BED. Among BED patients, these forms of personality psychopathology--separately and in combination--are associated with clinically meaningful diagnostic, psychologic, and attitudinal differences. These findings have implications for the psychopathologic relationship between BED and personality psychopathology and may also have implications for assessment and treatment. Copyright

  13. Two-Year Stability and Change of Schizotypal, Borderline, Avoidant, and Obsessive–Compulsive Personality Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, Carlos M.; Shea, M. Tracie; Sanislow, Charles A.; Skodol, Andrew E.; Gunderson, John G.; Stout, Robert L.; Pagano, Maria E.; Yen, Shirley; Morey, Leslie C.; Zanarini, Mary C.; McGlashan, Thomas H.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the stability of schizotypal (STPD), borderline (BPD), avoidant (AVPD) and obsessive– compulsive (OCPD) personality disorders (PDs) over 2 years of prospective multiwave follow-up. Six hundred thirty-three participants recruited at 4 collaborating sites who met criteria for 1 or more of the 4 PDs or for major depressive disorder (MDD) without PD were assessed with semistructured interviews at baseline, 6, 12, and 24 months. Lifetable survival analyses revealed that the PD groups had slower time to remission than the MDD group. Categorically, PD remission rates range from 50% (AVPD) to 61% (STPD) for dropping below diagnostic threshold on a blind 24-month reassessment but range from 23% (STPD) to 38% (OCPD) for a more stringent definition of improvement. Dimensionally, these findings suggest that PDs may be characterized by maladaptive trait constellations that are stable in their structure (individual differences) but can change in severity or expression over time. PMID:15482035

  14. Diagnostic efficiency of DSM-IV criteria for obsessive compulsive personality disorder in patients with binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, C M

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the diagnostic efficiency of the DSM-IV criteria for obsessive compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) in patients with binge eating disorder (BED). Two hundred and eleven consecutive adult patients with axis I diagnoses of BED were reliably assessed with semi-structured diagnostic interviews. Conditional probabilities-sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive power (PPP), and negative predictive power (NPP)-were calculated for each of the eight criteria for OCPD, using the 'best-estimate' OCPD diagnosis as the standard. The diagnostic efficiencies of the OCPD criteria were variable, with three criteria failing to have predictive value (PPPOCPD based on performance and call into question the utility of some criteria.

  15. The role of experiential avoidance in obsessive-compulsive personality disorder traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheaton, Michael G; Pinto, Anthony

    2017-10-01

    Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) is one of the most prevalent personality disorders, yet it remains an understudied phenomenon. Experiential avoidance (EA) has been investigated as a factor relevant in many forms of psychopathology, including borderline personality disorder. To date however, no study has yet investigated whether EA might also be relevant to OCPD. We administered a measure of EA and a multidimensional OCPD measure (assessing 5 OCPD trait dimensions and overall severity) to a large community sample (N = 571) as well as a group of individuals with self-identified OCPD features (N = 53). Results revealed that the OCPD group experienced heightened EA relative to the unscreened community sample, even controlling for group differences in distress symptoms. Correlational analyses showed significant relationships between EA and all 5 OCPD trait dimensions and overall severity. Moreover, EA accounted for OCPD traits and severity after controlling for symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress. Implications for the role of EA in OCPD, including treatment implications, are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Treatment outcomes for inpatients with obsessive-compulsive personality disorder: An open comparison trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ryan; Shepard, Christopher; Wiltgen, Anika; Rufino, Katrina; Fowler, J Christopher

    2017-02-01

    The current case-control study compared rates of clinically significant and reliable change in psychopathology and global functioning, prevalence of clinical deterioration, and rates of symptom remission among adult patients with obsessive compulsive personality disorder OCPD (n=52) and well-matched inpatients with any other personality disorder (n=56) and no personality disorder (n=53). Propensity score matching (PSM) was utilized to select patients matched on specific criteria present in the OCPD group. Multivariate analysis of variance models measured differences in admission functioning and RCI change across depression and anxiety severity, emotion dysregulation and suicidal ideation. Patients diagnosed with OCPD admit to treatment with higher rates of depression, anxiety, difficulty with emotion regulation and non-acceptance of emotional experience than inpatient controls. Furthermore, OCPD patients respond to treatment at a similar rate to inpatient controls, but experience lower rates of anxiety remission upon discharge. Post-hoc analyses indicate individuals meeting stubbornness and rigidity (OCPD Criteria 8) were nine times more likely to report moderate to severe anxiety at point of discharge. Limitations include a predominantly Caucasian, inpatient sample, use of self-report measures and a non-manualized treatment approach. Overall, OCPD inpatients benefit from an intensive multimodal psychiatric treatment, but experience more anxiety than non-PD patients upon discharge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The prevalence and structure of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder in Hispanic psychiatric outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansell, Emily B; Pinto, Anthony; Crosby, Ross D; Becker, Daniel F; Añez, Luis M; Paris, Manuel; Grilo, Carlos M

    2010-09-01

    This study sought to confirm a multi-factor model of Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) in a Hispanic outpatient sample and to explore associations of the OCPD factors with aggression, depression, and suicidal thoughts. One hundred and thirty monolingual, Spanish-speaking participants were recruited from a community mental health center and were assessed by bilingual doctoral-level clinicians. OCPD was highly prevalent (26%) in this sample. Multi-factor models of OCPD were tested and the two factors - perfectionism and interpersonal rigidity - provided the best model fit. Interpersonal rigidity was associated with aggression and anger while perfectionism was associated with depression and suicidal thoughts. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The relationship between obsessive-compulsive personality disorder traits, obsessive-compulsive disorder and excessive exercise in patients with anorexia nervosa: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Sarah; Rhodes, Paul; Touyz, Stephen; Hay, Phillipa

    2013-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) traits and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are commonly associated with patients with Anorexia Nervosa (AN). The aim of this review was to systematically search the literature to examine whether OCPD and OCD are positively associated with excessive exercise in patients with AN. A systematic electronic search of the literature (using PsycInfo, Medline and Web of Knowledge) was undertaken to identify relevant publications until May 2012. A total of ten studies met criteria for inclusion in the review. The design of the studies varied from cross-sectional to retrospective and quasi-experimental. Seven out of the ten studies reviewed demonstrated a positive relationship between OCPD and/or OCD in AN patients who exercise excessively, whilst three studies found a lack of relationship, or a negative relationship, between these constructs. There is evidence from the literature to suggest that there is a positive relationship between OCPD and excessive exercise in patients with AN. However, the relationship between OCD and excessive exercise is less clear and further research is required to qualify the strength of such relationships. Future research should utilise the most comprehensive and reliable clinical assessment tools, and address prognostic factors, treatment factors and specific interventions for patients with OCPD and/or OCD and excessive exercise.

  19. DSM-IV obsessive-compulsive personality disorder: prevalence in patients with anxiety disorders and in healthy comparison subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Umberto; Maina, Giuseppe; Forner, Federica; Bogetto, Filippo

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) has not yet been fully clarified. The aim of the present study was to analyze DSM-IV OCPD prevalence rates in OCD and panic disorder (PD) patients to test for the specificity of the OCPD-OCD link, and to compare them to OCPD prevalence in a control group of subjects without any psychiatric disorder. A total of 109 patients with a principal diagnosis of DSM-IV (SCID-I) OCD and 82 with PD were interviewed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Disorders (SCID-II) in order to assess the prevalence of OCPD. All patients with a coexisting axis I diagnosis were excluded from the study to eliminate confounding factors when evaluating the association between prevalence rates of OCPD and anxiety disorder diagnoses. An exclusion criteria was also a Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) score >/=16. A sample of comparison subjects (age 18 to 65 years) without any psychiatric disorder was recruited from people registered with two general practitioners (GPs), whether or not they consulted the doctor, in order to evaluate OCPD prevalence rate in the community. A significant difference was found between the prevalence of OCPD in OCD (22.9%) and in PD (17.1%) on one hand, and that in the comparison sample (3.0%) on the other. No differences were found between the two psychiatric groups, even when splitting the samples according to gender. Our study failed to support the hypothesis of a specific relationship between OCPD and OCD; we confirmed the higher prevalence rate of this personality disorder in OCD subjects with regard to the general population, but we also confirmed the higher rate of OCPD in another anxiety disorder which is phenomenologically well characterized and different from OCD, such as PD.

  20. Alterations of the default mode network connectivity in obsessive-compulsive personality disorder: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Joana; Goncalves, Oscar Filipe; Soares, José Miguel; Marques, Paulo; Sampaio, Adriana

    2016-10-30

    Obsessive-compulsive personality (OCPD) disorder is characterized by a pattern of excessive self-control, perfectionism and behavioral and cognitive rigidity. Despite the fact that OCPD is the most common personality disorder in the general population, published studies looking at the brain correlates of this disorder are practically nonexistent. The main goal of this study was to analyze the presence of brain alterations in OCPD when compared to healthy controls, specifically at the level of the Default Mode Network (DMN). The DMN is a well-established resting state network which was found to be associated with psychological processes that may play a key role in OCPD (e.g., self-awareness, episodic future thinking and mental simulation). Ten individuals diagnosed with OCPD and ten healthy controls underwent a clinical assessment interview and a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) acquisition. The results show that OCPD patients presented an increased functional connectivity in the precuneus (i.e., a posterior node of the DMN), known to be involved in the retrieval manipulation of past events in order to solve current problems and develop plans for the future. These results suggest that this key node of the DMN may play an important role in the pathophysiology of OCPD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Adults Data Sources Share Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Definition Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is often a long- ... MSC 9663 Bethesda, MD 20892-9663 Follow Us Facebook Twitter YouTube Google Plus NIMH Newsletter NIMH RSS ...

  2. Attachment insecurity and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder among inpatients with serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltgen, Anika; Adler, Herman; Smith, Ryan; Rufino, Katrina; Frazier, Christopher; Shepard, Christopher; Booker, Kirk; Simmons, Diedra; Richardson, Leah; Allen, Jon G; Fowler, J Christopher

    2015-03-15

    Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) is characterized by traits such as extreme rigidity, perfectionism, and controlling behavior, all of which have a negative impact on interpersonal functioning. Attachment theory provides a useful framework to elucidate the interpersonal dysfunction characteristic of OCPD; yet, there is a dearth of attachment research on OCPD in the context of severe mental illness. Attachment security and personality disorders were assessed in adult inpatients with severe mental illness. Propensity Score Matching (PSM) was used to match OCPD and control subjects on age, gender, number of psychiatric disorders, and number of criteria endorsed for borderline personality disorder. Consistent with hypotheses, the OCPD group (n=61) showed greater attachment avoidance than controls (n=61), and the avoidance was manifested in a predominance of the most insecure attachment style, fearful attachment. Correlations between attachment anxiety/avoidance with specific OCPD diagnostic criteria revealed that attachment avoidance was correlated with four of eight OCPD criteria across the full sample. Within the subset of OCPD patients, attachment avoidance was significantly correlated with OCPD criterion 3 (is excessively devoted to work and productivity to the exclusion of leisure activities and friendships). The use of self-report measure of attachment and the high burden of illness in the SMI population may not generalize to interview based assessment or outpatients, respectively. Findings attest to the severity of impairment in interpersonal functioning and attachment avoidance, in particular, is characteristic of OCPD patients. These results suggest that viable treatment targets include interpersonal functioning along with more classical features of OCPD such as perfectionism and obsessiveness in task performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Continuity between DSM-5 Section II and Section III personality traits for obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liggett, Jacqueline; Sellbom, Martin; Bach, Bo

    2018-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) is formally operationalized in Section II of the DSM-5 by a heterogeneous collection of 8 categorical criteria. Section III contains an alternative model operationalizing personality disorders via dimensional personality traits and associated impairment. The extent to which the personality traits used to define OCPD in Section III correspond with the Section II operationalization of the disorder is contested. The current study aims to contribute to the evidence base necessary to solidify the optimal trait profile for this disorder via a more fine-tuned examination of OCPD. The research questions were examined using a clinical sample of 142 Danish adults who completed the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Disorders and the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 to index both the Sections II and III (personality traits) operationalizations of OCPD, respectively. Bivariate correlations supported Rigid Perfectionism and Perseveration as traits relevant to OCPD; however, hierarchical regression analyses indicated that of the 4 traits used in the Section III operationalization of OCPD, only Rigid Perfectionism uniquely predicted OCPD (p traits of Submissiveness, Suspiciousness, and (low) Impulsivity were also found to uniquely predict OCPD and its specific symptoms in a regression model. These findings indicate that the traits proposed in Section III are only partially aligned with the traditional, Section II conceptualization of OCPD, and may be augmented by incorporating Submissiveness, Suspiciousness, and (low) Impulsivity. In light of the current findings and existing literature, a modified constellation of traits to operationalize OCPD is likely justified. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Early Alliance, Alliance Ruptures, and Symptom Change in a Nonrandomized Trial of Cognitive Therapy for Avoidant and Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Jennifer L.; Hayes, Adele M.; Johnson, Sheri L.; Newman, Cory F.; Brown, Gregory K.; Barber, Jaques P.; Lawrenceau, Jean-Philippe; Beck, Aaron T.

    2006-01-01

    Participants were 30 adult outpatients diagnosed with avoidant personality disorder or obsessive-compulsive personality disorder who enrolled in an open trial of cognitive therapy for personality disorders. Treatment consisted of up to 52 weekly sessions. Symptom evaluations were conducted at intake, at Sessions 17 and 34, and at the last…

  5. Factor structure of DSM-IV criteria for obsessive compulsive personality disorder in patients with binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, C M

    2004-01-01

    To examine the factor structure of DSM-IV criteria for obsessive compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) in patients with binge eating disorder (BED). Two hundred and eleven consecutive out-patients with axis I diagnoses of BED were reliably assessed with semi-structured diagnostic interviews. The eight criteria for the OCPD diagnosis were examined with reliability and correlational analyses. Exploratory factor analysis was performed to identify potential components. Cronbach's coefficient alpha for the OCPD criteria was 0.77. Principal components factor analysis with varimax rotation revealed a three-factor solution (rigidity, perfectionism, and miserliness), which accounted for 65% of variance. The DSM-IV criteria for OCPD showed good internal consistency. Exploratory factor analysis, however, revealed three components that may reflect distinct interpersonal, intrapersonal (cognitive), and behavioral features.

  6. Compulsive buying and borderline personality symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Randy A; Chang, Joy; Jewell, Bryan; Sellbom, Martin; Bidwell, Mark

    2013-04-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the relationship between compulsive buying and borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptomatology--two disorders possibly linked through impulsivity. Using a survey methodology in a cross-sectional consecutive sample of nonemergent female outpatients from an obstetrics/gynecology clinic, the authors assessed compulsive buying with the compulsive buying scale (CBS) and BPD symptomatology through the BPD scale of the personality diagnostic questionnaire-4 (PDQ-4) and the self-harm Inventory (SHI). In this sample, 8% of Caucasian women and 9% of African-American women scored positively for compulsive buying. The correlations between scores on the CBS and the PDQ-4 and SHI were 0.43 and 0.41, respectively-both statistically significant at the p buying and BPD, particularly among African-American women.

  7. Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder and suicidal behavior: evidence for a positive association in a sample of depressed patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaconu, Gabriel; Turecki, Gustavo

    2009-11-01

    To explore the association between obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) and suicidal behavior. Subjects referred for a psychiatric consultation were evaluated with structured interviews for mood and personality disorders (the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R Axis II Disorders), a history of suicidal behavior, and levels of coping. A total of 311 subjects were investigated using a 3-group design to test the association between OCPD and suicidal behavior, controlling for the presence of depression. Subjects with OCPD and a history of depression were compared to depressed subjects without any Axis II diagnosis and to subjects without depression or personality disorders. The study was conducted at Verdun Community Psychiatric Clinic, Douglas Hospital, McGill University, in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, and subjects were recruited from 2003 until 2005. Subjects in the comorbid OCPD-depression group presented increased current and lifetime suicide ideation compared to the groups with depression alone or without depression or personality disorders (P = .004); they also had increased history of suicide attempts (P = .04), which were often multiple attempts (P = .01). They also scored lower on the Reasons for Living Inventory (RFL) and the Death Anxiety Questionnaire. Interestingly, comorbid OCPD-depression patients differed from patients with depression alone on the Moral Objections items of the RFL, on which individuals with OCPD-depression scored lowest. Limitations of this study were its cross-sectional design, retrospective sample, and limited generalizability to the population at large. Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder is a factor increasing risk for nonfatal suicidal behavior independently of risk conferred by depressive disorders. Copyright 2009 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  8. Investigation of obsessive-compulsive disorder and assessment of obsessionality as a personality trait in patients with complex partial seizure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banihashemian K

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Behavioral changes in patients with epilepsy could cause comorbid psychiatric disorders such as anxiety disorders. This study is concerned with investigation of obsessive-compulsive disorders and assessment of obsessionality as a personality trait in patients with complex partial seizure. "n"nMethods: Seventy six patients with complex partial seizure, 74 patients with generalized epilepsy that referred to Shiraz psychiatric professional center during three month (from July to September 2009, and 76 matched healthy controls were randomly selected and evaluated using the Yale-Brown obsessive compulsive scale (Y-BOCS, short form of Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory (MMPI and clinical interview. "n"nResults: Complex partial seizure and obsessive-compulsive disorder (%13.15 are significantly more prevalent than generalized seizure (%2.70 and than control groups (%1.31 (p<0.001, and mean of psychasthenia scale (Pt scale scores in patients with complex partial seizure is more than mean of Pt scores in generalized epilepsy and control groups (p<0.001. There is significant relationship between total score of Yale-Brown scale and Pt scale in MMPI (r=0.79, p<0.01."n"nConclusions: Patients with complex

  9. The association of anxiety disorders and obsessive compulsive personality disorder with anorexia nervosa: evidence from a family study with discussion of nosological and neurodevelopmental implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strober, Michael; Freeman, Roberta; Lampert, Carlyn; Diamond, Jane

    2007-11-01

    To investigate the association of anorexia nervosa with anxiety disorders through use of a case-control family study design. Lifetime prevalence of anxiety disorders and obsessive compulsive personality disorder was determined among 574 first-degree relatives of 152 probands with anorexia nervosa and compared to rates observed among 647 first-degree relatives of 181 never-ill control probands. Adjusting for comorbidity of the same illness in the proband, relatives of probands with anorexia nervosa, had a significantly higher prevalence of generalized anxiety, obsessive compulsive disorder, separation anxiety disorder, social phobia, panic disorder, and obsessive compulsive personality disorder compared to relatives of never-ill control probands. Anorexia nervosa may share familial liability factors in common with various anxiety phenotypes. In suggesting that a transmitted propensity for anxiety is a key aspect of vulnerability in anorexia nervosa, the findings point to research developments in the affective neurosciences, specifically the neurocircuitry of fear and anxiety, as a heuristic framework in which to interpret aspects of premorbid temperamental anxieties and clinical symptoms. (c) 2007 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Early Alliance, Alliance Ruptures, and Symptom Change in a Nonrandomized Trial of Cognitive Therapy for Avoidant and Obsessive–Compulsive Personality Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Strauss, Jennifer L.; Hayes, Adele M.; Johnson, Sheri L.; Newman, Cory F.; Brown, Gregory K.; Barber, Jacques P.; Laurenceau, Jean-Philippe; Beck, Aaron T.

    2006-01-01

    Participants were 30 adult outpatients diagnosed with avoidant personality disorder or obsessive–compulsive personality disorder who enrolled in an open trial of cognitive therapy for personality disorders. Treatment consisted of up to 52 weekly sessions. Symptom evaluations were conducted at intake, at Sessions 17 and 34, and at the last session. Alliance variables were patients’ first alliance rating and “rupture-repair” episodes, which are disruptions in the therapeutic relationship that c...

  11. Longitudinal diagnostic efficiency of DSM-IV criteria for obsessive-compulsive personality disorder: a 2-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, C M; Skodol, A E; Gunderson, J G; Sanislow, C A; Stout, R L; Shea, M T; Morey, L C; Zanarini, M C; Bender, D S; Yen, S; McGlashan, T H

    2004-07-01

    To examine the longitudinal diagnostic efficiency of the DSM-IV criteria for obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD). At baseline, criteria and diagnoses were determined using diagnostic interviews, and blinded assessments were performed 24 months later with 550 participants. Diagnostic efficiency indices (conditional probabilities, total predictive power, and kappa) were calculated for each criterion determined at baseline, using the independent OCPD diagnosis at follow-up as the standard. Longitudinal diagnostic efficiencies for the OCPD criteria varied; findings suggested the overall predictive utility of 'preoccupied with details', 'rigid and stubborn', and 'reluctant to delegate'. These findings suggest the predictive validity of three cognitive-interpersonal OCPD criteria.

  12. Compulsive masturbation in a patient with delusional disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagar Karia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Compulsive masturbation is a type of paraphilia related disorder in which a person engages in masturbatory behavior to such an extent that it causes socio-occupational dysfunction. The psychiatric co-morbidities associated with it include mood and anxiety disorders, substance use disorders, etc. Here, we report a case of a patient with the delusional disorder having compulsive masturbation.

  13. Compulsive masturbation in a patient with delusional disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Sagar Karia; Avinash De Sousa; Nilesh Shah; Sushma Sonavane

    2015-01-01

    Compulsive masturbation is a type of paraphilia related disorder in which a person engages in masturbatory behavior to such an extent that it causes socio-occupational dysfunction. The psychiatric co-morbidities associated with it include mood and anxiety disorders, substance use disorders, etc. Here, we report a case of a patient with the delusional disorder having compulsive masturbation.

  14. Validation of Self-Report Impairment Measures for Section III Obsessive-Compulsive and Avoidant Personality Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liggett, Jacqueline; Carmichael, Kieran L C; Smith, Alexander; Sellbom, Martin

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the validity of newly developed disorder-specific impairment scales (IS), modeled on the Level of Personality Functioning Scale, for obsessive-compulsive (OCPD) and avoidant (AvPD) personality disorders. The IS focused on content validity (items directly reflected the disorder-specific impairments listed in DSM-5 Section III) and severity of impairment. A community sample of 313 adults completed personality inventories indexing the DSM-5 Sections II and III diagnostic criteria for OCPD and AvPD, as well as measures of impairment in the domains of self- and interpersonal functioning. Results indicated that both impairment measures (for AvPD in particular) showed promise in their ability to measure disorder-specific impairment, demonstrating convergent validity with their respective Section II counterparts and discriminant validity with their noncorresponding Section II disorder and with each other. The pattern of relationships between scores on the IS and scores on external measures of personality functioning, however, did not indicate that it is useful to maintain a distinction between impairment in the self- and interpersonal domains, at least for AvPD and OCPD.

  15. Homicidal behaviour among people with avoidant, dependent and obsessive-compulsive (cluster C) personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laajasalo, Taina; Ylipekka, Mikko; Häkkänen-Nyholm, Helinä

    2013-02-01

    Despite a growing forensic psychiatry literature, no previous study has examined in detail homicidal behaviour among offenders with cluster C personality disorders - the avoidant, dependent or obsessional personality disorders. This study aims to compare homicide offenders with cluster C personality disorders with those with other personality disorders on criminal history, offender-victim relationship and post-offence reaction variables. The sample was drawn from all Finnish homicide cases of 1996-2004 for whom a forensic psychiatric evaluation had been conducted. Data were extracted from forensic psychiatric and crime reports. In a nationwide sample of 593 homicide offenders, 21 had at least one cluster C personality disorder. These offenders had significantly shorter criminal histories than the others. Offender-victim relationship did not differ between the groups, but confession to the crime and feelings of remorse were more common among people with cluster C disorders. In addition, compared with other personality disorder clusters, co-morbid depression was more common. Cluster C personality disorders are rare, but not nonexistent, among homicide offenders. Observed differences in their backgrounds and post-offence behaviours indicate that they may have special needs. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Bipolar Disorder and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Comorbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necla Keskin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The comorbidity of bipolar disorder and anxiety disorders is a well known concept. Obsessive-compulsive disorder is the most commonly seen comorbid anxiety disorder in bipolar patients. Some genetic variants, neurotransmitters especially serotonergic systems and second-messenger systems are thought to be responsible for its etiology. Bipolar disorder alters the clinical aspects of obsessive compulsive disorder and is associated with poorer outcome. The determination of comorbidity between bipolar disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder is quite important for appropriate clinical management and treatment. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(4.000: 429-437

  17. EEG-vigilance differences between patients with borderline personality disorder, patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegerl, Ulrich; Stein, Michael; Mulert, Christoph; Mergl, Roland; Olbrich, Sebastian; Dichgans, Eva; Rujescu, Dan; Pogarell, Oliver

    2008-04-01

    The regulation of brain activation, as assessed with the EEG, is a state modulated trait. A decline to lowered EEG-vigilance states has been found to be associated with emotional instability in older studies, but has not been systematically studied in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Twenty unmedicated BPD patients were compared to 20 unmedicated patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) as well as 20 healthy controls concerning their EEG-vigilance regulation over a 5-min period assessed with an algorithm classifying every artefact-free 2-s EEG segment into the EEG-vigilance state (A1-A3, B (=non-A)). If the alpha power was posterior more than 55% of the whole alpha power (anterior + posterior) in the artefact-free EEG-segments, that segment was marked as A1, if it was anterior more than 55% of the whole alpha power, as A3. For A2 the following rule was defined: Posterior or anterior alpha between 50 and 55% of the whole alpha power.BPD patients showed significantly lower rates of EEG-vigilance state A compared to OCD patients, indicating a lowered EEG-vigilance. All three groups showed a decrease in the rate of EEG-vigilance state A over the 5 min recording period in line with a lowering of vigilance. The study provides evidence for a less stable regulation of EEG-vigilance in BPD compared to OCD patients and is in line with concepts postulating that the behavioural pattern with sensation seeking and impulsivity in BPD has a compensatory and autoregulatory function to stabilize activation of the CNS.

  18. Examining the DSM-5 alternative model of personality disorders operationalization of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder in a mental health sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liggett, Jacqueline; Sellbom, Martin

    2018-06-21

    The current study evaluated the continuity between the diagnostic operationalizations of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, both as traditionally operationalized and from the perspective of the alternative model of personality disorders. Using both self-report and informant measures, the study had the following four aims: (a) to examine the extent to which self-report and informant data correspond, (b) to investigate whether both self-report and informant measures of the alternative model of OCPD can predict traditional OCPD, (c) to determine if any traits additional to those proposed in the alternative model of OCPD can predict traditional OCPD, and (d) to investigate whether a measure of OCPD-specific impairment is better at predicting traditional OCPD than are measures of general impairment in personality functioning. A mental health sample of 214 participants was recruited and administered measures of both the traditional and alternative models of OCPD. Self-report data moderately corresponded with informant data, which is consistent with the literature. Results further confirmed rigid perfectionism as the core trait of OCPD. Perseveration and workaholism were also associated with OCPD. Hostility was identified as a trait deserving further research. A measure of OCPD-specific impairment demonstrated its ability to incrementally predict OCPD over general measures of impairment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Fusion or confusion in obsessive compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Kieron; Aardema, Frederick

    2003-08-01

    Inferential confusion occurs when a person mistakes an imagined possibility for a real probability and might account for some types of thought-action and other fusions reported in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Inferential confusion could account for the ego-dystonic nature of obsessions and their recurrent nature, since the person acts "as if" an imagined aversive inference is probable and tries unsuccessfully to modify this imaginary probability in reality. The clinical implications of the inferential confusion model focus primarily on the role of the imagination in obsessive-compulsive disorder rather than on cognitive beliefs.

  20. Examining the DSM-5 Section III Criteria for Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder in a Community Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liggett, Jacqueline; Sellbom, Martin; Carmichael, Kieran L C

    2017-12-01

    The current study examined the extent to which the trait-based operationalization of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) in Section III of the DSM-5 describes the same construct as the one described in Section II. A community sample of 313 adults completed a series of personality inventories indexing the DSM-5 Sections II and III diagnostic criteria for OCPD, in addition to a measure of functional impairment modelled after the criteria in Section III. Results indicated that latent constructs representing Section II and Section III OCPD overlapped substantially (r = .75, p OCPD variable. Further, Anxiousness and (low) Impulsivity, as well as self and interpersonal impairment, augmented the prediction of latent OCPD scores.

  1. The quality of the DSM-IV obsessive-compulsive personality disorder construct as a prototype category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummelen, Benjamin; Wilberg, Theresa; Pedersen, Geir; Karterud, Sigmund

    2008-06-01

    The study evaluated the quality of the DSM-IV obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) construct as a prototype category. A sample of 2237 patients from the Norwegian Network of Psychotherapeutic Day Hospitals was examined by a variety of psychometric analyses. A high number of OCPD patients (77%) had co-occurrent PDs, but only the co-occurrence with paranoid was significantly higher than expected. Exploratory factor analysis of the PD criteria indicated that OCPD consists of 2 dimensions. The first dimension, perfectionism, was constituted by OCPD criteria only and was significantly related to obsessive-compulsive disorder. The second dimension, aggressiveness, included 2 OCPD criteria, reluctance to delegate and stubbornness, but was also defined by criteria from paranoid, antisocial, and borderline PD. Confirmatory factor analysis of the OCPD criteria indicated a poor fit of both a unitary model and a 3-dimensional model. Overall, the OCPD criteria had poor psychometric properties. Although it seems that the quality of the DSM-IV OCPD as a prototype construct is insufficient, it may be improved by deleting the criteria hoarding behavior and miserliness. Alternative criteria could be related to problems in close relationships involving the need for predictability. Such revisions may add a third dimension to the 2 dimensions of perfectionism and aggressiveness.

  2. The role of avoidant and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder traits in matching patients with major depression to cognitive behavioral and psychodynamic therapy: A replication study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikkert, Martijn J; Driessen, Ellen; Peen, Jaap; Barber, Jacques P; Bockting, Claudi; Schalkwijk, Frans; Dekker, Jeff; Dekker, Jack J M

    2016-11-15

    Barber and Muenz (1996) reported that cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) was more effective than interpersonal therapy (IPT) for depressed patients with elevated levels of avoidant personality disorder, while IPT was more effective than CBT in patients with elevated levels of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. These findings may have important clinical implications, but have not yet been replicated. We conducted a study using data from a randomized clinical trial comparing the efficacy of CBT and short-term psychodynamic supportive psychotherapy in the outpatient treatment of depression. We found no evidence indicating that avoidant patients may benefit more from CBT compared to short-term psychodynamic supportive therapy (SPSP). Our results indicate that treatment effect does not depend on the level of avoidance, or obsessive-compulsiveness personality disorders further examine the influence of personality disorders on the effectiveness of CBT or psychodynamic therapy in the treatment of depression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. 强迫障碍患者的共病人格障碍%Comorbidity of obsessive-compulsive disorder with personality disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹文胜; 于宏华; 焦志安

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the comorbidity of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) with Axis Ⅱ personality disorders (PD).Methods: Forty-four patients who met the DSM-Ⅳ ( Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition) criteria for OCD were screened with the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire ( PDQ +4 ).And the PD positive subjects were assessed and diagnosed with the Personality Disorder Interview (PDI-Ⅳ).Results: Thirty-six of the 44 patients showed positive results in the PDQ +4 screening, with the positive rate of 82%.Thirty-two of 44 (73%) OCD patients also met DSM-Ⅳ criteria for Axis Ⅱ personality disorders.Twenty-five of 44 (57%) OCD patients were diagnosed with two or more kinds of Axis Ⅱ disorders.The most common three personality disorders were obsessive &compulsive (64%), avoidant (57%), and paranoid (21%).No subjects were diagnosed with antisocial and schizoid.Conclusion: Comorbidity of obsessive-compulsive disorder with personality disorders occurs pervasively.Patients with OCD are often diagnosed with Axis Ⅱ personality disorders with the exception of antisocial and schizoid, especially with obsessive & compulsive and avoidant of cluster-C.%目的:探讨强迫障碍(obsessive-compulsive disorder,OCD)患者共病轴Ⅱ人格障碍的情况.方法:对44例符合美国精神障碍诊断统计手册4版(Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders,Fourth Edition,DSM-IV)中OCD临床诊断标准的门诊和住院部患者,应用人格障碍诊断问卷4版(Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire,PDQ)进行筛查.对筛查阳性者再用个性障碍晤谈手册(Personality Disorder Interview,PDI-Ⅳ)做半定式查询确定其中的人格障碍患者.结果:36名患者PDQ"筛查阳性,阳性率为82%.36名阳性患者中有32名OCD患者同时符合人格障碍的诊断标准,共病率为73%(32/44),其中57%(25/44)的被试符合两种或两种以上人格障碍的诊断标准.共病率最高的3种人

  4. The relationship between compulsive buying and eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, James E; Redlin, Jennifer; Wonderlich, Steve; Crosby, Ross; Faber, Ron; Miltenberger, Ray; Smyth, Joshua; Stickney, Marci; Gosnell, Blake; Burgard, Melissa; Lancaster, Kathy

    2002-07-01

    Compulsive buying has received increased research attention in the last decade. The disorder has high rates of comorbidity for other disorders, including eating disorders. This study explored the possible relationship between compulsive buying and eating disorders. Twenty women who scored in the pathological range on a measure of compulsive buying and 20 controls were recruited via the media. Various measures of psychopathology and eating disorder symptoms were administered to both groups. Compulsive buyers were significantly more likely to have a higher lifetime history of substance abuse or dependence. No differences existed between normal controls and compulsive buyers in prevalence of current or lifetime eating disorders, nor were there differences in scores of eating-related psychopathology. This work failed to demonstrate an increased risk for eating disorder in compulsive buyers, although a higher rate of substance dependence or abuse and higher scores on pathological personality dimension scales were seen.

  5. Stability of functional impairment in patients with schizotypal, borderline, avoidant, or obsessive–compulsive personality disorder over two years

    Science.gov (United States)

    SKODOL, ANDREW E.; PAGANO, MARIA E.; BENDER, DONNA S.; SHEA, M. TRACIE; GUNDERSON, JOHN G.; YEN, SHIRLEY; STOUT, ROBERT L.; MOREY, LESLIE C.; SANISLOW, CHARLES A.; GRILO, CARLOS M.; ZANARINI, MARY C.; McGLASHAN, THOMAS H.

    2012-01-01

    Background A defining feature of personality disorder (PD) is an enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that is stable over time. Follow-up and follow-along studies have shown considerable diagnostic instability of PDs, however, even over short intervals. What, then, about personality disorder is stable ? The purpose of this study was to determine the stability of impairment in psychosocial functioning in patients with four different PDs, in contrast to patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and no PD, prospectively over a 2-year period. Method Six hundred treatment-seeking or treated patients were recruited primarily from clinical services in four metropolitan areas of the Northeastern USA. Patients were assigned to one of five diagnostic groups: schizotypal (STPD) (n=81), borderline (BPD) (n=155), avoidant (AVPD) (n=137), or obsessive–compulsive (OCPD) (n=142) personality disorders or MDD and no PD (n=85), based on the results of semi-structured interview assessments and self-report measures. Impairment in psychosocial functioning was measured using the Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation (LIFE) at baseline and at three follow-up assessments. Results Significant improvement in psychosocial functioning occurred in only three of seven domains of functioning and was largely the result of improvements in the MDD and no PD group. Patients with BPD or OCPD showed no improvement in functioning overall, but patients with BPD who experienced change in personality psychopathology showed some improvement in functioning. Impairment in social relationships appeared most stable in patients with PDs. Conclusion Impairment in functioning, especially social functioning, may be an enduring component of personality disorder. PMID:15841879

  6. Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder features and response to behavioral therapy for insomnia among patients with hypnotic-dependent insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Megan E; Emert, Sarah E; Lichstein, Kenneth L

    2018-06-05

    To compare therapeutic response to behavioral therapy for insomnia (BT-I) among hypnotic-dependent insomnia (HDI) patients with and without Cluster C personality disorders. Twenty-three adults with HDI (17 females), aged between 33 and 68 (M = 53; SD = 9.9) were included in the study. Participants completed a personality disorder assessment (baseline), as well as sleep diaries, polysomnography (PSG), and an insomnia severity assessment (baseline, posttreatment, and one-year follow-up). Treatment consisted of eight weeks of individual BT-I and gradual hypnotic medication withdrawal. Multilevel mixed-effects linear regression models examined the interaction between study visit and Cluster C personality disorders status on treatment response to BT-I. Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) was the most prevalent of the Cluster C personality disorders with 38% (n = 8) of participants meeting criteria. There were no significant treatment differences by OCPD status across time as measured by sleep diaries and insomnia severity status. However, there were significant treatment differences by OCPD status by one-year follow-up on PSG outcomes, indicating that patients with OCPD status had shorter and more disrupted sleep than patients without OCPD status. Based on self-reported sleep measures, patients with insomnia and features of OCPD responded equivalently to BT-I at one-year follow-up compared to patients without features of OCPD. However, polysomnography outcomes indicated objective sleep deteriorated in these patients, which may suggest greater vulnerability to relapse.

  7. Two-year prevalence and stability of individual DSM-IV criteria for schizotypal, borderline, avoidant, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders: toward a hybrid model of axis II disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlashan, Thomas H; Grilo, Carlos M; Sanislow, Charles A; Ralevski, Elizabeth; Morey, Leslie C; Gunderson, John G; Skodol, Andrew E; Shea, M Tracie; Zanarini, Mary C; Bender, Donna; Stout, Robert L; Yen, Shirley; Pagano, Maria

    2005-05-01

    This study tracked the individual criteria of four DSM-IV personality disorders-borderline, schizotypal, avoidant, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders-and how they change over 2 years. This clinical sample of patients with personality disorders was derived from the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study and included all participants with borderline, schizotypal, avoidant, or obsessive-compulsive personality disorder for whom complete 24-month blind follow-up assessments were obtained (N=474). The authors identified and rank-ordered criteria for each of the four personality disorders by their variation in prevalence and changeability (remission) over time. The most prevalent and least changeable criteria over 2 years were paranoid ideation and unusual experiences for schizotypal personality disorder, affective instability and anger for borderline personality disorder, feeling inadequate and feeling socially inept for avoidant personality disorder, and rigidity and problems delegating for obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. The least prevalent and most changeable criteria were odd behavior and constricted affect for schizotypal personality disorder, self-injury and behaviors defending against abandonment for borderline personality disorder, avoiding jobs that are interpersonal and avoiding potentially embarrassing situations for avoidant personality disorder, and miserly behaviors and strict moral behaviors for obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. These patterns highlight that within personality disorders the relatively fixed criteria are more trait-like and attitudinal, whereas the relatively intermittent criteria are more behavioral and reactive. These patterns suggest that personality disorders are hybrids of traits and symptomatic behaviors and that the interaction of these elements over time helps determine diagnostic stability. These patterns may also inform criterion selection for DSM-V.

  8. Relevance of Five-Factor Model personality traits for obsessive-compulsive symptoms in patients with psychotic disorders and their un-affected siblings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schirmbeck, Frederike; Boyette, Lindy-Lou; van der Valk, Renate; Meijer, Carin; Dingemans, Peter; van, Rien; de Haan, Lieuwe; Kahn, René S.; van Os, Jim; Wiersma, Durk; Bruggeman, Richard; Cahn, Wiepke; Myin-Germeys, Inez

    2015-01-01

    High rates of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) in schizophrenia require pathogenic explanations. Personality traits may represent risk and resiliency factors for the development of mental disorders and their comorbidities. The aim of the present study was to explore the associations between

  9. Relevance of Five-Factor Model personality traits for obsessive-compulsive symptoms in patients with psychotic disorders and their un-affected siblings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schirmbeck, Frederike; Boyette, Lindy-Lou; van der Valk, Renate; Meijer, Carin; Dingemans, Peter; Van, Rien; de Haan, Lieuwe; Kahn, Rene S.; de Haan, Lieuwe; van Os, Jim; Wiersma, Durk; Bruggeman, Richard; Cahn, Wiepke; Meijer, Carin; Myin-Germeys, Inez

    High rates of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) in schizophrenia require pathogenic explanations. Personality traits may represent risk and resiliency factors for the development of mental disorders and their comorbidities. The aim of the present study was to explore the associations between

  10. Compulsive buying disorder: an untreated patient for 20 years

    OpenAIRE

    Gonca Karakus; Lut Tamam

    2017-01-01

    Compulsive buying disorder is characterized by impulsive drives and compulsive behaviors (buying unneeded things), personal distress, impaired social and vocational functioning and financial problems. In this case report, we presented diagnostic and treatment process of 49 year old, female patient who had complaints amnesia, weight loss and insomnia. In her medical history, she had compulsive buying disorder for nearly twenty years but untreated until her current evaluation. Comorbid psychi...

  11. [Obsessive-compulsive disorder. A hidden disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraldsson, Magnús

    2015-02-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a common and often chronic psychiatric illness that significantly interferes with the patient´s functioning and quality of life. The disorder is characterized by excessive intrusive and inappropriate anxiety evoking thoughts as well as time consuming compulsions that cause significant impairment and distress. The symptoms are often accompanied by shame and guilt and the knowledge of the general public and professional community about the disorder is limited. Hence it is frequently misdiagnosed or diagnosed late. There are indications that the disorder is hereditary and that neurobiological processes are involved in its pathophysiology. Several psychological theories about the causes of obsessive-compulsive disorder are supported by empirical evidence. Evidence based treatment is either with serotoninergic medications or cognitive behavioral therapy, particularly a form of behavioral therapy called exposure response prevention. Better treatment options are needed because almost a third of people with obsessive-compulsive disorder respond inadequatly to treatment. In this review article two cases of obsessive-compulsive disorder are presented. The former case is a young man with typical symptoms that respond well to treatment and the latter is a middle aged lady with severe treatment resistant symptoms. She underwent stereotactic implantation of electrodes and received deep brain stimulation, which is an experimental treatment for severe obsessive-compulsive disorder that does not respond to any conventional treatment. Landspitali University Hospital, Division of Psychiatry. Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland.

  12. Structure of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition Criteria for Obsessive–Compulsive Personality Disorder in Patients With Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansell, Emily B; Pinto, Anthony; Edelen, Maria Orlando; Grilo, Carlos M

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine 1-, 2-, and 3-factor model structures through confirmatory analytic procedures for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) obsessive–compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) criteria in patients with binge eating disorder (BED). Method Participants were consecutive outpatients (n = 263) with binge eating disorder and were assessed with semi-structured interviews. The 8 OCPD criteria were submitted to confirmatory factor analyses in Mplus Version 4.2 (Los Angeles, CA) in which previously identified factor models of OCPD were compared for fit, theoretical relevance, and parsimony. Nested models were compared for significant improvements in model fit. Results Evaluation of indices of fit in combination with theoretical considerations suggest a multifactorial model is a significant improvement in fit over the current DSM-IV single-factor model of OCPD. Though the data support both 2- and 3-factor models, the 3-factor model is hindered by an underspecified third factor. Conclusion A multifactorial model of OCPD incorporating the factors perfectionism and rigidity represents the best compromise of fit and theory in modelling the structure of OCPD in patients with BED. A third factor representing miserliness may be relevant in BED populations but needs further development. The perfectionism and rigidity factors may represent distinct intrapersonal and interpersonal attempts at control and may have implications for the assessment of OCPD. PMID:19087485

  13. Structure of diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fourth edition criteria for obsessive-compulsive personality disorder in patients with binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansell, Emily B; Pinto, Anthony; Edelen, Maria Orlando; Grilo, Carlos M

    2008-12-01

    To examine 1-, 2-, and 3-factor model structures through confirmatory analytic procedures for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) criteria in patients with binge eating disorder (BED). Participants were consecutive outpatients (n = 263) with binge eating disorder and were assessed with semi-structured interviews. The 8 OCPD criteria were submitted to confirmatory factor analyses in Mplus Version 4.2 (Los Angeles, CA) in which previously identified factor models of OCPD were compared for fit, theoretical relevance, and parsimony. Nested models were compared for significant improvements in model fit. Evaluation of indices of fit in combination with theoretical considerations suggest a multifactorial model is a significant improvement in fit over the current DSM-IV single- factor model of OCPD. Though the data support both 2- and 3-factor models, the 3-factor model is hindered by an underspecified third factor. A multifactorial model of OCPD incorporating the factors perfectionism and rigidity represents the best compromise of fit and theory in modelling the structure of OCPD in patients with BED. A third factor representing miserliness may be relevant in BED populations but needs further development. The perfectionism and rigidity factors may represent distinct intrapersonal and interpersonal attempts at control and may have implications for the assessment of OCPD.

  14. Compulsivity in obsessive-compulsive disorder and addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figee, Martijn; Pattij, Tommy; Willuhn, Ingo; Luigjes, Judy; van den Brink, Wim; Goudriaan, Anneke; Potenza, Marc N; Robbins, Trevor W; Denys, Damiaan

    2016-05-01

    Compulsive behaviors are driven by repetitive urges and typically involve the experience of limited voluntary control over these urges, a diminished ability to delay or inhibit these behaviors, and a tendency to perform repetitive acts in a habitual or stereotyped manner. Compulsivity is not only a central characteristic of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) but is also crucial to addiction. Based on this analogy, OCD has been proposed to be part of the concept of behavioral addiction along with other non-drug-related disorders that share compulsivity, such as pathological gambling, skin-picking, trichotillomania and compulsive eating. In this review, we investigate the neurobiological overlap between compulsivity in substance-use disorders, OCD and behavioral addictions as a validation for the construct of compulsivity that could be adopted in the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC). The reviewed data suggest that compulsivity in OCD and addictions is related to impaired reward and punishment processing with attenuated dopamine release in the ventral striatum, negative reinforcement in limbic systems, cognitive and behavioral inflexibility with diminished serotonergic prefrontal control, and habitual responding with imbalances between ventral and dorsal frontostriatal recruitment. Frontostriatal abnormalities of compulsivity are promising targets for neuromodulation and other interventions for OCD and addictions. We conclude that compulsivity encompasses many of the RDoC constructs in a trans-diagnostic fashion with a common brain circuit dysfunction that can help identifying appropriate prevention and treatment targets. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Are Borderline Personality Symptoms Associated With Compulsive Sexual Behaviors Among Women in Treatment for Substance Use Disorders? An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmquist, JoAnna; Shorey, Ryan C; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L

    2016-10-01

    Extant literature has documented a significant relationship between borderline symptoms and substance use disorders. As supported in past work, there is a significant theoretical relationship between borderline symptoms and compulsive sexual behaviors because both disorders share common underlying behaviors and traits. There is no known research that has examined the empirical relationship between borderline symptoms and compulsive sexual behaviors in a population with substance use disorders. To fill this important gap in the literature, this relationship was examined in the current study. Medical records from 120 women admitted to a private, residential treatment program for substance use disorders were reviewed for the current study. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis demonstrated that borderline symptoms were significantly associated with compulsive sexual behaviors after controlling for alcohol use and problems, drug use and problems, age, and positive impression management. Results from this study provide potentially important research and clinical implications, which could ultimately aid treatment and reduce relapse. However, continued research is needed to further examine the relationship between symptoms and compulsive sexual behaviors. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Eating disorderscompulsive overeating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Ogris

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to establish the main characteristics of subjects prone to compulsive overeating (experimental group, EG, and the differences between them and the girls who are not prone to any kind of eating disorders (control group, CG. The results of the research are in accordance with the expectations. Girls from the EG exhibit personality characteristics which are signifficantly different from the girls in the CG. These characteristics may be either possible predispositions for development of overeating, or they may already be the consequences of the girls' struggles with overeating and their perception of being overweight. The responses given by the girls from the EG confirm the generaly accepted characteristics of overeating individuals. It can be said that the girls from the ES show the pre-clinical picture of overeating, while some of them have already developed the clinical picture. The results of the research strongly support the view that overeating must be defined as a form of eating disorder just as important as anorexia and bulimia nervosa.

  17. Metacognitive Model of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Zihni Sungur

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Several authors have suggested that not only appraisal of significance of external events and signals from the body, but also appraisal of the personal significance of thoughts are important, and emphasized the conceptual limitations of the schema approach in cognitive model and developed the integrative information processing model of emotional disorders. According to this approach, the assessment of the meaning of thought, rather than thought itself is more important in the development and maintenance of the psychopathology. In the metacognitive model of obsessive compulsive disorder, three types of metacognitive beliefs are emphasized. These are; thought-action fusion (thought-action, thought-event, thought-object, metacognitive beliefs on performing the rituals and metacognitive beliefs on the warning to stop to terminate the rituals. According to the model, targeting directly to change in metacognitive beliefs will increase success in therapy. In this article, the concept of metacognition in emotional disorders, the metacognitive model of obsessive compulsive disorder and the advances that the model introduced in conceptualization and treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder have been discussed.

  18. Relations of mindfulness facets with psychological symptoms among individuals with a diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder, major depressive disorder, or borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didonna, Fabrizio; Rossi, Roberta; Ferrari, Clarissa; Iani, Luca; Pedrini, Laura; Rossi, Nicoletta; Xodo, Erica; Lanfredi, Mariangela

    2018-03-25

    To explore differences in mindfulness facets among patients with a diagnosis of either obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), major depressive disorder (MDD), or borderline personality disorder (BPD), and healthy controls (HC), and their associations with clinical features. One hundred and fifty-three patients and 50 HC underwent a clinical assessment including measures of mindfulness (Five Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire - FFMQ), psychopathological symptoms (Symptom Check List-90-R), dissociation (Dissociative Experience Scale), alexithymia (Alexithymia Scale 20), and depression (Beck Depression Inventory-II). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) were performed to assess differences in mindfulness scores and their associations with clinical features. The three diagnostic groups scored lower on all mindfulness facets (apart from FFMQobserving) compared to the HC group. OCD group had a significant higher FFMQ total score (FFMQ-TS) and FFMQacting with awareness compared to the BPD group, and scored higher on FFMQdescribing compared to BPD and MDD groups. The scores in non-judging facet were significantly lower in all the three diagnostic groups compared to the HC group. Interestingly, higher FFMQ-TS was inversely related to all psychological measures, regardless of diagnostic group. Deficits in mindfulness skills were present in all diagnostic groups. Furthermore, we found disease-specific relationships between some mindfulness facets and specific psychological variables. Clinical implications are discussed. The study showed deficits in mindfulness scores in all diagnostic groups compared to a healthy control group. Overall, mindfulness construct has a significantly negative association with indexes of global distress, dissociative symptoms, alexithymia, and depression. Mindfulness-based interventions in clinical settings should take into account different patterns of mindfulness skills and their impact on disease-specific maladaptive

  19. A review of compulsive buying disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Donald W

    2007-02-01

    Compulsive buying disorder (CBD) is characterized by excessive shopping cognitions and buying behavior that leads to distress or impairment. Found worldwide, the disorder has a lifetime prevalence of 5.8% in the US general population. Most subjects studied clinically are women (~80%), though this gender difference may be artifactual. Subjects with CBD report a preoccupation with shopping, prepurchase tension or anxiety, and a sense of relief following the purchase. CBD is associated with significant psychiatric comorbidity, particularly mood and anxiety disorders, substance use disorders, eating disorders, and other disorders of impulse control. The majority of persons with CBD appear to meet criteria for an Axis II disorder, although there is no special "shopping" personality. Compulsive shopping tends to run in families, and these families are filled with mood and substance use disorders. There are no standard treatments. Psychopharmacologic treatment studies are being actively pursued, and group cognitive-behavioral models have been developed and are promising. Debtors Anonymous, simplicity circles, bibliotherapy, financial counseling, and marital therapy may also play a role in the management of CBD.

  20. Psilocybin and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, James Allen

    2014-01-01

    Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a psychiatric disorder with considerable morbidity and mortality. This condition disables many individuals and is often refractory to treatment. Research suggests that serotonin plays a role in OCD symptom reduction. We present a case of an individual who successfully used psilocybin, a serotonergic agent, to reduce the core symptoms of OCD for several years. Although not endorsing this form of treatment, we feel that the successful use of this agent highlights the role of serotonergic factors in OCD and the need for further, legitimate research into the value of psilocybin in the treatment of anxiety disorders.

  1. Impulsive-compulsive buying disorder: clinical overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Osso, Bernardo; Allen, Andrea; Altamura, A Carlo; Buoli, Massimiliano; Hollander, Eric

    2008-04-01

    Impulsive-compulsive buying disorder (ICBD) is an impulse control disorder not otherwise specified (ICD-NOS) characterized by impulsive drives and compulsive behaviours (buying unneeded things), personal distress, impaired social and vocational functioning and financial problems. Despite being described in the 19th century, serious attention to ICBD began only in the last decade with the first epidemiological and pharmacological investigation. Biological, social and psychological factors contribute to the aetiology of ICBD. Cognitive-behavioural therapy and selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors are currently considered the more effective interventions in the treatment of ICBD. The present review aims to provide a broad overview of the epidemiology, aetiology, phenomenology and treatment options of ICBD.

  2. Compulsive buying disorder: an untreated patient for 20 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonca Karakus

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Compulsive buying disorder is characterized by impulsive drives and compulsive behaviors (buying unneeded things, personal distress, impaired social and vocational functioning and financial problems. In this case report, we presented diagnostic and treatment process of 49 year old, female patient who had complaints amnesia, weight loss and insomnia. In her medical history, she had compulsive buying disorder for nearly twenty years but untreated until her current evaluation. Comorbid psychiatric disorders started in the last two months which expedited her current referral. [Cukurova Med J 2017; 42(1.000: 172-175

  3. Obsessionality & compulsivity: a phenomenology of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denys, Damiaan

    2011-02-01

    Progress in psychiatry depends on accurate definitions of disorders. As long as there are no known biologic markers available that are highly specific for a particular psychiatric disorder, clinical practice as well as scientific research is forced to appeal to clinical symptoms. Currently, the nosology of obsessive-compulsive disorder is being reconsidered in view of the publication of DSM-V. Since our diagnostic entities are often simplifications of the complicated clinical profile of patients, definitions of psychiatric disorders are imprecise and always indeterminate. This urges researchers and clinicians to constantly think and rethink well-established definitions that in psychiatry are at risk of being fossilised. In this paper, we offer an alternative view to the current definition of obsessive-compulsive disorder from a phenomenological perspective. TRANSLATION: This article is translated from Dutch, originally published in [Handbook Obsessive-compulsive disorders, Damiaan Denys, Femke de Geus (Eds.), (2007). De Tijdstroom uitgeverij BV, Utrecht. ISBN13: 9789058980878.].

  4. Obsessionality & compulsivity: a phenomenology of obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denys Damiaan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Progress in psychiatry depends on accurate definitions of disorders. As long as there are no known biologic markers available that are highly specific for a particular psychiatric disorder, clinical practice as well as scientific research is forced to appeal to clinical symptoms. Currently, the nosology of obsessive-compulsive disorder is being reconsidered in view of the publication of DSM-V. Since our diagnostic entities are often simplifications of the complicated clinical profile of patients, definitions of psychiatric disorders are imprecise and always indeterminate. This urges researchers and clinicians to constantly think and rethink well-established definitions that in psychiatry are at risk of being fossilised. In this paper, we offer an alternative view to the current definition of obsessive-compulsive disorder from a phenomenological perspective. Translation This article is translated from Dutch, originally published in [Handbook Obsessive-compulsive disorders, Damiaan Denys, Femke de Geus (Eds., (2007. De Tijdstroom uitgeverij BV, Utrecht. ISBN13: 9789058980878.

  5. Ten-year stability and latent structure of the DSM-IV schizotypal, borderline, avoidant, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanislow, Charles A; Little, Todd D; Ansell, Emily B; Grilo, Carlos M; Daversa, Maria; Markowitz, John C; Pinto, Anthony; Shea, M Tracie; Yen, Shirley; Skodol, Andrew E; Morey, Leslie C; Gunderson, John G; Zanarini, Mary C; McGlashan, Thomas H

    2009-08-01

    Evaluation of the validity of personality disorder (PD) diagnostic constructs is important for the impending revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Prior factor analytic studies have tested these constructs in cross-sectional studies, and models have been replicated longitudinally, but no study has tested a constrained longitudinal model. The authors examined 4 PDs in the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders study (schizotypal, borderline, avoidant, and obsessive-compulsive) over 7 time points (baseline, 6 months, 1 year, 2 years, 4 years, 6 years, and 10 years). Data for 2-, 4-, 6- and 10-year assessments were obtained in semistructured interviews by raters blind to prior PD diagnoses at each assessment. The latent structure of the 4 constructs was differentiated during the initial time points but became less differentiated over time as the mean levels of the constructs dropped and stability increased. Obsessive-compulsive PD became more correlated with schizotypal and borderline PD than with avoidant PD. The higher correlation among the constructs in later years may reflect greater shared base of pathology for chronic personality disorders.

  6. Personality traits and treatment outcome in obsessive-compulsive disorder Traços de personalidade e resposta terapêutica no transtorno obsessivo-compulsivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Corchs

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Comorbidity with personality disorders in obsessive-compulsive patients has been widely reported. About 40% of obsessive-compulsive patients do not respond to first line treatments. Nevertheless, there are no direct comparisons of personality traits between treatment-responsive and non-responsive patients. This study investigates differences in personality traits based on Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory scores between two groups of obsessive-compulsive patients classified according to treatment outcome: responders and non-responders. METHOD: Forty-four responsive and forty-five non-responsive obsessive-compulsive patients were selected. Subjects were considered treatment-responsive (responder group if, after having received treatment with any conventional therapy, they had presented at least a 40% decrease in the initial Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale score, had rated "better" or "much better" on the Clinical Global Impressions scale; and had maintained improvement for at least one year. Non-responders were patients who did not achieve at least a 25% reduction in Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale scores and had less than minimal improvement on the Clinical Global Impressions scale after having received treatment with at least three selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (including clomipramine, and at least 20 hours of cognitive behavioral therapy. Personality traits were assessed using Temperament and Character Inventory. RESULTS: Non-responders scored lower in self-directedness and showed a trend to score higher in persistence than responders did. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that personality traits, especially self-directedness, are associated with poor treatment response in obsessive-compulsive patients.OBJETIVO: Comorbidade com transtornos de personalidade tem sido extensamente descrita no transtorno obsessivo-compulsivo. Aproximadamente 40% dos pacientes com transtorno obsessivo-compulsivo n

  7. Dissociative symptoms and dissociative disorders comorbidity in obsessive compulsive disorder: Symptom screening, diagnostic tools and reflections on treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Belli, Hasan

    2014-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder, conversion disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder frequently have dissociative symptoms. The literature has demonstrated that the level of dissociation might be correlated with the severity of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and that those not responding to treatment had high dissociative symptoms. The structured clinical interview for DSM-IV dissociative disorders, dissociation questionnaire, somatoform dissociation questionnaire and dissociative expe...

  8. Cognitive behavioral therapy for compulsive buying disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, James E; Burgard, Melissa; Faber, Ron; Crosby, Ross D; de Zwaan, Martina

    2006-12-01

    To our knowledge, no psychotherapy treatment studies for compulsive buying have been published. The authors conducted a pilot trial comparing the efficacy of a group cognitive behavioral intervention designed for the treatment of compulsive buying to a waiting list control. Twenty-eight subjects were assigned to receive active treatment and 11 to the waiting list control group. The results at the end of treatment showed significant advantages for cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) over the waiting list in reductions in the number of compulsive buying episodes and time spent buying, as well as scores on the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale--Shopping Version and the Compulsive Buying Scale. Improvement was well-maintained at 6-month follow-up. The pilot data suggests that a cognitive behavioral intervention can be quite effective in the treatment of compulsive buying disorder. This model requires further testing.

  9. Compulsive buying disorder: definition, assessment, epidemiology and clinical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, D W

    2001-01-01

    Compulsive buying disorder is characterised by excessive or poorly controlled preoccupations, urges or behaviours regarding shopping and spending, which lead to adverse consequences. Compulsive buying disorder has been estimated to affect from 2 to 8% of the general adult population in the US; 80 to 95% of those affected are female. Onset occurs in the late teens or early twenties, and the disorder is generally chronic. Psychiatric comorbidity is frequent, particularly mood, anxiety, substance use, eating and personality disorders. Treatment has not been well delineated, but individual and group psychotherapy, cognitive-behavioural therapy and 12-step programmes may be helpful. Debt consolidation and credit counselling will be appropriate for many individuals who have compulsive buying disorder. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) re- uptake inhibitors may help some patients regulate their buying impulses. Self-help books are also available.

  10. Prevalence, correlates, and comorbidity of DSM-IV obsessive-compulsive personality disorder: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Mooney, Marc E; Kushner, Matt G

    2012-04-01

    Although recognized for over 100 years, there is a relative dearth of empirical research on obsessive compulsive personality disorder (OCPD). The goal of the current study is to present nationally representative findings on prevalence, sociodemographic correlates, and comorbidity of OCPD among men and women. The current study uses nationally representative data to examine sociodemographic correlates and comorbidity of OCPD. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 43,093 adults in the United States. The prevalence of lifetime OCPD was 7.8%, with rates the same for men and women. OCPD was significantly less common in younger adults and in Asians and Hispanics but was significantly more common in individuals with a high school education or less. When sociodemographic variables and other comorbidities were controlled for, current associations remained significant for all mood and anxiety disorders as well as lifetime personality disorders among both men and women. OCPD is a prevalent personality disorder in the US population and is equally represented in men and women. The results highlight the need for further research to identify common pathophysiological elements common to OCPD and associated disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Compulsive Gambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... who gamble compulsively often have substance abuse problems, personality disorders, depression or anxiety. Compulsive gambling may also be ... gambling problem, educational programs that target individuals and groups at increased risk may be helpful. If you ...

  12. [Autistic dimension in obsessive-compulsive disorder in adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardizzone, Ignazio; Soletti, Laura; Panunzi, Sara; Carratelli, Teresa I

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) with normal and poor insight of illness and it detects the presence of autistic traits. The aim is to establish the relationship between OCD and Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD): comorbidity or subtype of OCD? The sample consists of 48 adolescents (aged 12-18) with a clinical diagnosis of OCD (according DSM-IV-TR). After administering the Children's Yale Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (CYBOCS) and the Brown Assessement Beliefs Scale (BABS), the sample is divided into two groups according to insight of illness. Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) and Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) were used to assist in the ASD diagnosis; Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders (SCID-II) was administered to assess personality disorders. 47% of subjects presents poor insight and 27% are included within the diagnostic criteria for autistic spectrum disorder. Poor insight in obsessive-compulsive symptoms is significantly associated with the presence of autistic traits. There is also a significant association between cluster hoarding and poor insight. This study suggests the existence of an obsessive autistic atypical subtype, where the compulsive dimension of repetitive behaviours vanishes in an autistic dimension with stereotyped manifestations. Further research should be conducted to better understand this obsessive autistic atypical subtype and to put it in the obsessive-compulsive spectrum in adolescence.

  13. Determinants of obsessive compulsive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sateesh Rangarao Koujalgi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The family has a significant role both in the genesis and prognosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD. Early identification, treatment and prevention of relapse in patients with OCD have important therapeutic and psychosocial implications. Hence, to study and determine family factors like high expressed emotion (EE and family dysfunction are essential. These two factors play a significant role in the relapse and course of OCD. Aim: The aim was to study the relationship between family function, EE and OCD. Materials and Methods: The sample included 30 patients who were diagnosed with OCD using International Classification of Diseases-10 Diagnostic Criteria for Research criteria. Yale-Brown obsessive compulsive scale was used to assess the severity of OCD. EE was assessed in cases using Family Emotional Involvement and Criticism Scale and family function was assessed in cases using the family interaction pattern scale (FIPS. Statistical analysis was performed using Statistical Packages for Social Science. Patient and caregivers of the patients were assessed on self-developed socio-demographic proforma. Pearson co-relation co-efficient test was used to study the correlation between OCD, high EE and family dysfunction. Results: The result showed that there are significant correlations between high EE, family dysfunction and OCD. The Pearson correlation co-efficient between OCD and EE shows a significant correlation between the high EE of the caregiver and OCD with P < 0.01. The Pearson correlation co-efficient between OCD and Family Interaction Pattern Scale shows a significant correlation between the family dysfunction of the caregiver and OCD. Conclusion: Impaired family function and high EE in caregivers associated with OCD. Thus clinical interventions may improve the functional abilities of the caregivers.

  14. Prevalence and construct validity of compulsive buying disorder in shopping mall visitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraz, Aniko; van den Brink, Wim; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2015-08-30

    Compulsive buying is a relatively new psychopathological concept and very few data are currently available regarding the prevalence and validity of compulsive buying disorder. In this cross-sectional study, we establish the prevalence of compulsive buying disorder in shopping mall visitors and explore the construct validity of the concept using the revised version of the Edwards Compulsive Buying Scale in 1441 shopping mall visitors looking at shopping habits, current substance use (smoking, alcohol and illicit drug) and various psychological characteristics. Overall, 8.7% (95% CI: 7.3-10.3) of our sample was classified as having a compulsive buying disorder. Compulsive buyers were younger, less educated and more likely to be female than non-compulsive buyers. They were also more likely to have used licit and illicit substances. Compulsive buyers also reported higher levels of impulsivity and obsessive-compulsive symptoms, lower levels of well-being and self-esteem and more psychological distress. Finally, compulsive buyers were five times more likely to meet criteria for borderline personality disorder than non-compulsive buyers. Compulsive buying is a frequent disorder in shopping mall visitors and is associated with important and robust indicators of psychopathology thus supporting the validity of the construct. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Linking Career Counseling to Personality Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjos, Diane

    1995-01-01

    Relates personality disorders to career development issues and counseling interventions. Case examples suggesting career-focused treatment interventions for dependent, borderline, obsessive-compulsive, and passive-aggressive personality disorders are presented. (Author/JBJ)

  16. The Dynamics of Self-Esteem in Cognitive Therapy for Avoidant and Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorders: An Adaptive Role of Self-Esteem Variability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Jorden A.; Hayes, Adele M.; Cardaciotto, LeeAnn; Newman, Cory F.

    2011-01-01

    Self-esteem variability is often associated with poor functioning. However, in disorders with entrenched negative views of self and in a context designed to challenge those views, variable self-esteem might represent a marker of change. We examined self-esteem variability in a sample of 27 patients with Avoidant and Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorders who received Cognitive Therapy (CT). A therapy coding system was used to rate patients’ positive and negative views of self expressed in the first ten sessions of a 52-week treatment. Ratings of negative (reverse scored) and positive view of self were summed to create a composite score for each session. Self-esteem variability was calculated as the standard deviation of self-esteem scores across sessions. More self-esteem variability predicted more improvement in personality disorder and depression symptoms at the end of treatment, beyond baseline and average self-esteem. Early variability in self-esteem, in this population and context, appeared to be a marker of therapeutic change. PMID:22923855

  17. A longitudinal, population-based twin study of avoidant and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder traits from early to middle adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjerde, L C; Czajkowski, N; Røysamb, E; Ystrom, E; Tambs, K; Aggen, S H; Ørstavik, R E; Kendler, K S; Reichborn-Kjennerud, T; Knudsen, G P

    2015-12-01

    The phenotypic stability of avoidant personality disorder (AVPD) and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) has previously been found to be moderate. However, little is known about the longitudinal structure of genetic and environmental factors for these disorders separately and jointly, and to what extent genetic and environmental factors contribute to their stability. AVPD and OCPD criteria were assessed using the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality in 2793 young adult twins (1385 pairs, 23 singletons) from the Norwegian Institute of Public Health Twin Panel at wave 1 and 2282 (986 pairs, 310 singletons) of these on average 10 years later at wave 2. Longitudinal biometric models were fitted to AVPD and OCPD traits. For twins who participated at both time-points, the number of endorsed sub-threshold criteria for both personality disorders (PDs) decreased 31% from wave 1 to wave 2. Phenotypic correlations between waves were 0.54 and 0.37 for AVPD and OCPD, respectively. The heritability estimates of the stable PD liabilities were 0.67 for AVPD and 0.53 for OCPD. The genetic correlations were 1.00 for AVPD and 0.72 for OCPD, while the unique environmental influences correlated 0.26 and 0.23, respectively. The correlation between the stable AVPD and OCPD liabilities was 0.39 of which 63% was attributable to genetic influences. Shared environmental factors did not significantly contribute to PD variance at either waves 1 or 2. Phenotypic stability was moderate for AVPD and OCPD traits, and genetic factors contributed more than unique environmental factors to the stability both within and across phenotypes.

  18. Anger attacks in obsessive compulsive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitesh Prakash Painuly

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research on anger attacks has been mostly limited to depression, and only a few studies have focused on anger attacks in obsessive compulsive disorder. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study all new obsessive compulsive disorder patients aged 20-60 years attending an outpatient clinic were assessed using the anger attack questionnaire, irritability, depression and anxiety scale (for the direction of the aggressive behavior and quality of life (QOL. Results: The sample consisted of 42 consecutive subjects with obsessive compulsive disorder, out of which 21 (50% had anger attacks. The obsessive compulsive disorder subjects with and without anger attacks did not show significant differences in terms of sociodemographic variables, duration of illness, treatment, and family history. However, subjects with anger attacks had significantly higher prevalence of panic attacks and comorbid depression. Significantly more subjects with anger attacks exhibited aggressive acts toward spouse, parents, children, and other relatives in the form of yelling and threatening to hurt, trying to hurt, and threatening to leave. However, the two groups did not differ significantly in terms of QOL, except for the psychological domain being worse in the subjects with anger attacks. Conclusion: Anger attacks are present in half of the patients with obsessive compulsive disorder, and they correlate with the presence of comorbid depression.

  19. Personality Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disorders in Adults Data Sources Share Personality Disorders Definitions Personality disorders represent “an enduring pattern of inner ... MSC 9663 Bethesda, MD 20892-9663 Follow Us Facebook Twitter YouTube Google Plus NIMH Newsletter NIMH RSS ...

  20. Preliminary evidence for an association between a dopamine D3 receptor gene variant and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder in patients with major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Katrina J; Joyce, Peter R; Luty, Suzanne E; Mulder, Roger T; Frampton, Christropher M A; Joyce, Laura R M; Miller, Allison L; Kennedy, Martin A

    2006-06-05

    We have previously reported that the Ser9Gly dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3) polymorphism was associated with increased rates of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) symptomology. We tested the replicability of this association within a further two independent groups of individuals with a history of depression, from a clinical sample (n = 149) and a family study (n = 213). The data from the replication samples and the original sample, within which the association was found, were compiled within a meta-analysis. Although the independent samples did not replicate the original finding, the meta-analysis elucidated significant evidence supporting the association. An individual with Gly/Gly genotype is 2.4 (P = 0.017) times more likely to be diagnosed with OCPD. Male gender was also found to be a significant predictor of OCPD diagnosis (OR = 2.82, P = 0.001). An exploration of an association of DRD3 with Axis I anxiety disorder diagnoses and Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) traits, in particular persistence, revealed no support for an association. We conclude that DRD3 may contribute to the development of OCPD.

  1. Obsessive compulsive disorder- prevalence in Xhosaspeaking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Obsessive compulsive disorder- prevalence in Xhosaspeaking schizophrenia patients. ... No concordance for OCD was noted in the sibship group. Our findings differ from those in other parts of the world, and if replicated, might suggest unique protective environmental or genetic factors for OCD in certain ethnic groups.

  2. Compulsive buying disorder: a review and update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboujaoude, Elias

    2014-01-01

    Compulsive buying disorder (CBD) refers to the chronic purchasing of unneeded or unwanted items, causing significant negative consequences. There are no established criteria for CBD, and operational definitions have relied on similarities with OCD, substance use disorders, and impulse control disorders. Compulsive buying disorder is common, affecting 5.8% of the general population, according to one study. Typically, CBD has early onset, frequent comorbidities, and a chronic course. The etiology of CBD is unknown, with biological, psychological and sociocultural factors proposed as likely contributors. Treatment data are limited and suggest addressing comorbid conditions and considering cognitive behavioral therapy, financial and family counseling, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and naltrexone, among other possible interventions, to target CBD. Beyond treatment, educational, legislative and family-based public policy initiatives can likely help individuals with CBD and other excessive spenders.

  3. Personality Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Personality disorders are a group of mental illnesses. They involve long-term patterns of thoughts and behaviors ... serious problems with relationships and work. People with personality disorders have trouble dealing with everyday stresses and ...

  4. The relationship among compulsive buying, compulsive internet use and temperament in a sample of female patients with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claes, Laurence; Müller, Astrid; Norré, Jan; Van Assche, Leen; Wonderlich, Steve; Mitchell, James E

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the association among compulsive buying (CB), compulsive internet use (CIU) and reactive/regulative temperament in a sample of 60 female patients with eating disorders. All patients were assessed by means of the Compulsive Buying Scale, the CIU scale, the Eating Disorder Inventory-2, the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System scales, the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology and the effortful control scale of the Adult Temperament Questionnaire. The results showed a positive association between CB and CIU, both categorized as impulse control disorders, not otherwise specified. Both CB and CIU showed significantly positive correlations with emotional lability, excitement seeking and lack of effortful control (more specifically lack of inhibitory and lack of activation control). The implication of these findings for the treatment of both disorders will be discussed. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  5. [Aripiprazole, gambling disorder and compulsive sexuality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mété, D; Dafreville, C; Paitel, V; Wind, P

    2016-06-01

    Aripiprazole, an atypical or second-generation antipsychotic, is usually well tolerated. It is an approved treatment for schizophrenia and mania in bipolar disorder type 1. Unlike the other antipsychotics, it has high affinity agonist properties for dopamine D2 and D3 receptors. It has also 5-HT1A partial agonist and 5-HT2A antagonist properties. Aripiprazole is a first or second line treatment frequently used because it has reduced side effects such as weight gain, sleepiness, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, hyperprolactinemia and extrapyramidal symptoms. We report the case of a 28-year-old male patient diagnosed with schizoid personality disorder. He was a moderate smoker with occasional social gambling habits. After several psychotic episodes, he was first treated with risperidone, but he experienced excessive sedation, decreased libido, erectile dysfunction and was switched to 15 mg aripiprazole. He developed an addiction habit for gambling at casino slot machines. Due to large gambling debts, he requested placement on a voluntary self-exclusion list. Thereafter, he turned his attention towards scratch card gambling. The patient described his experience of gambling as a "hypnotic state". He got several personal loans to obtain money to continue gambling. He was then referred to an addiction unit. Before being treated with aripiprazole, he was an exclusive heterosexual with a poor sexual activity. Under treatment, he switched to a homosexual behavior with hypersexuality, unprotected sex and sadomasochistic practices. The craving for gambling and compulsive sexual behavior ceased two weeks after aripiprazole was discontinued and he was switched to amisulpride. Thereafter, he reported a return to a heterosexual orientation. Compulsive behaviors such as gambling, hypersexuality and new sexual orientation are common in patients with Parkinson's disease treated with dopaminergic agonists. These behaviors involve the reward system, with an enhanced dopaminergic

  6. The influence of personality disorder features on social functioning in substance abusing women five year after compulsive residential treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansson, Irene; Hesse, Morten; Fridell, Mats

    2009-01-01

    status over the years, and linked with hospital and criminal justice registers. Results The impact of PD on functioning varied substantially between disorders and outcome domains. Conduct disorder alone was associated with criminal justice involvement, and conduct disorder and avoidant PD features were...

  7. Self-esteem and obsessive compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Nusrat; Chaudhry, Imran; Raza-ur-Rehman; Ahmed, Ghazal Riaz

    2014-01-01

    To explore the association between self-esteem and obsessive compulsive disorder in a low-income country, and to conduct an in-depth analysis into the said relationship by identifying any confounding variables that might exist. The cross-sectional study was conducted at the psychiatry out-patient clinic of Civil Hospital, Karachi, from January to March 2008, and comprised 65 patients diagnosed with obsessive compulsive disorder and 30 healthy controls. The participatnts completed the Janis and Field Social Adequacy scale and the Rosenberg Self-esteem scale. SPSS 15 was used for statistical analysis. Significantly different scores were reported on both measures of self-esteem between the patients and the controls (pself-esteem in the patients compared to the controls. Data replicated earlier findings from populations in high-income countries.

  8. Cognitive neuroscience of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Emily R; Taylor, Stephan F

    2014-09-01

    Cognitive neuroscience investigates neural responses to cognitive and emotional probes, an approach that has yielded critical insights into the neurobiological mechanisms of psychiatric disorders. This article reviews some of the major findings from neuroimaging studies using a cognitive neuroscience approach to investigate obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). It evaluates the consistency of results and interprets findings within the context of OCD symptoms, and proposes a model of OCD involving inflexibility of internally focused cognition. Although further research is needed, this body of work probing cognitive-emotional processes in OCD has already shed considerable light on the underlying mechanisms of the disorder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Thought Action Fusion in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Þahin ÇÝFTÇÝ; Tacettin KURU

    2013-01-01

    Thought Action Fusion (TAF) is defined as tought and action percieved as equivalent to each other or as an exaggerated power given to idea. With the usage of “Thought Action Fusion Scale” which is created by Shafran (1996), is began to investigate its role in psychopathologies. Researches about the three-component structure which has TAF-Likelihood-Self, TAF-Likelihood-Others, TAF-Moral, are concentrated especially around the obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). TAF alleged includi...

  10. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P. Philpot

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Four cases of obsessive-compulsive disorder arising in late life in association with a presumed organic aetiology are described. Three of the four had brief episodes of OCD earlier in their lives. Neuropsychological assessment demonstrated impairments in verbal fluency and visuo-spatial tasks. No case exhibited global intellectual impairment. The two patients who complied with appropriate treatment became asymptomatic after 4–6 months.

  11. Memory Functioning in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abbruzzese

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of studies have reported neuropsychological deficits in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD. These have mainly implicated frontal or temporal dysfunction. In this study, we compared the performances of OCD patients and normal subjects using a factorial interpretation of the Wechsler Memory Scale. Our results do not demonstrate significant memory impairment in OCD patients but point to the possibility of frontal lobe dysfunction as a factor in the pathophysiology of OCD.

  12. Deontological guilt and obsessive compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Francesco; Gangemi, Amelia

    2015-12-01

    The emotion of guilt plays a pivotal role in the genesis and maintenance of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). But what kind of guilt do OC patients want to prevent? Several studies suggest the existence of two different types of guilt emotions, namely deontological and altruistic guilt. This research suggests that the former, more than the latter, is involved in OCD. Studies in which people must hypothetically choose between killing one person to save a few (consequentialist choice) or take no action and allow things to take their course (omission choice), have found that the latter is consistent with the "Do not play God" moral principle whereas the former is consistent with altruistic motivations. This paper is aimed at verifying whether both OC patients, with no induction, and nonclinical participants, after the induction of deontological guilt prefer omission more often than a consequentialist option. It is hypothesized that people with OCD will be motivated to avoid feeling deontological guilt and thus will be more likely to opt for omission. Similarly, nonclinical participants who receive a deontological guilt induction will also be more likely to choose omission. In two studies participants were given seven scenarios (four moral dilemmas, three control scenarios). Twenty patients with OCD, 20 anxious controls, and 20 healthy participants took part in study 1. In study 2, we recruited 70 healthy participants who were randomly assigned to receive a deontological guilt or a control induction. Consistent with hypotheses, in Study 1 OC patients preferred omission, instead of the consequentialist option, moreso than did the clinical and nonclinical controls. In Study 2, the group receiving the deontological guilt induction preferred omission to a greater extent than did the altruistic group. The present study cannot establish that the goal of preventing or neutralizing deontological guilt actually drives obsessions and compulsions. These results provide further

  13. Compulsivity in obsessive-compulsive disorder and addictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Figee, Martijn; Pattij, Tommy; Willuhn, Ingo; Luigjes, Judy; van den Brink, Wim; Goudriaan, Anneke; Potenza, Marc N; Robbins, Trevor W; Denys, D.

    2016-01-01

    Compulsive behaviors are driven by repetitive urges and typically involve the experience of limited voluntary control over these urges, a diminished ability to delay or inhibit these behaviors, and a tendency to perform repetitive acts in a habitual or stereotyped manner. Compulsivity is not only a

  14. Relationship between severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms and schizotypy in obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamamoto H

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Haruka Yamamoto,1 Hideto Tsuchida,1 Takashi Nakamae,1 Seiji Nishida,1 Yuki Sakai,1 Akihito Fujimori,1 Jin Narumoto,1 Yoshihisa Wada,1 Takafumi Yoshida,2 Chiaki Taga,3 Kenji Fukui11Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan; 2Kyoto Cognitive Behavior Therapy Counseling Room, Kyoto, Japan; 3Department of Psychiatry, Kyoto Second Red Cross Hospital, Kyoto, JapanPurpose: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD patients exhibit a noninhibition response pattern very similar to that observed in schizotypy patients in cognitive tasks. It has been suggested that the reduced cognitive inhibition observed in both schizotypy and OCD may result in the frequent entry into awareness of unacceptable urges and intrusive thoughts. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the severity of obsession or compulsion and schizotypy in OCD.Patients and methods: Sixty subjects (25 males and 35 females who were OCD outpatients in the University Hospital at the Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine during the period 2008–2010 were enrolled in the study. Assessments of these patients were made using the Yale–Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS, the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D, and the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A. The Pearson correlation coefficients between Y-BOCS and SPQ scores were calculated. Furthermore, hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to assess whether schizotypy predicted the severity of obsession and compulsion.Results: By calculating the Pearson correlation coefficient, it was found that the Y-BOCS obsession score, not the Y-BOCS compulsion score, was correlated with the SPQ total score. Results of the hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis showed that SPQ total score was a significant predictor of the Y-BOCS obsession score, after accounting for control

  15. Personality profiles in patients with eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Tomotake, Masahito; Ohmori, Tetsuro

    2002-01-01

    The present review focused on the personality profiles of patients with eating disorders. Studies using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R Personality Disorder showed high rates of diagnostic co-occurrence between eating disorders and personality disorders. The most commonly observed were histrionic, obsessive-compulsive, avoidant, dependent and borderline personality disorders. Studies using the Cloninger’s personality theory suggested that high Harm Avoidance might be relevant ...

  16. Tic disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorder : Is autoimmunity involved?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, PJ; Minderaa, RB

    The precise cause of tic disorders and paediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is unknown. In addition to genetic factors, autoimmunity may play a role, possibly as a sequela of preceding streptococcal throat infections in susceptible children. Here we review the most recent findings, from

  17. Gender differences in automatic thoughts and cortisol and alpha-amylase responses to acute psychosocial stress in patients with obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanehisa, Masayuki; Kawashima, Chiwa; Nakanishi, Mari; Okamoto, Kana; Oshita, Harumi; Masuda, Koji; Takita, Fuku; Izumi, Toshihiko; Inoue, Ayako; Ishitobi, Yoshinobu; Higuma, Haruka; Ninomiya, Taiga; Akiyoshi, Jotaro

    2017-08-01

    Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) has a pervasive pattern of preoccupation with orderliness, perfection, and mental and interpersonal control at the expense of flexibility, openness, and efficiency. The aims of the present study were to explore the relationship between OCPD and psychological stress and psychological tests. We evaluated 63 OCPD patients and 107 healthy controls (HCs). We collected saliva samples from patients and controls before and after a social stress procedure, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), to measure the concentrations of salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) and salivary cortisol. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), Profile of Mood State (POMS), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Social Adaptation Self-Evaluation Scale (SASS), and Depression and Anxiety Cognition Scale (DACS) were administered to patients and HCs. Following TSST exposure, the salivary amylase and cortisol levels were significantly decreased in male patients compared with controls. Additionally, OCPD patients had higher CTQ, POMS, STAI, and BDI scores than HCs and exhibited significantly higher anxiety and depressive states. OCPD patients scored higher on future denial and threat prediction as per the DACS tool. According to a stepwise regression analysis, STAI, POMS, and salivary cortisol responses were independent predictors of OCPD. Our results suggested that attenuated sympathetic and parasympathetic reactivity in male OCPD patients occurs along with attenuated salivary amylase and cortisol responses to the TSST. In addition, there was a significant difference between OCPD patients and HCs in child trauma, mood, anxiety, and cognition. The finding support the modeling role of cortisol (20min) on the relationships between STAI trait and depression among OCPD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Seeking help for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD): a qualitative study of the enablers and barriers conducted by a researcher with personal experience of OCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Karen J; Rose, Diana; Salkovskis, Paul M

    2017-06-01

    Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) can be hugely disabling. Although very effective psychological treatments exist, many people delay years before seeking help or never seek treatment. There have been clinical observation and short questionnaire studies on why people delay, but little qualitative research exists on this complex subject. The present qualitative study aimed to identify the barriers to seeking treatment and the factors that encourage or push people to seek help for their OCD (positive and negative enablers). A qualitative, exploratory study using in-depth, individual, semi-structured interviews was conducted by a researcher with personal experience of OCD. Seventeen people with OCD, contacted through the charity OCD-UK, were interviewed about the factors that impacted on their decision to seek help or not. The interviews were analysed using thematic analysis. Barriers identified were stigma, 'internal / cognitive' factors, not knowing what their problem was, factors relating to their GP or treatment, and fear of criminalisation. Positive enablers identified were being supported to seek help, information and personal accounts of OCD in the media, and confidence in their GP. Negative enablers were reaching a crisis point and for some participants (whose intrusive thoughts were about harming children) feeling driven to seek treatment because of the nature of the thoughts, that is, seeking help to prevent the 'harm' they feared they were capable of doing. Participants identified a range of barriers and enablers that impacted on their decision to seek help or not. These give important indicators about the likely causes for delayed help seeking in OCD and ways in which people might be encouraged to seek help earlier. People with OCD may face a wide range of barriers to seeking help, including concern about the reaction of health professionals. The level of awareness, kindness, and understanding shown by first-line practitioners can be very important to

  19. Common Dermatoses in Patients with Obsessive Compulsive Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Tampa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a chronic, debilitating syndrome, consisting of intrusive thoughts- which are experienced as inappropriate by the patient and are producing anxiety- and compulsions, defined as repetitive behaviours produced to reduce anxiety. While patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder typically have xerosis, eczema or lichen simplex chronicus, as a result of frequent washing or rubbing their skin, several other disorders which are included in the group of factitious disorders have also been associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder. A close collaboration between the dermatologist and the psychiatrist is therefore mandatory in order to achieve favourable outcomes for these patients. The aim of the article is to present the most frequent dermatological disorders associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder and to look over some of the rare ones.

  20. A systematic review of evidence for fitness-to-drive among people with the mental health conditions of schizophrenia, stress/anxiety disorder, depression, personality disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, Carolyn A; Baker, Anne M; So, Man H; Harries, Priscilla; O'Neill, Desmond

    2017-08-31

    Limited evidence exists regarding fitness-to-drive for people with the mental health conditions of schizophrenia, stress/anxiety disorder, depression, personality disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder (herein simply referred to as 'mental health conditions'). The aim of this paper was to systematically search and classify all published studies regarding driving for this population, and then critically appraise papers addressing assessment of fitness-to-drive where the focus was not on the impact of medication on driving. A systematic search of three databases (CINAHL, PSYCHINFO, EMBASE) was completed from inception to May 2016 to identify all articles on driving and mental health conditions. Papers meeting the eligibility criteria of including data relating to assessment of fitness-to-drive were critically appraised using the American Academy of Neurology and Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine protocols. A total of 58 articles met the inclusion criteria of driving among people with mental health conditions studied, and of these, 16 contained data and an explicit focus on assessment of fitness-to-drive. Assessment of fitness-to-drive was reported in three ways: 1) factors impacting on the ability to drive safely among people with mental health conditions, 2) capability and perception of health professionals assessing fitness-to-drive of people with mental health conditions, and 3) crash rates. The level of evidence of the published studies was low due to the absence of controls, and the inability to pool data from different diagnostic groups. Evidence supporting fitness-to-drive is conflicting. There is a relatively small literature in the area of driving with mental health conditions, and the overall quality of studies examining fitness-to-drive is low. Large-scale longitudinal studies with age-matched controls are urgently needed in order to determine the effects of different conditions on fitness-to-drive.

  1. A Review of Pharmacologic Treatment for Compulsive Buying Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Soares, Célia; Fernandes, Natália; Morgado, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    At present, no treatment recommendations can be made for compulsive buying disorder. Recent studies have found evidence for the efficacy of psychotherapeutic options, but less is known regarding the best pharmacologic treatment. The purpose of this review is to present and analyze the available published evidence on the pharmacological treatment of compulsive buying disorder. To achieve this, we conducted a review of studies focusing on the pharmacological treatment of compulsive buying by se...

  2. Personality Disorders in patients with disorders in eating behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesa Carina Góngora

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The interest for the systematic study of personality disorder in patients with eating disorders starts in 1980 with the edition of the DSM III multiaxial classification system. Since then, several publications have been focused on the prevalence and the effect on treatment of personality disorders in bulimic and anorexic patients. These researches showed inconsistent results due to conceptual and methodological divergences. In this paper, the more relevant findings of these studies are presented and the possible sources of discrepancy are analyzed. In general, there is a moderate comorbidity between personality disorders and eating disorders. The most frequent disorders are borderline, histrionic, obsessive-compulsive, dependent and avoidant personality disorders. Borderline and histrionic personality disorders are more frequently associated with bulimia, whereas avoidant and obsessive- compulsive personality disorders are more characteristic of anorexia nervosa. Nevertheless, the effect of the relationship between eating disorders and personality disorders in treatment remains uncertain, giving raise to several controversies and researches. 

  3. The Evolutionary Logic of the Obsessive Trait Complex: Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder as a Complementary Behavioral Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Charles Hertler

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Freud noted that the obsessive traits of orderliness, parsimony, and obstinacy incontestably belonged together. This observation has been unfailingly justified, but unsatisfactorily explained. Being a highly heritable pattern essentially unaffected by parental influence, it is counterfactual to continue to explain the obsessive trait constellation as a pathological signature of harsh, authoritarian parenting. Alternatively, the present paper, building upon a previously promulgated evolutionary etiological model, describes how obsessive traits work in unison to enable survival within harsh northerly climates. What appears to be a loosely federated inventory of pathology, after the application of evolutionary reasoning, becomes a coherent behavioral package, adaptive suite, or behavioral syndrome. All three of these terms, taken from behavioral biology, suggest that traits strategically covary, such that the adaptive value of each trait is enhanced by the presence of the others. In this vein, the union of anxious tension and conscientiousness drives the obsessive personality to labor incessantly. The fruits of obsessive labor are then conserved through parsimoniousness, hoarding, vigilance, and niggardliness. And so, obsessive personality is a coherent behavioral package in that the drive to work towards the acquisition of necessities is paired with the drive to conserve and defend them.

  4. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Case Following Cerebral Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semra Bilge

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Obsessive compulsive disorder is characterised by recurrent, unwanted, distressing thoughts, images, impulses and associated behaviours which generally emerge in the 2nd or 3rd decades of life. Elderly onset cases are rare. A 71 year old patient was admitted to our hospital because of left-sided weakness. Neurological examination revealed left hemiparesis, mild dysphasia and anosognosia. Using cranial magnetic resonance, infarcts were found in the MCA territories, in the posterior portion of the middle temporal gyrus supplied by the cortical (inferior branch and in the internal capsule, globus pallidus and putamen portions supplied by the lenticolostriate branch. An occlusion was also present in the right internal carotid artery (ICA. Fifteen days after presentation he developed an abnormal fear of urine contamination. He showered and handwashed excessively and exhibited insomnia and anxiety. The patient knew that his behaviour was ridiculous but could not prevent it. Formal neuropsychological testing found his simple attention to be mildly impared. His visuospatial function and construction abilities were also impaired. Obsessive compulsive disorder is usually an early onset disease. However this report seeks to draw attention to late-onset cases such as this, which are due to a cerebrovascular disorder.

  5. A five-factor measure of obsessive-compulsive personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Douglas B; Riddell, Ashley D B; Lynam, Donald R; Miller, Joshua D; Widiger, Thomas A

    2012-01-01

    This study provides convergent, discriminant, and incremental validity data for the Five-Factor Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (FFOCI), a newly developed measure of traits relevant to obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) from the perspective of the Five-factor model (FFM). Twelve scales were constructed as maladaptive variants of specific FFM facets (e.g., Perfectionism as a maladaptive variant of FFM competence). On the basis of data from 407 undergraduates (oversampled for OCPD symptoms) these 12 scales demonstrated convergent correlations with established measures of OCPD and the FFM. Further, they obtained strong discriminant validity with respect to facets from other FFM domains. Most important, the individual scales and total score of the FFOCI obtained incremental validity beyond existing measures of the FFM and OCPD for predicting a composite measure of obsessive-compulsive symptomatology. The findings support the validity of the FFOCI as a measure of obsessive-compulsive personality traits, as well as of maladaptive variants of the FFM.

  6. SUCCESSFUL TREATMENT OF OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDER WITH ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY

    OpenAIRE

    Kishimoto, Toshifumi; Ikawa, Genro

    1995-01-01

    Two men with obsessive-compulsive disorder showed abnormal behaviors including agitation and aggression without evidence of depression. They responded to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) following failure of drug treatments. Further investigation of the utility of ECT in treating drug refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder is indicated.

  7. Personality disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyrer, Peter; Mulder, Roger; Crawford, Mike

    2010-01-01

    and to society, and interferes, usually negatively, with progress in the treatment of other mental disorders. We now have evidence that personality disorder, as currently classified, affects around 6% of the world population, and the differences between countries show no consistent variation. We are also getting......Personality disorder is now being accepted as an important condition in mainstream psychiatry across the world. Although it often remains unrecognized in ordinary practice, research studies have shown it is common, creates considerable morbidity, is associated with high costs to services...... increasing evidence that some treatments, mainly psychological, are of value in this group of disorders. What is now needed is a new classification that is of greater value to clinicians, and the WPA Section on Personality Disorders is currently undertaking this task....

  8. Personality disorder types proposed for DSM-5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skodol, A.E.; Bender, D.S.; Morey, L.C.; Clark, L.A.; Oldham, J.M.; Alarcon, R.D.; Krueger, R.F.; Verheul, R.; Bell, C.C.; Siever, L.J.

    2011-01-01

    The Personality and Personality Disorders Work Group has proposed five specific personality disorder (PD) types for DSM-5, to be rated on a dimension of fit: antisocial/psychopathic, avoidant, borderline, obsessive-compulsive, and schizotypal. Each type is identified by core impairments in

  9. Personality disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bosch, L.M.C.; Verheul, R.; Verster, J.C.; Brady, K.; Galanter, M.; Conrod, P.

    2012-01-01

    Subject of this chapter is the often found combination of personality disorders and ­substance abuse disorders. The serious nature of this comorbidity is shown through the discussion of prevalence and epidemiological data. Literature shows that the comorbidity, hampering the diagnostic process, is

  10. Obsessive-compulsive disorder: advances in brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galli, Enrique

    2000-01-01

    In the past twenty years functional brain imaging has advanced to the point of tackling the differential diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic response in Neurology and Psychiatry. Psychiatric disorders were rendered 'functional' a century ago; however nowadays they can be seen by means of brain imaging. Functional images in positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission tomography (NEUROSPET) show in non-invasive fashion the state of brain functioning. PET does this assessing glucose metabolism and NEUROSPET by putting cerebral blood flow in images. Prevalence of OCD is clearly low (2 to 3%), but comorbidity with depression, psychoses, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia is high. Furthermore, it is not infrequent with autism, attention disorder, tichotillomany, borderline personality disorders, in pathological compulsive spending, sexual compulsion and in pathological gambling, in tics, and in Gilles de la Tourette disorder, NEUROSPET and PET show hypoperfusion in both frontal lobes, in their prefrontal dorsolateral aspects, in their inferior zone and premotor cortex, with hyperperfusion in the posterior cingulum and hypoperfusion in basal ganglia (caudate nucleus). Cummings states that hyperactivity of the limbic system might be involved in OCD. Thus, brain imaging in OCD is a diagnostic aid, allows us to see clinical imagenological evolution and therapeutic response and, possibly, it is useful predict therapeutic response (Au)

  11. Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Updated by: Fred K. Berger, MD, addiction and forensic psychiatrist, Scripps Memorial Hospital, La Jolla, CA. Also ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  12. Compulsive buying and binge eating disorder--a case vignettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinko, Darko; Bolanca, Marina; Rudan, Vlasta

    2006-12-30

    Compulsive buying behaviour has recently received long overdue attention as a clinical issue. Aim of this report is to describe treatment of two female patients diagnosed with compulsive buying disorder in comorbidity with binge eating disorder. In both cases, criteria for diagnosing of other axis I or axis II disorder were not present. Fluvoxamine was used in pharmacotherapy, and psychodynamic psychotherapy as a psychotherapeutical approach. We conclude that fluvoxamine and psychodynamic psychotherapy may be effective in treatment of compulsive buyers in comorbidity with binge eating disorder.

  13. Obsessive-Compulsive-Bipolar Disorder Comorbidity: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Pedro Ribeiro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders have been described as features of Bipolar Disorder (BD, and Obsessive-compulsive-bipolar disorder (OCBD may occur in as many as 56% of obsessive-compulsive patients. Mania in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD can occur either as an independent comorbidity or as a result of an antidepressant-induced switch. We report the case of a 38-year-old male with a 3 year diagnosis of OCD treated with antidepressants, admitted due to a manic episode, and describe diagnostic and treatment challenges of this comorbidity.

  14. [Compulsive buying disorder: a review and a case vignette].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Hermano; Lobo, Daniela Sabbatini S; Fuentes, Daniel; Black, Donald W

    2008-05-01

    Compulsive buying disorder was first described as a psychiatric syndrome in the early twentieth century. Its classification remains elusive, and investigators have debated its potential relationship to mood, substance use, obsessive-compulsive, and impulse control disorders. The objective of this study is to present a review of compulsive buying disorder and present a case vignette. Two databases were reviewed (Medline and PsycINFO) in search for articles published in the last 40 years. Selected terms included oniomania, compulsive buying, and compulsive shopping. Other relevant articles were also identified through reference lists. Compulsive buying disorder is a prevalent and chronic condition that is found worldwide, sharing commonalities with impulse control disorders. In clinical samples, women make up more than 80% of subjects. Its etiology is unknown, but neurobiologic and genetic mechanisms have been proposed. The disorder is highly comorbid with mood, substance use, eating and impulse control disorders. Treatment recommendations derived from the literature and clinical experience suggest that problem shoppers can benefit from psychosocial interventions. Cognitive-behavioral group models appear promising. Medication trials have reported mixed results. The identification and treatment of psychiatric comorbidity is also a key aspect of treatment. In order to determine the validity of compulsive buying disorder, future work should focus on psychopathology and neurobiological findings unique to the syndrome.

  15. Impulsive and compulsive behaviors among Danish patients with Parkinson's disease: prevalence, depression, and personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callesen, M B; Weintraub, D; Damholdt, M F; Møller, A

    2014-01-01

    Dopaminergic medication administered to ameliorate motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease is associated with impulse control disorders, such as pathological gambling, hypersexuality, compulsive buying, and binge eating. Studies indicate a prevalence of impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease of 6-16%. To estimate the prevalence of impulsive and compulsive behaviors among Danish patients with Parkinson's disease and to explore the relation of such behavioral disorders to depression and personality. 490 patients with Parkinson's disease (303 males), identified through the National Danish Patient Registry, were evaluated with: 1) the Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders in Parkinson's Disease; 2) the Geriatric Depression Scale; and 3) the NEO-Personality Inventory. 176 (35.9%) patients reported impulsive and compulsive behaviors sometime during Parkinson's disease (current symptoms in 73, 14.9%). Hereof, 114 (23.3%) reported multiple behavioral symptoms. Patients with behavioral symptoms were significantly younger, were younger at PD onset, had longer disease duration, displayed more motor symptoms, and received higher doses of dopaminergic medication than patients without behavioral symptoms. Furthermore, they reported significantly more depressive symptoms and scored significantly higher on neuroticism and lower on both agreeableness and conscientiousness than patients without behavioral symptoms. A history of impulsive and compulsive behaviors are common in Danish patients with Parkinson's disease and have clinical correlates that may allow identification of patients at risk for developing these behaviors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A Virtual Reality Game to Assess Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bennekom, Martine J; Kasanmoentalib, M Soemiati; de Koning, Pelle P; Denys, Damiaan

    2017-11-01

    The retrospective and subjective nature of clinical interviews is an important shortcoming of current psychiatric diagnosis. Consequently, there is a clear need for objective and standardized tools. Virtual reality (VR) can be used to achieve controlled symptom provocation, which allows direct assessment for the clinician. We developed a video VR game to provoke and assess obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms in a standardized and controlled environment. The first objective was to evaluate if the VR game is capable of provoking symptoms in OCD patients as opposed to healthy controls. The second objective was to evaluate the tolerability of the VR game in OCD patients. The VR game was created using a first-person perspective and confronted patients with 15 OCD-specific items, while simultaneously measuring OCD symptoms, including the number of compulsions, anxiety, tension, uncertainty, and urge to control. In this pilot study, eight patients and eight healthy controls performed the VR game. OCD patients performed significantly more compulsions (U = 5, p = 0.003) during the VR game. The anxiety, tension, uncertainty, and urge to control in response to the specific items were also higher for OCD patients, although significance was not yet reached because of the small sample. There were no substantial adverse effects. The results of this pilot study indicate that the VR game is capable of provoking a variety of OCD symptoms in OCD patients, as opposed to healthy controls, and is a potential valuable tool to objectify and standardize an OCD diagnosis.

  17. Obsessive–compulsive disorder: subclassification based on co-morbidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestadt, G.; Di, C. Z.; Riddle, M. A.; Grados, M. A.; Greenberg, B. D.; Fyer, A. J.; McCracken, J. T.; Rauch, S. L.; Murphy, D. L.; Rasmussen, S. A.; Cullen, B.; Pinto, A.; Knowles, J. A.; Piacentini, J.; Pauls, D. L.; Bienvenu, O. J.; Wang, Y.; Liang, K. Y.; Samuels, J. F.; Roche, K. Bandeen

    2011-01-01

    Background Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is probably an etiologically heterogeneous condition. Many patients manifest other psychiatric syndromes. This study investigated the relationship between OCD and co-morbid conditions to identify subtypes. Method Seven hundred and six individuals with OCD were assessed in the OCD Collaborative Genetics Study (OCGS). Multi-level latent class analysis was conducted based on the presence of eight co-morbid psychiatric conditions [generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), major depression, panic disorder (PD), separation anxiety disorder (SAD), tics, mania, somatization disorders (Som) and grooming disorders (GrD)]. The relationship of the derived classes to specific clinical characteristics was investigated. Results Two and three classes of OCD syndromes emerge from the analyses. The two-class solution describes lesser and greater co-morbidity classes and the more descriptive three-class solution is characterized by: (1) an OCD simplex class, in which major depressive disorder (MDD) is the most frequent additional disorder; (2) an OCD co-morbid tic-related class, in which tics are prominent and affective syndromes are considerably rarer; and (3) an OCD co-morbid affective-related class in which PD and affective syndromes are highly represented. The OCD co-morbid tic-related class is predominantly male and characterized by high conscientiousness. The OCD co-morbid affective-related class is predominantly female, has a young age at onset, obsessive–compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) features, high scores on the ‘taboo’ factor of OCD symptoms, and low conscientiousness. Conclusions OCD can be classified into three classes based on co-morbidity. Membership within a class is differentially associated with other clinical characteristics. These classes, if replicated, should have important implications for research and clinical endeavors. PMID:19046474

  18. Latent class analysis of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale symptoms in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delucchi, Kevin L; Katerberg, Hilga; Stewart, S Evelyn; Denys, Damiaan A J P; Lochner, Christine; Stack, Denise E; den Boer, Johan A; van Balkom, Anton J L M; Jenike, Michael A; Stein, Dan J; Cath, Danielle C; Mathews, Carol A

    2011-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is phenomenologically heterogeneous, and findings of underlying structure classification based on symptom grouping have been ambiguous to date. Variable-centered approaches, primarily factor analysis, have been used to identify homogeneous groups of symptoms; but person-centered latent methods have seen little use. This study was designed to uncover sets of homogeneous groupings within 1611 individuals with OCD based on symptoms. Latent class analysis models using 61 obsessive-compulsive symptoms collected from the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale were fit. Relationships between latent class membership and treatment response, sex, symptom severity, and comorbid tic disorders were tested for relationship to class membership. Latent class analysis models of best fit yielded 3 classes. Classes differed only in frequency of symptom endorsement. Classes with higher symptom endorsement were associated with earlier age of onset, being male, higher Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale symptom severity scores, and comorbid tic disorders. There were no differences in treatment response between classes. These results provide support for the validity of a single underlying latent OCD construct, in addition to the distinct symptom factors identified previously via factor analyses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. 'Impulsive compulsivity' in obsessive-compulsive disorder: a phenotypic marker of patients with poor clinical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Himani; Fontenelle, Leonardo F; Miguel, Euripedes C; Ferrão, Ygor A; Torres, Albina R; Shavitt, Roseli G; Ferreira-Garcia, Rafael; do Rosário, Maria C; Yücel, Murat

    2012-09-01

    Although traditionally obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and impulse control disorders (ICD) have represented opposing ends of a continuum, recent research has demonstrated a frequent co-occurrence of impulsive and compulsive behaviours, which may contribute to a worse clinical picture of some psychiatric disorders. We hypothesize that individuals with 'impulsive' OCD as characterized by poor insight, low resistance, and reduced control towards their compulsions will have a deteriorative course, greater severity of hoarding and/or symmetry/ordering symptoms, and comorbid ICD and/or substance use disorders (SUD). The sample consisted of 869 individuals with a minimum score of 16 on the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS). Of these, 65 had poor insight, low resistance, and reduced control towards compulsions ('poor IRC') and 444 had preserved insight, greater resistance and better control over compulsions ('good IRC'). These two groups were compared on a number of clinical and demographic variables. Individuals with poor IRC were significantly more likely to have a deteriorative course (p disorder (p = 0.026), trichotillomania (p = 0.014) and compulsive buying (p = 0.040). Regression analysis revealed that duration of obsessions (p = 0.037) and hoarding severity (p = 0.005) were significant predictors of poor IRC. In the absence of specific measures for impulsivity in OCD, the study highlights the utility of simple measures such as insight, resistance and control over compulsions as a phenotypic marker of a subgroup of OCD with impulsive features demonstrating poor clinical outcome. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Thought Action Fusion in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Þahin ÇÝFTÇÝ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Thought Action Fusion (TAF is defined as tought and action percieved as equivalent to each other or as an exaggerated power given to idea. With the usage of “Thought Action Fusion Scale” which is created by Shafran (1996, is began to investigate its role in psychopathologies. Researches about the three-component structure which has TAF-Likelihood-Self, TAF-Likelihood-Others, TAF-Moral, are concentrated especially around the obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD. TAF alleged including a certain level also in the normal population, was seen in the relationship with the inflated responsability in OCD, thought suppression and neutralising, was tried to explain the direction of this relationship in the mediationel model framework. [JCBPR 2013; 2(3.000: 138-146

  1. Thought Action Fusion in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahin CIFTCI

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Thought Action Fusion (TAF is defined as tought and action percieved as equivalent to each other or as an exaggerated power given to idea. With the usage of “Thought Action Fusion Scale” which is created by Shafran (1996, is began to investigate its role in psychopathologies. Researches about the three-component structure which has TAF-Likelihood-Self, TAF-Likelihood-Others, TAF-Moral, are concentrated especially around the obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD. TAF alleged including a certain level also in the normal population, was seen in the relationship with the inflated responsability in OCD, thought suppression and neutralising, was tried to explain the direction of this relationship in the mediationel model framework.

  2. Obsessive compulsive disorder in dental setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preetika Chandna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Globally, 20% of children and adolescents suffer from a disabling psychologic illness. Among these, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD is listed by the World Health Organization (WHO as one of the 10 most disabling conditions, with prevalence rates of OCD in children ranging between 1 to 3%. Pediatric dentists are in a unique position to diagnose psychological problems in children and adolescents due to their ongoing relationship with children and their parents that starts at a very early age. Timely diagnosis of psychological illness can result in early intervention as well as better patient management for the dentist too. The purpose of this case report is to highlight a case of OCD in an adolescent girl diagnosed in a dental setting.

  3. Personality disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Sebastian; Heinskou, Torben; Sørensen, Per

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In this naturalistic study, patients with personality disorders (N = 388) treated at Stolpegaard Psychotherapy Center, Mental Health Services, Capital Region of Denmark were allocated to two different kinds of treatment: a standardized treatment package with a preset number of treatment...... characteristics associated with clinicians' allocation of patients to the two different personality disorder services. METHODS: Patient characteristics across eight domains were collected in order to study whether there were systematic differences between patients allocated to the two different treatments....... Patient characteristics included measures of symptom severity, personality pathology, trauma and socio-demographic characteristics. Significance testing and binary regression analysis were applied to identify important predictors. RESULTS: Patient characteristics on fifteen variables differed...

  4. Obsessive-compulsive disorder and its related disorders: a reappraisal of obsessive-compulsive spectrum concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Dennis L; Timpano, Kiara R; Wheaton, Michael G; Greenberg, Benjamin D; Miguel, Euripedes C

    2010-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a clinical syndrome whose hallmarks are excessive, anxiety-evoking thoughts and compulsive behaviors that are generally recognized as unreasonable, but which cause significant distress and impairment. When these are the exclusive symptoms, they constitute uncomplicated OCD. OCD may also occur in the context of other neuropsychiatric disorders, most commonly other anxiety and mood disorders. The question remains as to whether these combinations of disorders should be regarded as independent, cooccurring disorders or as different manifestations of an incompletely understood constellation of OCD spectrum disorders with a common etiology. Additional considerations are given here to two potential etiology-based subgroups: (i) an environmentally based group in which OCD occurs following apparent causal events such as streptococcal infections, brain injury, or atypical neuroleptic treatment; and (ii) a genomically based group in which OCD is related to chromosomal anomalies or specific genes. Considering the status of current research, the concept of OCD and OCD-related spectrum conditions seems fluid in 2010, and in need of ongoing reappraisal.

  5. Personality prototypes in individuals with compulsive buying based on the Big Five Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Astrid; Claes, Laurence; Mitchell, James E; Wonderlich, Steve A; Crosby, Ross D; de Zwaan, Martina

    2010-09-01

    Personality prototypes based on the Big Five factor model were investigated in a treatment-seeking sample of 68 individuals with compulsive buying (CB). Cluster analysis of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) scales yielded two distinct personality clusters. Participants in cluster II scored significantly higher than those in cluster I on neuroticism and lower on the other four personality traits. Subjects in cluster II showed higher severity of CB, lower degree of control over CB symptoms, and were more anxious, interpersonally sensitive and impulsive. Furthermore, cluster II was characterized by higher rates of comorbid anxiety disorders, and cluster B personality disorders. The two personality prototypes did not differ with respect to obsessive-compulsive features. Finally and of considerable clinical significance, participants in cluster II reported lower remission rates after undergoing cognitive-behavioral therapy. Implications of the results for treatment are discussed. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Compulsive buying disorder: a review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Donald W

    2007-02-01

    Compulsive buying disorder is characterized by excessive or poorly controlled preoccupations, urges, or behaviors regarding shopping and spending that lead to subjective distress or impaired functioning. Compulsive buying disorder is estimated to have a lifetime prevalence of 5.8% in the United States general adult population. In clinical settings, most individuals with compulsive buying disorder are women (approximately 80%). This gender difference may be artifactual. Compulsive buying disorder is typically chronic or intermittent, with an age of onset in the late teens or early 20s. Comorbid mood and anxiety disorders, substance use disorders, eating disorders, and other disorders of impulse control are common, as are Axis II disorders. The disorder occurs worldwide, mainly in developed countries with market-based economies, and it tends to run in families with mood disorders and substance abuse. There is no standard treatment for compulsive buying disorder, but group cognitive-behavioral models seem promising, and psychopharmacologic treatments are being actively studied. Other treatment options include simplicity circles, 12-step programs, financial counseling, bibliotherapy, marital therapy, and financial counseling. Directions for future research are discussed.

  7. Brain Imaging in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMaster, Frank P.; O'Neill, Joseph; Rosenberg, David R.

    2008-01-01

    Neuroimaging findings support the frontal-striatal-thalamic model of pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder. Glutamate is also implicated in the pathological finding of the disease. Implications for pediatric OCD treatments are discussed.

  8. Somatic delusions and obsessive-compulsive disorder in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-10-12

    Oct 12, 2009 ... Case Study: Somatic delusions and obsessive-compulsive disorder in schizophrenia. 527. Vol 52 No 6 ... liver function, and urea and electrolytes), including an ... neurotransmitter systems (such as serotonin and dopamine).

  9. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Diagnosis and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenske, Jill N; Petersen, Ketti

    2015-11-15

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic illness that can cause marked distress and disability. It is a complex disorder with a variety of manifestations and symptom dimensions, some of which are underrecognized. Early recognition and treatment with OCD-specific therapies may improve outcomes, but there is often a delay in diagnosis. Patients can experience significant improvement with treatment, and some may achieve remission. Recommended first-line therapies are cognitive behavior therapy, specifically exposure and response prevention, and/or a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). Patients with OCD require higher SSRI dosages than for other indications, and the treatment response time is typically longer. When effective, long-term treatment with an SSRI is a reasonable option to prevent relapse. Patients with severe symptoms or lack of response to first-line therapies should be referred to a psychiatrist. There are a variety of options for treatment-resistant OCD, including clomipramine or augmenting an SSRI with an atypical antipsychotic. Patients with OCD should be closely monitored for psychiatric comorbidities and suicidal ideation.

  10. Sleep and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Jessica L; Reynolds, Amy C; Ferguson, Sally A; Dawson, Drew

    2013-12-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic mental illness that can have a debilitating effect on daily functioning. A body of research reveals altered sleep behaviour in OCD sufferers; however, findings are inconsistent and there is no consensus on the nature of this relationship. Understanding sleep disturbance in OCD is of critical importance given the known negative consequences of disturbed sleep for mood and emotional wellbeing. A systematic literature search was conducted of five databases for studies assessing sleep in adults diagnosed with OCD. Fourteen studies met inclusion criteria and qualitative data analysis methods were used to identify common themes. There was some evidence of reduced total sleep time and sleep efficiency in OCD patients. Many of the sleep disturbances noted were characteristic of depression. However, some OCD sufferers displayed delayed sleep onset and offset and an increased prevalence of delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD). Severe OCD symptoms were consistently associated with greater sleep disturbance. While the sleep of OCD patients has not been a major focus to date, the existing literature suggests that addressing sleep disturbance in OCD patients may ensure a holistic approach to treatment, enhance treatment efficacy, mitigate relapse and protect against the onset of co-morbid psychiatric illnesses. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Neither bipolar nor obsessive-compulsive disorder: compulsive buyers are impulsive acquirers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filomensky, Tatiana Zambrano; Almeida, Karla Mathias; Castro Nogueira, Marcelo Campos; Diniz, Juliana Belo; Lafer, Beny; Borcato, Sonia; Tavares, Hermano

    2012-07-01

    Compulsive buying (CB) is currently classified as an impulse control disorder (ICD) not otherwise classified. Compulsive buying prevalence is estimated at around 5% of the general population. There is controversy about whether CB should be classified as an ICD, a subsyndromal bipolar disorder (BD), or an obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) akin to a hoarding syndrome. To further investigate the appropriate classification of CB, we compared patients with CB, BD, and OCD for impulsivity, affective instability, hoarding, and other OCD symptoms. Eighty outpatients (24 CB, 21 BD, and 35 OCD) who were neither manic nor hypomanic were asked to fill out self-report questionnaires. Compulsive buying patients scored significantly higher on all impulsivity measures and on acquisition but not on the hoarding subdimensions of clutter and "difficulty discarding." Patients with BD scored higher on the mania dimension from the Structured Clinical Interview for Mood Spectrum scale. Patients with OCD scored higher on obsessive-compulsive symptoms and, particularly, higher on the contamination/washing and checking dimensions from the Padua Inventory; however, they did not score higher on any hoarding dimension. A discriminant model built with these variables correctly classified patients with CB (79%), BD (71%), and OCD (77%). Patients with CB came out as impulsive acquirers, resembling ICD- rather than BD- or OCD-related disorders. Manic symptoms were distinctive of patients with BD. Hoarding symptoms other than acquisition were not particularly associated with any diagnostic group. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Phenomenology of obsessive-compulsive disorder in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, Y Y; Liu, C Y

    2001-12-01

    This study was designed to assess the phenomenology, comorbidities, correlation with depressive disorders, and gender differences in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in Taiwan. Two hundred outpatients who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of OCD according to DSM-IV were included. Patient characteristics, age at onset, symptom profile, and Axis I comorbidity were recorded. Gender differences, age at onset, and comorbidity of depressive disorders among different subtypes of OCD were compared. The most common obsession was contamination, followed by pathological doubt, and need for symmetry. The most common compulsion was checking, followed by washing, and orderliness compulsions. More men than women presented with the obsession of need for symmetry. Eighty-three (41.5%) subjects had comorbid depressive disorders. Women had more major depressive disorder. Patients with somatic obsessions were more likely to have major depressive disorder. Most clinical characteristics of OCD in Taiwan were similar to that of previous studies in other countries.

  13. Personality traits and appearance-ideal internalization: Differential associations with body dissatisfaction and compulsive exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Shelby J; Racine, Sarah E

    2017-12-01

    Thin-ideal internalization is a robust risk factor for body dissatisfaction and eating pathology. Conversely, athletic-ideal internalization is often unrelated to body dissatisfaction, but predicts compulsive exercise (i.e., rigid, rule-driven exercise that is continued despite adverse consequences). Distinct personality traits could relate to internalization of different appearance ideals, which may be associated with divergent eating disorder outcomes. Past research has shown that neuroticism is related to body dissatisfaction, whereas extraversion and conscientiousness have been associated with regular and problematic exercise. The current study examined associations among personality traits (i.e., neuroticism, extraversion, conscientiousness), appearance-ideal internalization (i.e., thin- and athletic-ideal), and eating disorder cognitions/behaviors (i.e., body dissatisfaction, compulsive exercise) among 531 college men and women. Moreover, we tested whether appearance-ideal internalization mediated the relationships between personality traits with body dissatisfaction and compulsive exercise. As expected, body dissatisfaction was positively related to neuroticism, and compulsive exercise was positively associated with extraversion. Thin-ideal internalization positively correlated with neuroticism, athletic-ideal internalization positively correlated with conscientiousness, and both thin- and athletic-ideal internalization were positively related to extraversion. After controlling for gender, body mass index, the other appearance-ideal internalization, and the remaining personality traits, the indirect effects of both neuroticism and extraversion on body dissatisfaction through thin-ideal internalization were significant. Extraversion and conscientiousness were indirectly related to compulsive exercise through athletic-ideal internalization, whereas the indirect effect of neuroticism was dependent on covariates. As such, personality traits may be related to

  14. Behavioral inhibition and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Meredith E; Schofield, Casey A; Pietrefesa, Ashley S

    2006-01-01

    Behavioral inhibition is frequently cited as a vulnerability factor for development of anxiety. However, few studies have examined the unique relationship between behavioral inhibition and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Therefore, the current study addressed the relationship between behavioral inhibition and OCD in a number of ways. In a large unselected student sample, frequency of current OC symptoms was significantly correlated with retrospective self-reports of total levels of childhood behavioral inhibition. In addition, frequency of current OC symptoms was also significantly correlated with both social and nonsocial components of behavioral inhibition. Further, there was evidence for a unique relationship between behavioral inhibition and OC symptoms beyond the relationship of behavioral inhibition and social anxiety. In addition, results showed that reports of childhood levels of behavioral inhibition significantly predicted levels of OCD symptoms in adulthood. Finally, preliminary evidence suggested that behavioral inhibition may be more strongly associated with some types of OC symptoms than others, and that overprotective parenting may moderate the impact of behavioral inhibition on OC symptoms. The current findings suggest the utility of additional research examining the role of behavioral inhibition in the etiology of OCD.

  15. Obsessionality & compulsivity: a phenomenology of obsessive-compulsive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denys, Damiaan

    2011-01-01

    Progress in psychiatry depends on accurate definitions of disorders. As long as there are no known biologic markers available that are highly specific for a particular psychiatric disorder, clinical practice as well as scientific research is forced to appeal to clinical symptoms. Currently, the

  16. Brain Regions and Neuropsychological Deficits in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Erdem

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Neurobiological factors had been shown to play an important role in the emergence of obsessive-compulsive disorder by the information obtained from the methods developed over the years. According to the neuropsychological perspective, the defects had been detected mainly in executive functions, in attention, memory, visual-spatial functions; and abnormalities had been described in the frontal lobe, cingulate cortex, basal ganglia, and thalamus regions of the patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. The main and the most repeated abnormalities in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder are dysfunctions in executive function and visual memory. Dysfunctions of the inhibitory processes associated with the dominant frontal area lead to an insufficiency on the inhibition of verbal functions. Excessive activation of the orbitofrontal cortex that mediate the behavioral response suppression function in obsessive-compulsive disorder demonstrated by functional imaging techniques. Repeated-resistant behaviors (eg: compulsions are composed by the deteriorations of the inhibitions of motor or cognitive programs in basal ganglions provided through cycles of frontal lobe. The findings of clinical observations in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder could be considered as a reflection of excessive work in 'error detection system' which is the cause of the thoughts that something goes wrong and efforts to achieve perfection. As neurobiological, this finding is observed as excessive activity in orbitofrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex representing the ability of humans to provide and detect errors. It is is expected to develop the vehicles that are more sensitive to the characteristics of cognitive deficits in obsessive-compulsive disorder. In addition to the neuropsychological tests, using electrophysiological and advanced functional imaging techniques will put forward a better underlying the physiopathology of this disorder in order to

  17. Cognitive inflexibility in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruner, Patricia; Pittenger, Christopher

    2017-03-14

    Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is characterized by maladaptive patterns of repetitive, inflexible cognition and behavior that suggest a lack of cognitive flexibility. Consistent with this clinical observation, many neurocognitive studies suggest behavioral and neurobiological abnormalities in cognitive flexibility in individuals with OCD. Meta-analytic reviews support a pattern of cognitive inflexibility, with effect sizes generally in the medium range. Heterogeneity in assessments and the way underlying constructs have been operationalized point to the need for better standardization across studies, as well as more refined overarching models of cognitive flexibility and executive function (EF). Neuropsychological assessments of cognitive flexibility include measures of attentional set shifting, reversal and alternation, cued task-switching paradigms, cognitive control measures such as the Trail-Making and Stroop tasks, and several measures of motor inhibition. Differences in the cognitive constructs and neural substrates associated with these measures suggest that performance within these different domains should be examined separately. Additional factors, such as the number of consistent trials prior to a shift and whether a shift is explicitly signaled or must be inferred from a change in reward contingencies, may influence performance, and thus mask or accentuate deficits. Several studies have described abnormalities in neural activation in the absence of differences in behavioral performance, suggesting that our behavioral probes may not be adequately sensitive, but also offering important insights into potential compensatory processes. The fact that deficits of moderate effect size are seen across a broad range of classic neuropsychological tests in OCD presents a conceptual challenge, as clinical symptomatology suggests greater specificity. Traditional cognitive probes may not be sufficient to delineate specific domains of deficit in this and other

  18. [A case of compulsive buying--impulse control disorder or dependence disorder?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croissant, Bernhard; Klein, Oliver; Löber, Sabine; Mann, Karl

    2009-05-01

    It is unclear what disease entity causes compulsive buying. In ICD-10 and DSM-IV, compulsive buying is classified as "Impulse control disorder--not otherwise classified". Some publications interpret compulsive buying rather as a dependence disorder. We present the case of a male patient with compulsive buying syndrome. We discuss the close relationship to dependence disorders. The patient showed symptoms which would normally be associated with a dependence disorder. On the basis of a wider understanding of the dependency concept, as it is currently being discussed, we believe that the patient has shown a typical buying behavior that has presumably activated a reward loop similar to that of a substance dependency.

  19. The role of avoidant and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder traits in matching patients with major depression to cognitive behavioral and psychodynamic therapy : A replication study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kikkert, M. J.; Driessen, E.; Peen, J.; Barber, J. P.; Bockting, C. L. H.; Schalkwijk, F.; Dekker, J.; Dekker, J. J. M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Barber and Muenz (1996) reported that cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) was more effective than interpersonal therapy (IPT) for depressed patients with elevated levels of avoidant personality disorder, while IPT was more effective than CBT in patients with elevated levels of

  20. Relationship between movement disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorder : beyond the obsessive-compulsive-tic phenotype. A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fibbe, Lieneke A.; Cath, Danielle C.; van den Heuvel, Odile A.; Veltman, Dick J.; Tijssen, Marina A. J.; Van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.

    Background Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and symptoms (OC symptoms) are associated with tic disorders and share an aetiological relationship. The extent to which OCD/OC symptoms are correlated with other hyperkinetic movement disorders is unclear. The aim of this review was to investigate this

  1. Relationship between movement disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorder: beyond the obsessive-compulsive-tic phenotype. A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fibbe, L.A.; Cath, D.C.; van den Heuvel, O.A.; Veltman, D.J.; Tijssen, M.A.J.; van Balkom, A.J.L.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and symptoms (OC symptoms) are associated with tic disorders and share an aetiological relationship. The extent to which OCD/OC symptoms are correlated with other hyperkinetic movement disorders is unclear. The aim of this review was to investigate

  2. Neurocognitive functioning in compulsive buying disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derbyshire, Katherine L; Chamberlain, Samuel R; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Compulsive buying (CB) is a fairly common behavioral problem estimated to affect 5.8% of the population. Although previous research has examined the clinical characteristics of CB, little research has examined whether people with CB manifest cognitive deficits.......Compulsive buying (CB) is a fairly common behavioral problem estimated to affect 5.8% of the population. Although previous research has examined the clinical characteristics of CB, little research has examined whether people with CB manifest cognitive deficits....

  3. Diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder in the course of bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Żerdziński

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the coexistence of obsessive-compulsive symptoms with bipolar disorder (during the manic phase, depressive phase and remission. Method: The subjects were 70 patients previously diagnosed with and treated for bipolar disorder. For the purposes of this study, three subgroups were created: patients in the manic phase, depressive phase and in remission. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Young Mania Rating Scale and Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale were diagnostic tools used for the evaluation of patients’ mental health. Results: The data indicate high likelihood of co-occurrence of obsessive-compulsive disorder (28.6% and obsessive-compulsive syndromes (32.8% with bipolar disorder. Obsessions and compulsions were observed irrespectively of the type of bipolar disorder (type 1 and 2 and phase of the illness (depression, mania, remission. The results in the three subgroups were similar. The severity of anankastic symptoms depended both on the severity of depression and mania. The subjects confirmed the presence of obsessive-compulsive symptoms in the interview, although they were usually undiagnosed and untreated. Conclusions: Obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms often coexist with bipolar disorder, both in its two phases and in remission. The severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms in the course of bipolar condition varies, ranging from mild to extremely severe forms. The obsessive-compulsive disorder presentation in the course of bipolar disorder increases with the severity of depressive and manic symptoms. Obsessive-compulsive disorder can be primary to bipolar disorder. Obsessive-compulsive disorder coexisting with bipolar disorder is not diagnosed or treated properly.

  4. Parental bonding and hoarding in obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, David; Bienvenu, O. Joseph; Krasnow, Janice; Wang, Ying; Grados, Marco A.; Cullen, Bernadette; Goes, Fernando S.; Maher, Brion; Greenberg, Benjamin D.; McLaughlin, Nicole C.; Rasmussen, Steven A.; Fyer, Abby J.; Knowles, James A.; McCracken, James T.; Piacentini, John; Geller, Dan; Pauls, David L.; Stewart, S. Evelyn; Murphy, Dennis L.; Shugart, Yin-Yao; Riddle, Mark A.; Nestadt, Gerald; Samuels, Jack

    2017-01-01

    Background Hoarding behavior may indicate a clinically and possibly etiologically distinct subtype of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Empirical evidence supports a relationship between hoarding and emotional over-attachment to objects. However, little is known about the relationship between hoarding and parental attachment in OCD. Method The study sample included 894 adults diagnosed with DSM-IV OCD who had participated in family and genetic studies of OCD. Participants were assessed for Axis I disorders, personality disorders, and general personality dimensions. The Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) was used to assess dimensions of perceived parental rearing (care, overprotection, and control). We compared parental PBI scores in the 334 hoarding and 560 non-hoarding participants, separately in men and women. We used logistic regression to evaluate the relationship between parenting scores and hoarding in women, adjusting for other clinical features associated with hoarding. Results In men, there were no significant differences between hoarding and non-hoarding groups in maternal or paternal parenting scores. In women, the hoarding group had a lower mean score on maternal care (23.4 vs. 25.7, poverprotection, and maternal overcontrol are associated with hoarding in women with OCD. Parenting dimensions are not related to hoarding in men. These findings provide further support for a hoarding subtype of OCD and for sex-specific differences in etiologic pathways for hoarding in OCD. PMID:27915218

  5. Interpersonal ambivalence in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Steffen; Niemeyer, Helen; Hottenrott, Birgit; Schilling, Lisa; Spitzer, Carsten

    2013-10-01

    The social attitudes and interpersonal relationships of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are subject to a longstanding controversy. Whereas cognitive-behavioural researchers emphasize exaggerated pro-social attitudes in OCD like inflated responsibility and worry for other people (especially significant others), dynamic theories traditionally focus on anti-social attitudes such as latent aggression and hostility. In two recent studies, we gathered support not only for a co-existence of these seemingly opposing attitudes in OCD, but also for a functional connection: inflated responsibility in part appears to serve as a coping strategy (or “defense”) against negative interpersonal feelings. In the present study, we tested a shortened version of the Responsibility and Interpersonal Behaviours and Attitudes Questionnaire (RIBAQ-R). The scale was administered to 34 participants with OCD and 34 healthy controls. The questionnaire concurrently measures pro-social and anti-social interpersonal attitudes across three subscales. In line with our prior studies, patients displayed higher scores on both exaggerated pro-social attitudes (e.g. “I suffer from a strict conscience concerning my relatives”) as well as latent aggression (e.g. “Sometimes I would like to harm strangers on the street“) and suspiciousness/distrust (e.g. “I cannot even trust my own family”). A total of 59% of the patients but only 12% of the healthy controls showed marked interpersonal ambivalence (defined as scores higher than one standard deviation from the mean of the nonclinical controls on both the prosocial and at least one of the two anti-social subscales). The study asserts high interpersonal ambivalence in OCD. Further research is required to pinpoint both the dynamic and causal links between opposing interpersonal styles. Normalization and social competence training may prove beneficial to resolve the apparent problems of patients with OCD regarding anger

  6. Influence of specific obsessive-compulsive symptom dimensions on strategic planning in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Paula Sanders Pereira; Iego, Sandro; Nunes, Samantha; Menezes, Hemanny; Mastrorosa, Rosana Sávio; Oliveira, Irismar Reis de; Rosário, Maria Conceição do

    2011-03-01

    This study investigates obsessive-compulsive disorder patients in terms of strategic planning and its association with specific obsessive-compulsive symptom dimensions. We evaluated 32 obsessive-compulsive disorder patients. Strategic planning was assessed by the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test, and the obsessive-compulsive dimensions were assessed by the Dimensional Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale. In the statistical analyses, the level of significance was set at 5%. We employed linear regression, including age, intelligence quotient, number of comorbidities, the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale score, and the Dimensional Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale. The Dimensional Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale "worst-ever" score correlated significantly with the planning score on the copy portion of the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (r = 0.4, p = 0.04) and was the only variable to show a significant association after linear regression (β = 0.55, t = 2.1, p = 0.04). Compulsive hoarding correlated positively with strategic planning (r = 0.44, p = 0.03). None of the remaining symptom dimensions presented any significant correlations with strategic planning. We found the severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms to be associated with strategic planning. In addition, there was a significant positive association between the planning score on the copy portion of the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test copy score and the hoarding dimension score on the Dimensional Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale. Our results underscore the idea that obsessive-compulsive disorder is a heterogeneous disorder and suggest that the hoarding dimension has a specific neuropsychological profile. Therefore, it is important to assess the peculiarities of each obsessive-compulsive symptom dimension.

  7. Abnormal Sexual Behavior in an Adult Male with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Raguraman, Janakiraman; Priyadharshini, Kothai R.; Chandrasekaran, R.; Vijaysagar, John

    2004-01-01

    A male patient with homosexual obsession in obsessive compulsive disorder shows a better outcome following a combination of pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy. This case report emphasizes the importance of combination therapy in obsessive compulsive disorder with abnormal sexual impulses and behavior.

  8. Tic disorders and obsessive compulsive disorder: where is the link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roessner, V; Becker, A; Banaschewski, T; Rothenberger, A

    2005-01-01

    Over the last years evidence on the overlap between tic-disorders (TD) and obsessive compulsive behavior/disorder (OCB/OCD) has increased. The main focus of research have been the phenomenological and epidemiological similarities and differences in samples of different age, primary diagnosis (TD vs. OCD) including the co-occurrence of both. Unfortunately, only a minority of studies included all three groups (TD, TD + OCD, OCD). Nevertheless, new insight concerning possible subtypes for both TD and OCD has been gained. While some authors concentrated on OCD with/without tics we will summarize the field of TD and OCB/OCD from the viewpoint of tics, since OCB plays an important role in patients with TD. Thereby we will not only sharpen the clinicans' awareness of known differences in phenomenology, epidemiology, genetics and neurobiology, aimed to improve their diagnoses and treatment but also highlight the gaps of knowledge and discuss possibilities for further research in this field.

  9. Virtual exhibition as a tool for the treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Cardenas L., Gergina; Muñoz, Sandra; Oviedo L., Paola

    2014-01-01

    In Mexico City 2.6% of population have Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, this is a that impact the quality of life in the persons who presents, it was classified by WHO like tenth disability cause in the world, it´s for this reason that needs closer attention about mental health professionals, there are several studies about treatment for this disorder, between these we can find the exposure and response prevention treatment and cognitive treatment. The treatment could be perceived like aversive...

  10. Major Depressive Disorder, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, and Generalized Anxiety Disorder: Do the Sexual Dysfunctions Differ?

    OpenAIRE

    Kendurkar, Arvind; Kaur, Brinder

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: Major depressive disorder (MDD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) are known to have significant impact on sexual functioning. They have been studied individually. Therefore, this study was planned to compare the sexual dysfunction between MDD, OCD, and GAD with healthy subjects as controls.

  11. Dream content and intrusive thoughts in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallotti, Simone; Casetta, Cecilia; Fanti, Valentina; Gambini, Orsola; Ostinelli, Edoardo G; Ranieri, Rebecca; Vanelli, Irene; D'Agostino, Armando

    2016-10-30

    Although central to any exhaustive theory of human subjectivity, the relationship between dream and waking consciousness remains uncertain. Some findings suggest that dream consciousness can be influenced by severe disorders of thought content. The suppression of unwanted thoughts has been shown to influence dream content in healthy individuals. In order to better define this phenomenon, we evaluated the persistence of obsessive/compulsive themes across the dream and waking cognition of OCD patients and in a control group of healthy subjects. Participants were administered a shortened version of the Thematic Apperception Test to produce a waking fantasy narration, and were trained to keep a dream diary. Dream and waking narrative contents were analyzed in order to recognize obsessive/compulsive themes, and to calculate Mean Dream Obsession/Compulsion (MDO, MDC) and Mean TAT Obsession/Compulsion (MTO, MTC) parameters. No differences were found between the two populations in terms of MDO, MDC, MTO, nor MTC. Density of obsessive and compulsive themes were significantly higher in dream reports than in waking narratives for both groups. No correlation was observed between MDO/MDC scores and Y-BOCS obsession/compulsion scores in the OCD group. These findings strengthen the discontinuity hypothesis, suggesting that ruminative aspects of cognition are somehow interrupted during dream activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Neuropsychological performance, impulsivity, ADHD symptoms, and novelty seeking in compulsive buying disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Donald Wayne; Shaw, Martha; McCormick, Brett; Bayless, John David; Allen, Jeff

    2012-12-30

    We examined the neuropsychological performance of people with compulsive buying disorder (CBD) and control subjects, along with trait impulsivity, symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and selected personality characteristics. Subjects received a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery, depression and ADHD symptom assessment, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, and a version of the Temperament and Character Inventory. Persons with CBD (n=26) and controls (n=32) were comparable in terms of age, sex, and years of education. Subjects with CBD had a mean age of 36.3 years (S.D.=15.7) and an age at onset of 19.7 years (S.D.=7.0). Compulsive buyers had more lifetime mood, anxiety, and impulse control disorders. People with Compulsive buying performed significantly better on the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence Picture Completion task, a test of visual perception; otherwise, there were no consistent differences in neuropsychological measures. They also had elevated levels of self-reported depression, ADHD symptoms, trait impulsivity, and novelty seeking. In conclusion, compulsive buyers have greater lifetime psychiatric comorbidity than controls, and higher levels of self-rated depression, ADHD symptoms, trait impulsivity, and novelty seeking. The present study does not support the notion that there is a pattern of neuropsychological deficits associated with CBD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Impulsivity and compulsive buying are associated in a non-clinical sample: an evidence for the compulsivity-impulsivity continuum?

    OpenAIRE

    Paula, Jonas J. de; Costa, Danielle de S.; Oliveira, Flavianne; Alves, Joana O.; Passos, Lídia R.; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective:Compulsive buying is controversial in clinical psychiatry. Although it is defined as an obsessive-compulsive disorder, other personality aspects besides compulsivity are related to compulsive buying. Recent studies suggest that compulsivity and impulsivity might represent a continuum, with several psychiatric disorders lying between these two extremes. In this sense, and following the perspective of dimensional psychiatry, symptoms of impulsivity and compulsivity should correlate ev...

  14. Executive functioning in people with obsessive-compulsive personality traits: evidence of modest impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Villamisar, Domingo; Dattilo, John

    2015-06-01

    Investigations of executive dysfunctions among people with obsessive-compulsive personality disorders (OCPD) have yielded inconsistent results. The authors speculate that obsessive-compulsive personality traits (OCPT) from a nonclinical population may be associated with specific executive dysfunctions relative to working memory, attentional set-shifting, and planning. A sample consisting of 79 adults (39 females, 40 males) was divided into high and low scorers on the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4 (PDQ-4; Hyler, 1994). In addition, these participants were interviewed using the SCID-II (First, Spitzer, Gibbon & Williams, 1997) to confirm the presence of symptoms of obsessive-compulsive personality. Participants completed a battery of executive tasks associated with the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB), including Spatial Working Memory, Intradimensional/Extradimensional (ID/ED), Attentional Set-Shifting, and Stockings of Cambridge. Also, self-report measures of executive functions as well as of anxiety and depressive symptoms were administered. The analysis of covariance revealed significant differences between participants with OCPT and controls on the Spatial Working Memory tasks, ID/ED tasks, Stockings of Cambridge, and the Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX). Nevertheless, there were no significant differences in the number of problems solved in minimum movements. These results suggest that executive dysfunctions are present in people with prominent OCPT and that there is a high convergence between clinical and ecological measures of executive functions in people with obsessive personality traits.

  15. Eating Disorders in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Prevalence and Effect on Treatment Outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Tobiassen, Linn Graham

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the prevalence of eating disorder symptoms in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Additional aims were to assess whether having comorbid eating disorders could influence the treatment outcome for OCD, and if symptoms of eating disorders were reduced after treatment for OCD. The sample consisted of 93 patients with a primary diagnosis of OCD. The patients underwent assessment with the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, Beck Depress...

  16. Attention and cognition in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Geus, Femke; Denys, Damiaan A. J. P.; Sitskoorn, Margriet M.; Westenberg, Herman G. M.

    2007-01-01

    Although a dysfunctional prefrontal-striatal system is presupposed in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), this is not sustained by neuropsychological studies. The aim of this study was twofold: (i) to investigate the cognitive deficits in patients with OCD compared to matched healthy controls; and

  17. New pharmacotherapeutic approaches to obsessive-compulsive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Figee, Martijn; Denys, Damiaan

    2009-01-01

    This article summarizes results of all pharmacotherapy trials for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) published from 2006 to 2008 as well as studies on markers for predicting response to treatment and neurobiological changes induced by pharmacotherapy. Results show that recent developments in the

  18. Intensive cognitive behavioural therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, H.; Kristensen, M.; Arendt, M.

    2015-01-01

    Despite promising results from intensive formats of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) the format is rarely used. The aim of the study was to systematically review the literature within this area of research and provide a meta-analysis of the effectiveness...

  19. A Review of Pharmacologic Treatment for Compulsive Buying Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Célia; Fernandes, Natália; Morgado, Pedro

    2016-04-01

    At present, no treatment recommendations can be made for compulsive buying disorder. Recent studies have found evidence for the efficacy of psychotherapeutic options, but less is known regarding the best pharmacologic treatment. The purpose of this review is to present and analyze the available published evidence on the pharmacological treatment of compulsive buying disorder. To achieve this, we conducted a review of studies focusing on the pharmacological treatment of compulsive buying by searching the PubMed/MEDLINE database. Selection criteria were applied, and 21 studies were identified. Pharmacological classes reported included antidepressants, mood stabilizers, opioid antagonists, second-generation antipsychotics, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists. We found only placebo-controlled trials for fluvoxamine; none showed effectiveness against placebo. Three open-label trials reported clinical improvement with citalopram; one was followed by a double-blind discontinuation. Escitalopram was effective in an open-label trial but did not show efficacy in the double-blind phase. Memantine was identified as effective in a pilot open-label study. Fluoxetine, bupropion, nortriptyline, clomipramine, topiramate and naltrexone were only reported to be effective in clinical cases. According to the available literature, there is no evidence to propose a specific pharmacologic agent for compulsive buying disorder. Future research is required for a better understanding of both pathogenesis and treatment of this disorder.

  20. co-occurrence of schizophrenia and obsessive compulsive disorder

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McGlashan' found that 21 (12.9%) of 163 DSM-III-diagnosed .... Abbruzzese M, Ferri 5, Scarone S. The selecti~ebreakdown of frontal functions in patients ... Obsessive-compulsive disorder: its conceptual history in France during the 19th.

  1. Goal-directed learning and obsessive–compulsive disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillan, Claire M.; Robbins, Trevor W.

    2014-01-01

    Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) has become a paradigmatic case of goal-directed dysfunction in psychiatry. In this article, we review the neurobiological evidence, historical and recent, that originally led to this supposition and continues to support a habit hypothesis of OCD. We will then discuss a number of recent studies that have directly tested this hypothesis, using behavioural experiments in patient populations. Based on this research evidence, which suggests that rather than goal-directed avoidance behaviours, compulsions in OCD may derive from manifestations of excessive habit formation, we present the details of a novel account of the functional relationship between these habits and the full symptom profile of the disorder. Borrowing from a cognitive dissonance framework, we propose that the irrational threat beliefs (obsessions) characteristic of OCD may be a consequence, rather than an instigator, of compulsive behaviour in these patients. This lays the foundation for a potential shift in both clinical and neuropsychological conceptualization of OCD and related disorders. This model may also prove relevant to other putative disorders of compulsivity, such as substance dependence, where the experience of ‘wanting’ drugs may be better understood as post hoc rationalizations of otherwise goal-insensitive, stimulus-driven behaviour. PMID:25267818

  2. Prevalence and construct validity of compulsive buying disorder in shopping mall visitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maraz, Aniko; van den Brink, Wim; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2015-01-01

    Compulsive buying is a relatively new psychopathological concept and very few data are currently available regarding the prevalence and validity of compulsive buying disorder. In this cross-sectional study, we establish the prevalence of compulsive buying disorder in shopping mall visitors and

  3. The prevalence of personality disorders in hypochondriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Reiko; Nestoriuc, Yvonne; Nolido, Nyryan V; Barsky, Arthur J

    2010-01-01

    Although Axis I hypochondriasis is closely related to certain personality characteristics, the nature and extent of personality dysfunction in these patients still needs clarification. This study assessed the prevalence of personality disorders observed in hypochondriacal patients, described the types and comorbidity of personality disorders, and compared the psychological distress of patients with and without the most common comorbid personality disorder. One hundred fifteen patients meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, criteria for hypochondriasis completed self-administered assessments, including the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4+ (PDQ-4+), the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R), the Whiteley Index, and the Somatic Symptom Inventory. These data were taken from a study conducted between September 1997 and November 2001. Eighty-eight patients (76.5%) had 1 or more personality disorders, whereas 27 patients (23.5%) had no personality disorders. Fifty-one patients (44.3%) had more than 3 personality disorders. The most common personality disorder in the hypochondriacal patients was obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD; 55.7%), followed by avoidant personality disorder (40.9%). The comorbidity of OCPD and avoidant personality disorder was 53.1% (34 of 64 patients with OCPD). The total PDQ-4+ score of the 64 patients with OCPD was significantly higher than that of the 51 patients without OCPD. On the SCL-90-R, the 64 patients with OCPD showed significantly higher scores on all of 3 global indices and 7 of 10 primary symptom dimensions (paranoid ideation, depression, anxiety, phobic anxiety, obsessive-compulsive, interpersonal sensitivity, and psychoticism) on the SCL-90-R compared to the 51 patients without OCPD. The high prevalence of personality disorders, particularly OCPD, among patients with hypochondriasis suggests that consideration of personality features is important in assessment and

  4. Estimates & Implications of Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD Prevalence: OCPD as a Common Disorder with a Cosmopolitan Distribution or Rare Strategy with a Northerly Distribution? (Estimaciones e Implicaciones de la Prevalencia del Trastorno ObsesivoCompulsivo: ¿Trastorno habitual con una distribución cosmopolita o estrategia infrecuente con una distribución septentrional?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven C. Hertler

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available DSM-V estimates the prevalence of Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD to fall between 2.1 and 7.9 percent, making it one of the most prevalent personality disorders in the general population. Yet, obsessive prevalence is reported without its significance being appreciated. After reviewing the estimates of several studies, this paper pursues the theme of obsessive prevalence, showing why it was ignored, how it changes etiological assumptions, and, in turn, how newly generated etiologies engender the understanding of obsessive prevalence. High prevalence, when paired with high heritability, undermines psychoanalytic etiologies and invalidates psychiatric classification, suggesting that OCPD is a rare type, rather than a common disorder. Following this, evolutionary theory is used to illustrate the conditions from which this rare phenotype arose, and the mechanistic laws that maintain it within its present proportions. As treated within the discussion section, high prevalence, when contextualized within an evolutionary explanatory paradigm, suggests an ecologically determined biogeography of OCPD.

  5. [Comorbidity of compulsive disorders in childhood and adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, K; Jennen-Steinmetz, Ch; Holtmann, M; el-Faddagh, M; Schmidt, M H

    2003-08-01

    The cross-sectional comorbidity of child and adolescent inpatients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) was assessed. The hospital records of all inpatients treated for OCD since 1976 (31 girls, 46 boys) were compared with data from a prospective epidemiological longitudinal study (90 girls, 84 boys) in two age cohorts ( or = 15 years) with regard to comorbid psychiatric diagnoses. Additionally, psychiatric Axis I diagnoses of patients with a supplementary diagnosis of compulsive symptoms (n = 45) were descriptively assessed in the client population. In the subgroup of OCD patients tic disorders. OCD girls > or = 15 years showed a tendency toward more frequent comorbid affective disorders and a significant result regarding concurrent eating disorders. Eighteen of 27 female patients with supplementary compulsive symptoms requiring clinical intervention had an Axis I diagnosis of eating disorder. Due to different criteria of classification, diverging definitions of comorbidity and different age cohorts and samples, studies on comorbidity in OCD patients are difficult to compare. The frequency of comorbid psychiatric disorders may be over-estimated if the general prevalence of psychiatric disorders in terms of gender and age is not taken into account.

  6. Obsessive-compulsive disorder spectrum as a scientific "metaphor".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallanti, Stefano; Hollander, Eric

    2008-09-01

    As a result of clinical, epidemiological, neuroimaging, and therapy studies that took place in the late 1980s, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been well-characterized in the field of anxiety disorders. Other disorders attracted attention for their similarities to OCD, and were located in the orbit of the disorder. OCD has become known as the "primary domain" of a scientific "metaphor" comprising the putative cluster of OCD-related disorders (OCRDs). It is a "paradigm" with which to explore basal ganglia dysfunction. The OCRDs share common phenomenology, comorbidities, lifetime course, demographics, possible genetics, and frontostriatal dysfunction (particularly caudate hyperactivity.) The adoption of this metaphor analogy has proven useful. However, 15 years since its emergence, the spectrum of obsessive-compulsive disorders remains controversial. Questions under debate include whether OCD is a unitary or split condition, whether it is an anxiety disorder, and whether there exists only one spectrum or several possible spectrums. Further work is needed to clarify obsessive-compulsive symptoms, subtypes, and endophenotypes. There is need to integrate existing databases, better define associated symptom domains, and create a more comprehensive endophenotyping protocol for OCRDs. There is also a need to integrate biological and psychological perspectives, concepts, and data to drive this evolution. By increasing research in this field, the OCD spectrum may evolve from a fragmented level of conceptualization as a "metaphor" to one that is more comprehensive and structured.

  7. Affective disorders among patients with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjåstad, Hege Nordem; Gråwe, Rolf W; Egeland, Jens

    2012-01-01

    The high co-occurrence between borderline personality disorder and affective disorders has led many to believe that borderline personality disorder should be considered as part of an affective spectrum. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the prevalence of affective disorders are higher for patients with borderline personality disorder than for patients with other personality disorders. In a national cross-sectional study of patients receiving mental health treatment in Norway (N = 36 773), we determined whether psychiatric outpatients with borderline personality disorder (N = 1 043) had a higher prevalence of affective disorder in general, and whether they had an increased prevalence of depression, bipolar disorder or dysthymia specifically. They were compared to patients with paranoid, schizoid, dissocial, histrionic, obsessive-compulsive, avoidant, dependent, or unspecified personality disorder, as well as an aggregated group of patients with personality disorders other than the borderline type (N = 2 636). Odds ratios were computed for the borderline personality disorder group comparing it to the mixed sample of other personality disorders. Diagnostic assessments were conducted in routine clinical practice. More subjects with borderline personality disorder suffered from unipolar than bipolar disorders. Nevertheless, borderline personality disorder had a lower rate of depression and dysthymia than several other personality disorder groups, whereas the rate of bipolar disorder tended to be higher. Odds ratios showed 34% lower risk for unipolar depression, 70% lower risk for dysthymia and 66% higher risk for bipolar disorder in patients with borderline personality disorder compared to the aggregated group of other personality disorders. The results suggest that borderline personality disorder has a stronger association with affective disorders in the bipolar spectrum than disorders in the unipolar spectrum. This association may reflect

  8. Affective disorders among patients with borderline personality disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hege Nordem Sjåstad

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The high co-occurrence between borderline personality disorder and affective disorders has led many to believe that borderline personality disorder should be considered as part of an affective spectrum. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the prevalence of affective disorders are higher for patients with borderline personality disorder than for patients with other personality disorders. METHODS: In a national cross-sectional study of patients receiving mental health treatment in Norway (N = 36 773, we determined whether psychiatric outpatients with borderline personality disorder (N = 1 043 had a higher prevalence of affective disorder in general, and whether they had an increased prevalence of depression, bipolar disorder or dysthymia specifically. They were compared to patients with paranoid, schizoid, dissocial, histrionic, obsessive-compulsive, avoidant, dependent, or unspecified personality disorder, as well as an aggregated group of patients with personality disorders other than the borderline type (N = 2 636. Odds ratios were computed for the borderline personality disorder group comparing it to the mixed sample of other personality disorders. Diagnostic assessments were conducted in routine clinical practice. RESULTS: More subjects with borderline personality disorder suffered from unipolar than bipolar disorders. Nevertheless, borderline personality disorder had a lower rate of depression and dysthymia than several other personality disorder groups, whereas the rate of bipolar disorder tended to be higher. Odds ratios showed 34% lower risk for unipolar depression, 70% lower risk for dysthymia and 66% higher risk for bipolar disorder in patients with borderline personality disorder compared to the aggregated group of other personality disorders. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that borderline personality disorder has a stronger association with affective disorders in the bipolar spectrum than

  9. Affective Disorders among Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjåstad, Hege Nordem; Gråwe, Rolf W.; Egeland, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Background The high co-occurrence between borderline personality disorder and affective disorders has led many to believe that borderline personality disorder should be considered as part of an affective spectrum. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the prevalence of affective disorders are higher for patients with borderline personality disorder than for patients with other personality disorders. Methods In a national cross-sectional study of patients receiving mental health treatment in Norway (N = 36 773), we determined whether psychiatric outpatients with borderline personality disorder (N = 1 043) had a higher prevalence of affective disorder in general, and whether they had an increased prevalence of depression, bipolar disorder or dysthymia specifically. They were compared to patients with paranoid, schizoid, dissocial, histrionic, obsessive-compulsive, avoidant, dependent, or unspecified personality disorder, as well as an aggregated group of patients with personality disorders other than the borderline type (N = 2 636). Odds ratios were computed for the borderline personality disorder group comparing it to the mixed sample of other personality disorders. Diagnostic assessments were conducted in routine clinical practice. Results More subjects with borderline personality disorder suffered from unipolar than bipolar disorders. Nevertheless, borderline personality disorder had a lower rate of depression and dysthymia than several other personality disorder groups, whereas the rate of bipolar disorder tended to be higher. Odds ratios showed 34% lower risk for unipolar depression, 70% lower risk for dysthymia and 66% higher risk for bipolar disorder in patients with borderline personality disorder compared to the aggregated group of other personality disorders. Conclusions The results suggest that borderline personality disorder has a stronger association with affective disorders in the bipolar spectrum than disorders in the unipolar

  10. Neuroimaging of psychotherapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thorsen, A.L.; van den Heuvel, O.A.; Hansen, B.; Kvale, G.

    2015-01-01

    The symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) include intrusive thoughts, compulsive behavior, anxiety, and cognitive inflexibility, which are associated with dysfunction in dorsal and ventral corticostriato-thalamocortical (CSTC) circuits. Psychotherapy involving exposure and response

  11. Arousal, Executive Control and Decision Making in Compulsive Buying Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsøy, Thomas Zöega; Zuraigat, Farah Qureshi; Jacobsen, Catrine

    2013-01-01

    Compulsive buying disorder (CBD) is noted by an obsession with shopping and a chronic, repetitive purchasing behavior with adverse consequences for the sufferer and their social surroundings. While CBD is often classified as an impulse control disorder (ICD), little is still known about the actua......, products of interest (e.g. fashion items) produce bottom-up emotional responses that skews the decision-making process, leading CBD sufferers to make bad purchase decisions.......Compulsive buying disorder (CBD) is noted by an obsession with shopping and a chronic, repetitive purchasing behavior with adverse consequences for the sufferer and their social surroundings. While CBD is often classified as an impulse control disorder (ICD), little is still known about the actual...

  12. Disorders of compulsivity: a common bias towards learning habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voon, V; Derbyshire, K; Rück, C; Irvine, M A; Worbe, Y; Enander, J; Schreiber, L R N; Gillan, C; Fineberg, N A; Sahakian, B J; Robbins, T W; Harrison, N A; Wood, J; Daw, N D; Dayan, P; Grant, J E; Bullmore, E T

    2015-03-01

    Why do we repeat choices that we know are bad for us? Decision making is characterized by the parallel engagement of two distinct systems, goal-directed and habitual, thought to arise from two computational learning mechanisms, model-based and model-free. The habitual system is a candidate source of pathological fixedness. Using a decision task that measures the contribution to learning of either mechanism, we show a bias towards model-free (habit) acquisition in disorders involving both natural (binge eating) and artificial (methamphetamine) rewards, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. This favoring of model-free learning may underlie the repetitive behaviors that ultimately dominate in these disorders. Further, we show that the habit formation bias is associated with lower gray matter volumes in caudate and medial orbitofrontal cortex. Our findings suggest that the dysfunction in a common neurocomputational mechanism may underlie diverse disorders involving compulsion.

  13. The presence of magical thinking in obsessive compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einstein, Danielle A; Menzies, Ross G

    2004-05-01

    Two research groups have raised the possibility that magical ideation may be a fundamental feature of obsessive-compulsive disorder. It has been proposed to underlie thought action fusion and superstitious beliefs. In this study, the Magical Ideation scale, the Lucky Behaviours and Lucky Beliefs scales, the Thought Action Fusion-Revised scale, the Padua Inventory, and the Obsessive Compulsive Inventory-Short Version were completed by 60 obsessive compulsive patients at a hospital clinic. Of all the measures, the Magical Ideation (MI) scale was found to be the most strongly related to obsessive compulsive symptoms. Large and significant relationships between MI scores and the measures of OCD were obtained even when alternative constructs (Lucky Behaviours, Lucky Beliefs, Thought Action Fusion-Revised scales) were held constant. No other variable remained significantly related to the Obsessive Compulsive Inventory-Short Version when magical ideation scores were held constant. The findings suggest that a general magical thinking tendency may underpin previous observed links between superstitiousness, thought action fusion and OCD severity.

  14. IMPULSIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDERS IN PARKINSON'S DISEASE. CLINICAL CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Fedorova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective – a description of clinical cases of impulsive­compulsive disorders in Parkinson,s disease. The first clinical case. Patient N., 75 years old, suffering for 15 years from Parkinson,s disease, akinetic­rigid form of the disease, stage 4 by Hyun–Yar. Since 2009, he received levodopa/carbidopa 250/25 mg 5 times/day (daily dose of 1250 mg of levodopa; pramipexole 3.5 mg per day (daily dose 3.5 mg, amantadine sulfate 100 mg 5 times/day (daily dose 500 mg. While taking antiparkinsonian drugs the patient developed behavioral disorders such as dopamine disregulatory syndrome combined with punding, hypersexuality and compulsive shopping accompanied by visual hallucinations. The total equivalent dose of levodopa was 1600 mg per day. The second clinical case. Patient R., 52 years old, suffers from Parkinson,s disease about 5 years, a mixed form. She complained of slowness of movement, tremor in her left hand, sleep disturbances, poor mood. The clinic was appointed piribedil 50 mg 3 times per day. Despite the fact that the patient took only one of dopaminergic drugs in a therapeutic daily dose, she developed impulsive­compulsive disorder as hyper­ sexuality, compulsive shopping and binge eating. Results. In the first clinical case for correction of behavioral disorders in patients with Parkinson,s disease levodopa/carbidopa dose was reduced to 750 mg per day (3/4 Tab. 4 times a day; added to levodopa/benserazide dispersible 100 mg morning and levodopa/benserazide 100 mg before sleep (total dose of levodopa of 950 mg per day. Amantadine sulfate and pramipexole were canceled. It was added to the therapy of atypical neuroleptic clozapine dose 6,25 mg overnight. After 3 months marked improvement, regressed visual hallucina­ tions, improved family relationships, background mood became more stable. The patient continue to sing karaoke, but this hobby has be­ come less intrusive. In the second clinical event correction impulsive­compulsive

  15. Neurocognitive functioning in compulsive buying disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derbyshire, Katherine L; Chamberlain, Samuel R; Odlaug, Brian L; Schreiber, Liana R N; Grant, Jon E

    2014-02-01

    Compulsive buying (CB) is a fairly common behavioral problem estimated to affect 5.8% of the population. Although previous research has examined the clinical characteristics of CB, little research has examined whether people with CB manifest cognitive deficits. Twenty-three non-treatment-seeking compulsive buyers (mean age, 22.3±3.5; 60.9% female) and 23 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (mean age, 21.1±3.4, 60.9% female) underwent neurocognitive assessment. We predicted that the following cognitive domains would be impaired in CB: spatial working memory (Spatial Working Memory test), response inhibition (Stop-Signal Task), cognitive flexibility (Intra-Extra Dimensional Set Shift task), and decision making (Cambridge Gambling Task). Compared with controls, individuals with CB exhibited significant impairments in response inhibition (P=.043), risk adjustment during decision making (P=.010), and spatial working memory (P=.041 total errors; P=.044 strategy scores). Deficits were of large effect size (Cohen's d, 0.6 to 1.05). These pilot data suggest that individuals with CB experience problems in several distinct cognitive domains, supporting a likely neurobiological overlap between CB and other putative behavioral and substance addictions. These findings may have implications for shared treatment approaches as well as how we currently classify and understand CB.

  16. Comparing Dimensional Models Assessing Personality Traits and Personality Pathology Among Adult ADHD and Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerting, Johanna; Pukrop, Ralf; Klein, Philipp; Ritter, Kathrin; Knowles, Mark; Banzhaf, Anke; Gentschow, Laura; Vater, Aline; Heuser, Isabella; Colla, Michael; Roepke, Stefan

    2016-08-01

    This pilot study was a comparison of dimensional models assessing personality traits and personality pathology in a clinical sample of adults diagnosed with ADHD and adults diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD), and a nonclinical control sample of healthy adults. Personality traits were assessed using the NEO-Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R) and dimensional personality pathology with the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Basic Questionnaire (DAPP-BQ). Adults with ADHD and BPD produced higher Emotional Dysregulation/Neuroticism and Dissocial Behavior scores than controls. For the Extraversion/Inhibitedness scale, adults with BPD produced significantly lower scores than adults with ADHD and controls. On the Conscientiousness/Compulsivity domains, Conscientiousness scores were lower for both disorders, whereas low Compulsivity values were specific to adult ADHD. Our results suggest that patients with adult ADHD and BPD have distinguishable profiles of personality traits and personality pathology. © The Author(s) 2012.

  17. Latent class analysis of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale symptoms in obsessive-compulsive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delucchi, K.L.; Katerberg, H.; Stewart, S.E.; Denys, D.A.; Lochner, C.; Stack, D.E.; den Boer, J.A.; van Balkom, A.J.L.M.; Jenike, M.A.; Stein, D.J.; Cath, D.C.; Mathews, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is phenomenologically heterogeneous, and findings of underlying structure classification based on symptom grouping have been ambiguous to date. Variable-centered approaches, primarily factor analysis, have been used to identify homogeneous groups of

  18. Obsessive-compulsive disorder in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Georgina; Heyman, Isobel

    2015-05-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in childhood and adolescence is an impairing condition, associated with a specific set of distressing symptoms incorporating repetitive, intrusive thoughts (obsessions) and distressing, time-consuming rituals (compulsions). This review considers current knowledge of causes and mechanisms underlying OCD, as well as assessment and treatment. Issues relating to differential diagnosis are summarised, including the challenges of distinguishing OCD from autism spectrum disorders and tic disorders in youth. The recommended treatments, namely cognitive behaviour therapy and serotonin reuptake inhibiting/selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor medications, are outlined along with the existing evidence-based and factors associated with treatment resistance. Finally, novel clinical developments that are emerging in the field and future directions for research are discussed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Quality of Web-based information on obsessive compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klila, Hedi; Chatton, Anne; Zermatten, Ariane; Khan, Riaz; Preisig, Martin; Khazaal, Yasser

    2013-01-01

    The Internet is increasingly used as a source of information for mental health issues. The burden of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) may lead persons with diagnosed or undiagnosed OCD, and their relatives, to search for good quality information on the Web. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of Web-based information on English-language sites dealing with OCD and to compare the quality of websites found through a general and a medically specialized search engine. Keywords related to OCD were entered into Google and OmniMedicalSearch. Websites were assessed on the basis of accountability, interactivity, readability, and content quality. The "Health on the Net" (HON) quality label and the Brief DISCERN scale score were used as possible content quality indicators. Of the 235 links identified, 53 websites were analyzed. The content quality of the OCD websites examined was relatively good. The use of a specialized search engine did not offer an advantage in finding websites with better content quality. A score ≥16 on the Brief DISCERN scale is associated with better content quality. This study shows the acceptability of the content quality of OCD websites. There is no advantage in searching for information with a specialized search engine rather than a general one. The Internet offers a number of high quality OCD websites. It remains critical, however, to have a provider-patient talk about the information found on the Web.

  20. Familial clustering of tic disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Heidi A; Hansen, Stefan N; Buxbaum, Joseph D; Gair, Shannon L; Nissen, Judith B; Nikolajsen, Kathrine H; Schendel, Diana E; Reichenberg, Abraham; Parner, Erik T; Grice, Dorothy E

    2015-04-01

    Tourette syndrome/chronic tic disorder (TS/CT) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) overlap in their phenomenological features and often co-occur in affected individuals and families. Understanding how these disorders cluster in families provides important clinical information and is an important step in understanding the causes of these disorders. To determine familial recurrence for TS/CT and OCD using a national epidemiologic sample. We performed a population-based study of national health registries in Denmark, including all individuals (n = 1 741 271) born in Denmark from January 1, 1980, through December 31, 2007, and followed up through December 31, 2013. We identified those with TS/CT and/or OCD. The prevalence of TS/CT and OCD and relative recurrence risk (RRR) for TS/CT or OCD among individuals with an oldest sibling or a parent diagnosed as having TS/CT or OCD compared with individuals without an affected oldest sibling or an affected parent. In this sample, 5596 individuals were diagnosed as having TS/CT; 6191, OCD; and 412, both disorders. The overall cohort prevalence of TS/CT was 0.42% (95% CI, 0.41%-0.43%) and of OCD, 0.84% (95% CI, 0.81%-0.87%). The mean sibling recurrence risk for TS/CT across all birth years was 9.88% (95% CI, 8.02%-12.16%) and for OCD, 4.01% (95% CI, 2.78%-5.76%). The sibling RRR for TS/CT was 18.63 (95% CI, 15.34-22.63). In contrast, the sibling RRR for OCD was 4.89 (95% CI, 3.45-6.93). The parent-offspring RRR for TS/CT was 61.02 (95% CI, 44.43-83.82), whereas the parent-offspring RRR for OCD was 6.25 (95% CI, 4.82-8.11). The sibling and parent-offspring cross-disorder risks were also significant, ranging from 3.20 (95% CI, 2.22-4.62) to 10.27 (95% CI, 5.17-20.39). Tourette syndrome/CT and OCD cluster in families. The familial aggregation of TS/CT is profound and substantially higher than the familial aggregation for OCD. The recurrence risk estimates provide an important clinical framework for identifying

  1. Effects of tryptophan depletion on selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor-remitted patients with obsessive compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Sean D; Broyd, Annabel; Robinson, Hayley; Lee, Jessica; Hudaib, Abdul-Rahman; Hince, Dana A

    2017-12-01

    Serotonergic antidepressants are first-line medication therapies for obsessive-compulsive disorder, however it is not known if synaptic serotonin availability is important for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor efficacy. The present study tested the hypothesis that temporary reduction in central serotonin transmission, through acute tryptophan depletion, would result in an increase in anxiety in selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor-remitted obsessive-compulsive disorder patients. Eight patients (four males) with obsessive-compulsive disorder who showed sustained clinical improvement with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment underwent acute tryptophan depletion in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subjects design, over two days one week apart. Five hours after consumption of the depleting/sham drink the participants performed a personalized obsessive-compulsive disorder symptom exposure task. Psychological responses were measured using the Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory, Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale and Visual Analogue Scales. Free plasma tryptophan to large neutral amino acid ratio decreased by 93% on the depletion day and decreased by 1% on the sham day, as anticipated. Psychological rating scores as measured by Visual Analogue Scale showed a significant decrease in perceived control and increase in interfering thoughts at the time of provocation on the depletion day but not on the sham day. A measure of convergent validity, namely Visual Analogue Scale Similar to past, was significantly higher at the time of provocation on both the depletion and sham days. Both the depletion and time of provocation scores for Visual Analogue Scale Anxiety, Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory, Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale and blood pressure were not significant. Acute tryptophan depletion caused a significant decrease in perceived control and increase in interfering thoughts at the time of provocation. Acute tryptophan

  2. Cluster analysis of obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder: clinical and genetic correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochner, Christine; Hemmings, Sian M J; Kinnear, Craig J; Niehaus, Dana J H; Nel, Daniel G; Corfield, Valerie A; Moolman-Smook, Johanna C; Seedat, Soraya; Stein, Dan J

    2005-01-01

    Comorbidity of certain obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders (OCSDs; such as Tourette's disorder) in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) may serve to define important OCD subtypes characterized by differing phenomenology and neurobiological mechanisms. Comorbidity of the putative OCSDs in OCD has, however, not often been systematically investigated. The Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition , Axis I Disorders-Patient Version as well as a Structured Clinical Interview for Putative OCSDs (SCID-OCSD) were administered to 210 adult patients with OCD (N = 210, 102 men and 108 women; mean age, 35.7 +/- 13.3). A subset of Caucasian subjects (with OCD, n = 171; control subjects, n = 168), including subjects from the genetically homogeneous Afrikaner population (with OCD, n = 77; control subjects, n = 144), was genotyped for polymorphisms in genes involved in monoamine function. Because the items of the SCID-OCSD are binary (present/absent), a cluster analysis (Ward's method) using the items of SCID-OCSD was conducted. The association of identified clusters with demographic variables (age, gender), clinical variables (age of onset, obsessive-compulsive symptom severity and dimensions, level of insight, temperament/character, treatment response), and monoaminergic genotypes was examined. Cluster analysis of the OCSDs in our sample of patients with OCD identified 3 separate clusters at a 1.1 linkage distance level. The 3 clusters were named as follows: (1) "reward deficiency" (including trichotillomania, Tourette's disorder, pathological gambling, and hypersexual disorder), (2) "impulsivity" (including compulsive shopping, kleptomania, eating disorders, self-injury, and intermittent explosive disorder), and (3) "somatic" (including body dysmorphic disorder and hypochondriasis). Several significant associations were found between cluster scores and other variables; for example, cluster I scores were associated

  3. Early onset obsessive-compulsive disorder with and without tics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mathis, Maria Alice; Diniz, Juliana B; Shavitt, Roseli G; Torres, Albina R; Ferrão, Ygor A; Fossaluza, Victor; Pereira, Carlos; Miguel, Eurípedes; do Rosario, Maria Conceicão

    2009-07-01

    Research suggests that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is not a unitary entity, but rather a highly heterogeneous condition, with complex and variable clinical manifestations. The aims of this study were to compare clinical and demographic characteristics of OCD patients with early and late age of onset of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS); and to compare the same features in early onset OCD with and without tics. The independent impact of age at onset and presence of tics on comorbidity patterns was investigated. Three hundred and thirty consecutive outpatients meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria for OCD were evaluated: 160 patients belonged to the "early onset" group (EOG): before 11 years of age, 75 patients had an "intermediate onset" (IOG), and 95 patients were from the "late onset" group (LOG): after 18 years of age. From the 160 EOG, 60 had comorbidity with tic disorders. The diagnostic instruments used were: the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale and the Dimensional Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (DY-BOCS), Yale Global Tics Severity Scale, and Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders-patient edition. Statistical tests used were: Mann-Whitney, full Bayesian significance test, and logistic regression. The EOG had a predominance of males, higher frequency of family history of OCS, higher mean scores on the "aggression/violence" and "miscellaneous" dimensions, and higher mean global DY-BOCS scores. Patients with EOG without tic disorders presented higher mean global DY-BOCS scores and higher mean scores in the "contamination/cleaning" dimension. The current results disentangle some of the clinical overlap between early onset OCD with and without tics.

  4. Seasonal mood changes in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Oğuz; Metin, Barış; Ünsalver, Barış Önen; Sayar, Gökben Hızlı

    2017-12-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is frequently associated with mood disorders. However, to date, the co-occurrence of OCD with seasonal affective disorder (SAD) has not been investigated. We have aimed to estimate the prevalence of seasonal mood changes in patients with OCD and explore the contribution of seasonality in mood to the severity of OCD. The Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ), the Yale-Brown Obsession and Compulsion Scale (Y-BOCS), the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17 Items (HDRS-17), and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) were administered to patients with OCD (n=104) and controls (n=125). The degree of seasonality was measured by the Global Seasonality Score (GSS) calculated from the SPAQ. SAD and subsyndromal seasonal affective disorder (S-SAD) were significantly more prevalent in patients with OCD (53%, n=55) than controls (25%, n=31). When patients were assessed in the season in which SAD occurs, depression and compulsions (but not obsessions, OCD or anxiety) were more severe than those assessed in a season during which SAD does not occur. SAD frequently co-occurs with OCD and, given this co-occurrence, depression symptoms in some patients with OCD might be expected to vary on a seasonal basis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Impact of depressive and anxiety disorder comorbidity on the clinical expression of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanath, Biju; Narayanaswamy, Janardhanan C; Rajkumar, Ravi Philip; Cherian, Anish V; Kandavel, Thennarasu; Math, Suresh Bada; Reddy, Y C Janardhan

    2012-08-01

    The identification of distinct subtypes based on comorbidity offers potential utility in understanding variations in the clinical expression of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Hence, we examined the hypothesis whether patients with OCD with major depressive disorder (MDD) or anxiety disorder comorbidity would differ from those without in terms of phenomenology. A total of 545 consecutive patients who consulted a specialty OCD clinic during the period 2004 to 2009 at a psychiatric hospital in India formed the sample. They were evaluated with the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (YBOCS), the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, and the Clinical Global Impression scale. Among 545 patients, 165 (30%) had current MDD, and 114 (21%) had current anxiety disorder comorbidity. Patients with OCD with MDD were mostly women who had a greater severity of OCD symptoms, more of obsessions (especially religious), greater occurrence of miscellaneous compulsions (need to confess or need to touch), higher suicidal risk, and past suicidal attempts. Patients with OCD with anxiety disorder had an earlier onset of illness that was associated with prior life events, less of compulsions, more of aggressive and hoarding obsessions, pathologic doubts, checking, and cognitive compulsions. Obsessive-compulsive disorder, when comorbid with MDD, is more severe and is associated with higher suicidal risk. On the other hand, anxiety disorder comorbidity seems to influence not so much the morbidity but the phenotypic expression of OCD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. THE SENSITIVITY TO CHANGE OF MEASURES FOR OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANOPPEN, P; EMMELKAMP, PMG; VANBALKOM, AJLM; VANDYCK, R

    1995-01-01

    This study presents data on the sensitivity to change of the Padua Inventory-Revised (PI-R), the Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), and the Anxiety Discomfort Scale (ADS) for obsessive-compulsive disorder. In a sample of obsessive-compulsives (n = 63) who received either behaviour

  7. Personality profiles in patients with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomotake, Masahito; Ohmori, Tetsuro

    2002-08-01

    The present review focused on the personality profiles of patients with eating disorders. Studies using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R Personality Disorder showed high rates of diagnostic co-occurrence between eating disorders and personality disorders. The most commonly observed were histrionic, obsessive-compulsive, avoidant, dependent and borderline personality disorders. Studies using the Cloninger's personality theory suggested that high Harm Avoidance might be relevant to the pathology of anorexia nervosa and high Novelty Seeking and Harm Avoidance to bulimia nervosa. Moreover, high Self-Directedness was suggested to be associated with favorable outcome in bulimia nervosa. The assessment of personality in a cross-sectional study, however, might be influenced by the various states of the illness. Therefore, a sophisticated longitudinal study will be required to advance this area of research.

  8. Early childhood experiences shaping vulnerability to Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Barcaccia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the literature, inflated responsibility/sensitivity to guilt play a pivotal role in both the genesis and maintenance of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD. They may be learned in childhood and adolescence, through particular experiences and parental rearing styles, involving criticism, excessively high standards, and social moralization. Preliminary data on the role of dysfunctional beliefs in the development/maintenance of OCD also show that non-affected family members of OC individuals score higher than controls in domains concerning responsibility, suggesting it might represent a candidate endophenotype for the disorder. Compulsive conducts, that far from being mechanical reactions are instead clearly goal-oriented, may be triggered by the need of preventing responsibility/guilt. Therefore, useful psychological interventions aimed at not only reappraising meanings associated with the specific early experiences connected to hyper-sensitivity to guilt, but also at developing a more general compassionate and forgiving stance towards oneself, may prove particularly effective.

  9. Compulsive Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... compulsive habit when it is done for the wrong reasons. Some people start exercising with weight loss as their main ... developing normally. This is especially true if the person also has an eating disorder. Girls who overexercise and restrict their eating ...

  10. Study of compulsive buying in patients presenting obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejoyeux, Michel; Bailly, Florence; Moula, Hervé; Loi, Sabrina; Adès, Jean

    2005-01-01

    The authors assessed the prevalence of compulsive buying (CB) among patients presenting an obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). They compared the buying style of patients with and without CB. One thousand five hundred consecutive patients were assessed by a general practitioner in Paris (France). Sixty patients presenting with OCD were included. Patients with CB associated with OCD (n = 14) were compared with those with "pure" OCD (n = 46). Sixty patients paired for sex and age and free from OCD, depression, and anxiety were also recruited among the clients of the same general practitioner. We compared 3 groups: controls, patients with OCD, and patients with OCD + CB. Prevalence of CB was 23% (14 cases) among patients with OCD and 6% (4 cases) in controls (chi(2)(1) = 5.3, P = .02). Patients presenting with OCD + CB had a higher number of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Revised Fourth Edition diagnostic criteria for OCD than patients with pure OCD (6.1 and 5.4, respectively, P = .001). Depression was more frequent in the OCD + CB group (78%) than in the OCD group (42%) and in controls (10%) (P = .02). Patients from the OCD + CB group had higher score at the CAGE questionnaire than those of the OCD group (2 vs 0.7, P = .003). Patients with OCD + CB considered 42% of their purchases as occasions not to be passed up compared with 15.4% in the OCD group and 8.6% in controls. OCD+CD patients used the items they bought after a longer delay than controls and patients with pure OCD (8.2 vs 3 and 3.1 days, respectively). Compulsive buying is more frequent in OCD than in controls. Patients presenting with OCD + CB show more depressive disorders and drink more alcohol. They are more highly implicated in the items they buy and they are more often disappointed by the items once they possess them.

  11. Hoarding behavior among young children with obsessive-compulsive disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Hannah; Stewart, Elyse; Walther, Michael; Benito, Kristen; Freeman, Jennifer; Conelea, Christ; Garci, Abbe

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown that among the various subtypes of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), adults (e.g. Frost, Krause & Steketee, 1996) and older children and adolescents (Bloch et al., 2009; Storch et al., 2007) with problematic hoarding have distinct features and a poor treatment prognosis. However, there is limited information on the phenomenology and prevalence of hoarding behaviors in young children. The present study characterizes children ages 10 and under who present with OCD...

  12. Functional Neuroimaging of Avoidance Habits in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Gillan, Claire Marie; Apergis-Schoute, Annemieke Margaretha; Morein-Zamir, Sharon; Urcelay, Gonzalo P; Sule, Akeem; Fineberg, Naomi A; Sahakian, Barbara Jacquelyn; Robbins, Trevor William

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to determine the neural correlates of excessive habit formation in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We aimed to (i) test for neurobiological convergence with the known pathophysiology of OCD and (ii) infer, based on abnormalities in brain activation, whether these habits arise from dysfunction in the goal-directed or habit system. Method: Thirty-seven OCD patients and 33 controls learned to avoid shocks while undergoing a functional Magnetic Resona...

  13. Quality of Web-based information on obsessive compulsive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klila H

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Hedi Klila,1 Anne Chatton,2 Ariane Zermatten,2 Riaz Khan,2 Martin Preisig,1,3 Yasser Khazaal2,4 1Department of Psychiatry, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland; 2Department of Mental Health and Psychiatry, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland; 3Lausanne University, Lausanne, Switzerland; 4Geneva University, Geneva, Switzerland Background: The Internet is increasingly used as a source of information for mental health issues. The burden of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD may lead persons with diagnosed or undiagnosed OCD, and their relatives, to search for good quality information on the Web. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of Web-based information on English-language sites dealing with OCD and to compare the quality of websites found through a general and a medically specialized search engine. Methods: Keywords related to OCD were entered into Google and OmniMedicalSearch. Websites were assessed on the basis of accountability, interactivity, readability, and content quality. The "Health on the Net" (HON quality label and the Brief DISCERN scale score were used as possible content quality indicators. Of the 235 links identified, 53 websites were analyzed. Results: The content quality of the OCD websites examined was relatively good. The use of a specialized search engine did not offer an advantage in finding websites with better content quality. A score ≥16 on the Brief DISCERN scale is associated with better content quality. Conclusion: This study shows the acceptability of the content quality of OCD websites. There is no advantage in searching for information with a specialized search engine rather than a general one. Practical implications: The Internet offers a number of high quality OCD websites. It remains critical, however, to have a provider–patient talk about the information found on the Web. Keywords: Internet, quality indicators, anxiety disorders, OCD, search engine

  14. Personality traits in subclinical and non-obsessive-compulsive volunteers and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, R O; Steketee, G; Cohn, L; Griess, K

    1994-01-01

    Theorists from a variety of perspectives have asserted that obsessive compulsives are more risk-aversive, perfectionistic and guilt-ridden than non-obsessive compulsives, and that these characteristics are central features of the disorder. Furthermore, several have hypothesized that the parents of obsessive compulsives are characterized by risk-aversion, perfectionism, and high levels of criticism. Little research exists which corroborates these hypotheses, however. The present investigation examined these hypotheses among subclinical obsessive compulsives. In two different samples, subclinical obsessive compulsives were found to be more risk-aversive, perfectionistic, and guilt-ridden. Subclinical obsessive compulsives also perceived their parents to be more overprotective. The findings regarding other parental traits were less clear. There was some support for the hypothesis that the parents of subclinical obsessive compulsives are more risk-aversive, and that fathers are more critical and perfectionistic.

  15. Comorbidity variation in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder according to symptom dimensions: Results from a large multicentre clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Albina R; Fontenelle, Leonardo F; Shavitt, Roseli G; Ferrão, Ygor A; do Rosário, Maria Conceição; Storch, Eric A; Miguel, Euripedes C

    2016-01-15

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has a heterogeneous and complex phenomenological picture, characterized by different symptom dimensions and comorbid psychiatric disorders, which frequently co-occur or are replaced by others over the illness course. To date, very few studies have investigated the associations between specific OCD symptom dimensions and comorbid disorders. Cross-sectional, multicenter clinical study with 1001 well-characterized OCD patients recruited within the Brazilian Research Consortium on Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders. The primary instruments were the Dimensional Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (DY-BOCS) and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders. Bivariate analyses between symptom dimensions and comorbidities were followed by logistic regression. The most common comorbidities among participants (56.8% females) were major depression (56.4%), social phobia (34.6%), generalized anxiety disorder (34.3%), and specific phobia (31.4%). The aggressive dimension was independently associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), separation anxiety disorder, any impulse-control disorder and skin picking; the sexual-religious dimension was associated with mood disorders, panic disorder/agoraphobia, social phobia, separation anxiety disorder, non-paraphilic sexual disorder, any somatoform disorder, body dysmorphic disorder and tic disorders; the contamination-cleaning dimension was related to hypochondriasis; and the hoarding dimension was associated with depressive disorders, specific phobia, PTSD, impulse control disorders (compulsive buying, skin picking, internet use), ADHD and tic disorders. The symmetry-ordering dimension was not independently associated with any comorbidity. Cross-sectional design; participants from only tertiary mental health services; personality disorders not investigated. Different OCD dimensions presented some specific associations with comorbid disorders, which may influence

  16. Sexual Compulsivity Scale, Compulsive Sexual Behavior Inventory, and Hypersexual Disorder Screening Inventory: Translation, Adaptation, and Validation for Use in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanavino, Marco de T; Ventuneac, Ana; Rendina, H Jonathon; Abdo, Carmita H N; Tavares, Hermano; Amaral, Maria L S do; Messina, Bruna; Reis, Sirlene C dos; Martins, João P L B; Gordon, Marina C; Vieira, Julie C; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological, behavioral, and clinical data on sexual compulsivity in Brazil are very limited. This study sought to adapt and validate the Sexual Compulsivity Scale (SCS), the 22-item version of the Compulsive Sexual Behavior Inventory (CSBI-22), and the Hypersexual Disorder Screening Inventory (HDSI) for use in Brazil. A total of 153 participants underwent psychiatric assessment and completed self-reported measures. The adaptation process of the instruments from English to Portuguese followed the guidelines of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research. The reliability and validity of the HDSI criteria were evaluated and the construct validity of all measures was examined. For the SCS and HDSI, factor analysis revealed one factor for each measure. For the CSBI-22, four factors were retained although we only calculated the scores of two factors (control and violence). All scores had good internal consistency (alpha >.75), presented high temporal stability (>.76), discriminated between patients and controls, and presented strong (ρ > .81) correlations with the Sexual Addiction Screening Test (except for the violence domain = .40) and moderate correlations with the Impulsive Sensation Seeking domain of the Zuckerman Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire (ρ between .43 and .55). The sensitivity of the HDSI was 71.93 % and the specificity was 100 %. All measures showed very good psychometric properties. The SCS, the HDSI, and the control domain of the CSBI-22 seemed to measure theoretically similar constructs, as they were highly correlated (ρ > .85). The findings support the conceptualization of hypersexuality as a cluster of problematic symptoms that are highly consistent across a variety of measures.

  17. Bupropion Augmentation in a Case of Compulsive Buying Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepede, Gianna; Di Iorio, Giuseppe; Sarchione, Fabiola; Fiori, Federica; Di Giannantonio, Massimo

    Compulsive buying disorder (CBD) is a condition characterized by excessive preoccupations, impulses, and behaviors regarding buying, resulting in serious psychological, social, and financial problems. Even though it has not been included in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, "behavioral addictions" section, CBD is a hot topic in current clinical psychiatry, because of its relevant prevalence (at least 5% in adult populations) and severe effect on quality of life.The CBD shares some clinical features with substance-related and behavioral addictions, impulse control disorders, and obsessive compulsive disorder, and it is often comorbid with other psychiatric illnesses (especially depressive and anxiety disorders). The treatment of CBD is therefore difficult, and clear therapeutic guidelines are not yet available. Treating the comorbid disorders as the first-line approach, or combining drugs with different pharmacodynamic profiles, has been suggested to address this challenging condition. A 60-year-old woman affected by a severe form of CBD with comorbid major depressive disorder, resistant/intolerant to previous selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatments and only partially responder to mirtazapine, achieved a good clinical improvement adding bupropion. Combining 2 agents with different pharmacological profiles and mechanisms of action, such as bupropion and mirtazapine, could be a useful strategy in the management of complex CBD cases.

  18. Compulsive buying in outline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadka, Łukasz; Olajossy, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    In spite of a hundred year long history of scientific research compulsive buying has been a hardly known phenomenon until today. Ambiguous scientific information makes it impossible to classify compulsive buying as a separate mental disorder. Recently many researchers have noticed phenomenological compatibility of compulsive buying with behavioural addictions. Nowadays, there is reasonable grounds that compulsive buying disorder can be defined as an addiction. There are many similarities occurring between a consumer type behaviours in compulsive buyers and a pathologic consumption of psychoactive substances which included the obsessive need to consumer or a compulsion to consume, personal dependence and loss of control over self-behaviour, as well as tendencies to the consumption increase. Compulsive buying disorder differs in its course from the compulsive behaviours. A strong compulsion to make a given activity, often impossible to restrain is associated with overwhelming but acceptable desire to purchase a specific item. Due to the latest information about the described phenomenon, it has been decided to present current knowledge of adequate classifications, epidemiology and therapy of compulsive buyers. In the article authors' own standpoint as regards pathogenesis and potential risk factors was described.

  19. What's left feels right: Studies in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and body integrity identity disorder (BIID).

    OpenAIRE

    Blom, R.M.

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decade the nosology status of obsessive-compulsive and related disorders has been topic of debate. Whereas in DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV) obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) was classified as an anxiety disorder, in DSM-V it is classified as a separate entity with compulsivity as the main symptom. The first part of this thesis consists of studies that contributed to this debate, investigating the prevalence of obsessions in the general popul...

  20. Obsessive-compulsive disorder: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, H B; Fallon, B A

    2000-01-01

    In this article, which is the first in a three-part series, the authors provide an overview of the current state of our knowledge of the phenomenology, etiology, and diagnosis of OCD. The DSM-IV criteria for OCD are presented and explicated. Disorders that are commonly comorbid with OCD (e.g., major depressive disorder, other anxiety dis-orders, Tourette's disorder) are described. The authors also discuss disorders such as body dysmorphic disorder that may be related to OCD and are often termed OCD spectrum disorders. OCD is likely to have multiple causes and the authors discuss behavioral, neuroanatomical, and neurochemical theories of OCD. Two treatments have demonstrated efficacy in OCD, cognitive-behavioral therapy and pharmacotherapy with serotonergic reuptake inhibitors, and the authors discuss how these treatments may work in light of what is known about the etiology of the disorder. The different subtypes of OCD that have been proposed are described along with their implications for treatment. The article concludes with a discussion of diagnosis that provides specific guidance for the clinician on how to assess a patient for possible OCD. The next two articles in this series will cover cognitive-behavioral and medication treatment in detail.

  1. Differential diagnosis between obsessive compulsive disorder and restrictive and repetitive behavioural patterns, activities and interests in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula-Pérez, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    The obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and the restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior, interests and activities inherent to autism spectrum disorders (ASD) share a number of features that can make the differential diagnosis between them extremely difficult and lead to erroneous overdiagnosis of OCD in people with autism. In both cases there may appear to have a fixation on routine, ritualized patterns of verbal and nonverbal behavior, resistance to change, and highly restrictive interests, which becomes a real challenge for differentiating rituals, stereotypes and adherence to routines in ASD from obsessions and compulsions in OCD. This article provides key points to clarify this differential diagnosis through the analysis of emotional valence, content, function and psychological theories that explain the obsessions and compulsions in OCD, and the desire for sameness, stereotyped movements and limited interest in autism. The terms "obsession" and "compulsion" should no longer be used when referring to patterns of behavior, interests or restricted and repetitive activities in autism due to syntonic characteristics, low perception of personal responsibility and low neutralizing efforts. Treatment focuses on changing the environment, the use of socio-communicative compensatory strategies and behavioral modification techniques to improve cognitive and behavioral flexibility. When there is comorbidity between, exposure behavioral and response prevention techniques are then used, followed by others of more cognitive orientation if necessary. Copyright © 2012 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Venlafaxine augmentation with agomelatine in a patient with obsessive-compulsive disorder and suicidal behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria S Signorelli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a chronic and disabling condition that often proves to be treatment resistant. Of the patients suffering from obsessive-compulsive disorder, 10%–27% may attempt suicide at least once in their life. We report the case of a patient who presented severe obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms and attempted suicide ingesting 25 tablets of fluoxetine (20 mg. The patient was treated with venlafaxine and agomelatine and showed improvement of obsessive symptoms and suicidal ideation. Future studies are needed to investigate this treatment regime in large cohorts of obsessive-compulsive disorder patients with suicidal ideation.

  3. What’s left feels right : Studies in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and body integrity identity disorder (BIID)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, R.M.

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decade the nosology status of obsessive-compulsive and related disorders has been topic of debate. Whereas in DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV) obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) was classified as an anxiety disorder, in DSM-V it is classified as a

  4. Sleep in Children and Adolescents with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Katharine C; Gradisar, Michael; Alfano, Candice A

    2015-06-01

    Sleep problems are not a core feature of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), but emerging empirical data indicate some form of sleep disruption to be highly common. Available research in both adult and child patients is limited in several important ways, including the use of subjective reports (particularly in children), high rates of comorbid depression, and concurrent use of psychotropic medication. The presence of sleep disruption in OCD patients may compound severity and impairment of the disorder. More research is needed to fully understand the nature and consequences of sleep-wake disruption in children with OCD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Longitudinal course of pharmacotherapy in obsessive-compulsive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grant, Jon E; Mancebo, Maria C; Weinhandl, Eric

    2013-01-01

    -term course of SRI utilization among individuals with OCD. METHODS: A total of 252 adult outpatients with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. OCD, treated with medication in the community, were examined for discontinuation and resumption of SRIs. Data on weekly OCD symptoms......BACKGROUND: Although data fully support the use of serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), investigations on pharmacotherapy discontinuation during the course of OCD are lacking. This 5-year prospective study sought to better understand the long...

  6. Gender Differences in Compulsive Buying Disorder: Assessment of Demographic and Psychiatric Co-Morbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoli de Mattos, Cristiana; Kim, Hyoun S; Requião, Marinalva G; Marasaldi, Renata F; Filomensky, Tatiana Z; Hodgins, David C; Tavares, Hermano

    2016-01-01

    Compulsive buying is a common disorder found worldwide. Although recent research has shed light into the prevalence, etiology and clinical correlates of compulsive buying disorder, less is known about gender differences. To address this empirical gap, we assessed potential gender differences in demographic and psychiatric co-morbidities in a sample of 171 compulsive buyers (20 men and 151 women) voluntarily seeking treatment in São Paulo, Brazil. A structured clinical interview confirmed the diagnosis of compulsive buying. Of the 171 participants, 95.9% (n = 164) met criteria for at least one co-morbid psychiatric disorder. The results found that male and female compulsive buyers did not differ in problem severity as assessed by the Compulsive Buying Scale. However, several significant demographic and psychiatric differences were found in a multivariate binary logistic regression. Specifically, male compulsive buyers were more likely to report being non-heterosexual, and reported fewer years of formal education. In regards to psychiatric co-morbidities, male compulsive buyers were more likely to be diagnosed with sexual addiction, and intermittent explosive disorder. Conversely, men had lower scores on the shopping subscale of the Shorter PROMIS Questionnaire. The results suggest that male compulsive buyers are more likely to present with co-morbid psychiatric disorders. Treatment planning for compulsive buying disorder would do well to take gender into account to address for potential psychiatric co-morbidities.

  7. Cross-Disorder Genetic Analysis of Tic Disorders, Obsessive–Compulsive, and Hoarding Symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues Zilhao Nogueira, N.; Smit, D.J.A.; Boomsma, D.I.; Cath, D.C.

    2016-01-01

    Hoarding, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and Tourette's disorder (TD) are psychiatric disorders that share symptom overlap, which might partly be the result of shared genetic variation. Population-based twin studies have found significant genetic correlations between hoarding and OCD symptoms,

  8. Cross-Disorder Genetic Analysis of Tic Disorders, Obsessive-Compulsive, and Hoarding Symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues Zilhao Nogueira, Nuno; Smit, Dirk J; Boomsma, Dorret I; Cath, Danielle C

    2016-01-01

    Hoarding, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and Tourette's disorder (TD) are psychiatric disorders that share symptom overlap, which might partly be the result of shared genetic variation. Population-based twin studies have found significant genetic correlations between hoarding and OCD symptoms,

  9. Screening for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print this form Follow Us Facebook Twitter RSS YouTube Advertisement Find A Therapist Search our directory of ADAA mental health professional members who specialize in anxiety, depression and co-occurring disorders. Understand the Facts Anxiety ...

  10. Comparative Prevalence of Eating Disorders in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Other Anxiety Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Tyagi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to compare the prevalence of comorbid eating disorders in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD and other common anxiety disorders. Method. 179 patients from the same geographical area with a diagnosis of OCD or an anxiety disorder were divided into two groups based on their primary diagnosis. The prevalence of a comorbid eating disorder was calculated in both groups. Results. There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of comorbid eating disorders between the OCD and other anxiety disorders group. Conclusions. These results suggest that the prevalence of comorbid eating disorders does not differ in anxiety disorders when compared with OCD. However, in both groups, it remains statistically higher than that of the general population.

  11. Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome with and without obsessive-compulsive disorder compared with obsessive-compulsive disorder without tics: Which symptoms discriminate?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cath, D.C.; Spinhoven, P.; Woerkom, T.C.A.M. van; Wetering, B.J.M. van de; Hoogduin, C.A.L.; Landman, A.D.; Roos, R.A.C.; Rooijmans, H.G.M.

    2001-01-01

    Stereotyped repetitive behaviors occur in Gilles de la Tourette's Syndrome (GTS) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The present study was undertaken to compare the distribution of obsessive-compulsive and Tourette-related impulsive behaviors in GTS with (+) OCD, GTS without (-) OCD, tic-free

  12. Abnormal processing of deontological guilt in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Barbara; Mancini, Francesco; Macaluso, Emiliano; Caltagirone, Carlo; Bozzali, Marco

    2014-07-01

    Guilt plays a significant role in the occurrence and maintenance of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Two major types of guilt have been identified: one deriving from the transgression of a moral rule (deontological guilt DG), another (altruistic guilt AG), relying on the assumption of having compromised a personal altruistic goal. Clinical evidence suggests that OCD patients are particularly sensitive to DG, but not AG. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we investigated brain response of OCD patients while processing DG and AG stimuli. A previously validated fMRI paradigm was used to selectively evoke DG and AG, and anger and sadness, as control emotions in 13 OCD patients and 19 healthy controls. Patients' behavioral results showed a prominent attitude to experience guilt, compared to controls, while accomplishing task. fMRI results revealed that patients have reduced activation in the anterior cingulate (ACC) and frontal gyrus when experiencing guilt, regardless of its specific type (DG or AG). When separately considering each type of guilt (against each of its control), patients showed decreased activation in the ACC, the insula and the precuneus, for DG. No significant differences were observed between groups when processing AG, anger or sad stimuli. This study provides evidence for an abnormal processing of guilt, and specifically DG, in OCD patients. We suggest that decreased activation may reflect patients' cerebral efficiency, which derives from their frequent exposure to guilty feelings ("neural efficiency hypothesis"). In conclusion, our study confirms a selective abnormal processing of guilt, and specifically DG, in OCD.

  13. Classifying hypersexual disorders: compulsive, impulsive, and addictive models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Dan J

    2008-12-01

    In closing, we argue for two conclusions. First, there are advantages to using theoretically neutral terms (such as hypersexual disorder) that go beyond the compulsive-impulsive-addictive distinctions. Although the notion of theory-neutral observation cannot be defended, it is important not to rely on any particular theoretical framework before all the evidence is in. Our current nosology employs a range of contradictory terms and frameworks (eg, impulse control disorder, compulsive gambling and buying, trichotillomania, and kleptomania). In keeping with the approach taken in other DSM categories, it may be useful to find a more theory-neutral term that can cut across these conditions. Second, any conclusions drawn here about the nosology of hypersexual disorder must be tempered by the relative lack of rigorous psychobiological and systematic treatment data. A better understanding of the psychobiology of hypersexual disorder might provide greater confidence in one or the other theoretical model. The A-B-C model proposed here is tentative at best, given the relative absence of supporting data. Further, a richer assessment and treatment literature would allow clearer conclusions about the clinical utility of different nosological approaches. We emphasize the need for much additional work to characterize the phenomenology and psychobiology of hypersexual disorder and other conditions characterized by affective dysregulation, behavioral addiction, and cognitive dyscontrol, in the hope that such research would ultimately lead to improved assessment and management.

  14. Personality disorders and traits in patients with body dysmorphic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, K A; McElroy, S L

    2000-01-01

    Individuals with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) have been postulated to have schizoid, narcissistic, and obsessional personality traits and to be sensitive, introverted, perfectionistic, and insecure. However, data on personality traits and disorders in BDD are limited. This study assessed 148 subjects with BDD, 26 of whom participated in a fluvoxamine treatment study; 74 subjects were assessed for personality disorders with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSMIII-R Personality Disorders (SCID-II), 100 subjects completed the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), and 51 subjects completed the Rathus Assertiveness Scale. Forty-two subjects (57%) had one or more personality disorders, with avoidant personality disorder (43%) being most common, followed by dependent (15%), obsessive-compulsive (14%), and paranoid (14%) personality disorders. On the NEO-FFI, the mean scores were in the very high range for neuroticism, the low range for extraversion and conscientiousness, the low-average range for agreeableness, and the average range for openness to experience. On the Rathus Assertiveness Scale, the mean score was -17.1 +/- 32.0 for women and -17.0 +/- 32.3 for men. Among fluvoxamine responders, the number of personality disorders significantly decreased between the study baseline and endpoint. These findings suggest that the rate of personality disorders in BDD is relatively high, with avoidant personality disorder being most common. The high neuroticism scores and low extraversion scores are consistent with this finding.

  15. Family accommodation in adult obsessive–compulsive disorder: clinical perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert U

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Umberto Albert, Alessandra Baffa, Giuseppe Maina Rita Levi Montalcini Department of Neuroscience, A.O.U. San Luigi Gonzaga, University of Turin, Turino, Italy Abstract: The term accommodation has been used to refer to family responses specifically related to obsessive–compulsive (OC symptoms: it encompasses behaviors such as directly participating in compulsions, assisting a relative with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD when he/she is performing a ritual, or helping him/her to avoid triggers that may precipitate obsessions and compulsions. At the opposite side, family responses to OCD may also include interfering with the rituals or actively opposing them; stopping accommodating OC symptoms or actively interfering with their performance is usually associated with greater distress and sometimes even with aggressive behaviors from the patients. This article summarizes progress of the recent research concerning family accommodation in relatives of patients with OCD. Family accommodation is a prevalent phenomenon both among parents of children/adolescents with OCD and relatives/caregivers of adult patients. It can be measured with a specific instrument, the Family Accommodation Scale, of which there are several versions available for use in clinical practice. The vast majority of both parents of children/adolescents with OCD and family members of adult patients show at least some accommodation; providing reassurances to obsessive doubts, participating in rituals and assisting the patient in avoidance are the most frequent accommodating behaviors displayed by family members. Modification of routine and modification of activities specifically due to OC symptoms have been found to be equally prevalent. Specific characteristics of patients (such as contamination/washing symptoms and of relatives (the presence of anxiety or depressive symptoms or a family history positive for another anxiety disorder are associated with a higher degree of family

  16. A review of self-management interventions for panic disorders, phobias and obsessive-compulsive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, J H; Ellard, D R; Hainsworth, J M; Jones, F R; Fisher, A

    2005-04-01

    To review current evidence for the clinical and cost-effectiveness of self-management interventions for panic disorder, phobias and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Papers were identified through computerized searches of databases for the years between 1995 and 2003, manual searches and personal contacts. Only randomized-controlled trials were reviewed. Ten studies were identified (one OCD, five panic disorder, four phobias). Effective self-management interventions included cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) and exposure to the trigger stimuli for phobias and panic disorders. All involved homework. There was evidence of effectiveness in terms of improved symptoms and psychological wellbeing when compared with standard care, waiting list or relaxation. Brief interventions and computer-based interventions were effective for most participants. In terms of quality, studies were mainly based on small samples, lacked long-term follow-up, and failed to address cost-effectiveness. Despite the limitations of reviewed studies, there appears to be sufficient evidence to warrant greater exploration of self-management in these disorders. Copyright 2005 Blackwell Munksgaard.

  17. Recent Advances in the Study of Sleep in the Anxiety Disorders, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Elaine M; Ross, Richard J

    2015-12-01

    Sleep disturbance is frequently associated with generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder. This article reviews recent advances in understanding the mechanisms of the sleep disturbances in these disorders and discusses the implications for developing improved treatments. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

    OpenAIRE

    Ritter, McKenzie L.; Guo, Wei; Samuels, Jack F.; Wang, Ying; Nestadt, Paul S.; Krasnow, Janice; Greenberg, Benjamin D.; Fyer, Abby J.; McCracken, James T.; Geller, Daniel A.; Murphy, Dennis L.; Knowles, James A.; Grados, Marco A.; Riddle, Mark A.; Rasmussen, Steven A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to identify any potential genetic overlap between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). We hypothesized that since these disorders share a sub-phenotype, they may share common risk alleles. In this manuscript, we report the overlap found between these two disorders. Methods: A meta-analysis was conducted between ADHD and OCD, and polygenic risk scores (PRS) were calculated for both disorders. In addition, ...

  19. Humor appreciation of captionless cartoons in obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background It seems that the core neural regions and cognitive processes implicated in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) pathophysiology may overlap with those involved in humor appreciation. However, to date, there have been no studies that have explored humor appreciation in OCD. The purpose of the present work was to investigate humor appreciation in a group of patients with OCD. Methods We examined 25 patients with OCD and 25 healthy controls, matched by age, education, and gender. We administered Penn's Humor Appreciation Test (PHAT), a computerized test comprising captionless cartoons by Mordillo. Each set of stimuli consisted of two almost identical drawings, one of which was funny due to the alteration of a detail in the cartoon, whereas the other was not funny. Severity of psychopathology was evaluated with the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS). Results No significant effect for group, gender or group × gender interaction was found on the PHAT scores. In OCD patients, humor appreciation was not significantly associated with age of onset, duration of illness, and obsessions, but correlated significantly with compulsions. Conclusions Humor appreciation, based on captionless cartoons in OCD, does not seem to be deficient compared to healthy subjects but may be related to illness characteristics. PMID:22103926

  20. Gender Differences in Compulsive Buying Disorder: Assessment of Demographic and Psychiatric Co-Morbidities

    OpenAIRE

    Nicoli de Mattos, Cristiana; Kim, Hyoun S.; Requi?o, Marinalva G.; Marasaldi, Renata F.; Filomensky, Tatiana Z.; Hodgins, David C.; Tavares, Hermano

    2016-01-01

    Compulsive buying is a common disorder found worldwide. Although recent research has shed light into the prevalence, etiology and clinical correlates of compulsive buying disorder, less is known about gender differences. To address this empirical gap, we assessed potential gender differences in demographic and psychiatric co-morbidities in a sample of 171 compulsive buyers (20 men and 151 women) voluntarily seeking treatment in São Paulo, Brazil. A structured clinical interview confirmed the ...

  1. Sexual dysfunction in Obsessive-Compulsive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoozeh Raisi

    2015-05-01

    Conclusion: High prevalence of sexual dysfunction in OCD women and significant correlation between male sexual dysfunction and OCD (r= -481.0 between total score of OCI-R with erectile dysfunction and r= -458.0 between total score of OCI-R and sexual satisfaction could confirm a relation between OCD and sexual disorders. So, evaluation of sexual function in all patients with OCD is recommended.

  2. Obsessive-compulsive disorder comorbidity: clinical assessment and therapeutic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano ePallanti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD is a neuropsychiatric disorder affecting approximately 1-3% of the population. OCD is probably an etiologically heterogeneous condition. Individuals with OCD frequently have additional psychiatric disorders concomitantly or at some time during their lifetime. Recently, some authors proposed an OCD sub-classification based on co-morbidity. An important issue in assessing comorbidity is the fact that the non-response to treatment often involves the presence of comorbid conditions. Non-responsive patients are more likely to meet criteria for comorbid axis I or axis II disorders and the presence of a specific comorbid condition could be a distinguishing feature in OCD, with influence on the treatment adequacy and outcome.

  3. Compulsivity-related neurocognitive performance deficits in gambling disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Timmeren, Tim; Daams, Joost G; van Holst, Ruth J; Goudriaan, Anna E

    2018-01-01

    Compulsivity is a core feature of addictive disorders, including gambling disorder. However, it is unclear to what extent this compulsive behavior in gambling disorder is associated with abnormal compulsivity-related neurocognitive functioning. Here, we summarize and synthesize the evidence for compulsive behavior, as assessed by compulsivity-related neurocognitive tasks, in individuals with gambling disorder compared to healthy controls (HCs). A total of 29 studies, comprising 41 task-results, were included in the systematic review; 32 datasets (n=1072 individuals with gambling disorder; n=1312 HCs) were also included in the meta-analyses, conducted for each cognitive task separately. Our meta-analyses indicate significant deficits in individuals with gambling disorder in cognitive flexibility, attentional set-shifting, and attentional bias. Overall, these findings support the idea that compulsivity-related performance deficits characterize gambling disorder. This association may provide a possible link between impairments in executive functions related to compulsive action. We discuss the practical relevance of these results, their implications for our understanding of gambling disorder and how they relate to neurobiological factors and other 'disorders of compulsivity'. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. [Treatment of compulsive buying].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, A; de Zwaan, M

    2008-08-01

    Although compulsive buying is receiving increasing attention in research, it is largely ignored in clinical practice. Compulsive buying disorder (CBD) is defined as excessive and mostly senseless spending or excessive shopping impulses that cause marked distress, interfere with social or occupational functioning, and often results in financial problems. It is currently conceptualized as an "impulse control disorder not otherwise specified" (ICD-10 F63.9). CBD is associated with significant psychiatric co-morbidity particularly mood and anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders, binge eating disorder, substance use disorders, personality disorders, and other impulse control disorders. Previous research indicates that many compulsive buyers also suffer from compulsive hoarding. There is no evidence-based treatment approach for CBD and treatment research on this topic is limited. Open label trials suggest that antidepressants could improve compulsive buying. However, small randomized controlled trials failed to demonstrate significant improvement over Placebo and the high placebo-response rate prevents any definitive statement on the efficacy of antidepressants. Two controlled cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) trials reported that group CBT is significantly more effective compared to waiting list control groups in the treatment of compulsive buying. Clinical and therapeutic implications are discussed.

  5. IMPULSIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDERS IN PARKINSON'S DISEASE. CLINICAL CASES

    OpenAIRE

    N. V. Fedorova; A. V. Nikitina

    2015-01-01

    Objective – a description of clinical cases of impulsive­compulsive disorders in Parkinson,s disease. The first clinical case. Patient N., 75 years old, suffering for 15 years from Parkinson,s disease, akinetic­rigid form of the disease, stage 4 by Hyun–Yar. Since 2009, he received levodopa/carbidopa 250/25 mg 5 times/day (daily dose of 1250 mg of levodopa); pramipexole 3.5 mg per day (daily dose 3.5 mg), amantadine sulfate 100 mg 5 times/day (daily dose 500 mg). While taking antiparkinsonian...

  6. Obsessive compulsive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia on clozapine and with obsessive compulsive disorder: a comparison study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Doyle, Mairead

    2014-01-01

    Obsessive compulsive symptoms are commonly reported in those with schizophrenia. Clozapine has previously been reported to induce, aggravate and alleviate these symptoms. It is unclear if these are similar to the symptoms experienced by those with obsessive compulsive disorder. This study describes the obsessive compulsive symptom profile of a population of patients with schizophrenia treated with clozapine (n = 62) and compares this with patients with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (n = 35). All participants were attending an outpatient community mental health service. The Obsessive Compulsive Inventory (which measures the frequency and associated distress of a range of "behavioural" and "cognitive" symptoms), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and a demographic questionnaire were completed. In addition the schizophrenia group treated with clozapine completed the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. The OCD group reported significantly more symptoms for all OCI subscales compared to the clozapine group. Overall fourteen (22%) of the schizophrenia treated with clozapine group had clinically significant total OCI scores. Two (3%) had documented OCS pre clozapine. De novo OCS was reported in twelve (19%) cases. Nine (11%) had documented OC symptoms pre-clozapine while only two (3%) had symptoms after clozapine was initiated. In terms of OC symptom profile, the clozapine group scored highest on the Doubting scale, a cognitive symptom whereas the OCD group scored highest on Washing, a behavioural symptom. Both groups reported greater distress with cognitive rather than behavioural symptoms. Medication including clozapine dose was not correlated with symptom severity. Anxiety correlated highly with obsessive compulsive symptoms in the Clozapine group but not the OCD group. Within the Clozapine group, Obsessing correlated highly with Unusual Thought Content. Findings suggest that obsessive compulsive symptoms in the Clozapine group may reflect a subtype of \\'schizo

  7. Hypochondriasis and its relationship to obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, B A; Qureshi, A I; Laje, G; Klein, B

    2000-09-01

    Hypochondriasis is a heterogeneous disorder. This was well demonstrated in the study by Kellner et al, which showed that patients with high levels of disease fear tended to be more anxious or phobic, whereas patients with high levels of disease conviction tended to have more and more severe somatic symptoms. Little comorbidity exists to support the statement that hypochondriasis is an obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorder. Although patients exist whose hypochondriac concerns are identical in quality to the intrusive thoughts of patients with OCD, as a group, patients with hypochondriasis do not share a comorbidity profile comparable with that of patients with OCD. The data support a closer relationship between hypochondriasis and somatization disorder than between hypochondriasis and OCD. The family history data is limited by the lack of adequate studies. Using comparable methods of the family history approach, Black's study reported a higher frequency of GAD but not OCD among the relatives of OCD patients--a finding similar to what Noyes found among the relatives of hypochondriac patients; however, using the direct interview method, somatization disorder was the only statistically more common disorder, among relatives of female hypochondriac patients. Therefore, although the parallel in overlap with GAD is suggestive of a commonality between OCD, GAD, and hypochondriasis, the finding of a greater frequency of somatization disorder leans against the hypothesis that hypochondriasis is best considered an OCD spectrum disorder. The pharmacologic treatment data are the one type of biologic evidence that supports a bridge to OCD. The pharmacologic studies suggest that for patients with general hypochondriasis, TCAs are not effective and that higher dosages and longer trials of the SRIs are needed. These pharmacologic observations are comparable with the ones made for patients with OCD but dissimilar to the observations made for depression. The benefit of imipramine

  8. Copy number variation in obsessive-compulsive disorder and tourette syndrome : a cross-disorder study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McGrath, Lauren M; Yu, Dongmei; Marshall, Christian; Davis, Lea K; Thiruvahindrapuram, Bhooma; Li, Bingbin; Cappi, Carolina; Gerber, Gloria; Wolf, Aaron; Schroeder, Frederick A; Osiecki, Lisa; O'Dushlaine, Colm; Kirby, Andrew; Illmann, Cornelia; Haddad, Stephen; Gallagher, Patience; Fagerness, Jesen A; Barr, Cathy L; Bellodi, Laura; Benarroch, Fortu; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Black, Donald W; Bloch, Michael H; Bruun, Ruth D; Budman, Cathy L; Camarena, Beatriz; Cath, Danielle C; Cavallini, Maria C; Chouinard, Sylvain; Coric, Vladimir; Cullen, Bernadette; Delorme, Richard; Denys, D.; Derks, Eske M; Dion, Yves; Rosário, Maria C; Eapen, Valsama; Evans, Patrick; Falkai, Peter; Fernandez, Thomas V; Garrido, Helena; Geller, Daniel; Grabe, Hans J; Grados, Marco A; Greenberg, Benjamin D; Gross-Tsur, Varda; Grünblatt, Edna; Heiman, Gary A; Hemmings, Sian M J; Herrera, Luis D; Hounie, Ana G; Jankovic, Joseph; Kennedy, James L; King, Robert A; Kurlan, Roger; Lanzagorta, Nuria; Leboyer, Marion; Leckman, James F; Lennertz, Leonhard; Lochner, Christine; Lowe, Thomas L; Lyon, Gholson J; Macciardi, Fabio; Maier, Wolfgang; McCracken, James T; McMahon, William; Murphy, Dennis L; Naarden, Allan L; Neale, Benjamin M; Nurmi, Erika; Pakstis, Andrew J; Pato, Michele T; Pato, Carlos N; Piacentini, John; Pittenger, Christopher; Pollak, Yehuda; Reus, Victor I; Richter, Margaret A; Riddle, Mark; Robertson, Mary M; Rosenberg, David; Rouleau, Guy A; Ruhrmann, Stephan; Sampaio, Aline S; Samuels, Jack; Sandor, Paul; Sheppard, Brooke; Singer, Harvey S; Smit, Jan H; Stein, Dan J; Tischfield, Jay A; Vallada, Homero; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy; Walitza, Susanne; Wang, Ying; Wendland, Jens R; Shugart, Yin Yao; Miguel, Euripedes C; Nicolini, Humberto; Oostra, Ben A; Moessner, Rainald; Wagner, Michael; Ruiz-Linares, Andres; Heutink, Peter; Nestadt, Gerald; Freimer, Nelson; Petryshen, Tracey; Posthuma, Danielle; Jenike, Michael A; Cox, Nancy J; Hanna, Gregory L; Brentani, Helena; Scherer, Stephen W; Arnold, Paul D; Stewart, S Evelyn; Mathews, Carol A; Knowles, James A; Cook, Edwin H; Pauls, David L; Wang, Kai; Scharf, Jeremiah M

    OBJECTIVE: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette syndrome (TS) are heritable neurodevelopmental disorders with a partially shared genetic etiology. This study represents the first genome-wide investigation of large (>500 kb), rare (<1%) copy number variants (CNVs) in OCD and the largest

  9. Copy number variation in obsessive-compulsive disorder and tourette syndrome: a cross-disorder study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McGrath, Lauren M.; Yu, Dongmei; Marshall, Christian; Davis, Lea K.; Thiruvahindrapuram, Bhooma; Li, Bingbin; Cappi, Carolina; Gerber, Gloria; Wolf, Aaron; Schroeder, Frederick A.; Osiecki, Lisa; O'Dushlaine, Colm; Kirby, Andrew; Illmann, Cornelia; Haddad, Stephen; Gallagher, Patience; Fagerness, Jesen A.; Barr, Cathy L.; Bellodi, Laura; Benarroch, Fortu; Bienvenu, O. Joseph; Black, Donald W.; Bloch, Michael H.; Bruun, Ruth D.; Budman, Cathy L.; Camarena, Beatriz; Cath, Danielle C.; Cavallini, Maria C.; Chouinard, Sylvain; Coric, Vladimir; Cullen, Bernadette; Delorme, Richard; Denys, Damiaan; Derks, Eske M.; Dion, Yves; Rosário, Maria C.; Eapen, Valsama; Evans, Patrick; Falkai, Peter; Fernandez, Thomas V.; Garrido, Helena; Geller, Daniel; Grabe, Hans J.; Grados, Marco A.; Greenberg, Benjamin D.; Gross-Tsur, Varda; Grünblatt, Edna; Heiman, Gary A.; Hemmings, Sian M. J.; Herrera, Luis D.; Hounie, Ana G.; Jankovic, Joseph; Kennedy, James L.; King, Robert A.; Kurlan, Roger; Lanzagorta, Nuria; Leboyer, Marion; Leckman, James F.; Lennertz, Leonhard; Lochner, Christine; Lowe, Thomas L.; Lyon, Gholson J.; Macciardi, Fabio; Maier, Wolfgang; McCracken, James T.; McMahon, William; Murphy, Dennis L.; Naarden, Allan L.; Neale, Benjamin M.; Nurmi, Erika; Pakstis, Andrew J.; Pato, Michele T.; Pato, Carlos N.; Piacentini, John; Pittenger, Christopher; Pollak, Yehuda; Reus, Victor I.; Richter, Margaret A.; Riddle, Mark; Robertson, Mary M.; Rosenberg, David; Rouleau, Guy A.; Ruhrmann, Stephan; Sampaio, Aline S.; Samuels, Jack; Sandor, Paul; Sheppard, Brooke; Singer, Harvey S.; Smit, Jan H.; Stein, Dan J.; Tischfield, Jay A.; Vallada, Homero; Veenstra-Vanderweele, Jeremy; Walitza, Susanne; Wang, Ying; Wendland, Jens R.; Shugart, Yin Yao; Miguel, Euripedes C.; Nicolini, Humberto; Oostra, Ben A.; Moessner, Rainald; Wagner, Michael; Ruiz-Linares, Andres; Heutink, Peter; Nestadt, Gerald; Freimer, Nelson; Petryshen, Tracey; Posthuma, Danielle; Jenike, Michael A.; Cox, Nancy J.; Hanna, Gregory L.; Brentani, Helena; Scherer, Stephen W.; Arnold, Paul D.; Stewart, S. Evelyn; Mathews, Carol A.; Knowles, James A.; Cook, Edwin H.; Pauls, David L.; Wang, Kai; Scharf, Jeremiah M.

    2014-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette syndrome (TS) are heritable neurodevelopmental disorders with a partially shared genetic etiology. This study represents the first genome-wide investigation of large (>500 kb), rare ( <1%) copy number variants (CNVs) in OCD and the largest genome-wide

  10. Copy number variation in obsessive-compulsive disorder and tourette syndrome: A cross-disorder study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M. McGrath; D. Yu (D.); C.R. Marshall (Christian); L.K. Davis (Lea); B. Thiruvahindrapuram (Bhooma); B. Li (Bingbin); C. Cappi (Carolina); G. Gerber (Gloria); A. de Wolf (Anneke); F.A. Schroeder (Frederick); L. Osiecki (Lisa); C. O'Dushlaine (Colm); A. Kirby (Andrew); C. Illmann (Cornelia); S. Haddad (Stephen); P. Gallagher (Patience); J. Fagerness (Jesen); C.L. Barr (Cathy); L. Bellodi (Laura); F. Benarroch (Fortu); O.J. Bienvenu (Oscar); D.W. Black (Donald); J. Bloch (Jocelyne); R.D. Bruun (Ruth); C.L. Budman (Cathy); B. Camarena (Beatriz); D. Cath (Daniëlle); M.C. Cavallini (Maria); S. Chouinard; V. Coric (Vladimir); C. Cullen; R. Delorme (Richard); D.A.J.P. Denys (Damiaan); E.M. Derks (Eske); Y. Dion (Yves); M.C. Rosário (Maria); C.E. Eapen (Chundamannil Eapen); P. Evans; P. Falkai (Peter); T.V. Fernandez (Thomas); H. Garrido (Helena); D. Geller (Daniel); H.J. Grabe (Hans Jörgen); M. Grados (Marco); B.D. Greenberg (Benjamin); V. Gross-Tsur (Varda); E. Grünblatt (Edna); M.L. Heiman (Mark); S.M.J. Hemmings (Sian); L.D. Herrera (Luis); A.G. Hounie (Ana); J. Jankovic (Joseph); J.L. Kennedy; R.A. King; R. Kurlan; N. Lanzagorta (Nuria); M. Leboyer (Marion); J.F. Leckman; L. Lennertz (Leonhard); C. Lochner (Christine); T.L. Lowe (Thomas); H.N. Lyon (Helen); F. MacCiardi (Fabio); W. Maier (Wolfgang); J.T. McCracken (James); W.M. McMahon (William); D.L. Murphy (Dennis); A.L. Naarden (Allan); E. Nurmi (Erika); A.J. Pakstis; C. Pato (Carlos); C. Pato (Carlos); J. Piacentini (John); C. Pittenger (Christopher); M.N. Pollak (Michael); V.I. Reus (Victor); M.A. Richter (Margaret); M. Riddle (Mark); M.M. Robertson; D. Rosenberg (David); G.A. Rouleau; S. Ruhrmann (Stephan); A.S. Sampaio (Aline); J. Samuels (Jonathan); P. Sandor (Paul); B. Sheppard (Brooke); H.S. Singer (Harvey); J.H. Smit (Jan); D.J. Stein (Dan); J.A. Tischfield (Jay); H. Vallada (Homero); J. Veenstra-Vanderweele (Jeremy); S. Walitza (Susanne); Y. Wang (Ying); A. Wendland (Annika); Y.Y. Shugart; E.C. Miguel (Euripedes); H. Nicolini (Humberto); B.A. Oostra (Ben); R. Moessner (Rainald); M. Wagner (Michael); A. Ruiz-Linares (Andres); P. Heutink (Peter); G. Nestadt (Gerald); N.B. Freimer (Nelson); T.L. Petryshen (Tracey); D. Posthuma (Danielle); M.A. Jenike (Michael); N.J. Cox (Nancy); G.L. Hanna (Gregory); H. Brentani (Helena); S.W. Scherer (Stephen); P.D. Arnold (Paul); S.E. Stewart; C. Mathews; J.A. Knowles (James A); E.H. Cook (Edwin); D.L. Pauls (David); K. Wang (Kai); J.M. Scharf; B.M. Neale (Benjamin)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractObjective Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette syndrome (TS) are heritable neurodevelopmental disorders with a partially shared genetic etiology. This study represents the first genome-wide investigation of large (>500 kb), rare (<1%) copy number variants (CNVs) in OCD and

  11. Copy number variation in obsessive-compulsive disorder and tourette syndrome: a cross-disorder study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McGrath, L.M.; Yu, D.; Marshall, C.; Davis, L.K.; Thiruvahindrapuram, B.; Li, B.; Cappi, C.; Gerber, G.; Wolf, A.; Schroeder, F.A.; Osiecki, L.; O'Dushlaine, C.; Kirby, A.; Illmann, C.; Haddad, S.; Gallagher, P.; Fagerness, J.A.; Barr, C.L.; Bellodi, L.; Benarroch, F.; Bienvenu, O.J.; Black, D. W.; Bloch, M.H.; Bruun, R.D.; Budman, C.L.; Camarena, B.; Cath, D.C.; Cavallini, M.C.; Chouinard, S.; Coric, V.; Cullen, B.; Delorme, R.; Denys, D.; Derks, E.M.; Dion, Y.; Rosário, M.C.; Eapen, V.; Evans, P.; Falkai, P.; Fernandez, T.V.; Garrido, H.; Geller, D.; Grabe, H.J.; Grados, M.A.; Greenberg, B.D.; Gross-Tsur, V.; Grünblatt, E.; Heiman, G.A.; Hemmings, S.M.; Herrera, L.D.; Hounie, A.G.; Jankovic, J.; Kennedy, J.L.; King, R.A.; Kurlan, R.; Lanzagorta, N.; Leboyer, M.; Leckman, J.F.; Lennertz, L.; Lochner, C.; Lowe, T.L.; Lyon, G.J.; Macciardi, F.; Maier, W.; McCracken, J.T.; McMahon, W.; Murphy, D.L.; Naarden, A.L.; Neale, B. M.; Nurmi, E.; Pakstis, A.J.; Pato, M. T.; Piacentini, J.; Pittenger, C.; Pollak, Y.; Reus, V.I.; Richter, M.A.; Riddle, M.; Robertson, M.M.; Rosenberg, D.; Rouleau, G.A.; Ruhrmann, S.; Sampaio, A.S.; Samuels, J.; Sandor, P.; Sheppard, B.; Singer, H.S.; Smit, J.H.; Stein, D.J.; Tischfield, J.A.; Vallada, H.; Veenstra-Vanderweele, J.; Walitza, S.; Wang, Y.; Wendland, J.R.; Shugart, Y.Y.; Miguel, E.C.; Nicolini, H.; Oostra, B.A.; Moessner, R.; Wagner, M.; Ruiz-Linares, A.; Heutink, P.; Nestadt, G.; Freimer, N.; Petryshen, T.; Posthuma, D.; Jenike, M.A.; Cox, N.J.; Hanna, G.L.; Brentani, H.; Scherer, S.W.; Arnold, P.D.; Stewart, S.E.; Mathews, C.A.; Knowles, J.A.; Cook, E.H.; Pauls, D.L.; Wang, K.; Scharf, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette syndrome (TS) are heritable neurodevelopmental disorders with a partially shared genetic etiology. This study represents the first genome-wide investigation of large (>500 kb), rare (<1%) copy number variants (CNVs) in OCD and the largest

  12. Prevalence of psychotic disorders in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, Lieuwe; Dudek-Hodge, Christine; Verhoeven, Yolanda; Denys, Damiaan

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: The co-occurrence of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in patients with schizophrenia and related disorders has been increasingly recognized. However, the rate of psychosis comorbidity in OCD patients has yet to be systematically evaluated. Methods: The prevalence of the Diagnostic

  13. Psychotherapy for compulsive buying disorder: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço Leite, Priscilla; Pereira, Valeska Martinho; Nardi, Antônio Egidio; Silva, Adriana Cardoso

    2014-11-30

    Based on a literature review, the purpose is to identify the main therapeutic approaches for the compulsive buying disorder, a present time disorder characterized by excessive and uncontrollable concerns or behaviors related to buying or expenses, which may lead to adverse consequences. The systematic review was carried out by searching the electronic scientific bases Medline/Pubmed, ISI, PsycInfo. The search was comprised of full-text articles, written in Portuguese and English, with no time limit or restrictions on the type of study and sample. A total of 1659 references were found and, by the end, 23 articles were selected for this review. From the articles found, it was determined that, although there are case studies and clinical trials underlining the effectiveness of the treatment for compulsive buying, only those studies with a focus on the cognitive-behavioral therapy approach make evident the successful response to the treatment. The publication of new studies on the etiology and epidemiology of the disorder is necessary, in order to establish new forms of treatment and to verify the effectiveness and response of the Brazilian population to the existing protocols. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Thought-Action Fusion and Inflated Responsibility Beliefs in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Emily Marie; Rucklidge, Julia Jane; Blampied, Neville

    2009-01-01

    In obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), inflated responsibility (IR) beliefs and thought-action fusion (TAF) are two cognitive schema argued to contribute to obsessions and compulsions. We investigated whether IR and TAF are OCD-specific or whether they occur in other anxiety disorders. Adults diagnosed with OCD (n = 20) or other anxiety disorders…

  15. Pathological Gambling: Compulsive-Impulsive Spectrum Disorder, Behavioural Addiction, or Both?

    OpenAIRE

    Bottesi, Gioia

    2013-01-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) is a chronic and progressive condition, defined as “persistent and recurrent maladaptive gambling behaviour”; it is currently classified among the Impulse control disorders (Not Elsewhere Classified) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders – Fourth Edition - Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR). The diagnostic criteria for PG resemble those of both Substance use disorders (SUDs) and Compulsive disorders (in particular, Obsessive compulsive disorder [OCD])....

  16. Cross-Disorder Genetic Analysis of Tic Disorders, Obsessive?Compulsive, and Hoarding Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Zilh?o, Nuno R.; Smit, Dirk J.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Cath, Danielle C.

    2016-01-01

    Hoarding, obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), and Tourette’s disorder (TD) are psychiatric disorders that share symptom overlap, which might partly be the result of shared genetic variation. Population-based twin studies have found significant genetic correlations between hoarding and OCD symptoms, with genetic correlations varying between 0.1 and 0.45. For tic disorders, studies examining these correlations are lacking. Other lines of research, including clinical samples and GWAS or CNV dat...

  17. Comorbidity, age of onset and suicidality in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD): An international collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakoulias, V; Starcevic, V; Belloch, A; Brown, C; Ferrao, Y A; Fontenelle, L F; Lochner, C; Marazziti, D; Matsunaga, H; Miguel, E C; Reddy, Y C J; do Rosario, M C; Shavitt, R G; Shyam Sundar, A; Stein, D J; Torres, A R; Viswasam, K

    2017-07-01

    To collate data from multiple obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) treatment centers across seven countries and five continents, and to report findings in relation to OCD comorbidity, age of onset of OCD and comorbid disorders, and suicidality, in a large clinical and ethnically diverse sample, with the aim of investigating cultural variation and the utility of the psychiatric diagnostic classification of obsessive-compulsive and related disorders. Researchers in the field of OCD were invited to contribute summary statistics on current and lifetime psychiatric comorbidity, age of onset of OCD and comorbid disorders and suicidality in their patients with OCD. Data from 3711 adult patients with primary OCD came from Brazil (n=955), India (n=802), Italy (n=750), South Africa (n=565), Japan (n=322), Australia (n=219), and Spain (n=98). The most common current comorbid disorders were major depressive disorder (28.4%; n=1055), obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (24.5%, n=478), generalized anxiety disorder (19.3%, n=716), specific phobia (19.2%, n=714) and social phobia (18.5%, n=686). Major depression was also the most commonly co-occurring lifetime diagnosis, with a rate of 50.5% (n=1874). OCD generally had an age of onset in late adolescence (mean=17.9years, SD=1.9). Social phobia, specific phobia and body dysmorphic disorder also had an early age of onset. Co-occurring major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder and psychotic disorders tended to have a later age of onset than OCD. Suicidal ideation within the last month was reported by 6.4% (n=200) of patients with OCD and 9.0% (n=314) reported a lifetime history of suicide attempt. In this large cross-continental study, comorbidity in OCD was common. The high rates of comorbid major depression and anxiety disorders emphasize the need for clinicians to assess and monitor for these disorders. Earlier ages of onset of OCD, specific phobia and social phobia may indicate some relatedness between these

  18. Associations in the Course of Personality Disorders and Axis I Disorders Over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, M. Tracie; Yen, Shirley; Pagano, Maria E.; Morey, Leslie C.; McGlashan, Thomas H.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Sanislow, Charles A.; Stout, Robert L.; Skodol, Andrew E.; Gunderson, John G.; Bender, Donna S.; Zanarini, Mary C.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined time-varying associations between schizotypal (STPD), borderline (BPD), avoidant (AVPD), or obsessive–compulsive (OCPD) personality disorders and co-occurring Axis I disorders in 544 adult participants from the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study. The authors tested predictions of specific longitudinal associations derived from a model of crosscutting psychobiological dimensions (L. J. Siever & K. L. Davis, 1991) with participants with the relevant Axis I disorders. The authors assessed participants at baseline and at 6-, 12-, and 24-month follow-up evaluations. BPD showed significant longitudinal associations with major depressive disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder. AVPD was significantly associated with anxiety disorders (specifically social phobia and obsessive–compulsive disorder). Two of the four personality disorders under examination (STPD and OCPD) showed little or no association with Axis I disorders. PMID:15535783

  19. [Compulsive buying and psychiatric comorbidity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Astrid; Mühlhans, Barbara; Silbermann, Andrea; Müller, Ulrike; Mertens, Christian; Horbach, Thomas; Mitchell, James E; de Zwaan, Martina

    2009-08-01

    Compulsive buying is an excessive behavior that has begun to receive attention from researchers in recent years. The current study provides an overview of research on compulsive buying and examines the psychiatric co-morbidity in a German female treatment seeking compulsive buying sample in comparison with age and gender-matched normal buying control groups. Thirty women suffering from compulsive buying disorder, 30 community controls, and 30 bariatric surgery candidates were assessed with the German versions of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV diagnoses (SCID). Women with compulsive buying disorder showed significantly higher prevalence rates of affective, anxiety, and eating disorders compared to community controls, and suffered significantly more often from affective and anxiety disorders compared to bariatric surgery candidates. The compulsive buying group presented with the highest rates of personality disorders, most commonly avoidant, depressive, obsessive-compulsive, and borderline personality disorder, and reported the highest prevalence rates of other impulse control disorders, especially for intermittent explosive disorder. The findings suggest an elevated psychiatric co-morbidity in patients with compulsive buying disorder.

  20. Obsessive-compulsive symptoms and obsessive-compulsive disorder in adolescents: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analise de Souza Vivan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS and disorder (OCD among adolescents and to describe OCD characteristics according to gender. Methods: Participants were selected by cluster sampling at seven high-schools in southern Brazil. In the first stage, 2,323 students were screened for OCS; in the second stage, adolescents scoring ≥ 21 on the OCI-R scale were individually interviewed. OCD diagnosis was established using a semi-structured interview (Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Aged Children: Present and Lifetime Version - K-SADS-PL. Results: The past-month estimated prevalence of OCS was 18.3%, and the point estimated prevalence of OCD, 3.3%. Girls showed higher scores (OCS: 24.8 vs. 14.4%; OCD: 4.9 vs. 1.4%; p < 0.001. Only 9.3% of OCD adolescents had been diagnosed and 6.7% received treatment. The most frequent/severe DY-BOCS dimensions were miscellaneous (86.7%; mean score 6.3±3.8 and symmetry (85.3%; 5.9±3.8. Female OCD adolescents predominantly showed depression (p = 0.032, and male adolescents, tic disorders (p = 0.006. Conclusions: OCD is underdiagnosed in adolescents, and few are treated. Future studies should investigate the relationship between OCS and the onset of OCD.

  1. Obsessive-compulsive disorder: advances in brain imaging; Trastornos obsesivos compulsivos (TOC): avances imagenologicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galli, Enrique [Departamento de Psiquiatria de la Univeversidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, San Isidro, Lima (Peru)

    2000-07-01

    In the past twenty years functional brain imaging has advanced to the point of tackling the differential diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic response in Neurology and Psychiatry. Psychiatric disorders were rendered 'functional' a century ago; however nowadays they can be seen by means of brain imaging. Functional images in positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission tomography (NEUROSPET) show in non-invasive fashion the state of brain functioning. PET does this assessing glucose metabolism and NEUROSPET by putting cerebral blood flow in images. Prevalence of OCD is clearly low (2 to 3%), but comorbidity with depression, psychoses, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia is high. Furthermore, it is not infrequent with autism, attention disorder, tichotillomany, borderline personality disorders, in pathological compulsive spending, sexual compulsion and in pathological gambling, in tics, and in Gilles de la Tourette disorder, NEUROSPET and PET show hypoperfusion in both frontal lobes, in their prefrontal dorsolateral aspects, in their inferior zone and premotor cortex, with hyperperfusion in the posterior cingulum and hypoperfusion in basal ganglia (caudate nucleus). Cummings states that hyperactivity of the limbic system might be involved in OCD. Thus, brain imaging in OCD is a diagnostic aid, allows us to see clinical imagenological evolution and therapeutic response and, possibly, it is useful predict therapeutic response (Au)

  2. Treatment of personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Anthony W; Gunderson, John; Mulder, Roger

    2015-02-21

    The evidence base for the effective treatment of personality disorders is insufficient. Most of the existing evidence on personality disorder is for the treatment of borderline personality disorder, but even this is limited by the small sample sizes and short follow-up in clinical trials, the wide range of core outcome measures used by studies, and poor control of coexisting psychopathology. Psychological or psychosocial intervention is recommended as the primary treatment for borderline personality disorder and pharmacotherapy is only advised as an adjunctive treatment. The amount of research about the underlying, abnormal, psychological or biological processes leading to the manifestation of a disordered personality is increasing, which could lead to more effective interventions. The synergistic or antagonistic interaction of psychotherapies and drugs for treating personality disorder should be studied in conjunction with their mechanisms of change throughout the development of each. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Obsessive-compulsive personality traits: how are they related to OCD severity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterneck, Chad T; Little, Tannah E; Chasson, Gregory S; Smith, Angela H; Hart, John M; Stanley, Melinda A; Björgvinsson, Thröstur

    2011-12-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that comorbid obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is associated with greater overall OCD severity, functional impairment, and poorer treatment outcomes (Coles et al., 2008; Lochner et al., 2010; Pinto, 2009). However, research has only examined the effects of OCPD categorically and has yet to thoroughly examine the impact of individual OCPD characteristics dimensionally. Thus, the present study sought to investigate the relationships between various OCPD-related dimensions (e.g., perfectionism, rigidity) and OCD symptomology and severity. The study recruited a sample of OCD patients (n=51) in the OCD units of two residential treatment facilities. Findings yielded significant relationships between OCD severity and the following OCPD dimensions: flexibility, doubts about actions (a dimension of perfectionism), and hoarding. Interpretations of these results and the implications for diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment outcome are discussed. Furthermore, the current study provides insight into a unique perspective which leaves room for more symptom overlap and variability between OCD and OCPD. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. ANANKASTIK PERSONALITY DISORDER IN SCHIZOPHRENIA PARANOID PATIENT: A CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Damarnegara ..; A. A. Ngr. Andika

    2014-01-01

    Anankastik personality disorder is a health problem that can disturb the activities of person and can accompany a variety of other mental health problems. The patient in thiscase is a patient with an anankastik or obsessive compulsive personality disorder withthe axis I diagnoses is Paranoid Schizophrenia and was given haloperidol 2x5mg, buthave not done psychotherapy because the patient has not been cooperative. Theprognosis is dependent on patient compliance in taking medication and control...

  5. Dissociative symptoms and dissociative disorders comorbidity in obsessive compulsive disorder: Symptom screening, diagnostic tools and reflections on treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belli, Hasan

    2014-08-16

    Borderline personality disorder, conversion disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder frequently have dissociative symptoms. The literature has demonstrated that the level of dissociation might be correlated with the severity of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and that those not responding to treatment had high dissociative symptoms. The structured clinical interview for DSM-IV dissociative disorders, dissociation questionnaire, somatoform dissociation questionnaire and dissociative experiences scale can be used for screening dissociative symptoms and detecting dissociative disorders in patients with OCD. However, a history of neglect and abuse during childhood is linked to a risk factor in the pathogenesis of dissociative psychopathology in adults. The childhood trauma questionnaire-53 and childhood trauma questionnaire-40 can be used for this purpose. Clinicians should not fail to notice the hidden dissociative symptoms and childhood traumatic experiences in OCD cases with severe symptoms that are resistant to treatment. Symptom screening and diagnostic tools used for this purpose should be known. Knowing how to treat these pathologies in patients who are diagnosed with OCD can be crucial.

  6. Heterogeneity of obsessive-compulsive disorder: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochner, Christine; Stein, Dan J

    2003-01-01

    Significant advances have been made in characterizing the phenomenology and psychobiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in recent years. In many ways, such advances suggest a conceptualization of OCD as a relatively homogeneous neuropsychiatric entity, underpinned by particular mechanisms that manifest in universal symptoms. Nevertheless, some data have pointed to the heterogeneity of this disorder. A computerized literature search (MEDLINE: 1964-2001) was used to collect studies addressing the heterogeneity of OCD. In addition, reviews of the phenomenology, psychobiology, family studies, and treatment of OCD were examined in an attempt to collate data addressing this issue. There is a growing consensus that some subtypes of OCD are valid and provide a useful means of integrating data on its symptomatology, neurobiology, and treatment response; for example, OCD with comorbid tics is characterized by earlier onset, a particular range of OCD symptoms, and worse response to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. The heterogeneity of OCD has important clinical and research implications.

  7. Treatment of internet addiction in patient with panic disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Veruska; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; King, Anna Lucia Spear

    2015-01-01

    Problematic Internet use is a worldwide social issue and it can be found in any age, social, educational, or economic range. In some countries like China and South Korea internet addiction (IA) is considered a public health condition and this governments support research, education and treatment. Internet addiction has been associated with others psychiatric disorders. Panic disorder (PD) and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) are anxiety disorders that involve a lot of damages in patient's life. We report a treatment of a patient with Panic Disorder and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and internet addition involving pharmacotherapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT). The Cognitive Behavioral Therapy was conducted 1 time per week during 10 weeks and results suggest that the treatment was an effective treatment for the anxiety and for the internet addiction.

  8. The relationship between types and severity of repetitive behaviors in Gilles de la Tourette's disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cath, D.C.; Spinhoven, P.; Wetering, B.J.M. van de; Hoogduin, C.A.L.; Landman, A.D.; Woerkom, T.C.A.M. van; Roos, R.A.C.; Rooijmans, H.G.M.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study investigated which categories of obsessive-compulsive and Tourette-related behaviors in Gilles de la Tourette's disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) without tics are experienced as most severe across the study groups and what the differences are in symptom

  9. Differences and similarities between bulimia nervosa, compulsive buying and gambling disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Granero, Roser; Moragas, Laura; Steiger, Howard; Israel, Mimi; Aymamí, Neus; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; Sauchelli, Sarah; Agüera, Zaida; Sánchez, Isabel; Riesco, Nadine; Penelo, Eva; Menchón, José M; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando

    2015-03-01

    The objective of the study was to analyse shared commonalities and differences between bulimia nervosa (BN) and certain impulse-related disorders, namely compulsive buying (CB) and gambling disorder (GD), with respect to general psychopathology and personality traits. A total of 188 female patients [50 BN without comorbid CB (BN-CB), 49 BN with comorbid CB (BN+CB), 53 GD and 36 CB] and 50 comparison non-psychiatric women participated in the current study. All patients were diagnosed using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth revised edition, the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised, and other clinical indices. A positive-growing trend was observed in psychopathology and personality traits across the four clinical groups. Comorbid BN with CB was associated with highest eating psychopathology and social anxiety. On Novelty Seeking, the CB, GD and BN+CB were similar to each other, whereas BN-CB presented a distinct profile. Moreover, the BN+CB group displayed more dysfunctional personality traits and higher general psychopathology. The clinical groups demonstrated overall higher levels of psychopathology compared with the control group. The results of this study demonstrate that disorders with impulsive traits (CB, GD, BN+CB and BN-CB) follow a linear trend in general psychopathology and specific personality traits, but differ along specific personality and psychopathological dimensions. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  10. Social cognition and metacognition in obsessive-compulsive disorder: an explorative pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrogiorgou, Paraskevi; Bethge, Mareike; Luksnat, Stefanie; Nalato, Fabio; Juckel, Georg; Brüne, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a severe psychiatric condition that is, among other features, characterized by marked impairment in social functioning. Although theoretically plausible with regard to neurobiological underpinnings of OCD, there is little research about possible impairments in social cognitive and meta-cognitive abilities and their connections with social functioning in patients with OCD. Accordingly, we sought to examine social cognitive skills and metacognition in OCD. Twenty OCD patients and age-, sex-, and education-matched 20 healthy controls were assessed using neurocognitive and diverse social cognitive skills including the Ekman 60 Faces test, the Hinting Task, the faux pas test, and a proverb test. In addition, the Metacognition Questionnaire-30 was administered to both the OCD and the control groups. Social functioning was measured using the Personal and Social Performance Scale. Symptom severity in patients was determined by the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale and the Maudsley Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory. No group differences emerged in basic social cognitive abilities. In contrast, compared to controls, OCD patients scored higher on all MCQ dimensions, particularly negative beliefs about worry, uncontrollability, and danger; beliefs about need to control thoughts; and cognitive self-consciousness. There were no significant correlations between social or metacognitive parameters and OCD symptom severity. However, in the patient group, depression and metacognition predicted social functioning. OCD patients show normal basal social cognitive abilities, but dysfunctional metacognitive profiles, which may contribute to their psychosocial impairment.

  11. Sexual Functions in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Patients: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nergis LAPSEKİLİ

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD, even if the patient’s obsession content is not related to sexuality, may be a problem in the sexual lives of individuals. In this article, sexual function in obsessive compulsive disorder patients is discussed based on an OCD case. Case: Male 36 years old and female 32 years old couple. Man had complaints of lack of control of ejaculation and woman had complaints of lack of orgasm. Man was diagnosed with premature ejaculation and woman was diagnosed with aversion and anorgasmia according to DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual Of Mental Disorders criteria. During therapy, the female patient was diagnosed with OCD as well. Loss of control was not acceptable to the patient. Thus she was avoiding from exhilarating stimuli. After cognitive restructuring of her evaluations about control, sex therapy was continued. At the end of the therapy the avoidance of the patient disappeared and anorgasmia was treated and ejeculation time of the male patient was 15 minutes. Conclusion: Sexual dysfunction is a common problem in patients with OCD. Patient may have avoidance that may adversely affect her sexuality. If a patient has avoidance about sexuality, the reason of this avoidance may or may not be the usual and expected thought content like avoidance of contamination. The evaluations of OCD patients about control may also adversely affect their sexuallity. The thought leading to avoidance behavior, may vary from patient to patient. However, to identify these thoughts with cognitive interventions and work with them will improve.the patient.

  12. Obsessive-compulsive disorder and trichotillomania: a phenomenological comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandler Robin

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Similarities between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD and trichotillomania (TTM have been widely recognized. Nevertheless, there is evidence of important differences between these two disorders. Some authors have conceptualized the disorders as lying on an OCD spectrum of conditions. Methods Two hundred and seventy eight OCD patients (n = 278: 148 male; 130 female and 54 TTM patients (n = 54; 5 male; 49 female of all ages were interviewed. Female patients were compared on select demographic and clinical variables, including comorbid axis I and II disorders, and temperament/character profiles. Results OCD patients reported significantly more lifetime disability, but fewer TTM patients reported response to treatment. OCD patients reported higher comorbidity, more harm avoidance and less novelty seeking, more maladaptive beliefs, and more sexual abuse. OCD and TTM symptoms were equally likely to worsen during menstruation, but OCD onset or worsening was more likely associated with pregnancy/puerperium. Conclusions These findings support previous work demonstrating significant differences between OCD and TTM. The classification of TTM as an impulse control disorder is also problematic, and TTM may have more in common with conditions characterized by stereotypical self-injurious symptoms, such as skin-picking. Differences between OCD and TTM may reflect differences in underlying psychobiology, and may necessitate contrasting treatment approaches.

  13. Obsessive-compulsive disorder and trichotillomania: a phenomenological comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochner, Christine; Seedat, Soraya; du Toit, Pieter L; Nel, Daniel G; Niehaus, Dana JH; Sandler, Robin; Stein, Dan J

    2005-01-01

    Background Similarities between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and trichotillomania (TTM) have been widely recognized. Nevertheless, there is evidence of important differences between these two disorders. Some authors have conceptualized the disorders as lying on an OCD spectrum of conditions. Methods Two hundred and seventy eight OCD patients (n = 278: 148 male; 130 female) and 54 TTM patients (n = 54; 5 male; 49 female) of all ages were interviewed. Female patients were compared on select demographic and clinical variables, including comorbid axis I and II disorders, and temperament/character profiles. Results OCD patients reported significantly more lifetime disability, but fewer TTM patients reported response to treatment. OCD patients reported higher comorbidity, more harm avoidance and less novelty seeking, more maladaptive beliefs, and more sexual abuse. OCD and TTM symptoms were equally likely to worsen during menstruation, but OCD onset or worsening was more likely associated with pregnancy/puerperium. Conclusions These findings support previous work demonstrating significant differences between OCD and TTM. The classification of TTM as an impulse control disorder is also problematic, and TTM may have more in common with conditions characterized by stereotypical self-injurious symptoms, such as skin-picking. Differences between OCD and TTM may reflect differences in underlying psychobiology, and may necessitate contrasting treatment approaches. PMID:15649315

  14. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Treatment in Patients with Down Syndrome: A Case Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutor, Bruce; Hansen, Mark R.; Black, John L.

    2006-01-01

    In this case series we report four cases of patients with Down syndrome with symptoms consistent with obsessive compulsive disorder. Each patient experienced substantial reduction in compulsive behaviors with pharmacotherapy of an SSRI alone or with the addition of risperidone to SSRI therapy. None of the patients experienced significant side…

  15. General and Maladaptive Personality Dimensions in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aelterman, Nathalie; De Clercq, Barbara; De Bolle, Marleen; De Fruyt, Filip

    2011-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic and impairing clinical disorder in childhood, often characterized by a heterogeneous symptomatic profile and high co-occurrence with other disorders. The present study introduces a new perspective on the description of OCD symptoms in youth, and empirically examines the value of a personality…

  16. Dissecting the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale severity scale to understand the routes for symptomatic improvement in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Daniel L da Conceição; Barbosa, Veronica S; Requena, Guaraci; Shavitt, Roseli G; Pereira, Carlos A de Bragança; Diniz, Juliana B

    2017-10-01

    We aimed to investigate which items of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Severity Scale best discriminate the reduction in total scores in obsessive-compulsive disorder patients after 4 and 12 weeks of pharmacological treatment. Data from 112 obsessive-compulsive disorder patients who received fluoxetine (⩽80 mg/day) for 12 weeks were included. Improvement indices were built for each Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Severity Scale item at two timeframes: from baseline to week 4 and from baseline to week 12. Indices for each item were correlated with the total scores for obsessions and compulsions and then ranked by correlation coefficient. A correlation coefficient ⩾0.7 was used to identify items that contributed significantly to reducing obsessive-compulsive disorder severity. At week 4, the distress items reached the threshold of 0.7 for improvement on the obsession and compulsion subscales although, contrary to our expectations, there was greater improvement in the control items than in the distress items. At week 12, there was greater improvement in the time, interference, and control items than in the distress items. The use of fluoxetine led first to reductions in distress and increases in control over symptoms before affecting the time spent on, and interference from, obsessions and compulsions. Resistance did not correlate with overall improvement. Understanding the pathway of improvement with pharmacological treatment in obsessive-compulsive disorder may provide clues about how to optimize the effects of medication.

  17. Evidence-Based Assessment of Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy M. Rapp

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD is a neuropsychiatric illness that often develops in childhood, affects 1%–2% of the population, and causes significant impairment across the lifespan. The first step in identifying and treating OCD is a thorough evidence-based assessment. This paper reviews the administration pragmatics, psychometric properties, and limitations of commonly used assessment measures for adults and youths with OCD. This includes diagnostic interviews, clinician-administered symptom severity scales, self-report measures, and parent/child measures. Additionally, adjunctive measures that assess important related factors (ie, impairment, family accommodation, and insight are also discussed. This paper concludes with recommendations for an evidence-based assessment based on individualized assessment goals that include generating an OCD diagnosis, determining symptom severity, and monitoring treatment progress.

  18. Psychotherapy and medication management strategies for obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDougle CJ

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Kelda H Walsh, Christopher J McDougleDepartment of Psychiatry, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USAAbstract: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD is a chronic anxiety disorder. While medication and psychotherapy advances have been very helpful to patients, many patients do not respond adequately to initial trials of serotonergic medication or cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT and require multiple treatment trials or combination therapies. Comorbidity may also influence treatment response. The role of streptococcal infections in pediatric OCD has become an area of intense scrutiny and controversy. In this article, current treatment methods for OCD will be reviewed, with special attention to strategies for treating OCD in children and in patients with comorbid tic disorders. Alternative psychotherapy strategies for patients who are highly anxious about starting CBT, such as cognitive therapy or augmentation with D-cycloserine, will be reviewed. Newer issues regarding use of antibiotics, neuroleptics, and glutamate modulators in OCD treatment will also be explored.Keywords: OCD, exposure/response prevention therapy, PANDAS, tic disorder

  19. Glutamate abnormalities in obsessive compulsive disorder: neurobiology, pathophysiology, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittenger, Christopher; Bloch, Michael H; Williams, Kyle

    2011-12-01

    Obsessive compulsive disorder is prevalent, disabling, incompletely understood, and often resistant to current therapies. Established treatments consist of specialized cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy with medications targeting serotonergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission. However, remission is rare, and more than a quarter of OCD sufferers receive little or no benefit from these approaches, even when they are optimally delivered. New insights into the disorder, and new treatment strategies, are urgently needed. Recent evidence suggests that the ubiquitous excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate is dysregulated in OCD, and that this dysregulation may contribute to the pathophysiology of the disorder. Here we review the current state of this evidence, including neuroimaging studies, genetics, neurochemical investigations, and insights from animal models. Finally, we review recent findings from small clinical trials of glutamate-modulating medications in treatment-refractory OCD. The precise role of glutamate dysregulation in OCD remains unclear, and we lack blinded, well-controlled studies demonstrating therapeutic benefit from glutamate-modulating agents. Nevertheless, the evidence supporting some important perturbation of glutamate in the disorder is increasingly strong. This new perspective on the pathophysiology of OCD, which complements the older focus on monoaminergic neurotransmission, constitutes an important focus of current research and a promising area for the ongoing development of new therapeutics. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Electroconvulsive therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenelle, Leonardo F; Coutinho, Evandro S F; Lins-Martins, Natália M; Fitzgerald, Paul B; Fujiwara, Hironobo; Yücel, Murat

    2015-07-01

    Surgical therapies for treatment-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), such as deep brain stimulation or psychosurgery, remain unattainable for many patients. Despite the long-held view that electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an ineffective treatment for OCD, there is no systematic review to support or refute this claim, which is the basis of the current review. A systematic search of MEDLINE, Web of Science, Scopus, and LILACS databases was conducted on December 22, 2013, using the terms obsessive-compulsive disorder and electroconvulsive therapy. Reference lists, specific journals, and clinical trial registries were also scrutinized. No date or language limitation was imposed on the search. After irrelevant and redundant records from the 500 identified titles were excluded, the 50 articles reporting the acute treatment effects of ECT in OCD and related constructs (involving a total of 279 patients) were analyzed for this study. The relevant sociodemographic, clinical, and outcome data of individual cases were extracted. Data from individual cases were used to compare the characteristics of responders versus nonresponders to ECT. Most selected records were case reports/series; there were no randomized controlled trials. A positive response was reported in 60.4% of the 265 cases in which individual responses to ECT were available. ECT responders exhibited a significantly later onset of OCD symptoms (P = .003), were more frequently nondepressed (P = .009), more commonly reported being treated with ECT for severe OCD (P = .01), and received a fewer number of ECT sessions (P = .03). ECT responders were also less frequently previously treated with adequate trials of serotonin reuptake inhibitors (P = .05) and cognitive-behavioral therapy (P = .005). Although 60% of the reported cases reviewed exhibited some form of a positive response to ECT, it cannot be stated that this provides evidence that ECT is indeed effective for OCD. © Copyright 2015 Physicians

  1. Exploring the role of obsessive-compulsive relevant self-worth contingencies in obsessive-compulsive disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Soriano, Gemma; Belloch, Amparo

    2012-06-30

    This article examines whether self-worth contingencies in the personal domains of cleanliness, morality, hoarding, certainty, accuracy, religion and respect for others have specific associations with obsessive symptoms and cognitions in individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Fifty-seven patients with a primary diagnosis of OCD completed the Obsessional Concerns and Self Questionnaire (OCSQ), designed to assess the extent to which respondents consider OCD content domains relevant to their self-worth, along with a battery of other instruments. Results indicate that the OCSQ is more associated with OCD than with non-OCD anxiety symptoms, and that it is also associated with comorbid depressive symptoms in OCD patients. Moreover, the OCSQ-Order and Cleanliness and Hoarding dimensions are associated with their symptom counterparts (i.e., contamination, checking, order, hoarding and neutralizing). OCSQ domains were highly associated with dysfunctional beliefs about obsessions. However, only the OCSQ scores, but not the dysfunctional beliefs, predicted OCD symptoms. These results support cognitive conceptualizations implicating self-concept in OCD development, and they suggest the need to further analyze the influence of self-worth in OCD development and maintenance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Perceived parental characteristics of patients with obsessive compulsive disorder, depression, and panic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkel, W T; Pollard, C A; Wiener, R L; Staebler, C R

    1993-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that parents of patients with obsessive compulsive disorder exhibit specific traits. 320 consecutive inpatient admissions who met criteria for OCD, depression, and panic disorder checked a list of adjectives to describe their parents. Patients with OCD were 1) less likely to perceive their mothers as disorganized than depressives, 2) more likely to perceive their mothers as overprotective than depressives and 3) less likely to perceive their fathers as demanding than patients with panic.

  3. Family functioning in paediatric obsessive compulsive and related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Yolanda E; Flessner, Christopher A

    2015-11-01

    Research among youths with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) has shown a significant relationship between illness severity, treatment outcome, and the family environment yet little work has been undertaken among the broader class of obsessive compulsive and related disorders (OCRDs) - Trichotillomania, body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), skin picking disorder (SPD), and hoarding. The aim of this study was to (1) review the family functioning literature among paediatric OCRDs, (2) address limitations to previous studies, and (3) highlight areas in need of further research. A review of the literature was conducted using several databases (i.e., Google Scholar, PubMed, ScienceDirect) and employing key search terms (e.g., 'family functioning', 'paediatric OCD'). The resultant articles examined several domains subsumed under the broader heading of family environment including parental mental health, parenting practices, family dynamics, family involvement with symptoms, and family emotional climate. The literature reviewed demonstrated a strong relationship between paediatric OCD and adverse family functioning (e.g., parental symptoms of anxiety and depression, family accommodation, family strain and stress, parental guilt and fear) in all identified domains. While family functioning research in paediatric HPD was relatively scant, research suggested similar familial dysfunction (e.g., limited independence, low family cohesion, family violence). Collectively, only 1 article, examining BDD, assessed family functioning within other OCRDs. This review supports the need for further research in the OCRDs. Limitations to the available literature and targeted suggestions for future research are discussed. The domains of family environment in this study indicate specific family functioning deficits that may serve as aetiological and/or maintenance factors in paediatric OCRDs, possibly contributing to the understanding of these complex disorders. The recognition of family deficits

  4. [Current and emerging features of obsessive-compulsive disorder--trends for the revision of DSM-5].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Hisato

    2012-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized as significant impairment of cognitive-behavioral inhibition, which is causally associated with cognitive processes evoking anxiety, along with increased desire for perfect control over the possible harm, at least in typical OCD patients who have compulsions in response to obsessions. However, OCD has been well conceptualized as a multidimensional and heterogeneous disorder apparently comprising a number of potentially valid subtypes. For example, OCD can be diagnosed by either obsessions or compulsions, and a certain type of OCD patient has only compulsions in response to rules that must be applied rigidly. They often become stuck as a result of rigid rules in every step of their daily working and social life. This type of compulsive behavior is often triggered by specific sensory phenomena such as sight, touch, or personal expression (e. g. need to express himself precisely in written or spoken words). Thus, such OCD patients usually perform their compulsions in order to relieve sensory phenomena such as feelings of incompleteness and urges to reach a specific sensation of feeling "just right", and are less likely to have obsessions or cognitive processes preceding the repetitive behaviors. This type of OCD has also been characterized as "tic-related" and tends to have comorbid conditions such as tic disorders, ADHD or skin picking. Indeed, there are some crucial and significant differences in the psychopathology, phenomenology, and putative biological bases between OCD patients with obsession-related compulsions (cognitive type) and those with compulsions repeated according to rigid rules (motoric type). Because of the substantial heterogeneity of OCD, it seems to be beyond the traditional learning model in which anxiety-driven obsessions entrain neutralizing compulsions and also beyond the essential features of anxiety disorders commonly characterized by psychopathological characteristics such as marked and

  5. Deductive and inductive reasoning in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pélissier, Marie-Claude; O'Connor, Kieron P

    2002-03-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that people with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) show an inductive reasoning style distinct from people with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and from participants in a non-anxious (NA) control group. The experimental procedure consisted of administering a range of six deductive and inductive tasks and a probabilistic task in order to compare reasoning processes between groups. Recruitment was in the Montreal area within a French-speaking population. The participants were 12 people with OCD, 12 NA controls and 10 people with GAD. Participants completed a series of written and oral reasoning tasks including the Wason Selection Task, a Bayesian probability task and other inductive tasks, designed by the authors. There were no differences between groups in deductive reasoning. On an inductive "bridging task", the participants with OCD always took longer than the NA control and GAD groups to infer a link between two statements and to elaborate on this possible link. The OCD group alone showed a significant decrease in their degree of conviction about an arbitrary statement after inductively generating reasons to support this statement. Differences in probabilistic reasoning replicated those of previous authors. The results pinpoint the importance of examining inference processes in people with OCD in order to further refine the clinical applications of behavioural-cognitive therapy for this disorder.

  6. Personality Pathology of Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorder Without Accompanying Intellectual Impairment in Comparison to Adults With Personality Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunz, Sandra; Westphal, Linda; Ritter, Kathrin; Heuser, Isabella; Dziobek, Isabel; Roepke, Stefan

    2015-12-01

    Differentiating autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) without accompanying intellectual impairment from personality disorders is often challenging. Identifying personality traits and personality pathology specific to ASD might facilitate diagnostic procedure. We recruited a sample of 59 adults with ASD without accompanying intellectual impairment, 62 individuals with narcissistic personality disorder, 80 individuals with borderline personality disorder, and 106 nonclinical controls. Personality traits, measured with the neo-personality inventory-revised (NEO-PI-R), and personality pathology, measured with the dimensional assessment of personality pathology (DAPP-BQ), were assessed. Personality traits and personality pathology specific to ASD could be identified. ASD individuals scored significantly lower on the NEO-PI-R scales extraversion and openness to experience and significantly higher on the DAPP-BQ scales inhibitedness and compulsivity relative to all other groups. Diagnostic implications are discussed.

  7. A double blind comparison of venlafaxine and paroxetine in obsessive-compulsive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denys, Damiaan; van der Wee, Nic; van Megen, Harold J. G. M.; Westenberg, Herman G. M.

    2003-01-01

    SUMMARY: While the usefulness of clomipramine and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been established, the efficacy of serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors remains to be determined. This report describes the first randomized

  8. Comments on: “Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Systematic Review”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Alwardat

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Dear Editor, Brunelin et al. [1] recently conducted a systematic review that evaluated the effect of applied transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS on patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD.[...

  9. Latent profile analysis and comorbidity in a sample of individuals with compulsive buying disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Astrid; Mitchell, James E; Black, Donald W; Crosby, Ross D; Berg, Kelly; de Zwaan, Martina

    2010-07-30

    The aims of this study were to perform a latent profile analysis in a sample of individuals with compulsive buying, to explore the psychiatric comorbidity, and to examine whether or not more severe compulsive buying is associated with greater comorbidity. Compulsive buying measures and SCID data obtained from 171 patients with compulsive buying behavior who had participated in treatment trials at different clinical centers in the U.S. and Germany were analyzed. Latent profile analysis produced two clusters. Overall, cluster 2, included subjects with more severe compulsive buying, and was characterized by higher lifetime as well as current prevalence rates for Axis I and impulse control disorders. Nearly 90% of the total sample reported at least one lifetime Axis I diagnosis, particularly mood (74%) and anxiety (57%) disorders. Twenty-one percent had a comorbid impulse control disorder, most commonly intermittent explosive disorder (11%). Half of the sample presented with at least one current Axis I disorder, most commonly anxiety disorders (44%). Given the substantial psychiatric comorbidity, it is reasonable to question whether or not compulsive buying represents a distinct psychiatric entity vs. an epiphenomenon of other psychiatric disorders. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Relationship between movement disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorder: beyond the obsessive-compulsive-tic phenotype. A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fibbe, Lieneke A; Cath, Danielle C; van den Heuvel, Odile A; Veltman, Dick J; Tijssen, Marina A J; van Balkom, Anton J L M

    2012-06-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and symptoms (OC symptoms) are associated with tic disorders and share an aetiological relationship. The extent to which OCD/OC symptoms are correlated with other hyperkinetic movement disorders is unclear. The aim of this review was to investigate this co-occurrence and the extent to which OCD/OC symptoms and hyperkinetic movement disorders share a neurobiological basis. A systematic review was performed, specifically searching for OCD/OC symptom comorbidity in hyperkinetic movement disorders using case control studies, longitudinal studies and family based studies. The literature search was conducted using PubMed and PsycINFO databases. Heterogeneity of measurement instruments to detect OCD diagnosis and OC symptoms decreased comparability between studies. The most convincing evidence for a relationship was found between the choreas (Huntington's disease and Sydenham's chorea) and OCD/OC symptoms. Furthermore, elevated frequencies of OC symptoms were found in small case control series of dystonias. Small family based studies in dystonia subtypes modestly suggest shared familial/genetic relationships between OC symptoms and dystonia. Current data indicate a relationship between OCD/OC symptoms and the choreas. As OCD and the choreas have been associated with dysfunctional frontal-striatal circuits, the observed relationships might converge at the level of dysfunctions of these circuits. However, paucity of longitudinal and family studies hampers strong conclusions on the nature of the relationship. The relationship between OCD and movement disorders needs further elaboration using larger family based longitudinal studies and sound instruments to characterise OC symptomatology. This could lead to better understanding of the shared pathology between OCD and hyperkinetic movement disorders.

  11. Subclinical autism spectrum symptoms in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arildskov, Trine Wigh; Højgaard, David R M A; Skarphedinsson, Gudmundur; Thomsen, Per Hove; Ivarsson, Tord; Weidle, Bernhard; Melin, Karin Holmgren; Hybel, Katja A

    2016-07-01

    The literature on subclinical autism spectrum (ASD) symptoms in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is scarce, and it remains unclear whether ASD symptoms are related to OCD severity. The aims of the present study were to assess the prevalence of ASD symptoms and age and sex differences in children and adolescents with OCD, and to explore the relation between ASD symptoms and OCD severity. This is the largest study of ASD symptoms in an OCD population to date, and the first directly aimed at elucidating sex and age differences in this matter. The study used baseline data from the Nordic Long-term OCD Treatment Study in which parents of 257 children and adolescents with OCD aged 7-17 completed the Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire. OCD severity was assessed with the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale. Pediatric OCD patients were found to exhibit elevated rates of ASD symptoms compared to a norm group of school-age children. ASD symptoms were concentrated in a subgroup with a prevalence of 10-17 %. This subgroup was characterized by a male preponderance with a sex ratio of approximately 2.6:1, while children versus adolescents with OCD exhibited similar rates. Autism-specific social and communication difficulties were not related to OCD severity, while restricted repetitive behavior was positively related to OCD severity. The results indicate that clinicians need to be aware of ASD symptoms in children and adolescents with OCD since one out of ten exhibits such symptoms at a clinical sub-threshold.

  12. Family Factors Predict Treatment Outcome for Pediatric Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peris, Tara S.; Sugar, Catherine A.; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Chang, Susanna; Langley, Audra; Piacentini, John

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine family conflict, parental blame, and poor family cohesion as predictors of treatment outcome for youth receiving family-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (FCBT) for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Methods We analyzed data from a sample of youth who were randomized to FCBT (n = 49; 59% male; mean age = 12.43 years) as part of a larger randomized clinical trial. Youngsters and their families were assessed by an independent evaluator (IE) pre- and post- FCBT using a standardized battery of measures evaluating family functioning and OCD symptom severity. Family conflict and cohesion were measured via parent self-report on the Family Environment Scale (FES; Moos & Moos, 1994) and parental blame was measured using parent self-report on the Parental Attitudes and Behaviors Scale (PABS; Peris, 2008b). Symptom severity was rated by IE’s using the Children’s Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS; Scahill et al., 1997). Results Families with lower levels of parental blame and family conflict and higher levels of family cohesion at baseline were more likely to have a child who responded to FCBT treatment even after adjusting for baseline symptom severity compared to families who endorsed higher levels of dysfunction prior to treatment. In analyses using both categorical and continuous outcome measures, higher levels of family dysfunction and difficulty in higher number of domains of family functioning were associated with lower rates of treatment response. In addition, changes in family cohesion predicted response to FCBT controlling for baseline symptom severity. Conclusions Findings speak to the role of the family in treatment for childhood OCD and highlight potential targets for future family interventions. PMID:22309471

  13. An Integrative Approach to Treatment-Resistant Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woon, Luke Sy-Cherng; Kanapathy, Anita; Zakaria, Hazli; Alfonso, César A

    2017-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a debilitating psychiatric disorder that often runs a chronic unremitting course. Treatment outcomes can be unsatisfactory despite the availability of various somatic and psychological therapies. Psychodynamic psychotherapy in combination with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) with exposure and response prevention (ERP) could help patients with treatment-resistant OCD achieve better outcomes. An integrative approach can help patients gain insight, strengthen the therapeutic alliance, improve treatment adherence, and provide symptomatic relief when other treatments seem insufficient or have failed. We describe the treatment process of a person with treatment-resistant OCD who received pharmacotherapy, concurrent CBT/ERP, and a brief course of psychodynamic psychotherapy. Case formulations from cognitive behavioral and psychodynamic perspectives are presented. The authors discuss the advantages of doing a psychodynamic assessment and formulation in treatment refractory cases and the wisdom of integrating psychotherapy interventions for OCD, as well as the unique clinical features of cases that warrant a multimodal treatment approach.

  14. Comorbidity between obsessive-compulsive disorder and body dysmorphic disorder: prevalence, explanatory theories, and clinical characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frías Á

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Álvaro Frías,1,2 Carol Palma,1,2 Núria Farriols,1,2 Laura González2 1FPCEE Blanquerna, Universitat Ramon Llull, Barcelona, 2Adult Outpatient Mental Health Center, Hospital de Mataró – CSdM, Mataró, Spain Background: With the advent of the fifth edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, body dysmorphic disorder (BDD has been subsumed into the obsessive-compulsive disorders and related disorders (OCDRD category. Objective: We aimed to determine the empirical evidence regarding the potential relationship between BDD and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD based on the prevalence data, etiopathogenic pathways, and clinical characterization of patients with both disorders. Method: A comprehensive search of databases (PubMed and PsycINFO was performed. Published manuscripts between 1985 and May 2015 were identified. Overall, 53 studies fulfilled inclusion criteria. Results: Lifetime comorbidity rates of BDD–OCD are almost three times higher in samples with a primary diagnosis of BDD than those with primary OCD (27.5% vs 10.4%. However, other mental disorders, such as social phobia or major mood depression, are more likely among both types of psychiatric samples. Empirical evidence regarding the etiopathogenic pathways for BDD–OCD comorbidity is still inconclusive, whether concerning common shared features or one disorder as a risk factor for the other. Specifically, current findings concerning third variables show more divergences than similarities when comparing both disorders. Preliminary data on the clinical characterization of the patients with BDD and OCD indicate that the deleterious clinical impact of BDD in OCD patients is greater than vice versa. Conclusion: Despite the recent inclusion of BDD within the OCDRD, data from comparative studies between BDD and OCD need further evidence for supporting this nosological approach. To better define this issue, comparative studies between BDD, OCD, and social phobia

  15. Frequency and Correlates of Suicidal Ideation in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Storch, Eric A.; Bussing, Regina; Jacob, Marni L.; Nadeau, Joshua M.; Crawford, Erika; Mutch, P. Jane; Mason, Dana; Lewin, Adam B.; Murphy, Tanya K.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the frequency and sociodemographic and clinical correlates of suicidal ideation in a sample of children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Fifty-four youth with OCD and their parent(s) were administered the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime, Children’s Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, and Children’s Depression Rating Scale-Revised. Children completed the Suicidal Ideation Questionnai...

  16. Ovarian sex hormones modulate compulsive, affective and cognitive functions in a non-induced mouse model of obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swarup Mitra

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available There is currently a lack of understanding how surgical menopause can influence obsessions, compulsions and associated affective and cognitive functions in female OCD patients. Early menopause in women due to surgical removal of ovaries not only causes dramatic hormonal changes, but also may induce affective and cognitive disorders. Here, we tested if surgical removal of ovaries (ovariectomy, OVX, which mimics surgical menopause in humans, would result in exacerbation of compulsive, affective and cognitive behaviors in mice strains that exhibit a spontaneous compulsive-like phenotype. Female mice from compulsive-like BIG, non-compulsive SMALL and randomly-bred Control strains were subjected to OVX or sham-surgery. After seven days animals were tested for nest building and marble burying to measure compulsive-like behavior. The elevated plus maze and open field tests measured anxiety-like behaviors, while memory was assessed by the novel object recognition. Acute OVX resulted in exacerbation of compulsive-like and anxiety-like behaviors in compulsive-like BIG mice. No significant effects of OVX were observed for the non-compulsive SMALL and Control strains. Object recognition memory was impaired in compulsive-like BIG female mice compared to the Control mice, without an effect of OVX on the BIG mice. We also tested whether 17 β-estradiol (E2 or progesterone (P4 could reverse the effects of OVX. E2, but not P4, attenuated the compulsive-like behaviors in compulsive-like BIG OVX female mice. The actions of the sex steroids on anxiety-like behaviors in OVX females were strain and behavioral test dependent. Altogether, our results indicate that already existing compulsions can be worsened during acute ovarian deprivation concomitant with exacerbation of affective behaviors and responses to hormonal intervention in OVX female mice can be influenced by genetic background.

  17. Can Allowance, Personal Budgeting and Self Control as Mediating Role Manage Compulsive Buying Behavior Among College Students?

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    Alce Mariani Labito

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Compulsive Buying Behavior seemed to be increasing, especially among college students. The aim of this study was to explain some factors that influence compulsive buying behavior. This study involved 189 undergraduate students and data collected by distributing questionnaires. The result showed that allowance, personal budgeting, were related to compulsive buying behavior. The other results indicated that self-control was able to weaken the influence of allowance on compulsive buying behavior. Also, the outcome empirically showed that college students are knowledgeable with some alternative methods for overcoming compulsive buying behavior.

  18. Obsessive, compulsive, and conscientious? The relationship between OCPD and personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mike, Anissa; King, Hannah; Oltmanns, Thomas F; Jackson, Joshua J

    2017-12-22

    Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) is defined as being overly controlling, rigid, orderly, and perfectionistic. At a definitional level, OCPD would appear to be highly related to the trait of Conscientiousness. The current study attempts to disentangle this relationship by examining the relationship at a facet level using multiple forms of OCPD assessment and using multiple reports of OCPD and personality. In addition, the relationship between OCPD and each Big Five trait was examined. The study relied on a sample of 1,630 adults who completed self-reports of personality and OCPD. Informants and interviewers also completed reports on the targets. Bifactor models were constructed in order to disentangle variance attributable to each facet and its general factors. Across four sets of analyses, individuals who scored higher on OCPD tended to be more orderly and achievement striving, and more set in their ways, but less generally conscientious. OCPD was also related to select facets under each Big Five trait. Notably, findings indicated that OCPD has a strong interpersonal component and that OCPD tendencies may interfere with one's relationships with others. Findings suggest that OCPD's relationship with personality can be more precisely explained through its relationships with specific tendencies rather than general, higher-order traits. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Dissociative symptoms and dissociative disorder comorbidity in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belli, Hasan; Ural, Cenk; Vardar, Melek Kanarya; Yesılyurt, Sema; Oncu, Fatıh

    2012-10-01

    The present study attempted to assess the dissociative symptoms and overall dissociative disorder comorbidity in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In addition, we examined the relationship between the severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms and dissociative symptoms. All patients admitted for the first time to the psychiatric outpatient unit were included in the study. Seventy-eight patients had been diagnosed as having OCD during the 2-year study period. Patients had to meet the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria for OCD. Most (76.9%; n = 60) of the patients were female, and 23.1% (n = 18) of the patients were male. Dissociation Questionnaire was used to measure dissociative symptoms. The Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition Dissociative Disorders interviews and Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Checklist and Severity Scale were used. Eleven (14%) of the patients with OCD had comorbid dissociative disorder. The most prevalent disorder in our study was dissociative depersonalization disorder. Dissociative amnesia and dissociative identity disorder were common as well. The mean Yale-Brown score was 23.37 ± 7.27 points. Dissociation Questionnaire scores were between 0.40 and 3.87 points, and the mean was 2.23 ± 0.76 points. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between Yale-Brown points and Dissociation Questionnaire points. We conclude that dissociative symptoms among patients with OCD should alert clinicians for the presence of a chronic and complex dissociative disorder. Clinicians may overlook an underlying dissociative process in patients who have severe symptoms of OCD. However, a lack of adequate response to cognitive-behavioral and drug therapy may be a consequence of dissociative process. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masand, Prakash S; Keuthen, Nancy J; Gupta, Sanjay; Virk, Subhdeep; Yu-Siao, Barbara; Kaplan, David

    2006-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) occurs more frequently in psychiatric patients, especially those with anxiety and mood disorders. We sought to determine the prevalence and phenomenology of IBS in patients diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). A semi-structured diagnostic interview was administered to patients seeking treatment for OCD in outpatient settings. Structured questions regarding gastrointestinal functioning and IBS symptoms were administered. IBS was diagnosed by a gastroenterologist using Rome I criteria. Thirty-seven patients (35.1%) with OCD met criteria for IBS. Of these, 53.8% had IBS with both diarrhea and constipation, 30.8% had diarrhea-predominant IBS, and 15.4% had constipation-predominant IBS. The prevalence rate of IBS in an age- and sex-matched control group (n=40) of medical patients in a family practice was 2.5%. IBS prevalence rates were significantly higher for OCD patients than control subjects (P=.0002). IBS and psychiatric illness have high rates of bi-directional comorbidity. This study shows that 35.1% of patients with OCD satisfied criteria for IBS in contrast to 2.5% of the controlled subjects. In most patients the IBS was characterized by both diarrhea and constipation. While taking the initial history clinicians should inquire about bowel symptoms in patients presenting with psychiatric illnesses, including OCD. SSRIs could potentially worsen such symptoms and lead to non-adherence.

  1. Visuospatial memory in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamika Sahu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD is a clinically heterogeneous disorder. The previous studies have been conducted to elucidate visuospatial and nonverbal memory deficits in OCD patients. However, they did not reach equivocal results which need to be replicated. Objectives: The current study examines the visuospatial memory in male patients with OCD as compared to normal healthy controls. Materials and Methods: It is a cross-sectional hospital-based study, in which 15 OCD patients and 15 age-, sex-, and education-matched normal healthy controls were chosen by purposive sampling technique. All the participants underwent the Extended Complex Figure Test (ECFT for the assessment of visuospatial memory. Results: Significant difference was found between OCD patients and normal healthy controls on various domains of ECFT. OCD patients performed poorly on copy condition (t = −4.46; P< 0.001, immediate recall (t = −5.20; P< 0.001, delayed recall (t = −5.18; P< 0.001, recognition task (P < 0.001, and matching task (P < 0.001 than the controls. Conclusion: Visuospatial memory was significantly impaired in OCD that included disturbed encoding and impaired visuospatial functioning. Hence, it is important to understand the significance of visuospatial memory in the pathophysiology for OCD diagnosis and therapeutic decision.

  2. Obsessive compulsive disorder and psychopathic behaviour in Babylon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Edward H; Kinnier Wilson, James V

    2012-02-01

    The history of obsessive compulsive, phobic and psychopathic behaviour can be traced to the 17th century AD. We draw attention to these behaviours in a Babylonian cuneiform medical text known as Shurpu. These three categories were united in the Babylonian mind around the concept of the māmīt 'oath' idea, the behaviour habits being so unbreakable it appeared that the subject had sworn an oath to do or not to do the action involved. The behavioural accounts were entirely objective, including what we would call immature, antisocial and criminal behaviour, and obsessional categories of contamination, aggression, orderliness of objects, sex and religion. They do not include subjective descriptions of obsessional thoughts, ruminations or the subject's attitude to their own behaviour, which are more modern fields of enquiry. The Babylonians had no understanding of brain or psychological function but they were remarkable describers of medical disease and behaviour. Although they had both physical and supernatural theories of many medical disorders and behaviours, they had an open mind on these particular behaviours which they regarded as a 'mystery' yet to be 'resolved'. We are not aware of comparable accounts of these behaviours in ancient Egyptian or classical medicine. These Babylonian descriptions extend the history of these disorders to the first half of the second millennium BC.

  3. Treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder complicated by comorbid eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, H Blair; Wetterneck, Chad T; Cahill, Shawn P; Steinglass, Joanna E; Franklin, Martin E; Leonard, Rachel C; Weltzin, Theodore E; Riemann, Bradley C

    2013-01-01

    Eating disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) commonly co-occur, but there is little data for how to treat these complex cases. To address this gap, we examined the naturalistic outcome of 56 patients with both disorders, who received a multimodal treatment program designed to address both problems simultaneously. A residential treatment program developed a cognitive-behavioral approach for patients with both OCD and an eating disorder by integrating exposure and response prevention (ERP) treatment for OCD with ERP strategies targeting eating pathology. Patients also received a supervised eating plan, medication management, and social support. At admission and discharge, patients completed validated measures of OCD severity (the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale--Self Report [Y-BOCS-SR]), eating disorder severity (the Eating Disorders Examination-Questionnaire), and depressive severity (the Beck Depression Inventory II [BDI-II]). Body mass index (BMI) was also measured. Paired-sample t-tests examined change on these measures. Between 2006 and 2011, 56 individuals completed all study measures at admission and discharge. Mean length of stay was 57 days (SD = 27). Most (89%) were on psychiatric medications. Significant decreases were observed in OCD severity, eating disorder severity, and depression. Those with bulimia nervosa showed more improvement than those with anorexia nervosa. BMI significantly increased, primarily among those underweight at admission. Simultaneous treatment of OCD and eating disorders using a multimodal approach that emphasizes ERP techniques for both OCD and eating disorders can be an effective treatment strategy for these complex cases.

  4. Dopaminergic activity in Tourette syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denys, Damiaan; de Vries, Froukje; Cath, Danielle; Figee, Martijn; Vulink, Nienke; Veltman, Dick J; van der Doef, Thalia F; Boellaard, Ronald; Westenberg, Herman; van Balkom, Anton; Lammertsma, Adriaan A; van Berckel, Bart N M

    2013-11-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) both are neuropsychiatric disorders associated with abnormalities in dopamine neurotransmission. Aims of this study were to quantify striatal D2/3 receptor availability in TS and OCD, and to examine dopamine release and symptom severity changes in both disorders following amphetamine challenge. Changes in [(11)C]raclopride binding potential (BP(ND)) were assessed using positron emission tomography before and after administration of d-amphetamine (0.3 mg kg(-1)) in 12 TS patients without comorbid OCD, 12 OCD patients without comorbid tics, and 12 healthy controls. Main outcome measures were baseline striatal D2/3 receptor BP(ND) and change in BP(ND) following amphetamine as a measure of dopamine release. Voxel-based analysis revealed significantly decreased baseline [(11)C]raclopride BP(ND) in bilateral putamen of both patient groups vs. healthy controls, differences being more pronounced in the TS than in the OCD group. Changes in BP(ND) following amphetamine were not significantly different between groups. Following amphetamine administration, tic severity increased in the TS group, which correlated with BP(ND) changes in right ventral striatum. Symptom severity in the OCD group did not change significantly following amphetamine challenge and was not associated with changes in BP(ND). This study provides evidence for decreased striatal D2/3 receptor availability in TS and OCD, presumably reflecting higher endogenous dopamine levels in both disorders. In addition, it provides the first direct evidence that ventral striatal dopamine release is related to the pathophysiology of tics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  5. Personality and psychotic disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boyette, L.L.N.J.

    2014-01-01

    The subject of the current thesis is the contribution of normal personality traits as conceptualized by the Five-Factor Model of personality (FFM) to the manifestation of illness in patients with psychotic disorders. These studies were part of the Dutch national Genetic Risk and Outcome of Psychosis

  6. [Narcissistic personality disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, C-H; Vater, A; Roepke, S

    2013-07-01

    Narcissism is a multifaceted term which encompasses traits of normal personality as well as a specific personality disorder. While much research has been concerned with narcissism as a trait there are only few empirical studies available on narcissistic personality disorder (NPS). The current diagnostic of NPS according to DSM-IV-TR focuses on grandiose type narcissism whereas vulnerable narcissism, which has been described by clinicians and researchers has not yet been recognised. Psychotherapy of narcissistic patients through different psychotherapeutic schools focuses mainly on processes in the therapeutic relationship, the analysis and change of grandiose and vulnerable schemas, emotion regulation techniques and correction of narcissistic behavior in favor of prosocial interactions.

  7. Personality disorders in adopted versus non-adopted adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermeyer, Joseph; Yoon, Gihyun; Amundson, Carla; Warwick, Marion; Kuskowski, Michael A

    2015-04-30

    The goal of this epidemiological study was to investigate lifetime history and odds ratios of personality disorders in adopted and non-adopted adults using a nationally representative sample. Data, drawn from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), were compared in adopted (n=378) versus non-adopted (n=42,503) adults to estimate the odds of seven personality disorders using logistic regression analyses. The seven personality disorders were histrionic, antisocial, avoidant, paranoid, schizoid, obsessive-compulsive, and dependent personality disorder. Adoptees had a 1.81-fold increase in the odds of any personality disorder compared with non-adoptees. Adoptees had increased odds of histrionic, antisocial, avoidant, paranoid, schizoid, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder compared with non-adoptees. Two risk factors associated with lifetime history of a personality disorder in adoptees compared to non-adoptees were (1) being in the age cohort 18-29 years (but no difference in the age 30-44 cohort), using the age 45 or older cohort as the reference and (2) having 12 years of education (but no difference in higher education groups), using the 0-11 years of education as the reference. These findings support the higher rates of personality disorders among adoptees compared to non-adoptees. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  8. A Psychometric Examination of the Pathological Obsessive Compulsive Personality Scale (POPS): Initial Study in an Undergraduate Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadri, Shalane K; McEvoy, Peter M; Pinto, Anthony; Anderson, Rebecca A; Egan, Sarah J

    2018-03-01

    Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) has been subject to numerous definition and classification changes, which has contributed to difficulties in reliable measurement of the disorder. Consequently, OCPD measures have yielded poor validity and inconsistent prevalence estimates. Reliable and valid measures of OCPD are needed. The aim of the current study was to examine the factor structure and psychometric properties of the Pathological Obsessive Compulsive Personality Scale (POPS). Participants (N = 571 undergraduates) completed a series of self-report measures online, including the POPS. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to compare the fit of unidimensional, five factor, and bifactor models of the POPS. Convergent and divergent validity were assessed in relation to other personality dimensions. A bifactor model provided the best fit to the data, indicating that the total POPS scale and four subscales can be scored to obtain reliable indicators of OCPD. The POPS was most strongly associated with a disorder-specific measure of OCPD, however there were also positive associations with theoretically disparate constructs, thus further research is needed to clarify validity of the scale.

  9. Predicting Personality Disorder Functioning Styles by the Five-Factor Nonverbal Personality Questionnaire in Healthy Volunteers and Personality Disorder Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qianqian; Ma, Guorong; Zhu, Qisha; Fan, Hongying; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Detecting personality disorders in the illiterate population is a challenge, but nonverbal tools measuring personality traits such as the Five-Factor Nonverbal Personality Questionnaire (FFNPQ) might help. We hypothesized that FFNPQ traits are associated with personality disorder functioning styles in a predictable way, especially in a sample of personality disorder patients. We therefore invited 106 personality disorder patients and 205 healthy volunteers to answer the FFNPQ and the Parker Personality Measure (PERM) which measures 11 personality disorder functioning styles. Patients scored significantly higher on the FFNPQ neuroticism and conscientiousness traits and all 11 PERM styles. In both groups, the 5 FFNPQ traits displayed extensive associations with the 11 PERM styles, respectively, and the associations were more specific in patients. Associations between neuroticism, extraversion and agreeableness traits and most PERM styles were less exclusive, but conscientiousness was associated with antisocial (-) and obsessive-compulsive styles, and openness to experience with schizotypal and dependent (-) styles. Our study has demonstrated correlations between FFNPQ traits and PERM styles, and implies the nonverbal measure of personality traits is capable of aiding the diagnoses of personality disorders in the illiterate population. Enlarging sample size and including the illiterate might make for more stable results. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Hoarding behavior among young children with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Hannah; Stewart, Elyse; Walther, Michael; Benito, Kristen; Freeman, Jennifer; Conelea, Christ; Garci, Abbe

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that among the various subtypes of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), adults (e.g. Frost, Krause & Steketee, 1996) and older children and adolescents (Bloch et al., 2009; Storch et al., 2007) with problematic hoarding have distinct features and a poor treatment prognosis. However, there is limited information on the phenomenology and prevalence of hoarding behaviors in young children. The present study characterizes children ages 10 and under who present with OCD and hoarding behaviors. Sixty-eight children received a structured interview-determined diagnosis of OCD. Clinician administered, parent-report, and child-report measures on demographic, symptomatic, and diagnostic variables were completed. Clinician ratings of hoarding symptoms and parent and child endorsement of the hoarding item on the CY-BOCS checklist (Scahill, Riddle, McSwiggin-Hardin, & Ort, 1997) determined inclusion in the hoarding group ( n =33). Compared to children without hoarding symptoms ( n =35), the presence of hoarding symptoms was associated with an earlier age of primary diagnosis onset and a higher proportion of ADHD and provisional anxiety diagnoses. These results are partially consistent with the adult literature and with findings in older children (Storch et al., 2007). Additional data on clinical presentation and phenomenology of hoarding are needed to form a developmentally appropriate definition of the behavior.

  11. Social context modulates cognitive markers in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

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    Santamaría-García, Hernando; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Burgaleta, Miguel; Ayneto, Alba; Alonso, Pino; Menchón, José M; Cardoner, Narcis; Sebastián-Gallés, Nuria

    2017-08-03

    Error monitoring, cognitive control and motor inhibition control are proposed as cognitive alterations disrupted in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). OCD has also been associated with an increased sensitivity to social evaluations. The effect of a social simulation over electrophysiological indices of cognitive alterations in OCD was examined. A case-control cross-sectional study measuring event-related potentials (ERP) for error monitoring (Error-Related Negativity), cognitive control (N2) and motor control (LRP) was conducted. We analyzed twenty OCD patients and twenty control participants. ERP were recorded during a social game consisting of a visual discrimination task, which was performed in the presence of a simulated superior or an inferior player. Significant social effects (different ERP amplitudes in Superior vs. Inferior player conditions) were found for OCD patients, but not for controls, in all ERP components. Performing the task against a simulated inferior player reduced abnormal ERP responses in OCD to levels observed in controls. The hierarchy-induced ERP effects were accompanied effects over reaction times in OCD patients. Social context modulates signatures of abnormal cognitive functioning in OCD, therefore experiencing a social superiority position impacts over cognitive processes in OCD such as error monitoring mechanisms. These results open the door for the research of new therapeutic choices.

  12. Inverse reasoning processes in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

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    Wong, Shiu F; Grisham, Jessica R

    2017-04-01

    The inference-based approach (IBA) is one cognitive model that aims to explain the aetiology and maintenance of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The model proposes that certain reasoning processes lead an individual with OCD to confuse an imagined possibility with an actual probability, a state termed inferential confusion. One such reasoning process is inverse reasoning, in which hypothetical causes form the basis of conclusions about reality. Although previous research has found associations between a self-report measure of inferential confusion and OCD symptoms, evidence of a specific association between inverse reasoning and OCD symptoms is lacking. In the present study, we developed a task-based measure of inverse reasoning in order to investigate whether performance on this task is associated with OCD symptoms in an online sample. The results provide some evidence for the IBA assertion: greater endorsement of inverse reasoning was significantly associated with OCD symptoms, even when controlling for general distress and OCD-related beliefs. Future research is needed to replicate this result in a clinical sample and to investigate a potential causal role for inverse reasoning in OCD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Reasoning in people with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Jane; Cove, Jennifer; Fineberg, Naomi; Msetfi, Rachel M; J Ball, Linden

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the inductive and deductive reasoning abilities of people with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Following previous research, it was predicted that people with OCD would show different abilities on inductive reasoning tasks but similar abilities to controls on deductive reasoning tasks. A two-group comparison was used with both groups matched on a range of demographic variables. Where appropriate, unmatched variables were entered into the analyses as covariates. Twenty-three people with OCD and 25 control participants were assessed on two tasks: an inductive reasoning task (the 20-questions task) and a deductive reasoning task (a syllogistic reasoning task with a content-neutral and content-emotional manipulation). While no group differences emerged on several of the parameters of the inductive reasoning task, the OCD group did differ on one, and arguably the most important, parameter by asking fewer correct direct-hypothesis questions. The syllogistic reasoning task results were analysed using both correct response and conclusion acceptance data. While no main effects of group were evident, significant interactions indicated important differences in the way the OCD group reasoned with content neutral and emotional syllogisms. It was argued that the OCD group's patterns of response on both tasks were characterized by the need for more information, states of uncertainty, and doubt and postponement of a final decision.

  14. [Neuroimaging and the neurobiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiepek, Günter; Tominschek, Igor; Karch, Susanne; Mulert, Christoph; Pogarell, Oliver

    2007-01-01

    The following review is focusing on results of functional neuroimaging. After some introductory remarks on the phenomenology, epidemiology, and psychotherapy approaches of obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD) the most important OCD-related brain regions are presented. Obviously, not only the prominent cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical feedback loops are involved, as functional brain imaging studies tell us, but also other regions as the inferior parietal lobe, the anterior and posterior cingulate gyrus, insula, amygdala, cerebellum, and others. Subclassifications using factor-analysis methods support the hypothesis, that most important subtypes ("washing/contamination fear", "obsessions/checking", "symmetry/ordering", "hoarding") involve different, but partially overlapping brain areas. Stimulation paradigms in fMRI-research are commonly based on symptom provocation by visual or tactile stimuli, or on action-monitoring and error-monitoring tasks. Deficits in action-monitoring and planning are discussed to be one of the basic dysfunctions of OCD. Finally, results of psychotherapeutic induced variations of brain activations in OCD are presented.

  15. Inductive and deductive reasoning in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Janice; Grisham, Jessica R; Hayes, Brett K

    2018-06-01

    This study examined the hypothesis that participants diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) show a selective deficit in inductive reasoning but are equivalent to controls in deductive reasoning. Twenty-five participants with OCD and 25 non-clinical controls made inductive and deductive judgments about a common set of arguments that varied in logical validity and the amount of positive evidence provided (premise sample size). A second inductive reasoning task required participants to make forced-choice decisions and rate the usefulness of diverse evidence or non-diverse evidence for evaluating arguments. No differences in deductive reasoning were found between participants diagnosed with OCD and control participants. Both groups saw that the amount of positive evidence supporting a conclusion was an important guide for evaluating inductive arguments. However, those with OCD showed less sensitivity to premise diversity in inductive reasoning than controls. The findings were similar for both emotionally neutral and OCD-relevant stimuli. The absence of a clinical control group means that it is difficult to know whether the deficit in diversity-based reasoning is specific to those with OCD. People with OCD are impaired in some forms of inductive reasoning (using diverse evidence) but not others (use of sample size). Deductive reasoning appears intact in those with OCD. Difficulties using evidence diversity when reasoning inductively may maintain OCD symptoms through reduced generalization of learned safety information. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Inductive reasoning and doubt in obsessive compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Kieron; Wilson, Samantha; Taillon, Annie; Pélissier, Marie-Claude; Audet, Jean-Sebastien

    2018-06-01

    Previous studies show that individuals with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) accord more importance than healthy controls (HC) to alternative conclusions, resulting in increased doubt regarding an initial conclusion. The goal of the present study was to replicate and extend this finding. Eighteen participants diagnosed with OCD and 16 HC completed the Reasoning with Inductive Arguments Task (RIAT), which operationalizes doubt as change in confidence towards a conclusion after alternative conclusions are presented. To examine conditions that facilitate doubt, the impact of alternative conclusions that both supported and contradicted the initial conclusion was compared, as well as the effect of neutral and OCD-relevant item content. Both the OCD and HC groups decreased confidence after contradicting conclusions, but only the HC group increased confidence when presented with supporting conclusions. Furthermore, decrease in confidence in the OCD group correlated with OCD symptom severity. The RIAT could be adapted to better take into account of OCD subtypes. Doubt generation may contribute to obsessional doubting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Functional neuroimaging of avoidance habits in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillan, Claire M; Apergis-Schoute, Annemieke M; Morein-Zamir, Sharon; Urcelay, Gonzalo P; Sule, Akeem; Fineberg, Naomi A; Sahakian, Barbara J; Robbins, Trevor W

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the neural correlates of excessive habit formation in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The authors aimed to test for neurobiological convergence with the known pathophysiology of OCD and to infer, based on abnormalities in brain activation, whether these habits arise from dysfunction in the goal-directed or habit system. Thirty-seven OCD patients and 33 healthy comparison subjects learned to avoid shocks while undergoing a functional MRI scan. Following four blocks of training, the authors tested whether the avoidance response had become a habit by removing the threat of shock and measuring continued avoidance. Task-related differences in brain activity in three regions of interest (the caudate, the putamen, and the medial orbitofrontal cortex) were tested at a statistical threshold set at habit formation in OCD patients, which was associated with hyperactivation in the caudate, was observed. Activation in this region was also associated with subjective ratings of increased urge to perform habits. The OCD group, as a whole, showed hyperactivation in the medial orbitofrontal cortex during the acquisition of avoidance; however, this did not relate directly to habit formation. OCD patients exhibited excessive habits that were associated with hyperactivation in a key region implicated in the pathophysiology of OCD, the caudate nucleus. Previous studies indicate that this region is important for goal-directed behavior, suggesting that habit-forming biases in OCD may be a result of impairments in this system, rather than differences in the buildup of stimulus-response habits themselves.

  18. Examining procedural working memory processing in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahar, Nitzan; Teodorescu, Andrei R; Anholt, Gideon E; Karmon-Presser, Anat; Meiran, Nachshon

    2017-07-01

    Previous research has suggested that a deficit in working memory might underlie the difficulty of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients to control their thoughts and actions. However, a recent meta-analyses found only small effect sizes for working memory deficits in OCD. Recently, a distinction has been made between declarative and procedural working memory. Working memory in OCD was tested mostly using declarative measurements. However, OCD symptoms typically concerns actions, making procedural working-memory more relevant. Here, we tested the operation of procedural working memory in OCD. Participants with OCD and healthy controls performed a battery of choice reaction tasks under high and low procedural working memory demands. Reaction-times (RT) were estimated using ex-Gaussian distribution fitting, revealing no group differences in the size of the RT distribution tail (i.e., τ parameter), known to be sensitive to procedural working memory manipulations. Group differences, unrelated to working memory manipulations, were found in the leading-edge of the RT distribution and analyzed using a two-stage evidence accumulation model. Modeling results suggested that perceptual difficulties might underlie the current group differences. In conclusion, our results suggest that procedural working-memory processing is most likely intact in OCD, and raise a novel, yet untested assumption regarding perceptual deficits in OCD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Investigating the prevalence of personality disorders and its relationship with personality traits among students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davod Ghaderi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to investigate the prevalence of personality disorders and its relationship with personality traits among students. This research was among epidemiological-correlational descriptive studies. Method: For this purpose, 389 male students were selected via a multi-stage cluster sampling method. All subjects completed Millon's personality disorder (1987 and five-factor personality Costaand McCrae's questionnaires (1989. Results: The results showed that the prevalence of personality disorders is among students. It was also found that there existed a positive correlation between schizoid, avoidant, dependent, schizotypal, borderline and paranoid personality disorders with Neuroticism factor (r = .1. There was a significant negative correlation between schizoid, avoidant and schizotypal personality disorders with extraversion factor (r = .1 and significant positive correlation between histrionic disorders and extraversion (r = .1. There was a significant negative correlation between dependent personality disorder and Openness factor (r = .1 , significant negative correlation between narcissistic, antisocial and paranoid personality disorders with agree ableness factor (r = .1 and finally, significant negative correlation between antisocial, passive-aggressive and borderline personality disorders with accountability factor (r = .1and a significant positive correlation between accountability factor and compulsive personality disorder (r = .1. Conclusion: The results suggest a prevalence of personality disorders among students and significant correlation between some disorders with personality factors. Further studies in this area could provide more insightful findings in the field.

  20. Aripiprazole augmentation in poor insight obsessive-compulsive disorder: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinciguerra Valentina

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obsessive-compulsive disorder is associated with a relevant impairment in social and interpersonal functioning and severe disability. This seems to be particularly true for the poor insight subtype, characterised by a lack of consciousness of illness and, consequently, compliance with treatment. Poor responsiveness to serotonergic drugs in poor insight obsessive-compulsive patients may also require an augmentation therapy with atypical antipsychotics. Methods We reviewed a case in which a patient with a long history of poor insight obsessive-compulsive disorder was treated with a high dosage of serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Results The treatment resulted in a poor outcome. This patient was therefore augmentated with aripiprazole. Conclusion Doctors should consider aripiprazole as a possible augmentation strategy for serotonergic poor responder obsessive-compulsive patients, but further research on these subjects is needed.

  1. Obsessive compulsive and related disorders: comparing DSM-5 and ICD-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marras, Anna; Fineberg, Naomi; Pallanti, Stefano

    2016-08-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been recognized as mainly characterized by compulsivity rather than anxiety and, therefore, was removed from the anxiety disorders chapter and given its own in both the American Psychiatric Association (APA) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) and the Beta Draft Version of the 11th revision of the World Health Organization (WHO) International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). This revised clustering is based on increasing evidence of common affected neurocircuits between disorders, differently from previous classification systems based on interrater agreement. In this article, we focus on the classification of obsessive-compulsive and related disorders (OCRDs), examining the differences in approach adopted by these 2 nosological systems, with particular attention to the proposed changes in the forthcoming ICD-11. At this stage, notable differences in the ICD classification are emerging from the previous revision, apparently converging toward a reformulation of OCRDs that is closer to the DSM-5.

  2. The impact of attentional and emotional demands on memory performance in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Jakob; Hendrikx, Friederike; Stierle, Christian; Stengler, Katarina; Jahn, Ina; Exner, Cornelia

    2017-08-01

    Lower performance on memory tests in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been repeatedly observed. However, the origins of these performance deficits are not sufficiently explained. In this study we tested if OCD-related extensive focus of attention on thoughts (heightened self-consciousness) could be an explanatory mechanism for lower memory performance. Heightened situational self-consciousness was manipulated by instructing participants to either monitor neutral thoughts or to monitor OCD-related thoughts. We included a Behavioral Avoidance Task based on individual obsessions and compulsions to induce OCD-related thoughts. Participants were asked to perform these monitoring tasks in parallel to a taxing verbal memory task, resulting in learning under divided attention. The two conditions of learning under divided attention were compared to a single-task condition. Twenty-four participants with OCD and 24 healthy controls took part in these three learning conditions. The results indicate that in both groups memory performance deteriorated in the two conditions with divided attention compared to the single task condition. In the OCD-related thought monitoring condition (OTM) self-consciousness and Behavioral Avoidance Task-induced stress and fear were particularly increased and memory performance further deteriorated in the OCD group. This finding highlights an important and underestimated mechanism (personal involvement) which might serve to better understand lower memory performance in OCD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Socio-demographic study of obsessive compulsive disorder in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gad, Ehsane M; Shaltout, Taher E

    2004-10-01

    We dedicated our work to study the socio-demographic aspect of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) patients seeking psychiatric treatment in the outpatient clinic of Hamad General Hospital for a duration of approximately 5 years of continuous follow-up. Out of 8878 individual patients who attended the psychiatric outpatient clinic of Hamad General Hospital in Qatar, during the period from August 1996 to December 2001, we reviewed a total number of 348 patients with the diagnosis of OCD (according to International Classification of Diseases-10 diagnostic criteria). We divided them according to their age, sex, nationality, duration of illness, occupation and marital status. Each patient was interviewed using a structured interview technique and evaluated by a psychiatrist in one session at the psychiatric outpatient clinic. We found that the disorder is more prevalent among non-Qatari people (52%) (Arabs 36.2%, non-Arabs 15.8%) than Qatari people (48%); more common at the age groups of 31-45 years (44.8%); more frequent in the category that visited the outpatient clinic for a period of 1-4 years (60%). We found that the married females (34.5%) are affected more than the married male patients (24.7%). It was also found that in the diagnosis of OCD predominantly obsessional thoughts were 54.9%; more frequent in the sample than the other diagnosis. In the State of Qatar, where expatriates usually outnumber Qatari patients, we discovered that non-Qatari patients are affected more with OCD than the natives. Sex, marital status and occupation also proved to be important factors. From our study, in the female married group, being a housewife seems to pose a greater risk in developing OCD. Predominantly obsessional thought was the most common sub-type of OCD affecting the patients in Qatar.

  4. Differences in clinical intrusive thoughts between obsessive-compulsive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and hypochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Sanchiz, Pablo; Nogueira-Arjona, Raquel; Godoy-Ávila, Antonio; Gavino-Lázaro, Aurora; Freeston, Mark H

    2017-11-01

    Differences and similarities between intrusive thoughts typical of obsessive-compulsive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and hypochondriasis are relevant for their differential diagnosis, formulation, and psychological treatment. Previous research in non-clinical samples pointed out the relevance of some process variables, such as responsibility, guilt, or neutralization strategies. This research is aimed to investigate the differences and similarities between clinical obsessions, worries, and illness intrusions in some of these process variables. A second aim is to identify models based on these variables that could reliably differentiate between them. Three groups of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (n = 35; 60% women, mean age 38.57), generalized anxiety disorder (n = 36; 61.1% women, mean age 41.50), and hypochondriasis (n = 34; 70.6% women, mean age 31.59) were evaluated using the Cognitive Intrusions Questionnaire-Transdiagnostic Version (Romero-Sanchiz, Nogueira-Arjona, Godoy-Ávila, Gavino-Lázaro, & Freeston, ). The results showed that some appraisals (e.g., responsibility or egodystonicity), emotions (e.g., guilt or insecurity), neutralization strategies, and other variables (e.g., verbal content or trigger from body sensation) are relevant for the discrimination between obsessions, worries, and illness intrusions. The results also showed 3 stable models based on these variables for the discrimination between these thoughts. The implication of these results in the diagnosis, formulation, and psychological treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and hypochondriasis is discussed. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Emotional Processing in Borderline Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvak, Michael K.; Sege, Christopher T.; Sloan, Denise M.; Shea, M. Tracie; Yen, Shirley; Litz, Brett T.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) would exhibit augmented emotional responses to picture stimuli after being challenged with an ideographic interpersonal conflict script. Participants were 24 adults diagnosed with BPD, 23 adults diagnosed with obsessive compulsive personality disorder (OCPD), and 28 normal controls. Participants viewed emotionally evocative pictures before and after listening to the interpersonal script while a variety of physiological measures were recorded. Findings indicated that the interpersonal script was effective in eliciting enduring emotional responses from the BPD group relative to the control groups. However, despite the effectiveness of the interpersonal challenge task, there were no group differences in emotional responding to the affect eliciting stimuli. The findings underscore the complexities involved in examining emotional dysregulation in BPD in a laboratory setting. PMID:22449065

  6. Schizoid personality disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Dammann

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The schizoid personality disorder is characterized by a lack of interest in close relationships, both in the family and in other interpersonal relationships, including intimate/sexual interactions, a superiority of introverted activities, emotional coldness, estrangement and flattened affect (DSM-5. This video lecture is devoted to the review of the prevalence, diagnosis, and treatment of this disorder. In addition, the lecture examines clinical cases and an example of managing such patients.

  7. The Questionnaire of Personality Disorders (VMO: Construction and preleminary research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Benedik

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the development of the self-report Questionnaire of Personality Disorders (VMO, which was constructed on the basis of DSM-IV classification for personality disorders(American Psychiatric Association, 1994, Beck's theory of dysfunctional cognitive schemas (Beck in Freeman, 1990 and psychoanalytic theories of basic personality structures. We focused on the basic experiencing of self and others, which is characteristic of specific personality type. In regard to these theories we believe that personality disorder is a broader term; the disorders within it are not limited to existing DSM-IV axis II categories. The personality disorders are complex phenomenon, which are better described on dimensional then categorical scales as well. The questionnaire consists of 213 items, which correspond to 12 clinical scales (for histrionic, obsessive-compulsive, passive-aggressive, avoidant, dependent, depressive, narcissistic, borderline, antisocial, paranoid, schizoid and schizotypal personality disorders and a lie scale. According to the personality organization theory (Kernberg, 1986 and other psychoanalytic theories it is divided into four parts: for neurotic (histrionic, obsessive-compulsive, passive-aggressive and avoidant disorders, depressive (dependent and depressive disorders, borderline (narcissistic, borderline and antisocial disorders and psychotic disorders (paranoid, schizoid and schizotypal disorders. The questionnaire was administered to 415 adult psychiatric patients and 215 health persons of both sexes. They were compared according to the responses of the questionnaire. The internal reliability of scales is sufficient, but correlation between scales is quite strong. The validity was tested with the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire (PDQ-4, Hyler, 1994 and through comparing of the results of healthy individuals and psychiatric patients with different diagnosis. The results are generally in accordance with the

  8. Compulsive buying in bipolar disorder: is it a comorbidity or a complication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesebir, Sermin; Işitmez, Sema; Gündoğar, Duru

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the frequency of compulsive buying in bipolar disorder (BD), to compare it with healthy controls, and to search if there is a difference between bipolar cases with and without compulsive buying in terms of sociodemographic qualities, temperament, clinical characteristics and comorbid diagnoses. One-hundred outpatient cases diagnosed as BD according to DSM-IV were evaluated consecutively. Following the diagnosis interview (SCID-I and II) the subjects completed the mood disorders registry form, Compulsive Buying Scale and TEMPS-A. Compulsive buying scores were higher in bipolar patients than healthy controls (pcompulsive buying revealed higher cyclothymic and irritable temperament scores than other bipolar patients (p=0.029 vs 0.045). Premenstrual syndrome and postpartum onset were more frequent, while psychotic symptoms were less in compulsive buyer bipolar patients (p=0.002, 0.009 vs 0.034). Severity of episode was lower (p=0.01), number of episodes was higher (p=0.009). Acute onset and remission before and after maintenance treatment were more frequent in patients with compulsive buying (p=0.011 and p=0.011). Full remission between episodes was 100%. Cases with axis-1 and axis-2 comorbidities demonstrated higher compulsive buying scores (p=0.025 and 0.005). Treatment regimen differences between patients are a limitation of the study. This is the first study to relate compulsive buying with the clinical characteristics of BD. Our results reveal that compulsive buying in BD occurs together with mood episodes which are not very severe, but frequent and with abrupt onset. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The impact of comorbid impulsive/compulsive disorders in problematic Internet use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Samuel R; Ioannidis, Konstantinos; Grant, Jon E

    2018-05-23

    Background and aims Problematic Internet use (PIU) is commonplace but is not yet recognized as a formal mental disorder. Excessive Internet use could result from other conditions such as gambling disorder. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of impulsive-compulsive comorbidities on the presentation of PIU, defined using Young's Diagnostic Questionnaire. Methods A total of 123 adults aged 18-29 years were recruited using media advertisements, and attended the research center for a detailed psychiatric assessment, including interviews, completion of questionnaires, and neuropsychological testing. Participants were classified into three groups: PIU with no comorbid impulsive/compulsive disorders (n = 18), PIU with one or more comorbid impulsive/compulsive disorders (n = 37), and healthy controls who did not have any mental health diagnoses (n = 67). Differences between the three groups were characterized in terms of demographic, clinical, and cognitive variables. Effect sizes for overall effects of group were also reported. Results The three groups did not significantly differ on age, gender, levels of education, nicotine consumption, or alcohol use (small effect sizes). Quality of life was significantly impaired in PIU irrespective of whether or not individuals had comorbid impulsive/compulsive disorders (large effect size). However, impaired response inhibition and decision-making were only identified in PIU with impulsive/compulsive comorbidities (medium effect sizes). Discussion and conclusions Most people with PIU will have one or more other impulsive/compulsive disorders, but PIU can occur without such comorbidities and still present with impaired quality of life. Response inhibition and decision-making appear to be disproportionately impacted in the case of PIU comorbid with other impulsive/compulsive conditions, which may account for some of the inconsistencies in the existing literature. Large scale international collaborations are

  10. Prevalence of obsessive-compulsive disorder in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhondzadeh Shahin

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estimates of the annual prevalence for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD were consistent across the international sites range, 1.9% – 2.5%. The nine population surveys, which used Diagnostic Interview Schedule, estimated a six-month prevalence of OCD ranging from 0.7% to 2.1%. This study performed in order to determine the prevalence of OCD in a population-based study among Iranian adults aged 18 and older and to study the association of them with factors such as sex, marital status, education, type of occupation and residential area. Methods A cross-sectional nationwide epidemiological study of the Iranian population aged 18 and older was designed to estimate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and their association with the above mentioned factors. 25180 individuals were selected and interviewed through a randomized systematic and cluster sampling method from all Iranian households. Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV criteria were used in diagnosis of OCD. 250 clinical psychologists interviewed the selected subjects face to face at their homes. Results The prevalence of OCD in Iran is 1.8% (0.7% and 2.8% in males and females; respectively. 50.3% of the survey sample were men, 49.9% women, 29.1% single, 67.45% married, 0.4% separated or divorced, 2.5% widow/widower and 4% undetermined. All of the above-mentioned factors were examined in the univariate and multivariate logistic regression models. Although the data did not fit the models well, but in univariate models, sex, the category "single" of marital status, age, the categories "business" and "housewife" and residential areas showed significant effect adjusting for the factors, but the models didn't fit the data properly. Conclusion The study suggests that the prevalence of OCD is not rare in the community of Iran and is within the range of other countries. Similar to prior

  11. [Antisocial personality disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repo-Tiihonen, Eila; Hallikainen, Tero

    2016-01-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASP), especially psychopathy as its extreme form, has provoked fear and excitement over thousands of years. Ruthless violence involved in the disorder has inspired scientists, too.The abundance of research results concerning epidemiology, physiology, neuroanatomy, heritability, and treatment interventions has made ASP one of the best documented disorders in psychiatry. Numerous interventions have been tested, but there is no current treatment algorithm. Biological and sociological parameters indicate the importance of early targeted interventions among the high risk children. Otherwise, as adults they cause the greatest harm. The use of medications or psychotherapy for adults needs careful consideration.

  12. Studies of Personality Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronningstam, Elsa; Simonsen, Erik; Oldham, John M

    2014-01-01

    The past 25 years have shown major advances in the studies of personality disorders. This collaborative article by the presidents, past and present, of ISSPD reflects on the progress within several significant areas of studies, i.e., assessment, neuroscience, treatment, prevention, advocacy...

  13. Borderline Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of a mood disorder—not borderline personality disorder Self-harming behavior, such as cutting Recurring thoughts of suicidal ... symptoms and reduce the number of suicidal or self-harming behaviors. Read more on NIMH’s Psychotherapies health topic ...

  14. Obsessive-compulsive skin disorders: a novel classification based on degree of insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tian Hao; Nakamura, Mio; Farahnik, Benjamin; Abrouk, Michael; Reichenberg, Jason; Bhutani, Tina; Koo, John

    2017-06-01

    Individuals with obsessive-compulsive features frequently visit dermatologists for complaints of the skin, hair or nails, and often progress towards a chronic relapsing course due to the challenge associated with accurate diagnosis and management of their psychiatric symptoms. The current DSM-5 formally recognizes body dysmorphic disorder, trichotillomania, neurotic excoriation and body focused repetitive behavior disorder as psychodermatological disorders belonging to the category of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders. However there is evidence that other relevant skin diseases such as delusions of parasitosis, dermatitis artefacta, contamination dermatitis, AIDS phobia, trichotemnomania and even lichen simplex chronicus possess prominent obsessive-compulsive characteristics that do not necessarily fit the full diagnostic criteria of the DSM-5. Therefore, to increase dermatologists' awareness of this unique group of skin disorders with OCD features, we propose a novel classification system called Obsessive-Compulsive Insight Continuum. Under this new classification system, obsessive-compulsive skin manifestations are categorized along a continuum based on degree of insight, from minimal insight with delusional obsessions to good insight with minimal obsessions. Understanding the level of insight is thus an important first step for clinicians who routinely interact with these patients.

  15. Cortical and brainstem plasticity in Tourette syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppa, Antonio; Marsili, Luca; Di Stasio, Flavio; Berardelli, Isabella; Roselli, Valentina; Pasquini, Massimo; Cardona, Francesco; Berardelli, Alfredo

    2014-10-01

    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome is characterized by motor/vocal tics commonly associated with psychiatric disorders, including obsessive-compulsive disorder. We investigated primary motor cortex and brainstem plasticity in Tourette patients, exposed and unexposed to chronic drug treatment, with and without psychiatric disturbances. We also investigated primary motor cortex and brainstem plasticity in obsessive-compulsive disorder. We studied 20 Tourette patients with and without psychiatric disturbances, 15 with obsessive-compulsive disorder, and 20 healthy subjects. All groups included drug-naïve patients. We conditioned the left primary motor cortex with intermittent/continuous theta-burst stimulation and recorded motor evoked potentials. We conditioned the supraorbital nerve with facilitatory/inhibitory high-frequency stimulation and recorded the blink reflex late response area. In healthy subjects, intermittent theta-burst increased and continuous theta-burst stimulation decreased motor evoked potentials. Differently, intermittent theta-burst failed to increase and continuous theta-burst stimulation failed to decrease motor evoked potentials in Tourette patients, with and without psychiatric disturbances. In obsessive-compulsive disorder, intermittent/continuous theta-burst stimulation elicited normal responses. In healthy subjects and in subjects with obsessive-compulsive disorder, the blink reflex late response area increased after facilitatory high-frequency and decreased after inhibitory high-frequency stimulation. Conversely, in Tourette patients, with and without psychiatric disturbances, facilitatory/inhibitory high-frequency stimulation left the blink reflex late response area unchanged. Theta-burst and high-frequency stimulation elicited similar responses in drug-naïve and chronically treated patients. Tourette patients have reduced plasticity regardless of psychiatric disturbances. These findings suggest that abnormal plasticity contributes to the

  16. Compulsive Buying Behavior: Characteristics of Comorbidity with Gambling Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granero, Roser; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Steward, Trevor; Mestre-Bach, Gemma; Baño, Marta; Del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Moragas, Laura; Aymamí, Neus; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; Mallorquí-Bagué, Núria; Tárrega, Salomé; Menchón, José M; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Compulsive buying behavior (CBB) has begun to be recognized as a condition worthy of attention by clinicians and researchers. Studies on the commonalities between CBB and other behavioral addictions such as gambling disorder (GD) exist in the literature, but additional research is needed to assess the frequency and clinical relevance of the comorbidity of CBB and GD. The aim of the study was to estimate the point-prevalence of CBB+GD in a clinical setting. Data corresponded to n = 3221 treatment-seeking patients who met criteria for CBB or GD at a public hospital unit specialized in treating behavioral addictions. Three groups were compared: only-CBB (n = 127), only-GD (n = 3118) and comorbid CBB+GD (n = 24). Prevalence for the co-occurrence of CBB+GD was 0.75%. In the stratum of patients with GD, GD+CBB comorbidity obtained relatively low point prevalence (0.77%), while in the subsample of CBB patients the estimated prevalence of comorbid GD was relatively high (18.9%). CBB+GD comorbidity was characterized by lower prevalence of single patients, higher risk of other behavioral addictions (sex, gaming or internet), older age and age of onset. CBB+GD registered a higher proportion of women compared to only-GD (37.5 vs. 10.0%) but a higher proportion of men compared to only-CBB (62.5 vs. 24.4%). Compared to only-GD patients, the simultaneous presence of CBB+GD was associated with increased psychopathology and dysfunctional levels of harm avoidance. This study provides empirical evidence to better understand CBB, GD and their co-occurrence. Future research should help delineate the processes through which people acquire and develop this comorbidity.

  17. Compulsive Buying Behavior: Characteristics of Comorbidity with Gambling Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roser eGranero

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Compulsive buying behavior (CBB has begun to be recognized as a condition worthy of attention by clinicians and researchers. Studies on the commonalities between CBB and other behavioral addictions such as gambling disorder (GD exist in the literature, but additional research is needed to assess the frequency and clinical relevance of the comorbidity of CBB and GD. The aim of the study was to estimate the point-prevalence of CBB+GD in a clinical setting. Data corresponded to n=3,221 treatment-seeking patients who met criteria for CBB or GD at a public hospital unit specialized in treating behavioral addictions. Three groups were compared: only-CBB (n=127, only-GD (n=3,118 and comorbid CBB+GD (n=24. Prevalence for the co-occurrence of CBB+GD was 0.75%. In the stratum of patients with GD, GD+CBB comorbidity obtained relatively low point prevalence (0.77%, while in the subsample of CBB patients the estimated prevalence of comorbid GD was relatively high (18.9%. CBB+GD comorbidity was characterized by lower prevalence of single patients, higher risk of other behavioral addictions (sex, gaming or internet, older age and age of onset. CBB+GD registered a higher proportion of women compared to only-GD (37.5% vs. 10.0% but a higher proportion of men compared to only-CBB (62.5% vs. 24.4%. Compared to only-GD patients, the simultaneous presence of CBB+GD was associated with increased psychopathology and dysfunctional levels of harm avoidance. This study provides empirical evidence to better understand CBB, GD and their co-occurrence. Future research should help delineate the processes through which people acquire and develop this comorbidity.

  18. Comorbidity between obsessive-compulsive disorder and body dysmorphic disorder: prevalence, explanatory theories, and clinical characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frías, Álvaro; Palma, Carol; Farriols, Núria; González, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Background With the advent of the fifth edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) has been subsumed into the obsessive-compulsive disorders and related disorders (OCDRD) category. Objective We aimed to determine the empirical evidence regarding the potential relationship between BDD and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) based on the prevalence data, etiopathogenic pathways, and clinical characterization of patients with both disorders. Method A comprehensive search of databases (PubMed and PsycINFO) was performed. Published manuscripts between 1985 and May 2015 were identified. Overall, 53 studies fulfilled inclusion criteria. Results Lifetime comorbidity rates of BDD–OCD are almost three times higher in samples with a primary diagnosis of BDD than those with primary OCD (27.5% vs 10.4%). However, other mental disorders, such as social phobia or major mood depression, are more likely among both types of psychiatric samples. Empirical evidence regarding the etiopathogenic pathways for BDD–OCD comorbidity is still inconclusive, whether concerning common shared features or one disorder as a risk factor for the other. Specifically, current findings concerning third variables show more divergences than similarities when comparing both disorders. Preliminary data on the clinical characterization of the patients with BDD and OCD indicate that the deleterious clinical impact of BDD in OCD patients is greater than vice versa. Conclusion Despite the recent inclusion of BDD within the OCDRD, data from comparative studies between BDD and OCD need further evidence for supporting this nosological approach. To better define this issue, comparative studies between BDD, OCD, and social phobia should be carried out. PMID:26345330

  19. Integrating play therapy in the treatment of children with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold-Steinberg, S; Logan, D

    1999-10-01

    While behavioral and psychopharmacological approaches are the most effective interventions for treating obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), psychodynamically oriented play therapy can enhance the treatment of children with this disorder. Play therapy techniques are useful in addressing treatment resistance, feelings of shame around OCD symptoms, negative self-concept, and issues of psychosocial adjustment. A case study illustrates this integrated approach to treatment.

  20. Internet cognitive behavioural treatment for obsessive compulsive disorder : A randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahoney, Alison E J; Mackenzie, Anna; Williams, Alishia D; Smith, Jessica; Andrews, Gavin

    2014-01-01

    Internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy (iCBT) is becoming increasing accepted as an efficacious and effective treatment for the anxiety and depressive disorders. However few studies have examined the efficacy of iCBT for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). This randomised controlled trial

  1. Error-Related Negativity and Tic History in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Gregory L.; Carrasco, Melisa; Harbin, Shannon M.; Nienhuis, Jenna K.; LaRosa, Christina E.; Chen, Poyu; Fitzgerald, Kate D.; Gehring, William J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The error-related negativity (ERN) is a negative deflection in the event-related potential after an incorrect response, which is often increased in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, the relation of the ERN to comorbid tic disorders has not been examined in patients with OCD. This study compared ERN amplitudes…

  2. The Semantic Simon Effect in Tourette's Syndrome and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankins, D.; Bradshaw, J. L.; Georgiou-Karistianis, N.

    2006-01-01

    Core symptoms of Tourette's syndrome (TS) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) may be attributed to an impairment in inhibitory control. Neuropsychological studies have addressed inhibition in both disorders, but findings have been inconsistent. The aim of this study was to examine cognitive inhibition, using a semantic Simon effect paradigm,…

  3. Local-Global Processing in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Comorbid Tourette's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankins, D.; Bradshaw, J. L.; Georgiou-Karistianis, N.

    2005-01-01

    Neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies implicate attentional difficulties in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), but results are inconsistent due possibly to sample heterogeneity and lack of control of comorbid disorders, such as Tourette's syndrome (TS). Nevertheless, it has been suggested that OCD symptomatology may be a result of…

  4. Moving the brain: Neuroimaging motivational changes of deep brain stimulation in obsessive-compulsive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Figee, M.

    2013-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a neurosurgical technique that involves the implantation of electrodes in the brain. DBS enables electrical modulation of abnormal brain activity for treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Mrs. D. has been suffering from

  5. Comparison of Child Behavior Checklist subscales in screening for obsessive-compulsive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Pia Aaron Skovby; Bilenberg, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a prevalent psychiatric disorder in children and adolescents associated with significant functional impairment. Early and correct diagnosis is essential for an optimal treatment outcome. The purpose of this study was to determine which of four subscales...... derived from the Child Behavior Checklist best discriminates OCD patients from clinical and population-based controls....

  6. [Neuroimaging data of ADHD, tic-disorder and obsessive-compulsive-disorder in children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vloet, Timo D; Neufang, Susanne; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Konrad, Kerstin

    2006-09-01

    ADHD, Tic Disorder, Tourette's Syndrome, and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder are all characterised by an impairment of executive functioning and often occur together. There are thus indications of a similar neurobiological basis. This review presents an overview of neuroimaging studies of these disorders in childhood and adolescence, focusing thereby on magnet resonance imaging data. Studies provide concurring data about structural changes in the basal ganglia and the prefrontal cortex, and abnormal activation in the fronto-striatal circuitry in patients as compared to healthy controls. ADHD and Tourette's Syndrome are both associated with prefrontal aberrations. However, variances in Tourette's Syndrome are less pronounced, which might be due to compensation mechanisms. ADHD children show small, but more global, morphological alterations in the cortex and cerebellum, while Tourette's Syndrome seems to be linked additionally to differences in the occipital cortex. Furthermore, structural and functional data for obsessive-compulsive disorder indicate aberrations in the amygdala and thalamus, and functional changes in the orbito-frontal cortex. By comparison, findings in children with ADHD point towards abnormal activity in the ventral prefrontal cortex. To summarise, the data display an impairment of cortico-striato-thalamic circuits which appears to be associated with dysfunctioning motor inhibition, and impulsive behaviour and objectionable thoughts. Since the majority of the studies reviewed are characterised by small and heterogeneous samples, and since the studies differ in their methods, comparability is limited and general conclusions can not be drawn.

  7. Evaluation of the reported association of obsessive-compulsive symptoms or disorder with Tourette's disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, A K; Shapiro, E

    1992-01-01

    This review evaluates the evidence reporting an association of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) with Tourette's syndrome or disorder (TS). Published reports in the literature describing a relationship between OCS-OCD and TS provided the data for the review. The methodological adequacy of the studies are discussed and rated on five criteria: adequacy of the experimental sample, presence and adequacy of the control sample, whether tics are defined as OCS-OCD, whether blind procedures are used to diagnose OCS-OCD in subjects and controls, and evidence for the reliability and validity of OCS-OCD measures. Although there are considerable clinical indications suggesting an association of OCS-OCD with TS and chronic motor tic disorder (CMT), and a possible overlap between OSC-OCD and TS, our evaluation of the evidence does not provide adequate support for an association between these disorders. To meaningfully evaluate the possible relationship between OCS-OCD and TS requires development of specific criteria for classification of OCS-OCD-TS symptoms, use of adequate experimental and control samples, blind evaluation, reliable and valid measures of OCS-OCD-TS, and appropriate statistical analysis. If such studies are performed, it is possible that the strong relationship reported between OCS-OCD and TS is more likely to be artifact than fact, and recent bandwagon effect rather than the latest breakthrough.

  8. Family functioning in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder: A case - control study

    OpenAIRE

    Sateesh R Koujalgi; Raghavendra B Nayak; Adithya A Pandurangi; Nanasahed M Patil

    2015-01-01

    Background: Psychological disorders can have a direct impact on family functioning. Family dysfunction is an indirect factor leading to the relapse of psychological disorders. Literature on family dysfunction in anxiety disorder is limited. Role of family and its functioning in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) may help in better understanding of the role of social factors in OCD. Aim: The aim was to compare family functions in patients with OCD and compare with controls. Materials and Meth...

  9. ANANKASTIK PERSONALITY DISORDER IN SCHIZOPHRENIA PARANOID PATIENT: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damarnegara ..

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Anankastik personality disorder is a health problem that can disturb the activities of person and can accompany a variety of other mental health problems. The patient in thiscase is a patient with an anankastik or obsessive compulsive personality disorder withthe axis I diagnoses is Paranoid Schizophrenia and was given haloperidol 2x5mg, buthave not done psychotherapy because the patient has not been cooperative. Theprognosis is dependent on patient compliance in taking medication and controls for thesetting of the dose, and the support of her family. 

  10. Should an obsessive-compulsive spectrum grouping of disorders be included in DSM-V?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Katharine A; Stein, Dan J; Rauch, Scott L; Hollander, Eric; Fallon, Brian A; Barsky, Arthur; Fineberg, Naomi; Mataix-Cols, David; Ferrão, Ygor Arzeno; Saxena, Sanjaya; Wilhelm, Sabine; Kelly, Megan M; Clark, Lee Anna; Pinto, Anthony; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Farrow, Joanne; Leckman, James

    2010-06-01

    The obsessive-compulsive (OC) spectrum has been discussed in the literature for two decades. Proponents of this concept propose that certain disorders characterized by repetitive thoughts and/or behaviors are related to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and suggest that such disorders be grouped together in the same category (i.e. grouping, or "chapter") in DSM. This article addresses this topic and presents options and preliminary recommendations to be considered for DSM-V. The article builds upon and extends prior reviews of this topic that were prepared for and discussed at a DSM-V Research Planning Conference on Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders held in 2006. Our preliminary recommendation is that an OC-spectrum grouping of disorders be included in DSM-V. Furthermore, we preliminarily recommend that consideration be given to including this group of disorders within a larger supraordinate category of "Anxiety and Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders." These preliminary recommendations must be evaluated in light of recommendations for, and constraints upon, the overall structure of DSM-V. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Temporal discounting across three psychiatric disorders: Anorexia nervosa, obsessive compulsive disorder, and social anxiety disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinglass, Joanna E.; Lempert, Karolina M.; Choo, Tse-Hwei; Kimeldorf, Marcia B.; Wall, Melanie; Walsh, B. Timothy; Fyer, Abby J.; Schneier, Franklin R.; Simpson, H. Blair

    2018-01-01

    Background Temporal discounting refers to the tendency for rewards to lose value as the expected delay to receipt increases. Individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) have been found to show reduced temporal discounting rates, indicating a greater preference for delayed rewards compared to healthy peers. Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) and social anxiety disorder (SAD) commonly co-occur with AN, and anxiety has been related to development and prognosis of AN. We examined whether reduced temporal discounting is present across these potentially related disorders, and explored the relationship between temporal discounting and anxiety trans-diagnostically. Methods One hundred ninety six individuals (75 healthy controls (HC); 50 OCD; 27 AN; 44 SAD) completed two temporal discounting tasks in which they chose between smaller-sooner and larger-later monetary rewards. Two measures of discounting—discount rate and discount factor—were compared between diagnostic groups, and associations with anxious traits were examined. Results Individuals with AN showed decreased temporal discounting compared to HC. OCD and SAD groups did not differ significantly from HC. Across the sample, anxiety was associated with decreased discounting; more anxious individuals showed a greater preference for delayed reward. Conclusions We replicated the findings that individuals with AN show an increased preference for delayed reward relative to HC and that individuals with OCD do not differ from HC. We also showed that individuals with SAD do not differ from HC in discounting. Across this large sample, two measures of anxious temperament were associated with temporal discounting. These data raise new questions about the relationship between this dimensional trait and psychopathology. PMID:28009473

  12. Sex differences in the phenotypic expression of obsessive-compulsive disorder: an exploratory study from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torresan, Ricardo Cezar; Ramos-Cerqueira, Ana Teresa de Abreu; de Mathis, Maria Alice; Diniz, Juliana Belo; Ferrão, Ygor Arzeno; Miguel, Euripedes Constantino; Torres, Albina Rodrigues

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have shown differences in clinical features of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) between men and women, including mean age at onset of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS), types of OCS, comorbid disorders, course, and prognosis. The aim of this study was to compare male and female Brazilian patients with OCD on several demographic and clinical characteristics. Three hundred thirty outpatients with OCD (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition [DSM-IV], criteria) who sought treatment at 3 Brazilian public universities and at 2 private practice clinics in the city of São Paulo were evaluated. The assessment instruments used were the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale to evaluate OCD severity and symptoms, the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories, the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale, and the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Axis I Disorders to assess psychiatric comorbidity. Fifty-five percent of the patients (n = 182) were men who were significantly more likely than women to be single and to present sexual, religious, and symmetry obsessions and mental rituals. They also presented earlier onset of OCS and earlier symptom interference in functioning, and significantly more comorbid tic disorders and posttraumatic stress disorder. Women, besides showing significantly higher mean scores in the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories, were more likely to present comorbid simple phobias, eating disorders in general and anorexia in particular, impulse control disorders in general, and compulsive buying and skin picking in particular. No significant differences were observed between sexes concerning family history of OCS or OCD, and global symptoms severity, either in obsession or compulsive subscale. The present study confirms the presence of sex-related differences described in other countries and cultures. The fact that the OCS start earlier and

  13. The relationship between the FFM personality traits, state psychopathology, and sexual compulsivity in a sample of male college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Joana; Carvalho, Joana; Nobre, Pedro J

    2013-07-01

    Several studies have advocated a relationship between psychopathological features and sexual compulsivity. Such relationship is often found among individuals seeking help for out of control sexual behavior, suggesting that the association between psychological adjustment and sexual compulsivity may have a significant clinical value. However, a more complete approach to the topic of sexual compulsivity would also include the analysis of nonclinical samples as healthy individuals may be at risk of developing some features of hypersexuality in the future. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between stable traits of personality, state psychopathology, and sexual compulsivity in a sample of male college students. Furthermore, the potential mediating role of state psychopathology in the relationship between personality traits and sexual compulsivity was tested. Participants completed the following measures: the NEO Five-Factor Inventory, the Brief Symptom Inventory, and the Compulsive Sexual Behavior Inventory-22. The sample included 152 male college students recruited in a Portuguese university using nonrandom methods. The measures were completed individually and anonymously. Findings on state psychopathology suggested that psychoticism may be one of the key dimensions associated with sexual compulsivity in male students. The personality traits of Neuroticism and Agreeableness were also significant predictors of sexual compulsivity. Findings on the mediating effects suggested that state psychopathology mediated the relationship between Neuroticism and sexual compulsivity but not between Agreeableness and sexual compulsivity. A psychopathological path (encompassing Neuroticism and state psychopathology) and a behavioral path (encompassing Agreeableness features) may be involved in sexual compulsivity as reported by a nonclinical sample of male students. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  14. [Development of sexuality and motivational aspects of sexual behavior in men with obsessive-compulsive disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Sexual behavior and formation of sexuality in men with obsessive-compulsive disorder is one of the pressing issues in contemporary medicine. Obsessive-compulsive disorder is characterized by the development of intrusive thoughts, memories, movements and actions, as well as a variety of pathological fears (phobias). Increase in the number of patients with this pathology in modern clinical practice of neurotic disorders, the young age of the patients and as a result violation of interpersonal, communicational and sexual nature is quite apparent. The study involved 35 men aged 23 to 47 years with clinical signs of OCD. We determined the severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms using the Yale-Brown scale. We established the presence of a mild degree of disorder in 34,3% of cases; in 48,6% of cases disorder of moderate severity was diagnosed; remaining 17.1% were assessed subclinical condition of OCD at the applicable scale. The system of motivational maintenance of sexual behavior in men with obsessive-compulsive disorders is investigated. Motives of sexual behavior of the investigated men with the pathology are determined. The presented research in men with OCD have established multidimensionality and complexity of motivational ensuring of sexual behavior.

  15. Differentiating among singular and comorbid obsessive-compulsive disorder and social phobia symptomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudy, Brittany M; May, Anna C; Whiting, Sara E; Davis, Thompson E; Jenkins, Whitney S; Reuther, Erin T

    2014-01-01

    Social phobia is a frequent co-occurring diagnosis with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD); however, co-occurring OCD in those with social phobia is less common. Genetic, environmental, and cognitive traits are common risk factors for anxiety disorders broadly. It is plausible that shared variables related to OCD and/or social phobia could provide insight into the co-occurrence of these two disorders. The current study explored differences in fear of negative evaluation (FNE) and perfectionism among four groups: those with (1) elevated social phobia symptoms, (2) elevated OCD symptoms, (3) elevated symptoms of OCD and social phobia, and those who were (4) asymptomatic as a control group. A non-clinical sample of 196 participants completed several online questionnaires about social phobia and OCD symptomology. Results identified three cognitive variables (i.e., FNE, total perfectionism, and concern over mistakes) as differential variables in comorbid symptom presentation of OCD and social phobia. A fourth variable (i.e., doubts about actions) was identified as a potential dual risk factor, and four subsequent variables (i.e., parental criticism, personal standards, parental expectations, and organization) were not implicated in differential symptom presentation. Given the different rates of OCD and social phobia co-occurrence, identification of differentiating variables could aid in better understanding of potential risk factors, which may enhance preventative and therapeutic techniques. Study implications, limitations, and future recommendations are discussed.

  16. Evidence-Based Pharmacotherapy for Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Chronic Tic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro S. De Nadai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, much progress has been made in pharmacotherapy for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD and chronic tic disorders (CTDs. What were previously considered relatively intractable conditions now have an array of efficacious medicinal (and psychosocial interventions available at clinicians' disposal, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, atypical antipsychotics, and alpha-2 agonists. The purpose of this review is to discuss the evidence base for pharmacotherapy with pediatric OCD and CTDs with regard to efficacy, tolerability, and safety, and to put this evidence in the context of clinical management in integrated behavioral healthcare. While there is no single panacea for these disorders, there are a variety of medications that provide considerable relief for children with these disabling conditions.

  17. Evidence-Based Pharmacotherapy for Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Chronic Tic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nadai, Alessandro S.; Storch, Eric A.; McGuire, Joseph F.; Lewin, Adam B.; Murphy, Tanya K.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, much progress has been made in pharmacotherapy for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and chronic tic disorders (CTDs). What were previously considered relatively intractable conditions now have an array of efficacious medicinal (and psychosocial) interventions available at clinicians’ disposal, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, atypical antipsychotics, and alpha-2 agonists. The purpose of this review is to discuss the evidence base for pharmacotherapy with pediatric OCD and CTDs with regard to efficacy, tolerability, and safety, and to put this evidence in the context of clinical management in integrated behavioral healthcare. While there is no single panacea for these disorders, there are a variety of medications that provide considerable relief for children with these disabling conditions. PMID:23861643

  18. Late-Onset Startle Syndrome and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Gonzalez

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of late onset sporadic startle syndrome in a patient with a right posterior fossa brain tumour is reported. The exaggerated startle response did not respond to treatment with clonazepam. In addition to anxiety and depression, the patient developed obsessive- compulsive symptoms which responded to behavioural therapy. The possible mechanisms for this unique pattern of symptoms are discussed.

  19. Do autistic traits play a role in the bullying of obsessive-compulsive disorder and social phobia sufferers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejerot, S; Mörtberg, E

    2009-01-01

    Social phobia and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) share several similarities: both are categorized as anxiety disorders, avoidant personality disorder and depression are common in both, they have a similar age of onset and course, and both disorders respond to treatments with serotonin reuptake inhibitors and cognitive behavioural therapy. However, OCD and social phobia differ in respect to their relation to autism spectrum disorders (ASD; i.e. Asperger's syndrome, autism, pervasive disorder not otherwise specified). Findings that suggest a link between OCD and ASD have no parallel in social phobia. Moreover, obsessive-compulsive, paranoid and schizotypal personality disorders are prevalent in OCD and in ASD, but not in social phobia. Individuals with ASD are known to be frequent targets of bullying. We hypothesised that individuals with autistic traits would have been frequent targets for bullies during their childhood, as opposed to people without such traits. Adult patients with social phobia (n = 63) or OCD (n = 65) were assessed regarding autistic traits, and interviewed about being bullied at school. A reference group (n = 551) responded to questions about being bullied. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of being bullied between OCD (50%), social phobia patients (20%) and the reference group (27%). Autistic traits were more common in OCD than in social phobia. A history of being bullied was related to autistic traits among patients. Falling victim to bullying is not a random event. Autistic traits, i.e. low social skills, may be a predictor of being bullied in school. The high rate of bullying victims in persons who later develop OCD is suggested to be related to the overlap between OCD and ASD. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Narcissism and Narcissistic Personality Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Dammann

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This a video is one of the series of lectures about personality disorders. It covers the concept of narcissism and the concept of narcissism personality disorder.  The lecture is mainly focused on the differences between normal and pathological narcissism as well as etiology, diagnosis and practical recommendations on treatment of narcissism personality disorder.

  1. Narcissism and Narcissistic Personality Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Gerhard Dammann

    2017-01-01

    This a video is one of the series of lectures about personality disorders. It covers the concept of narcissism and the concept of narcissism personality disorder.  The lecture is mainly focused on the differences between normal and pathological narcissism as well as etiology, diagnosis and practical recommendations on treatment of narcissism personality disorder.

  2. Striatal structure and its association with N-Acetylaspartate and glutamate in autism spectrum disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naaijen, Jilly; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Forde, Natalie J.; Williams, Steven C. R.; Durston, Sarah; Brandeis, Daniel; Glennon, Jeffrey C.; Franke, Barbara; Lythgoe, David J.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) are often comorbid and are associated with changes in striatal volumes and N-Acetylaspartate (NAA) and glutamate levels. Here, we investigated the relation between dorsal striatal volume and NAA and glutamate levels. We

  3. The relationship between compulsive buying, eating disorder symptoms, and temperament in a sample of female students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claes, Laurence; Bijttebier, Patricia; Mitchell, James E; de Zwaan, Martina; Mueller, Astrid

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between compulsive buying (CB), eating disorder symptoms, and temperament (controlling for depression) in a sample of female students. We assessed 211 female undergraduate students using the Compulsive Buying Scale, the Eating Disorder Inventory, the Behavioral Inhibition System and Behavioral Activation System scales, the Adult Temperament Questionnaire, and the Physical Health Questionnaire-Depression. The results show a positive association between CB and the Eating Disorder Inventory-II drive for thinness and bulimia subscales. Both CB and eating disorder symptoms were related to low levels of effortful control. Finally, CB was also related to high levels of Behavioral Activation Scale reactivity (impulsivity), whereas eating disorder symptoms (especially drive for thinness) were more strongly related to high levels of Behavioral Inhibition Scale reactivity (anxiety). The implications of these findings for the treatment of CB and eating disorder symptoms will be discussed. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Response of symptom dimensions in obsessive-compulsive disorder to treatment with citalopram or placebo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stein, Dan J; Andersen, Elisabeth Anne Wreford; Overo, Kerstin Fredricson

    2007-01-01

    -Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale Checklist individual items yielded 5 factors (contamination/cleaning, harm/checking, aggressive/sexual/religious, hoarding/symmetry, and somatic/hypochondriacal). Hoarding/symmetry was associated with male gender, longer duration of obsessive-compulsive disorder and early onset......, whereas contamination/cleaning was associated with female gender. Citalopram was more effective than placebo, but high scores on the symmetry/hoarding and contamination/cleaning subscales predicted worse outcome at the end of study while high scores on the aggressive/religious/sexual subscale predicted...... dimension is mediated by the dopamine system. There may be associations between symmetry/hoarding, male gender, early onset, tics, and particular genetic variants; further work is, however, needed to delineate fully obsessive-compulsive disorder subtypes and their underlying neurobiology....

  5. Obsessive-compulsive disorder, impulse control disorders and drug addiction: common features and potential treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenelle, Leonardo F; Oostermeijer, Sanne; Harrison, Ben J; Pantelis, Christos; Yücel, Murat

    2011-05-07

    The basic concepts underlying compulsive, impulsive and addictive behaviours overlap, which may help explain why laymen use these expressions interchangeably. Although there has been a large research effort to better characterize and disentangle these behaviours, clinicians and scientists are still unable to clearly differentiate them. Accordingly, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), impulse control disorders (ICD) and substance-related disorders (SUD) overlap on different levels, including phenomenology, co-morbidity, neurocircuitry, neurocognition, neurochemistry and family history. In this review we summarize these issues with particular emphasis on the role of the opioid system in the pathophysiology and treatment of OCD, ICD and SUD. We postulate that with progression and chronicity of OCD, the proportion of the OCD-related behaviours (e.g. checking, washing, ordering and hoarding, among others) that are driven by impulsive 'rash' processes increase as involvement of more ventral striatal circuits becomes prominent. In contrast, as SUD and ICD progress, the proportion of the SUD- and ICD-related behaviours that are driven by compulsive 'habitual' processes increase as involvement of more dorsal striatal circuits become prominent. We are not arguing that, with time, ICD becomes OCD or vice versa. Instead, we are proposing that these disorders may acquire qualities of the other with time. In other words, while patients with ICD/SUD may develop 'compulsive impulsions', patients with OCD may exhibit 'impulsive compulsions'. There are many potential implications of our model. Theoretically, OCD patients exhibiting impulsive or addictive features could be managed with drugs that address the quality of the underlying drives and the involvement of neural systems. For example, agents for the reduction or prevention of relapse of addiction (e.g. heavy drinking), which modulate the cortico-mesolimbic dopamine system through the opioid (e.g. buprenorphine and naltrexone

  6. [Distribution regarding tendency on personality disorder among college students in Shijiazhuang city].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Wen-Ming; Xu, Xin-Rui; Liu, Juan; Yuan, Min; Feng, Wen-Bo

    2009-01-01

    To survey the prevalence of tendency on tendency of personality disorder among college students. By means of stratified cluster sampling, 498 students from 6 colleges in Shijiazhuang city and 204 students from 3 colleges in Beijing were studied through 'personality diagnostic questionnaire-revised UPDI'. The incidence rates on dependent personality (2.81%), histrionic personality (2.41%) and borderline personality (2.21%) were higher than obsessive-compulsive personality (0.40%) and schizoid personality (0.60%). The prevalence of personality disorder tendency was related to sex, major and years in college, blood type as well as their origins (from urban or rural). The overall incidence of personality disorder was 28.31% while the incidence rates of personality deviation and serious personality disorder tendency were 17.07% and 11.24% respectively. The incidence in males was higher than that in females. There appeared differences in dissociative personality, avoidant personality, paranoid personality, obsessive-compulsive personality, histrionic personality and narcissistic personality on people with different blood types. The scores of the city students were higher than that of the students from the rural areas regarding paranoid personality, dependent personality and narcissistic personality. Differences were also noticed between freshmen and students from other levels in the incidence rates on the tendency of avoidant personality disorder. There were different incidence rates on the tendency of personality disorder among college students that related to sex, level in college and the origins where they were from (urban or rural).

  7. Clinical features of tic-related obsessive-compulsive disorder: results from a large multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes de Alvarenga, Pedro; de Mathis, Maria Alice; Dominguez Alves, Anna Claudia; do Rosário, Maria Conceição; Fossaluza, Victor; Hounie, Ana Gabriela; Miguel, Euripedes Constantino; Rodrigues Torres, Albina

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate the clinical features of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients with comorbid tic disorders (TD) in a large, multicenter, clinical sample. A cross-sectional study was conducted that included 813 consecutive OCD outpatients from the Brazilian OCD Research Consortium and used several instruments of assessment, including the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, the Dimensional Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS), the USP Sensory Phenomena Scale, and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders. The sample mean current age was 34.9 years old (SE 0.54), and the mean age at obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) onset was 12.8 years old (SE 0.27). Sensory phenomena were reported by 585 individuals (72% of the sample). The general lifetime prevalence of TD was 29.0% (n = 236), with 8.9% (n = 72) presenting Tourette syndrome, 17.3% (n = 141) chronic motor tic disorder, and 2.8% (n = 23) chronic vocal tic disorder. The mean tic severity score, according to the YGTSS, was 27.2 (SE 1.4) in the OCD + TD group. Compared to OCD patients without comorbid TD, those with TD (OCD + TD group, n = 236) were more likely to be males (49.2% vs. 38.5%, p disorders in general: separation anxiety disorder, social phobia, specific phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, impulse control disorders in general, and skin picking. Also, the "aggressive," "sexual/religious," and "hoarding" symptom dimensions were more severe in the OCD + TD group. Tic-related OCD may constitute a particular subgroup of the disorder with specific phenotypical characteristics, but its neurobiological underpinnings remain to be fully disentangled.

  8. Potential role of anticonvulsants in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive and related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hee Ryung; Woo, Young Sup; Bahk, Won-Myong

    2014-10-01

    We reviewed the extant literature to evaluate the current evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of anticonvulsants in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive and related disorders. Relevant literature was accessed using the Cochrane database, embase and PubMed on 29 October 2013. Prospective studies examining the efficacy of anticonvulsants in obsessive-compulsive and related disorders were included. Case reports, case series, and retrospective studies were excluded. A total of 10 studies were included in this review. The studies of obsessive-compulsive disorder, except for two negative studies, showed favorable efficacy results of anticonvulsants. In one study on body dysmorphic disorder, levetiracetam showed favorable efficacy. In two lamotrigine studies for pathologic skin-picking, the efficacy findings were inconsistent. In one trichotillomania study, topiramate had reduced hair-pulling symptoms. Despite limited evidence, our review suggests that anticonvulsants have a potential role in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive and related disorders. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  9. Comorbid personality disorders among patients with depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wongpakaran N

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Nahathai Wongpakaran, Tinakon Wongpakaran, Vudhichai Boonyanaruthee, Manee Pinyopornpanish, Suthi Intaprasert Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand Purpose: To investigate the personality disorders (PDs diagnosed in patients with depressive disorders.Material and methods: This study included a cross-sectional analysis, and was an extension of the Thai Study of Affective Disorder (THAISAD project. Eighty-five outpatients with depressive disorders were interviewed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Inventory to assess for depression, in accordance with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision and using the Thai version of the Structured Clinical Interview for PDs to assess for PD.Results: Seventy-seven percent of the patients had at least one PD, 40% had one PD and 60% had two or more PDs (mixed cluster. The most common PDs found were borderline PD (20% and obsessive–compulsive PD (10.6%, while the occurrence of avoidant PD was low when compared to the findings of previous, related studies. Among the mixed cluster, cluster A combined with cluster C was the common mix. Both dysthymic disorder and double depression were found to have a higher proportion of PDs than major depressive disorder (85.7% versus 76.1%. Dependent PD was found to be less common in this study than in previous studies, including those carried out in Asia.Conclusion: The prevalence of PDs among those with depressive disorder varied, and only borderline PD seems to be consistently high within and across cultures. Mixed cluster plays a prominent role in depression, so more attention should be paid to patients in this category. Keywords: personality disorders, depressive disorder, prevalence, Asian, mixed cluster, SCID-II

  10. Autism spectrum disorders in adult outpatients with obsessive compulsive disorder in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikramanayake, Waduge Nishani Maheshi; Mandy, William; Shahper, Sonia; Kaur, Sukhwinder; Kolli, Sangeetha; Osman, Selma; Reid, Jemma; Jefferies-Sewell, Kiri; Fineberg, Naomi Anne

    2018-03-01

    Patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) frequently show traits of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This is one of the first studies to explore the clinical impact of the overlap between OCD and ASD as a categorical diagnosis. A cross-sectional survey in 73 adult outpatients with DSM-IV OCD. Autistic traits were measured using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ). A clinical estimate ASD diagnosis was made by interview using DSM-IV-TR criteria. OCD patients with and without autistic traits or ASD were compared on demographic and clinical parameters and level of OCD treatment-resistance based on treatment history. Thirty-four (47%) patients scored above the clinical threshold on the AQ (≥26) and 21 (27.8%) met diagnostic criteria for ASD. These diagnoses had not been made before. Patients with autistic traits showed a borderline significant increase in OCD symptom-severity (Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS); p = .054) and significantly increased impairment of insight (Brown Assessment of Beliefs Scale; p = .01). There was a positive correlation between AQ and Y-BOCS scores (p = .04), but not with OCD treatment resistance. There is a high prevalence of previously undiagnosed ASD in patients with OCD. ASD traits are associated with greater OCD symptom-severity and poor insight.

  11. [The role of inhibition in obsessional-compulsive disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuy, M; Rouillon, F; Bungener, C

    2013-02-01

    The nature of neuropsychological mechanisms underlying the clinical picture of obsessions and compulsions has not been clearly determined. A number of studies has emphasized the role of cognitive deficits, but diversity of methodology and overlapping of clinical sub-groups have not established a specific cognitive functioning of these patients. The studies carried out on executive functions have, however, helped to identify the important role that both inhibition and cognitive flexibility play in obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms. Most of them have found that a deficit of inhibition and alteration of cognitive flexibility could explain inflexibility and repetitive thoughts and actions typical of all types of OC disorders. The aim of the paper is to present the published data supporting the hypothesis of a specific role played by a deficit of inhibition and cognitive inflexibility. In the first, theoretical part, we present the neuropsychological approach emphasizing inhibition and lack of flexibility as a promising explanation of the functioning of OC disorders. In the second part, we will present studies using various measurements of inhibition and the results of which, therefore, support this hypothesis. On the theoretical level, it is the model of attention that was used in explaining the OCD hypothesis. In the model of attention control of action, described by Norman, Shallice and Burgess, three systems were emphasized: one that takes care of routine actions, and the second that takes over the first in situations where automatic activities must stop in order to establish an attention control and therefore inhibit automatic responses. When selection of everyday and automatic activities is not sufficient to accomplish a task, it is the third system, that of cognitive control, which takes over. This supervisory attentional system operates in non-routine and ambiguous activities. The cognitive control is charged with detecting potential or emitted cognitive errors

  12. Validation of the questionnaire for impulsive-compulsive disorders in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weintraub, Daniel; Hoops, Staci; Shea, Judy A; Lyons, Kelly E; Pahwa, Rajesh; Driver-Dunckley, Erika D; Adler, Charles H; Potenza, Marc N; Miyasaki, Janis; Siderowf, Andrew D; Duda, John E; Hurtig, Howard I; Colcher, Amy; Horn, Stacy S; Stern, Matthew B; Voon, Valerie

    2009-07-30

    As no comprehensive assessment instrument for impulse control disorders (ICDs) in Parkinson's disease (PD) exists, the aim of this study was to design and assess the psychometric properties of a self-administered screening questionnaire for ICDs and other compulsive behaviors in PD. The Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders in Parkinson's Disease (QUIP) has 3 sections: Section 1 assesses four ICDs (involving gambling, sexual, buying, and eating behaviors), Section 2 other compulsive behaviors (punding, hobbyism, and walkabout), and Section 3 compulsive medication use. For validation, a convenience sample of 157 PD patients at 4 movement disorders centers first completed the QUIP, and then was administered a diagnostic interview by a trained rater blinded to the QUIP results. A shortened instrument (QUIP-S) was then explored. The discriminant validity of the QUIP was high for each disorder or behavior (receiver operating characteristic area under the curve [ROC AUC]: gambling = 0.95, sexual behavior = 0.97, buying = 0.87, eating = 0.88, punding = 0.78, hobbyism = 0.93, walkabout = 0.79). On post hoc analysis, the QUIP-S ICD section had similar properties (ROC AUC: gambling = 0.95, sexual behavior = 0.96, buying = 0.87, eating = 0.88). When disorders/behaviors were combined, the sensitivity of the QUIP and QUIP-S to detect an individual with any disorder was 96 and 94%, respectively. Scores on the QUIP appear to be valid as a self-assessment screening instrument for a range of ICDs and other compulsive behaviors that occur in PD, and a shortened version may perform as well as the full version. A positive screen should be followed by a comprehensive, clinical interview to determine the range and severity of symptoms, as well as need for clinical management. Copyright 2009 Movement Disorder Society.

  13. Comparing attentional control and intrusive thoughts in obsessive-compulsive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder and non clinical population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehri Moradi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Attention is an important factor in information processing; obsessive- compulsive disorder (OCD and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD are two main emotional disorders with a chronic course. This research examined the relationship among attentional control and intrusive thoughts (worry, rumination and obsession in these disorders. It was hypothesized that attentional control is a common factor in OCD and GAD. In addition, we compared worry, rumination and obsession among OCD, GAD and non- clinical participants.The research sample included three groups: OCD (n = 25, GAD (n = 30 and non- clinical samples (n = 56. Data were collected using the Attentional Control Scale (ACS, Rumination Response Scale (RRS, Pennsylvania State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI, Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised (OCI-R and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28. Data were analyzed using MANOVA and MANCOVA by SPSS-17.Multivariate Analysis of Variance revealed that the OCD and GAD groups reported greater deficits in attentional control, higher obsessive-compulsive symptoms, rumination, worry, anxiety and depression compared to the control group.This research indicated a great attentional deficit in obsessive- compulsive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder. However, no significant difference was found between these two disorders.

  14. Frequency and Correlates of Suicidal Ideation in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, Eric A.; Bussing, Regina; Jacob, Marni L.; Nadeau, Joshua M.; Crawford, Erika; Mutch, P. Jane; Mason, Dana; Lewin, Adam B.; Murphy, Tanya K.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the frequency and sociodemographic and clinical correlates of suicidal ideation in a sample of children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Fifty-four youth with OCD and their parent(s) were administered the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime, Children’s Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, and Children’s Depression Rating Scale-Revised. Children completed the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire - Junior, Child Obsessive Compulsive Impact Scale–Child, and Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children; parents completed the Child Obsessive Compulsive Impact Scale–Parent, Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham–IV Parent Scale, and Young Mania Rating Scale–Parent Version. Seven youth endorsed clinically significant levels of suicidal ideation on the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire - Junior. Suicidal ideation was significantly related to clinician-rated depressive symptoms, age, child-rated impairment and anxiety symptoms, and symmetry, sexuality/religiosity and miscellaneous symptom dimensions. There was no significant association between suicidal ideation and obsessive-compulsive symptom severity, comorbidity patterns, or several parent-rated indices (e.g., impairment, impulsivity). These results provide initial information regarding the frequency and correlates of suicidal ideation in treatment-seeking youth with OCD. Clinical implications are discussed, as well as directions for future research. PMID:24682580

  15. Correlates of comorbid anxiety and externalizing disorders in childhood obsessive compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Audra K; Lewin, Adam B; Bergman, R Lindsey; Lee, Joyce C; Piacentini, John

    2010-08-01

    The present study examines the influence of diagnostic comorbidity on the demographic, psychiatric, and functional status of youth with a primary diagnosis of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Two hundred and fifteen children (ages 5-17) referred to a university-based OCD specialty clinic were compared based on DSM-IV diagnostic profile: OCD without comorbid anxiety or externalizing disorder, OCD plus anxiety disorder, and OCD plus externalizing disorder. No age or gender differences were found across groups. Higher OCD severity was found for the OCD + ANX group, while the OCD + EXT group reported greater functional impairment than the other two groups. Lower family cohesion was reported by the OCD + EXT group compared to the OCD group and the OCD + ANX group reported higher family conflict compared to the OCD + EXT group. The OCD + ANX group had significantly lower rates of tic disorders while rates of depressive disorders did not differ among the three groups. The presence of comorbid anxiety and externalizing psychopathology are associated with greater symptom severity and functional and family impairment and underscores the importance of a better understanding of the relationship of OCD characteristics and associated disorders. Results and clinical implications are further discussed.

  16. Impulsive compulsive behaviors in Japanese Parkinson's disease patients and utility of the Japanese version of the Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kenichiro; Wada-Isoe, Kenji; Nakashita, Satoko; Yamamoto, Mikie; Nakashima, Kenji

    2013-08-15

    In order to evaluate impulsive compulsive behaviors (ICBs), such as pathological gambling, compulsive sexual behavior, compulsive buying, compulsive eating, punding, and dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS) in Japanese Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, we constructed a Japanese version of the Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders in Parkinson's disease (J-QUIP) and evaluated the utility of the J-QUIP in Japanese PD patients. J-QUIP was administered to 121 PD patients. Diagnoses of ICBs were made via interview of patients or their caregivers. Subsequently, in order to evaluate risk factors related to these conditions, we evaluated demographic and clinical characteristics, clinical features, and medications utilized. We were able to administer the J-QUIP to 118 of 121 PD patients (97.5%). Sensitivity and specificity of J-QUIP were similar to that reported for the original version of QUIP. In our study, the actual prevalence of each disorder diagnosed via interview was as follows: pathological gambling (6.5%), compulsive sexual behavior (3.2%), compulsive buying (3.2%), compulsive eating (3.2%), punding (6.5%), and DDS (2.2%). Significantly risk factors for these conditions were younger age (p=0.047), earlier age of disease onset (p=0.015), longer PD duration (p=0.001), total levodopa equivalent dose (p=0.006), and dosage of levodopa (p=0.019). We evaluated the prevalence of ICBs in Japanese PD patients along with factors associated with these behaviors via J-QUIP. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Personality factors and weight preoccupation: a continuum approach to the association between eating disorders and personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, C; Claridge, G; Cerullo, D

    1997-01-01

    Evidence shows a high comorbidity of eating disorders and some forms of personality disorder. Adopting a dimensional approach to both, our study explored their connection among a non-clinical sample. 191 young women completed personality scales of general neuroticism, and of borderline, schizotypal, obsessive-compulsive, and narcissistic (both adjustive and maladaptive) traits. Weight preoccupation (WP), as a normal analogue of eating disorders, was assessed with scales from the Eating Disorder Inventory, and height and weight measured. The data were analysed with multiple regression techniques, with WP as the dependent variable. In low to normal weight subjects, after controlling for the significant influence of body mass, the specific predictors of WP in the regression model were borderline personality and maladaptive narcissism, in the positive direction, and adjustive narcissism and obsessive-compulsiveness in the negative direction. In heavier women, narcissism made no contribution--nor, more significantly, did body mass. Patterns of association between eating pathology and personality disorder, especially borderline and narcissism, can be clearly mapped across to personality traits in the currently non-clinical population. This finding has important implications for understanding dynamics of, and identifying individuals at risk for, eating disorders.

  18. Acute obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) in veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fostick, Leah; Nacasch, Nitsa; Zohar, Joseph

    2012-04-01

    Posttraumatic obsessions have been reported in a few studies and case series. However, as the patients described were chronic, and the onset of their posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms was dated some time previously, this hampers interpretation of the temporal, biological and psychological relationship of OCD following traumatic events. In the current paper we describe the emergence of posttraumatic obsessions a short time following the exposure to a traumatic event. The emergence of posttraumatic obsessions, a few months after exposure to trauma, is described for five veterans. All the veterans participated in combat during the summer of 2006 (in the Second Lebanon War). For all cases, OCD symptoms were initially related to the trauma but later became generalized and independent. The course of the symptoms suggests a potential environmental role in the development of OCD following an exposure to a traumatic event. These observations suggest a biological linkage between exposure to trauma and OCD.

  19. Validation of the Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders in Parkinson’s Disease (QUIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weintraub, Daniel; Stewart, Staci; Shea, Judy A.; Lyons, Kelly E.; Pahwa, Rajesh; Driver-Dunckley, Erika D.; Adler, Charles H.; Potenza, Marc N.; Miyasaki, Janis; Siderowf, Andrew D.; Duda, John E.; Hurtig, Howard I.; Colcher, Amy; Horn, Stacy S.; Stern, Matthew B.; Voon, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    Objective As no comprehensive assessment instrument for impulse control disorders (ICDs) in Parkinson’s disease (PD) exists, the aim of this study was to design and assess the psychometric properties of a self-administered screening questionnaire for ICDs and other compulsive behaviors in PD. Methods The Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders in Parkinson’s Disease (QUIP) has 3 sections: Section 1 assesses four ICDs (involving gambling, sexual, buying, and eating behaviors), Section 2 other compulsive behaviors (punding, hobbyism and walkabout), and Section 3 compulsive medication use. For validation, a convenience sample of 157 PD patients at 4 movement disorders centers first completed the QUIP, and then was administered a diagnostic interview by a trained rater blinded to the QUIP results. A shortened instrument (QUIP-S) was then explored. Results The discriminant validity of the QUIP was high for each disorder or behavior (receiver operating characteristic area under the curve [ROC AUC]: gambling=0.95, sexual behavior=0.97, buying=0.87, eating=0.88, punding=0.78, hobbyism=0.93, walkabout=0.79). On post hoc analysis, the QUIP-S ICD section had similar properties (ROC AUC: gambling=0.95, sexual behavior=0.96, buying=0.87, eating=0.88). When disorders/behaviors were combined, the sensitivity of the QUIP and QUIP-S to detect an individual with any disorder was 96% and 94%, respectively. Conclusions Scores on the QUIP appear to be valid as a self-assessment screening instrument for a range of ICDs and other compulsive behaviors that occur in PD, and a shortened version may perform as well as the full version. A positive screen should be followed by a comprehensive, clinical interview to determine the range and severity of symptoms, as well as need for clinical management. PMID:19452562

  20. A double-blind switch study of paroxetine and venlafaxine in obsessive-compulsive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denys, Damiaan; van Megen, Harold J. G. M.; van der Wee, Nic; Westenberg, Herman G. M.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The treatment guidelines for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) propose to switch serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) in case of refractoriness. However, no controlled research has been published yet that prospectively examined the effects of changing SRIs. This article describes the

  1. Effects of paroxetine and venlafaxine on immune parameters in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denys, Damiaan; Fluitman, Sjoerd; Kavelaars, Annemieke; Heijnen, Cobi; Westenberg, Herman G. M.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been associated with an altered activity of the immune system. This study was carried out to investigate whether treatment with paroxetine and venlafaxine modifies the immune function in OCD and whether this modification is related to treatment

  2. Treatment of Pediatric Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Utilizing Parent-Facilitated Acceptance and Commitment Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, Jennifer Y.; Field, Clint E.; Morrison, Kate L.; Twohig, Michael P.

    2017-01-01

    Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) is a modern form of cognitive behavior therapy that uses acceptance and mindfulness-based procedures to address clinical issues. A brief protocol of ACT was used with 3 children ages 10 and 11 years who were diagnosed with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Results showed notable and clinically significant…

  3. Effects of quetiapine on cognitive functioning in obsessive-compulsive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Geus, Femke; Denys, Damiaan; Westenberg, Herman G. M.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, growing evidence supports the efficacy of antipsychotic addition to serotonin reuptake inhibitors in patients with treatment-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder. This study is the first to investigate the effects of antipsychotic addition on cognitive functioning in

  4. Evidence-Based Assessment of Child Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: Recommendations for Clinical Practice and Treatment Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Adam B.; Piacentini, John

    2010-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) presents heterogeneously and can be difficult to assess in youth. This review focuses on research-supported assessment approaches for OCD in childhood. Content areas include pre-visit screening, diagnostic establishment, differential diagnosis, assessment of comorbid psychiatric conditions, tracking symptom…

  5. Family Factors Predict Treatment Outcome for Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peris, Tara S.; Sugar, Catherine A.; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Chang, Susanna; Langley, Audra; Piacentini, John

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine family conflict, parental blame, and poor family cohesion as predictors of treatment outcome for youths receiving family-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (FCBT) for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method: We analyzed data from a sample of youths who were randomized to FCBT (n = 49; 59% male; M age = 12.43 years) as…

  6. A Structural Equation Analysis of Family Accommodation in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporino, Nicole E.; Morgan, Jessica; Beckstead, Jason; Phares, Vicky; Murphy, Tanya K.; Storch, Eric A.

    2012-01-01

    Family accommodation of symptoms is counter to the primary goals of cognitive-behavioral therapy for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and can pose an obstacle to positive treatment outcomes. Although increased attention has been given to family accommodation in pediatric OCD, relatively little is known about associated child and…

  7. Clinical Considerations when Tailoring Cognitive Behavioral Treatment for Young Children with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choate-Summers, Molly L.; Freeman, Jennifer B.; Garcia, Abbe M.; Coyne, Lisa; Przeworski, Amy; Leonard, Henrietta L.

    2008-01-01

    Research on the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy, and in particular, exposure with response prevention for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD), has only been systematically evaluated in children and adolescents ages 7-17. These treatments do not address the unique characteristics of young children with OCD. This paper discusses…

  8. A Review of Metacognition in Psychological Models of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Clare S.; Anderson, Rebecca A.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioural models and interventions for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have always included some metacognitive elements but until recently these have been predominantly construed of as cognitive as opposed to metacognitive processes. Increasingly, psychological models of OCD are now recognising the importance of metacognitive…

  9. Cognitive Control of a Simple Mental Image in Patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocak, Orhan Murat; Ozpolat, Aysegul Yilmaz; Atbasoglu, Cem; Cicek, Metehan

    2011-01-01

    The nature of obsessions has led researchers to try to determine if the main problem in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is impaired inhibitory control. Previous studies report that the effort to suppress is one of the factors that increase the frequency of obsessive thoughts. Based on these results and those of the present study that suggest…

  10. Clomipramine ameliorates adventitious movements and compulsions in prepubertal boys with autistic disorder and severe mental retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasic, J R; Barnett, J Y; Kaplan, D; Sheitman, B B; Aisemberg, P; Lafargue, R T; Kowalik, S; Clark, A; Tsaltas, M O; Young, J G

    1994-07-01

    In an open, nonblind clinical trial, clomipramine reduced adventitious movements and compulsions in five previously medicated prepubertal boys with autistic disorder and severe mental retardation. Poorly adapted rating scales, interrater variability, subject heterogeneity, different treatment histories, and environmental stresses confounded the assessment of treatment effects.

  11. Predictors of course in obsessive-compulsive disorder: logistic regression versus Cox regression for recurrent events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempe, P. T.; van Oppen, P.; de Haan, E.; Twisk, J. W. R.; Sluis, A.; Smit, J. H.; van Dyck, R.; van Balkom, A. J. L. M.

    2007-01-01

    Two methods for predicting remissions in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) treatment are evaluated. Y-BOCS measurements of 88 patients with a primary OCD (DSM-III-R) diagnosis were performed over a 16-week treatment period, and during three follow-ups. Remission at any measurement was defined as a

  12. Multimodal Voxel-Based Meta-Analysis of White Matter Abnormalities in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radua, J.; Grau, M.; van den Heuvel, O.A.; Thiebaut de Schotten, M.; Stein, D.J.; Canales-Rodriguez, E.J.; Catani, M.; Mataix-Cols, D.

    2014-01-01

    White matter (WM) abnormalities have long been suspected in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) but the available evidence has been inconsistent. We conducted the first multimodal meta-analysis of WM volume (WMV) and fractional anisotropy (FA) studies in OCD. All voxel-wise studies comparing WMV or

  13. Think twice: Impulsivity and decision making in obsessive-compulsive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grassi, Giacomo; Pallanti, Stefano; Righi, Lorenzo; Figee, Martijn; Mantione, Mariska; Denys, Damiaan; Piccagliani, Daniele; Rossi, Alessandro; Stratta, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have challenged the anxiety-avoidance model of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), linking OCD to impulsivity, risky-decision-making and reward-system dysfunction, which can also be found in addiction and might support the conceptualization of OCD as a behavioral addiction. Here, we

  14. Association of Rigid-Compulsive Behavior with Functional Constipation in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marler, Sarah; Ferguson, Bradley J.; Lee, Evon Batey; Peters, Brittany; Williams, Kent C.; McDonnell, Erin; Macklin, Eric A.; Levitt, Pat; Margolis, Kara Gross; Beversdorf, David Q.; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy

    2017-01-01

    Based upon checklist data from the Autism Speaks Autism Treatment Network, we hypothesized that functional constipation (FC) would be associated with rigid-compulsive behavior in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We used the Questionnaire on Pediatric Gastrointestinal Symptoms-Rome III to assess FC symptoms in 108 children with ASD. As…

  15. D-Cycloserine for Treatment Nonresponders with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norberg, Melissa M.; Gilliam, Christina M.; Villavicencio, Anna; Pearlson, Godfrey D.; Tolin, David F.

    2012-01-01

    Despite being the most effective treatment available, as many as one third of patients who receive exposure and response prevention (ERP) for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) do not initially respond to treatment. Recent research suggests that the n-methyl d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor partial agonist D-Cycloserine (DCS) may speed up the course…

  16. Nicotine augmentation for refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquini, Massimo; Garavini, Alessandra; Biondi, Massimo

    2005-01-01

    The authors present a case of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) resistant to conventional treatments, which improved following nicotine augmentation administered as 4 mg chewing gum. The role of acetylcholine in the pathophysiology of OCD is not clear. The authors discuss the effect of nicotine on memory for actions.

  17. Patient Adherence Predicts Outcome from Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Helen Blair; Maher, Michael J.; Wang, Yuanjia; Bao, Yuanyuan; Foa, Edna B.; Franklin, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of patient adherence on outcome from exposure and response prevention (EX/RP) therapy in adults with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method: Thirty adults with OCD were randomized to EX/RP (n = 15) or EX/RP augmented by motivational interviewing strategies (n = 15). Both treatments included 3 introductory…

  18. Using Motivational Interviewing to Enhance Treatment Outcome in People with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Helen Blair; Zuckoff, Allan

    2011-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a leading cause of health-related disability. There are two evidence-based treatments for OCD, pharmacotherapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy consisting of exposure and response prevention (EX/RP). Although effective, outcome from both treatments is often limited by patient lack of adherence to the…

  19. Rigid-Compulsive Behaviors Are Associated with Mixed Bowel Symptoms in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Brittany; Williams, Kent C.; Gorrindo, Phillip; Rosenberg, Daniel; Lee, Evon Batey; Levitt, Pat; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Based on clinical experience, we hypothesized that rigid-compulsive behaviors are associated with severe constipation and co-occurring diarrhea or underwear staining in children with autism spectrum disorder. Using data from the Autism Treatment Network, we evaluated the association between these gastrointestinal symptoms and measures of rigid…

  20. No Evidence for Object Alternation Impairment in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Steffen; Jelinek, Lena; Hottenrott, Birgit; Klinge, Ruth; Randjbar, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies have consistently ascribed the orbito-frontal cortex (OFC) a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Cognitive tests presumed sensitive to this region, such as the Object Alternation Task (OAT), are considered important tools to verify this assumption and to investigate the impact of…

  1. Patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder are impaired in associative learning based on external feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielen, M. M.; den Boer, J. A.; Smid, H. G. O. M.

    Background. Patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have to repeat their actions before feeling satisfied that the action reached its intended goal. Learning theory predicts that this may be due to a failure in the processing of external feedback. Method. We examined the performance of 29

  2. Comparing family accommodation in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder, anxiety disorders, and nonanxious children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebowitz, Eli R; Scharfstein, Lindsay A; Jones, Johnna

    2014-12-01

    Family accommodation describes ways in which parents modify their behavior to help a child avoid or alleviate distress caused by emotional disorders. Accommodation is associated with increased symptom severity, lower functioning, and poorer treatment outcomes. Accommodation is prevalent in childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and anxiety disorders (ADs) but no studies have compared accommodation in these groups or compared them to healthy controls to ascertain if accommodation is prevalent in the general population. This study addresses these gaps by comparing patterns of accommodation, factors that maintain accommodation, and its relation to symptom severity in OCD and AD, relative to healthy controls. We directly compared reports of accommodation to childhood OCD (N = 26) and AD (N = 31), and a comparison group of nonanxious (NA) children (N = 30). Mothers completed measures of accommodation (Family Accommodation Scale (FAS)/Family Accommodation Scale-Anxiety (FASA)), anxiety (Screen for Childhood Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders-Parent Report (SCARED-PR)), and OCD (Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CYBOCS)). Family accommodation is prevalent among mothers of children with OCD and AD. Few differences were found between the two clinical groups who reported more accommodation (F[2,84] = 23.411, P anxiety in AD (r = .426, P = .017) and OCD (r = .465, P = .017), but not in the NA group. Findings highlight family accommodation as a phenomenon that applies broadly and in a similar manner to children with AD and OCD. Evaluating accommodation provides useful information for clinical care and is an important part of the assessment of children with AD and OCD. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. A review on quality of life and depression in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

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    Moritz, Steffen

    2008-09-01

    Quality of life (QoL) is increasingly recognized as a pivotal outcome parameter in research on obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). While the concept remains somewhat ill-defined, there is now little dispute that the patients' personal goals deserve foremost consideration during the course of treatment as the primary aim of treatment should be relief from individual despair, which is related but by no means synonymous to symptom reduction. Studies using generic (ie, illness-unspecific) instruments have confirmed poor QoL in OCD patients across a wide range of domains, especially with respect to social, work role functioning, and mental health aspects. Scores are sometimes as low as those obtained by patients with schizophrenia. Depression and obsessions are the symptom clusters that most strongly contribute to low QoL. Findings from a novel survey of 105 OCD participants point to multiple daily life problems, poor work status, and tense social networks in these patients. In order to achieve therapeutic success and improve QoL, functional problems at work and comorbid disorders such as secondary depression and physical impairments should be targeted. While successful treatment sometimes positively impacts well-being, in some studies symptom decline did not translate into improved QoL.

  4. Explanation of obsessive-compulsive disorder and major depressive disorder on the basis of thought-action fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghamari Kivi, Hossein; Mohammadipour Rik, Ne'mat; Sadeghi Movahhed, Fariba

    2013-01-01

    Thought-action fusion (TAF) refers to the tendency to assume incorrect causal relationship between one's own thoughts and external reality, in which, thoughts and actions are treated as equivalents. This construct is present to development and maintenance of many psychological disorders. The aim of the present study was to predict obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and its types, and major depressive disorder (MDD) with TAF and its levels. Two groups, included 50 persons with OCD and MDD, respectively, were selected by convenience sampling method in private and governmental psychiatric centers in Ardabil, Iran. Then, they responded to Beck Depression Inventory, Padua Inventory and TAF scale. Data were analysed using multiple regressions analysis by stepwise method. TAF or its subtypes (moral TAF, likelihood-self TAF and likelihood-others TAF) can explain 14% of MDD variance (p < 0.01), 15% of OCD variance (p < 0.01), and 8-21% of OCD types variance (p < 0.05). Moral TAF had high levels in OCD and MDD. The construct of TAF is not specific factor for OCD, and it is present in MDD, too. None.

  5. Reward and punishment sensitivity in women with gambling disorder or compulsive buying: Implications in treatment outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestre-Bach, Gemma; Granero, Roser; Steward, Trevor; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Baño, Marta; Aymamí, Neus; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; Agüera, Zaida; Mallorquí-Bagué, Núria; Moragas, Laura; Del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Navas, Juan Francisco; Perales, José C; Menchón, José M; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana

    2016-12-01

    Background and aims Gray's Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory has been widely applied to different clinical populations, but few studies have reported empirical evidence based on this theory for treatment outcomes in patients with gambling disorder (GD) and compulsive buying (CB). The aims of this study were to explore the association between clinical variables and personality traits with reward and punishment sensitivity (RPS) levels in women (n = 88) who met diagnostic criteria for GD (n = 61) and CB (n = 27), and to determine the predictive capacity of RPS for primary short-term outcomes in a cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) intervention. Methods The CBT intervention consisted of 12 weekly sessions. Data on patients' personality traits, RPS levels, psychopathology, sociodemographic factors, GD, and CB behavior were used in our analysis. Results High RPS levels were associated with higher psychopathology in both CB and GD, and were a risk factor for dropout in the CB group. In the GD group, higher reward sensitivity scores increased the risk of dropout. Discussion and conclusions Our findings suggest that both sensitivity to reward and sensitivity to punishment independently condition patients' response to treatment for behavioral addictions. The authors uphold that CBT interventions for such addictions could potentially be enhanced by taking RPS into consideration.

  6. DIMENSIONS OF COMPULSIVE EXERCISE ACROSS EATING DISORDER DIAGNOSTIC SUBTYPES AND THE VALIDATION OF THE SPANISH VERSION OF THE COMPULSIVE EXERCISE TEST.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Sauchelli

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Compulsive exercise in eating disorders has been traditionally considered as a behavior that serves the purpose of weight/shape control. More recently, it has been postulated that there may be other factors that drive the compulsive need to exercise. This has led to the development of the Compulsive Exercise Test (CET; a self-reported questionnaire that aims to explore the cognitive-behavioral underpinnings of compulsive exercise from a multi-faceted perspective. The objectives of this study were threefold: 1 To validate the Spanish version of the CET; 2 To compare eating disorder diagnostic subtypes and a healthy control group in terms of the factors that drive compulsive exercise as defined by the CET; 3 To explore how the dimensions evaluated in the CET are associated with eating disorder symptoms and general psychopathology. Methods: The CET was administered to a total of 157 patients with an eating disorder (40 anorexia nervosa, 56 bulimia nervosa, 61 eating disorder not-otherwise-specified (EDNOS and 128 healthy weight/eating controls. Patients were assessed via a semi-structured interview to reach a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis. Additionally, all participants completed the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90R and the Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2. Results: Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated adequate goodness-of-fit to the original five-factor model of the CET. Bulimia nervosa and EDNOS patients scored higher in the avoidance and rule-driven behavior, weight control and total CET scales in comparison to the healthy controls, and higher across all scales apart from the exercise rigidity scale compared to the anorexia nervosa patients. Mean scores of the anorexia nervosa patients did not differ to those of the control participants, except for the mood improvement scale where the anorexia nervosa patients obtained a lower mean score. Mean scores between the bulimia nervosa and EDNOS patients were equivalent. The CET scales

  7. Dimensions of Compulsive Exercise across Eating Disorder Diagnostic Subtypes and the Validation of the Spanish Version of the Compulsive Exercise Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauchelli, Sarah; Arcelus, Jon; Granero, Roser; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Agüera, Zaida; Del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Compulsive exercise in eating disorders has been traditionally considered as a behavior that serves the purpose of weight/shape control. More recently, it has been postulated that there may be other factors that drive the compulsive need to exercise. This has led to the development of the Compulsive Exercise Test (CET); a self-reported questionnaire that aims to explore the cognitive-behavioral underpinnings of compulsive exercise from a multi-faceted perspective. The objectives of this study were threefold: (1) to validate the Spanish version of the CET; (2) to compare eating disorder diagnostic subtypes and a healthy control group in terms of the factors that drive compulsive exercise as defined by the CET; (3) to explore how the dimensions evaluated in the CET are associated with eating disorder symptoms and general psychopathology. Methods: The CET was administered to a total of 157 patients with an eating disorder [40 anorexia nervosa, 56 bulimia nervosa (BN), and 61 eating disorder not-otherwise-specified (EDNOS)] and 128 healthy weight/eating controls. Patients were assessed via a semi-structured interview to reach a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis. Additionally, all participants completed the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90R) and the Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2). Results: Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated adequate goodness-of-fit to the original five-factor model of the CET. BN and EDNOS patients scored higher in the avoidance and rule-driven behavior, weight control, and total CET scales in comparison to the healthy controls, and higher across all scales apart from the exercise rigidity scale compared to the anorexia nervosa patients. Mean scores of the anorexia nervosa patients did not differ to those of the control participants, except for the mood improvement scale where the anorexia nervosa patients obtained a lower mean score. Mean scores between the BN and EDNOS patients were equivalent. The CET scales avoidance and rule

  8. SCREENING FOR PERSONALITY DISORDERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Jennifer Q.; Pilkonis, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    A brief but valid self-report measure to screen for personality disorders (PDs) would be a valuable tool in making decisions about further assessment and in planning optimal treatments. In psychiatric and nonpsychiatric samples, we compared the validity of three screening measures: the PD scales from the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems, a self-report version of the Iowa Personality Disorder Screen, and the self-directedness scale of the Temperament and Character Inventory. Despite their different theoretical origins, the screeners were highly correlated in a range from .71 to .77. As a result, the use of multiple screeners was not a significant improvement over any individual screener, and no single screener stood out as clearly superior to the others. Each performed modestly in predicting the presence of any PD diagnosis in both the psychiatric and nonpsychiatric groups. Performance was best when predicting a more severe PD diagnosis in the psychiatric sample. The results also highlight the potential value of multiple assessments when relying on self-reports. PMID:17492920

  9. The role of anxiety in sexual disorders: The connection between agoraphobic and obsessive compulsive simptoms and sexual disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Krevh

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Anxienty is closely related to sexual disorders, being their source, preserver, and consequence. Therefore, it represents an important obstacle in the course of a therapy. The role of anxiety in sexual disorders has already been widely investigated, but the question whether the above mentioned connection exists at a micro level remains unanswered. The present study focused on two specific anxiety disorders: agoraphobia and obsessive compulsive disorder. Two translated questionnaries were used: Mobility Inventory for Agoraphobia MIA (Chambless, Caputo, Jasin, & Gracely, 1985 and Padua Inventory PI (Sanavio, 1988. Participants were patients with sexual disorders who sought psychiatric help, and a group of students represented a control group. Results demonstrated a strong connection between agoraphobic and obsessive compulsive symptoms on one side and sexual disorders on the other. Among the possible explanations for this connection the circular model seems to be the most appropriate.

  10. Processes of Change in Cognitive-Behavioural Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder : Current Status and Some Future Directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polman, Annemiek; Bouman, Theo K.; van Hout, Wiljo J. P. J.; de Jong, Peter J.; den Boer, Johan A.

    2010-01-01

    The present paper discusses theoretical and methodological issues involved in the processes of change in cognitive-behavioural treatment (CBT) of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Treatment outcome studies showed that CBT is effective in reducing obsessive-compulsive symptoms. However, why and

  11. Better super safe than slightly sorry? : Reciprocal relationships between checking behavior and cognitive symptoms in obsessive-compulsive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toffolo, M.B.J.

    2015-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder(OCD) is characterized by intrusive frightening thoughts, images or impulses (obsessions; e.g., “did I stab my partner while doing the dishes?”) to which patients respond with repetitive behavior (compulsions; e.g., checking the knives and scissors in the house or

  12. Perceived quality of life in obsessive-compulsive disorder: related factors

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    Saiz-Ruiz Jeronimo

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD affects young adults and has great impact on the social, emotional and work spheres. Methods We measured perceived quality of life (QOL in OCD patients, in order to analyse socio-demographic and clinical factors that may be associated with QOL perception. 64 OCD outpatients were assessed with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for DSM-IV, the Yale-Brown Obsessions and Compulsions scale (Y-BOCS, Hamilton's depression scale and the SF-36 self-administered global QOL perception scale. Results We found a correlation among Hamilton's scale scores and all SF-36 subscales. The severity of the obsessive-compulsive disorder was correlated with all SF-36 subscales and with the highest scores in Hamilton's scale. The obsessions subscale was correlated to all SF-36 subscales, while the compulsions subscale was correlated only to social functioning, emotional role, mental health and vitality. Compulsions were not related to general health perception. There were significant differences between OCD patients and the Spanish general population in all SF-36 subscales except those related to physical health and pain. Gender, age, age of onset of the disorder, years of evolution and marital status of the patients did not significantly affect quality of life perception. Being employed was related to better scores in the subscale of physical role. Patients with medical comorbidity scored lower in the subscales of general health, social functioning and mental health. Patients with comorbid psychiatric disorders had worse scores in the subscales of pain, general health, social functioning and mental health. Conclusion Quality of life perception was different in OCD patients and the general population. Quality of life perception was related to severity of the disorder, physical and psychiatric comorbidity and employment status.

  13. The Stigma of Personality Disorders.

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    Sheehan, Lindsay; Nieweglowski, Katherine; Corrigan, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the recent literature on the stigma of personality disorders, including an overview of general mental illness stigma and an examination of the personality-specific stigma. Overall, public knowledge of personality disorders is low, and people with personality disorders may be perceived as purposefully misbehaving rather than experiencing an illness. Health provider stigma seems particularly pernicious for those with borderline personality disorder. Most stigma research on personality disorders has been completed outside the USA, and few stigma-change interventions specific to personality disorder have been scientifically tested. Limited evidence suggests that health provider training can improve stigmatizing attitudes and that interventions combining positive messages of recovery potential with biological etiology will be most impactful to reduce stigma. Anti-stigma interventions designed specifically for health providers, family members, criminal justice personnel, and law enforcement seem particularly beneficial, given these sources of stigma.

  14. Comorbidity bipolar disorder and personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latalova, Klara; Prasko, Jan; Kamaradova, Dana; Sedlackova, Jana; Ociskova, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Outcome in bipolar patients can be affected by comorbidity of other psychiatric disorders. Comorbid personality disorders are frequent and may complicate the course of bipolar illness. We have much information about treating patients with uncomplicated bipolar disorder (BD) but much less knowledge about possibilities for patients with the comorbidity of BD and personality disorder. We conducted a series of literature searches using, as key words or as items in indexed fields, bipolar disorder and personality disorder or personality traits. Articles were obtained by searching MEDLINE from 1970 to 2012. In addition, we used other papers cited in articles from these searches, or cited in articles used in our own work. Tests of personality traits indicated that euthymic bipolar patients have higher scores on harm avoidance, reward dependence, and novelty seeking than controls. Elevation of novelty seeking in bipolar patients is associated with substance abuse comorbidity. Comorbidity with personality disorders in BD patients is associated with a more difficult course of illness (such as longer episodes, shorter time euthymic, and earlier age at onset) and an increase in comorbid substance abuse, suicidality and aggression. These problems are particularly pronounced in comorbidity with borderline personality disorder. Comorbidity with antisocial personality disorder elicits a similar spectrum of difficulties; some of the antisocial behavior exhibited by patients with this comorbidity is mediated by increased impulsivity.

  15. Towards a post-traumatic subtype of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenelle, Leonardo F; Cocchi, Luca; Harrison, Ben J; Shavitt, Roseli G; do Rosário, Maria Conceição; Ferrão, Ygor A; de Mathis, Maria Alice; Cordioli, Aristides V; Yücel, Murat; Pantelis, Christos; Mari, Jair de Jesus; Miguel, Euripedes C; Torres, Albina R

    2012-03-01

    We evaluated whether traumatic events are associated with a distinctive pattern of socio-demographic and clinical features of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We compared socio-demographic and clinical features of 106 patients developing OCD after post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD; termed post-traumatic OCD), 41 patients developing OCD before PTSD (pre-traumatic OCD), and 810 OCD patients without any history of PTSD (non-traumatic OCD) using multinomial logistic regression analysis. A later age at onset of OCD, self-mutilation disorder, history of suicide plans, panic disorder with agoraphobia, and compulsive buying disorder were independently related to post-traumatic OCD. In contrast, earlier age at OCD onset, alcohol-related disorders, contamination-washing symptoms, and self-mutilation disorder were all independently associated with pre-traumatic OCD. In addition, patients with post-traumatic OCD without a previous history of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) showed lower educational levels, greater rates of contamination-washing symptoms, and more severe miscellaneous symptoms as compared to post-traumatic OCD patients with a history of OCS. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Compulsive buying.

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    Lejoyeux, Michel; Weinstein, Aviv

    2010-09-01

    Compulsive buying is a chronic, repetitive purchasing that becomes a primary response to negative events and feelings, and may include symptoms equivalent to craving and withdrawal. This article describes the addictive characteristics of compulsive buying, the psychiatric comorbidity, and the possibilities of treatment. Using PubMed and MedLine search engines, we performed a review of published literature over the period 1990-2010 using the keyword "compulsive buying". A key feature distinguishing compulsive buyers from normal consumers, collectors, and hoarders is that the former focuses on the buying process itself, rather than the items bought. In this instance, the purchased items are usually never used, but tend to be hidden or thrown away. A recent screening study found that up to 5% of adult Americans appear to be afflicted with this compulsion. Compulsive buying results in adverse consequences, including financial and legal problems, psychological distress (depression, guilt), and interpersonal conflict. The most commonly associated comorbidities are depression and eating disorders. Nothing is known about the neurobiology and genetics of compulsive buying and relatively little about its treatment. Cognitive behavioral therapy has some efficacy, but no medication has been effective in controlled trials. Compulsive buying can be described as a behavioral dependence. A great deal of future research is needed to improve our understanding of compulsive buying.

  17. Increased Default Mode Network Connectivity in Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder During Reward Processing

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    Kathrin Koch

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD is characterized by anxiety-provoking, obsessive thoughts (i.e., obsessions which patients react to with compulsive behaviors (i.e., compulsions. Due to the transient feeling of relief following the reduction of obsession-induced anxiety, compulsions are often described as relieving or even rewarding. Several studies investigated functional activation during reward processing in OCD, but findings are heterogeneous up to now and little is known about potential alterations in functional connectivity.Method: Against this background we studied OCD patients (n = 44 and healthy controls (n = 37 during the receipt of monetary reward by assessing both activation and functional connectivity.Results: Patients showed a decreased activation in several frontal regions and the posterior cingulate (PCC, BA31 together with a stronger connectivity between the PCC and the vmPFC (BA10.Conclusion: Present findings demonstrate an increased connectivity in patients within major nodes of the default mode network (DMN—a network known to be involved in the evaluation of internal mental states. These results may indicate an increased activity of internal, self-related processing at the expense of a normal responsiveness toward external rewards and incentives. This, in turn, may explain the constant urge for additional reinforcement and patients' inability to inhibit their compulsive behaviors.

  18. Cross-Disorder Genetic Analysis of Tic Disorders, Obsessive-Compulsive, and Hoarding Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilhão, Nuno R; Smit, Dirk J; Boomsma, Dorret I; Cath, Danielle C

    2016-01-01

    Hoarding, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and Tourette's disorder (TD) are psychiatric disorders that share symptom overlap, which might partly be the result of shared genetic variation. Population-based twin studies have found significant genetic correlations between hoarding and OCD symptoms, with genetic correlations varying between 0.1 and 0.45. For tic disorders, studies examining these correlations are lacking. Other lines of research, including clinical samples and GWAS or CNV data to explore genetic relationships between tic disorders and OCD, have only found very modest if any shared genetic variation. Our aim was to extend current knowledge on the genetic structure underlying hoarding, OC symptoms (OCS), and lifetime tic symptoms and, in a trivariate analysis, assess the degree of common and unique genetic factors contributing to the etiology of these disorders. Data have been gathered from participants in the Netherlands Twin Register comprising a total of 5293 individuals from a sample of adult monozygotic (n = 2460) and dizygotic (n = 2833) twin pairs (mean age 33.61 years). The data on Hoarding, OCS, and tic symptoms were simultaneously analyzed in Mplus. A liability threshold model was fitted to the twin data, analyzing heritability of phenotypes and of their comorbidity. Following the criteria for a probable clinical diagnosis in all phenotypes, 6.8% of participants had a diagnosis of probable hoarding disorder (HD), 6.3% of OCS, and 12.8% of any probable lifetime tic disorder. Genetic factors explained 50.4, 70.1, and 61.1% of the phenotypic covariance between hoarding-OCS, hoarding-tics, and OCS-tics, respectively. Substantial genetic correlations were observed between hoarding and OCS (0.41), hoarding and tics (0.35), and between OCS and tics (0.37). These results support the contribution of genetic factors in the development of these disorders and their comorbidity. Furthermore, tics were mostly influenced by specific

  19. Obsessive-compulsive disorder and Tourette Syndrome: is there a relationship?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Conceição do Rosário

    Full Text Available The authors describe the main characteristics of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, the fourth most frequent psychiatric disease, and Tourette Syndrome. Considered completely separate disorders, there is growing scientific evidence that there is a connection between them. The authors present clinical, genetic and neuroimaging data reinforcing this idea, and call attention to the importance of research in this area, as they believe that the definition of more homogenous subgroups will facilitate the identification of biological markers and predictors of treatment response.

  20. Relationship of self-esteem, manifest anxiety, and obsessive-compulsiveness to personal habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, C E

    1993-10-01

    75 women and 64 men responded to the Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory, the Manifest Anxiety Scale, and the Maudsley Obsessional-compulsive Inventory in addition to responding to a questionnaire on personal habits. The results indicated that more frequent hair-pullers and nervous twitchers scored lower on self-esteem and higher on anxiety. People who giggled and those who bit their fingernails more often scored higher on obsessive-compulsiveness. Self-reported gigglers were higher on manifest anxiety. If the criterion of self-assessed seriousness of the behavior problem was used, people who bit their nails, picked their noses, pulled their hair, chewed on objects, giggled, ground their teeth, twitched nervously, and picked at scabs scored lower on self-esteem. Higher manifest-anxiety scores were found among the people who regarded their nail-biting, hair-pulling, object-chewing, nervous twitching, or giggling as serious problems. Finally, people who regarded their nail-biting as more serious tended to have higher obsessive-compulsive scores. The results in general suggest that the frequency of several of these behaviors is anxiety-related and that it is the person's assessments of these behaviors as problems rather than simply their frequency that is related to higher anxiety and lower self-esteem.

  1. Family functioning in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder: A case - control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sateesh R Koujalgi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychological disorders can have a direct impact on family functioning. Family dysfunction is an indirect factor leading to the relapse of psychological disorders. Literature on family dysfunction in anxiety disorder is limited. Role of family and its functioning in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD may help in better understanding of the role of social factors in OCD. Aim: The aim was to compare family functions in patients with OCD and compare with controls. Materials and Methods: The sample included 30 cases and 30 age and sex-matched controls. The patients were diagnosed as having OCD using ICD-10 DCR criteria. Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale was used to assess the severity of OCD among patients. General Health Questionnaire was used as screening instruments for psychiatric disorder among the control population. Family function was assessed in cases and control using the Family Interaction Patterns Schedule (FIPS. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software. Results: Obsessive compulsive disorder patients in comparison controls had significantly increased total FIPS score (P = 0.001. Conclusion: Families with OCD are more significantly impaired in multiple domains of family dynamics than families without member suffering from OCD. It is, therefore, essential that family-based structure effective assessment be sought in the psychosocial management of OCD.

  2. Impulsivity and compulsive buying are associated in a non-clinical sample: an evidence for the compulsivity-impulsivity continuum?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas J. de Paula

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Compulsive buying is controversial in clinical psychiatry. Although it is defined as an obsessive-compulsive disorder, other personality aspects besides compulsivity are related to compulsive buying. Recent studies suggest that compulsivity and impulsivity might represent a continuum, with several psychiatric disorders lying between these two extremes. In this sense, and following the perspective of dimensional psychiatry, symptoms of impulsivity and compulsivity should correlate even in a non-clinical sample. The present study aims to investigate whether these two traits are associated in a healthy adult sample.Methods:We evaluated 100 adults, with no self-reported psychiatric disorders, using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 and two scales of compulsive buying.Results:Using multiple linear regressions, we found that impulsivity accounted for about 15% of variance in the compulsive-buying measure.Conclusions:Our results suggest that an association between impulsivity and compulsive buying occurs even in non-clinical samples, evidence that compulsivity and impulsivity might form a continuum and that compulsive buying might be an intermediate condition between these two personality traits.

  3. Impulsivity and compulsive buying are associated in a non-clinical sample: an evidence for the compulsivity-impulsivity continuum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Jonas J de; Costa, Danielle de S; Oliveira, Flavianne; Alves, Joana O; Passos, Lídia R; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro F

    2015-01-01

    Compulsive buying is controversial in clinical psychiatry. Although it is defined as an obsessive-compulsive disorder, other personality aspects besides compulsivity are related to compulsive buying. Recent studies suggest that compulsivity and impulsivity might represent a continuum, with several psychiatric disorders lying between these two extremes. In this sense, and following the perspective of dimensional psychiatry, symptoms of impulsivity and compulsivity should correlate even in a non-clinical sample. The present study aims to investigate whether these two traits are associated in a healthy adult sample. We evaluated 100 adults, with no self-reported psychiatric disorders, using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 and two scales of compulsive buying. Using multiple linear regressions, we found that impulsivity accounted for about 15% of variance in the compulsive-buying measure. Our results suggest that an association between impulsivity and compulsive buying occurs even in non-clinical samples, evidence that compulsivity and impulsivity might form a continuum and that compulsive buying might be an intermediate condition between these two personality traits.

  4. GENDER ROLE AND PERSONALITY DISORDERS

    OpenAIRE

    Klonsky, E. David; Jane, J. Serrita; Turkheimer, Eric; Oltmanns, Thomas F.

    2002-01-01

    Many researchers have hypothesized relationships between personality disorders and gender role (i.e., masculinity and femininity). However, research has not addressed if people who are masculine or feminine more often meet the criteria for personality disorders. The present study examined whether college students (N = 665, 60% women) higher in masculinity or femininity more often exhibited features of the 10 DSM-IV personality disorders. Feminine men exhibited more features of all the persona...

  5. Similarities and differences between children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder and those with obsessive compulsive disorder: executive functioning and repetitive behaviour.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheeren, Anke M; Begeer, Sander; Banerjee, Robin; Meerum Terwogt, Mark; Koot, Hans M

    2010-01-01

    In order to examine hypothesized underlying neurocognitive processes in repetitive behaviour, children and adolescents (7-16 years) with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) were compared on a range of executive function (EF) measures. Performance on

  6. The Relationship of DSM-IV Pathological Gambling to Compulsive Buying and other Possible Spectrum Disorders: Results from the Iowa PG Family Study

    OpenAIRE

    Black, Donald W.; Coryell, William; Crowe, Raymond; Shaw, Martha; McCormick, Brett; Allen, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the possible relationship between pathological gambling (PG) and potential spectrum disorders including the DSM-IV impulse control disorders (intermittent explosive disorder, kleptomania, pyromania, trichotillomania) and several non-DSM disorders (compulsive buying disorder, compulsive sexual behavior, Internet addiction). PG probands, controls, and their first-degree relatives were assessed with instruments of known reliability. Detailed family history information was...

  7. Religiosity, magical ideation, and paranormal beliefs in anxiety disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorder: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agorastos, Agorastos; Metscher, Tanja; Huber, Christian G; Jelinek, Lena; Vitzthum, Francesca; Muhtz, Christoph; Kellner, Michael; Moritz, Steffen

    2012-10-01

    The relation between religiosity/spirituality (R/S), personal beliefs, and mental health has been extensively studied. However, concerning anxiety disorders (ADs), empirical evidence is scarce. This study investigated the differences in R/S and magical/paranormal ideation among obsessive-compulsive disorder patients (OCD; n = 49), patients with other ADs (n = 36), and healthy controls (HCs; n = 35). Our results suggest negative religious coping as being the only parameter showing significantly higher scores in OCD and AD participants in comparison with HCs. Negative religious coping reflects negative functional expressions of R/S in stressful situations. Logistic regression also suggested negative religious coping as the strongest predictor of group affiliation to the nonhealthy group. Further results show no significant differences between other R/S, magical, and paranormal ideation traits among groups. This study underlines an important role of negative religious coping in ADs yet does not clearly indicate a specific causality. Religious-sensitive treatment targeting cognitive aspects of negative religious coping are discussed.

  8. Frontostriatal Dysfunction During Decision Making in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Luke J; Carlisi, Christina O; Christakou, Anastasia; Murphy, Clodagh M; Chantiluke, Kaylita; Giampietro, Vincent; Simmons, Andrew; Brammer, Michael; Mataix-Cols, David; Rubia, Katya

    2018-03-24

    The aim of the current paper is to provide the first comparison of computational mechanisms and neurofunctional substrates in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) during decision making under ambiguity. Sixteen boys with ADHD, 20 boys with OCD, and 20 matched control subjects (12-18 years of age) completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging version of the Iowa Gambling Task. Brain activation was compared between groups using three-way analysis of covariance. Hierarchical Bayesian analysis was used to compare computational modeling parameters between groups. Patient groups shared reduced choice consistency and relied less on reinforcement learning during decision making relative to control subjects, while adolescents with ADHD alone demonstrated increased reward sensitivity. During advantageous choices, both disorders shared underactivation in ventral striatum, while OCD patients showed disorder-specific underactivation in the ventromedial orbitofrontal cortex. During outcome evaluation, shared underactivation to losses in patients relative to control subjects was found in the medial prefrontal cortex and shared underactivation to wins was found in the left putamen/caudate. ADHD boys showed disorder-specific dysfunction in the right putamen/caudate, which was activated more to losses in patients with ADHD but more to wins in control subjects. The findings suggest shared deficits in using learned reward expectancies to guide decision making, as well as shared dysfunction in medio-fronto-striato-limbic brain regions. However, findings of unique dysfunction in the ventromedial orbitofrontal cortex in OCD and in the right putamen in ADHD indicate additional, disorder-specific abnormalities and extend similar findings from inhibitory control tasks in the disorders to the domain of decision making under ambiguity. Copyright © 2018 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by

  9. Using personality neuroscience to study personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abram, Samantha V; DeYoung, Colin G

    2017-01-01

    Personality neuroscience integrates techniques from personality psychology and neuroscience to elucidate the neural basis of individual differences in cognition, emotion, motivation, and behavior. This endeavor is pertinent not only to our understanding of healthy personality variation, but also to the aberrant trait manifestations present in personality disorders and severe psychopathology. In the current review, we focus on the advances and limitations of neuroimaging methods with respect to personality neuroscience. We discuss the value of personality theory as a means to link specific neural mechanisms with various traits (e.g., the neural basis of the "Big Five"). Given the overlap between dimensional models of normal personality and psychopathology, we also describe how researchers can reconceptualize psychopathological disorders along key dimensions, and, in turn, formulate specific neural hypotheses, extended from personality theory. Examples from the borderline personality disorder literature are used to illustrate this approach. We provide recommendations for utilizing neuroimaging methods to capture the neural mechanisms that underlie continuous traits across the spectrum from healthy to maladaptive. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Relative contribution of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and tic severity to social and behavioral problems in tic disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, PJ; Steenhuis, MP; Troost, PW; Korf, J; Kallenberg, CGM; Minderaa, RB

    The aim of this study was to investigate social and behavioral problems related to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessions and compulsions, and tic severity in children with a tic disorder. Parents of 58 children with a tic disorder with and without different forms of ADHD

  11. The relationship between mindfulness and compulsive sexual behavior in a sample of men in treatment for substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C; Elmquist, Joanna; Gawrysiak, Michael J; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L

    2016-08-01

    Substance use disorders (SUDs) are a serious worldwide problem. Despite years of research on the treatment of SUDs, relapse remains high. One factor that may complicate SUDs treatment for some patients is compulsive sexual behavior. Factors that are related to both SUDs and compulsive sexual behavior could be targeted in SUDs treatment. In the current study, we examined dispositional mindfulness, a protective factor for a range of mental health problems, and its relationship to compulsive sexual behavior in a SUDs treatment sample. This is the first study to examine this relationship in a SUDs sample. Medical records from men in residential SUDs treatment were reviewed for the current study ( N = 271). Upon admission to treatment, men completed self-report measures on alcohol and drug use, dispositional mindfulness, and compulsive sexual behavior. Bivariate correlations demonstrated dispositional mindfulness to be negatively associated with a variety of indicators of compulsive sexual behavior. After controlling for alcohol and drug use and problems in hierarchical regression analyses, which were both associated with compulsive sexual behaviors, dispositional mindfulness remained negatively associated with all of the compulsive sexual behavior indicators. Our results provide the first empirical association between dispositional mindfulness and compulsive sexual behavior in a SUDs sample. Although continued research is needed in this area, our findings suggest that it may be beneficial for SUDs treatment to incorporate mindfulness-based interventions for individuals with comorbid compulsive sexual behavior.

  12. Compulsive exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lichtenstein, Mia Beck; Hinze, Cecilie Juul; Emborg Jannsen, Bolette

    2017-01-01

    found that compulsive exercise is associated with eating disorder pathology, perfectionism, neuroticism, narcissism, and obsessive compulsive traits. The most prominent negative consequences were injuries, social impairment, and depression, but more research is needed to uncover the potential......Compulsive exercise is a condition described since 1970s. It is characterized by a craving for physical training, resulting in uncontrollable excessive exercise behavior with harmful consequences, such as injuries and impaired social relations. It has not been accepted as a mental disorder...... dysfunction resulting from compulsive exercise. As the condition is not recognized as a psychiatric disorder, studies on treatment interventions are sparse. Problems with compliance have been reported; therefore, motivational interviewing has been proposed as a treatment approach, in combination...

  13. Symptom dimensions, clinical course and comorbidity in men and women with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torresan, Ricardo C; Ramos-Cerqueira, Ana Teresa A; Shavitt, Roseli G; do Rosário, Maria Conceição; de Mathis, Maria Alice; Miguel, Euripedes C; Torres, Albina R

    2013-09-30

    The study aimed to compare male and female patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) across symptom dimensions, clinical course and comorbidity. A cross-sectional study was undertaken with 858 adult OCD patients (DSM-IV) from the Brazilian Research Consortium on Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders. Patients were evaluated using structured interviews, including the Dimensional Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (DY-BOCS) and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders (SCID-I). The sample was composed of 504 women (58.7%) and 354 men (41.3%) with a mean age of 35.4 years-old (range: 18-77). Men were younger, more frequently single and presented more tics, social phobia and alcohol use disorders. Among men, symptom interference occurred earlier and symptoms of the sexual/religious dimension were more common and more severe. Conversely, women were more likely to present symptoms of the aggressive, contamination/cleaning and hoarding dimension and comorbidity with specific phobias, anorexia nervosa, bulimia, trichotillomania, skin picking and "compulsive" buying. In the logistic regression, female gender remained independently associated with the aggressive and contamination/cleaning dimensions. In both genders the aggressive dimension remained associated with comorbid post-traumatic stress disorder, the sexual/religious dimension with major depression and the hoarding dimension with tic disorders. Gender seems to be relevant in the determination of OCD clinical presentation and course and should be considered an important aspect when defining more homogeneous OCD subgroups. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Investigation of attentional bias in obsessive compulsive disorder with and without depression in visual search.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Morein-Zamir

    Full Text Available Whether Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD is associated with an increased attentional bias to emotive stimuli remains controversial. Additionally, it is unclear whether comorbid depression modulates abnormal emotional processing in OCD. This study examined attentional bias to OC-relevant scenes using a visual search task. Controls, non-depressed and depressed OCD patients searched for their personally selected positive images amongst their negative distractors, and vice versa. Whilst the OCD groups were slower than healthy individuals in rating the images, there were no group differences in the magnitude of negative bias to concern-related scenes. A second experiment employing a common set of images replicated the results on an additional sample of OCD patients. Although there was a larger bias to negative OC-related images without pre-exposure overall, no group differences in attentional bias were observed. However, OCD patients subsequently rated the images more slowly and more negatively, again suggesting post-attentional processing abnormalities. The results argue against a robust attentional bias in OCD patients, regardless of their depression status and speak to generalized difficulties disengaging from negative valence stimuli. Rather, post-attentional processing abnormalities may account for differences in emotional processing in OCD.

  15. Pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder: a necessary link between phenomenology, neuropsychology, imagery and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aouizerate, Bruno; Guehl, Dominique; Cuny, Emmanuel; Rougier, Alain; Bioulac, Bernard; Tignol, Jean; Burbaud, Pierre

    2004-02-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by repetitive intrusive thoughts and compulsive time-consuming behaviors classified into three to five distinct symptom dimensions including: (1) aggressive/somatic obsessions with checking compulsions; (2) contamination concerns with washing compulsions; (3) symmetry obsessions with counting/ordering compulsions; (4) hoarding obsessions with collecting compulsions; and (5) sexual/religious concerns. Phenomenologically, OCD could be thought of as the irruption of internal signals centered on the erroneous perception that "something is wrong" in a specific situation. This generates severe anxiety, leading to recurrent behaviors aimed at reducing the emotional tension. In this paper, we examine how the abnormalities in brain activity reported in OCD can be interpreted in the light of physiology after consideration of various approaches (phenomenology, neuropsychology, neuroimmunology and neuroimagery) that contribute to proposing the central role of several cortical and subcortical regions, especially the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPC), the head of the caudate nucleus and the thalamus. The OFC is involved in the significance attributed to the consequences of action, thereby subserving decision-making, whereas the ACC is particularly activated in situations in which there are conflicting options and a high likelihood of making an error. The DLPC plays a critical part in the cognitive processing of relevant information. This cortical information is then integrated by the caudate nucleus, which controls behavioral programs. A dysfunction of these networks at one or several stages will result in the emergence and maintenance of repetitive thoughts and characteristic OCD behavior. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Incidence of obsessive–compulsive disorder in children with nonmonosymptomatic primary nocturnal enuresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefichaijan, Parsa; Khosrobeigi, Ali; Salehi, Bahman; Taherahmadi, Hassan; Shariatmadari, Fakhreddin; Ghandi, Yazdan; Alinejad, Saeed; Farhadiruzbahani, Fateme

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Enuresis is defined as the repeated voiding of urine into clothes or bed at least twice a week for at least 3 consecutive months in a child who is at least 5 years of age. The behavior is not due exclusively to the direct physiologic effect of a substance or a general medical condition. Diurnal enuresis defines wetting, whereas awake and nocturnal enuresis refers to voiding during sleep. Primary enuresis occurs in children who have never been consistently dry through the night, whereas secondary enuresis refers the resumption of wetting after at least 6 months of dryness. Monosymptomatic enuresis has no associated daytime symptoms, and nonmonosymptomatic enuresis, which is more common, often has at least one subtle daytime symptom. Monosymptomatic enuresis is rarely associated with significant organic underlying abnormalities. Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic disabling illness characterized by repetitive, ritualistic behaviors over which the patients have little or no control. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between OCD and nonmonosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (NMNE). Materials and Methods: In this case–control study, we evaluated 186 children aged 6–17 years old who were visited in the pediatric clinics of Amir Kabir Hospital, Arak, Iran. The control group included 93 healthy children, and the case group included 93 age- and sex-matched children with stage 1–3 chronic kidney disease (CKD). Then, the children's behavioral status was evaluated using the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive–Compulsive Scale. Results: The difference in compulsion was significant (P = 0.021), whereas the difference in obsession was significant between the two groups (P = 0.013). The most common symptom in CKD children with compulsion was silent repetition of words. Conclusion: Compulsive and obsessive are more common in NMNE versus healthy children. The observed correlation between compulsive-obsessive and NMNE makes

  17. Incidence of obsessive-compulsive disorder in children with nonmonosymptomatic primary nocturnal enuresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefichaijan, Parsa; Khosrobeigi, Ali; Salehi, Bahman; Taherahmadi, Hassan; Shariatmadari, Fakhreddin; Ghandi, Yazdan; Alinejad, Saeed; Farhadiruzbahani, Fateme

    2016-01-01

    Enuresis is defined as the repeated voiding of urine into clothes or bed at least twice a week for at least 3 consecutive months in a child who is at least 5 years of age. The behavior is not due exclusively to the direct physiologic effect of a substance or a general medical condition. Diurnal enuresis defines wetting, whereas awake and nocturnal enuresis refers to voiding during sleep. Primary enuresis occurs in children who have never been consistently dry through the night, whereas secondary enuresis refers the resumption of wetting after at least 6 months of dryness. Monosymptomatic enuresis has no associated daytime symptoms, and nonmonosymptomatic enuresis, which is more common, often has at least one subtle daytime symptom. Monosymptomatic enuresis is rarely associated with significant organic underlying abnormalities. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic disabling illness characterized by repetitive, ritualistic behaviors over which the patients have little or no control. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between OCD and nonmonosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (NMNE). In this case-control study, we evaluated 186 children aged 6-17 years old who were visited in the pediatric clinics of Amir Kabir Hospital, Arak, Iran. The control group included 93 healthy children, and the case group included 93 age- and sex-matched children with stage 1-3 chronic kidney disease (CKD). Then, the children's behavioral status was evaluated using the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale. The difference in compulsion was significant ( P = 0.021), whereas the difference in obsession was significant between the two groups ( P = 0.013). The most common symptom in CKD children with compulsion was silent repetition of words. Compulsive and obsessive are more common in NMNE versus healthy children. The observed correlation between compulsive-obsessive and NMNE makes psychological counseling mandatory in children with NMNE.

  18. Child development and personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Patricia

    2008-09-01

    The evidence is surprisingly strong that even early adolescent personality disorders or elevated personality disorder symptoms have a broad range of negative effects well into adulthood, for the most part comparable to or even larger than those of Axis I disorders. Current evidence suggests that the most severe long-term prognosis is associated with borderline and schizotypal PDs and elevated symptoms. And of course, childhood conduct disorder is in a peculiar status, disappearing in adulthood to be manifest as a very severe disorder-antisocial PD-in a minority of those with the adolescent disorder.

  19. Neural Correlates of Symptom Dimensions in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Andrew R.; Akkal, Dalila; Almeida, Jorge R. C.; Mataix-Cols, David; Kalas, Catherine; Devlin, Bernie; Birmaher, Boris; Phillips, Mary L.

    2009-01-01

    The use of functional magnetic resonance imaging on a group of pediatric subjects with obsessive compulsive disorder reveals that this group has reduced activity in neural regions underlying emotional processing, cognitive processing, and motor performance as compared to control subjects.

  20. Copy Number Variation in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Tourette Syndrome: A Cross-Disorder Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Lauren M.; Yu, Dongmei; Marshall, Christian; Davis, Lea K.; Thiruvahindrapuram, Bhooma; Li, Bingbin; Cappi, Carolina; Gerber, Gloria; Wolf, Aaron; Schroeder, Frederick A.; Osiecki, Lisa; O’Dushlaine, Colm; Kirby, Andrew; Illmann, Cornelia; Haddad, Stephen; Gallagher, Patience; Fagerness, Jesen A.; Barr, Cathy L.; Bellodi, Laura; Benarroch, Fortu; Bienvenu, O. Joseph; Black, Donald W.; Bloch, Michael H.; Bruun, Ruth D.; Budman, Cathy L.; Camarena, Beatriz; Cath, Danielle C.; Cavallini, Maria C.; Chouinard, Sylvain; Coric, Vladimir; Cullen, Bernadette; Delorme, Richard; Denys, Damiaan; Derks, Eske M.; Dion, Yves; Rosário, Maria C.; Eapen, Valsama; Evans, Patrick; Falkai, Peter; Fernandez, Thomas; Garrido, Helena; Geller, Daniel; Grabe, Hans J.; Grados, Marco A.; Greenberg, Benjamin D.; Gross-Tsur, Varda; Grünblatt, Edna; Heiman, Gary A.; Hemmings, Sian M.J.; Herrera, Luis D.; Hounie, Ana G.; Jankovic, Joseph; Kennedy, James L; King, Robert A.; Kurlan, Roger; Lanzagorta, Nuria; Leboyer, Marion; Leckman, James F.; Lennertz, Leonhard; Lochner, Christine; Lowe, Thomas L.; Lyon, Gholson J.; Macciardi, Fabio; Maier, Wolfgang; McCracken, James T.; McMahon, William; Murphy, Dennis L.; Naarden, Allan L; Neale, Benjamin M; Nurmi, Erika; Pakstis, Andrew J.; Pato, Michele T.; Pato, Carlos N.; Piacentini, John; Pittenger, Christopher; Pollak, Yehuda; Reus, Victor I.; Richter, Margaret A.; Riddle, Mark; Robertson, Mary M.; Rosenberg, David; Rouleau, Guy A.; Ruhrmann, Stephan; Sampaio, Aline S.; Samuels, Jack; Sandor, Paul; Sheppard, Brooke; Singer, Harvey S.; Smit, Jan H.; Stein, Dan J.; Tischfield, Jay A.; Vallada, Homero; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy; Walitza, Susanne; Wang, Ying; Wendland, Jens R.; Shugart, Yin Yao; Miguel, Euripedes C.; Nicolini, Humberto; Oostra, Ben A.; Moessner, Rainald; Wagner, Michael; Ruiz-Linares, Andres; Heutink, Peter; Nestadt, Gerald; Freimer, Nelson; Petryshen, Tracey; Posthuma, Danielle; Jenike, Michael A.; Cox, Nancy J.; Hanna, Gregory L.; Brentani, Helena; Scherer, Stephen W.; Arnold, Paul D.; Stewart, S. Evelyn; Mathews, Carol A.; Knowles, James A.; Cook, Edwin H.; Pauls, David L.; Wang, Kai; Scharf, Jeremiah M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette syndrome (TS) are heritable, neurodevelopmental disorders with a partially shared genetic etiology. This study represents the first genome-wide investigation of large (>500kb), rare (<1%) copy number variants (CNVs) in OCD and the largest genome-wide CNV analysis in TS to date. Method The primary analyses utilized a cross-disorder design for 2,699 patients (1,613 ascertained for OCD, 1,086 ascertained for TS) and 1,789 controls. Parental data facilitated a de novo analysis in 348 OCD trios. Results Although no global CNV burden was detected in the cross-disorder analysis or in secondary, disease-specific analyses, there was a 3.3-fold increased burden of large deletions previously associated with other neurodevelopmental disorders (p=.09). Half of these neurodevelopmental deletions were located in a single locus, 16p13.11 (5 patient deletions: 0 control deletions, p=0.08 in current study, p=0.025 compared to published controls). Three 16p13.11 deletions were confirmed de novo, providing further support to the etiological significance of this region. The overall OCD de novo rate was 1.4%, which is intermediate between published rates in controls (0.7%) and in autism or schizophrenia (2–4%). Conclusion Several converging lines of evidence implicate 16p13.11 deletions in OCD, with weaker evidence for a role in TS. The trend toward increased overall neurodevelopmental CNV burden in TS and OCD suggests that deletions previously associated with other neurodevelopmental disorders may also contribute to these phenotypes. PMID:25062598

  1. Differential Impairment as an Indicator of Sex Bias in DSM-IV Criteria for Four Personality Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggs, Christina D.; Morey, Leslie C.; Skodol, Andrew E.; Shea, M. Tracie; Sanislow, Charles A.; Grilo, Carlos M.; McGlashan, Thomas H.; Zanarini, Mary C.; Gunderson, John G.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the possibility of sex bias in the diagnostic criteria for borderline, schizotypal, avoidant, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders. A clinical sample of 668 individuals was evaluated for personality disorder criteria using a semistructured interview, and areas of functional impairment were…

  2. PERSONALITY TRAITS AND BORDERLINE PERSONALITY DISORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senija TAHIROVIC

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The people with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD show pathological personality traits in three of the five domains (APA 2013. In addition to diagnostic criteria for BPD, described by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5, the dimensional model of personality disorder, based on five-factor model of personality, seems to gain interest as it promisses to eliminate problems associated with poor-fit, co-morbidity and unclear diagnosis. The purpose of this study is to identify the personality traits by people who are already diagnosed with BPD using the DSM-5 categorical criteria. Based on the theoretical concepts and existing research findings as well as increased interest in the dimensional personality theory, we assume that people diagnosed with BPD will show high levels of pathology on three trait domains: negative affectivity, disinhibition and antagonism. This study was conducted in Germany in psychiatric clinic. Fifteen participants represented a convenience sample, of patients already diagnosed with BPD. For this study Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5 was used. The findings supported the assumptions that people with BPD show some degree of anxiousness, emotional lability, hostility, impulsivity, risk taking and separation anxiety. The study also found that traits such as distractibility, withdrawal and submissiveness were also present in this participant group. Even though, study was conducted with small number of participants it has provided contribution to the already existing knowledge and understanding in regards to common personality treats for people diagnosed with BPD.

  3. Abnormal Spontaneous Neural Activity in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Li; Su-Fang, Li; Hai-Ying, Han; Zhang-Ye, Dong; Jia, Luo; Zhi-Hua, Guo; Hong-Fang, Xiong; Yu-Feng, Zang; Zhan-Jiang, Li

    2013-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies of obsessive-compulsive disorder have found abnormalities in orbitofronto-striato-thalamic circuitry, including the orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, caudate, and thalamus, but few studies have explored abnormal intrinsic or spontaneous brain activity in the resting state. We investigated both intra- and inter-regional synchronized activity in twenty patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and 20 healthy controls using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Regional homogeneity (ReHo) and functional connectivity methods were used to analyze the intra- and inter-regional synchronized activity, respectively. Compared with healthy controls, patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder showed significantly increased ReHo in the orbitofrontal cortex, cerebellum, and insula, and decreased ReHo in the ventral anterior cingulate cortex, caudate, and inferior occipital cortex. Based on ReHo results, we determined functional connectivity differences between the orbitofrontal cortex and other brain regions in both patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and controls. We found abnormal functional connectivity between the orbitofrontal cortex and ventral anterior cingulate cortex in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder compared with healthy controls. Moreover, ReHo in the orbitofrontal cortex was correlated with the duration of obsessive-compulsive disorder. These findings suggest that increased intra- and inter-regional synchronized activity in the orbitofrontal cortex may have a key role in the pathology of obsessive-compulsive disorder. In addition to orbitofronto-striato-thalamic circuitry, brain regions such as the insula and cerebellum may also be involved in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

  4. [Time for cluster C personality disorders: state of the art].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutsebaut, J; Willemsen, E M C; Van, H L

    Compared to cluster B personality disorders, the assessment and treatment of people with obsessive-compulsive, dependent, and avoidant personality disorders (cluster C) is given little attention in the field of research and clinical practice. Presenting the current state of affairs in regard to cluster C personality disorders. A systematic literature search was conducted using the main data bases. Cluster C personality disorders are present in approximately 3-9% of the general population. In about half of the cases of mood, anxiety, and eating disorders, there is co-morbid cluster C pathology. This has a major influence on the progression of symptoms, treatment effectiveness and potential relapse. There are barely any well conducted randomized studies on the treatment of cluster-C in existence. Open cohort studies, however, show strong, lasting treatment effects. Given the frequent occurrence of cluster C personality disorders, the burden of disease, associated societal costs and the prognostic implications in case of a co-morbid cluster C personality disorder, early detection and treatment of these disorders is warranted.

  5. Randomized controlled trial of parent-enhanced CBT compared with individual CBT for obsessive-compulsive disorder in young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Shirley A; Clark, Sarah; Smith, Holly; Langdon, Peter E; Payne, Ruth; Bowers, Gemma; Norton, Elisabeth; McIlwham, Harriet

    2013-12-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in young people can be effectively treated with Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT). Practice guidelines in the United Kingdom recommend that CBT be delivered with parental or family involvement; however, there is no evidence from randomized trials that this enhances effectiveness. The aim of this trial was to assess if CBT with high parental involvement was more effective than CBT with low parental involvement (individual CBT) in reducing symptoms of OCD. Fifty young people ages 12-17 years with OCD were randomly allocated to individual CBT or parent-enhanced CBT. In parent-enhanced CBT parents attended all treatment sessions; in individual CBT, parents attended only Sessions 1, 7, and the final session. Participants received up to 14 sessions of CBT. Data were analyzed using intent-to-treat and per-protocol methods. The primary outcome measure was the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsion Scale (Scahill et al., 1997). Both forms of CBT significantly reduced symptoms of OCD and anxiety. Change in OCD symptoms was maintained at 6 months. Per-protocol analysis suggested that parent-enhanced CBT may be associated with significantly larger reductions in anxiety symptoms. High and low parental involvement in CBT for OCD in young people were both effective, and there was no evidence that 1 method of delivery was superior on the primary outcome measure. However, this study was small. Future trials should be adequately powered and examine interactions with the age of the young person and comorbid anxiety disorders.

  6. Imagery Rescripting for Personality Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arntz, Arnoud

    2011-01-01

    Imagery rescripting is a powerful technique that can be successfully applied in the treatment of personality disorders. For personality disorders, imagery rescripting is not used to address intrusive images but to change the implicational meaning of schemas and childhood experiences that underlie the patient's problems. Various mechanisms that may…

  7. Influence of religious aspects and personal beliefs on psychological behavior: focus on anxiety disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agorastos A

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Agorastos Agorastos,1 Cüneyt Demiralay,1 Christian G Huber2 1Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany; 2Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland Abstract: The curren