Jaafari, N; Frasca, M; Rigalleau, F; Rachid, F; Gil, R; Olié, J-P; Guehl, D; Burbaud, P; Aouizerate, B; Rotgé, J-Y; Vibert, N
Compulsive checking behaviors are common in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Several authors have suggested that these checking rituals could be related to memory deficits. Our aim was to test whether patients with OCD show working memory impairment in relation to their checking behavior. We evaluated the verbal and visuospatial components of patients' and controls' working memory using the reading span and backward location span tests. Checking behaviors were measured by recording participants' eye movements during an image comparison task using a non-invasive, infra-red TOBII 1750 eyetracker. Participants were seated, head-free, in a natural position in front of the eyetracker screen where the images were displayed. Patients with OCD made more gaze moves to compare images than controls. Both patients' working memory spans were reduced, and the patients' deficit in the comparison task was negatively related to their working memory spans. This work demonstrates that checking behavior in OCD is linked to a general reduction of the patients' verbal and visuospatial working memory span. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by persistent doubt. The majority of patients with OCD engage in repeated checking to reduce these feelings of uncertainty. However, numerous studies demonstrated that repetitive behavior ironically increases uncertainty: perseverative checking
Obsessive-compulsive disorder(OCD) is characterized by intrusive frightening thoughts, images or impulses (obsessions; e.g., “did I stab my partner while doing the dishes?”) to which patients respond with repetitive behavior (compulsions; e.g., checking the knives and scissors in the house or
Alcolado, Gillian M; Radomsky, Adam S
Compulsive checking is one of the most common symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Recently it has been proposed that those who check compulsively may believe their memory is poor, rather than having an actual memory impairment. The current study sought to develop and assess a brief cognitive intervention focused on improving maladaptive beliefs about memory, as they pertain to both checking symptoms and memory performance. Participants (N = 24) with a diagnosis of OCD and clinical levels of checking symptomatology were randomly assigned either to receive two weekly 1-hour therapy sessions or to self-monitor during a similar waitlist period. Time spent checking, checking symptoms, maladaptive beliefs about memory, and visuospatial memory were assessed both pre- and post-treatment/waitlist. Results showed that compared to the waitlist condition, individuals in the treatment condition displayed significant decreases in their maladaptive beliefs about memory and checking symptoms from pre- to post-intervention. They also exhibited increased recall performance on a measure of visuospatial memory. Changes in beliefs about memory were predictors of reduced post-intervention checking, but were not predictive of increased post-intervention memory scores. The lack of long term follow-up data and use of a waitlist control leave questions about the stability and specificity of the intervention. Findings provide preliminary evidence that strategies targeting beliefs about memory may be worthy of inclusion in cognitive-behavioural approaches to treating compulsive checking. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Efrati, Yaniv; Mikulincer, Mario
Compulsive sexual behavior comprises individual-based (e.g., sexual fantasies, compulsive sexual thoughts, masturbation) and partnered (e.g., interpersonal sexual conquests, repeated infidelity) facets. Most instruments for assessing compulsive sexual behavior, however, focus less on the individual-based facet and specifically on fantasies and compulsive thoughts. In the current research, we developed and validated an individual-based compulsive sexual behavior scale (I-CSB). In Study 1 (N = 492), the factorial structure of the I-CSB was examined. In Study 2 (N = 406), we assessed I-CSB's convergent validity. In Study 3 (N = 112), we examined whether the I-CSB differentiates between individuals who suffer from compulsive sexual behavior and those who do not. Results revealed a four-factor structure for individual-based compulsive sexual behavior that is associated with an intense inner conflict regarding sexuality (high arousal contrasting with high sexual anxiety), and that accounts for approximately 75% of the differences between people with compulsive sexual behavior and controls. Results are discussed in light of the need for a broader understanding of compulsive sexual behavior.
Mitchell, James E; Burgard, Melissa; Faber, Ron; Crosby, Ross D; de Zwaan, Martina
To our knowledge, no psychotherapy treatment studies for compulsive buying have been published. The authors conducted a pilot trial comparing the efficacy of a group cognitive behavioral intervention designed for the treatment of compulsive buying to a waiting list control. Twenty-eight subjects were assigned to receive active treatment and 11 to the waiting list control group. The results at the end of treatment showed significant advantages for cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) over the waiting list in reductions in the number of compulsive buying episodes and time spent buying, as well as scores on the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale--Shopping Version and the Compulsive Buying Scale. Improvement was well-maintained at 6-month follow-up. The pilot data suggests that a cognitive behavioral intervention can be quite effective in the treatment of compulsive buying disorder. This model requires further testing.
Roller, Cyndi Gale
Sexually compulsive/addictive behavior is a pattern of sexual behaviors that cause distress and/or impairment of social functioning. It is marked by obsessive thoughts, compulsive behaviors, and the individual's inability to stop the behaviors despite negative consequences. Women experiencing sexually compulsive/addictive behavior are preoccupied with sex not as a response to desire but rather as a behavior that serves the purpose of anxiety reduction. Sexually compulsive/addictive behavior is associated with a number of health consequences, including sexually transmitted infections, unwanted pregnancies, abortions, and violence. It is important for providers to have an understanding of the addiction process, assessment, diagnosis, and interventions for these women.
Maccarrone‐Eaglen, Agata; Schofield, Peter
Despite the significant research in the consumer behavior literature on compulsive buying behavior (CBB), there is still no general agreement about the dimensionality or diagnostic screening of the disorder. Previous studies have identified two principal dimensions: compulsivity and impulsivity, although more recent strands of theory characterize CBB with reference to loss of self‐control and behavioral addiction. This study challenges the impulsive–compulsive paradigm by validating a new mod...
Evans, Andrew H; Strafella, Antonio P; Weintraub, Daniel; Stacy, Mark
Antiparkinson therapy can be the primary cause of a range of nonmotor symptoms that include a set of complex disinhibitory psychomotor pathologies and are linked by their repetitive, reward or incentive-based natures. These behaviors relate to aberrant or excessive dopamine receptor stimulation and encompass impulse control disorders (ICDs), punding, and the dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS). Common ICDs include pathological gambling, hypersexuality, compulsive eating, and compulsive buying. This review focuses on the phenomenology, epidemiology, and methods to identify and rate these disorders. The management of dopaminergic drug-related compulsive behaviors is discussed in the light of the current understanding of the neurobiological substrate of these disorders. 2009 Movement Disorder Society.
Linkovski, O.; Kalanthroff, E.; Henik, A.; Anholt, G.E.
Background and objectives: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is an anxiety disorder characterized by compulsions aimed at reducing anxiety associated with intrusive cognitions. However, compulsive behaviors such as repeated checking were found to increase rather than decrease uncertainty related
Morgante, Francesca; Fasano, Alfonso; Ginevrino, Monia; Petrucci, Simona; Ricciardi, Lucia; Bove, Francesco; Criscuolo, Chiara; Moccia, Marcello; De Rosa, Anna; Sorbera, Chiara; Bentivoglio, Anna Rita; Barone, Paolo; De Michele, Giuseppe; Pellecchia, Maria Teresa; Valente, Enza Maria
The aim of this multicenter, case-control study was to investigate the prevalence and severity of impulsive-compulsive behaviors (ICBs) in a cohort of patients with parkin-associated Parkinson disease (PD) compared to a group of patients without the mutation. We compared 22 patients with biallelic parkin mutations (parkin-PD) and 26 patients negative for parkin, PINK1, DJ-1, and GBA mutations (PD-NM), matched for age at onset, disease duration, levodopa, and dopamine agonist equivalent daily dose. A semistructured interview was used to diagnose each of the following ICBs: compulsive sexual behavior, compulsive buying, binge eating, punding, hobbyism, and compulsive medication use. The Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders in Parkinson's Disease-Rating Scale (QUIP-RS) was adopted to rate ICB severity. Frequency of patients with at least one ICB was comparable between parkin-PD and PD-NM. Nevertheless, when analyzing the distribution of specific ICBs, a higher frequency of compulsive shopping, binge eating, and punding/hobbyism was found in the parkin-PD group. Compared to PD-NM, parkin-PD patients with ICB had younger onset age and higher frequency of smokers; in 5 patients, ICB had predated PD onset. Total and partial (compulsive buying, compulsive sexual behavior, binge eating, hobbyism/punding) QUIP-RS scores were higher in patients with parkin-PD compared to patients with PD-NM. Logistic regression analysis showed that the presence of parkin mutations was associated with smoking status and higher QUIP-RS total score. Our data expand the parkin-associated phenotypic spectrum demonstrating higher frequency and severity of specific ICBs, and suggesting an association between the parkin genotype, smoking status, and ICB severity. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.
Bronner, Gila; Hassin-Baer, Sharon
A range of impulse control disorders has been described in Parkinson's disease, including compulsive sexual behavior. Excessive sexual demands of parkinsonian men can lead to considerable tension within the couple. Thorough sexual interviews reveal that these cases may reflect various types of sexual dysfunctions that present as hypersexuality. This study aims to analyze cases of presumed and true compulsive male sexual behavior, and to propose a practical tool for clinicians, assisting them with the diagnosis and management of compulsive sexual behavior and other sexual dysfunctions in parkinsonian patients. We describe four male patients with Parkinson's disease from the movement disorders clinic, which were referred to the sex therapist as suspected hypersexuality. The sexual assessment revealed that only one of the cases involved true hypersexuality due to compulsive sexual behavior. The other three presented with erectile dysfunction, difficulties reaching orgasm (delayed ejaculation), and a gap in desire within the couple. Complaints about hypersexual behavior in patients with Parkinson's disease must be carefully evaluated, involving a multidisciplinary team. A comprehensive diagnostic and therapeutic algorithm is suggested.
van Dis, E.A.M.; van den Hout, M.A.
Objective: patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (ocD) typically report to have “not just right experiences” (NJRE). up till now it is unclear which behavioral ocD features may give rise to NJREs. We used an induced checking paradigm to experimentally study whether perseverative checking
Weinstein, A; Mezig, Hila; Mizrachi, S; Lejoyeux, M
Compulsive buying is a chronic, repetitive behavior that becomes a primary response to negative events and feelings. Compulsive buyers are obsessed by buying and their behavior occurs in response to negative emotions and results in a decrease in the intensity of negative emotions. Euphoria or relief from negative emotions is the most common consequence of compulsive buying. A large number of studies have investigated the association between compulsive buying and anxiety, and some studies have used the Spielberger trait-state anxiety inventory. Compulsive buying, state and trait anxiety and general obsessive-compulsive measures were assessed among 120 habitual internet shoppers (2+ times a week, 70 men and 50 women). Results showed that Edwards Compulsive Buying scale measures were associated with Spielberger trait and not state anxiety measures. Spielberger Trait anxiety measures were also correlated with measures of Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive scale (Y-Bocs). Finally, there were no sex differences in this sample. The results of this study support existing evidence for an association between compulsive buying and anxiety and they will be discussed in view of current research on comorbidity of behavioural addiction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Figee, Martijn; Pattij, Tommy; Willuhn, Ingo; Luigjes, Judy; van den Brink, Wim; Goudriaan, Anneke; Potenza, Marc N; Robbins, Trevor W; Denys, Damiaan
Compulsive behaviors are driven by repetitive urges and typically involve the experience of limited voluntary control over these urges, a diminished ability to delay or inhibit these behaviors, and a tendency to perform repetitive acts in a habitual or stereotyped manner. Compulsivity is not only a central characteristic of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) but is also crucial to addiction. Based on this analogy, OCD has been proposed to be part of the concept of behavioral addiction along with other non-drug-related disorders that share compulsivity, such as pathological gambling, skin-picking, trichotillomania and compulsive eating. In this review, we investigate the neurobiological overlap between compulsivity in substance-use disorders, OCD and behavioral addictions as a validation for the construct of compulsivity that could be adopted in the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC). The reviewed data suggest that compulsivity in OCD and addictions is related to impaired reward and punishment processing with attenuated dopamine release in the ventral striatum, negative reinforcement in limbic systems, cognitive and behavioral inflexibility with diminished serotonergic prefrontal control, and habitual responding with imbalances between ventral and dorsal frontostriatal recruitment. Frontostriatal abnormalities of compulsivity are promising targets for neuromodulation and other interventions for OCD and addictions. We conclude that compulsivity encompasses many of the RDoC constructs in a trans-diagnostic fashion with a common brain circuit dysfunction that can help identifying appropriate prevention and treatment targets. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Montigny, Chantale; Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Whelan, Robert; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Büchel, Christian; Gallinat, Jürgen; Flor, Herta; Mann, Karl; Paillère-Martinot, Marie-Laure; Nees, Frauke; Lathrop, Mark; Loth, Eva; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Rietschel, Marcella; Schumann, Gunter; Smolka, Michael N; Struve, Maren; Robbins, Trevor W; Garavan, Hugh; Conrod, Patricia J
A compulsivity spectrum has been hypothesized to exist across Obsessive-Compulsive disorder (OCD), Eating Disorders (ED), substance abuse (SA) and binge-drinking (BD). The objective was to examine the validity of this compulsivity spectrum, and differentiate it from an externalizing behaviors dimension, but also to look at hypothesized personality and neural correlates. A community-sample of adolescents (N=1938; mean age 14.5 years), and their parents were recruited via high-schools in 8 European study sites. Data on adolescents' psychiatric symptoms, DSM diagnoses (DAWBA) and substance use behaviors (AUDIT and ESPAD) were collected through adolescent- and parent-reported questionnaires and interviews. The phenotypic structure of compulsive behaviors was then tested using structural equation modeling. The model was validated using personality variables (NEO-FFI and TCI), and Voxel-Based Morphometry (VBM) analysis. Compulsivity symptoms best fit a higher-order two factor model, with ED and OCD loading onto a compulsivity factor, and BD and SA loading onto an externalizing factor, composed also of ADHD and conduct disorder symptoms. The compulsivity construct correlated with neuroticism (r=0.638; p ≤ 0.001), conscientiousness (r=0.171; p ≤ 0.001), and brain gray matter volume in left and right orbitofrontal cortex, right ventral striatum and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. The externalizing factor correlated with extraversion (r=0.201; p ≤ 0.001), novelty-seeking (r=0.451; p ≤ 0.001), and negatively with gray matter volume in the left inferior and middle frontal gyri. Results suggest that a compulsivity spectrum exists in an adolescent, preclinical sample and accounts for variance in both OCD and ED, but not substance-related behaviors, and can be differentiated from an externalizing spectrum.
Meyer, Dixie; Cohn, Aaron; Robinson, Brittany; Muse, Fatima; Hughes, Rachel
Child sexual abuse has the potential to cause distress for the victim across the lifespan. Romantic relationships may be particularly difficult for victims of child sexual abuse. This retrospective study examined differences in adult romantic attachment, sexually compulsive behaviors, and emotion regulation by history of child sexual abuse in a large, nonclinical sample. Those with a history of child sexual abuse reported more attachment anxiety in romantic relationships and engaged in more sexually compulsive behaviors. Overall, males displayed more sexually compulsive behaviors than females regardless of history of sexual abuse. Males with a history of sexual abuse displayed the greatest number of sexually compulsive behaviors. Surprisingly, no differences were observed in emotion regulation or attachment avoidant behaviors by history of child sexual abuse. Future research should seek to replicate current findings and examine emotion regulation difficulties experienced as a result of trauma.
Giele, Catharina L.; van den Hout, Marcel A.; Engelhard, Iris M.; Dek, Eliane C P
Many patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) perform perseverative checking behavior to reduce uncertainty, but studies have shown that this ironically increases uncertainty. Some patients also tend to perseveratively repeat sentences. The aim of this study was to examine whether sentence
Granero, R; Fernández-Aranda, F; Mestre-Bach, G; Steward, T; Baño, M; Agüera, Z; Mallorquí-Bagué, N; Aymamí, N; Gómez-Peña, M; Sancho, M; Sánchez, I; Menchón, J M; Martín-Romera, V; Jiménez-Murcia, S
Compulsive buying behavior (CBB) is receiving increasing consideration in both consumer and psychiatric-epidemiological research, yet empirical evidence on treatment interventions is scarce and mostly from small homogeneous clinical samples. To estimate the short-term effectiveness of a standardized, individual cognitive behavioral therapy intervention (CBT) in a sample of n=97 treatment-seeking patients diagnosed with CBB, and to identify the most relevant predictors of therapy outcome. The intervention consisted of 12 individual CBT weekly sessions, lasting approximately 45minutes each. Data on patients' personality traits, psychopathology, sociodemographic factors, and compulsive buying behavior were used in our analysis. The risk (cumulative incidence) of poor adherence to the CBT program was 27.8%. The presence of relapses during the CBT program was 47.4% and the dropout rate was 46.4%. Significant predictors of poor therapy adherence were being male, high levels of depression and obsessive-compulsive symptoms, low anxiety levels, high persistence, high harm avoidance and low self-transcendence. Cognitive behavioral models show promise in treating CBB, however future interventions for CBB should be designed via a multidimensional approach in which patients' sex, comorbid symptom levels and the personality-trait profiles play a central role. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available A compulsivity spectrum has been hypothesized to exist across Obsessive-Compulsive disorder (OCD, Eating Disorders (ED, substance abuse (SA and binge-drinking (BD. The objective was to examine the validity of this compulsivity spectrum, and differentiate it from an externalizing behaviors dimension, but also to look at hypothesized personality and neural correlates.A community-sample of adolescents (N=1938; mean age 14.5 years, and their parents were recruited via high-schools in 8 European study sites. Data on adolescents' psychiatric symptoms, DSM diagnoses (DAWBA and substance use behaviors (AUDIT and ESPAD were collected through adolescent- and parent-reported questionnaires and interviews. The phenotypic structure of compulsive behaviors was then tested using structural equation modeling. The model was validated using personality variables (NEO-FFI and TCI, and Voxel-Based Morphometry (VBM analysis.Compulsivity symptoms best fit a higher-order two factor model, with ED and OCD loading onto a compulsivity factor, and BD and SA loading onto an externalizing factor, composed also of ADHD and conduct disorder symptoms. The compulsivity construct correlated with neuroticism (r=0.638; p ≤ 0.001, conscientiousness (r=0.171; p ≤ 0.001, and brain gray matter volume in left and right orbitofrontal cortex, right ventral striatum and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. The externalizing factor correlated with extraversion (r=0.201; p ≤ 0.001, novelty-seeking (r=0.451; p ≤ 0.001, and negatively with gray matter volume in the left inferior and middle frontal gyri.Results suggest that a compulsivity spectrum exists in an adolescent, preclinical sample and accounts for variance in both OCD and ED, but not substance-related behaviors, and can be differentiated from an externalizing spectrum.
Montigny, Chantale; Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Whelan, Robert; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J.; Büchel, Christian; Gallinat, Jürgen; Flor, Herta; Mann, Karl; Paillère-Martinot, Marie-Laure; Nees, Frauke; Lathrop, Mark; Loth, Eva; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Rietschel, Marcella; Schumann, Gunter; Smolka, Michael N.; Struve, Maren; Robbins, Trevor W.; Garavan, Hugh; Conrod, Patricia J.
Background A compulsivity spectrum has been hypothesized to exist across Obsessive-Compulsive disorder (OCD), Eating Disorders (ED), substance abuse (SA) and binge-drinking (BD). The objective was to examine the validity of this compulsivity spectrum, and differentiate it from an externalizing behaviors dimension, but also to look at hypothesized personality and neural correlates. Method A community-sample of adolescents (N=1938; mean age 14.5 years), and their parents were recruited via high-schools in 8 European study sites. Data on adolescents’ psychiatric symptoms, DSM diagnoses (DAWBA) and substance use behaviors (AUDIT and ESPAD) were collected through adolescent- and parent-reported questionnaires and interviews. The phenotypic structure of compulsive behaviors was then tested using structural equation modeling. The model was validated using personality variables (NEO-FFI and TCI), and Voxel-Based Morphometry (VBM) analysis. Results Compulsivity symptoms best fit a higher-order two factor model, with ED and OCD loading onto a compulsivity factor, and BD and SA loading onto an externalizing factor, composed also of ADHD and conduct disorder symptoms. The compulsivity construct correlated with neuroticism (r=0.638; p≤0.001), conscientiousness (r=0.171; p≤0.001), and brain gray matter volume in left and right orbitofrontal cortex, right ventral striatum and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. The externalizing factor correlated with extraversion (r=0.201; p≤0.001), novelty-seeking (r=0.451; p≤0.001), and negatively with gray matter volume in the left inferior and middle frontal gyri. Conclusions Results suggest that a compulsivity spectrum exists in an adolescent, preclinical sample and accounts for variance in both OCD and ED, but not substance-related behaviors, and can be differentiated from an externalizing spectrum. PMID:24244633
Villemarette-Pittman, Nicole R; Stanford, Matthew S; Greve, Kevin W; Houston, Rebecca J; Mathias, Charles W
Although obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) is an Axis II diagnosis that is not commonly associated with behavioral disinhibition, the literature contains reports of occasional explosive aggressive outbursts. Existing explanations of OCPD etiology do not address the coexistence of compulsive and impulsive features witnessed in some subpopulations of patients. In this study, the authors present a compensatory theory of OCPD in an effort to explain clinical observations of an unexpectedly large number of OCPD diagnoses among patients clinic referred and self-referred for aggression problems.
Alce Mariani Labito
Full Text Available Compulsive Buying Behavior seemed to be increasing, especially among college students. The aim of this study was to explain some factors that influence compulsive buying behavior. This study involved 189 undergraduate students and data collected by distributing questionnaires. The result showed that allowance, personal budgeting, were related to compulsive buying behavior. The other results indicated that self-control was able to weaken the influence of allowance on compulsive buying behavior. Also, the outcome empirically showed that college students are knowledgeable with some alternative methods for overcoming compulsive buying behavior.
Kraus, Shane W; Voon, Valerie; Potenza, Marc N
To review the evidence base for classifying compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) as a non-substance or 'behavioral' addiction. Data from multiple domains (e.g. epidemiological, phenomenological, clinical, biological) are reviewed and considered with respect to data from substance and gambling addictions. Overlapping features exist between CSB and substance use disorders. Common neurotransmitter systems may contribute to CSB and substance use disorders, and recent neuroimaging studies highlight similarities relating to craving and attentional biases. Similar pharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatments may be applicable to CSB and substance addictions, although considerable gaps in knowledge currently exist. Despite the growing body of research linking compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) to substance addictions, significant gaps in understanding continue to complicate classification of CSB as an addiction. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Granero, Roser; Fernández Aranda, Fernando; Mestre-Bach, Gemma; Steward, Trevor; Baño, Marta; Del Pino Gutiérrez, Amparo; Moragas, Laura; Mallorquí-Bagué, Núria; Aymamí, Maria Neus; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; Tárrega, Salomé; Menchón Magriñá, José Manuel; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana
Compulsive buying behavior (CBB) has been recognized as a prevalent mental health disorder, yet its categorization into classification systems remains unsettled. The objective of this study was to assess the sociodemographic and clinic variables related to the CBB phenotype compared to other behavioral addictions. Three thousand three hundred and twenty four treatment-seeking patients were classified in five groups: CBB, sexual addiction, Internet gaming disorder, Internet addiction, and gamb...
Tanaka, Kenichiro; Wada-Isoe, Kenji; Nakashita, Satoko; Yamamoto, Mikie; Nakashima, Kenji
In order to evaluate impulsive compulsive behaviors (ICBs), such as pathological gambling, compulsive sexual behavior, compulsive buying, compulsive eating, punding, and dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS) in Japanese Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, we constructed a Japanese version of the Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders in Parkinson's disease (J-QUIP) and evaluated the utility of the J-QUIP in Japanese PD patients. J-QUIP was administered to 121 PD patients. Diagnoses of ICBs were made via interview of patients or their caregivers. Subsequently, in order to evaluate risk factors related to these conditions, we evaluated demographic and clinical characteristics, clinical features, and medications utilized. We were able to administer the J-QUIP to 118 of 121 PD patients (97.5%). Sensitivity and specificity of J-QUIP were similar to that reported for the original version of QUIP. In our study, the actual prevalence of each disorder diagnosed via interview was as follows: pathological gambling (6.5%), compulsive sexual behavior (3.2%), compulsive buying (3.2%), compulsive eating (3.2%), punding (6.5%), and DDS (2.2%). Significantly risk factors for these conditions were younger age (p=0.047), earlier age of disease onset (p=0.015), longer PD duration (p=0.001), total levodopa equivalent dose (p=0.006), and dosage of levodopa (p=0.019). We evaluated the prevalence of ICBs in Japanese PD patients along with factors associated with these behaviors via J-QUIP. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Cordioli Aristides V
Full Text Available Objective: To develop a cognitive-behavioral group therapy protocol and to verify its efficacy to reduce obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Methods: An open clinical trial with 32 obsessive-compulsive patients was performed, in which a cognitive-behavioral group therapy protocol of 12 weekly sessions of two hours, in 5 consecutive groups, was applied. The severity of symptoms was rated with the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive (Y-BOCS, Hamilton Anxiety (HAM A and Hamilton Depression (HAM D scales. The patients were followed up for 3 months after the end of the treatment. Results: There was a significant reduction in the scores of Y-BOCS, HAM A and HAM D scales with the treatment regardless the use of anti-obsessive medications. The rate of improved patients (decrease of > or = 35% in Y-BOCS was 78.1%. Two patients (6.25% dropped out from the study. The effect size calculated for the Y-BOCS scale was 1.75. Conclusions: This study suggests that cognitive-behavioral group therapy reduces obsessive-compulsive symptoms. In addition, patients presented good compliance.
Raguraman, Janakiraman; Priyadharshini, Kothai R.; Chandrasekaran, R.; Vijaysagar, John
A male patient with homosexual obsession in obsessive compulsive disorder shows a better outcome following a combination of pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy. This case report emphasizes the importance of combination therapy in obsessive compulsive disorder with abnormal sexual impulses and behavior.
Callesen, M B; Weintraub, D; Damholdt, M F; Møller, A
Dopaminergic medication administered to ameliorate motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease is associated with impulse control disorders, such as pathological gambling, hypersexuality, compulsive buying, and binge eating. Studies indicate a prevalence of impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease of 6-16%. To estimate the prevalence of impulsive and compulsive behaviors among Danish patients with Parkinson's disease and to explore the relation of such behavioral disorders to depression and personality. 490 patients with Parkinson's disease (303 males), identified through the National Danish Patient Registry, were evaluated with: 1) the Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders in Parkinson's Disease; 2) the Geriatric Depression Scale; and 3) the NEO-Personality Inventory. 176 (35.9%) patients reported impulsive and compulsive behaviors sometime during Parkinson's disease (current symptoms in 73, 14.9%). Hereof, 114 (23.3%) reported multiple behavioral symptoms. Patients with behavioral symptoms were significantly younger, were younger at PD onset, had longer disease duration, displayed more motor symptoms, and received higher doses of dopaminergic medication than patients without behavioral symptoms. Furthermore, they reported significantly more depressive symptoms and scored significantly higher on neuroticism and lower on both agreeableness and conscientiousness than patients without behavioral symptoms. A history of impulsive and compulsive behaviors are common in Danish patients with Parkinson's disease and have clinical correlates that may allow identification of patients at risk for developing these behaviors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Spinella, Marcello; Lester, David; Yang, Bijou
Compulsive buying behavior is typically viewed as pathological, but recent research has shown that compulsive buying tendencies are associated with attitudes toward money, personal financial behavior, and having materialistic values, suggesting that compulsive buyers are manifesting an extreme form of habits shown by people in general. In a study of 240 community residents, scores on the Compulsive Buying Scale were associated positively with scores on the Material Values Scale and the Canadian Problem Gambling Index, and negatively with scores on the Executive Personal Finance Scale and Ardelt's wisdom scale. These results suggest that, as is the case for many abnormal behaviors, tendencies toward compulsive buying may not be pathological, but are associated with attitudes toward money in general, financial management behavior, and materialistic values.
Figee, Martijn; Pattij, Tommy; Willuhn, Ingo; Luigjes, Judy; van den Brink, Wim; Goudriaan, Anneke; Potenza, Marc N; Robbins, Trevor W; Denys, D.
Compulsive behaviors are driven by repetitive urges and typically involve the experience of limited voluntary control over these urges, a diminished ability to delay or inhibit these behaviors, and a tendency to perform repetitive acts in a habitual or stereotyped manner. Compulsivity is not only a
Koran, Lorrin M; Faber, Ronald J; Aboujaoude, Elias; Large, Michael D; Serpe, Richard T
Compulsive buying (uncontrolled urges to buy, with resulting significant adverse consequences) has been estimated to affect from 1.8% to 16% of the adult U.S. population. To the authors' knowledge, no study has used a large general population sample to estimate its prevalence. The authors conducted a random sample, national household telephone survey in the spring and summer of 2004 and interviewed 2,513 adults. The interviews addressed buying attitudes and behaviors, their consequences, and the respondents' financial and demographic data. The authors used a clinically validated screening instrument, the Compulsive Buying Scale, to classify respondents as either compulsive buyers or not. The rate of response was 56.3%, which compares favorably with rates in federal national health surveys. The cooperation rate was 97.6%. Respondents included a higher percentage of women and people ages 55 and older than the U.S. adult population. The estimated point prevalence of compulsive buying among respondents was 5.8% (by gender: 6.0% for women, 5.5% for men). The gender-adjusted prevalence rate was 5.8%. Compared with other respondents, compulsive buyers were younger, and a greater proportion reported incomes under 50,000 US dollars. They exhibited more maladaptive responses on most consumer behavior measures and were more than four times less likely to pay off credit card balances in full. A study using clinically valid interviews is needed to evaluate these results. The emotional and functional toll of compulsive buying and the frequency of comorbid psychiatric disorders suggests that studies of treatments and social interventions are warranted.
Ecker, Willi; Kupfer, Jochen; Gönner, Sascha
This paper examines the contribution of incompleteness/'not just right experiences' (NJREs) to an understanding of the relationship between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and obsessive-compulsive personality traits (OCPTs). It investigates the association of specific OCD symptom dimensions with OCPTs, conceptualized as continuous phenomena that are also observable below the diagnostic threshold. As empirical findings and clinical observation suggest that incompleteness feelings/NJREs may play a significant affective and motivational role for certain OCD subtypes, but also for patients with accentuated OCPTs, we hypothesized that OCPTs are selectively linked with incompleteness-associated OCD symptom dimensions (ordering, checking, hoarding and counting). Moreover, we assumed that this selective relationship cannot be demonstrated any more after statistical control of incompleteness, whereas it is preserved after statistical control of anxiety, depression, pathological worry and harm avoidance. Results from a study with a large clinical sample (n = 185) partially support these hypotheses and suggest that NJREs may be an important connecting link between specific OCD symptom dimensions, in particular ordering and checking, and accentuated OCPTs. Obsessive-compulsive personality traits (OCPTs) are positively related to obsessive-compulsive disorder symptom dimensions (ordering, checking, hoarding and counting) hypothesized or found to be associated with incompleteness/'not just right experiences' (NJREs), but not to washing and obsessions. This positive relationship, which is strongest for ordering and checking, is eliminated when NJREs are statistically controlled. Ordering, checking and accentuated OCPTs may share NJREs as a common affective-motivational underpinning.Dysfunctional behaviour patterns of people with accentuated OCPTs or obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) may be viewed as efforts to avoid or reduce subjectively intolerable NJREs
van den Hout, M.; Kindt, M.
This paper attempts to explain why in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) checkers distrust in memory persists despite extensive checking. It is argued that: (1) repeated checking increases familiarity with the issues checked; (2) increased familiarity promotes conceptual processing which inhibits
Shorey, Ryan C; Elmquist, Joanna; Gawrysiak, Michael J; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L
Substance use disorders (SUDs) are a serious worldwide problem. Despite years of research on the treatment of SUDs, relapse remains high. One factor that may complicate SUDs treatment for some patients is compulsive sexual behavior. Factors that are related to both SUDs and compulsive sexual behavior could be targeted in SUDs treatment. In the current study, we examined dispositional mindfulness, a protective factor for a range of mental health problems, and its relationship to compulsive sexual behavior in a SUDs treatment sample. This is the first study to examine this relationship in a SUDs sample. Medical records from men in residential SUDs treatment were reviewed for the current study ( N = 271). Upon admission to treatment, men completed self-report measures on alcohol and drug use, dispositional mindfulness, and compulsive sexual behavior. Bivariate correlations demonstrated dispositional mindfulness to be negatively associated with a variety of indicators of compulsive sexual behavior. After controlling for alcohol and drug use and problems in hierarchical regression analyses, which were both associated with compulsive sexual behaviors, dispositional mindfulness remained negatively associated with all of the compulsive sexual behavior indicators. Our results provide the first empirical association between dispositional mindfulness and compulsive sexual behavior in a SUDs sample. Although continued research is needed in this area, our findings suggest that it may be beneficial for SUDs treatment to incorporate mindfulness-based interventions for individuals with comorbid compulsive sexual behavior.
Joutsa, Juho; Martikainen, Kirsti; Kaasinen, Valtteri
A 55-year-old male with idiopathic Parkinson's disease developed three behavioral changes under combination therapy with selegiline, cabergoline and levodopa. Co-existent behaviors included severe pathological gambling, punding and novel skills in writing poetry (published poetry books). Brain [(18)F]fluorodopa PET imaging showed decreased tracer uptake in the striatum contralateral to the predominant motor symptoms, consistent with the clinical diagnosis of Parkinson's disease. Uptake in the ventral striatum was markedly high. Brain MRI before and after behavioral changes showed no pathological findings. The patient was diagnosed as having Parkinson's disease together with DSM-IV criteria-fulfilling pathological gambling and punding-like stereotyped behavior. There are no established criteria for the classification of emerged artistic creativity, although there are descriptions of the phenomenon in the literature. Inspired by the case, we conducted a preliminary survey - including 290 patients with Parkinson's disease - exploring the possible relationship between creativity and impulsive-compulsive behaviors. The case, supported by the results of the survey, adds to the cumulative evidence of the association between dopaminergic medication and enhanced creativity, and suggests a possible linkage between increased artistic creativity and impulsive-compulsive behaviors in Parkinson's disease. Furthermore, it could be speculated that the high mesolimbic dopamine function might relate to the behavioral changes observed in this patient, and is suggestive of the overlapping neurobiological mechanisms of compulsive behaviors and artistic creativity.
Hyman, Philippa; Oliver, Chris; Hall, Scott
Analysis of questionnaires completed by caregivers of 77 individuals with Cornelia de Lange syndrome in the United Kingdom found a significant association between self-injurious behaviors and self-restraint, and those displaying both behaviors displayed significantly more compulsions than did those not exhibiting them. Findings extend the…
Abramowitz, Jonathan S; Deacon, Brett J; Woods, Carol M; Tolin, David F
There is evidence that religion and other cultural influences are associated with the presentation of obsessive-compulsive symptoms, as well as beliefs and assumptions presumed to underlie the development and maintenance of these symptoms. We sought to further examine the relationship between Protestant religiosity and (1) various symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) (e.g., checking, washing) and (2) OCD-related cognitions. Using self-report questionnaires, we compared differences in these OCD-related phenomena between highly religious Protestants, moderately religious Protestants, and atheist/agnostic participants drawn from an undergraduate sample. Highly religious versus moderately religious Protestants reported greater obsessional symptoms, compulsive washing, and beliefs about the importance of thoughts. Additionally, the highly religious evinced more obsessional symptoms, compulsive washing, intolerance for uncertainty, need to control thoughts, beliefs about the importance of thoughts, and inflated responsibility, compared to atheists/agnostics. Results are discussed in terms of the relationship between religion and OCD symptoms in the context of the cognitive-behavioral conceptualization of OCD. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Lejoyeux, Michel; Weinstein, Aviv
Compulsive buying is a chronic, repetitive purchasing that becomes a primary response to negative events and feelings, and may include symptoms equivalent to craving and withdrawal. This article describes the addictive characteristics of compulsive buying, the psychiatric comorbidity, and the possibilities of treatment. Using PubMed and MedLine search engines, we performed a review of published literature over the period 1990-2010 using the keyword "compulsive buying". A key feature distinguishing compulsive buyers from normal consumers, collectors, and hoarders is that the former focuses on the buying process itself, rather than the items bought. In this instance, the purchased items are usually never used, but tend to be hidden or thrown away. A recent screening study found that up to 5% of adult Americans appear to be afflicted with this compulsion. Compulsive buying results in adverse consequences, including financial and legal problems, psychological distress (depression, guilt), and interpersonal conflict. The most commonly associated comorbidities are depression and eating disorders. Nothing is known about the neurobiology and genetics of compulsive buying and relatively little about its treatment. Cognitive behavioral therapy has some efficacy, but no medication has been effective in controlled trials. Compulsive buying can be described as a behavioral dependence. A great deal of future research is needed to improve our understanding of compulsive buying.
Granero, Roser; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Mestre-Bach, Gemma; Steward, Trevor; Baño, Marta; Del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Moragas, Laura; Mallorquí-Bagué, Núria; Aymamí, Neus; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; Tárrega, Salomé; Menchón, José M; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana
Compulsive buying behavior (CBB) has been recognized as a prevalent mental health disorder, yet its categorization into classification systems remains unsettled. The objective of this study was to assess the sociodemographic and clinic variables related to the CBB phenotype compared to other behavioral addictions. Three thousand three hundred and twenty four treatment-seeking patients were classified in five groups: CBB, sexual addiction, Internet gaming disorder, Internet addiction, and gambling disorder. CBB was characterized by a higher proportion of women, higher levels of psychopathology, and higher levels in the personality traits of novelty seeking, harm avoidance, reward dependence, persistence, and cooperativeness compared to other behavioral addictions. Results outline the heterogeneity in the clinical profiles of patients diagnosed with different behavioral addiction subtypes and shed new light on the primary mechanisms of CBB.
Granero, Roser; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Mestre-Bach, Gemma; Steward, Trevor; Baño, Marta; del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Moragas, Laura; Mallorquí-Bagué, Núria; Aymamí, Neus; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; Tárrega, Salomé; Menchón, José M.; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana
Compulsive buying behavior (CBB) has been recognized as a prevalent mental health disorder, yet its categorization into classification systems remains unsettled. The objective of this study was to assess the sociodemographic and clinic variables related to the CBB phenotype compared to other behavioral addictions. Three thousand three hundred and twenty four treatment-seeking patients were classified in five groups: CBB, sexual addiction, Internet gaming disorder, Internet addiction, and gambling disorder. CBB was characterized by a higher proportion of women, higher levels of psychopathology, and higher levels in the personality traits of novelty seeking, harm avoidance, reward dependence, persistence, and cooperativeness compared to other behavioral addictions. Results outline the heterogeneity in the clinical profiles of patients diagnosed with different behavioral addiction subtypes and shed new light on the primary mechanisms of CBB. PMID:27378999
Lejoyeux, M; Haberman, N; Solomon, J; Adès, J
Compulsive buying is defined as repetitive impulsive and excessive buying leading to personal and familial distress. This study compares the buying behavior of depressed patients presenting with or without compulsive buying. The weight of promotional factors such as sales and advertising campaigns was systematically assessed. The impulsive nature of compulsive buying and the choice of items purchased were also investigated. For this purpose, we studied buying behavior among 52 inpatients diagnosed for major depressive episode with DSM-IV criteria. None of the patients presented mania or hypomania, obsessive-compulsive disorder, or alcohol or drug abuse or dependence disorder. We assessed the prevalence of compulsive buying and compared the "buying style" among patients with (CB+) and without (CB-) compulsive buying. The diagnosis of depression was assessed with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). The diagnosis of compulsive buying was made using standardized criteria and a specific rating scale. All patients answered a specific questionnaire assessing the phenomenology of the buying behavior. Twenty-one of 52 depressives presented with compulsive buying. The CB+ group was not more sensitive to promotional factors. They did not seek sales or use loans significantly more than others. Upon entering a shop, the CB+ subjects did not change their choice more often than others. CB+ subjects were significantly more often alone while shopping (85% of cases v61% of CB- group, p = .05). Most purchases from the CB+ group were self-gifts or gifts to others (50.4% v 23.5%, p = .003); 14.4% of purchases in the CB+ group (v 2.2% in CB- group, P = .045) were made because the patients believed their social status requires acquisition. Items to be bought were more often considered by CB+ subjects as occasions not to be missed (31.4% v15.1%, P = .03). Purchases were significantly (57% v 16%) less often used than expected by the CB+ group (P = .002). Most
Aouizerate, Bruno; Guehl, Dominique; Cuny, Emmanuel; Rougier, Alain; Bioulac, Bernard; Tignol, Jean; Burbaud, Pierre
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by repetitive intrusive thoughts and compulsive time-consuming behaviors classified into three to five distinct symptom dimensions including: (1) aggressive/somatic obsessions with checking compulsions; (2) contamination concerns with washing compulsions; (3) symmetry obsessions with counting/ordering compulsions; (4) hoarding obsessions with collecting compulsions; and (5) sexual/religious concerns. Phenomenologically, OCD could be thought of as the irruption of internal signals centered on the erroneous perception that "something is wrong" in a specific situation. This generates severe anxiety, leading to recurrent behaviors aimed at reducing the emotional tension. In this paper, we examine how the abnormalities in brain activity reported in OCD can be interpreted in the light of physiology after consideration of various approaches (phenomenology, neuropsychology, neuroimmunology and neuroimagery) that contribute to proposing the central role of several cortical and subcortical regions, especially the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPC), the head of the caudate nucleus and the thalamus. The OFC is involved in the significance attributed to the consequences of action, thereby subserving decision-making, whereas the ACC is particularly activated in situations in which there are conflicting options and a high likelihood of making an error. The DLPC plays a critical part in the cognitive processing of relevant information. This cortical information is then integrated by the caudate nucleus, which controls behavioral programs. A dysfunction of these networks at one or several stages will result in the emergence and maintenance of repetitive thoughts and characteristic OCD behavior. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.
Golden, Sam A; Heins, Conor; Venniro, Marco; Caprioli, Daniele; Zhang, Michelle; Epstein, David H; Shaham, Yavin
Some people are highly motivated to seek aggressive encounters, and among those who have been incarcerated for such behavior, recidivism rates are high. These observations echo two core features of drug addiction: high motivation to seek addictive substances, despite adverse consequences, and high relapse rates. Here we used established rodent models of drug addiction to determine whether they would be sensitive to "addiction-like" features of aggression in CD-1 mice. In experiments 1 and 2, we trained older CD-1 mice to lever press for opportunities to attack younger C57BL6/J mice. We then tested them for relapse to aggression seeking after forced abstinence or punishment-induced suppression of aggression self-administration. In experiment 3, we trained a large cohort of CD-1 mice and tested them for choice-based voluntary suppression of aggression seeking, relapse to aggression seeking, progressive ratio responding, and punishment-induced suppression of aggression self-administration. We then used cluster analysis to identify patterns of individual differences in compulsive "addiction-like" aggressive behavior. In experiments 1 and 2, we observed strong motivation to acquire operant self-administration of opportunities to aggress and relapse vulnerability during abstinence. In experiment 3, cluster analysis of the aggression-related measures identified a subset of "addicted" mice (∼19%) that exhibited intense operant-reinforced attack behavior, decreased likelihood to select an alternative reinforcer over aggression, heightened relapse vulnerability and progressive ratio responding, and resilience to punishment-induced suppression of aggressive behavior. Using procedures established to model drug addiction, we showed that a subpopulation of CD-1 mice demonstrate "addiction-like" aggressive behavior, suggesting an evolutionary origin for compulsive aggression. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Coles, Meredith E; Schofield, Casey A; Pietrefesa, Ashley S
Behavioral inhibition is frequently cited as a vulnerability factor for development of anxiety. However, few studies have examined the unique relationship between behavioral inhibition and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Therefore, the current study addressed the relationship between behavioral inhibition and OCD in a number of ways. In a large unselected student sample, frequency of current OC symptoms was significantly correlated with retrospective self-reports of total levels of childhood behavioral inhibition. In addition, frequency of current OC symptoms was also significantly correlated with both social and nonsocial components of behavioral inhibition. Further, there was evidence for a unique relationship between behavioral inhibition and OC symptoms beyond the relationship of behavioral inhibition and social anxiety. In addition, results showed that reports of childhood levels of behavioral inhibition significantly predicted levels of OCD symptoms in adulthood. Finally, preliminary evidence suggested that behavioral inhibition may be more strongly associated with some types of OC symptoms than others, and that overprotective parenting may moderate the impact of behavioral inhibition on OC symptoms. The current findings suggest the utility of additional research examining the role of behavioral inhibition in the etiology of OCD.
Full Text Available There is currently a lack of understanding how surgical menopause can influence obsessions, compulsions and associated affective and cognitive functions in female OCD patients. Early menopause in women due to surgical removal of ovaries not only causes dramatic hormonal changes, but also may induce affective and cognitive disorders. Here, we tested if surgical removal of ovaries (ovariectomy, OVX, which mimics surgical menopause in humans, would result in exacerbation of compulsive, affective and cognitive behaviors in mice strains that exhibit a spontaneous compulsive-like phenotype. Female mice from compulsive-like BIG, non-compulsive SMALL and randomly-bred Control strains were subjected to OVX or sham-surgery. After seven days animals were tested for nest building and marble burying to measure compulsive-like behavior. The elevated plus maze and open field tests measured anxiety-like behaviors, while memory was assessed by the novel object recognition. Acute OVX resulted in exacerbation of compulsive-like and anxiety-like behaviors in compulsive-like BIG mice. No significant effects of OVX were observed for the non-compulsive SMALL and Control strains. Object recognition memory was impaired in compulsive-like BIG female mice compared to the Control mice, without an effect of OVX on the BIG mice. We also tested whether 17 β-estradiol (E2 or progesterone (P4 could reverse the effects of OVX. E2, but not P4, attenuated the compulsive-like behaviors in compulsive-like BIG OVX female mice. The actions of the sex steroids on anxiety-like behaviors in OVX females were strain and behavioral test dependent. Altogether, our results indicate that already existing compulsions can be worsened during acute ovarian deprivation concomitant with exacerbation of affective behaviors and responses to hormonal intervention in OVX female mice can be influenced by genetic background.
Dek, E.C.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313959552; van den Hout, M.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070445354; Giele, C.L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/318754460; Engelhard, I.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/239681533
Repetitive, compulsive-like checking of an object leads to reductions in memory confidence, vividness, and detail. Experimental research suggests that this is caused by increased familiarity with perceptual characteristics of the stimulus and automatization of the checking procedure (Dek, van den
Andrea L Hinds
Full Text Available In obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD, individuals feel compelled to repeatedly perform security-related behaviors, even though these behaviours seem excessive and unwarranted to them. The present research investigated two alternative ways of explaining such behavior: (1 a dysfunction of activation--a starting problem--in which the level of excitation in response to stimuli suggesting potential danger is abnormally strong; versus (2 a dysfunction of termination--a stopping problem--in which the satiety-like process for shutting down security-related thoughts and actions is abnormally weak.In two experiments, 70 patients with OCD (57 with washing compulsions, 13 with checking compulsions and 72 controls were exposed to contamination cues--immersing a hand in wet diapers--and later allowed to wash their hands, first limited to 30 s and then for as long as desired. The intensity of activation of security motivation was measured objectively by change in respiratory sinus arrythmia. Subjective ratings (e.g., contamination and behavioral measures (e.g., duration of hand washing were also collected.Compared to controls, OCD patients with washing compulsions did not differ significantly in their levels of initial activation to the threat of contamination; however, they were significantly less able to reduce this activation by engaging in the corrective behavior of hand-washing. Further, the deactivating effect of hand-washing in OCD patients with checking compulsions was similar to that for controls, indicating that the dysfunction of termination in OCD is specific to the patient's symptom profile.These results are the first to show that OCD is characterized by a reduced ability of security-related behavior to terminate motivation evoked by potential danger, rather than a heightened initial sensitivity to potential threat. They lend support to the security-motivation theory of OCD (Szechtman & Woody, 2004 and have important implications both for
Full Text Available Objective: This study was designed to examine the effect of environmental enrichment during methamphetamine (METH dependency and withdrawal on methamphetamine-induced spatial learning and memory deficits and obsessive-compulsive behavior.Method: Adult male Wistar rats (200 ± 10 g chronically received bi-daily doses of METH (2 mg/kg, sc, with 12 hours intervals for 14 days. Rats reared in standard (SE or enriched environment (EE during the development of dependence on METH and withdrawal. Then, they were tested for spatial learning and memory (the water maze, and obsessive-compulsive behavior as grooming behavior in METH-withdrawn rats.Results: The results revealed that the Sal/EE and METH/EE rats reared in EE spent more time in the target zone on the water maze and displayed significantly increased proximity to the platform compared to their control groups. METH withdrawn rats reared in EE displayed less grooming behavior than METH/SE group.Conclusion: Our findings revealed EE ameliorates METH-induced spatial memory deficits and obsessive-compulsive behavior in rats.
Sexual behavior and formation of sexuality in men with obsessive-compulsive disorder is one of the pressing issues in contemporary medicine. Obsessive-compulsive disorder is characterized by the development of intrusive thoughts, memories, movements and actions, as well as a variety of pathological fears (phobias). Increase in the number of patients with this pathology in modern clinical practice of neurotic disorders, the young age of the patients and as a result violation of interpersonal, communicational and sexual nature is quite apparent. The study involved 35 men aged 23 to 47 years with clinical signs of OCD. We determined the severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms using the Yale-Brown scale. We established the presence of a mild degree of disorder in 34,3% of cases; in 48,6% of cases disorder of moderate severity was diagnosed; remaining 17.1% were assessed subclinical condition of OCD at the applicable scale. The system of motivational maintenance of sexual behavior in men with obsessive-compulsive disorders is investigated. Motives of sexual behavior of the investigated men with the pathology are determined. The presented research in men with OCD have established multidimensionality and complexity of motivational ensuring of sexual behavior.
Kleptomania and compulsive buying are important clinical problems. However there is no established treatment for these problems in Japan yet. In this article, we review the available clinical treatments for kleptomania and compulsive buying in Japan. Kleptomania and compulsive buying can be explained by the conditioning theory. These behaviors are reinforced by positive consequences. In particular, the problem behaviors of kleptomania arise because of arousal and tension and are reinforced by the relaxed feeling that follows. Therefore, kleptomania is treated by systematic desensitization. However, it is important that interventions such as cognitive behavioral therapy, which increase subjective adaptation. be used in combination to treat and control such behaviors.
Giele, C.L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/318754460; Engelhard, I.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/239681533; van den Hout, M.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070445354; Dek, E.C.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313959552; Damstra, Marianne; Douma, Ellen
Studies have shown that obsessive-compulsive (OC) -like repeated checking paradoxically increases memory uncertainty. This study tested if checking also induces uncertainty about future threat by impairing the distinction between danger and safety cues. Participants (n = 54) engaged in a simulated
Izquierdo, Alicia; Jentsch, J David
Our ability to measure the cognitive components of complex decision-making across species has greatly facilitated our understanding of its neurobiological mechanisms. One task in particular, reversal learning, has proven valuable in assessing the inhibitory processes that are central to executive control. Reversal learning measures the ability to actively suppress reward-related responding and to disengage from ongoing behavior, phenomena that are biologically and descriptively related to impulsivity and compulsivity. Consequently, reversal learning could index vulnerability for disorders characterized by impulsivity such as proclivity for initial substance abuse as well as the compulsive aspects of dependence. Though we describe common variants and similar tasks, we pay particular attention to discrimination reversal learning, its supporting neural circuitry, neuropharmacology and genetic determinants. We also review the utility of this task in measuring impulsivity and compulsivity in addictions. We restrict our review to instrumental, reward-related reversal learning studies as they are most germane to addiction. The research reviewed here suggests that discrimination reversal learning may be used as a diagnostic tool for investigating the neural mechanisms that mediate impulsive and compulsive aspects of pathological reward-seeking and -taking behaviors. Two interrelated mechanisms are posited for the neuroadaptations in addiction that often translate to poor reversal learning: frontocorticostriatal circuitry dysregulation and poor dopamine (D2 receptor) modulation of this circuitry. These data suggest new approaches to targeting inhibitory control mechanisms in addictions.
Lichtenstein, Mia Beck; Hinze, Cecilie Juul; Emborg Jannsen, Bolette
found that compulsive exercise is associated with eating disorder pathology, perfectionism, neuroticism, narcissism, and obsessive compulsive traits. The most prominent negative consequences were injuries, social impairment, and depression, but more research is needed to uncover the potential......Compulsive exercise is a condition described since 1970s. It is characterized by a craving for physical training, resulting in uncontrollable excessive exercise behavior with harmful consequences, such as injuries and impaired social relations. It has not been accepted as a mental disorder...... dysfunction resulting from compulsive exercise. As the condition is not recognized as a psychiatric disorder, studies on treatment interventions are sparse. Problems with compliance have been reported; therefore, motivational interviewing has been proposed as a treatment approach, in combination...
Patterson, Megan S; Goodson, Patricia
Compulsive exercise, a form of unhealthy exercise often associated with prioritizing exercise and feeling guilty when exercise is missed, is a common precursor to and symptom of eating disorders. College-aged women are at high risk of exercising compulsively compared with other groups. Social network analysis (SNA) is a theoretical perspective and methodology allowing researchers to observe the effects of relational dynamics on the behaviors of people. SNA was used to assess the relationship between compulsive exercise and body dissatisfaction, physical activity, and network variables. Descriptive statistics were conducted using SPSS, and quadratic assignment procedure (QAP) analyses were conducted using UCINET. QAP regression analysis revealed a statistically significant model (R 2 = .375, P exercise behavior. Physical activity, body dissatisfaction, and network variables were statistically significant predictor variables in the QAP regression model. In our sample, women who are connected to "important" or "powerful" people in their network are likely to have higher compulsive exercise scores. This result provides healthcare practitioners key target points for intervention within similar groups of women. For scholars researching eating disorders and associated behaviors, this study supports looking into group dynamics and network structure in conjunction with body dissatisfaction and exercise frequency.
Comings, D E; Comings, B G
To determine the frequency of obsessive, compulsive, and schizoid behaviors in Tourette syndrome (TS), we prospectively questioned 246 patients with TS, 17 with attention-deficit disorder (ADD), 15 with ADD due to a TS gene, and 47 random controls. The comparative frequency of obsessive, compulsive, and repetitive behaviors--such as obsessive unpleasant thoughts, obsessive silly thoughts, echolalia, palilalia, touching things excessively, touching things a specific number of times, touching others excessively, sexual touching, biting or hurting oneself, head banging, rocking, mimicking others, counting things, and occasional or frequent public exhibitionism--were significantly more common in TS patients than in controls. The frequency of each of these was much higher for grade 3 (severe) TS. Most of these behaviors also occurred significantly more often in individuals with ADD or in individuals with ADD secondary to TS (ADD 2(0) TS). When these features were combined into an obsessive-compulsive score, 45.4% of TS patients had a score of 4-15, whereas 8.5% of controls had a score of 4 or 5. These results indicate that obsessive-compulsive behaviors are an integral part of the expression of the TS gene and can be inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. Schizoid symptoms, such as thinking that people were watching them or plotting against them, were significantly more common in TS patients than in controls. Auditory hallucinations of hearing voices were present in 14.6% of TS patients, compared with 2.1% of controls (P = .02). These symptoms were absent in ADD patients but present in ADD 2(0) TS patients. These voices were often blamed for telling them to do bad things and were frequently identified with the devil. None of the controls had a total schizoid behavior score greater than 3, whereas 10.9% of the TS patients had scores of 4-10 (P = .02). This frequency increased to 20.6% in the grade 3 TS patients. These quantitative results confirm our clinical
Wolff, Jason J.; Hupp, Susan C.; Symons, Frank J.
Treatment options for maladaptive repetitive behaviors associated with autism are limited. This is particularly so for ritual and compulsive forms of repetitive behavior, which commonly interfere with adaptive activities and may cause distress to individuals with autism and their families. The present study assessed an avoidance extinction…
Frost, R O; Shows, D L
Indecisiveness is an often mentioned symptom of obsessive compulsive disorder and obsessive compulsive personality disorder, yet very little research has been done examining its nature and measurement. Three studies are presented here which examine the nature of compulsive indecisiveness using a newly developed scale. In study 1 the Indecisiveness Scale was correlated with measures of obsessionality and compulsive checking among normal S s. It was also correlated with the maladaptive evaluative concern dimensions of perfectionism and with compulsive hoarding. In study 2 indecisive S s (as measured by the Indecisiveness Scale) were found to score higher on measures of procrastination and general psychopathology. In addition, they reported problems in making decisions in a variety of life domains (social, academic, family and everyday). In study 3 S s who scored high on the Indecisiveness Scale were found to have longer latencies on an experimental decision-making task. The implications of these findings for the nature of indecisiveness were discussed.
Filomensky, Tatiana Zambrano; Almeida, Karla Mathias; Castro Nogueira, Marcelo Campos; Diniz, Juliana Belo; Lafer, Beny; Borcato, Sonia; Tavares, Hermano
Compulsive buying (CB) is currently classified as an impulse control disorder (ICD) not otherwise classified. Compulsive buying prevalence is estimated at around 5% of the general population. There is controversy about whether CB should be classified as an ICD, a subsyndromal bipolar disorder (BD), or an obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) akin to a hoarding syndrome. To further investigate the appropriate classification of CB, we compared patients with CB, BD, and OCD for impulsivity, affective instability, hoarding, and other OCD symptoms. Eighty outpatients (24 CB, 21 BD, and 35 OCD) who were neither manic nor hypomanic were asked to fill out self-report questionnaires. Compulsive buying patients scored significantly higher on all impulsivity measures and on acquisition but not on the hoarding subdimensions of clutter and "difficulty discarding." Patients with BD scored higher on the mania dimension from the Structured Clinical Interview for Mood Spectrum scale. Patients with OCD scored higher on obsessive-compulsive symptoms and, particularly, higher on the contamination/washing and checking dimensions from the Padua Inventory; however, they did not score higher on any hoarding dimension. A discriminant model built with these variables correctly classified patients with CB (79%), BD (71%), and OCD (77%). Patients with CB came out as impulsive acquirers, resembling ICD- rather than BD- or OCD-related disorders. Manic symptoms were distinctive of patients with BD. Hoarding symptoms other than acquisition were not particularly associated with any diagnostic group. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
We clarified the nature of sexual compulsivity in adolescence, addressed who is labeled as "sexually compulsive youth," conceptualized the underlying factors of sexual compulsivity, and outlined a treatment format. We focused on trauma, dissociation, attachment, and self-concept. We questioned the conventional perceptions of who is included in this group. We reiterated that the belief that sexually compulsive adolescents are abusive males is no longer considered accurate. The evolution and accessibility of the Internet only raises greater concerns about compulsive sexual behavior, as more adolescents are brought into therapy because of Internet use to seek sexual interaction or stimulation. The sexually compulsive youth is as likely to be the clean-cut, high-achieving, intelligent student as is the economically deprived, juvenile delinquent on the street. This article began with the observation that adolescents rarely receive any direct, accurate information about sexuality and intimacy. The messages taken in through music, television, movies, politicians, popular press, clergy, and school are polarizing and contradictory. Beyond this are the implications as to how we, as a society, treat the youths that do present with sexual behavior problems. We have tended to treat these youth (as well as adults) with disdain and to designate sexually abusive youth the same as adult offenders with harsher, more punitive treatment interventions. Research and clinical experience now strongly question this type of response. This article is consistent with this leaning. Early psychological injury, from sexual abuse, physical abuse, exposure to violence, attachment trauma, or early sexualization, is at the root of sexually compulsive behavior. While it is necessary to reign in out-of-control and destructive behaviors, if we acknowledge that the source of the behavior is psychological injury, then it is cruel and inconsistent to treat the individual with disdain or as a pariah. The
Moore, Catherine F; Sabino, Valentina; Koob, George F; Cottone, Pietro
Compulsive eating behavior is a transdiagnostic construct that is characteristic of medical and psychiatric conditions such as forms of obesity and eating disorders. Although feeding research is moving toward a better understanding of the proposed addictive properties of food, the components and the mechanisms contributing to compulsive eating are not yet clearly defined or understood. Current understanding highlights three elements of compulsive behavior as it applies to pathological overeating: (1) habitual overeating; (2) overeating to relieve a negative emotional state; and (3) overeating despite aversive consequences. These elements emerge through mechanisms involving pathological habit formation through an aberrant learning process, the emergence of a negative emotional state, and dysfunctions in behavioral control. Dysfunctions in systems within neurocircuitries that comprise the basal ganglia, the extended amygdala, and the prefrontal cortex result in compulsive eating behaviors. Here, we present evidence to relate compulsive eating behavior and addiction and to characterize their underlying neurobiological mechanisms. A major need to improve understanding of compulsive eating through the integration of complex motivational, emotional, and cognitive constructs is warranted.
Elmquist, JoAnna; Shorey, Ryan C; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L
Extant literature has documented a significant relationship between borderline symptoms and substance use disorders. As supported in past work, there is a significant theoretical relationship between borderline symptoms and compulsive sexual behaviors because both disorders share common underlying behaviors and traits. There is no known research that has examined the empirical relationship between borderline symptoms and compulsive sexual behaviors in a population with substance use disorders. To fill this important gap in the literature, this relationship was examined in the current study. Medical records from 120 women admitted to a private, residential treatment program for substance use disorders were reviewed for the current study. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis demonstrated that borderline symptoms were significantly associated with compulsive sexual behaviors after controlling for alcohol use and problems, drug use and problems, age, and positive impression management. Results from this study provide potentially important research and clinical implications, which could ultimately aid treatment and reduce relapse. However, continued research is needed to further examine the relationship between symptoms and compulsive sexual behaviors. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Sansone, Randy A; Chang, Joy; Jewell, Bryan; Rock, Rachel
Childhood trauma has been empirically associated with various types of self-regulatory difficulties in adulthood. However, according to the extant literature, no study has examined relationships between various types of childhood trauma and compulsive buying behavior in adulthood. Using a self-report survey methodology in a cross-sectional consecutive sample of 370 obstetrics/gynecology patients, we examined five types of childhood trauma before the age of 12 years (i.e. witnessing violence, physical neglect, emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse) in relationship to compulsive buying as assessed by the Compulsive Buying Scale (CBS). All forms of trauma demonstrated statistically significant correlations with the CBS. Using a linear regression analysis, both witnessing violence and emotional abuse significantly contributed to CBS scores. Further analyses indicated that race did not moderate the relationship between childhood trauma and compulsive buying. Findings indicate that various forms of childhood trauma are correlated with compulsive buying behavior, particularly witnessing violence and emotional abuse.
Frank, Hannah; Stewart, Elyse; Walther, Michael; Benito, Kristen; Freeman, Jennifer; Conelea, Christ; Garci, Abbe
Previous research has shown that among the various subtypes of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), adults (e.g. Frost, Krause & Steketee, 1996) and older children and adolescents (Bloch et al., 2009; Storch et al., 2007) with problematic hoarding have distinct features and a poor treatment prognosis. However, there is limited information on the phenomenology and prevalence of hoarding behaviors in young children. The present study characterizes children ages 10 and under who present with OCD...
Leonardo de Sousa Fortes
Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between drive for muscularity and body checking behaviors in men athletes. Two hundred and twelve Brazilian athletes over 15 years of age participated. We used the Drive for Muscularity Scale (DMS to evaluate the drive for muscularity. The Male Body Checking Questionnaire was used to assess body checking behaviors. The findings demonstrated a relationship between the "body image-oriented muscularity" subscale of the DMS and body checking behaviors (p = 0.001. The results indicated differences in body checking among athletes with high and low levels of drive for muscularity. We concluded that drive for muscularity was related to body checking behaviors in men athletes.
Himle, Joseph A; Fischer, Daniel J; Van Etten, Michelle L; Janeck, Amy S; Hanna, Gregory L
Prior research supports the distinction between tic-related and non-tic-related obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) based on phenomenologic, etiologic, and neurobehavioral data. The present study examines whether response to psychosocial treatment differs in adolescents, depending on the presence of comorbid tics. Nineteen adolescents, 12-17 years of age, participated in 7-week, uncontrolled trial of group cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) for OCD. Eight of the patients had tic-related and eleven had non-tic-related OCD. The group CBT program included psycho-education, exposure and response prevention, cognitive strategies, and family involvement. Significant improvement was observed for all subjects on the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale ratings of obsessions, compulsions, and total OCD symptoms. Outcomes were similar for subjects with tic-related and non-tic-related OCD. These preliminary results suggest that the presence of comorbid tic disorders may not attenuate response to behavioral group treatment among adolescents. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Melca, Isabela A; Yücel, Murat; Mendlowicz, Mauro V; de Oliveira-Souza, Ricardo; Fontenelle, Leonardo F
We assessed correlates of obsessive-compulsive (OCPD), schizotypal (SPD) and borderline (BPD) personality disorders in 110 obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients. We found OCD patients with OCPD (20.9%) to exhibit higher rates of hoarding and bipolar disorders, increased severity of hoarding and symmetry, lower prevalence of unacceptable thoughts involving sex and religion and less non-planning impulsivity. Conversely, OCD patients with SPD (13.6%) displayed more frequently bipolar disorder, increased severity of depression and OCD neutralization, greater prevalence of "low-order" behaviors (i.e., touching), lower low-planning impulsivity and greater "behavioral" compulsivity. Finally, in exploratory analyses, OCD patients with BPD (21.8%) exhibited lower education, higher rates of several comorbid psychiatric disorders, greater frequency of compulsions involving interpersonal domains (e.g. reassurance seeking), increased severity of depression, anxiety and OCD dimensions other than symmetry and hoarding, more motor and non-planning impulsivity, and greater "cognitive" compulsivity. These findings highlight the importance of assessing personality disorders in OCD samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Despite the prevalence of Internet in our everyday life, little is known about consumer buying behavior in on-line purchases. Moreover, consumer buying disorder (CBD, one of the new addictions of the era, is poorly researched in the Romanian literature. This study aimed at identifying whether this disorder is present among Romanian students that purchase on-line through a questionnaire applied to 100 students attending the University „Dunarea de Jos” of Galati. An analysis of the responses yields that a 13% of the studied sample indeed presents characteristics of this disorder and confirms previous global studies that the compulsive buyers are majoritarian women. This work increases our understanding of on-line consumer buying behavior and will contribute to future research on similar topics.
Full Text Available Eating disorders appear to be caused by a complex interaction between environmental and genetic factors, and compulsive eating in response to adverse circumstances characterizes many eating disorders.We compared compulsion-like eating in the form of conditioned suppression of palatable food-seeking in adverse situations in stressed C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice, two well-characterized inbred strains, to determine the influence of gene-environment interplay on this behavioral phenotype. Moreover, we tested the hypothesis that low accumbal D2 receptor (R availability is a genetic risk factor of food compulsion-like behavior and that environmental conditions that induce compulsive eating alter D2R expression in the striatum. To this end, we measured D1R and D2R expression in the striatum and D1R, D2R and α1R levels in the medial prefrontal cortex, respectively, by western blot.Exposure to environmental conditions induces compulsion-like eating behavior, depending on genetic background. This behavioral pattern is linked to decreased availability of accumbal D2R. Moreover, exposure to certain environmental conditions upregulates D2R and downregulates α1R in the striatum and medial prefrontal cortex, respectively, of compulsive animals. These findings confirm the function of gene-environment interplay in the manifestation of compulsive eating and support the hypothesis that low accumbal D2R availability is a "constitutive" genetic risk factor for compulsion-like eating behavior. Finally, D2R upregulation and α1R downregulation in the striatum and medial prefrontal cortex, respectively, are potential neuroadaptive responses that parallel the shift from motivated to compulsive eating.
Mueller, Astrid; Mueller, Ulrike; Silbermann, Andrea; Reinecker, Hans; Bleich, Stefan; Mitchell, James E; de Zwaan, Martina
The purpose of this study was to conduct a randomized trial comparing the efficacy of a group cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) intervention designed for the treatment of compulsive buying disorder to a waiting list control (WLC) group. Thirty-one patients with compulsive buying problems according to the criteria developed by McElroy et al. were assigned to receive active treatment (12 weekly sessions and 6-month follow-up) and 29 to the WLC group. The treatment was specifically aimed at interrupting and controlling the problematic buying behavior, establishing healthy purchasing patterns, restructuring maladaptive thoughts and negative feelings associated with shopping and buying, and developing healthy coping skills. Primary outcome measures were the Compulsive Buying Scale (CBS), the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale-Shopping Version (YBOCS-SV), and the German Compulsive Buying Scale (G-CBS). Secondary outcome measures were the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R), the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), and the Saving Inventory-Revised (SI-R). The study was completed between November 2003 and May 2007 at the University Hospital of Erlangen, Bavaria, Germany. Multivariate analysis revealed significant differences between the CBT and the WLC groups on the primary outcome variables (outcome-by-time-by-group effect, Pillai's trace, F = 6.960, df = 1, p = .002). The improvement was maintained during the 6-month follow-up. The treatment did not affect other psychopathology, e.g., compulsive hoarding, impulsivity, or SCL-90-R scores. We found that lower numbers of visited group therapy sessions and higher pretreatment hoarding traits as measured with the SI-R total score were significant predictors for nonresponse. The results suggest that a disorder-specific cognitive-behavioral intervention can significantly impact compulsive buying behavior.
Greene-Schloesser, D. M.; Van der Zee, E. A.; Sheppard, D. K.; Castillo, M. R.; Gregg, K. A.; Burrow, T.; Foltz, H.; Slater, M.; Bult-Ito, A.
A key to advancing the understanding of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)-like symptoms is the development of spontaneous animal models. Over 55 generations of bidirectional selection for nest-building behavior in house mice, Mus musculus, resulted in a 40-fold difference in the amount of cotton
Henden, Edmund; Melberg, Hans Olav; Røgeberg, Ole Jørgen
Normative thinking about addiction has traditionally been divided between, on the one hand, a medical model which sees addiction as a disease characterized by compulsive and relapsing drug use over which the addict has little or no control and, on the other, a moral model which sees addiction as a choice characterized by voluntary behavior under the control of the addict. Proponents of the former appeal to evidence showing that regular consumption of drugs causes persistent changes in the brain structures and functions known to be involved in the motivation of behavior. On this evidence, it is often concluded that becoming addicted involves a transition from voluntary, chosen drug use to non-voluntary compulsive drug use. Against this view, proponents of the moral model provide ample evidence that addictive drug use involves voluntary chosen behavior. In this article we argue that although they are right about something, both views are mistaken. We present a third model that neither rules out the view of addictive drug use as compulsive, nor that it involves voluntary chosen behavior. PMID:23966955
Cath, D.C.; Spinhoven, P.; Wetering, B.J.M. van de; Hoogduin, C.A.L.; Landman, A.D.; Woerkom, T.C.A.M. van; Roos, R.A.C.; Rooijmans, H.G.M.
BACKGROUND: This study investigated which categories of obsessive-compulsive and Tourette-related behaviors in Gilles de la Tourette's disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) without tics are experienced as most severe across the study groups and what the differences are in symptom
Fattore, Liana; Melis, Miriam
Sex differences in inhibition and self-regulation at a behavioral level have been widely described. From an evolutionary point of view, the different selection pressures placed on male and female hominids led them to differ in their behavioral strategies that allowed our species to survive during natural selection processes. These differences reflect changes in neural and structural plasticity that might be the core of sex differences, and of the susceptibility towards one psychiatric condition rather than another. The goal of the present review is to summarize current evidence for such a dichotomy in impulsive and compulsive behavior with a focus on drug addiction. Sex-dependent differences in drug abuse and dependence will be examined in the context of pathophysiological regulation of impulse and motivation by neuromodulators (i.e. gonadal hormones) and neurotransmitters (i.e. dopamine). Advances in the understanding of the sex differences in the capability to control impulses and motivational states is key for the determination of efficacious biologically based intervention and prevention strategies for several neuropsychiatric disorders where loss of impulse control and compulsivity are the core symptoms. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Calabrò, Rocco Salvatore; Galì, Alessandro; Marino, Silvia; Bramanti, Placido
Chronic penile lymphedema arises from the abnormal retention of lymphatic fluid in the subcutaneous tissues and may be secondary to local and systemic medical conditions such as sexually transmitted diseases, filariasis, malignancy, local radiotherapy, and surgery. This case report aims to consider compulsive masturbation as a possible cause of chronic penile edema. A 40-year-old man was referred to our institute for behavioral disturbance, including compulsive masturbation. Neuropsychiatric evaluation showed moderate mental retardation, mild dysarthria and limb incoordination, anxiety, depressed mood, and impulse dyscontrol. Brain MRI pointed out diffuse white matter lesions. Urogenital examination revealed an uncircumcised penis with non-tender edema of the shaft and prepuce with areas of lichenification. Since the most common local and systemic causes of edema were excluded, chronic penile edema due to compulsive masturbation was diagnosed and the compulsive behavior treated with an antidepressant and low-dose neuroleptics. Compulsive masturbation should be taken into account when counselling patients with penile edema.
Marler, Sarah; Ferguson, Bradley J.; Lee, Evon Batey; Peters, Brittany; Williams, Kent C.; McDonnell, Erin; Macklin, Eric A.; Levitt, Pat; Margolis, Kara Gross; Beversdorf, David Q.; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy
Based upon checklist data from the Autism Speaks Autism Treatment Network, we hypothesized that functional constipation (FC) would be associated with rigid-compulsive behavior in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We used the Questionnaire on Pediatric Gastrointestinal Symptoms-Rome III to assess FC symptoms in 108 children with ASD. As…
Mueller, Astrid; Mühlhans, Barbara; Silbermann, Andrea; Müller, Ulrike; Mertens, Christian; Horbach, Thomas; Mitchell, James E; de Zwaan, Martina
Compulsive buying is an excessive behavior that has begun to receive attention from researchers in recent years. The current study provides an overview of research on compulsive buying and examines the psychiatric co-morbidity in a German female treatment seeking compulsive buying sample in comparison with age and gender-matched normal buying control groups. Thirty women suffering from compulsive buying disorder, 30 community controls, and 30 bariatric surgery candidates were assessed with the German versions of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV diagnoses (SCID). Women with compulsive buying disorder showed significantly higher prevalence rates of affective, anxiety, and eating disorders compared to community controls, and suffered significantly more often from affective and anxiety disorders compared to bariatric surgery candidates. The compulsive buying group presented with the highest rates of personality disorders, most commonly avoidant, depressive, obsessive-compulsive, and borderline personality disorder, and reported the highest prevalence rates of other impulse control disorders, especially for intermittent explosive disorder. The findings suggest an elevated psychiatric co-morbidity in patients with compulsive buying disorder.
Atmaca, Murad; Yildirim, Hanefi; Yilmaz, Seda; Caglar, Neslihan; Mermi, Osman; Korkmaz, Sevda; Akaslan, Unsal; Gurok, M Gurkan; Kekilli, Yasemin; Turkcapar, Hakan
Background The effect of a variety of treatment modalities including psychopharmacological and cognitive behavioral therapy on the brain volumes and neurochemicals have not been investigated enough in the patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed to investigate the effect of cognitive behavioral therapy on the volumes of the orbito-frontal cortex and thalamus regions which seem to be abnormal in the patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. We hypothesized that there would be change in the volumes of the orbito-frontal cortex and thalamus. Methods Twelve patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and same number of healthy controls were included into the study. At the beginning of the study, the volumes of the orbito-frontal cortex and thalamus were compared by using magnetic resonance imaging. In addition, volumes of these regions were measured before and after the cognitive behavioral therapy treatment in the patient group. Results The patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder had greater left and right thalamus volumes and smaller left and right orbito-frontal cortex volumes compared to those of healthy control subjects at the beginning of the study. When we compared baseline volumes of the patients with posttreatment ones, we detected that thalamus volumes significantly decreased throughout the period for both sides and that the orbito-frontal cortex volumes significantly increased throughout the period for only left side. Conclusions In summary, we found that cognitive behavioral therapy might volumetrically affect the key brain regions involved in the neuroanatomy of obsessive-compulsive disorder. However, future studies with larger sample are required.
Mueller, A; de Zwaan, M
Although compulsive buying is receiving increasing attention in research, it is largely ignored in clinical practice. Compulsive buying disorder (CBD) is defined as excessive and mostly senseless spending or excessive shopping impulses that cause marked distress, interfere with social or occupational functioning, and often results in financial problems. It is currently conceptualized as an "impulse control disorder not otherwise specified" (ICD-10 F63.9). CBD is associated with significant psychiatric co-morbidity particularly mood and anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders, binge eating disorder, substance use disorders, personality disorders, and other impulse control disorders. Previous research indicates that many compulsive buyers also suffer from compulsive hoarding. There is no evidence-based treatment approach for CBD and treatment research on this topic is limited. Open label trials suggest that antidepressants could improve compulsive buying. However, small randomized controlled trials failed to demonstrate significant improvement over Placebo and the high placebo-response rate prevents any definitive statement on the efficacy of antidepressants. Two controlled cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) trials reported that group CBT is significantly more effective compared to waiting list control groups in the treatment of compulsive buying. Clinical and therapeutic implications are discussed.
Anton, R F
"Craving" for alcohol needs improved definition and measurement. This review provides a rationale for considering at least certain aspects of craving as having obsessive and compulsive features. As such, there may be phenomenological, but not necessarily etiological, overlap with obsessive-compulsive disorder. There are increasing data that suggest a neuroanatomical overlap between addiction/craving and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. The self-rated Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS), based on the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale for heavy drinking interview (YBOCS-hd), was developed to assist in the examination of certain aspects of "craving" in alcoholics. The development, reliability, face validity, congruent validity and predictive validity of the OCDS are presented and discussed in this paper. The utility of the OCDS as a measurement tool in cognitive-behavioral and pharmacological alcoholism treatment research is highlighted. The potential of this instrument as a research and clinical tool for the understanding and evaluation of alcohol dependence needs further evaluation.
Stein, Dan J; Hermesh, Haggai; Eilam, David; Segalas, Cosi; Zohar, Joseph; Menchon, Jose; Nesse, Randolph M
Iniesta-Sepúlveda, Marina; Rosa-Alcázar, Ana I; Sánchez-Meca, Julio; Parada-Navas, José L; Rosa-Alcázar, Ángel
A meta-analysis on the efficacy of cognitive-behavior-family treatment (CBFT) on children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) was accomplished. The purposes of the study were: (a) to estimate the effect magnitude of CBFT in ameliorating obsessive-compulsive symptoms and reducing family accommodation on pediatric OCD and (b) to identify potential moderator variables of the effect sizes. A literature search enabled us to identify 27 studies that fulfilled our selection criteria. The effect size index was the standardized pretest-postest mean change index. For obsessive-compulsive symptoms, the adjusted mean effect size for CBFT was clinically relevant and statistically significant in the posttest (d adj =1.464). For family accommodation the adjusted mean effect size was also positive and statistically significant, but in a lesser extent than for obsessive-compulsive symptoms (d adj =0.511). Publication bias was discarded as a threat against the validity of the meta-analytic results. Large heterogeneity among effect sizes was found. Better results were found when CBFT was individually applied than in group (d + =2.429 and 1.409, respectively). CBFT is effective to reduce obsessive-compulsive symptoms, but offers a limited effect for family accommodation. Additional modules must be included in CBFT to improve its effectiveness on family accommodation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Leite, Priscilla Lourenço; Silva, Adriana Cardoso
Compulsive buying can be characterized as an almost irresistible urge to buy various items. Compulsive buying disorder is a subject of growing interest to health professionals. It is a current issue and the prevalence rate in the global population is around 5 to 8%. The main objective of this study was to identify predictors of compulsive buying in the Brazilian population, assessing possible relationships between compulsive buying, depression and anxiety. The Richmond Compulsive Buying Scale was administered to screen for compulsive buying and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was used to assess anxiety and depression in a sample of 359 participants. Pearson coefficients were used to test for correlations. Our study identified an interaction between female gender and compulsion to purchase. Furthermore, people's occupations also appear to have an influence on the problem. We found a correlation between depressive symptoms and oniomania. Our study has certain limitations, such as the difficulty in recruiting individuals with compulsive buying disorder. Since compulsive buying is a phenomenon that is seldom investigated, it therefore remains unidentified. However, this is nevertheless a pioneering paper on the Brazilian population.
Priscilla Lourenço Leite
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Compulsive buying can be characterized as an almost irresistible urge to buy various items. Compulsive buying disorder is a subject of growing interest to health professionals. It is a current issue and the prevalence rate in the global population is around 5 to 8%. Objectives: The main objective of this study was to identify predictors of compulsive buying in the Brazilian population, assessing possible relationships between compulsive buying, depression and anxiety. Methods: The Richmond Compulsive Buying Scale was administered to screen for compulsive buying and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was used to assess anxiety and depression in a sample of 359 participants. Pearson coefficients were used to test for correlations. Results: Our study identified an interaction between female gender and compulsion to purchase. Furthermore, people's occupations also appear to have an influence on the problem. We found a correlation between depressive symptoms and oniomania. Conclusion: Our study has certain limitations, such as the difficulty in recruiting individuals with compulsive buying disorder. Since compulsive buying is a phenomenon that is seldom investigated, it therefore remains unidentified. However, this is nevertheless a pioneering paper on the Brazilian population.
Scanavino, Marco de T; Ventuneac, Ana; Rendina, H Jonathon; Abdo, Carmita H N; Tavares, Hermano; Amaral, Maria L S do; Messina, Bruna; Reis, Sirlene C dos; Martins, João P L B; Gordon, Marina C; Vieira, Julie C; Parsons, Jeffrey T
Epidemiological, behavioral, and clinical data on sexual compulsivity in Brazil are very limited. This study sought to adapt and validate the Sexual Compulsivity Scale (SCS), the 22-item version of the Compulsive Sexual Behavior Inventory (CSBI-22), and the Hypersexual Disorder Screening Inventory (HDSI) for use in Brazil. A total of 153 participants underwent psychiatric assessment and completed self-reported measures. The adaptation process of the instruments from English to Portuguese followed the guidelines of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research. The reliability and validity of the HDSI criteria were evaluated and the construct validity of all measures was examined. For the SCS and HDSI, factor analysis revealed one factor for each measure. For the CSBI-22, four factors were retained although we only calculated the scores of two factors (control and violence). All scores had good internal consistency (alpha >.75), presented high temporal stability (>.76), discriminated between patients and controls, and presented strong (ρ > .81) correlations with the Sexual Addiction Screening Test (except for the violence domain = .40) and moderate correlations with the Impulsive Sensation Seeking domain of the Zuckerman Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire (ρ between .43 and .55). The sensitivity of the HDSI was 71.93 % and the specificity was 100 %. All measures showed very good psychometric properties. The SCS, the HDSI, and the control domain of the CSBI-22 seemed to measure theoretically similar constructs, as they were highly correlated (ρ > .85). The findings support the conceptualization of hypersexuality as a cluster of problematic symptoms that are highly consistent across a variety of measures.
Downing, Christopher; Howard, E Henry; Goodwin, Christina; Geller, E Scott
Two studies examined factors influencing cashiers' identification (ID)-checking behavior in order to inform the development of interventions to prevent credit-card fraud. In both studies, research assistants made credit purchases in various stores and noted the cashiers' ID-checking behavior. In the first study, the store type, whether the cashier swiped the credit/debit card, the amount of the purchase, and whether the credit/debit card was signed significantly influenced ID-checking behavior. In the second study, an A-B-A design was used to evaluate the impact of a "Check my ID" prompt placed on the credit/debit card. The prompt increased cashiers' ID-checking behavior from 5.9% at Baseline to 10.3% during the Intervention. When the prompt was removed, the cashiers' ID-checking behavior decreased to 7.2%. Implications for further intervention research to prevent credit-card fraud are discussed.
Peters, Brittany; Williams, Kent C.; Gorrindo, Phillip; Rosenberg, Daniel; Lee, Evon Batey; Levitt, Pat; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy
Based on clinical experience, we hypothesized that rigid-compulsive behaviors are associated with severe constipation and co-occurring diarrhea or underwear staining in children with autism spectrum disorder. Using data from the Autism Treatment Network, we evaluated the association between these gastrointestinal symptoms and measures of rigid…
Cath, D.C.; Spinhoven, P.; Woerkom, T.C.A.M. van; Wetering, B.J.M. van de; Hoogduin, C.A.L.; Landman, A.D.; Roos, R.A.C.; Rooijmans, H.G.M.
Stereotyped repetitive behaviors occur in Gilles de la Tourette's Syndrome (GTS) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The present study was undertaken to compare the distribution of obsessive-compulsive and Tourette-related impulsive behaviors in GTS with (+) OCD, GTS without (-) OCD, tic-free
Alfano, Lauren; Hildebrandt, Tom; Bannon, Katie; Walker, Catherine; Walton, Kate E
Body checking includes any behavior aimed at global or specific evaluations of appearance characteristics. Men and women are believed to express these behaviors differently, possibly reflecting different socialization. However, there has been no empirical test of the impact of gender on body checking. A total of 1024 male and female college students completed two measures of body checking, the Body Checking Questionnaire and the Male Body Checking Questionnaire. Using multiple group confirmatory factor analysis, differential item functioning (DIF) was explored in a composite of these measures. Two global latent factors were identified (female and male body checking severity), and there were expected gender differences in these factors even after controlling for DIF. Ten items were found to be unbiased by gender and provide a suitable brief measure of body checking for mixed gender research. Practical applications for body checking assessment and theoretical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Among the multiple mechanisms of action of topiramate, AMPA/kainate antagonism may be particularly interesting for the treatment of disorders characterized by conditioned cognitive and behavioral cue reactivity. Case presentation We report the case of a patient consulting primarily for obesity and cue triggered snacking, who responded well on topiramate at doses up to 50 mg. Coincidentally he reported on an improvement of compulsive nonparaphilic sexual behaviors (consumption of prostitution, which was also strongly triggered by environmental cues. Both addictive behaviors (snacking and consumption of prostitution reoccurred after discontinuation of topiramate and again responded reintroduction of the drug. Conclusion The present case report of topiramate's effect on comorbid obesity and nonparaphilic addiction could be interpreted as a further indication that topiramate acts on the common pathway underlying conditioned behaviors and seems to be a treatment of behavioral disorders associated with environmental cues.
Stark, Adam J; Smith, Christopher T; Lin, Ya-Chen; Petersen, Kalen J; Trujillo, Paula; van Wouwe, Nelleke C; Kang, Hakmook; Donahue, Manus J; Kessler, Robert M; Zald, David H; Claassen, Daniel O
The nigrostriatal and mesocorticolimbic dopamine networks regulate reward-driven behavior. Regional alterations to mesolimbic dopamine D 2/3 receptor expression are described in drug-seeking and addiction disorders. Parkinson's disease (PD) patients are frequently prescribed D 2 -like dopamine agonist (DAgonist) therapy for motor symptoms, yet a proportion develop clinically significant behavioral addictions characterized by impulsive and compulsive behaviors (ICBs). Until now, changes in D 2/3 receptor binding in both striatal and extrastriatal regions have not been concurrently quantified in this population. We identified 35 human PD patients (both male and female) receiving DAgonist therapy, with ( n = 17) and without ( n = 18) ICBs, matched for age, disease duration, disease severity, and dose of dopamine therapy. In the off-dopamine state, all completed PET imaging with [ 18 F]fallypride, a high affinity D 2 -like receptor ligand that can measure striatal and extrastriatal D 2/3 nondisplaceable binding potential (BP ND ). Striatal differences between ICB+/ICB- patients localized to the ventral striatum and putamen, where ICB+ subjects had reduced BP ND In this group, self-reported severity of ICB symptoms positively correlated with midbrain D 2/3 receptor BP ND Group differences in regional D 2/3 BP ND relationships were also notable: ICB+ (but not ICB-) patients expressed positive correlations between midbrain and caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, and amygdala BP ND s. These findings support the hypothesis that compulsive behaviors in PD are associated with reduced ventral and dorsal striatal D 2/3 expression, similar to changes in comparable behavioral disorders. The data also suggest that relatively preserved ventral midbrain dopaminergic projections throughout nigrostriatal and mesolimbic networks are characteristic of ICB+ patients, and may account for differential DAgonist therapeutic response. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The biologic determinants of
Andersen, Pia Aaron Skovby; Bilenberg, Niels
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a prevalent psychiatric disorder in children and adolescents associated with significant functional impairment. Early and correct diagnosis is essential for an optimal treatment outcome. The purpose of this study was to determine which of four subscales...... derived from the Child Behavior Checklist best discriminates OCD patients from clinical and population-based controls....
Sieling, Fred; Bédécarrats, Alexis; Simmers, John; Prinz, Astrid A; Nargeot, Romuald
Rewarding stimuli in associative learning can transform the irregularly and infrequently generated motor patterns underlying motivated behaviors into output for accelerated and stereotyped repetitive action. This transition to compulsive behavioral expression is associated with modified synaptic and membrane properties of central neurons, but establishing the causal relationships between cellular plasticity and motor adaptation has remained a challenge. We found previously that changes in the intrinsic excitability and electrical synapses of identified neurons in Aplysia's central pattern-generating network for feeding are correlated with a switch to compulsive-like motor output expression induced by in vivo operant conditioning. Here, we used specific computer-simulated ionic currents in vitro to selectively replicate or suppress the membrane and synaptic plasticity resulting from this learning. In naive in vitro preparations, such experimental manipulation of neuronal membrane properties alone increased the frequency but not the regularity of feeding motor output found in preparations from operantly trained animals. On the other hand, changes in synaptic strength alone switched the regularity but not the frequency of feeding output from naive to trained states. However, simultaneously imposed changes in both membrane and synaptic properties reproduced both major aspects of the motor plasticity. Conversely, in preparations from trained animals, experimental suppression of the membrane and synaptic plasticity abolished the increase in frequency and regularity of the learned motor output expression. These data establish direct causality for the contributions of distinct synaptic and nonsynaptic adaptive processes to complementary facets of a compulsive behavior resulting from operant reward learning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Juang, Y Y; Liu, C Y
This study was designed to assess the phenomenology, comorbidities, correlation with depressive disorders, and gender differences in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in Taiwan. Two hundred outpatients who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of OCD according to DSM-IV were included. Patient characteristics, age at onset, symptom profile, and Axis I comorbidity were recorded. Gender differences, age at onset, and comorbidity of depressive disorders among different subtypes of OCD were compared. The most common obsession was contamination, followed by pathological doubt, and need for symmetry. The most common compulsion was checking, followed by washing, and orderliness compulsions. More men than women presented with the obsession of need for symmetry. Eighty-three (41.5%) subjects had comorbid depressive disorders. Women had more major depressive disorder. Patients with somatic obsessions were more likely to have major depressive disorder. Most clinical characteristics of OCD in Taiwan were similar to that of previous studies in other countries.
Leite, Priscilla Lourenço; Silva, Adriana Cardoso
Abstract Introduction: Compulsive buying can be characterized as an almost irresistible urge to buy various items. Compulsive buying disorder is a subject of growing interest to health professionals. It is a current issue and the prevalence rate in the global population is around 5 to 8%. Objectives: The main objective of this study was to identify predictors of compulsive buying in the Brazilian population, assessing possible relationships between compulsive buying, depression and anxiety....
Rosser, B. R. Simon; Noor, Syed WB; Iantaffi, Alex
To assess problematic sexually explicit media (SEM) consumption, and to identify clinically meaningful cut-off points, we examined clinical correlates using the new Compulsive Pornography Consumption (CPC) scale among 1165 participating MSM. Building on scale practices in measuring compulsive sexual behavior, two cut-off points were identified. While most (76-80%) MSM do not report compulsive symptoms, about 16-20% report levels of problematic SEM consumption, including 7% with extreme scores consistent with DSM criteria for compulsive disorders. Demographic, sexual, and HIV risk differences were identified between the three groups. Researchers and clinicians are encouraged to consider using the CPC scale for comprehensive assessment of compulsive sexual behavior. PMID:26167109
Full Text Available Alterations in dopamine neurotransmission are generally associated with diseases such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD. Such diseases typically feature poor decision making and lack of control on executive functions and have been studied through the years using many animal models. Dopamine transporter (DAT knockout (KO and heterozygous (HET mice, in particular, have been widely used to study ADHD. Recently, a strain of DAT KO rats has been developed (1. Here, we provide a phenotypic characterization of reward sensitivity and compulsive choice by adult rats born from DAT–HET dams bred with DAT–HET males, in order to further validate DAT KO rats as an animal model for preclinical research. We first tested DAT KO rats’ sensitivity to rewarding stimuli, provided by highly appetitive food or sweet water; then, we tested their choice behavior with an Intolerance-to-Delay Task (IDT. During these tests, DAT KO rats appeared less sensitive to rewarding stimuli than wild-type (WT and HET rats: they also showed a prominent hyperactive behavior with a rigid choice pattern and a wide number of compulsive stereotypies. Moreover, during the IDT, we tested the effects of amphetamine (AMPH and RO-5203648, a trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1 partial agonist. AMPH accentuated impulsive behaviors in WT and HET rats, while it had no effect in DAT KO rats. Finally, we measured the levels of tyrosine hydroxylase, dopamine receptor 2 (D2, serotonin transporter, and TAAR1 mRNA transcripts in samples of ventral striatum, finding no significant differences between WT and KO genotypes. Throughout this study, DAT KO rats showed alterations in decision-making processes and in motivational states, as well as prominent motor and oral stereotypies: more studies are warranted to fully characterize and efficiently use them in preclinical research.
Derbyshire, Katherine L; Chamberlain, Samuel R; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence
Compulsive buying (CB) is a fairly common behavioral problem estimated to affect 5.8% of the population. Although previous research has examined the clinical characteristics of CB, little research has examined whether people with CB manifest cognitive deficits.......Compulsive buying (CB) is a fairly common behavioral problem estimated to affect 5.8% of the population. Although previous research has examined the clinical characteristics of CB, little research has examined whether people with CB manifest cognitive deficits....
Choate-Summers, Molly L.; Freeman, Jennifer B.; Garcia, Abbe M.; Coyne, Lisa; Przeworski, Amy; Leonard, Henrietta L.
Research on the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy, and in particular, exposure with response prevention for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD), has only been systematically evaluated in children and adolescents ages 7-17. These treatments do not address the unique characteristics of young children with OCD. This paper discusses…
Clarke, Edmund; Kroening, Daniel; Yorav, Karen
.... We describe experimental results on various reactive present an algorithm that checks behavioral consistency between an ANSI-C program and a circuit given in Verilog using Bounded Model Checking...
Horváth, C.; Birgelen, M.J.H. van
- Purpose – This article investigates the role that brands play in influencing the behavior and purchase decisions of compulsive buyers and whether this role differs for noncompulsive buyers, resulting in four research propositions. - Design/methodology/approach – In-depth interviews, conducted with
Lejoyeux, M; Tassain, V; Solomon, J; Adès, J
Compulsive buying is defined by the presence of repetitive impulsive and excessive buying leading to personal and familial distress. Patients with this disorder also suffer from mood disorder in 50% to 100% of the cases studied, and antidepressants help to decrease the frequency and the severity of uncontrolled buying. To define the correlation between compulsive buying and depression, we assessed this behavior among 119 inpatients answering to DSM-III-R criteria for major depressive episode. Additionally, we evaluated for comorbidity in the patients suffering from compulsive buying and in those free from this disorder. Impulsivity and sensation seeking were also compared in the two groups. Diagnosis of compulsive buying was made using standardized criteria and a specific rating scale. Diagnosis of depression and assessment of comorbidity were investigated using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview and a modified version of the Minnesota Impulsive Disorders Interview. All patients answered the Zuckerman Sensation-Seeking Scale and the Barrat Impulsivity Rating Scale. The prevalence of the disorder was 31.9%; 38 of the 119 depressed patients were diagnosed as compulsive buyers. Patients from the compulsive buying group were younger in age, more often women than men, and more frequently unmarried. They presented more often than others with recurrent depression (relative risk = 1.4), disorders associated with deficits in impulse control such as kleptomania (relative risk = 8.5) or bulimia (relative risk = 2.8), benzodiazepine abuse or dependence disorder (relative risk = 4.7), and two or more dependence disorders (relative risk = 1.99). Subscores for experience seeking using the Zuckerman Sensation-Seeking Scale were significantly higher (p = .04) and scores of impulsivity were much higher (p buying behavior. Compulsive buying is frequent among depressed patients. In most cases, the behavior is associated with other impulse control disorders or dependence
Full Text Available Normative thinking about addiction has traditionally been divided between, on the one hand, a medical model which sees addiction as a disease characterized by compulsive and relapsing drug use over which the addict has little or no control and, on the other, a moral model which sees addiction as a choice characterized by voluntary behaviour under the control of the addict. Proponents of the former appeal to evidence showing that regular consumption of drugs causes persistent changes in the brain structures and functions known to be involved in the motivation of behavior. On this evidence, it is often concluded that becoming addicted involves a transition from voluntary, chosen drug use to non-voluntary compulsive drug use. Against this view, proponents of the moral model provide ample evidence that addictive drug use involves voluntary chosen behaviour. In this article we argue that although they are right about something, both views are mistaken. We present a third model that neither rules out the view of addictive drug use as compulsive, nor that it involves voluntary chosen behavior.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a common and often chronic psychiatric illness that significantly interferes with the patient´s functioning and quality of life. The disorder is characterized by excessive intrusive and inappropriate anxiety evoking thoughts as well as time consuming compulsions that cause significant impairment and distress. The symptoms are often accompanied by shame and guilt and the knowledge of the general public and professional community about the disorder is limited. Hence it is frequently misdiagnosed or diagnosed late. There are indications that the disorder is hereditary and that neurobiological processes are involved in its pathophysiology. Several psychological theories about the causes of obsessive-compulsive disorder are supported by empirical evidence. Evidence based treatment is either with serotoninergic medications or cognitive behavioral therapy, particularly a form of behavioral therapy called exposure response prevention. Better treatment options are needed because almost a third of people with obsessive-compulsive disorder respond inadequatly to treatment. In this review article two cases of obsessive-compulsive disorder are presented. The former case is a young man with typical symptoms that respond well to treatment and the latter is a middle aged lady with severe treatment resistant symptoms. She underwent stereotactic implantation of electrodes and received deep brain stimulation, which is an experimental treatment for severe obsessive-compulsive disorder that does not respond to any conventional treatment. Landspitali University Hospital, Division of Psychiatry. Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland.
Jónsson, Hjalti; Hougaard, Esben; Bennedsen, Birgit
The primary aim of the study was to investigate dysfunctional beliefs in the form of inflated responsibility (IR) and thought action fusion (TAF) as predictive and mediating variables in Individual (n = 33) and Group (n = 37) Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD...... of the study with pre-and post-therapy measurements only does not allow for a causal mediator analysis...
Starcevic, Vladan; Berle, David; Brakoulias, Vlasios; Sammut, Peter; Moses, Karen; Milicevic, Denise; Hannan, Anthony
There are ongoing uncertainties in the relationship between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD). This study aimed to test the proposition that OCPD may be a marker of severity of OCD by comparing groups of OCD individuals with and without OCPD on a number of variables. A total of 148 adults with a principal diagnosis of OCD were administered the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, Sheehan Disability Scale, Vancouver Obsessional Compulsive Inventory and Symptom Checklist 90-Revised. Participants with a DSM-IV diagnosis of OCPD were compared with those without OCPD. Some 70 (47.3%) participants were diagnosed with OCPD. The groups of participants with and without OCPD did not differ significantly with respect to any of the demographic variables, clinician-rated severity of OCD, levels of disability and mean age of onset of OCD. All self-rated OCD symptom dimensions except for contamination and checking were significantly more prominent in participants with OCPD, as were all self-rated dimensions of psychopathology. Participants with OCPD had significantly more frequent hoarding compulsions and obsessions involving a need to collect and keep objects. Of Axis I disorders, only panic disorder was significantly more frequent in participants with OCPD than in those without OCPD. A high frequency of OCPD among individuals with OCD suggests a strong, although not necessarily a unique, relationship between the two conditions. This finding may also be a consequence of the blurring of the boundary between OCD and OCPD by postulating that hoarding and hoarding-like behaviours characterise both disorders. Results of this study do not support the notion that OCD with OCPD is a marker of clinician-rated severity of OCD. However, individuals with OCPD had more prominent OCD symptoms, they were more distressed and exhibited various other psychopathological phenomena more intensely
Vink, Jacqueline M.; van Beijsterveldt, Toos C. E. M.; Huppertz, Charlotte; Bartels, Meike; Boomsma, Dorret I.
Abstract Over the past decades, Internet use has grown substantially, and it now serves people as a supportive tool that is used regularly and?in large parts of the world?inevitably. Some people develop problematic Internet use, which may lead to addictive behavior and it is becoming important to explore the risk factors for compulsive Internet use. Data were analyzed on compulsive Internet use [with the Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS)] from 5247 monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) adole...
Vink, J.M.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; Huppertz, C.; Bartels, M.; Boomsma, D.I.
Over the past decades, Internet use has grown substantially, and it now serves people as a supportive tool that is used regularly and - in large parts of the world - inevitably. Some people develop problematic Internet use, which may lead to addictive behavior and it is becoming important to explore the risk factors for compulsive Internet use. Data were analyzed on compulsive Internet use [with the Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS)] from 5247 monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) adolescent...
Polak, A. Rosaura; van der Paardt, Jasper W.; Figee, Martijn; Vulink, Nienke; de Koning, Pelle; Olff, Miranda; Denys, Damiaan
Compulsivity is the repetitive, irresistible urge to perform a behavior, the experience of loss of voluntary control over this intense urge and the tendency to perform repetitive acts in a habitual or stereotyped manner. Compulsivity is part of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), but may
Lee, Seung-hee; Workman, Jane E.
Background: The purpose of this paper was to explore the impact of brand variables such as brand awareness, brand loyalty, brand attachment, and perceived brand quality on compulsive buying behavior. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire, containing demographic items and items related to compulsive buying, brand awareness, brand loyalty, brand attachment and perceived quality, was used to collect data. Results: Participants were 269 US university students at a large mid-western universit...
Chamberlain, Samuel R; Redden, Sarah A; Stein, Dan J; Lochner, Christine; Grant, Jon E
Internet use is pervasive in many cultures. Little is known about the impact of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) symptoms on impulsive and compulsive psychopathologies in people who use the Internet. Adult Internet users (N = 1,323) completed an online questionnaire quantifying OCPD symptoms, likely occurrence of select mental disorders (obsessive-compulsive disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], problematic Internet use, generalized anxiety disorder), and personality questionnaires of impulsivity and compulsivity. Predictors of the presence of OCPD symptoms (endorsement of at least 4 of 8 DSM-5 criteria) were identified using binary logistic regression. In regression (P OCPD symptoms were significantly associated with (in order of decreasing effect size) lower non-planning impulsivity, higher ADHD symptoms, problematic Internet use, avoidant personality disorder, female sex, generalized anxiety disorder, and some types of compulsions (checking, dressing/washing). These data suggest that OCPD symptoms, defined in terms of at least 4 of 8 DSM criteria being met, are common in Internet users. OCPD symptoms were associated with considerably higher levels of psychopathology relating to both impulsive (ADHD) and compulsive (OCD-related and problematic Internet use) disorders. These data merit replication and extension using standard in-person clinical assessments, because the current study relied on self-report over the Internet.
Messina, Bruna; Fuentes, Daniel; Tavares, Hermano; Abdo, Carmita H N; Scanavino, Marco de T
Despite the serious behavioral consequences faced by individuals with sexual compulsivity, related neuropsychological studies are sparse. To compare decision making and cognitive flexibility at baseline and after exposure to an erotic video in sexually compulsive participants and non-sexually compulsive controls. The sample consisted of 30 sexually compulsive men and 30 controls. Cognitive flexibility was investigated through the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and decision making was examined through the Iowa Gambling Task. Wisconsin Card Sorting Test categories, correct responses, and perseverative errors and Iowa Gambling Task general trends and blocks. Sexually compulsive subjects and controls performed similarly at baseline. After watching an erotic video, controls performed better in block 1 of the Iowa Gambling Task (P = .01) and had more correct responses on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (P = .01). The controls presented fewer impulsive initial choices and better cognitive flexibility after exposure to erotic stimuli. Messina B, Fuentes D, Tavares H, et al. Executive Functioning of Sexually Compulsive and Non-Sexually Compulsive Men Before and After Watching an Erotic Video. J Sex Med 2017;14:347-354. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Black, Donald W
Compulsive buying disorder is characterized by excessive or poorly controlled preoccupations, urges, or behaviors regarding shopping and spending that lead to subjective distress or impaired functioning. Compulsive buying disorder is estimated to have a lifetime prevalence of 5.8% in the United States general adult population. In clinical settings, most individuals with compulsive buying disorder are women (approximately 80%). This gender difference may be artifactual. Compulsive buying disorder is typically chronic or intermittent, with an age of onset in the late teens or early 20s. Comorbid mood and anxiety disorders, substance use disorders, eating disorders, and other disorders of impulse control are common, as are Axis II disorders. The disorder occurs worldwide, mainly in developed countries with market-based economies, and it tends to run in families with mood disorders and substance abuse. There is no standard treatment for compulsive buying disorder, but group cognitive-behavioral models seem promising, and psychopharmacologic treatments are being actively studied. Other treatment options include simplicity circles, 12-step programs, financial counseling, bibliotherapy, marital therapy, and financial counseling. Directions for future research are discussed.
Halmi, Katherine A; Tozzi, Federica; Thornton, Laura M; Crow, Scott; Fichter, Manfred M; Kaplan, Allan S; Keel, Pamela; Klump, Kelly L; Lilenfeld, Lisa R; Mitchell, James E; Plotnicov, Katherine H; Pollice, Christine; Rotondo, Alessandro; Strober, Michael; Woodside, D Blake; Berrettini, Wade H; Kaye, Walter H; Bulik, Cynthia M
Perfectionism and obsessionality are core features of eating disorders (ED), yet the nature of their relation remains unknown. Understanding the relation between these traits may enhance our ability to identify relevant behavioral endophenotypes for ED. Six-hundred seven individuals with anorexia and bulimia nervosa from the International Price Foundation Genetic Study were assessed for perfectionism, obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). No differences were found across ED subtypes in the prevalence of OCPD and OCD, nor with the association between OCD and OCPD. Perfectionism scores were highest in individuals with OCPD whether alone or in combination with OCD. Perfectionism appears to be more closely associated with obsessive-compulsive personality symptoms rather than OCD. The pairing of perfectionism with OCPD may be a relevant core behavioral feature underlying vulnerability to ED. Copyright 2005 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Gordon, Olivia M; Salkovskis, Paul M; Bream, Victoria
It is often suggested that, in general, co-morbid personality disorders are likely to interfere with CBT based treatment of Axis I disorders, given that personality disorders are regarded as dispositional and are therefore considered less amenable to change than axis I psychiatric disorders. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of co-occurring obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) on cognitive-behavioural treatment for OCD. 92 individuals with a diagnosis of OCD participated in this study. Data were drawn from measures taken at initial assessment and following cognitive-behavioural treatment at a specialist treatment centre for anxiety disorders. At assessment, participants with OCD and OCPD had greater overall OCD symptom severity, as well as doubting, ordering and hoarding symptoms relative to those without OCPD; however, participants with co-morbid OCD and OCPD demonstrated greater treatment gains in terms of OCD severity, checking and ordering than those without OCPD. Individuals with OCD and OCPD had higher levels of checking, ordering and overall OCD severity at initial assessment; however, at post-treatment they had similar scores to those without OCPD. The implications of these findings are discussed in the light of research on axis I and II co-morbidity and the impact of axis II disorders on treatment for axis I disorders.
Full Text Available The understanding of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD has evolved with the knowledge of behavior, the brain, and their relationship. Modern views of OCD as a neuropsychiatric disorder originated from early lesion studies, with more recent models incorporating detailed neuropsychological findings, such as perseveration in set-shifting tasks, and findings of altered brain structure and function, namely of orbitofrontal corticostriatal circuits and their limbic connections. Interestingly, as neurobiological models of OCD evolved from cortical and cognitive to sub-cortical and behavioral, the focus of OCD phenomenology also moved from thought control and contents to new concepts rooted in animal models of action control. Most recently, the proposed analogy between habitual action control and compulsive behavior has led to the hypothesis that individuals suffering from OCD may be predisposed to rely excessively on habitual rather than on goal-directed behavioral strategies. Alternatively, compulsions have been proposed to result either from hyper-valuation of certain actions and/or their outcomes, or from excessive uncertainty in the monitoring of action performance, both leading to perseveration in prepotent actions such as washing or checking. In short, the last decades have witnessed a formidable renovation in the pathophysiology, phenomenology, and even semantics, of OCD. Nevertheless, such progress is challenged by several caveats, not least psychopathological oversimplification and overgeneralization of animal to human extrapolations. Here we present an historical overview of the understanding of OCD, highlighting converging studies and trends in neuroscience, psychiatry and neuropsychology, and how they influenced current perspectives on the nosology and phenomenology of this disorder.
Sauchelli, Sarah; Arcelus, Jon; Granero, Roser; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Agüera, Zaida; Del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando
Objectives: Compulsive exercise in eating disorders has been traditionally considered as a behavior that serves the purpose of weight/shape control. More recently, it has been postulated that there may be other factors that drive the compulsive need to exercise. This has led to the development of the Compulsive Exercise Test (CET); a self-reported questionnaire that aims to explore the cognitive-behavioral underpinnings of compulsive exercise from a multi-faceted perspective. The objectives of this study were threefold: (1) to validate the Spanish version of the CET; (2) to compare eating disorder diagnostic subtypes and a healthy control group in terms of the factors that drive compulsive exercise as defined by the CET; (3) to explore how the dimensions evaluated in the CET are associated with eating disorder symptoms and general psychopathology. Methods: The CET was administered to a total of 157 patients with an eating disorder [40 anorexia nervosa, 56 bulimia nervosa (BN), and 61 eating disorder not-otherwise-specified (EDNOS)] and 128 healthy weight/eating controls. Patients were assessed via a semi-structured interview to reach a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis. Additionally, all participants completed the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90R) and the Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2). Results: Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated adequate goodness-of-fit to the original five-factor model of the CET. BN and EDNOS patients scored higher in the avoidance and rule-driven behavior, weight control, and total CET scales in comparison to the healthy controls, and higher across all scales apart from the exercise rigidity scale compared to the anorexia nervosa patients. Mean scores of the anorexia nervosa patients did not differ to those of the control participants, except for the mood improvement scale where the anorexia nervosa patients obtained a lower mean score. Mean scores between the BN and EDNOS patients were equivalent. The CET scales avoidance and rule
Jang, Joon Hwan; Kim, Hee Sun; Ha, Tae Hyon; Shin, Na Young; Kang, Do-Hyung; Choi, Jung-Seok; Ha, Kyooseob; Kwon, Jun Soo
Recent acceptance that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) represents a heterogeneous phenomenon has underscored the need for dimensional approaches to this disorder. However little is known about the relation between neuropsychological functions and symptom dimensions. The purpose of this study was to identify the cognitive deficits correlated with specific symptom dimensions. Thirteen categories in the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale symptom checklist from 144 patients with OCD were analyzed by principal component analysis. Correlations between identified symptom dimensions and neuropsychological functioning, measured by the Boston Qualitative Scoring System, were analyzed. Five factors or dimensions were identified: contamination/cleaning, hoarding, symmetry/ordering, obsessions/checking, and repeating/counting. Dysfunctions in nonverbal memory and organizational strategies were related to the symmetry/ordering dimension and the obsessions/checking dimension, respectively. The results of the present study support a transculturally stable symptom structure for OCD. They also suggest the possibility that nonverbal memory dysfunction and organizational impairment are mediated by distinct obsessive-compulsive dimensions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pinto, Anthony; Steinglass, Joanna E.; Greene, Ashley L.; Weber, Elke U.; Simpson, H. Blair
Background Although the relationship between obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and obsessive compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) has long been debated, clinical samples of OCD (without OCPD) and OCPD (without OCD) have never been systematically compared. We studied whether individuals with OCD, OCPD, or both conditions differ on symptomatology, functioning, and a measure of self-control: the capacity to delay reward. Methods 25 OCD, 25 OCPD, 25 comorbid OCD+OCPD, and 25 healthy controls (HC) completed clinical assessments and a validated intertemporal choice task that measures capacity to forego small immediate rewards for larger delayed rewards. Results OCD and OCPD subjects both showed impairment in psychosocial functioning and quality of life, as well as compulsive behavior, but only subjects with OCD reported obsessions. Individuals with OCPD, with or without comorbid OCD, discounted the value of delayed monetary rewards significantly less than OCD and HC. This excessive capacity to delay reward discriminates OCPD from OCD, and is associated with perfectionism and rigidity. Conclusions OCD and OCPD are both impairing disorders marked by compulsive behaviors, but they can be differentiated by the presence of obsessions in OCD and by excessive capacity to delay reward in OCPD. That individuals with OCPD show less temporal discounting (suggestive of excessive self-control) whereas prior studies have shown that individuals with substance use disorders show greater discounting (suggestive of impulsivity) supports the premise that this component of self-control lies on a continuum in which both extremes (impulsivity and overcontrol) contribute to psychopathology. PMID:24199665
Parsons, Jeffrey T; Kelly, Brian C; Bimbi, David S; Muench, Frederick; Morgenstern, Jon
To examine the social triggers of sexual compulsivity amongst a diverse sample of gay and bisexual men. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 180 gay and bisexual men in the United States who self-identified that their sex lives were spinning out of control. The data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach to explore the range of social triggers that were driving sexual compulsions. An open-ended interview and a structured clinical interview were conducted with each participant. The interviews examined their experiences with sexual compulsivity over time and the impact of their problematic sexual behaviors on their lives. Two types of social triggers emerged from the data: event-centered triggers and contextual triggers. Event-centered triggers arise from sudden, unforeseen events. Two major event-centered triggers were identified: relationship turmoil and catastrophes. Contextual triggers, on the other hand, have a certain element of predictability, and included such things as location, people, the use of drugs, and pornography. This framework of triggers has clinical implications for the prevention and treatment of sexual compulsivity. Clinicians can utilize the framework of social triggers in the therapeutic process to provide insight into ways to effectively work through symptoms of sexual compulsivity. Awareness of the contextual aspects of sexual compulsivity may be critical to understanding the behaviors of sexually compulsive clients. Thus, therapeutic assessments should focus upon the social context in addition to the psychological components of the disorder.
Li, Shuang; Unger, Alexander; Bi, Chongzeng
Compulsive buying is a severe phenomenon, especially among younger consumers. It is well documented in Western industrial societies like the USA and Germany, and nowadays an increasing interest in compulsive buying in non-Western countries is on the rise. In the current study, we measured the prevalence of compulsive buying tendencies among Chinese female and male students by using a Chinese translation of the German Compulsive Buying Scale (Raab, Neuner, Reisch & Scherhorn, 2005). We examined the influence of gender, location and age using ANCOVA, and binary logistic regression. Factor analysis identified three factorial dimensions of compulsive buying tendencies which are impairment of impulse control and reactive or compensatory aspects, reduced rationality according to money spending, and post-purchase guilt. Our results indicated that about 6.7% of the sample shows a compulsive buying pattern, and that females are more affected. For location, a geographic difference between Chongqing and Fuzhou was found for the overall compulsive tendencies, but not for the percentages of compulsive buyers. In sum, the existing study provides evidence that Chinese consumers have a factorial structure which differs somewhat in compulsive buying from Western samples. Observations about gender and location were considered. These findings give a deeper understanding of China’s compulsive buying behavior.
Compulsive buying is a relatively new addictive disorder that interferes with everyday functioning and may result in serious psychological and financial problems (1). A very few data are currently available regarding this behavioral addiction. This study investigated gender differences in the relationships between contingent self-esteem (CSE), fear of negative evaluation (FNE), and compulsive buying. Participants included 240 Italian adults (170 females, M age = 33.80) who responded to self-report questionnaires. The results showed that women scored higher on CSE and FNE scales than men. No gender differences were found in compulsive buying tendencies. CSE and FNE were positively related to CB. Furthermore, structural equation modeling confirmed the evidence on CSE as a strong predictor of CB for both genders. Interestingly, FNE seems to play a mediating role between CSE and compulsive buying behaviors only for women. These findings highlight the importance of studying self-esteem in compulsive buying tendencies to inquire more deeply into the underlying mechanisms of some compulsive behaviors.
Full Text Available Compulsive buying is a relatively new addictive disorder that interferes with everyday functioning and may result in serious psychological and financial problems (1. A very few data are currently available regarding this behavioral addiction. This study investigated gender differences in the relationships between contingent self-esteem (CSE, fear of negative evaluation (FNE, and compulsive buying. Participants included 240 Italian adults (170 females, M age = 33.80 who responded to self-report questionnaires. The results showed that women scored higher on CSE and FNE scales than men. No gender differences were found in compulsive buying tendencies. CSE and FNE were positively related to CB. Furthermore, structural equation modeling confirmed the evidence on CSE as a strong predictor of CB for both genders. Interestingly, FNE seems to play a mediating role between CSE and compulsive buying behaviors only for women. These findings highlight the importance of studying self-esteem in compulsive buying tendencies to inquire more deeply into the underlying mechanisms of some compulsive behaviors.
Kaderli, Yusuf; Aksu Armağan, Ece; Küçükkambak, Selçuk Efe
The aim of this study is to determine thefactors that affect the compulsive buying behaviors of the Y generations, whichtoday constitute a large part of Turkey’s population. The data collected by 390people in the study were subjected to various analyzes in the SPSS packageprogram and it was found that the attitudes of the individuals in the Ydirection to the money, the attitude towards the credit card and the attitudeof materialism differ according to the socio-demographic variables and theus...
Grassi, Giacomo; Figee, Martjin; Stratta, Paolo; Rossi, Alessandro; Pallanti, Stefano
In our recently published article, we investigated the behavioral addiction model of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), by assessing three core dimensions of addiction in patients with OCD healthy participants. Similar to the common findings in addiction, OCD patients demonstrated increased
Full Text Available Behavioral adaptation is required for the successful navigation of a constantly changing environment. Impairments in behavioral flexibility are commonly observed in psychiatric disorders including those of addiction. This study investigates two distinct facets of compulsivity, namely reversal learning and attentional set shifting, implicating orbitofrontal and lateral prefrontal regions respectively, across disorders of primary and secondary rewards. Obese subjects with and without binge eating disorder (BED, individuals with compulsive sexual behaviors (CSB, alcohol use disorder (AUD and pathological video-gaming (VG were tested with two computerized tasks: the Probabilistic Reversal Task (trials to criterion and win-stay/lose-shift errors and the Intra/Extra-dimensional Set Shift Task (IED. Individuals with AUD and pathological video-gaming were slower at reversal learning irrespective of valence, with AUD subjects more likely to perseverate after losses. Compared to obese subjects without BED, BED subjects were worse at reversal learning to wins but better at losses highlighting valence effects as a function of binge eating. CSB subjects demonstrated enhanced sensitivity to reward outcomes with faster acquisition and greater perseveration with higher magnitude rewards. We further show an impairment in attentional set shifting in individuals with BED and AUD relative to healthy volunteers. This study provides evidence for commonalities and differences in two distinct dimensions of behavioral inflexibility across disorders of compulsivity. This study provides evidence for commonalities and differences in two distinct dimensions of behavioral inflexibility across disorders of compulsivity. We summarize studies on compulsivity subtypes within this same patient population. We emphasize commonalities in AUD and BED with impairments across a range of compulsivity indices, perhaps supporting pathological binge eating as a form of behavioral addiction
Discusses addictive model of compulsive sex among some homosexual men. Describes commonalities between two most prevalent and successful approaches used to treat this disorder: group treatment and self-help Twelve Step addictive model. Contends that, whether compulsive sexual behavior is accepted as an addiction, the addictive model itself seems…
Hybel, Katja Anna; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Lambek, Rikke
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is considered first-line treatment for childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Despite CBT's efficacy, too many children and adolescents do not fully respond to treatment, making the identification of predictors of treatment response highly relevant...... in CBT for childhood OCD and denotes a possible need for development of enhanced treatments for children and adolescents with OCD and superior EF performance........ Daily life EF behavior in OCD probands improved after treatment relative to controls. The findings suggest that EF performance impacts CBT outcome, and that exposure-based CBT is well-suited for children and adolescents with OCD and poorer EF test performance. This study supports the relevance of EF...
Gonca Karakus; Lut Tamam
Compulsive buying disorder is characterized by impulsive drives and compulsive behaviors (buying unneeded things), personal distress, impaired social and vocational functioning and financial problems. In this case report, we presented diagnostic and treatment process of 49 year old, female patient who had complaints amnesia, weight loss and insomnia. In her medical history, she had compulsive buying disorder for nearly twenty years but untreated until her current evaluation. Comorbid psychi...
Pinto, Anthony; Steinglass, Joanna E; Greene, Ashley L; Weber, Elke U; Simpson, H Blair
Although the relationship between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) has long been debated, clinical samples of OCD (without OCPD) and OCPD (without OCD) have never been systematically compared. We studied whether individuals with OCD, OCPD, or both conditions differ on symptomatology, functioning, and a measure of self-control: the capacity to delay reward. Twenty-five OCD, 25 OCPD, 25 comorbid OCD + OCPD, and 25 healthy control subjects completed clinical assessments and a validated intertemporal choice task that measures capacity to forego small immediate rewards for larger delayed rewards. OCD and OCPD subjects both showed impairment in psychosocial functioning and quality of life, as well as compulsive behavior, but only subjects with OCD reported obsessions. Individuals with OCPD, with or without comorbid OCD, discounted the value of delayed monetary rewards significantly less than OCD and healthy control subjects. This excessive capacity to delay reward discriminates OCPD from OCD and is associated with perfectionism and rigidity. OCD and OCPD are both impairing disorders marked by compulsive behaviors, but they can be differentiated by the presence of obsessions in OCD and by excessive capacity to delay reward in OCPD. That individuals with OCPD show less temporal discounting (suggestive of excessive self-control), whereas prior studies have shown that individuals with substance use disorders show greater discounting (suggestive of impulsivity), supports the premise that this component of self-control lies on a continuum in which both extremes (impulsivity and overcontrol) contribute to psychopathology. © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry Published by Society of Biological Psychiatry All rights reserved.
McQueen, Paul; Moulding, Richard; Kyrios, Michael
Compulsive buying is a disabling condition, where individuals are unable to resist or control their buying behavior, leading to substantial social and financial problems. Cognitive models implicate the role of beliefs as one factor in buying behavior, for example, "this item is unique and will help me improve my life". This study experimentally examined the contribution of such beliefs to the disorder, in individuals who compulsively buy (N = 18) and in non-clinical controls (N = 17). Participants were presented with photographs of idiosyncratically appealing and unappealing items, in the context of imagined scenarios that either minimized or maximized aspects relevant to hypothesized "compulsive buying beliefs" (i.e., beliefs that acquisition can compensate for negative feelings, beliefs regarding uniqueness and lost opportunities, and emotional reasons for buying). It was found that individuals who compulsively buy demonstrated stronger urges to purchase than control participants, regardless of context, but the overall strength of these urges was responsive to manipulations of beliefs about consumer items said to be associated with compulsive buying. The main limitation of the study was a small sample size, potentially reducing power. Nonetheless, these findings provide insights into the processes underlying compulsive phenomena, in particular supporting the role of cognitions in compulsive buying. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Thorsen, A.L.; van den Heuvel, O.A.; Hansen, B.; Kvale, G.
The symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) include intrusive thoughts, compulsive behavior, anxiety, and cognitive inflexibility, which are associated with dysfunction in dorsal and ventral corticostriato-thalamocortical (CSTC) circuits. Psychotherapy involving exposure and response
Bucarelli, Bianca; Purdon, Christine
A growing body of research suggests that the repetition of an action degrades memory for that action, as well as confidence that is has been done correctly. This has important implications for understanding the compulsive repetition of actions characteristic of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). At this time, though, much of the research has been conducted on analogue or nonclinical OCD samples in comparison to healthy controls and often using virtual, as opposed to actual, threat stimuli. Furthermore, although it has been argued that people with OCD are overly attentive to threat stimuli, the research on actual attention to threat is scant. People with a principal diagnosis of OCD (n = 30) and people with a clinically significant diagnosis of an anxiety disorder, but no OCD (n = 18) completed measures of memory confidence and responsibility and then underwent a stove-checking task in a functioning kitchen while wearing a portable eye tracking device. Pre- and post-task ratings of harm and responsibility were taken, along with post-task ratings of memory and certainty. People with OCD did not exhibit poorer memory confidence than the anxious control (AC) group, but did report greater trait and state responsibility for harm. The OCD group checked longer than did the AC group and check duration predicted post-task ratings of harm, but to the same extent in both groups. People with OCD attended to threat items less than did the AC group. Greater visual attention to the stove during the checking period was associated with greater post-task ratings of responsibility and harm and with less certainty in and memory for the check - but only for the AC group. The sample size was modest, women were over-represented and problems with the eye tracking device reduced the amount of reliable data available for analysis. Compulsions are complex actions that are mediated by many trait, state and contextual factors. People with OCD may be able to circumvent self
Full Text Available Objectives: Compulsive exercise in eating disorders has been traditionally considered as a behavior that serves the purpose of weight/shape control. More recently, it has been postulated that there may be other factors that drive the compulsive need to exercise. This has led to the development of the Compulsive Exercise Test (CET; a self-reported questionnaire that aims to explore the cognitive-behavioral underpinnings of compulsive exercise from a multi-faceted perspective. The objectives of this study were threefold: 1 To validate the Spanish version of the CET; 2 To compare eating disorder diagnostic subtypes and a healthy control group in terms of the factors that drive compulsive exercise as defined by the CET; 3 To explore how the dimensions evaluated in the CET are associated with eating disorder symptoms and general psychopathology. Methods: The CET was administered to a total of 157 patients with an eating disorder (40 anorexia nervosa, 56 bulimia nervosa, 61 eating disorder not-otherwise-specified (EDNOS and 128 healthy weight/eating controls. Patients were assessed via a semi-structured interview to reach a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis. Additionally, all participants completed the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90R and the Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2. Results: Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated adequate goodness-of-fit to the original five-factor model of the CET. Bulimia nervosa and EDNOS patients scored higher in the avoidance and rule-driven behavior, weight control and total CET scales in comparison to the healthy controls, and higher across all scales apart from the exercise rigidity scale compared to the anorexia nervosa patients. Mean scores of the anorexia nervosa patients did not differ to those of the control participants, except for the mood improvement scale where the anorexia nervosa patients obtained a lower mean score. Mean scores between the bulimia nervosa and EDNOS patients were equivalent. The CET scales
Miner, Michael H; Raymond, Nancy; Coleman, Eli; Swinburne Romine, Rebecca
One of the major obstacles to conducting epidemiologic research and determining the incidence and prevalence of compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) has been the lack of relevant empirically derived cut points on the various instruments that have been used to measure the concept. To further develop the Compulsive Sexual Behavior Inventory (CSBI) through exploring predictive validity and developing an empirically determined and clinically useful cut point for defining CSB. A sample of 242 men who have sex with men was recruited from various sites in a moderate-size Midwestern city. Participants were assigned to a CSB group or a control group using an interview for the diagnosis that was patterned after the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. The 22-item CSBI was administered as part of a larger battery of self-report inventories. Receiver operating characteristic analyses were used to compute area-under-the-curve measurements to ascertain the predictive validity of the total scale, the control subscale, and the violence subscale. Cut points were determined through consensus of experts balancing sensitivity and specificity as determined by receiver operating characteristic curves. Analyses indicated that the 22-item CSBI was a good predictor of group membership, as was the 13-item control subscale. The violence subscale added little to the predictive accuracy of the instrument; thus, it likely measures something other than CSB. Two relevant cut points were found, one that minimized false negatives and another, more conservative cut point that minimized false positives. The CSBI as currently configured measures two different constructions and only the control subscale is helpful in diagnosing CSB. Therefore, we decided to eliminate the violence subscale and move forward with a 13-item scale that we have named the CSBI-13. Two cut points were developed from this revised scale, one that is useful as a
Kishimoto, Toshifumi; Ikawa, Genro
Two men with obsessive-compulsive disorder showed abnormal behaviors including agitation and aggression without evidence of depression. They responded to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) following failure of drug treatments. Further investigation of the utility of ECT in treating drug refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder is indicated.
Müller, Astrid; Mitchell, James E; de Zwaan, Martina
Although compulsive buying (CB) seems to be not only prevalent but even increasing in prevalence, it often remains neglected or minimized in clinical settings. There is a need for a greater understanding and recognition of this problem. The aim of this article is to summarize the current knowledge regarding CB and to offer thoughts regarding classification. Review of published literature over the period 1994-2013 through Pubmed/Medline, PsychINFO, and Google Scholar using the key words 'compulsive buying', 'impulsive buying' and 'addictive buying'. CB is defined by a preoccupation with buying and shopping, by frequent buying episodes, or overpowering urges to buy that are experienced as irresistible and senseless. The maladaptive spending behavior is associated with serious psychological, social, occupational, and financial problems. Treatment-seeking patients with CB suffer from substantial psychiatric comorbidity (eg, anxiety and depressive mood disorders, compulsive hoarding, binge eating disorder). Representative surveys revealed prevalence estimates of CB between 6% and 7% and indicate that younger people are more prone to develop CB. Moreover, European data suggest an increase of CB in the adult population over the last 20 years. While there is no evidence for the efficacy of psychopharmacological treatment, group cognitive behavioral therapy has been shown to be effective. The relevance of recognition of CB as mental disorder is undeniable in the face of its estimated prevalence and associated burden. As our understanding of contributing neurobiological and etiological factors is limited, further research should focus on these topics, taking into account the heterogeneity of individuals with CB. There is also a need for specific treatment options and for the development of prevention strategies. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.
Rabinowitz, Dena; Neziroglu, Fugen; Roberts, Marty
Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is characterized by an obsessive concern over a perceived flaw in bodily appearance. If a minor flaw does exist, the patient displays unwarranted distress. This preoccupation typically leads to compulsive behaviors, such as mirror checking or mirror avoiding, camouflaging, and seeking reassurance from others…
White, Emily K; Warren, Cortney S
Social anxiety and eating pathology frequently co-occur. However, there is limited research examining the relationship between anxiety and body checking, aside from one study in which social physique anxiety partially mediated the relationship between body checking cognitions and body checking behavior (Haase, Mountford, & Waller, 2007). In an independent sample of 567 college women, we tested the fit of Haase and colleagues' foundational model but did not find evidence of mediation. Thus we tested the fit of an expanded path model that included eating pathology and clinical impairment. In the best-fitting path model (CFI=.991; RMSEA=.083) eating pathology and social physique anxiety positively predicted body checking, and body checking positively predicted clinical impairment. Therefore, women who endorse social physique anxiety may be more likely to engage in body checking behaviors and experience impaired psychosocial functioning. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Boden, Lauren J.; Jolivette, Kristine; Alberto, Paul A.
Check-in/check-out is a secondary-tier intervention within the positive behavior interventions and supports framework. Check-in/check-out pairs the use of an adult mentor with a daily progress report to help students meet individualized behavioral goals. This study adds to the research base by examining the effects of check-in, check-up, check-out…
Raymond, Nancy C; Grant, Jon E; Coleman, Eli
Compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) is generally characterized by recurrent and intense sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, and behaviors, which cause individuals distress or impair daily functioning. Descriptive studies of individuals with paraphilic and nonparaphilic CSB indicate that they experience urges to engage in problematic sexual behavior. The opiate antagonist naltrexone has been successfully used to treat a number of disorders in which urges to engage in problematic behavior are a central feature, such as alcoholism. We hypothesized that naltrexone would reduce the urges and behaviors associated with CSB. Records of 19 male patients with CSB who were treated with naltrexone at an outpatient adult sexual health clinic were retrospectively reviewed. Nearly all patients were already taking other psychotropic medications when naltrexone was initiated. Seventeen (89%) of the 19 patients reported a reduction in CSB symptoms when taking naltrexone for a period ranging from 2 months to 2.3 years, as judged by Clinical Global Impression scores of 1 or 2, indicating "very much improved" or "much improved." Five (26%) of the 19 patients chose to discontinue the medication. Naltrexone may be a useful adjunctive treatment for CSB.
Claes, Laurence; Müller, Astrid; Norré, Jan; Van Assche, Leen; Wonderlich, Steve; Mitchell, James E
The aim of the present study was to investigate the association among compulsive buying (CB), compulsive internet use (CIU) and reactive/regulative temperament in a sample of 60 female patients with eating disorders. All patients were assessed by means of the Compulsive Buying Scale, the CIU scale, the Eating Disorder Inventory-2, the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System scales, the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology and the effortful control scale of the Adult Temperament Questionnaire. The results showed a positive association between CB and CIU, both categorized as impulse control disorders, not otherwise specified. Both CB and CIU showed significantly positive correlations with emotional lability, excitement seeking and lack of effortful control (more specifically lack of inhibitory and lack of activation control). The implication of these findings for the treatment of both disorders will be discussed. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
Full Text Available Objective: To explore the effect of comorbid obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD on response inhibition functions in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD. Methods: Forty-five obsessive-compulsive patients with obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCD + OCPD, 42 obsessive-compulsive patients without obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCD - OCPD and 54 healthy volunteers were selected for the stop-signal task. Results: Obsessive-compulsive patients with obsessive-compulsive personality disorder had a higher score of depression and anxiety and more severe obsessive-compulsive symptoms than that of obsessive-compulsive patients without obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. The two groups of obsessive-compulsive patients of had a greater stop-signal reaction time (SSRT during the inhibition process than the healthy volunteers of the control group (OCD + OCPD: 221.45 ± 31.78; OCD - OCPD: 218.36 ± 31.78; Controls: 199.29 ± 22.80; p < 0.05. However, no significant difference was found between the two groups of obsessive-compulsive patients. Conclusion: The findings show that the comorbid obsessive-compulsive personality disorder has no effect on response inhibition function of obsessive-compulsive patients.
Frank, Hannah; Stewart, Elyse; Walther, Michael; Benito, Kristen; Freeman, Jennifer; Conelea, Christ; Garci, Abbe
Previous research has shown that among the various subtypes of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), adults (e.g. Frost, Krause & Steketee, 1996) and older children and adolescents (Bloch et al., 2009; Storch et al., 2007) with problematic hoarding have distinct features and a poor treatment prognosis. However, there is limited information on the phenomenology and prevalence of hoarding behaviors in young children. The present study characterizes children ages 10 and under who present with OCD and hoarding behaviors. Sixty-eight children received a structured interview-determined diagnosis of OCD. Clinician administered, parent-report, and child-report measures on demographic, symptomatic, and diagnostic variables were completed. Clinician ratings of hoarding symptoms and parent and child endorsement of the hoarding item on the CY-BOCS checklist (Scahill, Riddle, McSwiggin-Hardin, & Ort, 1997) determined inclusion in the hoarding group ( n =33). Compared to children without hoarding symptoms ( n =35), the presence of hoarding symptoms was associated with an earlier age of primary diagnosis onset and a higher proportion of ADHD and provisional anxiety diagnoses. These results are partially consistent with the adult literature and with findings in older children (Storch et al., 2007). Additional data on clinical presentation and phenomenology of hoarding are needed to form a developmentally appropriate definition of the behavior.
Sagar Karia; Avinash De Sousa; Nilesh Shah; Sushma Sonavane
Compulsive masturbation is a type of paraphilia related disorder in which a person engages in masturbatory behavior to such an extent that it causes socio-occupational dysfunction. The psychiatric co-morbidities associated with it include mood and anxiety disorders, substance use disorders, etc. Here, we report a case of a patient with the delusional disorder having compulsive masturbation.
Scanavino, Marco de Tubino; Ventuneac, Ana; Abdo, Carmita Helena Najjar; Tavares, Hermano; do Amaral, Maria Luiza Sant'ana; Messina, Bruna; dos Reis, Sirlene Caramello; Martins, João Paulo Lian Branco; Parsons, Jeffrey T
This study examined compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) and psychopathology in a treatment-seeking sample of men in São Paulo, Brazil. Eighty-six men (26% gay, 17% bisexual, 57% heterosexual) who met diagnostic criteria for excessive sexual drive and sexual addiction completed assessments consisting of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, a structured clinical interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders-Clinical Version (segment for Impulse Control Disorder), Sexual Compulsivity Scale (SCS), and questions about problematic CSB. The average SCS score for our sample was above the cut-off score reported in other studies, and 72% of the sample presented at least one Axis I psychiatric diagnosis. There were no differences among gay, bisexual, and heterosexual men on SCS scores and psychiatric conditions, but gay and bisexual men were more likely than heterosexual men to report casual sex and sex with multiple casual partners as problematic behaviors. SCS scores were associated with psychiatric co-morbidities, mood disorder, and suicide risk, but diagnosis of a mood disorder predicted higher SCS scores in a regression analysis. The study provides important data on the mental health needs of men with CSB in São Paulo, Brazil. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chamberlain, Samuel R.; Leppink, Eric W.; Redden, Sarah A.; Stein, Dan J.; Lochner, Christine; Grant, Jon E.
Background Internet use is pervasive in many cultures. Little is known about the impact of Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD) symptoms on impulsive and compulsive psychopathologies in people who use the Internet. Method 1323 adult Internet users completed an online questionnaire quantifying OCPD symptoms, likely occurrence of select mental disorders (OCD, ADHD, problematic Internet use, anxiety), and personality questionnaires of impulsivity (Barratt) and compulsivity (Padua). Predictors of presence of OCPD symptoms (endorsement of at least 4 of 8 DSM criteria) were identified using binary logistic regression. Results In regression (pOCPD symptoms were significantly associated with (in order of decreasing effect size): lower non-planning impulsivity, higher ADHD symptoms, problematic Internet use, avoidant personality disorder, female gender, generalized anxiety disorder, and some types of compulsions (checking, dressing/washing). Conclusions These data suggest that OCPD symptoms, defined in terms of at least 4 of 8 DSM tick-list criteria being met, are common in Internet users. OCPD symptoms were associated with considerably higher levels of psychopathology relating to both impulsive (ADHD) and compulsive (OC-related and problematic Internet use) disorders. These data merit replication and extension using gold-standard in-person clinical assessments, as the current study relied on self-report over the Internet. PMID:28738097
Becker, Daniel F; Masheb, Robin M; White, Marney A; Grilo, Carlos M
We examined correlates of avoidant and obsessive-compulsive personality pathology--with respect to psychiatric comorbidity, eating disorder psychopathology, and associated psychologic factors--in patients with binge-eating disorder (BED). Three hundred forty-seven treatment-seeking patients who met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), research criteria for BED were reliably assessed with semistructured interviews to evaluate DSM-IV Axis I disorders, personality disorders, and behavioral and attitudinal features of eating disorder psychopathology. Fifteen percent of subjects had avoidant personality disorder features, 12% had obsessive-compulsive personality disorder features, 8% had features of both disorders, and 66% had features of neither. These groups differed significantly in the frequencies of depressive and anxiety disorders, as well as on measures of psychologic functioning (negative/depressive affect and self-esteem) and eating disorder attitudes (shape and weight concerns). There were no group differences on measures of eating behaviors. The avoidant and obsessive-compulsive groups had more psychiatric comorbidity than the group without these personality features but less than the combined group. The group without these features scored significantly lower than all other groups on negative/depressive affect and significantly higher than the avoidant and combined groups on self-esteem. The combined group had the greatest severity on shape and weight concerns. Avoidant and obsessive-compulsive personality features are common in patients with BED. Among BED patients, these forms of personality psychopathology--separately and in combination--are associated with clinically meaningful diagnostic, psychologic, and attitudinal differences. These findings have implications for the psychopathologic relationship between BED and personality psychopathology and may also have implications for assessment and treatment. Copyright
Platt, Brian; Beyer, Chad E; Schechter, Lee E; Rosenzweig-Lipson, Sharon
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is difficult to model in animals due to the involvement of both mental (obsessions) and physical (compulsions) symptoms. Due to limitations of using animals to evaluate obsessions, OCD models are limited to evaluation of the compulsive and repetitive behaviors of animals. Of these, models of adjunctive behaviors offer the most value in regard to predicting efficacy of anti-OCD drugs in the clinic. Adjunctive behaviors are those that are maintained indirectly by the variables that control another behavior, rather than directly by their own typical controlling variables. Schedule-induced polydipsia (SIP) is an adjunctive model in which rats exhibit exaggerated drinking behavior (polydipsia) when presented with food pellets under a fixed-time schedule. The polydipsic response is an excessive manifestation of a normal behavior (drinking), providing face validity to the model. Furthermore, clinically effective drugs for the treatment of OCD decrease SIP. This protocol describes a rat SIP model of OCD and provides preclinical data for drugs that decrease polydipsia and are clinically effective in the treatment of OCD.
Weintraub, Daniel; Hoops, Staci; Shea, Judy A; Lyons, Kelly E; Pahwa, Rajesh; Driver-Dunckley, Erika D; Adler, Charles H; Potenza, Marc N; Miyasaki, Janis; Siderowf, Andrew D; Duda, John E; Hurtig, Howard I; Colcher, Amy; Horn, Stacy S; Stern, Matthew B; Voon, Valerie
As no comprehensive assessment instrument for impulse control disorders (ICDs) in Parkinson's disease (PD) exists, the aim of this study was to design and assess the psychometric properties of a self-administered screening questionnaire for ICDs and other compulsive behaviors in PD. The Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders in Parkinson's Disease (QUIP) has 3 sections: Section 1 assesses four ICDs (involving gambling, sexual, buying, and eating behaviors), Section 2 other compulsive behaviors (punding, hobbyism, and walkabout), and Section 3 compulsive medication use. For validation, a convenience sample of 157 PD patients at 4 movement disorders centers first completed the QUIP, and then was administered a diagnostic interview by a trained rater blinded to the QUIP results. A shortened instrument (QUIP-S) was then explored. The discriminant validity of the QUIP was high for each disorder or behavior (receiver operating characteristic area under the curve [ROC AUC]: gambling = 0.95, sexual behavior = 0.97, buying = 0.87, eating = 0.88, punding = 0.78, hobbyism = 0.93, walkabout = 0.79). On post hoc analysis, the QUIP-S ICD section had similar properties (ROC AUC: gambling = 0.95, sexual behavior = 0.96, buying = 0.87, eating = 0.88). When disorders/behaviors were combined, the sensitivity of the QUIP and QUIP-S to detect an individual with any disorder was 96 and 94%, respectively. Scores on the QUIP appear to be valid as a self-assessment screening instrument for a range of ICDs and other compulsive behaviors that occur in PD, and a shortened version may perform as well as the full version. A positive screen should be followed by a comprehensive, clinical interview to determine the range and severity of symptoms, as well as need for clinical management. Copyright 2009 Movement Disorder Society.
Full Text Available Compulsive masturbation is a type of paraphilia related disorder in which a person engages in masturbatory behavior to such an extent that it causes socio-occupational dysfunction. The psychiatric co-morbidities associated with it include mood and anxiety disorders, substance use disorders, etc. Here, we report a case of a patient with the delusional disorder having compulsive masturbation.
Mong, Michael D.; Johnson, Kristin N.; Mong, Kristi W.
Check-in/checkout (CICO) is a behavioral intervention that is used to provide systematic feedback about a student's behavior at the beginning and end of each school day. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of CICO on decreasing problem behaviors and the collateral effects on mathematics performance for 4 at-risk…
Sayyah, Mehdi; Bagheri, Parisa; Karimi, Negar; Ghasemzadeh, Azizreza
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders and can cause problems for individuals in all aspects of life, including social and personal dimensions. To study the effect of group cognitive-behavioral therapy on the reduction of OCD symptoms in female participants with multiple sclerosis (MS). This double-blind randomized control trial was conducted from May 2012 to December 2014. The participants included 75 patients with MS who suffered from OCD and were referred to the Loghman Hakim and Imam Khomeini hospitals in Tehran, Iran. Thirty participants had been diagnosed through Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms (Y-BOCS). The participants were randomly divided into an experimental group (n=15) and a control group (n=15). Eleven sessions of cognitive-behavioral therapy were provided for the experimental group. Patients in the control group continued with their normal living. Hypotheses were tested using an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). A significant reduction was found in the experimental group's obsessive-compulsive symptoms after cognitive-behavioral therapy (pcognitive-behavioral therapy could considerably reduce OCD symptoms in women with MS. The application of this method by therapists, especially Iranian clinicians, is recommended.
Stein, Dan J; Andersen, Elisabeth Anne Wreford; Overo, Kerstin Fredricson
-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale Checklist individual items yielded 5 factors (contamination/cleaning, harm/checking, aggressive/sexual/religious, hoarding/symmetry, and somatic/hypochondriacal). Hoarding/symmetry was associated with male gender, longer duration of obsessive-compulsive disorder and early onset......, whereas contamination/cleaning was associated with female gender. Citalopram was more effective than placebo, but high scores on the symmetry/hoarding and contamination/cleaning subscales predicted worse outcome at the end of study while high scores on the aggressive/religious/sexual subscale predicted...... dimension is mediated by the dopamine system. There may be associations between symmetry/hoarding, male gender, early onset, tics, and particular genetic variants; further work is, however, needed to delineate fully obsessive-compulsive disorder subtypes and their underlying neurobiology....
Codispoti, Victoria L
was 37%, which included psychological and medical modes of treatment. Which treatments will reduce recidivism rates in sex offenders is extremely difficult to conclude. Some treatment effects are determined from small studies; however, recidivism rates may be based on different criteria. Larger studies tend to be published more frequently than small studies, negative results may be less likely to be reported in published studies, and differences in mandatory versus voluntary treatment may occur. Clearly more high-quality outcome studies are needed to determine which treatments work best for which individuals. One size is unlikely to fit all. However, pharmacologic intervention, although not always the perfect choice, has improved and will continue to advance the treatment of paraphilic, nonparaphilic, and compulsive sexual behaviors.
Evans, David W.; Hersperger, Chelsea; Capaldi, Philip A.
A new inventory assessing thought-action fusion (TAF) in children is presented. We explore the psychometric properties of this instrument and examine the associations between TAF, ritualistic and compulsive-like behavior (CLB) and anxiety. Three hundred thirteen children ages 7-14 (M = 10.16, SD = 1.92) representing six grades (grouped into three…
Bedecarrats, Alexis; Cornet, Charles; Simmers, John; Nargeot, Romuald
Feeding in "Aplysia" provides an amenable model system for analyzing the neuronal substrates of motivated behavior and its adaptability by associative reward learning and neuromodulation. Among such learning processes, appetitive operant conditioning that leads to a compulsive-like expression of feeding actions is known to be associated…
Full Text Available Compulsive buying disorder is characterized by impulsive drives and compulsive behaviors (buying unneeded things, personal distress, impaired social and vocational functioning and financial problems. In this case report, we presented diagnostic and treatment process of 49 year old, female patient who had complaints amnesia, weight loss and insomnia. In her medical history, she had compulsive buying disorder for nearly twenty years but untreated until her current evaluation. Comorbid psychiatric disorders started in the last two months which expedited her current referral. [Cukurova Med J 2017; 42(1.000: 172-175
Williams, Alishia D
The aims of the current study were to determine if compulsive acquisition behaviors are meaningfully related to quality of life and psychiatric work impairment and to determine if compulsive buyers who engage in 2 forms of acquisition (buying and excessive acquisition of free items) are more impaired than individuals who only engage in 1 form of acquisition. In a community-recruited sample, analysis of covariance conducted between groups identified as noncompulsive buyers (NCB) (n = 30), compulsive buyers who did not acquire free items (CBB) (n = 30), and compulsive buyers who also acquired free items (CBF) (n = 35) revealed that both acquisition groups reported higher levels of depression and stress and lower quality of psychological well-being than the NCB group, despite a comparable number of individuals self-reporting a current mental health disorder in each group. The CBF group reported higher levels of anxiety and general distress as well as greater work inefficiency days compared with the NCB and CBB groups. Furthermore, regression analyses supported the unique contribution of acquisition of free items to the prediction of psychiatric work impairment. Taken together, the findings highlight the serious impact of compulsive buying on work functioning, general quality of life, and psychological well-being and provide avenues for future research to investigate the role of acquisition of free items in symptom severity. Limitations and future directions are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
van Timmeren, Tim; Daams, Joost G; van Holst, Ruth J; Goudriaan, Anna E
Compulsivity is a core feature of addictive disorders, including gambling disorder. However, it is unclear to what extent this compulsive behavior in gambling disorder is associated with abnormal compulsivity-related neurocognitive functioning. Here, we summarize and synthesize the evidence for compulsive behavior, as assessed by compulsivity-related neurocognitive tasks, in individuals with gambling disorder compared to healthy controls (HCs). A total of 29 studies, comprising 41 task-results, were included in the systematic review; 32 datasets (n=1072 individuals with gambling disorder; n=1312 HCs) were also included in the meta-analyses, conducted for each cognitive task separately. Our meta-analyses indicate significant deficits in individuals with gambling disorder in cognitive flexibility, attentional set-shifting, and attentional bias. Overall, these findings support the idea that compulsivity-related performance deficits characterize gambling disorder. This association may provide a possible link between impairments in executive functions related to compulsive action. We discuss the practical relevance of these results, their implications for our understanding of gambling disorder and how they relate to neurobiological factors and other 'disorders of compulsivity'. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Duroy, David; Gorse, Pauline; Lejoyeux, Michel
Online compulsive buying is a little-studied behavioral disorder. To better understand its clinical aspects by focusing on (i) prevalence rate, (ii) correlation with other addictions, (iii) influence of means of access, (iv) motivations to shop to the internet and (v) financial and time-consuming consequences. Cross-sectional study. 200 students in two different centers of Paris Diderot University - Paris VII. Brief self-questionnaires, to screen online compulsive buying, internet addiction, alcohol and tobacco use disorders, to rate frequency of online purchase by private-sale websites, by advertising banners, by mobile phone or to avoid stores, to rate motivations like "more discreet", "lonelier", "larger variety of products", "more immediate positive feelings", and "cheaper" and to assess the largest amount of online purchasing and the average proportion of monthly earnings, and time spent, both day and night. Prevalence of online compulsive buying was 16.0%, while prevalence of internet addiction was 26.0%. We found no significant relationship with cyberdependence, alcohol or tobacco use disorders. Online compulsive buyers accessed more often shopping online by private-sale websites (56.2% vs 30.5%, pmobile phone (22.5% vs 7.9%, p=0.005) and preferred online shopping because of exhaustive offer (p<0.0001) and immediate positive feelings (p<0.0001). Online compulsive buyers spent significantly more money and more time in online shopping. Online compulsive buying seems to be a distinctive behavioral disorder with specific factors of loss of control and motivations, and overall financial and time-consuming impacts. More research is needed to better characterize it. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Maria S Signorelli
Full Text Available Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a chronic and disabling condition that often proves to be treatment resistant. Of the patients suffering from obsessive-compulsive disorder, 10%–27% may attempt suicide at least once in their life. We report the case of a patient who presented severe obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms and attempted suicide ingesting 25 tablets of fluoxetine (20 mg. The patient was treated with venlafaxine and agomelatine and showed improvement of obsessive symptoms and suicidal ideation. Future studies are needed to investigate this treatment regime in large cohorts of obsessive-compulsive disorder patients with suicidal ideation.
Full Text Available Neurobiological factors had been shown to play an important role in the emergence of obsessive-compulsive disorder by the information obtained from the methods developed over the years. According to the neuropsychological perspective, the defects had been detected mainly in executive functions, in attention, memory, visual-spatial functions; and abnormalities had been described in the frontal lobe, cingulate cortex, basal ganglia, and thalamus regions of the patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. The main and the most repeated abnormalities in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder are dysfunctions in executive function and visual memory. Dysfunctions of the inhibitory processes associated with the dominant frontal area lead to an insufficiency on the inhibition of verbal functions. Excessive activation of the orbitofrontal cortex that mediate the behavioral response suppression function in obsessive-compulsive disorder demonstrated by functional imaging techniques. Repeated-resistant behaviors (eg: compulsions are composed by the deteriorations of the inhibitions of motor or cognitive programs in basal ganglions provided through cycles of frontal lobe. The findings of clinical observations in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder could be considered as a reflection of excessive work in 'error detection system' which is the cause of the thoughts that something goes wrong and efforts to achieve perfection. As neurobiological, this finding is observed as excessive activity in orbitofrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex representing the ability of humans to provide and detect errors. It is is expected to develop the vehicles that are more sensitive to the characteristics of cognitive deficits in obsessive-compulsive disorder. In addition to the neuropsychological tests, using electrophysiological and advanced functional imaging techniques will put forward a better underlying the physiopathology of this disorder in order to
Full Text Available Not only is compulsive checking the most common symptom in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD with an estimated prevalence of 50-80% in patients, but approximately ∼15% of the general population reveal subclinical checking tendencies that impact negatively on their performance in daily activities. Therefore, it is critical to understand how checking affects attention and memory in clinical as well as subclinical checkers. Eye fixations are commonly used as indicators for the distribution of attention but research in OCD has revealed mixed results at best.Here we report atypical eye movement patterns in subclinical checkers during an ecologically valid working memory (WM manipulation. Our key manipulation was to present an intermediate probe during the delay period of the memory task, explicitly asking for the location of a letter, which, however, had not been part of the encoding set (i.e., misleading participants. Using eye movement measures we now provide evidence that high checkers' inhibitory impairments for misleading information results in them checking the contents of WM in an atypical manner. Checkers fixate more often and for longer when misleading information is presented than non-checkers. Specifically, checkers spend more time checking stimulus locations as well as locations that had actually been empty during encoding.We conclude that these atypical eye movement patterns directly reflect internal checking of memory contents and we discuss the implications of our findings for the interpretation of behavioural and neuropsychological data. In addition our results highlight the importance of ecologically valid methodology for revealing the impact of detrimental attention and memory checking on eye movement patterns.
Nitesh Prakash Painuly
Full Text Available Background: Research on anger attacks has been mostly limited to depression, and only a few studies have focused on anger attacks in obsessive compulsive disorder. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study all new obsessive compulsive disorder patients aged 20-60 years attending an outpatient clinic were assessed using the anger attack questionnaire, irritability, depression and anxiety scale (for the direction of the aggressive behavior and quality of life (QOL. Results: The sample consisted of 42 consecutive subjects with obsessive compulsive disorder, out of which 21 (50% had anger attacks. The obsessive compulsive disorder subjects with and without anger attacks did not show significant differences in terms of sociodemographic variables, duration of illness, treatment, and family history. However, subjects with anger attacks had significantly higher prevalence of panic attacks and comorbid depression. Significantly more subjects with anger attacks exhibited aggressive acts toward spouse, parents, children, and other relatives in the form of yelling and threatening to hurt, trying to hurt, and threatening to leave. However, the two groups did not differ significantly in terms of QOL, except for the psychological domain being worse in the subjects with anger attacks. Conclusion: Anger attacks are present in half of the patients with obsessive compulsive disorder, and they correlate with the presence of comorbid depression.
Bullock, Kim; Koran, Lorrin
No standard treatment exists for the DSM-IV Impulse Control Disorders, Not Elsewhere Classified, including Compulsive Buying Disorder. This paper reviews the suggested pharmacotherapies for this disorder and their theoretical basis. McElroy et al. first reported benefit from antidepressant therapy in three cases of Compulsive Buying Disorder with comorbid depression and anxiety. In a retrospective chart review, McElroy's group reported on 20 patients that benefited from antidepressants, often in combination with mood stabilizers. Lejoyeux reported on two patients in whom treatment of a comorbid mood disorder led to remission of compulsive buying behavior. Black reported fluvoxamine to be effective in patients without comorbid major depression, suggesting that improvement was independent of the treatment of mood symptoms. Kim reported improvement with naltrexone, an opioid antagonist, in a case series. Two double-blind placebo-controlled trials found fluvoxamine no better than placebo; however, in both studies patients kept shopping logs, which may have confounded the results. An open-label trial of citalopram and a double-blind crossover trial which excluded shopping logs both reported positive results. Twelve-month follow-up data for the open-label group found that remission rates at quarterly time points were independent of continuing drug therapy. The data reviewed above suggest that pharmacologic interventions may be effective for compulsive buying disorder. Whether pharmacological treatment is superior to placebo and whether it is more, less or equally effective compared to psychotherapeutic interventions remains to be established. (c) 2003 Prous Science. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Umberto Albert, Alessandra Baffa, Giuseppe Maina Rita Levi Montalcini Department of Neuroscience, A.O.U. San Luigi Gonzaga, University of Turin, Turino, Italy Abstract: The term accommodation has been used to refer to family responses specifically related to obsessive–compulsive (OC symptoms: it encompasses behaviors such as directly participating in compulsions, assisting a relative with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD when he/she is performing a ritual, or helping him/her to avoid triggers that may precipitate obsessions and compulsions. At the opposite side, family responses to OCD may also include interfering with the rituals or actively opposing them; stopping accommodating OC symptoms or actively interfering with their performance is usually associated with greater distress and sometimes even with aggressive behaviors from the patients. This article summarizes progress of the recent research concerning family accommodation in relatives of patients with OCD. Family accommodation is a prevalent phenomenon both among parents of children/adolescents with OCD and relatives/caregivers of adult patients. It can be measured with a specific instrument, the Family Accommodation Scale, of which there are several versions available for use in clinical practice. The vast majority of both parents of children/adolescents with OCD and family members of adult patients show at least some accommodation; providing reassurances to obsessive doubts, participating in rituals and assisting the patient in avoidance are the most frequent accommodating behaviors displayed by family members. Modification of routine and modification of activities specifically due to OC symptoms have been found to be equally prevalent. Specific characteristics of patients (such as contamination/washing symptoms and of relatives (the presence of anxiety or depressive symptoms or a family history positive for another anxiety disorder are associated with a higher degree of family
Tavares, Hermano; Lobo, Daniela Sabbatini S; Fuentes, Daniel; Black, Donald W
Compulsive buying disorder was first described as a psychiatric syndrome in the early twentieth century. Its classification remains elusive, and investigators have debated its potential relationship to mood, substance use, obsessive-compulsive, and impulse control disorders. The objective of this study is to present a review of compulsive buying disorder and present a case vignette. Two databases were reviewed (Medline and PsycINFO) in search for articles published in the last 40 years. Selected terms included oniomania, compulsive buying, and compulsive shopping. Other relevant articles were also identified through reference lists. Compulsive buying disorder is a prevalent and chronic condition that is found worldwide, sharing commonalities with impulse control disorders. In clinical samples, women make up more than 80% of subjects. Its etiology is unknown, but neurobiologic and genetic mechanisms have been proposed. The disorder is highly comorbid with mood, substance use, eating and impulse control disorders. Treatment recommendations derived from the literature and clinical experience suggest that problem shoppers can benefit from psychosocial interventions. Cognitive-behavioral group models appear promising. Medication trials have reported mixed results. The identification and treatment of psychiatric comorbidity is also a key aspect of treatment. In order to determine the validity of compulsive buying disorder, future work should focus on psychopathology and neurobiological findings unique to the syndrome.
Ninan, P T; McElroy, S L; Kane, C P; Knight, B T; Casuto, L S; Rose, S E; Marsteller, F A; Nemeroff, C B
Compulsive buying is a syndrome characterized by the impulsive and/or compulsive buying of unneeded objects that results in personal distress, impairment in vocational or social functioning, and/or financial problems. Results from a two-site, double-blind, placebo-controlled 13-week trial of fluvoxamine are presented. Subjects had problematic buying behavior that they could not control for the previous 6 months or longer and met DSM-IV criteria for impulse control disorder-not otherwise specified (ICD-NOS) and the University of Cincinnati criteria for compulsive buying. Assessments included clinician-rated scales-the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale modified for compulsive buying, the Clinical Global Impression Scale, the Global Assessment of Functioning, and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression-and patient self-reports using daily diaries, which measured episodes of compulsive buying. Forty-two subjects gave informed consent, with 37 subjects providing evaluable information and 23 completing the study. Current or past psychiatric comorbidity was present in 74% of subjects. Intent-to-treat and completer analyses failed to show a significant difference between treatments on any measures of outcome. A high placebo-response rate, possibly from the behavioral benefits of maintaining a daily diary, prevents any definitive statement on the efficacy of fluvoxamine in treating compulsive buying.
Croissant, Bernhard; Klein, Oliver; Löber, Sabine; Mann, Karl
It is unclear what disease entity causes compulsive buying. In ICD-10 and DSM-IV, compulsive buying is classified as "Impulse control disorder--not otherwise classified". Some publications interpret compulsive buying rather as a dependence disorder. We present the case of a male patient with compulsive buying syndrome. We discuss the close relationship to dependence disorders. The patient showed symptoms which would normally be associated with a dependence disorder. On the basis of a wider understanding of the dependency concept, as it is currently being discussed, we believe that the patient has shown a typical buying behavior that has presumably activated a reward loop similar to that of a substance dependency.
Stein, Dan J; Carey, Paul D; Lochner, Christine
INTRODUCTION: There is a substantial body of evidence that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms can be grouped into a series of discrete dimensions, and some evidence that not all OCD symptom dimensions respond equally well to pharmacologic or psychotherapeutic intervention. The response...... of individual Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale items yielded 5 factors (contamination/cleaning, harm/checking, hoarding/symmetry, religious/sexual, and somatic/hypochondriacal). Analyses of covariance including all the subscales demonstrated that escitalopram was more effective than placebo....... There was a significant interaction for the hoarding/symmetry factor, which was associated with a poor treatment response. CONCLUSION: Escitalopram shows good efficacy across the range of OCD symptom dimensions. Nevertheless, hoarding/symmetry was associated with a poorer treatment response. Hoarding/symmetry may...
Weintraub, Daniel; Stewart, Staci; Shea, Judy A.; Lyons, Kelly E.; Pahwa, Rajesh; Driver-Dunckley, Erika D.; Adler, Charles H.; Potenza, Marc N.; Miyasaki, Janis; Siderowf, Andrew D.; Duda, John E.; Hurtig, Howard I.; Colcher, Amy; Horn, Stacy S.; Stern, Matthew B.; Voon, Valerie
Objective As no comprehensive assessment instrument for impulse control disorders (ICDs) in Parkinson’s disease (PD) exists, the aim of this study was to design and assess the psychometric properties of a self-administered screening questionnaire for ICDs and other compulsive behaviors in PD. Methods The Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders in Parkinson’s Disease (QUIP) has 3 sections: Section 1 assesses four ICDs (involving gambling, sexual, buying, and eating behaviors), Section 2 other compulsive behaviors (punding, hobbyism and walkabout), and Section 3 compulsive medication use. For validation, a convenience sample of 157 PD patients at 4 movement disorders centers first completed the QUIP, and then was administered a diagnostic interview by a trained rater blinded to the QUIP results. A shortened instrument (QUIP-S) was then explored. Results The discriminant validity of the QUIP was high for each disorder or behavior (receiver operating characteristic area under the curve [ROC AUC]: gambling=0.95, sexual behavior=0.97, buying=0.87, eating=0.88, punding=0.78, hobbyism=0.93, walkabout=0.79). On post hoc analysis, the QUIP-S ICD section had similar properties (ROC AUC: gambling=0.95, sexual behavior=0.96, buying=0.87, eating=0.88). When disorders/behaviors were combined, the sensitivity of the QUIP and QUIP-S to detect an individual with any disorder was 96% and 94%, respectively. Conclusions Scores on the QUIP appear to be valid as a self-assessment screening instrument for a range of ICDs and other compulsive behaviors that occur in PD, and a shortened version may perform as well as the full version. A positive screen should be followed by a comprehensive, clinical interview to determine the range and severity of symptoms, as well as need for clinical management. PMID:19452562
Schlosser, S; Black, D W; Repertinger, S; Freet, D
Compulsive buying has been generally ignored in the psychiatric literature, although it is apparently frequent, underrecognized, and can lead to severe financial and legal consequences for its sufferers. The current investigation was designed to assess the overall life-style and problems of subjects identified as compulsive shoppers. Forty-six compulsive buyers were assessed for comorbid psychiatric disorders with the Diagnostic Interview Schedule, the Structured Interview for DSM-III-R Personality Disorders, and a semistructured interview to assess buying behavior. The typical shopper was a 31-year-old female who had developed compulsive buying at age 18 years. Subjects spent their money on clothing, shoes, and records/compact discs. The average debt load accrued was $5,422 out of an average yearly income of $23,443. More than two-thirds met lifetime criteria for a major (Axis I) mental disorder, most commonly anxiety, substance abuse, and mood disorders. Nearly 60% were found to meet criteria for a DSM-III-R personality disorder, most commonly the obsessive-compulsive, borderline, and avoidant types. The authors conclude that compulsive buying is a definable clinical syndrome which can cause its sufferers significant distress and is associated with significant psychiatric comorbidity.
Granero, Roser; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Steward, Trevor; Mestre-Bach, Gemma; Baño, Marta; Del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Moragas, Laura; Aymamí, Neus; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; Mallorquí-Bagué, Núria; Tárrega, Salomé; Menchón, José M; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana
Compulsive buying behavior (CBB) has begun to be recognized as a condition worthy of attention by clinicians and researchers. Studies on the commonalities between CBB and other behavioral addictions such as gambling disorder (GD) exist in the literature, but additional research is needed to assess the frequency and clinical relevance of the comorbidity of CBB and GD. The aim of the study was to estimate the point-prevalence of CBB+GD in a clinical setting. Data corresponded to n = 3221 treatment-seeking patients who met criteria for CBB or GD at a public hospital unit specialized in treating behavioral addictions. Three groups were compared: only-CBB (n = 127), only-GD (n = 3118) and comorbid CBB+GD (n = 24). Prevalence for the co-occurrence of CBB+GD was 0.75%. In the stratum of patients with GD, GD+CBB comorbidity obtained relatively low point prevalence (0.77%), while in the subsample of CBB patients the estimated prevalence of comorbid GD was relatively high (18.9%). CBB+GD comorbidity was characterized by lower prevalence of single patients, higher risk of other behavioral addictions (sex, gaming or internet), older age and age of onset. CBB+GD registered a higher proportion of women compared to only-GD (37.5 vs. 10.0%) but a higher proportion of men compared to only-CBB (62.5 vs. 24.4%). Compared to only-GD patients, the simultaneous presence of CBB+GD was associated with increased psychopathology and dysfunctional levels of harm avoidance. This study provides empirical evidence to better understand CBB, GD and their co-occurrence. Future research should help delineate the processes through which people acquire and develop this comorbidity.
Full Text Available Compulsive buying behavior (CBB has begun to be recognized as a condition worthy of attention by clinicians and researchers. Studies on the commonalities between CBB and other behavioral addictions such as gambling disorder (GD exist in the literature, but additional research is needed to assess the frequency and clinical relevance of the comorbidity of CBB and GD. The aim of the study was to estimate the point-prevalence of CBB+GD in a clinical setting. Data corresponded to n=3,221 treatment-seeking patients who met criteria for CBB or GD at a public hospital unit specialized in treating behavioral addictions. Three groups were compared: only-CBB (n=127, only-GD (n=3,118 and comorbid CBB+GD (n=24. Prevalence for the co-occurrence of CBB+GD was 0.75%. In the stratum of patients with GD, GD+CBB comorbidity obtained relatively low point prevalence (0.77%, while in the subsample of CBB patients the estimated prevalence of comorbid GD was relatively high (18.9%. CBB+GD comorbidity was characterized by lower prevalence of single patients, higher risk of other behavioral addictions (sex, gaming or internet, older age and age of onset. CBB+GD registered a higher proportion of women compared to only-GD (37.5% vs. 10.0% but a higher proportion of men compared to only-CBB (62.5% vs. 24.4%. Compared to only-GD patients, the simultaneous presence of CBB+GD was associated with increased psychopathology and dysfunctional levels of harm avoidance. This study provides empirical evidence to better understand CBB, GD and their co-occurrence. Future research should help delineate the processes through which people acquire and develop this comorbidity.
Full Text Available Mia Beck Lichtenstein,1 Cecilie Juul Hinze,2 Bolette Emborg,3 Freja Thomsen,2 Simone Daugaard Hemmingsen4 1Department of Psychology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Southern Denmark, 2Research Unit for Telepsychiatry and E-mental Health, Mental Health Services in the Region of Southern Denmark, Odense, 3Department of Public Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus, 4Research Unit, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Mental Health Services in the Region of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark Abstract: Compulsive exercise is a condition described since 1970s. It is characterized by a craving for physical training, resulting in uncontrollable excessive exercise behavior with harmful consequences, such as injuries and impaired social relations. It has not been accepted as a mental disorder in either International Classification of Diseases or Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. The aim of this literature review was to critically examine the research on links (comorbidity, risks (negative consequences, and challenges faced (problems in a treatment context. This review found that compulsive exercise is associated with eating disorder pathology, perfectionism, neuroticism, narcissism, and obsessive compulsive traits. The most prominent negative consequences were injuries, social impairment, and depression, but more research is needed to uncover the potential dysfunction resulting from compulsive exercise. As the condition is not recognized as a psychiatric disorder, studies on treatment interventions are sparse. Problems with compliance have been reported; therefore, motivational interviewing has been proposed as a treatment approach, in combination with cognitive behavioral therapy. This review summarizes and discusses findings on links/comorbidity, risks/negative consequences, and treatment challenges. We suggest that future studies should pay attention to both prevention and counseling in sports settings, where compulsive exercise
Zadka, Łukasz; Olajossy, Marcin
In spite of a hundred year long history of scientific research compulsive buying has been a hardly known phenomenon until today. Ambiguous scientific information makes it impossible to classify compulsive buying as a separate mental disorder. Recently many researchers have noticed phenomenological compatibility of compulsive buying with behavioural addictions. Nowadays, there is reasonable grounds that compulsive buying disorder can be defined as an addiction. There are many similarities occurring between a consumer type behaviours in compulsive buyers and a pathologic consumption of psychoactive substances which included the obsessive need to consumer or a compulsion to consume, personal dependence and loss of control over self-behaviour, as well as tendencies to the consumption increase. Compulsive buying disorder differs in its course from the compulsive behaviours. A strong compulsion to make a given activity, often impossible to restrain is associated with overwhelming but acceptable desire to purchase a specific item. Due to the latest information about the described phenomenon, it has been decided to present current knowledge of adequate classifications, epidemiology and therapy of compulsive buyers. In the article authors' own standpoint as regards pathogenesis and potential risk factors was described.
Full Text Available Haruka Yamamoto,1 Hideto Tsuchida,1 Takashi Nakamae,1 Seiji Nishida,1 Yuki Sakai,1 Akihito Fujimori,1 Jin Narumoto,1 Yoshihisa Wada,1 Takafumi Yoshida,2 Chiaki Taga,3 Kenji Fukui11Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan; 2Kyoto Cognitive Behavior Therapy Counseling Room, Kyoto, Japan; 3Department of Psychiatry, Kyoto Second Red Cross Hospital, Kyoto, JapanPurpose: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD patients exhibit a noninhibition response pattern very similar to that observed in schizotypy patients in cognitive tasks. It has been suggested that the reduced cognitive inhibition observed in both schizotypy and OCD may result in the frequent entry into awareness of unacceptable urges and intrusive thoughts. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the severity of obsession or compulsion and schizotypy in OCD.Patients and methods: Sixty subjects (25 males and 35 females who were OCD outpatients in the University Hospital at the Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine during the period 2008–2010 were enrolled in the study. Assessments of these patients were made using the Yale–Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS, the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D, and the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A. The Pearson correlation coefficients between Y-BOCS and SPQ scores were calculated. Furthermore, hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to assess whether schizotypy predicted the severity of obsession and compulsion.Results: By calculating the Pearson correlation coefficient, it was found that the Y-BOCS obsession score, not the Y-BOCS compulsion score, was correlated with the SPQ total score. Results of the hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis showed that SPQ total score was a significant predictor of the Y-BOCS obsession score, after accounting for control
Full Text Available Abstract Background H. Szechtman and E. Woody (2004 hypothesized that obsessive-compulsive disorder results from a deficit in the feeling of knowing that normally terminates thoughts or actions elicited by security motivation. To test the plausibility of this proposed mechanism, an experiment was conducted to produce an analog of washing in obsessive-compulsive disorder by eliciting a scenario of potential harm and using hypnosis to block changes in internally generated feelings that would normally occur during washing. Results Participants reacted with increased disgust, anxiety, and heart rate to their mental images of contamination and potential danger. As predicted, high but not low hypnotizable participants showed a significant prolongation of washing when change in feelings during washing was blocked hypnotically. Conclusion Results show that blocking the affective signal that is normally generated during security-related behaviors, such as washing, leads to prolonged performance of these behaviors. This finding lends support to the plausibility of the proposed model of obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Horvath, C.; Adiguzel, F.; van Herk, H.
Although several studies focused on understanding of compulsive buying in developed countries, this phenomenon remains understudied in other parts of the world. This is rather surprising since there is an increasing interest in understanding shopping behavior of consumers in emergent markets due to
Bez, Yasin; Yesilova, Yavuz; Arı, Mustafa; Kaya, Mehmet Cemal; Alpak, Gokay; Bulut, Mahmut
Acne is one of the most common dermatological diseases, and obsessive compulsive disorder is among the most frequent psychiatric conditions seen in dermatology clinics. Comorbidity of these conditions may therefore be expected. The aim of this study was to measure obsessive compulsive symptoms and quality of life in patients with acne vulgaris, compare them with those of healthy control subjects, and determine whether there is any predictive value of obsessive compulsive symptoms for quality of life in patients with acne. Obsessive compulsive symptoms and quality of life measurements of 146 patients with acne vulgaris and 94 healthy control subjects were made using the Maudsley Obsessive Compulsive Questionnaire and Short Form-36 in a cross-sectional design. Patients with acne vulgaris had lower scores for physical functioning, physical role dysfunction, general health perception, vitality, and emotional role dysfunction. They also had higher scores for checking, slowness, and rumination. The only predictor of physical functioning and vitality dimensions of health-related quality of life in these patients was rumination score. Obsessive compulsive symptoms in patients with acne vulgaris are higher than in controls, and this may correlate with both disease severity and quality of life for patients.
Full Text Available We previously showed that working memory performance of subclinical checkers can be affected if they are presented with irrelevant but misleading information during the retention period (Harkin & Kessler, 2009, 2010. The present study differed from our previous research in the three crucial aspects. Firstly, we employed ecologically valid stimuli in form of electrical kitchen appliances on a kitchen countertop in order to address previous criticism of our stimuli in terms of validity with respect to compulsive checking symptomatology. Secondly, we tested whether the new stimuli would allow us to employ a simpler (un-blocked design while obtaining similarly robust results. Thirdly, in Experiment 2 we improved the measure of confidence as a metacognitive variable by using a quantitative scale (0-100, which indeed revealed more robust effects that were quantitatively related to accuracy of performance. The task in the present study was to memorise four appliances, incl. their states (on/off, and their locations on the kitchen countertop. Memory accuracy was tested for the states of appliances in Experiment 1, and for their locations in Experiment 2. Intermediate probes were identical in both Experiments and were administered during retention on 2/3 of the trials with 50% resolvable and 50% misleading probes. Experiment 1 revealed a general impairment of high checkers, which confirmed the efficacy of our stimuli. In Experiment 2 we observed the expected, more differentiated pattern: High checkers were not generally affected in their WM performance (i.e., no general capacity issue; instead they showed a particular impairment in the misleading distractor-probe condition. Also, high checkers’ confidence ratings were indicative of a general impairment in metacognitive functioning.
Ernst, H; Klosinski, G
In a retrospective study the patient histories of 113 children and adolescents who received outpatient (89 cases) or inpatient (24 cases) treatment from 1973 to 1984 in the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University of Tübingen with the diagnosis "compulsive neurosis" were examined in terms of the criteria personality development, family structure, frequency of certain forms and contents of compulsory behavior, significance and symbolism of the compulsive behavior within the family dynamics. In addition, a comparison was made with the other patients (n = 8,774) receiving child and adolescent psychiatric treatment during this period. The ratio of boys to girls was 7.3. The average age was 13.8 years in the boys and 12.6 years in the girls. The youngest patient was four years old. Compulsive washing was the predominant compulsive behavior in all age groups. Compulsive fears were most frequently manifested in fears about the mother, followed by poisoning and hypochondriac fears. Compulsive impulses were only found from prepuberty. In the girls they were always directed to killing the mother. The analysis of personality development revealed that there were indications of special features in the anal phase in only three cases. On the other hand, special events of pathoplastic significance were found in half of the patients. In about 33%, anancastic characteristics were present in the parents (eight parents were manifestly subject to compulsive neurosis). Conflict avoidance and ambitious demands on the children concerned were typical in the families. In contrast to the reference population, the compulsively neurotic children and adolescents were of average intelligence, frequently attended higher schools and belonged to a higher social class.
Pinto, Joana; Carvalho, Joana; Nobre, Pedro J
Several studies have advocated a relationship between psychopathological features and sexual compulsivity. Such relationship is often found among individuals seeking help for out of control sexual behavior, suggesting that the association between psychological adjustment and sexual compulsivity may have a significant clinical value. However, a more complete approach to the topic of sexual compulsivity would also include the analysis of nonclinical samples as healthy individuals may be at risk of developing some features of hypersexuality in the future. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between stable traits of personality, state psychopathology, and sexual compulsivity in a sample of male college students. Furthermore, the potential mediating role of state psychopathology in the relationship between personality traits and sexual compulsivity was tested. Participants completed the following measures: the NEO Five-Factor Inventory, the Brief Symptom Inventory, and the Compulsive Sexual Behavior Inventory-22. The sample included 152 male college students recruited in a Portuguese university using nonrandom methods. The measures were completed individually and anonymously. Findings on state psychopathology suggested that psychoticism may be one of the key dimensions associated with sexual compulsivity in male students. The personality traits of Neuroticism and Agreeableness were also significant predictors of sexual compulsivity. Findings on the mediating effects suggested that state psychopathology mediated the relationship between Neuroticism and sexual compulsivity but not between Agreeableness and sexual compulsivity. A psychopathological path (encompassing Neuroticism and state psychopathology) and a behavioral path (encompassing Agreeableness features) may be involved in sexual compulsivity as reported by a nonclinical sample of male students. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.
Sutor, Bruce; Hansen, Mark R.; Black, John L.
In this case series we report four cases of patients with Down syndrome with symptoms consistent with obsessive compulsive disorder. Each patient experienced substantial reduction in compulsive behaviors with pharmacotherapy of an SSRI alone or with the addition of risperidone to SSRI therapy. None of the patients experienced significant side…
This Short Cut tells you about tools that will improve the quality of your Java code, using checking above and beyond what the standard tools do, including: Using javac options, JUnit and assertions Making your IDE work harder Checking your source code with PMD Checking your compiled code (.class files) with FindBugs Checking your program's run-time behavior with Java PathFinder
Mueller, Astrid; Mueller, Ulrike; Albert, Patricia; Mertens, Christian; Silbermann, Andrea; Mitchell, James E; de Zwaan, Martina
Previous research has indicated that many compulsive buyers also suffer from compulsive hoarding. The present work specifically examined hoarding in a compulsive buying sample. Sixty-six treatment-seeking compulsive buyers were assessed prior to entering a group therapy for compulsive buying using the Compulsive Buying Scale (CBS), the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS)-Shopping Version, the Compulsive Acquisition Scale (CAS), the German-CBS, the Saving Inventory-Revised (SI-R), the Maudsley Obsessive Compulsive Inventory (MOCI), the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I (SCID). Inclusion criteria were current problems with compulsive buying according to the proposed diagnostic criteria for compulsive buying by McElroy, Keck, Pope, Smith, and Strakowski [(1994). Compulsive buying: A report of 20 cases. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 55, 242-248]. Our results support the assumption that many but not all compulsive buyers suffer from compulsive hoarding. A significant association between the SI-R and the compulsive buying measures CBS, Y-BOCS-SV, German-CBS, and the CAS-Buy subscale was found, which is mostly caused by the SI-R subscale acquisition. The SI-R subscales clutter and difficulty discarding were more closely associated with the CAS-Free subscale and with obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Hoarding compulsive buyers reported more severe buying symptoms and obsessive-compulsive symptoms and presented with a higher psychiatric co-morbidity, especially any current affective, anxiety and eating disorder. Specific therapeutic interventions for compulsive buyers who also report compulsive hoarding appear indicated.
Wolmarans, De Wet; Stein, Dan J; Harvey, Brian H
Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a heterogeneous and debilitating condition, characterized by intrusive thoughts and compulsive repetition. Animal models of OCD are important tools that have the potential to contribute significantly to our understanding of the condition. Although there is consensus that pre-clinical models are valuable in elucidating the underlying neurobiology in psychiatric disorders, the current paper attempts to prompt ideas on how interpretation of animal behavior can be expanded upon to more effectively converge with the human disorder. Successful outcomes in psychopharmacology involves rational design and synthesis of novel compounds and their testing in well-designed animal models. As part of a special journal issue on OCD, this paper will 1) review the psycho-behavioral aspects of OCD that are of importance on how the above ideas can be articulated, 2) briefly elaborate on general issues that are important for the development of animal models of OCD, with a particular focus on the role and importance of context, 3) propose why translational progress may often be less than ideal, 4) highlight some of the significant contributions afforded by animal models to advance understanding, and 5) conclude by identifying novel behavioral constructs for future investigations that may contribute to the face, predictive and construct validity of OCD animal models. We base these targets on an integrative approach to face and construct validity, and note that the issue of treatment-resistance in the clinical context should receive attention in current animal models of OCD. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at email@example.com.
... who gamble compulsively often have substance abuse problems, personality disorders, depression or anxiety. Compulsive gambling may also be ... gambling problem, educational programs that target individuals and groups at increased risk may be helpful. If you ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT is widely regarded as an effective treatment for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD, but access to CBT therapists is limited. Internet-based CBT (ICBT with therapist support is a way to increase access to CBT but has not been developed or tested for OCD. The aim of this study was to evaluate ICBT for OCD. Method An open trial where patients (N = 23 received a 15-week ICBT program with therapist support consisting of psychoeducation, cognitive restructuring and exposure with response prevention. The primary outcome was the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS, which was assessed by a psychiatrist before and immediately after treatment. Secondary outcomes were self-rated measures of OCD symptoms, depressive symptoms, general functioning, anxiety and quality of life. All assessments were made at baseline and post-treatment. Results All participants completed the primary outcome measure at all assessment points. There were reductions in OCD symptoms with a large within-group effect size (Cohen's d = 1.56. At post-treatment, 61% of participants had a clinically significant improvement and 43% no longer fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of OCD. The treatment also resulted in statistically significant improvements in self-rated OCD symptoms, general functioning and depression. Conclusions ICBT with therapist support reduces OCD symptoms, depressive symptoms and improves general functioning. Randomized trials are needed to confirm the effectiveness of this new treatment format. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01348529
This study examined attitudinal and behavioral differences between internal and external locus of control (LOC) consumers on credit card misuse, the importance of money, and compulsive buying. Using multiple analysis of variance and separate analyses of variance, internal LOC consumers were found to have lower scores on credit card misuse and…
Schwartz, Deborah C; Nickow, Marcia S; Arseneau, Ric; Gisslow, Mary T
Obesity has proven difficult to treat. Many approaches neglect to address the deep-rooted underlying psychological issues. This paper describes a psychodynamically oriented approach to treating compulsive overeating as an addiction. Common to all addictions is a compulsion to consume a substance or engage in a behavior, a preoccupation with using behavior and rituals, and a lifestyle marked by an inability to manage the behavior and its harmful consequences. The approach represents a shift away from primarily medical models of intervention to integrated models focusing on the psychological underpinnings of obesity. Long-term psychodynamic group psychotherapy is recommended as a primary treatment.
N. V. Fedorova
Full Text Available Objective – a description of clinical cases of impulsivecompulsive disorders in Parkinson,s disease. The first clinical case. Patient N., 75 years old, suffering for 15 years from Parkinson,s disease, akineticrigid form of the disease, stage 4 by Hyun–Yar. Since 2009, he received levodopa/carbidopa 250/25 mg 5 times/day (daily dose of 1250 mg of levodopa; pramipexole 3.5 mg per day (daily dose 3.5 mg, amantadine sulfate 100 mg 5 times/day (daily dose 500 mg. While taking antiparkinsonian drugs the patient developed behavioral disorders such as dopamine disregulatory syndrome combined with punding, hypersexuality and compulsive shopping accompanied by visual hallucinations. The total equivalent dose of levodopa was 1600 mg per day. The second clinical case. Patient R., 52 years old, suffers from Parkinson,s disease about 5 years, a mixed form. She complained of slowness of movement, tremor in her left hand, sleep disturbances, poor mood. The clinic was appointed piribedil 50 mg 3 times per day. Despite the fact that the patient took only one of dopaminergic drugs in a therapeutic daily dose, she developed impulsivecompulsive disorder as hyper sexuality, compulsive shopping and binge eating. Results. In the first clinical case for correction of behavioral disorders in patients with Parkinson,s disease levodopa/carbidopa dose was reduced to 750 mg per day (3/4 Tab. 4 times a day; added to levodopa/benserazide dispersible 100 mg morning and levodopa/benserazide 100 mg before sleep (total dose of levodopa of 950 mg per day. Amantadine sulfate and pramipexole were canceled. It was added to the therapy of atypical neuroleptic clozapine dose 6,25 mg overnight. After 3 months marked improvement, regressed visual hallucina tions, improved family relationships, background mood became more stable. The patient continue to sing karaoke, but this hobby has be come less intrusive. In the second clinical event correction impulsivecompulsive
Lawrence, Lee Matthew; Ciorciari, Joseph; Kyrios, Michael
Compulsive buying has been associated with addiction, depression, and obsessive-compulsive disorder, as well as hoarding. The present study investigated the relationship that compulsive buying (CB) has with 'addictive' (i.e., sensitivity to reward), obsessive-compulsive, and depressive phenomena, after controlling for hoarding, substance dependence, manic, and Borderline Personality Disorder symptoms. 87 participants from a community population completed the online questionnaires for the study, however 70 participants (M=29.19, SD=10.45; 70% were female) were used in the analyses because of exclusion criteria. As expected, CB measures correlated with hoarding, depression, sensitivity to reward, and, but less so, obsessive-compulsive measures. Sensitivity to reward was the most important predictor of CB severity, compared to obsessive-compulsive and depression symptoms. Hoarding was also an important predictor of CB severity. Small sample size meant gender comparisons could not be made, and the use of a novel, communicated questionnaire meant that interpretation should be considered conservatively. Overall, findings suggest that CB may be most closely related to the phenomena associated with addiction (an increased sensitivity to reward), rather than obsessive-compulsive or depression symptoms. Hoarding and reward sensitivity perhaps might separate compulsive buying from ordinary and recreational shopping. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Black, Emma B; Mildred, Helen
Non-suicidal self-injury has been classed as having both impulsive and compulsive characteristics (Simeon & Favazza, 2001). These constructs have been related to disordered eating behaviors such as vomiting (Favaro & Santonastaso, 1998). Utilizing an international sample of adult females, this paper further explored this model, aiming to identify whether all types of disordered eating could be classified as impulsive or compulsive, and whether the impulsive and compulsive groupings reflect underlying trait impulsivity and compulsivity. The hypothesized impulsive and compulsive dimensions did not emerge from the data. Notably however, all self-injurious and disordered eating behaviors were linked to Urgency (an impulsivity facet) to varying degrees; no relationship with trait compulsivity was found. These findings are discussed, study limitations are noted, and relevance for clinical practice is outlined.
Hoekstra, PJ; Steenhuis, MP; Troost, PW; Korf, J; Kallenberg, CGM; Minderaa, RB
The aim of this study was to investigate social and behavioral problems related to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessions and compulsions, and tic severity in children with a tic disorder. Parents of 58 children with a tic disorder with and without different forms of ADHD
Full Text Available Objective: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD is characterized by anxiety-provoking, obsessive thoughts (i.e., obsessions which patients react to with compulsive behaviors (i.e., compulsions. Due to the transient feeling of relief following the reduction of obsession-induced anxiety, compulsions are often described as relieving or even rewarding. Several studies investigated functional activation during reward processing in OCD, but findings are heterogeneous up to now and little is known about potential alterations in functional connectivity.Method: Against this background we studied OCD patients (n = 44 and healthy controls (n = 37 during the receipt of monetary reward by assessing both activation and functional connectivity.Results: Patients showed a decreased activation in several frontal regions and the posterior cingulate (PCC, BA31 together with a stronger connectivity between the PCC and the vmPFC (BA10.Conclusion: Present findings demonstrate an increased connectivity in patients within major nodes of the default mode network (DMN—a network known to be involved in the evaluation of internal mental states. These results may indicate an increased activity of internal, self-related processing at the expense of a normal responsiveness toward external rewards and incentives. This, in turn, may explain the constant urge for additional reinforcement and patients' inability to inhibit their compulsive behaviors.
Yousefichaijan, Parsa; Khosrobeigi, Ali; Salehi, Bahman; Taherahmadi, Hassan; Shariatmadari, Fakhreddin; Ghandi, Yazdan; Alinejad, Saeed; Farhadiruzbahani, Fateme
Introduction: Enuresis is defined as the repeated voiding of urine into clothes or bed at least twice a week for at least 3 consecutive months in a child who is at least 5 years of age. The behavior is not due exclusively to the direct physiologic effect of a substance or a general medical condition. Diurnal enuresis defines wetting, whereas awake and nocturnal enuresis refers to voiding during sleep. Primary enuresis occurs in children who have never been consistently dry through the night, whereas secondary enuresis refers the resumption of wetting after at least 6 months of dryness. Monosymptomatic enuresis has no associated daytime symptoms, and nonmonosymptomatic enuresis, which is more common, often has at least one subtle daytime symptom. Monosymptomatic enuresis is rarely associated with significant organic underlying abnormalities. Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic disabling illness characterized by repetitive, ritualistic behaviors over which the patients have little or no control. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between OCD and nonmonosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (NMNE). Materials and Methods: In this case–control study, we evaluated 186 children aged 6–17 years old who were visited in the pediatric clinics of Amir Kabir Hospital, Arak, Iran. The control group included 93 healthy children, and the case group included 93 age- and sex-matched children with stage 1–3 chronic kidney disease (CKD). Then, the children's behavioral status was evaluated using the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive–Compulsive Scale. Results: The difference in compulsion was significant (P = 0.021), whereas the difference in obsession was significant between the two groups (P = 0.013). The most common symptom in CKD children with compulsion was silent repetition of words. Conclusion: Compulsive and obsessive are more common in NMNE versus healthy children. The observed correlation between compulsive-obsessive and NMNE makes
Yousefichaijan, Parsa; Khosrobeigi, Ali; Salehi, Bahman; Taherahmadi, Hassan; Shariatmadari, Fakhreddin; Ghandi, Yazdan; Alinejad, Saeed; Farhadiruzbahani, Fateme
Enuresis is defined as the repeated voiding of urine into clothes or bed at least twice a week for at least 3 consecutive months in a child who is at least 5 years of age. The behavior is not due exclusively to the direct physiologic effect of a substance or a general medical condition. Diurnal enuresis defines wetting, whereas awake and nocturnal enuresis refers to voiding during sleep. Primary enuresis occurs in children who have never been consistently dry through the night, whereas secondary enuresis refers the resumption of wetting after at least 6 months of dryness. Monosymptomatic enuresis has no associated daytime symptoms, and nonmonosymptomatic enuresis, which is more common, often has at least one subtle daytime symptom. Monosymptomatic enuresis is rarely associated with significant organic underlying abnormalities. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic disabling illness characterized by repetitive, ritualistic behaviors over which the patients have little or no control. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between OCD and nonmonosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (NMNE). In this case-control study, we evaluated 186 children aged 6-17 years old who were visited in the pediatric clinics of Amir Kabir Hospital, Arak, Iran. The control group included 93 healthy children, and the case group included 93 age- and sex-matched children with stage 1-3 chronic kidney disease (CKD). Then, the children's behavioral status was evaluated using the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale. The difference in compulsion was significant ( P = 0.021), whereas the difference in obsession was significant between the two groups ( P = 0.013). The most common symptom in CKD children with compulsion was silent repetition of words. Compulsive and obsessive are more common in NMNE versus healthy children. The observed correlation between compulsive-obsessive and NMNE makes psychological counseling mandatory in children with NMNE.
Fineberg, Naomi A; Sharma, Punita; Sivakumaran, Thanusha; Sahakian, Barbara; Chamberlain, Sam R; Chamberlain, Sam
It has been proposed that certain Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition Axis I disorders share overlapping clinical features, genetic contributions, and treatment response and fall within an "obsessive-compulsive" spectrum. Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) resembles obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and other spectrum disorders in terms of phenomenology, comorbidity, neurocognition, and treatment response. This article critically examines the nosological profile of OCPD with special reference to OCD and related disorders. By viewing OCPD as a candidate member of the obsessive-compulsive spectrum, we gain a fresh approach to understanding its neurobiology, etiology, and potential treatments.
van Rooij, Antonius J; Schoenmakers, Tim M; van de Eijnden, Regina J J M; van de Mheen, Dike
Increasing research on Internet addiction makes it necessary to distinguish between the medium of Internet and its specific applications. This study explores the relationship between time spent on various Internet applications (including online gaming) and Compulsive Internet Use in a large sample of adolescents. The 2007 (N=4,920) and 2008 (N=4,753) samples of a longitudinal survey study among adolescents were used, as well as the 2007-2008 cohort subsample (N=1421). Compulsive Internet Use was predicted from the time spent on the various Internet applications in two cross-sectional multiple linear regression models and one longitudinal regression model in which changes in behavior were related to changes in Compulsive Internet Use. In both samples, downloading, social networking, MSN use, Habbo Hotel, chatting, blogging, online games, and casual games were shown to be associated with Compulsive Internet Use. Off these, online gaming was shown to have the strongest association with Compulsive Internet Use. Moreover, changes in online gaming were most strongly associated with changes in Compulsive Internet Use over time for the longitudinal cohort. A clear relationship was shown between online gaming and Compulsive Internet Use. It is further argued that a subgroup of compulsive Internet users should be classified as compulsive online gamers. Copyright (c) 2010 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Łukasz Zadka; Marcin Olajossy
In spite of a hundred year long history of scientific research compulsive buying has been a hardly known phenomenon until today. Ambiguous scientific information makes it impossible to classify compulsive buying as a separate mental disorder. Recently many researchers have noticed phenomenological compatibility of compulsive buying with behavioural addictions. Nowadays, there is reasonable grounds that compulsive buying disorder can be defined as an addiction. There are many similarities occu...
Viswanath, Biju; Narayanaswamy, Janardhanan C; Rajkumar, Ravi Philip; Cherian, Anish V; Kandavel, Thennarasu; Math, Suresh Bada; Reddy, Y C Janardhan
The identification of distinct subtypes based on comorbidity offers potential utility in understanding variations in the clinical expression of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Hence, we examined the hypothesis whether patients with OCD with major depressive disorder (MDD) or anxiety disorder comorbidity would differ from those without in terms of phenomenology. A total of 545 consecutive patients who consulted a specialty OCD clinic during the period 2004 to 2009 at a psychiatric hospital in India formed the sample. They were evaluated with the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (YBOCS), the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, and the Clinical Global Impression scale. Among 545 patients, 165 (30%) had current MDD, and 114 (21%) had current anxiety disorder comorbidity. Patients with OCD with MDD were mostly women who had a greater severity of OCD symptoms, more of obsessions (especially religious), greater occurrence of miscellaneous compulsions (need to confess or need to touch), higher suicidal risk, and past suicidal attempts. Patients with OCD with anxiety disorder had an earlier onset of illness that was associated with prior life events, less of compulsions, more of aggressive and hoarding obsessions, pathologic doubts, checking, and cognitive compulsions. Obsessive-compulsive disorder, when comorbid with MDD, is more severe and is associated with higher suicidal risk. On the other hand, anxiety disorder comorbidity seems to influence not so much the morbidity but the phenotypic expression of OCD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
While attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive compulsive disorder have been shown to have major impacts on quality of life in individuals with Tourette syndrome, there is comparatively little data on how the presence of these comorbidities influence tic severity and treatment. 114 children (mean age 10.25 years) were extensively clinically phenotyped at a single specialty clinic. While there was no difference in Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS) scores in children with versus without ADHD, children with obsessive compulsive behaviors had significantly higher YGTSS scores (p = 0.008). There was a significant correlation between YGTSS scores and age (r = 0.344, p tics within the first two years of diagnosis (OR 3.51, p = 0.009). As tic severity does not appear to be greater in children with ADHD, this association may relate to greater overall psychosocial impairment in children with this comorbidity.
Basyouni, Sawzan S.
The present study is an attempt to investigate the effectiveness of a selective advising program in reducing the degree of Compulsive Buying Behavior among female students, Faculty of Education at Umm al-Qura University. The sample consisted of (200) female students to verify the validity and reliability of the tool. The quasi-experimental method…
Lejoyeux, Michel; Mathieu, Karine; Embouazza, Houcine; Huet, Françoise; Lequen, Valérie
Compulsive buying is defined by the presence of repetitive impulsive and excessive buying, leading to personal and family distress. The objective of this study is to assess the prevalence of compulsive buying among "normal consumers" and to describe the specificities in the buying style of compulsive buyers. We tried to answer several questions. (1) Does compulsive buying occur more often during sales or periods of sales campaigns? (2) Is compulsive buying more impulsive and unplanned than normal buying? (3) Are compulsive buyers more "affectively" involved in their purchases (preference for specific brands they have a narcissistic relationship with, tendency to consider purchases as exceptional special occasions)? (4)Do women who buy compulsively use shopping Web sites and the Internet in general more than controls? We interviewed 200 women successively entering Les Galeries Lafayette, a famous Parisian department store. We diagnosed compulsive buying with standardized criteria and a specific rating scale. All subjects answered an additional questionnaire assessing their buying behavior. We also rated their duration of connection to the Web, the number of e-mails sent and received, and the time spent speaking on a cellular phone. Prevalence of compulsive buying was 32.5%. The proportion of married women was lower among compulsive buyers (66%) than in controls (85%). Compulsive buyers do not seek sales more than controls. Their decision to buy is more often made during their stay in the shop (48% vs 24%, chi(2) = 117, P vs 23.1%, P = .006). They have a higher tendency to use items less than expected (23.4% vs 14.4% in the control group, P vs 2.5%, P = .04) and consider more often their purchases as personally gratifying (44% vs 23%, P online shopping sites are longer and more frequent. They spend significantly more time than controls speaking on their cellular phones.
Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Aardema, A
Cognitive distortions and beliefs have been found to be associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Most of these cognitive distortions are supposed to be non-specifically related to obsessive-compulsive behaviour in general, rather than specific domains of beliefs being related to specific forms
Blain, Leah M.; Muench, Fred; Morgenstern, Jon; Parsons, Jeffrey T.
Objectives: Compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) is an impairing yet understudied clinical phenomenon. The experience of child sexual abuse (CSA) has been implicated as an etiological factor in the development of some cases of CSB (Kuzma & Black, 2008); however, research regarding the role of CSA and related psychopathology in CSB symptomatology has…
Hinds, Andrea L; Woody, Erik Z; Schmidt, Louis A; Van Ameringen, Michael; Szechtman, Henry
In previous experiments, OCD washers did not differ significantly from controls in their initial level of activation in response to the potential threat of contamination; however, they were less able to reduce their activation by engaging in hand-washing, suggesting that the key problem in OCD is a faulty stopping mechanism. The main objectives of the present experiments were to develop a similar experimental paradigm for investigating checking behavior, and to use it to test the hypothesis that a faulty stopping mechanism also underlies OCD checking. Participants sorted pills under the guise of beta testing a new medication system and then were given suggestions of the possibility of having made mistakes with potentially serious consequences. Later, participants engaged in a 90-s checking period and an unlimited period of checking. At baseline and three other times during the experiment, security motivation was measured with respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and subjective ratings of confidence. Experiment 1 established the parameters of the paradigm in non-patient participants, and Experiment 2 contrasted OCD checkers with OCD washers and non-patients. Results for both subjective and physiological measures of security motivation closely replicated previous findings for washing behavior. Groups did not differ significantly in initial activation, but the OCD checkers were unable to reduce their activation by engaging in period of checking that was ample for returning controls to baseline. The sample size for the patient groups was modest. These results lend further support to the security-motivation theory of OCD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Despite the recognition that compulsive buyers are not one homogenous group, there is a dearth of theory-guided empirical investigation. Furthermore, although compulsivity and impulsivity are used as major psychiatric criteria for diagnosing compulsive buyers, these dimensions have rarely been considered in assessing the heterogeneity issue. We fill this gap by applying the motivation shift model of addiction to compulsive buying and empirically assessing the heterogeneity issue in the bi-dimensional space represented by the buying impulsivity and compulsivity dimensions. These hypotheses were tested with latent profile analysis based on survey data (N=445). Consistent with the hypothesis, we identified the cluster of buyers with high buying compulsivity and impulsivity ("compulsive-impulsive buyers"), the cluster of buyers with low buying compulsivity and high impulsivity ("impulsive excessive buyers"), and the cluster of ordinary buyers. Furthermore, it was found that disparate clusters of buyers exhibit unique dispositional tendencies. Theoretical contributions and policy implications of the findings are discussed as well. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Radomsky, Adam S.; Shafran, Roz; Coughtrey, A. E.; Rachman, S.
There is substantial evidence for the effectiveness of psychological treatments for OCD, and various approaches have been widely recommended. These approaches tend to be characterized by exposure and response prevention (ERP) and also tend to be applied equally to all forms of OCD. Patients/clients (and some therapists) often find ERP to be a…
Ramsøy, Thomas Zöega; Zuraigat, Farah Qureshi; Jacobsen, Catrine
Compulsive buying disorder (CBD) is noted by an obsession with shopping and a chronic, repetitive purchasing behavior with adverse consequences for the sufferer and their social surroundings. While CBD is often classified as an impulse control disorder (ICD), little is still known about the actua......, products of interest (e.g. fashion items) produce bottom-up emotional responses that skews the decision-making process, leading CBD sufferers to make bad purchase decisions.......Compulsive buying disorder (CBD) is noted by an obsession with shopping and a chronic, repetitive purchasing behavior with adverse consequences for the sufferer and their social surroundings. While CBD is often classified as an impulse control disorder (ICD), little is still known about the actual...
Black, Donald W
Compulsive buying disorder (CBD) is characterized by excessive shopping cognitions and buying behavior that leads to distress or impairment. Found worldwide, the disorder has a lifetime prevalence of 5.8% in the US general population. Most subjects studied clinically are women (~80%), though this gender difference may be artifactual. Subjects with CBD report a preoccupation with shopping, prepurchase tension or anxiety, and a sense of relief following the purchase. CBD is associated with significant psychiatric comorbidity, particularly mood and anxiety disorders, substance use disorders, eating disorders, and other disorders of impulse control. The majority of persons with CBD appear to meet criteria for an Axis II disorder, although there is no special "shopping" personality. Compulsive shopping tends to run in families, and these families are filled with mood and substance use disorders. There are no standard treatments. Psychopharmacologic treatment studies are being actively pursued, and group cognitive-behavioral models have been developed and are promising. Debtors Anonymous, simplicity circles, bibliotherapy, financial counseling, and marital therapy may also play a role in the management of CBD.
Pinto, Paula Sanders Pereira; Iego, Sandro; Nunes, Samantha; Menezes, Hemanny; Mastrorosa, Rosana Sávio; Oliveira, Irismar Reis de; Rosário, Maria Conceição do
This study investigates obsessive-compulsive disorder patients in terms of strategic planning and its association with specific obsessive-compulsive symptom dimensions. We evaluated 32 obsessive-compulsive disorder patients. Strategic planning was assessed by the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test, and the obsessive-compulsive dimensions were assessed by the Dimensional Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale. In the statistical analyses, the level of significance was set at 5%. We employed linear regression, including age, intelligence quotient, number of comorbidities, the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale score, and the Dimensional Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale. The Dimensional Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale "worst-ever" score correlated significantly with the planning score on the copy portion of the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (r = 0.4, p = 0.04) and was the only variable to show a significant association after linear regression (β = 0.55, t = 2.1, p = 0.04). Compulsive hoarding correlated positively with strategic planning (r = 0.44, p = 0.03). None of the remaining symptom dimensions presented any significant correlations with strategic planning. We found the severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms to be associated with strategic planning. In addition, there was a significant positive association between the planning score on the copy portion of the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test copy score and the hoarding dimension score on the Dimensional Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale. Our results underscore the idea that obsessive-compulsive disorder is a heterogeneous disorder and suggest that the hoarding dimension has a specific neuropsychological profile. Therefore, it is important to assess the peculiarities of each obsessive-compulsive symptom dimension.
Cain, Nicole M.; Ansell, Emily B.; Simpson, H. Blair; Pinto, Anthony
The core symptoms of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) often lead to interpersonal difficulties. However, little research has explored interpersonal functioning in OCPD. The current study examined interpersonal problems, interpersonal sensitivities, empathy, and systemizing, the drive to analyze and derive underlying rules for systems, in a sample of 25 OCPD individuals, 25 individuals with comorbid OCPD and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and 25 healthy controls. We found that OCPD individuals reported hostile-dominant interpersonal problems and sensitivities with warm-dominant behavior by others while OCPD+OCD individuals reported submissive interpersonal problems and sensitivities with warm-submissive behavior by others. Individuals with OCPD, with and without OCD, reported less empathic perspective taking relative to healthy controls. Finally, we found that OCPD males reported a higher drive to analyze and derive rules for systems than OCPD females. Overall, results suggest that there are interpersonal deficits associated with OCPD and the clinical implications of these deficits are discussed. PMID:25046040
Cain, Nicole M; Ansell, Emily B; Simpson, H Blair; Pinto, Anthony
The core symptoms of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) often lead to interpersonal difficulties. However, little research has explored interpersonal functioning in OCPD. This study examined interpersonal problems, interpersonal sensitivities, empathy, and systemizing, the drive to analyze and derive underlying rules for systems, in a sample of 25 OCPD individuals, 25 individuals with comorbid OCPD and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and 25 healthy controls. We found that OCPD individuals reported hostile-dominant interpersonal problems and sensitivities with warm-dominant behavior by others, whereas OCPD+OCD individuals reported submissive interpersonal problems and sensitivities with warm-submissive behavior by others. Individuals with OCPD, with and without OCD, reported less empathic perspective taking relative to healthy controls. Finally, we found that OCPD males reported a higher drive to analyze and derive rules for systems than OCPD females. Overall, results suggest that there are interpersonal deficits associated with OCPD and the clinical implications of these deficits are discussed.
Leite, Priscilla Lourenço; Filomensky, Tatiana Zambrano; Black, Donald W; Silva, Adriana Cardoso
The Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale-Shopping Version (YBOCS-SV) is considered the gold standard in the assessment of shopping severity. It is designed to assess cognitions and behaviors relating to compulsive buying behavior. The present study aims to assess the validity of the Brazilian version of this scale. For the study, composed the sample 610 participants: 588 subjects of a general population and 22 compulsive buyers. Factorial analysis was performed to assess the relations and the correlation between the YBOCS-SV, the Compulsive Buying Scale (CBS), and Richmond Compulsive Buying Scale (RCBS), was assessed using Pearson coefficient, for study of convergent and divergent validity. Cronbach's alpha coefficients were used to assess internal consistency. The results show good to excellent psychometric parameters for the YBOCS-SV in its Brazilian version. With regard to correlations, the YBOCS-SV is inversely and proportionally correlated with CBS and the RCBS, indicating that the YBOCS-SV is an excellent instrument for screening compulsive buying. The YBOCS-SV presented high alpha coefficient of Cronbach's alpha (0.92), demonstrating good reliability. The Brazilian version of the YBOCS-SV is indicated to diagnose compulsive buying disorder, and likely use for the purposes intended in the Brazilian population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Diaconu, Gabriel; Turecki, Gustavo
To explore the association between obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) and suicidal behavior. Subjects referred for a psychiatric consultation were evaluated with structured interviews for mood and personality disorders (the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R Axis II Disorders), a history of suicidal behavior, and levels of coping. A total of 311 subjects were investigated using a 3-group design to test the association between OCPD and suicidal behavior, controlling for the presence of depression. Subjects with OCPD and a history of depression were compared to depressed subjects without any Axis II diagnosis and to subjects without depression or personality disorders. The study was conducted at Verdun Community Psychiatric Clinic, Douglas Hospital, McGill University, in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, and subjects were recruited from 2003 until 2005. Subjects in the comorbid OCPD-depression group presented increased current and lifetime suicide ideation compared to the groups with depression alone or without depression or personality disorders (P = .004); they also had increased history of suicide attempts (P = .04), which were often multiple attempts (P = .01). They also scored lower on the Reasons for Living Inventory (RFL) and the Death Anxiety Questionnaire. Interestingly, comorbid OCPD-depression patients differed from patients with depression alone on the Moral Objections items of the RFL, on which individuals with OCPD-depression scored lowest. Limitations of this study were its cross-sectional design, retrospective sample, and limited generalizability to the population at large. Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder is a factor increasing risk for nonfatal suicidal behavior independently of risk conferred by depressive disorders. Copyright 2009 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.
Paula, Jonas J de; Costa, Danielle de S; Oliveira, Flavianne; Alves, Joana O; Passos, Lídia R; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro F
Compulsive buying is controversial in clinical psychiatry. Although it is defined as an obsessive-compulsive disorder, other personality aspects besides compulsivity are related to compulsive buying. Recent studies suggest that compulsivity and impulsivity might represent a continuum, with several psychiatric disorders lying between these two extremes. In this sense, and following the perspective of dimensional psychiatry, symptoms of impulsivity and compulsivity should correlate even in a non-clinical sample. The present study aims to investigate whether these two traits are associated in a healthy adult sample. We evaluated 100 adults, with no self-reported psychiatric disorders, using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 and two scales of compulsive buying. Using multiple linear regressions, we found that impulsivity accounted for about 15% of variance in the compulsive-buying measure. Our results suggest that an association between impulsivity and compulsive buying occurs even in non-clinical samples, evidence that compulsivity and impulsivity might form a continuum and that compulsive buying might be an intermediate condition between these two personality traits.
Islam, Tahir; Wei, Jiuchang; Sheikh, Zaryab; Hameed, Zahid; Azam, Rauf I
This research seeks to determine what makes young adults materialistic. The study examines the mediating role of materialism between the contextual factors and compulsive buying. Data was gathered from 219 Pakistani undergraduate university students. Partial Least Square (PLS) technique was used to analyze the data. The study confirms the intuition that more materialistic young adults are more likely to be involved in compulsive buying than are less materialistic young adults. The results were similar with the previous literature conducted in the western culture, indicating that also applies in a modern Islamic society. The findings of the study reveal that materialism mediated the relationship between certain sociological factors (i.e., group, media Celebrity endorsement, and TV advertisement) and compulsive buying. The study highlights the importance of understanding young adults' materialistic attitudes and consumption decisions and provides key knowledge for researchers, policymakers, and managers of leading brands. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized as significant impairment of cognitive-behavioral inhibition, which is causally associated with cognitive processes evoking anxiety, along with increased desire for perfect control over the possible harm, at least in typical OCD patients who have compulsions in response to obsessions. However, OCD has been well conceptualized as a multidimensional and heterogeneous disorder apparently comprising a number of potentially valid subtypes. For example, OCD can be diagnosed by either obsessions or compulsions, and a certain type of OCD patient has only compulsions in response to rules that must be applied rigidly. They often become stuck as a result of rigid rules in every step of their daily working and social life. This type of compulsive behavior is often triggered by specific sensory phenomena such as sight, touch, or personal expression (e. g. need to express himself precisely in written or spoken words). Thus, such OCD patients usually perform their compulsions in order to relieve sensory phenomena such as feelings of incompleteness and urges to reach a specific sensation of feeling "just right", and are less likely to have obsessions or cognitive processes preceding the repetitive behaviors. This type of OCD has also been characterized as "tic-related" and tends to have comorbid conditions such as tic disorders, ADHD or skin picking. Indeed, there are some crucial and significant differences in the psychopathology, phenomenology, and putative biological bases between OCD patients with obsession-related compulsions (cognitive type) and those with compulsions repeated according to rigid rules (motoric type). Because of the substantial heterogeneity of OCD, it seems to be beyond the traditional learning model in which anxiety-driven obsessions entrain neutralizing compulsions and also beyond the essential features of anxiety disorders commonly characterized by psychopathological characteristics such as marked and
Paula, Jonas J. de; Costa, Danielle de S.; Oliveira, Flavianne; Alves, Joana O.; Passos, Lídia R.; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro F.
Objective:Compulsive buying is controversial in clinical psychiatry. Although it is defined as an obsessive-compulsive disorder, other personality aspects besides compulsivity are related to compulsive buying. Recent studies suggest that compulsivity and impulsivity might represent a continuum, with several psychiatric disorders lying between these two extremes. In this sense, and following the perspective of dimensional psychiatry, symptoms of impulsivity and compulsivity should correlate ev...
Jonas J. de Paula
Full Text Available Objective:Compulsive buying is controversial in clinical psychiatry. Although it is defined as an obsessive-compulsive disorder, other personality aspects besides compulsivity are related to compulsive buying. Recent studies suggest that compulsivity and impulsivity might represent a continuum, with several psychiatric disorders lying between these two extremes. In this sense, and following the perspective of dimensional psychiatry, symptoms of impulsivity and compulsivity should correlate even in a non-clinical sample. The present study aims to investigate whether these two traits are associated in a healthy adult sample.Methods:We evaluated 100 adults, with no self-reported psychiatric disorders, using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 and two scales of compulsive buying.Results:Using multiple linear regressions, we found that impulsivity accounted for about 15% of variance in the compulsive-buying measure.Conclusions:Our results suggest that an association between impulsivity and compulsive buying occurs even in non-clinical samples, evidence that compulsivity and impulsivity might form a continuum and that compulsive buying might be an intermediate condition between these two personality traits.
Boden, Lauren J.; Ennis, Robin P.; Jolivette, Kristine
Check in/check out (CICO) is a secondary-tier intervention implemented within the framework of schoolwide positive behavior interventions and supports (SWPBIS) that uses school-based contingencies to encourage positive behavior. CICO is a five-step cycle which uses daily progress report cards (DPR) to monitor progress toward schoolwide or…
Vink, Jacqueline M; van Beijsterveldt, Toos C E M; Huppertz, Charlotte; Bartels, Meike; Boomsma, Dorret I
Over the past decades, Internet use has grown substantially, and it now serves people as a supportive tool that is used regularly and-in large parts of the world-inevitably. Some people develop problematic Internet use, which may lead to addictive behavior and it is becoming important to explore the risk factors for compulsive Internet use. Data were analyzed on compulsive Internet use [with the Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS)] from 5247 monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) adolescent twins registered with the Netherlands Twin Register. The participants form a sample that is informative for genetic analyses, allowing the investigation of the causes of individual differences in compulsive Internet use. The internal consistency of the instrument was high and the 1.6-year test-retest correlation in a subsample (n = 902) was 0.55. CIUS scores increased slightly with age. Remarkably, gender did not explain variation in CIUS scores, as mean scores on the CIUS were the same in boys and girls. However, the time spent on specific Internet activities differed: boys spent more time on gaming, whereas girls spent more time on social network sites and chatting. The heritability estimates were the same for boys and girls: 48 percent of the individual differences in CIUS score were influenced by genetic factors. The remaining variance (52 percent) was due to environmental influences that were not shared between family members. Because a life without Internet is almost impossible nowadays, it is important to further explore the determinants of compulsive Internet use, including genetic risk factors. © 2015 The Authors. Addiction Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.
Gillan, Claire M.; Morein-Zamir, Sharon; Kaser, Muzaffer; Fineberg, Naomi A.; Sule, Akeem; Sahakian, Barbara J.; Cardinal, Rudolf N.; Robbins, Trevor W.
Background Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a disorder of automatic, uncontrollable behaviors and obsessive rumination. There is evidence that OCD patients have difficulties performing goal-directed actions, instead exhibiting repetitive stimulus-response habit behaviors. This might result from the excessive formation of stimulus-response habit associations or from an impairment in the ability to use outcome value to guide behavior. We investigated the latter by examining counterfactual decision making, which is the ability to use comparisons of prospective action-outcome scenarios to guide economic choice. Methods We tested decision making (forward counterfactual) and affective responses (backward counterfactual) in 20 OCD patients and 20 matched healthy control subjects using an economic choice paradigm that previously revealed attenuation of both the experience and avoidance of counterfactual emotion in schizophrenia patients and patients with orbitofrontal cortex lesions. Results The use of counterfactual comparison to guide decision making was diminished in OCD patients, who relied primarily on expected value. Unlike the apathetic affective responses previously shown to accompany this decision style, OCD patients reported increased emotional responsivity to the outcomes of their choices and to the counterfactual comparisons that typify regret and relief. Conclusions Obsessive-compulsive disorder patients exhibit a pattern of decision making consistent with a disruption in goal-directed forward modeling, basing decisions instead on the temporally present (and more rational) calculation of expected value. In contrast to this style of decision making, emotional responses in OCD were more extreme and reactive than control subjects. These results are in line with an account of disrupted goal-directed cognitive control in OCD. PMID:23452663
Fineberg, Naomi A.; Chamberlain, Samuel R.; Goudriaan, Anna E.; Stein, Dan J.; Vanderschuren, Louk J.M.J.; Gillan, Claire M.; Shekar, Sameer; Gorwood, Philip A.P.M.; Voon, Valerie; Morein-Zamir, Sharon; Denys, Damiaan; Sahakian, Barbara J.; Moeller, F. Gerard; Robbins, Trevor W.; Potenza, Marc N.
Impulsivity and compulsivity represent useful conceptualizations that involve dissociable cognitive functions, mediated by neuroanatomically and neurochemically distinct components of cortico-subcortical circuitry. The constructs were historically viewed as diametrically opposed, with impulsivity being associated with risk-seeking and compulsivity with harm-avoidance. However, they are increasingly recognized to be linked by shared neuropsychological mechanisms involving dysfunctional inhibition of thoughts and behaviors. In this paper, we selectively review new developments in the investigation of the neurocognition of impulsivity and compulsivity in humans, in order to advance our understanding of the pathophysiology of impulsive, compulsive and addictive disorders and indicate new directions for research. PMID:24512640
Piacentini, John; Bergman, R Lindsey; Chang, Susanna; Langley, Audra; Peris, Tara; Wood, Jeffrey J; McCracken, James
To examine the efficacy of exposure-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) plus a structured family intervention (FCBT) versus psychoeducation plus relaxation training (PRT) for reducing symptom severity, functional impairment, and family accommodation in youths with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). A total of 71 youngsters 8 to 17 years of age (mean 12.2 years; range, 8-17 years, 37% male, 78% Caucasian) with primary OCD were randomized (70:30) to 12 sessions over 14 weeks of FCBT or PRT. Blind raters assessed outcomes with responders followed for 6 months to assess treatment durability. FCBT led to significantly higher response rates than PRT in ITT (57.1% vs 27.3%) and completer analyses (68.3% vs. 35.3%). Using HLM, FCBT was associated with significantly greater change in OCD severity and child-reported functional impairment than PRT and marginally greater change in parent-reported accommodation of symptoms. These findings were confirmed in some, but not all, secondary analyses. Clinical remission rates were 42.5% for FCBT versus 17.6% for PRT. Reduction in family accommodation temporally preceded improvement in OCD for both groups and child functional status for FCBT only. Treatment gains were maintained at 6 months. FCBT is effective for reducing OCD severity and impairment. Importantly, treatment also reduced parent-reported involvement in symptoms with reduced accommodation preceding reduced symptom severity and functional impairment. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRY INFORMATION: Behavior Therapy for Children and Adolescents with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD); http://www.clinicaltrials.gov; NCT00000386. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Noor, Syed WB; Simon Rosser, B. R.; Erickson, Darin J.
Although the phenomenon of hypersexuality has been described in the literature, and scales of compulsive sexual behavior have been published, the existing measures do not assess compulsive sexually explicit media (SEM) consumption. This study tested the psychometric properties of a new scale, the Compulsive Pornography Consumption (CPC). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses results showed good psychometric performance of a five item two factor preoccupation-compulsivity solution. As hypothesized, the scale correlates positively with compulsive sexual behavior, internalized homonegativity, and negatively with sexual self-esteem. The scale will enable researchers to investigate the etiologic factors of compulsive SEM use, and enable clinicians to assess problematic consumption. PMID:25838755
McKay, Dean; Sookman, Debbie; Neziroglu, Fugen; Wilhelm, Sabine; Stein, Dan J; Kyrios, Michael; Matthews, Keith; Veale, David
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), which encompasses exposure with response prevention (ERP) and cognitive therapy (CT), has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, the samples studied (reflecting the heterogeneity of OCD), the interventions examined (reflecting the heterogeneity of CBT), and the definitions of treatment response vary considerably across studies. This review examined the meta-analyses conducted on ERP and cognitive therapy (CT) for OCD. Also examined was the available research on long-term outcome associated with ERP and CT. The available research indicates that ERP is the first line evidence based psychotherapeutic treatment for OCD and that concurrent administration of cognitive therapy that targets specific symptom-related difficulties characteristic of OCD may improve tolerance of distress, symptom-related dysfunctional beliefs, adherence to treatment, and reduce drop out. Recommendations are provided for treatment delivery for OCD in general practice and other service delivery settings. The literature suggests that ERP and CT may be delivered in a wide range of clinical settings. Although the data are not extensive, the available research suggests that treatment gains following ERP are durable. Suggestions for future research to refine therapeutic outcome are also considered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Moore, Catherine F; Panciera, Julia I; Sabino, Valentina; Cottone, Pietro
Compulsive eating behaviour is a transdiagnostic construct observed in certain forms of obesity and eating disorders, as well as in the proposed construct of 'food addiction'. Compulsive eating can be conceptualized as comprising three elements: (i) habitual overeating, (ii) overeating to relieve a negative emotional state, and (iii) overeating despite adverse consequences. Neurobiological processes that include maladaptive habit formation, the emergence of a negative affect, and dysfunctions in inhibitory control are thought to drive the development and persistence of compulsive eating behaviour. These complex psychobehavioural processes are under the control of various neuropharmacological systems. Here, we describe the current evidence implicating these systems in compulsive eating behaviour, and contextualize them within the three elements. A better understanding of the neuropharmacological substrates of compulsive eating behaviour has the potential to significantly advance the pharmacotherapy for feeding-related pathologies.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'Of mice and mental health: facilitating dialogue between basic and clinical neuroscientists'. © 2018 The Author(s).
Turner, Cynthia M; Mataix-Cols, David; Lovell, Karina; Krebs, Georgina; Lang, Katie; Byford, Sarah; Heyman, Isobel
Many adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) do not have access to evidence-based treatment. A randomized controlled non-inferiority trial was conducted in a specialist OCD clinic to evaluate the effectiveness of telephone cognitive-behavioral therapy (TCBT) for adolescents with OCD compared to standard clinic-based, face-to-face CBT. Seventy-two adolescents, aged 11 through 18 years with primary OCD, and their parents were randomized to receive specialist TCBT or CBT. The intervention provided differed only in the method of treatment delivery. All participants received up to 14 sessions of CBT, incorporating exposure with response prevention (E/RP), provided by experienced therapists. The primary outcome measure was the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS). Blind assessor ratings were obtained at midtreatment, posttreatment, 3-month, 6-month, and 12-month follow-up. Intent-to-treat analyses indicated that TCBT was not inferior to face-to-face CBT at posttreatment, 3-month, and 6-month follow-up. At 12-month follow-up, there were no significant between-group differences on the CY-BOCS, but the confidence intervals exceeded the non-inferiority threshold. All secondary measures confirmed non-inferiority at all assessment points. Improvements made during treatment were maintained through to 12-month follow-up. Participants in each condition reported high levels of satisfaction with the intervention received. TCBT is an effective treatment and is not inferior to standard clinic-based CBT, at least in the midterm. This approach provides a means of making a specialized treatment more accessible to many adolescents with OCD. Clinical trial registration information-Evaluation of telephone-administered cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT) for young people with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD); http://www.controlled-trials.com; ISRCTN27070832. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Turner, Cynthia M.; Mataix-Cols, David; Lovell, Karina; Krebs, Georgina; Lang, Katie; Byford, Sarah; Heyman, Isobel
Objective Many adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) do not have access to evidence-based treatment. A randomized controlled non-inferiority trial was conducted in a specialist OCD clinic to evaluate the effectiveness of telephone cognitive-behavioral therapy (TCBT) for adolescents with OCD compared to standard clinic-based, face-to-face CBT. Method Seventy-two adolescents, aged 11 through 18 years with primary OCD, and their parents were randomized to receive specialist TCBT or CBT. The intervention provided differed only in the method of treatment delivery. All participants received up to 14 sessions of CBT, incorporating exposure with response prevention (E/RP), provided by experienced therapists. The primary outcome measure was the Children’s Yale–Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS). Blind assessor ratings were obtained at midtreatment, posttreatment, 3-month, 6-month, and 12-month follow-up. Results Intent-to-treat analyses indicated that TCBT was not inferior to face-to-face CBT at posttreatment, 3-month, and 6-month follow-up. At 12-month follow-up, there were no significant between-group differences on the CY-BOCS, but the confidence intervals exceeded the non-inferiority threshold. All secondary measures confirmed non-inferiority at all assessment points. Improvements made during treatment were maintained through to 12-month follow-up. Participants in each condition reported high levels of satisfaction with the intervention received. Conclusion TCBT is an effective treatment and is not inferior to standard clinic-based CBT, at least in the midterm. This approach provides a means of making a specialized treatment more accessible to many adolescents with OCD. Clinical trial registration information–Evaluation of telephone-administered cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT) for young people with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD); http://www.controlled-trials.com; ISRCTN27070832. PMID:25457928
Rose, Paul; Segrist, Daniel J
Descriptions of compulsive buying often emphasize the roles of negative moods and trait impulsivity in the development of problematic buying habits. Trait impulsivity is sometimes treated as a unidimensional trait in compulsive buying research, but recent factor analyses suggest that impulsivity consists of multiple components that are probably best treated as independent predictors of problem behavior. In order to draw greater attention to the role of positive moods in compulsive buying, in this study we tested whether negative urgency (the tendency to act rashly while in negative moods) and positive urgency (the tendency to act rashly while in positive moods) account for similar amounts of variance in compulsive buying. North American adults (N = 514) completed an online survey containing the Richmond Compulsive Buying Scale (Ridgway, Kukar-Kinney & Monroe, 2008), established measures of positive and negative urgency (Cyders et al., 2007), ad hoc measures of buying-specific positive and negative urgency, measures of extraversion and neuroticism obtained from the International Personality Item Pool (http://ipip.ori.org/), and demographic questions. In several multiple regression analyses, when demographic variables, neuroticism, and extraversion were controlled, positive urgency and negative urgency both emerged as significant predictors of compulsive buying. Whether the two urgency variables were domain-general or buying-specific, they accounted for similar amounts of variance in compulsive buying. Preventing and reducing compulsive buying may require attention not only to the purchasing decisions people make while in negative states, but also to the purchasing decisions they make while in positive states.
van den Hout, M.; Kindt, M.
In earlier experiments using interactive computer animation with healthy subjects, it was found that displaying compulsive-like repeated checking behavior affects memory. That is, checking does not alter actual memory accuracy, but it does affect 'meta-memory': as checking continues, recollections
Merkel, W T; Pollard, C A; Wiener, R L; Staebler, C R
It has been hypothesized that parents of patients with obsessive compulsive disorder exhibit specific traits. 320 consecutive inpatient admissions who met criteria for OCD, depression, and panic disorder checked a list of adjectives to describe their parents. Patients with OCD were 1) less likely to perceive their mothers as disorganized than depressives, 2) more likely to perceive their mothers as overprotective than depressives and 3) less likely to perceive their fathers as demanding than patients with panic.
Progress in psychiatry depends on accurate definitions of disorders. As long as there are no known biologic markers available that are highly specific for a particular psychiatric disorder, clinical practice as well as scientific research is forced to appeal to clinical symptoms. Currently, the nosology of obsessive-compulsive disorder is being reconsidered in view of the publication of DSM-V. Since our diagnostic entities are often simplifications of the complicated clinical profile of patients, definitions of psychiatric disorders are imprecise and always indeterminate. This urges researchers and clinicians to constantly think and rethink well-established definitions that in psychiatry are at risk of being fossilised. In this paper, we offer an alternative view to the current definition of obsessive-compulsive disorder from a phenomenological perspective. TRANSLATION: This article is translated from Dutch, originally published in [Handbook Obsessive-compulsive disorders, Damiaan Denys, Femke de Geus (Eds.), (2007). De Tijdstroom uitgeverij BV, Utrecht. ISBN13: 9789058980878.].
Full Text Available Abstract Progress in psychiatry depends on accurate definitions of disorders. As long as there are no known biologic markers available that are highly specific for a particular psychiatric disorder, clinical practice as well as scientific research is forced to appeal to clinical symptoms. Currently, the nosology of obsessive-compulsive disorder is being reconsidered in view of the publication of DSM-V. Since our diagnostic entities are often simplifications of the complicated clinical profile of patients, definitions of psychiatric disorders are imprecise and always indeterminate. This urges researchers and clinicians to constantly think and rethink well-established definitions that in psychiatry are at risk of being fossilised. In this paper, we offer an alternative view to the current definition of obsessive-compulsive disorder from a phenomenological perspective. Translation This article is translated from Dutch, originally published in [Handbook Obsessive-compulsive disorders, Damiaan Denys, Femke de Geus (Eds., (2007. De Tijdstroom uitgeverij BV, Utrecht. ISBN13: 9789058980878.
Gillan, Claire M; Morein-Zamir, Sharon; Kaser, Muzaffer; Fineberg, Naomi A; Sule, Akeem; Sahakian, Barbara J; Cardinal, Rudolf N; Robbins, Trevor W
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a disorder of automatic, uncontrollable behaviors and obsessive rumination. There is evidence that OCD patients have difficulties performing goal-directed actions, instead exhibiting repetitive stimulus-response habit behaviors. This might result from the excessive formation of stimulus-response habit associations or from an impairment in the ability to use outcome value to guide behavior. We investigated the latter by examining counterfactual decision making, which is the ability to use comparisons of prospective action-outcome scenarios to guide economic choice. We tested decision making (forward counterfactual) and affective responses (backward counterfactual) in 20 OCD patients and 20 matched healthy control subjects using an economic choice paradigm that previously revealed attenuation of both the experience and avoidance of counterfactual emotion in schizophrenia patients and patients with orbitofrontal cortex lesions. The use of counterfactual comparison to guide decision making was diminished in OCD patients, who relied primarily on expected value. Unlike the apathetic affective responses previously shown to accompany this decision style, OCD patients reported increased emotional responsivity to the outcomes of their choices and to the counterfactual comparisons that typify regret and relief. Obsessive-compulsive disorder patients exhibit a pattern of decision making consistent with a disruption in goal-directed forward modeling, basing decisions instead on the temporally present (and more rational) calculation of expected value. In contrast to this style of decision making, emotional responses in OCD were more extreme and reactive than control subjects. These results are in line with an account of disrupted goal-directed cognitive control in OCD. Copyright © 2014 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Compulsive buying disorder (CBD) refers to the chronic purchasing of unneeded or unwanted items, causing significant negative consequences. There are no established criteria for CBD, and operational definitions have relied on similarities with OCD, substance use disorders, and impulse control disorders. Compulsive buying disorder is common, affecting 5.8% of the general population, according to one study. Typically, CBD has early onset, frequent comorbidities, and a chronic course. The etiology of CBD is unknown, with biological, psychological and sociocultural factors proposed as likely contributors. Treatment data are limited and suggest addressing comorbid conditions and considering cognitive behavioral therapy, financial and family counseling, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and naltrexone, among other possible interventions, to target CBD. Beyond treatment, educational, legislative and family-based public policy initiatives can likely help individuals with CBD and other excessive spenders.
Eilam, David; Zor, Rama; Fineberg, Naomi; Hermesh, Haggai
Research on affective disorders may benefit from the methodology of studying animal behavior, in which tools are available for qualitatively and quantitatively measuring and assessing behavior with as much sophistication and attention to detail as in the analysis of the brain. To illustrate this, we first briefly review the characteristics of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and then demonstrate how the quinpirole rat model is used as a conceptual model in studying human OCD patients. Like the rat model, the study of OCD in humans is based on video-telemetry, whereby observable, measurable, and relatively objective characteristics of OCD behavior may be extracted. In this process, OCD rituals are defined in terms of the space in which they are executed and the movements (acts) that are performed at each location or object in this space. Accordingly, OCD behavior is conceived of as comprising three hierarchical components: (i) rituals (as defined by the patients); (ii) visits to objects/locations in the environment at which the patient stops during the ritual; and (iii) acts performed at each object/location during visits. Scoring these structural components (behavioral units) is conveniently possible with readily available tools for behavioral description and analysis, providing quantitative and qualitative measures of the OCD hallmarks of repetition and addition, as well as the reduced functionality in OCD behavior. Altogether, the concept that was developed in the context of an animal model provides a useful tool that may facilitate OCD diagnosis, assessment and treatment, and may be similarly applied for other psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Murphy, Dennis L; Timpano, Kiara R; Wheaton, Michael G; Greenberg, Benjamin D; Miguel, Euripedes C
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a clinical syndrome whose hallmarks are excessive, anxiety-evoking thoughts and compulsive behaviors that are generally recognized as unreasonable, but which cause significant distress and impairment. When these are the exclusive symptoms, they constitute uncomplicated OCD. OCD may also occur in the context of other neuropsychiatric disorders, most commonly other anxiety and mood disorders. The question remains as to whether these combinations of disorders should be regarded as independent, cooccurring disorders or as different manifestations of an incompletely understood constellation of OCD spectrum disorders with a common etiology. Additional considerations are given here to two potential etiology-based subgroups: (i) an environmentally based group in which OCD occurs following apparent causal events such as streptococcal infections, brain injury, or atypical neuroleptic treatment; and (ii) a genomically based group in which OCD is related to chromosomal anomalies or specific genes. Considering the status of current research, the concept of OCD and OCD-related spectrum conditions seems fluid in 2010, and in need of ongoing reappraisal.
Thériault, Marie-Claude G; Lespérance, Paul; Achim, André; Tellier, Geneviève; Diab, Sabrina; Rouleau, Guy A; Chouinard, Sylvain; Richer, Francois
Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (TS) and chronic tic disorder (CT) are often associated with a variety of behavioral comorbidities including attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive-compulsive behavior (OCB), oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD) and temper outbursts. ODD is often associated with ADHD but its links to other symptoms of TS/CT is not as clear. This study examined whether the various symptoms of ODD were differentially linked to the various comorbidities in TS. A clinical sample of 135 children diagnosed with TS was evaluated through parent questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Regressions and structural equation modeling confirmed that ODD is multidimensional in a TS/CT sample and showed that OCB was associated with the irritability symptoms of ODD whereas ADHD was associated with the Headstrong symptoms of ODD. Results suggest that increased attention to the different facets of ODD may help improve our understanding of emotional symptoms in TS/CT. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Basu, Bishnupriya; Basu, Saikat; Basu, Jharna
Compulsive buying is an under-recognised entity among Indian psychiatrists. A Medline search, hand searching of journals and direct communications with lead investigators in compulsive buying have generated numerous studies. Overseas data indicate a community prevalence between 1% and 8% . The phenomenon can be an independent entity or appears as a comorbidity with another axis I or axis II disorder. A degree of suspicion on part of clinician regarding its possible presence is the key to its detection. A few rating instruments are available to quantify the morbidity and screening for compulsive buying. Management involves pharmacotherapy with SSRIs, psychotherapy, self-help groups and self-help books. Epidemiological and clinical studies on compulsive buying should be undertaken by Indian psychiatrists to provide better services for people suffering from compulsive buying.
Zhu, Tian Hao; Nakamura, Mio; Farahnik, Benjamin; Abrouk, Michael; Reichenberg, Jason; Bhutani, Tina; Koo, John
Individuals with obsessive-compulsive features frequently visit dermatologists for complaints of the skin, hair or nails, and often progress towards a chronic relapsing course due to the challenge associated with accurate diagnosis and management of their psychiatric symptoms. The current DSM-5 formally recognizes body dysmorphic disorder, trichotillomania, neurotic excoriation and body focused repetitive behavior disorder as psychodermatological disorders belonging to the category of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders. However there is evidence that other relevant skin diseases such as delusions of parasitosis, dermatitis artefacta, contamination dermatitis, AIDS phobia, trichotemnomania and even lichen simplex chronicus possess prominent obsessive-compulsive characteristics that do not necessarily fit the full diagnostic criteria of the DSM-5. Therefore, to increase dermatologists' awareness of this unique group of skin disorders with OCD features, we propose a novel classification system called Obsessive-Compulsive Insight Continuum. Under this new classification system, obsessive-compulsive skin manifestations are categorized along a continuum based on degree of insight, from minimal insight with delusional obsessions to good insight with minimal obsessions. Understanding the level of insight is thus an important first step for clinicians who routinely interact with these patients.
Chang, Yoon Hee; Windish, Donna M.
Cannabinoid hyperemesis is a clinical syndrome characterized by repeated vomiting and associated learned compulsive hot water bathing behavior due to long-term marijuana use. Research has indentified type 1 cannabinoid receptors in the intestinal nerve plexus that have an inhibitory effect on gastrointestinal motility. This inhibitory effect may lead to hyperemesis in marijuana users. The thermoregulatory role of endocannabinoids may be responsible for the patient's need to take hot showers. ...
Joubert, C E
75 women and 64 men responded to the Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory, the Manifest Anxiety Scale, and the Maudsley Obsessional-compulsive Inventory in addition to responding to a questionnaire on personal habits. The results indicated that more frequent hair-pullers and nervous twitchers scored lower on self-esteem and higher on anxiety. People who giggled and those who bit their fingernails more often scored higher on obsessive-compulsiveness. Self-reported gigglers were higher on manifest anxiety. If the criterion of self-assessed seriousness of the behavior problem was used, people who bit their nails, picked their noses, pulled their hair, chewed on objects, giggled, ground their teeth, twitched nervously, and picked at scabs scored lower on self-esteem. Higher manifest-anxiety scores were found among the people who regarded their nail-biting, hair-pulling, object-chewing, nervous twitching, or giggling as serious problems. Finally, people who regarded their nail-biting as more serious tended to have higher obsessive-compulsive scores. The results in general suggest that the frequency of several of these behaviors is anxiety-related and that it is the person's assessments of these behaviors as problems rather than simply their frequency that is related to higher anxiety and lower self-esteem.
Compulsive buying is a relatively new addictive disorder that interferes with everyday functioning and may result in serious psychological and financial problems (1). A very few data are currently available regarding this behavioral addiction. This study investigated gender differences in the relationships between contingent self-esteem (CSE), fear of negative evaluation (FNE), and compulsive buying. Participants included 240 Italian adults (170 females, M age = 33.80) who responded to self-r...
Mueller, Astrid; Mitchell, James E; Black, Donald W; Crosby, Ross D; Berg, Kelly; de Zwaan, Martina
The aims of this study were to perform a latent profile analysis in a sample of individuals with compulsive buying, to explore the psychiatric comorbidity, and to examine whether or not more severe compulsive buying is associated with greater comorbidity. Compulsive buying measures and SCID data obtained from 171 patients with compulsive buying behavior who had participated in treatment trials at different clinical centers in the U.S. and Germany were analyzed. Latent profile analysis produced two clusters. Overall, cluster 2, included subjects with more severe compulsive buying, and was characterized by higher lifetime as well as current prevalence rates for Axis I and impulse control disorders. Nearly 90% of the total sample reported at least one lifetime Axis I diagnosis, particularly mood (74%) and anxiety (57%) disorders. Twenty-one percent had a comorbid impulse control disorder, most commonly intermittent explosive disorder (11%). Half of the sample presented with at least one current Axis I disorder, most commonly anxiety disorders (44%). Given the substantial psychiatric comorbidity, it is reasonable to question whether or not compulsive buying represents a distinct psychiatric entity vs. an epiphenomenon of other psychiatric disorders. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kashyap, Himani; Fontenelle, Leonardo F; Miguel, Euripedes C; Ferrão, Ygor A; Torres, Albina R; Shavitt, Roseli G; Ferreira-Garcia, Rafael; do Rosário, Maria C; Yücel, Murat
Although traditionally obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and impulse control disorders (ICD) have represented opposing ends of a continuum, recent research has demonstrated a frequent co-occurrence of impulsive and compulsive behaviours, which may contribute to a worse clinical picture of some psychiatric disorders. We hypothesize that individuals with 'impulsive' OCD as characterized by poor insight, low resistance, and reduced control towards their compulsions will have a deteriorative course, greater severity of hoarding and/or symmetry/ordering symptoms, and comorbid ICD and/or substance use disorders (SUD). The sample consisted of 869 individuals with a minimum score of 16 on the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS). Of these, 65 had poor insight, low resistance, and reduced control towards compulsions ('poor IRC') and 444 had preserved insight, greater resistance and better control over compulsions ('good IRC'). These two groups were compared on a number of clinical and demographic variables. Individuals with poor IRC were significantly more likely to have a deteriorative course (p disorder (p = 0.026), trichotillomania (p = 0.014) and compulsive buying (p = 0.040). Regression analysis revealed that duration of obsessions (p = 0.037) and hoarding severity (p = 0.005) were significant predictors of poor IRC. In the absence of specific measures for impulsivity in OCD, the study highlights the utility of simple measures such as insight, resistance and control over compulsions as a phenotypic marker of a subgroup of OCD with impulsive features demonstrating poor clinical outcome. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Introduction: The implementation of effective treatment depends on thorough understanding of disorder and its presentation. Treatment strategies must depend on the individual formulation of the patient. In this paper an Obsessive Compulsive Disorder(OCD patient treated with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT methods is presented. It is discussed that in the therapy, formulation is an ongoing dynamic process and necessarily required for the effectiveness of therapy. Case: Y.B. was 32 years old, single male patient graduated from university. He applied because of his obsessions and compulsions. He was diagnosed OCD after the psychiatric evaluation according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV(DSM-IV. In treatment following strategies were applied: 1 Cognitive restructuring of the thoughtaction- fusion, anxiety intolerance, overestimated threat appraisals, 2 exposure and response prevention techniques aimed to test if catastrophic expectations would occur. Discussion: When planning CBT for the treatment of OCD, the first and most important step is a good formulation created with the data obtained from a good evaluation process. Treatment planning in our case was planned on using cognitive restructing techniques for thought-action-fusion, anxiety intolerance and overestimated threat appraisals but the formulation was completed in the course of treatment when the patient could talk about his early experiences. As a result, the formulation is a roadmap that should be taken into consideration at every stage of therapy. Its presence is essential to reach the correct destination and it is a dynamic process needed to be updated according to the information from the patient
Full Text Available Abstract Background Alterations in arginine vasopressin regulation and secretion have been proposed as one possible biochemical abnormality in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. In golden hamsters, arginine vasopressin microinjections into the anterior hypothalamus trigger robust grooming and flank marking, a stereotyped scent marking behaviors. The intensity and repetition of the behaviors induced by arginine vasopressin is somewhat reminiscent of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in humans. The present experiments were carried out to test whether pharmacological agents used to alleviate obsessive compulsive disorder could inhibit arginine vasopressin-induced flank marking and grooming. Results Male golden hamsters were treated daily for two weeks with either vehicle, fluoxetine, clomipramine, or desipramine (an ineffective drug, before being tested for arginine vasopressin-induced flank marking and grooming. Flank marking was significantly inhibited in animals treated with fluoxetine or clomipramine but unaffected by treatment with desipramine. Grooming behavior was not affected by any treatment. Conclusion These data suggest that arginine vasopressin-induced flank marking may serve as an animal model for screening drugs used in the control of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder.
Derbyshire, Katherine L; Chamberlain, Samuel R; Odlaug, Brian L; Schreiber, Liana R N; Grant, Jon E
Compulsive buying (CB) is a fairly common behavioral problem estimated to affect 5.8% of the population. Although previous research has examined the clinical characteristics of CB, little research has examined whether people with CB manifest cognitive deficits. Twenty-three non-treatment-seeking compulsive buyers (mean age, 22.3±3.5; 60.9% female) and 23 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (mean age, 21.1±3.4, 60.9% female) underwent neurocognitive assessment. We predicted that the following cognitive domains would be impaired in CB: spatial working memory (Spatial Working Memory test), response inhibition (Stop-Signal Task), cognitive flexibility (Intra-Extra Dimensional Set Shift task), and decision making (Cambridge Gambling Task). Compared with controls, individuals with CB exhibited significant impairments in response inhibition (P=.043), risk adjustment during decision making (P=.010), and spatial working memory (P=.041 total errors; P=.044 strategy scores). Deficits were of large effect size (Cohen's d, 0.6 to 1.05). These pilot data suggest that individuals with CB experience problems in several distinct cognitive domains, supporting a likely neurobiological overlap between CB and other putative behavioral and substance addictions. These findings may have implications for shared treatment approaches as well as how we currently classify and understand CB.
Pinto, Anthony; Greene, Ashley L; Storch, Eric A; Simpson, H Blair
Identifying risk factors of psychopathology has been an important research challenge. Prior studies examining the impact of childhood temperament on adult disorder have largely focused on undercontrolled and inhibited presentations, with little study of overcontrolled traits such as obsessive-compulsive personality traits (OCPTs). We compared rates of childhood OCPTs in adults with OCD (without OCPD) (n = 28) to adults with OCPD (without OCD) (n = 27), adults with both OCD and OCPD (n = 28), and healthy controls (HC) (n= 28), using the Childhood Retrospective Perfectionism Questionnaire, a validated measure of perfectionism, inflexibility, and drive for order. Adults with OCPD (both with and without comorbid OCD) reported higher rates of all three childhood OCPTs relative to HC. Individuals with OCD (without OCPD) reported higher rates of inflexibility and drive for order relative to HC, suggesting that these traits may presage the development of OCD, independent of OCPD. Childhood OCPTs were associated with particular OCD symptom dimensions in adulthood (contamination/cleaning, doubt/checking, and symmetry/ordering), independent of OCD onset age and OCPD diagnosis. Longitudinal prospective studies evaluating OCPTs in children are needed to better understand the progression of these traits from childhood to adulthood and their ability to predict future psychopathology.
Lauren Rose Godier
Full Text Available The compulsive nature of weight loss behaviours central to Anorexia Nervosa (AN, such as relentless self-starvation and over-exercise, has led to the suggestion of parallels between AN and other compulsive disorders such as Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD and addictions. There is a huge unmet need for effective treatments in AN, which has high rates of morbidity and the highest mortality rate of any psychiatric disorder, yet a grave paucity of effective treatments. Viewing compulsivity as a transdiagnostic concept, seen in various manifestations across disorders, may help delineate the mechanisms responsible for the persistence of AN, and aid treatment development. We explore models of compulsivity that suggest dysfunction in cortico-striatal circuitry underpins compulsive behaviour, and consider evidence of aberrances in this circuitry across disorders. Excessive habit formation is considered as a mechanism by which initially rewarding weight loss behaviour in AN may become compulsive over time, and the complex balance between positive and negative reinforcement in this process is considered. The physiological effects of starvation in promoting compulsivity, positive reinforcement and habit formation are also discussed. Further research in AN may benefit from a focus on processes potentially underlying the development of compulsivity, such as aberrant reward processing and habit formation. We discuss the implications of a transdiagnostic perspective on compulsivity, and how it may contribute to the development of novel treatments for AN.
Fahland, D.; Leoni, de M.; Dongen, van B.F.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.
The usefulness of process models (e.g., for analysis, improvement, or execution) strongly depends on their ability to describe reality. Conformance checking is a technique to validate how good a given process model describes recorded executions of the actual process. Recently, artifacts have been
van der Heijden, Amy; Mulder, Bob C; Poortvliet, P Marijn; van Vliet, Arnold J H
Performing a tick check after visiting nature is considered the most important preventive measure to avoid contracting Lyme disease. Checking the body for ticks after visiting nature is the only measure that can fully guarantee whether one has been bitten by a tick and provides the opportunity to remove the tick as soon as possible, thereby greatly reducing the chance of contracting Lyme disease. However, compliance to performing the tick check is low. In addition, most previous studies on determinants of preventive measures to avoid Lyme disease lack a clear definition and/or operationalization of the term "preventive measures". Those that do distinguish multiple behaviors including the tick check, fail to describe the systematic steps that should be followed in order to perform the tick check effectively. Hence, the purpose of this study was to identify determinants of systematically performing the tick check, based on social cognitive theory. A cross-sectional self-administered survey questionnaire was filled out online by 508 respondents (M age = 51.7, SD = 16.0; 50.2% men; 86.4% daily or weekly nature visitors). Bivariate correlations and multivariate regression analyses were conducted to identify associations between socio-cognitive determinants (i.e. concepts related to humans' intrinsic and extrinsic motivation to perform certain behavior), and the tick check, and between socio-cognitive determinants and proximal goal to do the tick check. The full regression model explained 28% of the variance in doing the tick check. Results showed that performing the tick check was associated with proximal goal (β = .23, p theory to identify determinants. Based on the results, a number of practical recommendations can be made to promote the performance of the tick check.
The obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and the restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior, interests and activities inherent to autism spectrum disorders (ASD) share a number of features that can make the differential diagnosis between them extremely difficult and lead to erroneous overdiagnosis of OCD in people with autism. In both cases there may appear to have a fixation on routine, ritualized patterns of verbal and nonverbal behavior, resistance to change, and highly restrictive interests, which becomes a real challenge for differentiating rituals, stereotypes and adherence to routines in ASD from obsessions and compulsions in OCD. This article provides key points to clarify this differential diagnosis through the analysis of emotional valence, content, function and psychological theories that explain the obsessions and compulsions in OCD, and the desire for sameness, stereotyped movements and limited interest in autism. The terms "obsession" and "compulsion" should no longer be used when referring to patterns of behavior, interests or restricted and repetitive activities in autism due to syntonic characteristics, low perception of personal responsibility and low neutralizing efforts. Treatment focuses on changing the environment, the use of socio-communicative compensatory strategies and behavioral modification techniques to improve cognitive and behavioral flexibility. When there is comorbidity between, exposure behavioral and response prevention techniques are then used, followed by others of more cognitive orientation if necessary. Copyright © 2012 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Grassi, Giacomo; Pallanti, Stefano; Righi, Lorenzo; Figee, Martijn; Mantione, Mariska; Denys, Damiaan; Piccagliani, Daniele; Rossi, Alessandro; Stratta, Paolo
Recent studies have challenged the anxiety-avoidance model of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), linking OCD to impulsivity, risky-decision-making and reward-system dysfunction, which can also be found in addiction and might support the conceptualization of OCD as a behavioral addiction. Here, we
Luciana Brasil Rebelo dos Santos
Full Text Available Unified Modeling Language (UML is currently accepted as the standard for modeling (object-oriented software, and its use is increasing in the aerospace industry. Verification and Validation of complex software developed according to UML is not trivial due to complexity of the software itself, and the several different UML models/diagrams that can be used to model behavior and structure of the software. This paper presents an approach to transform up to three different UML behavioral diagrams (sequence, behavioral state machines, and activity into a single Transition System to support Model Checking of software developed in accordance with UML. In our approach, properties are formalized based on use case descriptions. The transformation is done for the NuSMV model checker, but we see the possibility in using other model checkers, such as SPIN. The main contribution of our work is the transformation of a non-formal language (UML to a formal language (language of the NuSMV model checker towards a greater adoption in practice of formal methods in software development.
Jónsson, Hjalti; Hougaard, Esben; Bennedsen, Birgit E
The primary aim of the study was to investigate dysfunctional beliefs in the form of inflated responsibility (IR) and thought action fusion (TAF) as predictive and mediating variables in individual (n=33) and group (n=37) cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). IR and TAF declined significantly during CBT, and the decline was positively associated with change in OCD symptoms. However, when controlling for change in depressive symptoms, only change in IR remained significantly associated with OCD symptom change. The moral subtype of TAF predicted poorer treatment outcome, but only in group CBT. Both treatments produced a similar amount of change in the dysfunctional beliefs. The results provide some, preliminary evidence that IR, but not TAF, may be specifically involved in the change mechanisms of both individual and group CBT for OCD, although the design of the study with pre- and post-therapy measurements only does not allow for a causal mediator analysis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: International guidelines recommend Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT as the first line treatment for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD. However, a substantial proportion of patients do not have access to such treatment. We developed and tested the feasibility, efficacy and acceptability of a novel therapist-guided, Internet-delivered CBT (ICBT platform for adolescents with OCD. METHODS: An interactive, age-appropriate ICBT platform ("BiP OCD" was developed. Twenty-one adolescents (12-17 years with a DSM-IV diagnosis of OCD and their parents were enrolled in the study. All participants received 12 weeks of ICBT with therapist support. The primary outcome measure was the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS. Acceptability was assessed at post-treatment. RESULTS: Participants completed on average 8.29 (SD = 3.0 of the 12 treatment chapters. Treatment yielded significant improvements on all clinician-, parent- and most self-administered outcome measures, with a large effect size of d = 2.29 (95% CI 1.5-3.07 on the CY-BOCS. Patients continued to improve at follow-up. At 6-month follow-up, 71% were classified as responders (≥35% decrease on the CY-BOCS and 76% as being in remission (CY-BOCS score ≤12. Average clinician support time was less than 20 minutes per patient per week. The majority of participants felt that BiP OCD was age-appropriate and rated the treatment as good or very good. CONCLUSIONS: ICBT could be efficacious, acceptable, and cost-effective for adolescents with OCD. More rigorously controlled studies are needed to further evaluate the treatment. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov; NCT01809990.
Full Text Available Objective: The incidence of depression is significantly compounded by obesity. Obesity arising from excessive intake of high-fat food provokes anxiodepressive behavior and elicits molecular adaptations in the nucleus accumbens (NAc, a region well-implicated in the hedonic deficits associated with depression and in the control of food-motivated behavior. To determine the etiology of diet-induced depression, we studied the impact of different dietary lipids on anxiodepressive behavior and metabolic and immune outcomes and the contribution of NAc immune activity. Methods: Adult C57Bl/6 mice were subjected to isocaloric high-fat/high-sucrose diets (HFD, enriched in either saturated or monounsaturated fat, or a control low-fat diet (LFD. Metabolic responses, anxiodepressive behavior, and plasma and NAc inflammatory markers were assessed after 12 weeks. In separate experiments, an adenoviral construct inhibiting IKKβ, an upstream component of the nuclear factor kappa-b (NFkB pathway, was a priori injected into the NAc. Results: Both HFDs resulted in obesity and hyperleptinemia; however, the saturated HFD uniquely triggered anxiety-like behavior, behavioral despair, hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance, peripheral inflammation, and multiple pro-inflammatory signs in the NAc, including reactive gliosis, increased expression of cytokines, antigen-presenting markers and NFкB transcriptional activity. Selective NAc IKKβ inhibition reversed the upregulated expression of inflammatory markers, prevented anxiodepressive behavior and blunted compulsive sucrose-seeking in mice fed the saturated HFD. Conclusions: Metabolic inflammation and NFкB-mediated neuroinflammatory responses in the NAc contribute to the expression of anxiodepressive behavior and heightened food cravings caused by a diet high in saturated fat and sugar. Keywords: Diet-induced obesity, Dietary fatty acids, Nuclear factor kappa-b, Neuroinflammation, Depression, Anxiety, Food reward
Carlier, Nina; Marshe, Victoria S; Cmorejova, Jana; Davis, Caroline; Müller, Daniel J
There exists a continuous spectrum of overeating, where at the extremes there are casual overindulgences and at the other a 'pathological' drive to consume palatable foods. It has been proposed that pathological eating behaviors may be the result of addictive appetitive behavior and loss of ability to regulate the consumption of highly processed foods containing refined carbohydrates, fats, salt, and caffeine. In this review, we highlight the genetic similarities underlying substance addiction phenotypes and overeating compulsions seen in individuals with binge eating disorder. We relate these similarities to findings from neuroimaging studies on reward processing and clinical diagnostic criteria based on addiction phenotypes. The abundance of similarities between compulsive overeating and substance addictions puts forth a case for a 'food addiction' phenotype as a valid, diagnosable disorder.
Aranovich, Gabriel J; Cavagnaro, Daniel R; Pitt, Mark A; Myung, Jay I; Mathews, Carol A
Attitudes towards risk are highly consequential in clinical disorders thought to be prone to "risky behavior", such as substance dependence, as well as those commonly associated with excessive risk aversion, such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and hoarding disorder (HD). Moreover, it has recently been suggested that attitudes towards risk may serve as a behavioral biomarker for OCD. We investigated the risk preferences of participants with OCD and HD using a novel adaptive task and a quantitative model from behavioral economics that decomposes risk preferences into outcome sensitivity and probability sensitivity. Contrary to expectation, compared to healthy controls, participants with OCD and HD exhibited less outcome sensitivity, implying less risk aversion in the standard economic framework. In addition, risk attitudes were strongly correlated with depression, hoarding, and compulsion scores, while compulsion (hoarding) scores were associated with more (less) "rational" risk preferences. These results demonstrate how fundamental attitudes towards risk relate to specific psychopathology and thereby contribute to our understanding of the cognitive manifestations of mental disorders. In addition, our findings indicate that the conclusion made in recent work that decision making under risk is unaltered in OCD is premature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... Adults Data Sources Share Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Definition Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is often a long- ... MSC 9663 Bethesda, MD 20892-9663 Follow Us Facebook Twitter YouTube Google Plus NIMH Newsletter NIMH RSS ...
Otero-López, José M; Villardefrancos Pol, Estíbaliz; Castro Bolaño, Cristina
The integration of units of differing natures which are found in different parts of some multilevel personality models is one of the most thought-provoking paths in contemporary research. In the field of compulsive buying, little is known about the interrelationships between the comparative and stable units such as personality traits (basic tendencies or Level I units) and goals (a kind of middle-level unit) which are more related to motivational processes and intentions governing people’s behavior. Self-reporting measures of compulsive buying, Big Five personality traits, and extrinsic life aspirations were administered to a general population sample consisting of 2,159 participants aged 15 to 65 (48.1% males; Mage= 35.4, SD= 13.24). Our results confirmed statistically significant associations with compulsive buying for the traits as well as the extrinsic goals. Furthermore, an important relationship between both levels in personality – traits vs . extrinsic life aspirations – was found. Finally, extrinsic life aspirations (specially, image, popularity, and conformity) contribute to the potentiation of the prediction of compulsive buying beyond the Five Factor Model. Current findings emphasize the advisability of considering both levels in personality, traits and middle-level units like life aspirations, not only in the prediction of compulsive buying, but also as potential targets for preventive and treatment programs.
Liu, Hong-Hua; Chen, Jin-Jin
To investigate the relationship between the eating behavior of children aged 1-3 years and parental feeding behavior and the effect of family status on feeding behavior. With stratified random sampling, 2 324 children aged 1-3 years were selected from Shanghai. Questionnaires were filled out by their parents or feeders to investigate the basic family information, parental feeding behavior, the eating behavior of children, and the basic information on children. The eating behavior of children was positively correlated with eating environment (r=0.223) and parental monitoring behavior (r=0.245) but negatively correlated with parental compulsive behavior (r=-0.264) (Pparental compulsive behavior (r=-0.569) but positively correlated with parental monitoring behavior (r=0.615) and eating environment (r=0.621). The emotional undereating of children was positively correlated with parental emotional feeding (r=0.259) and parental compulsive behavior (r=0.279). Parental monitoring behavior showed significant differences between different families (PParental feeding behavior is closely related to the eating behavior of children. Parental feeding behavior may vary across different family status.
Full Text Available Background: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD is a chronic disorder that strongly affects one's life and social, emotional, and occupational functioning. Due to the effect of religious beliefs on phenomenology of OCD, in this paper, we assess the effectiveness of religious cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT within 3 and 6 months follow-up. Materials and Methods: This study is a clinical trial with follow-ups which last 2 months consisting eight sessions of 1.5 h of religious CBT. The research is conducted in a group of 40, with pre- and post-test after 3 and 6 months. Used Yale-Brown OCD symptom scale, before, the end, after 3 months and after 6 months of intervention. Treatment is carried out by a psychiatrist and a clergyman through religious CBT. The trial is held in OCD clinic affiliated with Noor Hospital. Results are analyzed by ANOVA repeated measure with SPSS18. Results: The results showed a considerable decrease in OCD symptoms which remained almost persistent after 3 and 6 months (F = 3/54. P = 0/024. It also shows that religious CBT can leave substantial effect on OCD symptoms; permanency of this intervention after 3 and 6 months is noticeable (P < 0/001. In Conclusion this therapy could be helpful for OCD patients with religious content. Conclusion: RCBT have a positive effect on people with religious obsessive -compulsive.
Lourenço Leite, Priscilla; Pereira, Valeska Martinho; Nardi, Antônio Egidio; Silva, Adriana Cardoso
Based on a literature review, the purpose is to identify the main therapeutic approaches for the compulsive buying disorder, a present time disorder characterized by excessive and uncontrollable concerns or behaviors related to buying or expenses, which may lead to adverse consequences. The systematic review was carried out by searching the electronic scientific bases Medline/Pubmed, ISI, PsycInfo. The search was comprised of full-text articles, written in Portuguese and English, with no time limit or restrictions on the type of study and sample. A total of 1659 references were found and, by the end, 23 articles were selected for this review. From the articles found, it was determined that, although there are case studies and clinical trials underlining the effectiveness of the treatment for compulsive buying, only those studies with a focus on the cognitive-behavioral therapy approach make evident the successful response to the treatment. The publication of new studies on the etiology and epidemiology of the disorder is necessary, in order to establish new forms of treatment and to verify the effectiveness and response of the Brazilian population to the existing protocols. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
This paper is an attempt to deal with some questions raised by the so-called 'compulsion of destiny' constellation. In presenting the standpoints of Freud and of psychoanalysts who after him were concerned with this problematic, the author takes the view that several aspects of the configuration merit further discussion. Accordingly, the dynamics of repetition compulsion, the complexity of the projective strategy, the coexistence of passive and omnipotent trends are considered. Concerning compulsive repetitions the dimension of drive intrication is underlined, thus moderating the understanding of this clinical entity as mainly related to death drive trends. Projection is understood as serving complex psychic demands. The coexistence of passive and omnipotent trends is envisaged, as manifested in phantasies of submission / participation of patients to a force that exceeds human limitations. For certain cases the consonance of somatic and psychic experiences is noted. Finally, elements from the material of two cases are presented which pertain to the problematic of the compulsion of destiny in which random events are submitted to heavy psychic necessities. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Psychoanalysis.
Phillips, Katharine A; Stein, Dan J; Rauch, Scott L; Hollander, Eric; Fallon, Brian A; Barsky, Arthur; Fineberg, Naomi; Mataix-Cols, David; Ferrão, Ygor Arzeno; Saxena, Sanjaya; Wilhelm, Sabine; Kelly, Megan M; Clark, Lee Anna; Pinto, Anthony; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Farrow, Joanne; Leckman, James
The obsessive-compulsive (OC) spectrum has been discussed in the literature for two decades. Proponents of this concept propose that certain disorders characterized by repetitive thoughts and/or behaviors are related to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and suggest that such disorders be grouped together in the same category (i.e. grouping, or "chapter") in DSM. This article addresses this topic and presents options and preliminary recommendations to be considered for DSM-V. The article builds upon and extends prior reviews of this topic that were prepared for and discussed at a DSM-V Research Planning Conference on Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders held in 2006. Our preliminary recommendation is that an OC-spectrum grouping of disorders be included in DSM-V. Furthermore, we preliminarily recommend that consideration be given to including this group of disorders within a larger supraordinate category of "Anxiety and Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders." These preliminary recommendations must be evaluated in light of recommendations for, and constraints upon, the overall structure of DSM-V. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Einstein, Danielle A; Menzies, Ross G
Thought action fusion (TAF) is an important presenting feature of many individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). "Magical thinking" is a similar construct (developed within the literature on schizotypy) that may provide a more accurate depiction of difficulties encountered by individuals with OCD. This study seeks to examine relationships between components of magical thinking, TAF, and superstitiousness; establish the extent to which these constructs are independently related to OCD proneness; and establish the extent to which these biased reasoning styles are related to each of the major OCD symptom clusters (e.g., washing, checking). The Padua Inventory (PI), the Maudsley Obsessional-Compulsive Inventory (MOCI), the Magical Ideation Scale (MI), the Lucky Behaviours (Lbeh) and Lucky Beliefs (Lbel) Scales, and the Thought Action Fusion-Revised scale (TAF-R) were given to a cohort of 86 undergraduate students. Of all the measures, the MI scale was found to be the most strongly related to obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Large and significant relationships between MI scores and the two measures of OCD (i.e., MOCI and PI) were obtained even when alternative mediators (i.e., Lbeh, Lbel, TAF-R) were held constant. No other variable remained significantly related to the MOCI or PI when magical ideation scores were held constant. The findings suggest that a general magical thinking tendency may underpin previous observed links between superstitiousness, thought action fusion, and OCD severity. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Sepede, Gianna; Di Iorio, Giuseppe; Sarchione, Fabiola; Fiori, Federica; Di Giannantonio, Massimo
Compulsive buying disorder (CBD) is a condition characterized by excessive preoccupations, impulses, and behaviors regarding buying, resulting in serious psychological, social, and financial problems. Even though it has not been included in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, "behavioral addictions" section, CBD is a hot topic in current clinical psychiatry, because of its relevant prevalence (at least 5% in adult populations) and severe effect on quality of life.The CBD shares some clinical features with substance-related and behavioral addictions, impulse control disorders, and obsessive compulsive disorder, and it is often comorbid with other psychiatric illnesses (especially depressive and anxiety disorders). The treatment of CBD is therefore difficult, and clear therapeutic guidelines are not yet available. Treating the comorbid disorders as the first-line approach, or combining drugs with different pharmacodynamic profiles, has been suggested to address this challenging condition. A 60-year-old woman affected by a severe form of CBD with comorbid major depressive disorder, resistant/intolerant to previous selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatments and only partially responder to mirtazapine, achieved a good clinical improvement adding bupropion. Combining 2 agents with different pharmacological profiles and mechanisms of action, such as bupropion and mirtazapine, could be a useful strategy in the management of complex CBD cases.
Martin, Shelby J; Racine, Sarah E
Thin-ideal internalization is a robust risk factor for body dissatisfaction and eating pathology. Conversely, athletic-ideal internalization is often unrelated to body dissatisfaction, but predicts compulsive exercise (i.e., rigid, rule-driven exercise that is continued despite adverse consequences). Distinct personality traits could relate to internalization of different appearance ideals, which may be associated with divergent eating disorder outcomes. Past research has shown that neuroticism is related to body dissatisfaction, whereas extraversion and conscientiousness have been associated with regular and problematic exercise. The current study examined associations among personality traits (i.e., neuroticism, extraversion, conscientiousness), appearance-ideal internalization (i.e., thin- and athletic-ideal), and eating disorder cognitions/behaviors (i.e., body dissatisfaction, compulsive exercise) among 531 college men and women. Moreover, we tested whether appearance-ideal internalization mediated the relationships between personality traits with body dissatisfaction and compulsive exercise. As expected, body dissatisfaction was positively related to neuroticism, and compulsive exercise was positively associated with extraversion. Thin-ideal internalization positively correlated with neuroticism, athletic-ideal internalization positively correlated with conscientiousness, and both thin- and athletic-ideal internalization were positively related to extraversion. After controlling for gender, body mass index, the other appearance-ideal internalization, and the remaining personality traits, the indirect effects of both neuroticism and extraversion on body dissatisfaction through thin-ideal internalization were significant. Extraversion and conscientiousness were indirectly related to compulsive exercise through athletic-ideal internalization, whereas the indirect effect of neuroticism was dependent on covariates. As such, personality traits may be related to
Eagle, Dawn M; Noschang, Cristie; d'Angelo, Laure-Sophie Camilla; Noble, Christie A; Day, Jacob O; Dongelmans, Marie Louise; Theobald, David E; Mar, Adam C; Urcelay, Gonzalo P; Morein-Zamir, Sharon; Robbins, Trevor W
Excessive checking is a common, debilitating symptom of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In an established rodent model of OCD checking behaviour, quinpirole (dopamine D2/3-receptor agonist) increased checking in open-field tests, indicating dopaminergic modulation of checking-like behaviours. We designed a novel operant paradigm for rats (observing response task (ORT)) to further examine cognitive processes underpinning checking behaviour and clarify how and why checking develops. We investigated i) how quinpirole increases checking, ii) dependence of these effects on D2/3 receptor function (following treatment with D2/3 receptor antagonist sulpiride) and iii) effects of reward uncertainty. In the ORT, rats pressed an 'observing' lever for information about the location of an 'active' lever that provided food reinforcement. High- and low-checkers (defined from baseline observing) received quinpirole (0.5mg/kg, 10 treatments) or vehicle. Parametric task manipulations assessed observing/checking under increasing task demands relating to reinforcement uncertainty (variable response requirement and active-lever location switching). Treatment with sulpiride further probed the pharmacological basis of long-term behavioural changes. Quinpirole selectively increased checking, both functional observing lever presses (OLPs) and non-functional extra OLPs (EOLPs). The increase in OLPs and EOLPs was long-lasting, without further quinpirole administration. Quinpirole did not affect the immediate ability to use information from checking. Vehicle and quinpirole-treated rats (VEH and QNP respectively) were selectively sensitive to different forms of uncertainty. Sulpiride reduced non-functional EOLPs in QNP rats but had no effect on functional OLPs. These data have implications for treatment of compulsive checking in OCD, particularly for serotonin-reuptake-inhibitor treatment-refractory cases, where supplementation with dopamine receptor antagonists may be beneficial
Eagle, Dawn M.; Noschang, Cristie; d’Angelo, Laure-Sophie Camilla; Noble, Christie A.; Day, Jacob O.; Dongelmans, Marie Louise; Theobald, David E.; Mar, Adam C.; Urcelay, Gonzalo P.; Morein-Zamir, Sharon; Robbins, Trevor W.
Excessive checking is a common, debilitating symptom of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In an established rodent model of OCD checking behaviour, quinpirole (dopamine D2/3-receptor agonist) increased checking in open-field tests, indicating dopaminergic modulation of checking-like behaviours. We designed a novel operant paradigm for rats (observing response task (ORT)) to further examine cognitive processes underpinning checking behaviour and clarify how and why checking develops. We investigated i) how quinpirole increases checking, ii) dependence of these effects on D2/3 receptor function (following treatment with D2/3 receptor antagonist sulpiride) and iii) effects of reward uncertainty. In the ORT, rats pressed an ‘observing’ lever for information about the location of an ‘active’ lever that provided food reinforcement. High- and low-checkers (defined from baseline observing) received quinpirole (0.5 mg/kg, 10 treatments) or vehicle. Parametric task manipulations assessed observing/checking under increasing task demands relating to reinforcement uncertainty (variable response requirement and active-lever location switching). Treatment with sulpiride further probed the pharmacological basis of long-term behavioural changes. Quinpirole selectively increased checking, both functional observing lever presses (OLPs) and non-functional extra OLPs (EOLPs). The increase in OLPs and EOLPs was long-lasting, without further quinpirole administration. Quinpirole did not affect the immediate ability to use information from checking. Vehicle and quinpirole-treated rats (VEH and QNP respectively) were selectively sensitive to different forms of uncertainty. Sulpiride reduced non-functional EOLPs in QNP rats but had no effect on functional OLPs. These data have implications for treatment of compulsive checking in OCD, particularly for serotonin-reuptake-inhibitor treatment-refractory cases, where supplementation with dopamine receptor antagonists may be
Amy van der Heijden
Full Text Available Abstract Background Performing a tick check after visiting nature is considered the most important preventive measure to avoid contracting Lyme disease. Checking the body for ticks after visiting nature is the only measure that can fully guarantee whether one has been bitten by a tick and provides the opportunity to remove the tick as soon as possible, thereby greatly reducing the chance of contracting Lyme disease. However, compliance to performing the tick check is low. In addition, most previous studies on determinants of preventive measures to avoid Lyme disease lack a clear definition and/or operationalization of the term “preventive measures”. Those that do distinguish multiple behaviors including the tick check, fail to describe the systematic steps that should be followed in order to perform the tick check effectively. Hence, the purpose of this study was to identify determinants of systematically performing the tick check, based on social cognitive theory. Methods A cross-sectional self-administered survey questionnaire was filled out online by 508 respondents (Mage = 51.7, SD = 16.0; 50.2% men; 86.4% daily or weekly nature visitors. Bivariate correlations and multivariate regression analyses were conducted to identify associations between socio-cognitive determinants (i.e. concepts related to humans’ intrinsic and extrinsic motivation to perform certain behavior, and the tick check, and between socio-cognitive determinants and proximal goal to do the tick check. Results The full regression model explained 28% of the variance in doing the tick check. Results showed that performing the tick check was associated with proximal goal (β = .23, p < 0.01, self-efficacy (β = .22, p < 0.01, self-evaluative outcome expectations (β = .21, p < 0.01, descriptive norm (β = .16, p < 0.01, and experience (β = .13, p < 0.01. Conclusions Our study is among the first to examine the determinants of
Simpson, Helen Blair; Maher, Michael J.; Wang, Yuanjia; Bao, Yuanyuan; Foa, Edna B.; Franklin, Martin
Objective: To examine the effects of patient adherence on outcome from exposure and response prevention (EX/RP) therapy in adults with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method: Thirty adults with OCD were randomized to EX/RP (n = 15) or EX/RP augmented by motivational interviewing strategies (n = 15). Both treatments included 3 introductory…
Johnson, Paul M; Kenny, Paul J
We found that development of obesity was coupled with emergence of a progressively worsening deficit in neural reward responses. Similar changes in reward homeostasis induced by cocaine or heroin are considered to be crucial in triggering the transition from casual to compulsive drug-taking. Accordingly, we detected compulsive-like feeding behavior in obese but not lean rats, measured as palatable food consumption that was resistant to disruption by an aversive conditioned stimulus. Striatal dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs) were downregulated in obese rats, as has been reported in humans addicted to drugs. Moreover, lentivirus-mediated knockdown of striatal D2Rs rapidly accelerated the development of addiction-like reward deficits and the onset of compulsive-like food seeking in rats with extended access to palatable high-fat food. These data demonstrate that overconsumption of palatable food triggers addiction-like neuroadaptive responses in brain reward circuits and drives the development of compulsive eating. Common hedonic mechanisms may therefore underlie obesity and drug addiction.
Costa, Daniel L da Conceição; Barbosa, Veronica S; Requena, Guaraci; Shavitt, Roseli G; Pereira, Carlos A de Bragança; Diniz, Juliana B
We aimed to investigate which items of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Severity Scale best discriminate the reduction in total scores in obsessive-compulsive disorder patients after 4 and 12 weeks of pharmacological treatment. Data from 112 obsessive-compulsive disorder patients who received fluoxetine (⩽80 mg/day) for 12 weeks were included. Improvement indices were built for each Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Severity Scale item at two timeframes: from baseline to week 4 and from baseline to week 12. Indices for each item were correlated with the total scores for obsessions and compulsions and then ranked by correlation coefficient. A correlation coefficient ⩾0.7 was used to identify items that contributed significantly to reducing obsessive-compulsive disorder severity. At week 4, the distress items reached the threshold of 0.7 for improvement on the obsession and compulsion subscales although, contrary to our expectations, there was greater improvement in the control items than in the distress items. At week 12, there was greater improvement in the time, interference, and control items than in the distress items. The use of fluoxetine led first to reductions in distress and increases in control over symptoms before affecting the time spent on, and interference from, obsessions and compulsions. Resistance did not correlate with overall improvement. Understanding the pathway of improvement with pharmacological treatment in obsessive-compulsive disorder may provide clues about how to optimize the effects of medication.
Fontenelle, Leonardo F; Oostermeijer, Sanne; Harrison, Ben J; Pantelis, Christos; Yücel, Murat
The basic concepts underlying compulsive, impulsive and addictive behaviours overlap, which may help explain why laymen use these expressions interchangeably. Although there has been a large research effort to better characterize and disentangle these behaviours, clinicians and scientists are still unable to clearly differentiate them. Accordingly, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), impulse control disorders (ICD) and substance-related disorders (SUD) overlap on different levels, including phenomenology, co-morbidity, neurocircuitry, neurocognition, neurochemistry and family history. In this review we summarize these issues with particular emphasis on the role of the opioid system in the pathophysiology and treatment of OCD, ICD and SUD. We postulate that with progression and chronicity of OCD, the proportion of the OCD-related behaviours (e.g. checking, washing, ordering and hoarding, among others) that are driven by impulsive 'rash' processes increase as involvement of more ventral striatal circuits becomes prominent. In contrast, as SUD and ICD progress, the proportion of the SUD- and ICD-related behaviours that are driven by compulsive 'habitual' processes increase as involvement of more dorsal striatal circuits become prominent. We are not arguing that, with time, ICD becomes OCD or vice versa. Instead, we are proposing that these disorders may acquire qualities of the other with time. In other words, while patients with ICD/SUD may develop 'compulsive impulsions', patients with OCD may exhibit 'impulsive compulsions'. There are many potential implications of our model. Theoretically, OCD patients exhibiting impulsive or addictive features could be managed with drugs that address the quality of the underlying drives and the involvement of neural systems. For example, agents for the reduction or prevention of relapse of addiction (e.g. heavy drinking), which modulate the cortico-mesolimbic dopamine system through the opioid (e.g. buprenorphine and naltrexone
Jardin, Charles; Garey, Lorra; Sharp, Carla; Zvolensky, Michael J
Recent syndemic models of sexual health disparities affecting racial/ethnic minorities have highlighted the role of discrimination. Yet no previous work has examined how acculturative stress (distress at the transition from one's original culture toward a new culture) associates with sexual HIV-risk behavior (SHRB). Work among other minority populations suggests sexual compulsivity (SC) may contribute to syndemic sexual health disparities as a means of coping with distress. With this in mind, the present study examined whether SC explained the relation between acculturative stress and SHRB. Separate analyses were conducted for males and females within a sample of 758 sexually initiated racial/ethnic minority college students. Among males and females, acculturative stress had an indirect effect on SHRB via SC. As the first study to examine SHRB in relation to acculturative stress, findings provide preliminary evidence that targeting SC among racial/ethnic minorities may help reduce sexual health disparities. © The Author(s) 2015.
Williams, Monnica T; Mugno, Beth; Franklin, Martin; Faber, Sonya
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a severe condition with varied symptom presentations. Currently, the cognitive-behavioral treatment with the most empirical support is exposure and ritual prevention (EX/RP); however, clinical impression and some empirical data suggest that certain OCD symptoms are more responsive to treatment than others. Prior work identifying symptom dimensions within OCD is discussed, including epidemiological findings, factor analytic studies, and biological findings. Symptom dimensions most reliably identified include contamination/cleaning, doubt about harm/checking, symmetry/ordering, and unacceptable thoughts/mental rituals. The phenomenology of each of these subtypes is described and research literature is summarized, emphasizing the differential effects of EX/RP and its variants on each of these primary symptom dimensions. To date it appears that EX/RP is an effective treatment for the various OCD dimensions, although not all dimensions have been adequately studied (i.e. symmetry and ordering). Modifications to treatment may be warranted for some types of symptoms. Clinical implications and directions for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Wolmarans, De Wet; Stein, Dan J; Harvey, Brian H
Greater obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptom severity may be associated with poor social adjustment. Rather than possessing deficits in social skill per se, OCD patients may be more socially isolative in the presence of normal controls. We aimed to apply a novel social interaction challenge (SIC) to an established animal model of OCD, viz., the deer mouse, to assess complex social behavior in animals by investigating group sociability and its response to chronic escitalopram treatment (50 mg/kg/day × 28 days), both within and between non (N)- (viz., normal) and high (H)- (viz., OCD-like) stereotypical cohorts. Using automated screening, we scored approach behavior, episodes of proximity, duration of proximity, and relative net weighted movement. H animals socialized more with one another within cohort in all of the above parameters compared to the within-cohort behavior of N animals. Furthermore, the social behavior of H animals toward one another, both within and between cohort demonstrated significant improvements following chronic escitalopram treatment. However, the study also demonstrates that the social interaction between H and N animals remain poor even after chronic escitalopram treatment. To conclude, findings from the current investigation support clinical data demonstrating altered sociability in patients with OCD.
Full Text Available Mika Konishi1, Kurie Shishikura2, Shutaro Nakaaki3, Shin-ichi Komatsu4, Masaru Mimura11Department of Neuropsychiatry, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo; 2Department of Neuropsychiatry, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kanagawa; 3Department of Psychiatry and Cognitive-Behavioral Medicine, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Science, Nagoya; 4Faculty of Education, Shinshu University, Nagano, JapanAbstract: It has been reported that episodic memory seems to be impaired in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD because the patients repeat a specific checking behavior, but it is still unknown if OCD patients show memory impairments associated with their unique symptoms or not. To study episodic memory in OCD patients, we examined the directed forgetting effect. Patients with OCD and healthy control participants were given a list of 24 emotionally neutral everyday words (12 remember [R]-cued words and 12 forget [F]-cued words under two conditions: List and Item. The results of our study showed that OCD patients recalled a number of F-cued words similar to that for controls and relatively fewer R-cued words than controls under both List and Item conditions. Consequently, the directed forgetting effect was smaller in OCD patients than controls. Our results demonstrated that both selective encoding and retrieval inhibition processes are impaired in OCD, and we suggest that recall of unfavorable items to be forgotten intruded into necessary items to be remembered. This impairment in episodic memory may partially account for some of the unique clinical symptoms of OCD.Keywords: episodic memory, retrieval inhibition, selective encoding
Beucke, Jan C; Sepulcre, Jorge; Buhlmann, Ulrike; Kathmann, Norbert; Moody, Teena; Feusner, Jamie D
Individuals with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are categorized within the same major diagnostic group and both show regional brain hyperactivity in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and the basal ganglia during symptom provocation. While recent studies revealed that degree connectivity of these areas is abnormally high in OCD and positively correlates with symptom severity, no study has investigated degree connectivity in BDD. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare the local and distant degree of functional connectivity in all brain areas between 28 unmedicated BDD participants and 28 demographically matched healthy controls during a face-processing task. Correlational analyses tested for associations between degree connectivity and symptom severity assessed by the BDD version of the Yale-Brown obsessive-compulsive scale (BDD-Y-BOCS). Reduced local amygdalar connectivity was found in participants with BDD. No differences in distant connectivity were found. BDD-Y-BOCS scores significantly correlated with the local connectivity of the posterior-lateral OFC, and distant connectivity of the posterior-lateral and post-central OFC, respectively. These findings represent preliminary evidence that individuals with BDD exhibit brain-behavioral associations related to obsessive thoughts and compulsive behaviors that are highly similar to correlations previously found in OCD, further underscoring their related pathophysiology. This relationship could be further elucidated through investigation of resting-state functional connectivity in BDD, ideally in direct comparison with OCD and other obsessive-compulsive and related disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.
Pinto, Anthony; Liebowitz, Michael R.; Foa, Edna B.; Simpson, H. Blair
Despite elevated rates of obsessive compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), no study has specifically examined comorbid OCPD as a predictor of exposure and ritual prevention (EX/RP) outcome. Participants were adult outpatients (n = 49) with primary OCD and a Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS) total score ≥ 16 despite a therapeutic serotonin reuptake inhibitor dose for at least 12 weeks prior to entry. Participants received 17 ses...
Sansone, Randy A; Chang, Joy; Jewell, Bryan; Sellbom, Martin; Bidwell, Mark
In this study, the authors investigated the relationship between compulsive buying and borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptomatology--two disorders possibly linked through impulsivity. Using a survey methodology in a cross-sectional consecutive sample of nonemergent female outpatients from an obstetrics/gynecology clinic, the authors assessed compulsive buying with the compulsive buying scale (CBS) and BPD symptomatology through the BPD scale of the personality diagnostic questionnaire-4 (PDQ-4) and the self-harm Inventory (SHI). In this sample, 8% of Caucasian women and 9% of African-American women scored positively for compulsive buying. The correlations between scores on the CBS and the PDQ-4 and SHI were 0.43 and 0.41, respectively-both statistically significant at the p buying and BPD, particularly among African-American women.
Peris, Tara S.; Sugar, Catherine A.; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Chang, Susanna; Langley, Audra; Piacentini, John
Objective: To examine family conflict, parental blame, and poor family cohesion as predictors of treatment outcome for youths receiving family-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (FCBT) for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method: We analyzed data from a sample of youths who were randomized to FCBT (n = 49; 59% male; M age = 12.43 years) as…
Xie, Chunming; Ma, Lisha; Jiang, Nan; Huang, Ruyan; Li, Li; Gong, Liang; He, Cancan; Xiao, Chaoyong; Liu, Wen; Xu, Shu; Zhang, Zhijun
Altered reward processing and cognitive deficits are often observed in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD); however, whether the imbalance in activity between reward circuits and the cognitive control (CC) system is associated with compulsive behavior remains unknown. Sixty-eight OCD patients and 33 cognitively normal (CN) healthy subjects participated in this resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Alterations in the functional connectivity between reward circuits and the CC system were quantitatively assessed and compared between the groups. A Granger causality analysis was used to determine the causal informational influence between and within reward circuits and the CC system across all subjects. OCD patients showed a dichotomous pattern of enhanced functional coupling in their reward circuits and a weakened functional coupling in their CC system when compared to CN subjects. Neural correlates of compulsive behavior were primarily located in the reward circuits and CC system in OCD patients. Importantly, the CC system exerted a reduced interregional causal influence over the reward system in OCD patients relative to its effect in CN subjects. The limitations of this study are that it was a cross-sectional study and the potential effects of environmental and genetic factors were not explored. OCD patients showed an imbalance in the functional link between reward circuits and the CC system at rest. This bias toward a loss of control may define a pathological state in which subjects are more vulnerable to engaging in compulsive behaviors.
Sonego, Ina L; Mosler, Hans-Joachim
A variety of hygiene behaviors are fundamental to the prevention of diarrhea. We used spot-checks in a survey of 761 households in Burundi to examine whether something we could call general hygiene practice is responsible for more specific hygiene behaviors, ranging from handwashing to sweeping the floor. Using structural equation modeling, we showed that clusters of hygiene behavior, such as primary caregivers' cleanliness and household cleanliness, explained the spot-check findings well. Within our model, general hygiene practice as overall concept explained the more specific clusters of hygiene behavior well. Furthermore, the higher general hygiene practice, the more likely children were to be categorized healthy (r = 0.46). General hygiene practice was correlated with commitment to hygiene (r = 0.52), indicating a strong association to psychosocial determinants. The results show that different hygiene behaviors co-occur regularly. Using spot-checks, the general hygiene practice of a household can be rated quickly and easily.
Jardin, Charles; Sharp, Carla; Garey, Lorra; Vanwoerden, Salome; Crist, Nic; Elhai, Jon D; Zvolensky, Michael J
Having more sexual partners increases the likelihood of new HIV infections among women. Women with more borderline personality disorder (BPD) features have been known to have greater numbers of sexual partners. However, the mechanisms linking BPD features with more sexual partners remain to be clarified. Sexual compulsivity (lack of control, increased distress over sexual behavior) may be one such explanatory factor, as it overlaps with BPD features (e.g., impulsivity, negative affectivity). The present study examined whether sexual compulsivity explained the relation of BPD features with number of sexual partners among a diverse sample of college females (N = 1,326). Results demonstrated a significant indirect effect of BPD features via sexual compulsivity on number of sexual partners. These findings support the relation between BPD features and sexual compulsivity and suggest sexual compulsivity as a target in the promotion of the sexual health of women with BPD who demonstrate risky sexual practices.
Olatunji, Bunmi O; Rosenfield, David; Monzani, Benedetta; Krebs, Georgina; Heyman, Isobel; Turner, Cynthia; Isomura, Kayoko; Mataix-Cols, David
The present study examined the effects of homework compliance on outcome from cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for children with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and the extent to which these effects differ as a function of augmentation of CBT with D-cycloserine (DCS). Twenty-seven youth with OCD were randomized to either 50 mg DCS or placebo (PBO) administered immediately after each of 10 CBT sessions, primarily consisting of exposure and ritual prevention (ERP). Independent evaluators assessed OCD severity using the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS) at the start of each session. Compliance with between-session ERP assignments was also assessed at the start of each session using the Patient ERP Adherence Scale (PEAS). Greater homework compliance between the previous session and the current session was related to lower CY-BOCS at the current session. However, the relation between homework compliance and CY-BOCS varied by treatment condition. Higher homework compliance was related to lower CY-BOCS for participants in the DCS condition, but not for participants in the PBO condition. Furthermore, participants receiving DCS were estimated to have significantly lower CY-BOCS than those given PBO among those with the highest levels of homework compliance. DCS may more effectively facilitate the effects of CBT for youth with OCD when patients are compliant with prescribed homework. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Voon, V; Derbyshire, K; Rück, C; Irvine, M A; Worbe, Y; Enander, J; Schreiber, L R N; Gillan, C; Fineberg, N A; Sahakian, B J; Robbins, T W; Harrison, N A; Wood, J; Daw, N D; Dayan, P; Grant, J E; Bullmore, E T
Why do we repeat choices that we know are bad for us? Decision making is characterized by the parallel engagement of two distinct systems, goal-directed and habitual, thought to arise from two computational learning mechanisms, model-based and model-free. The habitual system is a candidate source of pathological fixedness. Using a decision task that measures the contribution to learning of either mechanism, we show a bias towards model-free (habit) acquisition in disorders involving both natural (binge eating) and artificial (methamphetamine) rewards, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. This favoring of model-free learning may underlie the repetitive behaviors that ultimately dominate in these disorders. Further, we show that the habit formation bias is associated with lower gray matter volumes in caudate and medial orbitofrontal cortex. Our findings suggest that the dysfunction in a common neurocomputational mechanism may underlie diverse disorders involving compulsion.
Rodgers, Stephanie; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Kawohl, Wolfram; Müller, Mario; Rössler, Wulf; Hengartner, Michael P; Castelao, Enrique; Vandeleur, Caroline; Angst, Jules; Preisig, Martin
Due to its heterogeneous phenomenology, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been subtyped. However, these subtypes are not mutually exclusive. This study presents an alternative subtyping approach by deriving non-overlapping OCD subtypes. A pure compulsive and a mixed obsessive-compulsive subtype (including subjects manifesting obsessions with/without compulsions) were analyzed with respect to a broad pattern of psychosocial risk factors and comorbid syndromes/diagnoses in three representative Swiss community samples: the Zurich Study (n = 591), the ZInEP sample (n = 1500), and the PsyCoLaus sample (n = 3720). A selection of comorbidities was examined in a pooled database. Odds ratios were derived from logistic regressions and, in the analysis of pooled data, multilevel models. The pure compulsive subtype showed a lower age of onset and was characterized by few associations with psychosocial risk factors. The higher social popularity of the pure compulsive subjects and their families was remarkable. Comorbidities within the pure compulsive subtype were mainly restricted to phobias. In contrast, the mixed obsessive-compulsive subtype had a higher prevalence and was associated with various childhood adversities, more familial burden, and numerous comorbid disorders, including disorders characterized by high impulsivity. The current comparison study across three representative community surveys presented two basic, distinct OCD subtypes associated with differing psychosocial impairment. Such highly specific subtypes offer the opportunity to learn about pathophysiological mechanisms specifically involved in OCD.
Weldon, W.F.; Bird, W.L.; Driga, M.D.; Rylander, H.G.; Tolk, K.M.; Woodson, H.H.
This chapter describes a pulsed power supply utilizing inertial energy storage as a possible replacement for large capacitor banks. The compulsator overcomes many of the limitations of the pulsed homopolar generators previously developed by the Center for Electromechanics and elsewhere in that it offers high voltage (10's of kV) and consequently higher pulse rise times, is self commutating, and offers the possibility of generating repetitive pulses. The compulsator converts rotational inertial energy directly into electrical energy utilizing the principles of both magnetic induction and flux compression. The theory of operation, a prototype compulsator design, and advanced compulsator designs are discussed
Eisen, Jane L.; Coles, Meredith E.; Shea, M. Tracie; Pagano, Maria E.; Stout, Robert L.; Yen, Shirley; Grilo, Carlos M.; Rasmussen, Steven A.
In this study we examined the convergence between obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) criteria and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Baseline assessments of 629 participants of the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study were used to examine the associations between OCPD criteria and diagnoses of OCD. Three of the eight OCPD criteria—hoarding, perfectionism, and preoccupation with details—were significantly more frequent in subjects with OCD (n = 89) than in sub...
Mitchell, James E; Redlin, Jennifer; Wonderlich, Steve; Crosby, Ross; Faber, Ron; Miltenberger, Ray; Smyth, Joshua; Stickney, Marci; Gosnell, Blake; Burgard, Melissa; Lancaster, Kathy
Compulsive buying has received increased research attention in the last decade. The disorder has high rates of comorbidity for other disorders, including eating disorders. This study explored the possible relationship between compulsive buying and eating disorders. Twenty women who scored in the pathological range on a measure of compulsive buying and 20 controls were recruited via the media. Various measures of psychopathology and eating disorder symptoms were administered to both groups. Compulsive buyers were significantly more likely to have a higher lifetime history of substance abuse or dependence. No differences existed between normal controls and compulsive buyers in prevalence of current or lifetime eating disorders, nor were there differences in scores of eating-related psychopathology. This work failed to demonstrate an increased risk for eating disorder in compulsive buyers, although a higher rate of substance dependence or abuse and higher scores on pathological personality dimension scales were seen.
Bonchek, Avigdor; Greenberg, David
Religious symptoms have been recognized as a presentation of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) for centuries. The two main treatment strategies for OCD, cognitive behavior therapy (exposure and response prevention [ERP]), and SSRIs have been shown to be effective in religious OCD. The presentation of religious OCD within formal prayer, reported in Judaism and Islam, poses special challenges of inaccessibility of personal prayer, sanctity of the symptom, and the status of the therapist. A method of guided-prayer repetition, a variant of ERP, is described, and its successful application is reported in three cases of ultra-orthodox Jewish men with prayer as the main symptom of their religious OCD.
Full Text Available Background: Obsessive compulsive symptoms in schizophrenia are well recognized but are a less-researched entity. These symptoms have important implications for management and prognosis. Aim: To find out the prevalence of obsessive compulsive symptoms among patients with schizophrenia. Materials and Methods: A total of 90 hospitalized patients with schizophrenia diagnosed according to DCR of ICD-10 criteria were selected for the study. Padua inventory and Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale were applied to find out the prevalence and nature of obsessive compulsive symptoms . Results: It was found that 10% of schizophrenic patients had obsessive compulsive symptoms. Conclusion: Obsessive compulsive symptoms are prevalent in patients with schizophrenia. The presence of comorbidity should be explored for adequate management.
Sabetnejad, Zahra; Assarian, Fatemeh; Omidi, Abdollah; Najarzadegan, Mohammad Reza
Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is a mental health concern due to its various negative consequences, especially in sexual function. Therefore, the treatment of sexual dysfunction in women with OCD is important in order to improve the patient's marital function and mental health. To compare the sexual behavior and sexual and marital satisfaction in women with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) before and after treatment with fluoxetine and cognitive behavior therapy. This randomized clinical trial was conducted at psychiatric and psychological counseling centers in Kashan (Iran) from January 2, 2014, to December 29, 2014. Fifty-eight women with OCD were included in the study. In order to compare the effectiveness of pharmacological treatment (fluoxetine) and psychological treatment, cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), 58 female patients with OCD (diagnosed based on DSM-IV-T criteria) were randomized equally to either fluoxetine (at a dose of 60-80 mg daily for 3 months) or CBT (10 45-minute sessions). OCD and sexual behavior status of the patients before and after the intervention was assessed with the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) and Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaire, respectively. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 22. To compare changes between the two groups, an independent T-test was used. Finally, the effects of all potential factors on treatment outcome were analyzed using factorial ANCOVA. The mean score for OCD in the fluoxetine group was 25.6 ± 4.8 at the beginning of the experiment and 18.79 ± 4.26 at the end of the study, while in the CBT group it was 25.6 ± 4.8 and 18.79 ± 4.26, respectively. No significant differences were found between two groups regarding obsession score changes. These scores in fluoxetine group were 58.1 and 52.8, respectively (p=0.046). There was a significant difference between the two groups in terms of sexual performance (p=0.003). In this study, our findings demonstrate a
Boermans, J A J; Egger, J I M
Compulsive buyers feel a continual urge to buy things, irrespective of their financial means. Interest in compulsive buying has increased in the last 30 to 40 years. Since excessive buying is a regularly occurring feature of various illnesses encountered in clinical practice, one wonders whether it should be regarded as a sign of the times, as a symptom of a psychiatric illness or as a distinct psychiatric syndrome. To gain insight into the concept of compulsive buying. We searched the literature via Medline, PubMed and PsycInfo for the period from 1966 to August 2008. results Compulsive buying is a relatively unknown and poorly defined phenomenon, despite its high incidence and high comorbidity. It is characterised by chronic, repetetive behaviour; it occurs mainly among women and should be classified as an impulsive-control disorder nos. Current aetiological models lack explanatory power and, so far, the most successful treatment results seem to have been achieved with behavioural therapy. Compulsive buying should be considered from a neuroscientific perspective. Future research needs to have a neuropsychiatric focus and a contextual psychological and behavioural analytical approach in which inhibition, self-control and rule-governed behaviour play a central role.
Full Text Available Joseph O'Neill,1 Jamie D Feusner,2 1Division of Child Psychiatry, 2Division of Adult Psychiatry, UCLA Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: This article reviews issues related to a major challenge to the field for obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD: improving access to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT. Patient-related barriers to access include the stigma of OCD and reluctance to take on the demands of CBT. Patient-external factors include the shortage of trained CBT therapists and the high costs of CBT. The second half of the review focuses on one partial, yet plausible aid to improve access – prediction of long-term response to CBT, particularly using neuroimaging methods. Recent pilot data are presented revealing a potential for pretreatment resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the brain to forecast OCD symptom severity up to 1 year after completing CBT. Keywords: follow-up, access to treatment, relapse, resting-state fMRI, magnetic resonance spectroscopy
... negative thinking and low self-esteem. Why Is Exercising Too Much a Bad Thing? We all know ... spent with friends. Warning Signs Someone may be exercising compulsively if he or she: won't skip ...
Obsessive compulsive symptoms are commonly reported in those with schizophrenia. Clozapine has previously been reported to induce, aggravate and alleviate these symptoms. It is unclear if these are similar to the symptoms experienced by those with obsessive compulsive disorder. This study describes the obsessive compulsive symptom profile of a population of patients with schizophrenia treated with clozapine (n = 62) and compares this with patients with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (n = 35). All participants were attending an outpatient community mental health service. The Obsessive Compulsive Inventory (which measures the frequency and associated distress of a range of "behavioural" and "cognitive" symptoms), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and a demographic questionnaire were completed. In addition the schizophrenia group treated with clozapine completed the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. The OCD group reported significantly more symptoms for all OCI subscales compared to the clozapine group. Overall fourteen (22%) of the schizophrenia treated with clozapine group had clinically significant total OCI scores. Two (3%) had documented OCS pre clozapine. De novo OCS was reported in twelve (19%) cases. Nine (11%) had documented OC symptoms pre-clozapine while only two (3%) had symptoms after clozapine was initiated. In terms of OC symptom profile, the clozapine group scored highest on the Doubting scale, a cognitive symptom whereas the OCD group scored highest on Washing, a behavioural symptom. Both groups reported greater distress with cognitive rather than behavioural symptoms. Medication including clozapine dose was not correlated with symptom severity. Anxiety correlated highly with obsessive compulsive symptoms in the Clozapine group but not the OCD group. Within the Clozapine group, Obsessing correlated highly with Unusual Thought Content. Findings suggest that obsessive compulsive symptoms in the Clozapine group may reflect a subtype of \\'schizo
Claes, Laurence; Bijttebier, Patricia; Mitchell, James E; de Zwaan, Martina; Mueller, Astrid
The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between compulsive buying (CB), eating disorder symptoms, and temperament (controlling for depression) in a sample of female students. We assessed 211 female undergraduate students using the Compulsive Buying Scale, the Eating Disorder Inventory, the Behavioral Inhibition System and Behavioral Activation System scales, the Adult Temperament Questionnaire, and the Physical Health Questionnaire-Depression. The results show a positive association between CB and the Eating Disorder Inventory-II drive for thinness and bulimia subscales. Both CB and eating disorder symptoms were related to low levels of effortful control. Finally, CB was also related to high levels of Behavioral Activation Scale reactivity (impulsivity), whereas eating disorder symptoms (especially drive for thinness) were more strongly related to high levels of Behavioral Inhibition Scale reactivity (anxiety). The implications of these findings for the treatment of CB and eating disorder symptoms will be discussed. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Caporino, Nicole E.; Morgan, Jessica; Beckstead, Jason; Phares, Vicky; Murphy, Tanya K.; Storch, Eric A.
Family accommodation of symptoms is counter to the primary goals of cognitive-behavioral therapy for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and can pose an obstacle to positive treatment outcomes. Although increased attention has been given to family accommodation in pediatric OCD, relatively little is known about associated child and…
Full Text Available Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a chronic, debilitating syndrome, consisting of intrusive thoughts- which are experienced as inappropriate by the patient and are producing anxiety- and compulsions, defined as repetitive behaviours produced to reduce anxiety. While patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder typically have xerosis, eczema or lichen simplex chronicus, as a result of frequent washing or rubbing their skin, several other disorders which are included in the group of factitious disorders have also been associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder. A close collaboration between the dermatologist and the psychiatrist is therefore mandatory in order to achieve favourable outcomes for these patients. The aim of the article is to present the most frequent dermatological disorders associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder and to look over some of the rare ones.
Johnson, E E; Nora, R M; Bustos, N
Profile surveys, completed Rotter I-E scales, and questionnaires on past relapse behavior were collected from 108 New Jersey compulsive gamblers who attended Gamblers Anonymous, and an attempt was made, based on the findings, to predict incidence of compulsive gamblers' relapse. Relationships between I-E scores and extent of relapse-free periods, and I-E scores and relapse, with the variables of religious background, age, marital status, education, type of work, and childhood physical abuse were investigated. In every instance the relationship found was statistically non-significant.
VANOPPEN, P; HOEKSTRA, RJ; EMMELKAMP, PMG
In the present study, the structure of obsessive-compulsive symptoms was investigated by means of the Padua Inventory (PI). Simultaneous Components Analysis on data from obsessive-compulsives (n = 206), patients with other anxiety disorders (n = 222), and a non clinical sample (n = 430) revealed a
... to hurt yourself or someone else, you report sexual abuse of a child, or you report abuse or neglect of someone in a vulnerable population. Seek treatment right away Seek immediate ... uncontrolled sexual behavior You have other problems with impulse control, ...
Kikkert, Martijn J; Driessen, Ellen; Peen, Jaap; Barber, Jacques P; Bockting, Claudi; Schalkwijk, Frans; Dekker, Jeff; Dekker, Jack J M
Barber and Muenz (1996) reported that cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) was more effective than interpersonal therapy (IPT) for depressed patients with elevated levels of avoidant personality disorder, while IPT was more effective than CBT in patients with elevated levels of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. These findings may have important clinical implications, but have not yet been replicated. We conducted a study using data from a randomized clinical trial comparing the efficacy of CBT and short-term psychodynamic supportive psychotherapy in the outpatient treatment of depression. We found no evidence indicating that avoidant patients may benefit more from CBT compared to short-term psychodynamic supportive therapy (SPSP). Our results indicate that treatment effect does not depend on the level of avoidance, or obsessive-compulsiveness personality disorders further examine the influence of personality disorders on the effectiveness of CBT or psychodynamic therapy in the treatment of depression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Building upon past research about the guiding values and self-regulation difficulties of people with narcissistic personalities, this study tested a model of the association between narcissism and compulsive consumption. In data obtained from a sample of undergraduate consumers (N=238) with varying degrees of spending problems, positive associations emerged between narcissism, materialism, and compulsive buying. Impulse control was negatively correlated with each of these variables. Mediation tests revealed that both impulse control and materialism accounted for significant portions of the shared variance between narcissism and compulsive consumption. These findings highlight the importance of both personal values and impulse control as correlates of addictive buying. They also add to growing evidence that people who are relatively narcissistic are poor self-regulators who may be at risk of developing a variety of addictive behaviors.
Md. Hafizur Rahman Chowdhury
Full Text Available Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD is a common disorder characterised by persistent and unwanted intrusive thoughts, images, and urges and repetitive behaviours or mental acts and can cause pervasive impairments. In Bangladesh, the prevalence of OCD among children is 2% which is higher than in previous reporting. This study was aimed at looking into the type, frequency, and severity of symptoms of OCD and comorbidity among children and adolescents. A consecutive 60 OCD cases from a child mental health service with age range of 5–18 years were recruited and divided into below and above 12 years of age group. The assessment was carried out using standardized Bangla version of Development and Wellbeing Assessment and Children’s Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale was administered. Of the obsession, contamination was the highest followed by doubt, and of the compulsion, washing/cleaning was the highest followed by checking, repeating, and ordering rituals. More than half of the subjects had severe OCD and comorbidity was present in 58% subjects. Specific phobia, social phobia, major depressive disorder, and tic disorder were more prevalent. These symptoms and comorbidity profile can serve the baseline data for a country like Bangladesh and further large scale study would better generalize the study results.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pathological gambling (PG and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD are conceptualized as a behavioral addiction, with a dependency on repetitive gambling behavior and rewarding effects following compulsive behavior, respectively. However, no neuroimaging studies to date have examined reward circuitry during the anticipation phase of reward in PG compared with in OCD while considering repetitive gambling and compulsion as addictive behaviors. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To elucidate the neural activities specific to the anticipation phase of reward, we performed event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in young adults with PG and compared them with those in patients with OCD and healthy controls. Fifteen male patients with PG, 13 patients with OCD, and 15 healthy controls, group-matched for age, gender, and IQ, participated in a monetary incentive delay task during fMRI scanning. Neural activation in the ventromedial caudate nucleus during anticipation of both gain and loss decreased in patients with PG compared with that in patients with OCD and healthy controls. Additionally, reduced activation in the anterior insula during anticipation of loss was observed in patients with PG compared with that in patients with OCD which was intermediate between that in OCD and healthy controls (healthy controls < PG < OCD, and a significant positive correlation between activity in the anterior insula and South Oaks Gambling Screen score was found in patients with PG. CONCLUSIONS: Decreased neural activity in the ventromedial caudate nucleus during anticipation may be a specific neurobiological feature for the pathophysiology of PG, distinguishing it from OCD and healthy controls. Correlation of anterior insular activity during loss anticipation with PG symptoms suggests that patients with PG fit the features of OCD associated with harm avoidance as PG symptoms deteriorate. Our findings have identified functional disparities and
Robbins, T W; Clark, L
Behavioral addictions are slowly becoming recognized as a valid category of psychiatric disorder as shown by the recent allocation of pathological gambling to this category in DSM-5. However, several other types of psychiatric disorder proposed to be examples of behavioral addictions have yet to be accorded this formal acknowledgment and are dispersed across other sections of the DSM-5. This brief review marks this important point in the evolution of this concept and looks to future investigation of behavioral addictions with the theoretical frameworks currently being used successfully to investigate substance addiction and obsessive-compulsive disorder, in a potentially new spectrum of impulsive-compulsive disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
García-Soriano, Gemma; Belloch, Amparo
This article examines whether self-worth contingencies in the personal domains of cleanliness, morality, hoarding, certainty, accuracy, religion and respect for others have specific associations with obsessive symptoms and cognitions in individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Fifty-seven patients with a primary diagnosis of OCD completed the Obsessional Concerns and Self Questionnaire (OCSQ), designed to assess the extent to which respondents consider OCD content domains relevant to their self-worth, along with a battery of other instruments. Results indicate that the OCSQ is more associated with OCD than with non-OCD anxiety symptoms, and that it is also associated with comorbid depressive symptoms in OCD patients. Moreover, the OCSQ-Order and Cleanliness and Hoarding dimensions are associated with their symptom counterparts (i.e., contamination, checking, order, hoarding and neutralizing). OCSQ domains were highly associated with dysfunctional beliefs about obsessions. However, only the OCSQ scores, but not the dysfunctional beliefs, predicted OCD symptoms. These results support cognitive conceptualizations implicating self-concept in OCD development, and they suggest the need to further analyze the influence of self-worth in OCD development and maintenance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Delucchi, Kevin L; Katerberg, Hilga; Stewart, S Evelyn; Denys, Damiaan A J P; Lochner, Christine; Stack, Denise E; den Boer, Johan A; van Balkom, Anton J L M; Jenike, Michael A; Stein, Dan J; Cath, Danielle C; Mathews, Carol A
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is phenomenologically heterogeneous, and findings of underlying structure classification based on symptom grouping have been ambiguous to date. Variable-centered approaches, primarily factor analysis, have been used to identify homogeneous groups of symptoms; but person-centered latent methods have seen little use. This study was designed to uncover sets of homogeneous groupings within 1611 individuals with OCD based on symptoms. Latent class analysis models using 61 obsessive-compulsive symptoms collected from the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale were fit. Relationships between latent class membership and treatment response, sex, symptom severity, and comorbid tic disorders were tested for relationship to class membership. Latent class analysis models of best fit yielded 3 classes. Classes differed only in frequency of symptom endorsement. Classes with higher symptom endorsement were associated with earlier age of onset, being male, higher Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale symptom severity scores, and comorbid tic disorders. There were no differences in treatment response between classes. These results provide support for the validity of a single underlying latent OCD construct, in addition to the distinct symptom factors identified previously via factor analyses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Miltenberger, Raymond G; Redlin, Jennifer; Crosby, Ross; Stickney, Marcella; Mitchell, Jim; Wonderlich, Stephen; Faber, Ronald; Smyth, Joshua
Compulsive buying is a disorder that has begun to receive attention from researchers in recent years. The results of a handful of studies suggest that compulsive buying occurs in response to negative emotions and results in a decrease in the intensity of the negative emotions. In this investigation, we used interview and self-monitoring methods to evaluate the antecedents and consequences of compulsive buying in a sample of women who met criteria for compulsive buying on the compulsive buying scale (J. Consumer Res. 19 (1992) 459). As a group, the participants reported negative emotions as the most common antecedents to compulsive buying, and euphoria or relief from the negative emotions as the most common consequence of compulsive buying. These findings were consistent across the interview and self-monitoring assessment methods. The implications for assessment and treatment are discussed.
... compulsive habit when it is done for the wrong reasons. Some people start exercising with weight loss as their main ... developing normally. This is especially true if the person also has an eating disorder. Girls who overexercise and restrict their eating ...
Yong, Roseline Kim Fong; Inoue, Akiomi; Kawakami, Norito
Prolonged Internet use is often associated with reduced social involvement and comorbid psychopathologies, including depression, anxiety, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Asian countries where Internet access is widely available have high reported levels of Internet addiction. As Internet use has changed drastically since concerns about Internet addiction were first raised, the results of recent studies may be inaccurate because the scales they employed to measure Internet addiction were formulated for different Internet usage from the present. It is thus necessary to develop more-up-to-date scales to assess problematic private use of the Internet. The Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS) was translated into Japanese. An online sample whose ages and sexes reflected that of the national population of Internet users was recruited to test the scale's reliability and validity. Correlations between the scale and Internet-related parameters (such as time spent online, motivation for going online, and applications used) and psychosocial factors (such as psychological distress symptoms and loneliness) were examined. Psychometric properties were examined by the split-half method using both exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Model fits were compared across gender. CIUS was found to have a high reliability and good concurrent, correlation and construct validity. Both exploratory and confirmatory factors revealed that the one-factor solution yielded a satisfactory result across gender. However, the three-factor structural model in which compulsiveness was gauged by "excessive absorption", "difficulty in setting priorities", and "mood regulation" gave the best fit of the model for the general population as well as across gender. Compulsive Internet behavior in Japan can be assessed in terms of absorption, priorities, and mood. CIUS is a valid scale for screening compulsive Internet behavior in the general Japanese
Full Text Available Jing Xia,1 Yanqiu Du,2 Jiyang Han,1 Guo Liu,1 Xumei Wang11Department of Psychiatry, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Heping District Shenyang, Liaoning, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Medicine, Shenyang Ninth People’s Hospital, Tiexi District, Shenyang, Liaoning, People’s Republic of ChinaObjective: To evaluate the overall effect of D-cycloserine (DCS augmentation on exposure and response prevention (ERP therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD.Methods: Clinical studies on the effect of DCS augmentation on ERP therapy for OCD compared to placebo were included for meta analysis. The primary outcome was the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS. Meta-analyses were performed with a random-effect model or a fixed-effect model using the Cochrane Review Manager (RevMan, version 5.2 to calculate the odds ratio and the mean difference, with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals.Results: A total of six studies was included in the current meta-analyses, and their data were extracted. Among them, four were for analyses of DCS and Y-BOCS at midtreatment, six for analysis at posttreatment, and four at 3-month follow-up. Besides, three of the six eligible studies were included in the meta-analysis of the DCS and Clinical Global Impression – Severity Scale at posttreatment, and three in the meta-analysis of DCS and proportions of treatment responders and of subjects attaining clinical remission status criteria at posttreatment. Our meta-analyses do not reveal a significant effect of DCS augmentation in ERP therapy for OCD patients, except when measured at midtreatment. Compared to the placebo group, DCS augmentation did show a trend toward significantly lower/decreased Y-BOCS; when measured at posttreatment and in the subpopulation of DCS taken before some of the ERP sessions, DCS augmentation showed a trend toward significantly lower/decreased Y-BOCS.Conclusion: Our result suggested that with the careful
The techniques used for treating compulsive gamblers are reviewed. They include psychoanalytic psychotherapy, aversion therapy, marital therapy, and self-help groups (Gamblers Anonymous). The problems especially important in treating compulsive gamblers include lack of motivation for change and the role of the significant others in maintaining the gambler as the scapegoat of the family. Although therapists report good success in treating gamblers, the sporadic nature of gambling probably inflates "success' rates.
Thornhill, Kate; Kellett, Stephen; Davies, Jason
This study investigated how compulsive buyers make sense of their excessive shopping behaviour to explore possible sources of heterogeneity between compulsive buyers. Twenty female participants met 'caseness' for compulsive buying (CB) on the CB Scale (CBS), prior to completing a Q-sort specifically related to their experiences of shopping. Participants provided details of occupation, income, and debt levels and completed two psychometric scales: the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale-Shopping Version (YBOCS-SV). Principle component analysis (PCA) identified two groups within the compulsive buyers (labelled positive reinforcement and emotional distress) that explained 44% of the study variance. Ten women defined the positive reinforcement factor and tended to identify with pleasurable aspects of buying. Six women characterized the emotional distress factor and endorsed varied financial, emotional, and interpersonal difficulties associated with their CB. The emotional distress group carried significantly greater current debt levels and had significantly more severe CB. The study illustrates that compulsive buyers can relate to their 'symptoms' in dissimilar ways. The clinical implications of such heterogeneity are discussed, methodological shortcomings identified, and areas for future research indicated. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.
Marston, Albert R.; And Others
Surveyed addictive behavior, finding 26% of male and 57% of female high school students scored above cutoff point on the Overeaters Anonymous scale for assessing compulsive overeating. At-risk students perceived their life quality and relationship with person closest to them as significantly less positive, indicated overeating's defensive…
Simpson, Helen Blair; Zuckoff, Allan
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a leading cause of health-related disability. There are two evidence-based treatments for OCD, pharmacotherapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy consisting of exposure and response prevention (EX/RP). Although effective, outcome from both treatments is often limited by patient lack of adherence to the…
Lavender, Jason M; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Crosby, Ross D; Engel, Scott G; Mitchell, James E; Crow, Scott; Peterson, Carol B; Le Grange, Daniel
Body checking has been conceptualized as a behavioral manifestation of the core overvaluation of eating, shape, and weight concerns underlying eating disorder psychopathology. Cognitive-behavioral theories suggest that body checking behaviors may function to maintain dietary restriction. The current study examined the association between body checking frequency and dietary restriction among women with anorexia nervosa (AN) in the natural environment. Women (N = 118) with full or partial AN completed baseline clinical interviews and a two-week ecological momentary assessment protocol, during which they reported on body checking behaviors (i.e., checking whether one's thighs touch; checking joints/bones for fat) and dietary restriction (i.e., 8 waking hours without eating; consuming less than 1200 calories per day). Average daily body checking frequency was positively associated with baseline eating disorder symptoms and body mass index. Daily body checking frequency was associated with both forms of dietary restriction on the same day, as well as the following day. Results support the theorized association between body checking and overvaluation of shape and weight, and suggest that targeting such behaviors in treatment may have utility in reducing dietary restriction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Santos, Veruska; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; King, Anna Lucia Spear
Problematic Internet use is a worldwide social issue and it can be found in any age, social, educational, or economic range. In some countries like China and South Korea internet addiction (IA) is considered a public health condition and this governments support research, education and treatment. Internet addiction has been associated with others psychiatric disorders. Panic disorder (PD) and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) are anxiety disorders that involve a lot of damages in patient's life. We report a treatment of a patient with Panic Disorder and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and internet addition involving pharmacotherapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT). The Cognitive Behavioral Therapy was conducted 1 time per week during 10 weeks and results suggest that the treatment was an effective treatment for the anxiety and for the internet addiction.
Kim, Kwanguk; Kim, Chan-Hyung; Cha, Kyung Ryeol; Park, Junyoung; Han, Kiwan; Kim, Yun Ki; Kim, Jae-Jin; Kim, In Young; Kim, Sun I
The current study is a preliminary test of a virtual reality (VR) anxiety-provoking tool using a sample of participants with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The tasks were administrated to 33 participants with OCD and 30 healthy control participants. In the VR task, participants navigated through a virtual environment using a joystick and head-mounted display. The virtual environment consisted of three phases: training, distraction, and the main task. After the training and distraction phases, participants were allowed to check (a common OCD behavior) freely, as they would in the real world, and a visual analogy scale of anxiety was recorded during VR. Participants' anxiety in the virtual environment was measured with a validated measure of psychiatric symptoms and functions and analyzed with a VR questionnaire. Results revealed that those with OCD had significantly higher anxiety in the virtual environment than did healthy controls, and the decreased ratio of anxiety in participants with OCD was also higher than that of healthy controls. Moreover, the degree of anxiety of an individual with OCD was positively correlated with a his or her symptom score and immersive tendency score. These results suggest the possibility that VR technology has a value as an anxiety-provoking or treatment tool for OCD.
Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian L; Mooney, Marc; O'Brien, Robert; Kim, Suck Won
Although compulsive buying (CB) is relatively common, pharmacotherapy research for CB is limited. Memantine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, appears to reduce glutamate excitability and improve impulsive behaviors, suggesting it may help individuals with CB. Nine patients (8 females) with CB were enrolled in a 10-week open-label treatment study of memantine (dose ranging from 10 to 30 mg/d). Participants were enrolled from December 2008 until May 2010. The primary outcome measure was change from baseline to study endpoint on the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale-Shopping Version (Y-BOCS-SV). Of the 9 participants, 8 (88.9%) completed the 10-week study. Y-BOCS-SV scores decreased from a mean of 22.0 ± 1.3 at baseline to 11.0 ± 5.3 at endpoint (P impulsive buying and improvements on cognitive tasks of impulsivity. In addition, the medication was well-tolerated. These findings suggest that pharmacologic manipulation of the glutamate system may target the impulsive behavior underlying CB. Placebo-controlled, double-blind studies are warranted in order to confirm these preliminary findings in a controlled design.
Diaferia, G; Bianchi, I; Bianchi, M L; Cavedini, P; Erzegovesi, S; Bellodi, L
This study investigated the presence of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) in a group of 277 patients (88 with obsessive-compulsive disorder [OCD], 58 with major depressive disorder [MDD], and 131 with panic disorder [Panic]) to test the specificity of the relationship between OCPD and OCD. OCPD is statistically significantly more frequent in patients with OCD than in those with Panic and MDD. The distribution of single criteria of OCPD in the three groups does not differ significantly. Discriminant analysis selects a list of items that provide a correct classification rate of 66% based on OCPD criteria selected by canonical function. OCD patients with and without OCPD do not differ in sex, age of onset, duration of illness, positive family history for Tics disorder/Tourette syndrome (TS), or morbidity risk for OCD.
Schiepek, Günter; Tominschek, Igor; Karch, Susanne; Mulert, Christoph; Pogarell, Oliver
The following review is focusing on results of functional neuroimaging. After some introductory remarks on the phenomenology, epidemiology, and psychotherapy approaches of obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD) the most important OCD-related brain regions are presented. Obviously, not only the prominent cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical feedback loops are involved, as functional brain imaging studies tell us, but also other regions as the inferior parietal lobe, the anterior and posterior cingulate gyrus, insula, amygdala, cerebellum, and others. Subclassifications using factor-analysis methods support the hypothesis, that most important subtypes ("washing/contamination fear", "obsessions/checking", "symmetry/ordering", "hoarding") involve different, but partially overlapping brain areas. Stimulation paradigms in fMRI-research are commonly based on symptom provocation by visual or tactile stimuli, or on action-monitoring and error-monitoring tasks. Deficits in action-monitoring and planning are discussed to be one of the basic dysfunctions of OCD. Finally, results of psychotherapeutic induced variations of brain activations in OCD are presented.
Maraz, Aniko; van den Brink, Wim; Demetrovics, Zsolt
Compulsive buying is a relatively new psychopathological concept and very few data are currently available regarding the prevalence and validity of compulsive buying disorder. In this cross-sectional study, we establish the prevalence of compulsive buying disorder in shopping mall visitors and explore the construct validity of the concept using the revised version of the Edwards Compulsive Buying Scale in 1441 shopping mall visitors looking at shopping habits, current substance use (smoking, alcohol and illicit drug) and various psychological characteristics. Overall, 8.7% (95% CI: 7.3-10.3) of our sample was classified as having a compulsive buying disorder. Compulsive buyers were younger, less educated and more likely to be female than non-compulsive buyers. They were also more likely to have used licit and illicit substances. Compulsive buyers also reported higher levels of impulsivity and obsessive-compulsive symptoms, lower levels of well-being and self-esteem and more psychological distress. Finally, compulsive buyers were five times more likely to meet criteria for borderline personality disorder than non-compulsive buyers. Compulsive buying is a frequent disorder in shopping mall visitors and is associated with important and robust indicators of psychopathology thus supporting the validity of the construct. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Black, Donald W.; Coryell, William; Crowe, Raymond; Shaw, Martha; McCormick, Brett; Allen, Jeff
This study investigates the possible relationship between pathological gambling (PG) and potential spectrum disorders including the DSM-IV impulse control disorders (intermittent explosive disorder, kleptomania, pyromania, trichotillomania) and several non-DSM disorders (compulsive buying disorder, compulsive sexual behavior, Internet addiction). PG probands, controls, and their first-degree relatives were assessed with instruments of known reliability. Detailed family history information was...
Müller, A; de Zwaan, M
Compulsive buying is characterized by frequent excessive purchasing of items that are primarily not needed or used. The compulsive buying behavior results in mental, social, financial and often legal problems. Although compulsive buying affects a significant percentage of the general population and has received increasing attention in research, it has largely been ignored in clinical practice. Compulsive buying disorder is currently conceptualized as an"impulse control disorder not otherwise specified". However, the appropriate classification continues to be debated. Compulsive buying is associated with significant psychiatric co-morbidity, especially with depressive, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive, substance use, personality, and other impulse control disorders. Small controlled trials failed to confirm the efficacy of antidepressants in the treatment of compulsive buying disorder, whereas early evidence suggests that cognitive behavioral therapy is helpful in alleviating compulsive buying symptoms. Further research is needed to establish a better understanding of etiology, classification, and treatment strategies.
Psychometric properties of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory - Revised (OCI-R Propriedades psicométricas da versão em português do Brasil da Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory - Revised (OCI-R
Fernanda P. Souza
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study was designed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory - Revised. METHOD: The Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory - Revised was administered to a total of 260 participants: a clinical sample of 130 patients with anxiety disorders (64 with a diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder patients, 33 diagnosed with social phobia, and 33 with panic disorder and a sample of 130 non-clinical subjects. RESULTS: The findings indicate that the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory - Revised is a valid measure for identifying and assessing the severity of the six symptom subtypes in obsessive-compulsive disorder. The original factor structure of the instrument was replicated in an exploratory factor analysis. Test-retest reliability was examined using data from 64 obsessive-compulsive disorder patients who completed the inventory on two different occasions. In each sample, the overall and subscale scores showed moderate to good internal consistency, good convergent and divergent validity, and sensitivity to changes resulting from cognitive-behavioral group therapy. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory - Revised retains the psychometric properties of its original version and the Spanish, German and Icelandic versions.OBJETIVO: O presente estudo foi delineado para avaliar as propriedades psicométricas da versão em português do Brasil do Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory - Revised. MÉTODO: O Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory - Revised foi aplicado em um total de 260 indivíduos: em uma amostra clínica de 130 pacientes (64 pacientes com transtorno obsessivo-compulsivo, 33 pacientes com fobia social e 33 pacientes com transtorno do pânico mais uma amostra não clínica de 130 sujeitos. RESULTADOS: Os resultados indicam que o Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory - Revised é uma medida válida para identificar
Psychometric properties of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory: Revised (OCI-R Propriedades psicométricas da versão em português do Brasil da Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory: Revised (OCI-R
Fernanda P. Souza
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study was designed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory - Revised. METHOD: The Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory - Revised was administered toa total of 260 participants: a clinical sample of 130 patients with anxiety disorders (64 with a diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder patients, 33 diagnosed with social phobia, and 33 with panic disorder and a sample of 130 non-clinical subjects. RESULTS: The findings indicate that the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory - Revised is a valid measure for identifying and assessing the severity of the six symptom subtypes in obsessive-compulsive disorder.The original factor structure of the instrument was replicated in an exploratory factor analysis. Test-retest reliability was examined using data from 64 obsessive-compulsive disorder patients who completed the inventory on two different occasions. In each sample, the overall and subscale scores showed moderate to good internal consistency, good convergent and divergent validity, and sensitivity to changes resulting from cognitive-behavioral group therapy changes. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory - Revised retains the psychometric properties of its original version and the Spanish, German and Iceland versions.OBJETIVO: O presente estudo foi delineado para avaliar as propriedades psicométricas da versão em português do Brasil do Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory - Revised. MÉTODO: O Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory - Revised foi aplicado em um total de 260 indivíduos: em uma amostra clínica de 130 pacientes (64 pacientes com transtorno obsessivo-compulsivo, 33 pacientes com fobia social e 33 pacientes com transtorno do pânico mais uma amostra não clínica de 130 sujeitos. RESULTADOS: Os resultados indicam que o Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory - Revised é uma medida válida para
Black, Donald W; Shaw, Martha; Blum, Nancee
Both compulsive buying (CB) and pathological gambling (PG) have been proposed as members of a spectrum of disorders related to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The spectrum hypothesis originated in the early 1990s and has gained considerable support, despite the lack of empirical evidence. Interest in this hypothesis has become critical because some investigators have recommended the creation of a new category that includes these disorders in DSM-5, now under development. In this article, the authors describe the origin of the obsessive-compulsive (OC) spectrum and its theoretical underpinnings, review both CB and PG, and discuss the data both in support of and against an OC spectrum. Both disorders are described in terms of their history, definition, classification, phenomenology family history, pathophysiology, and clinical management. The authors conclude that: (i) CB and PG are probably not related to OCD, and there is insufficient evidence to place them within an OC spectrum in DSM-V; (ii) PG should stay with the impulse-control disorders (ICDs); and (iii) a new diagnosis of CB should be created and be classified as an ICD.
Brytek-Matera, Anna; Fonte, Maria Luisa; Poggiogalle, Eleonora; Donini, Lorenzo Maria; Cena, Hellas
The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between ORTO-15 score and obsessive-compulsive symptoms, disordered eating patterns and body uneasiness among female and male university students and to examine the predictive model of ORTO-15 in both groups. One hundred and twenty students participated in the present study (mean age 22.74 years, SD 7.31). The ORTO-15 test, the Maudsley Obsessive-Compulsive Questionnaire, the Eating Attitudes Test-26 and the Body Uneasiness Test were used for the present study. Our results revealed no gender differences in ORTO-15 score. Our results show, rather unexpectedly, that in female students lower scores, corresponding to greater severity, were related to less pathological body image discomfort and obsessive-compulsive signs, while in male students, lower ORTO-15 scores were related to less pathological eating patterns, as behaviors and symptoms. Further studies regarding the relationship between ON and anorexia nervosa, as well as obsessive-compulsive symptoms, are needed to better understand the causality. Level of Evidence Level V, descriptive study.
PENGARUH MATERIALISM HAPPINESS, MATERIALISM CENTRALITY DAN MATERIALISM SUCCESS TERHADAP IMPULSIVE BUYING DAN EFEKNYA PADA COMPULSIVE BUYING BEHAVIOR (Studi empiris pada mahasiswa yang berbelanja pakaian di department store di Yogyakarta)
Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk menguji pengaruh dimensi materialisme (materialism happiness, centrality, dan success) terhadap impulsive buying dan efeknya pada compulsive buying behavior. Penelitian ini menggunakan responden mahasiswa dan mahasiswi yang berada di beberapa Universitas di Yogyakarta sebagai obyek penelitian. Sampel pada penelitian ini adalah responden yang pernah dan cenderung sering melakukan pembelian atau berbelanja pakaian di Departement Store yang ada di Yogyakarta. ...
Djamshidian, Atbin; Averbeck, Bruno B; Lees, Andrew J; O'Sullivan, Sean S
Impulsive-compulsive behaviours (ICBs) are an increasingly well-recognised adverse-effect of dopaminergic medications used to treat Parkinson's disease. ICBs include pathological gambling, compulsive sexual behaviour, compulsive buying, and binge eating, together with punding and the addiction-like compulsive use of dopamine replacement therapy, or dopamine dysregulation syndrome. The prevalence of ICBs was approximately 14% in a large study undertaken in specialist movement disorder clinics. Dopamine dysregulation syndrome is more associated with compulsive l-dopa use, whereas other ICBs are more linked with oral dopamine agonist use. Other mechanisms implicated in the development and perpetuation of ICBs in PD include aberrant learning from reward-related situations, including decreased learning from negative feedback, increased measures of impulsivity or sensation seeking, and strong preference for immediate over future rewards. Treatment options for impulsive-compulsive behaviours include pharmacological, surgical and psychological interventions. The early recognition and prevention of ICBs, coupled with awareness of clinical risk factors for the development of these behaviours is of paramount importance, given the lack of specific treatments for these sometimes debilitating behaviours. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Tommasi, Marco; Busonera, Alessandra
Compulsive shopping is an impulse control disorder that produces psychological distress. Appropriate measurement scales of compulsive buying are important to identify compulsive buyers. Three compulsive buying scales (Faber and O'Guinn scale, Edwards scale, Yale and Brown scale) were tested in an Italian sample composed of 438 participants randomly selected from the general population. Self-report questionnaires measured psychiatric dysfunctions and personality traits. The data confirmed that high anxiety, obsessive-compulsive dysfunctions, depression, psychoticism, and low self-esteem were associated with inappropriate shopping. The Faber and O'Guinn scale and Edwards Scale are appropriate for surveys, while the Yale and Brown scale are more appropriate for clinical diagnosis of psychological dependences.
Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the coexistence of obsessive-compulsive symptoms with bipolar disorder (during the manic phase, depressive phase and remission. Method: The subjects were 70 patients previously diagnosed with and treated for bipolar disorder. For the purposes of this study, three subgroups were created: patients in the manic phase, depressive phase and in remission. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Young Mania Rating Scale and Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale were diagnostic tools used for the evaluation of patients’ mental health. Results: The data indicate high likelihood of co-occurrence of obsessive-compulsive disorder (28.6% and obsessive-compulsive syndromes (32.8% with bipolar disorder. Obsessions and compulsions were observed irrespectively of the type of bipolar disorder (type 1 and 2 and phase of the illness (depression, mania, remission. The results in the three subgroups were similar. The severity of anankastic symptoms depended both on the severity of depression and mania. The subjects confirmed the presence of obsessive-compulsive symptoms in the interview, although they were usually undiagnosed and untreated. Conclusions: Obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms often coexist with bipolar disorder, both in its two phases and in remission. The severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms in the course of bipolar condition varies, ranging from mild to extremely severe forms. The obsessive-compulsive disorder presentation in the course of bipolar disorder increases with the severity of depressive and manic symptoms. Obsessive-compulsive disorder can be primary to bipolar disorder. Obsessive-compulsive disorder coexisting with bipolar disorder is not diagnosed or treated properly.
Barney, Jennifer Y.; Field, Clint E.; Morrison, Kate L.; Twohig, Michael P.
Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) is a modern form of cognitive behavior therapy that uses acceptance and mindfulness-based procedures to address clinical issues. A brief protocol of ACT was used with 3 children ages 10 and 11 years who were diagnosed with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Results showed notable and clinically significant…
Full Text Available The comorbidity of bipolar disorder and anxiety disorders is a well known concept. Obsessive-compulsive disorder is the most commonly seen comorbid anxiety disorder in bipolar patients. Some genetic variants, neurotransmitters especially serotonergic systems and second-messenger systems are thought to be responsible for its etiology. Bipolar disorder alters the clinical aspects of obsessive compulsive disorder and is associated with poorer outcome. The determination of comorbidity between bipolar disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder is quite important for appropriate clinical management and treatment. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(4.000: 429-437
Park, Laura S; Burton, Christie L; Dupuis, Annie; Shan, Janet; Storch, Eric A; Crosbie, Jennifer; Schachar, Russell J; Arnold, Paul D
To describe the Toronto Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (TOCS), a novel 21-item parent- or self-report questionnaire that covers wide variation in obsessive-compulsive (OC) traits, and to evaluate its psychometric properties in a community-based pediatric sample. The TOCS was completed for 16,718 children and adolescents between the ages of 6 and 17 years in a community setting. Internal consistency, convergent validity with the Obsessive-Compulsive Scale of the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL-OCS), divergent validity with the Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD (Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder) Symptoms and Normal Behaviour Rating Scale (SWAN), interrater reliability, as well as sensitivity and specificity of the TOCS were assessed. The internal consistency of the 21 TOCS items was excellent (Cronbach's α = 0.94). TOCS was moderately correlated with the CBCL-OCS (Spearman correlation = 0.51) and poorly correlated with the SWAN (Pearson correlation = 0.02). Sensitivity and specificity analyses indicated that a TOCS total score of greater than 0 successfully discriminated community-reported obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) cases from noncases. OC traits were continuously distributed both at the total score and dimensional level in our pediatric community sample. TOCS is a multidimensional measure of OC traits in children and adolescents with sound psychometric properties. TOCS reveals that OC traits are common and continuously distributed in a community sample. TOCS may be a useful measure for studies of the characteristics and etiology of OC traits. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Hawken, Leanne S.; Bundock, Kaitlin; Kladis, Kristin; O'Keeffe, Breda; Barret, Courtenay A.
The purpose of this systematic literature review was to summarize outcomes of the Check-in Check-out (CICO) intervention across elementary and secondary settings. Twenty-eight studies utilizing both single subject and group (experimental and quasi-experimental) designs were included in this review. Median effect sizes across the eight group…
Vogt, Sinje; Hunger, Antje; Türpe, Tina; Pietrowsky, Reinhard; Gerlach, Alexander L
Compulsive buying (CB) is excessive and leads to impairment and distress. Several studies aimed to explore the phenomenology and antecedents of CB, especially affective states. However, these studies mostly used retrospective self-report and mostly focused on compulsive buyers only. Therefore, this study aims to directly compare consumers with CB propensity and controls on experimental proxies of buying behavior and to investigate 1) effects of neutral vs. negative mood inductions and 2) whether mood effects on buying behavior are specific to CB. Forty female consumers with CB propensity and 40 female controls were randomly assigned to a neutral or negative mood induction. Buying related behavior (likelihood to expose oneself to a shopping situation, urge and probability to buy, willingness to pay) was assessed. Consumers with CB propensity differed from controls in all buying behavior aspects except for willingness to pay. Neither main effects of mood nor group×mood interaction effects on buying behavior were found. However, consumers with CB propensity were emotionally more strongly affected by a negative mood induction. Although negative affect has previously been reported to precede buying episodes in CB, our findings do not indicate specific negative mood effects on buying, neither in CB nor in controls. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Garyfallos, George; Katsigiannopoulos, Konstantinos; Adamopoulou, Aravela; Papazisis, Georgios; Karastergiou, Anastasia; Bozikas, Vasilios P
The present study examined whether the comorbidity of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) constitute a specific subtype of OCD. The study sample consisted of 146 consecutive outpatients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of OCD. Diagnoses were established using MINI, IPDE, YBOCS and YBOCS-SC. OCD patients with comorbid OCPD were compared with OCD patients without OCPD on various sociodemographic and clinical variables. Almost one third of the OCD subjects met criteria for comorbid OCPD. OCD+OCPD patients had a significantly earlier age at onset of initial OC symptoms, earlier age at onset of OCD and more obsessions and compulsions than pure obsessions compared to the patients with OCDOCPD. OCD+OCPD patients also had a higher rate of comorbidity with avoidant personality disorder and showed more impairment in global functioning. There were not differences between the two sub-groups on severity of OCD symptoms and also on type of OCD onset. Our results indicate that the comorbidity of OCD with OCPD is associated with a number of specific clinical characteristics of OCD. These findings in conjunction with of current clinical, family and genetic studies provide some initial evidence that OCD comorbid with OCPD constitute a specific subtype of OCD. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Brad T Klontz
Full Text Available Much of the existing literature on financial behavior focuses on basic money management tasks (e.g., balancing a checkbook. However, it can be equally important to identify problematic financial behaviors that can sabotage one’s financial health. The purpose of this study was to create an assessment tool that can be used by mental health and financial professionals to identify disordered money behaviors that may impede on progress towards one’s financial goals. This study asked 422 respondents to indicate their agreement with disordered money behaviors, including compulsive buying, pathological gambling, compulsive hoarding, workaholism, financial enabling, financial dependence, financial denial, and financial enmeshment, which were correlated with demographic characteristics and financial outcomes. The results identified eight subscales derived from 68 disordered money behavior items. All eight subscales were found to have high reliability in measuring disordered behaviors, and six were associated with negative financial health indicators (e.g. less net worth, less income, and/or more revolving credit.
Gold-Steinberg, S; Logan, D
While behavioral and psychopharmacological approaches are the most effective interventions for treating obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), psychodynamically oriented play therapy can enhance the treatment of children with this disorder. Play therapy techniques are useful in addressing treatment resistance, feelings of shame around OCD symptoms, negative self-concept, and issues of psychosocial adjustment. A case study illustrates this integrated approach to treatment.
Noetel, Melissa; Miskovic-Wheatley, Jane; Crosby, Ross D; Hay, Phillipa; Madden, Sloane; Touyz, Stephen
The aim of the current study was to contribute to the development of a clinical profile of compulsive exercise in adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa (AN), by examining associations between compulsive exercise and eating and general psychopathology. A sample of 60 female adolescent inpatients with AN completed a self-report measure of compulsive exercise and a series of standardized self-report questionnaires assessing eating and general psychopathology. Higher levels of compulsive exercise were associated with increased levels of eating disorder psychopathology and anxiety. Specifically, the avoidance aspect (negatively reinforced) of compulsive exercise was associated with elevated scores on measures of eating disorder, anxiety, depression, and obsessive compulsiveness psychopathology, as well as lower self-esteem scores. The mood improvement value (positively reinforced) of compulsive exercise, however, did not reflect such trends. Compulsive exercise driven by avoidance of negative affect is associated with more severe psychological features in adolescent inpatients with AN. The current findings emphasize the need for research and clinical efforts in the development of treatments addressing avoidance of negative affect and compulsive exercise in adolescents with AN.
VANOPPEN, P; EMMELKAMP, PMG; VANBALKOM, AJLM; VANDYCK, R
This study presents data on the sensitivity to change of the Padua Inventory-Revised (PI-R), the Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), and the Anxiety Discomfort Scale (ADS) for obsessive-compulsive disorder. In a sample of obsessive-compulsives (n = 63) who received either behaviour
Albertini, Giorgio; Polito, Emilena; Sarà, Marco; Di Gennaro, Giancarlo; Onorati, Paolo
This case report describes a child with a severe autistic syndrome worsened by hypersexual behavior consisting of compulsive masturbatory activity. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors have been reported to be beneficial in reducing hypersexual behaviors. A treatment with mirtazapine improved the entire clinical autistic picture with the disappearance of masturbation. This result suggests that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors could be useful and promising tools in the treatment of hypersexual behaviors in children with autistic disorders. Moreover, the general, and in some ways unexpected, improvement of the social interaction, communication, and imagination, the dramatic reduction of aloof mannerisms, stereotypes, aggressiveness, and inappropriate emotional response to frustrations, as well as the first appearance of the pragmatic use of language and a strong impetus to emotional development disclosed a new spectrum of possible applications of these drugs, and mirtazapine in particular, suggesting the need for new and more extensive studies on the pharmacotherapy of autism.
Smith, Philip H; Potenza, Marc N; Mazure, Carolyn M; McKee, Sherry A; Park, Crystal L; Hoff, Rani A
Compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) is highly prevalent among men, often co-occurring with psychiatric disorders and traumatic experiences. Psychiatric disorders and trauma are highly prevalent among military veterans, yet there is a paucity of research on CSB among military samples. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of and factors associated with CSB among male military veterans. Surveys were administered to veterans of Operations Iraqi Freedom, Enduring Freedom, or New Dawn at baseline (n = 258), 3 months(n = 194), and 6 months (n = 136). Bivariate analyses and Generalized Estimating Equations were utilized to estimate associations between CSB and the following variables: psychiatric co-morbidity, childhood physical or sexual trauma, pre- and post-deployment experiences, TV/ Internet usage, and sociodemographics. Associations between CSB and specific PTSD symptom clusters were also examined. CSB was reported by 16.7% of the sample at baseline. Several variables were associated with CSB in bivariate analyses; however, only PTSD severity, childhood sexual trauma, and age remained significant in multivariable GEE models. The PTSD symptom cluster re-experiencing was most strongly associated with CSB. This exploratory study suggests that CSB is prevalent amongst veterans returning from combat and is associated with childhood trauma and PTSD, particularly re-experiencing. Further study is needed to identify the mechanisms linking PTSD and CSB, define the context and severity of CSB in veterans, and examine the best ways to assess and treat CSB in VA clinical settings.
McGlashan, Thomas H; Grilo, Carlos M; Sanislow, Charles A; Ralevski, Elizabeth; Morey, Leslie C; Gunderson, John G; Skodol, Andrew E; Shea, M Tracie; Zanarini, Mary C; Bender, Donna; Stout, Robert L; Yen, Shirley; Pagano, Maria
This study tracked the individual criteria of four DSM-IV personality disorders-borderline, schizotypal, avoidant, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders-and how they change over 2 years. This clinical sample of patients with personality disorders was derived from the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study and included all participants with borderline, schizotypal, avoidant, or obsessive-compulsive personality disorder for whom complete 24-month blind follow-up assessments were obtained (N=474). The authors identified and rank-ordered criteria for each of the four personality disorders by their variation in prevalence and changeability (remission) over time. The most prevalent and least changeable criteria over 2 years were paranoid ideation and unusual experiences for schizotypal personality disorder, affective instability and anger for borderline personality disorder, feeling inadequate and feeling socially inept for avoidant personality disorder, and rigidity and problems delegating for obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. The least prevalent and most changeable criteria were odd behavior and constricted affect for schizotypal personality disorder, self-injury and behaviors defending against abandonment for borderline personality disorder, avoiding jobs that are interpersonal and avoiding potentially embarrassing situations for avoidant personality disorder, and miserly behaviors and strict moral behaviors for obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. These patterns highlight that within personality disorders the relatively fixed criteria are more trait-like and attitudinal, whereas the relatively intermittent criteria are more behavioral and reactive. These patterns suggest that personality disorders are hybrids of traits and symptomatic behaviors and that the interaction of these elements over time helps determine diagnostic stability. These patterns may also inform criterion selection for DSM-V.
Einstein, Danielle A; Menzies, Ross G
Two research groups have raised the possibility that magical ideation may be a fundamental feature of obsessive-compulsive disorder. It has been proposed to underlie thought action fusion and superstitious beliefs. In this study, the Magical Ideation scale, the Lucky Behaviours and Lucky Beliefs scales, the Thought Action Fusion-Revised scale, the Padua Inventory, and the Obsessive Compulsive Inventory-Short Version were completed by 60 obsessive compulsive patients at a hospital clinic. Of all the measures, the Magical Ideation (MI) scale was found to be the most strongly related to obsessive compulsive symptoms. Large and significant relationships between MI scores and the measures of OCD were obtained even when alternative constructs (Lucky Behaviours, Lucky Beliefs, Thought Action Fusion-Revised scales) were held constant. No other variable remained significantly related to the Obsessive Compulsive Inventory-Short Version when magical ideation scores were held constant. The findings suggest that a general magical thinking tendency may underpin previous observed links between superstitiousness, thought action fusion and OCD severity.
Gouw, Stijn de
We develop a new technique for Run-time Checking for two object-oriented languages: Java and the Abstract Behavioral Specification language ABS. In object-oriented languages, objects communicate by sending each other messages. Assuming encapsulation, the behavior of objects is completely
Maraz, Aniko; Eisinger, Andrea; Hende, Borbála; Urbán, Róbert; Paksi, Borbála; Kun, Bernadette; Kökönyei, Gyöngyi; Griffiths, Mark D; Demetrovics, Zsolt
Due to the problems of measurement and the lack of nationally representative data, the extent of compulsive buying behaviour (CBB) is relatively unknown. The validity of three different instruments was tested: Edwards Compulsive Buying Scale (ECBS; Edwards, E.A., 1993. Development of a new scale for measuring compulsive buying behaviour. Financial Counseling and Planning. 4, 67-85), Questionnaire About Buying Behavior (QABB; Lejoyeux, M., Ades, J., 1994. Les achats pathologiques: une addiction comportementale. Neuro-Psy. 9, 25-32.) and Richmond Compulsive Buying Scale (RCBS; Ridgway, N.M., Kukar-Kinney, M., Monroe, K.B., 2008. An expanded conceptualization and a new measure of compulsive buying. Journal of Consumer Research. 35, 622-639.) using two independent samples. One was nationally representative of the Hungarian population (N=2710) while the other comprised shopping mall customers (N=1447). As a result, a new, four-factor solution for the ECBS was developed (Edwards Compulsive Buying Scale Revised (ECBS-R)), and confirmed the other two measures. Additionally, cut-off scores were defined for all measures. Results showed that the prevalence of CBB is 1.85% (with QABB) in the general population but significantly higher in shopping mall customers (8.7% with ECBS-R, 13.3% with QABB and 2.5% with RCBS-R). Conclusively, due to the diversity of content, each measure identifies a somewhat different CBB group. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
João Pedro Ribeiro
Full Text Available Anxiety disorders have been described as features of Bipolar Disorder (BD, and Obsessive-compulsive-bipolar disorder (OCBD may occur in as many as 56% of obsessive-compulsive patients. Mania in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD can occur either as an independent comorbidity or as a result of an antidepressant-induced switch. We report the case of a 38-year-old male with a 3 year diagnosis of OCD treated with antidepressants, admitted due to a manic episode, and describe diagnostic and treatment challenges of this comorbidity.
Nathan, Deeepa; Shukla, Lekhansh; Kandasamy, Arun; Benegal, Vivek
Background Problematic Internet use (PIU) is an emerging entity with varied contents. Behavioral addictions have high comorbidity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders. Social networking site (SNS) addiction and role playing game (RPG) addiction are traditionally studied as separate entities. We present a case with excessive Internet use, with a particular focus on phenomenology and psychiatric comorbidities. Case presentation Fifteen-year-old girl with childhood onset attention deficit disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, adolescent onset trichotillomania, and disturbed family environment presented with excessive Facebook use. Main online activity was creating profiles in names of mainstream fictional characters and assuming their identity (background, linguistic attributes, etc.). This was a group activity with significant socialization in the virtual world. Craving, salience, withdrawal, mood modification, and conflict were clearly elucidated and significant social and occupational dysfunction was evident. Discussion This case highlights various vulnerability and sociofamilial factors contributing to behavioral addiction. It also highlights the presence of untreated comorbidities in such cases. The difference from contemporary RPGs and uniqueness of role playing on SNS is discussed. SNS role playing as a separate genre of PIU and its potential to reach epidemic proportions are discussed. Conclusions Individuals with temperamental vulnerability are likely to develop behavioral addictions. Identification and management of comorbid conditions are important. The content of PIU continues to evolve and needs further study.
Zakiei, Ali; Alikhani, Mostafa; Farnia, Vahid; Khkian, Zinab; Shakeri, Jalal; Golshani, Sanobar
The goal of the present study was to determine the relationships between attachment styles and resiliency in obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. A random sample of 260 subjects was obtained from the population of undergraduate students of the Nour Branch of Islamic Azad University, which is located in Mazandaran, and these subjects were enrolled in this descriptive and correlational study. The collected data included the subjects' responses to an adult attachment style questionnaire, resilience scale, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder questionnaire. The data were analyzed with Pearson correlation coefficient indices and multiple regressions. The results of the data analysis showed a positive correlation (relationship) between ambivalent/avoidant attachment styles and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder and a negative correlation between resilience and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. Furthermore, these results demonstrated that attachment style and resiliency can predict obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. In addition, no significant relationships were found between the demographic variables (convertibles) and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. These results suggested that attachment style and resiliency contribute to the development of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.
Frost, R O; Steketee, G; Cohn, L; Griess, K
Theorists from a variety of perspectives have asserted that obsessive compulsives are more risk-aversive, perfectionistic and guilt-ridden than non-obsessive compulsives, and that these characteristics are central features of the disorder. Furthermore, several have hypothesized that the parents of obsessive compulsives are characterized by risk-aversion, perfectionism, and high levels of criticism. Little research exists which corroborates these hypotheses, however. The present investigation examined these hypotheses among subclinical obsessive compulsives. In two different samples, subclinical obsessive compulsives were found to be more risk-aversive, perfectionistic, and guilt-ridden. Subclinical obsessive compulsives also perceived their parents to be more overprotective. The findings regarding other parental traits were less clear. There was some support for the hypothesis that the parents of subclinical obsessive compulsives are more risk-aversive, and that fathers are more critical and perfectionistic.
Benedetti, Francesco; Poletti, Sara; Radaelli, Daniele; Pozzi, Elena; Giacosa, Chiara; Smeraldi, Enrico
Exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACE) increases the risk of adult physical and mental health disorders, including obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and influences adult brain structure and function. ACE could influence the use of psychotropic drugs in adulthood, and treatment seeking behaviors. We assessed the severity of ACE in a sample of 31 healthy controls and 66 patients with OCD who were consecutively referred for hospitalization and were either drug-naïve or drug-treated. In addition, we explored the possible clinical relevance of ACE with two additional analyses: (a) a discriminant function analysis with sex and ACE as factors, and (b) a logistic regression with use of medication as dependent variable and ACE as factor. Despite comparable age, years at school, age at onset of illness, duration of illness, and severity of illness (Y-BOCS), adult drug-naïve patients reported lower exposure to ACE and later contacts with mental health professionals than drug-treated. This effect was particularly evident in female patients compared to males. The interaction of gender with factors linked with the early familial environment biased access to psychiatric care and use of medication, independent of OCD-associated factors such as severity of symptoms or duration of illness. The need for medications of patients could be higher in families where OCD symptomatology is associated with ACE. © 2014.
Soares, Célia; Fernandes, Natália; Morgado, Pedro
At present, no treatment recommendations can be made for compulsive buying disorder. Recent studies have found evidence for the efficacy of psychotherapeutic options, but less is known regarding the best pharmacologic treatment. The purpose of this review is to present and analyze the available published evidence on the pharmacological treatment of compulsive buying disorder. To achieve this, we conducted a review of studies focusing on the pharmacological treatment of compulsive buying by se...
Guzick, Andrew G; McNamara, Joseph P H; Reid, Adam M; Balkhi, Amanda M; Storch, Eric A; Murphy, Tanya K; Goodman, Wayne K; Bussing, Regina; Geffken, Gary R
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been found to be highly comorbid in children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Some have proposed, however, that obsessive anxiety may cause inattention and executive dysfunction, leading to inappropriate ADHD diagnoses in those with OCD. If this were the case, these symptoms would be expected to decrease following successful OCD treatment. The present study tested this hypothesis and evaluated whether ADHD symptoms at baseline predicted OCD treatment response. Obsessive-compulsive and ADHD symptoms were assessed in 50 youth enrolled in a randomized controlled trial investigating selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and cognitive behavioral treatment. Repeated-measures analysis of variance (RMANOVA) revealed that ADHD symptoms at baseline do not significantly predict treatment outcome. A multivariate RMANOVA found that OCD treatment response moderated change in inattention; participants who showed greater reduction in OCD severity experienced greater reduction in ADHD-inattentive symptoms, while those with less substantial reduction in obsessions and compulsions showed less change. These findings suggest that children and adolescents with OCD and inattention may experience meaningful improvements in attention problems following OCD treatment. Thus, in many youth with OCD, inattention may be inherently tied to obsessions and compulsions. Clinicians may consider addressing OCD in treatment before targeting inattentive-type ADHD.
Full Text Available Previous research has shown strong connections of anger experience and expression with obsessive–compulsive (OC symptoms. Additionally, studies have demonstrated links between family environment variables and obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD. Our study aims to integrate the perspectives from these two literatures by exploring the moderating roles of family cohesion and family adaptability in the relationship between anger proneness and suppression and OCD symptoms. A total of 2008 college students were recruited from a comprehensive university in Shanghai, China between February and May 2016. The subjects completed self-report inventories, including the Symptom Check List-90, State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory 2 (Chinese version, and Family Adaptability and Cohesion Scale, second edition (Chinese Version. Controlling for age, one-child family status, ethnicity, family income, current depression, and anxiety, our analyses showed that the association between anger proneness and OC symptoms was moderated by family cohesion among men and that family adaptability moderated the connection between anger suppression and OC complaints among women. The findings imply that a more cohesive and empathic family environment may protect male students with high levels of anger proneness from developing OC behaviors or thoughts. The results suggest that for female subjects who are accustomed to suppressing angry feelings, flexible family coping strategies and communication atmospheres would reduce their vulnerability to OC symptoms. The findings are somewhat consistent with those of previous studies on psychotherapy outcomes that showed that OCD patients benefitted from psychotherapeutic interventions that cultivated the clients’ family cohesion and adaptability.
Liu, Liang; Liu, Cuilian; Zhao, Xudong
Previous research has shown strong connections of anger experience and expression with obsessive–compulsive (OC) symptoms. Additionally, studies have demonstrated links between family environment variables and obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). Our study aims to integrate the perspectives from these two literatures by exploring the moderating roles of family cohesion and family adaptability in the relationship between anger proneness and suppression and OCD symptoms. A total of 2008 college students were recruited from a comprehensive university in Shanghai, China between February and May 2016. The subjects completed self-report inventories, including the Symptom Check List-90, State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory 2 (Chinese version), and Family Adaptability and Cohesion Scale, second edition (Chinese Version). Controlling for age, one-child family status, ethnicity, family income, current depression, and anxiety, our analyses showed that the association between anger proneness and OC symptoms was moderated by family cohesion among men and that family adaptability moderated the connection between anger suppression and OC complaints among women. The findings imply that a more cohesive and empathic family environment may protect male students with high levels of anger proneness from developing OC behaviors or thoughts. The results suggest that for female subjects who are accustomed to suppressing angry feelings, flexible family coping strategies and communication atmospheres would reduce their vulnerability to OC symptoms. The findings are somewhat consistent with those of previous studies on psychotherapy outcomes that showed that OCD patients benefitted from psychotherapeutic interventions that cultivated the clients’ family cohesion and adaptability. PMID:28512441
Favaro, A; Santonastaso, P
Recent reports have postulated the existence of two different types of self-injurious behavior: impulsive and compulsive. The aim of the present study is to analyze the dimensionality of self-injurious behavior and to study the link between self-injurious behavior and clinical features in anorexia nervosa. The study involved 236 consecutive patients with anorexia nervosa, diagnosed by DSM-IV criteria. Subjects were evaluated by means of a semistructured interview and self-reported questionnaires, such as the Eating Disorders Inventory and Hopkins Symptom Checklist. A principal component analysis was used to study the dimensionality of different types of self-injurious behavior, including purging. Our findings confirm the distinction between impulsive and compulsive self-injurious behavior. The dimensions appear to be represented as a continuum in both the anorexia nervosa diagnostic subgroups. A third distinct dimension emerged that included self-induced vomiting and laxative/diuretics abuse. Childhood sexual abuse and anxiety significantly predict the presence of impulsive self-injury, whereas obsessionality and age predict compulsive self-injury. The coexistence of a positive score on both dimensions of self-injurious behavior was the strongest predictor of treatment dropout. The present study highlights the importance of self-injurious behavior; it should be given due consideration in future outcome studies on anorexia nervosa
Maria Rosita Cecilia
Full Text Available A variety of behavioural and emotional problems among university students is due to Internet Addiction (Alavi et al. 2012, Rusconi et al. 2012. In 2013 a survey is conducted on a sample of 532 students of University of L’Aquila. The purpose is to investigate Internet use patterns and the correlation between Internet Addiction disorder and compulsive behaviour. Two self-administered questionnaires are used: the Internet Addiction Test and the Cognitive Behavioural Assessment 2.0. 517 students show signs of Internet Addiction, which is moderate for 31% of respondents and severe for 1% of them. 5% shows intrusive thoughts and compulsive behaviours. The symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder are statistically associated with Internet Addiction (chi² test=23.53, p=0.000. Among young people there is a relationship between compulsive behaviour and Internet Addiction. This relationship has significant effects on treatment of Internet Addiction.
Kyung, Sung Eun; Lee, Sang Mi; Lim, Myung Ho
To investigate the clinical psychiatric characteristics of children with the main complaint of functional visual loss, their behavior and personality were evaluated by the means of the Korean child behavior check list (K-CBCL), and the Korean personality inventory for children (KPI-C). The evaluation was carried out by the K-CBCL and the KPI-C, the domestically standardized tools, with 20 child subjects suspected of functional visual loss, among the patients who visited our hospital, between August, 2005 and December, 2012. The control group included 160 children in general schools of the same region. The 20 patients whose main complaint was functional visual loss were diagnosed as having a functional visual disorder. The child patient group showed a higher score for the K-CBCL and KPI-C sub-scales of somatic complaints, social problems, aggressive behavior, internalizing problems, externalizing problems, total behavioral problems, somatization and hyperactivity, than that of the control group. The results of the K-CBCL and KPI-C tests among children with functional visual loss, were significantly different from those of the normal control group. This result suggested that psychological factors may influence children with a main complaint of functional visual loss.
Remenska, Daniela; Templon, Jeff; Willemse, Tim; Bal, Henri; Verstoep, Kees; Fokkink, Wan; Charpentier, Philippe; Lanciotti, Elisa; Roiser, Stefan; Ciba, Krzysztof; Diaz, Ricardo Graciani
DIRAC is the grid solution developed to support LHCb production activities as well as user data analysis. It consists of distributed services and agents delivering the workload to the grid resources. Services maintain database back-ends to store dynamic state information of entities such as jobs, queues, staging requests, etc. Agents use polling to check and possibly react to changes in the system state. Each agent's logic is relatively simple; the main complexity lies in their cooperation. Agents run concurrently, and collaborate using the databases as shared memory. The databases can be accessed directly by the agents if running locally or through a DIRAC service interface if necessary. This shared-memory model causes entities to occasionally get into inconsistent states. Tracing and fixing such problems becomes formidable due to the inherent parallelism present. We propose more rigorous methods to cope with this. Model checking is one such technique for analysis of an abstract model of a system. Unlike conventional testing, it allows full control over the parallel processes execution, and supports exhaustive state-space exploration. We used the mCRL2 language and toolset to model the behavior of two related DIRAC subsystems: the workload and storage management system. Based on process algebra, mCRL2 allows defining custom data types as well as functions over these. This makes it suitable for modeling the data manipulations made by DIRAC's agents. By visualizing the state space and replaying scenarios with the toolkit's simulator, we have detected race-conditions and deadlocks in these systems, which, in several cases, were confirmed to occur in the reality. Several properties of interest were formulated and verified with the tool. Our future direction is automating the translation from DIRAC to a formal model.
Remenska, Daniela; Templon, Jeff; Willemse, Tim; Bal, Henri; Verstoep, Kees; Fokkink, Wan; Charpentier, Philippe; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Lanciotti, Elisa; Roiser, Stefan; Ciba, Krzysztof
DIRAC is the grid solution developed to support LHCb production activities as well as user data analysis. It consists of distributed services and agents delivering the workload to the grid resources. Services maintain database back-ends to store dynamic state information of entities such as jobs, queues, staging requests, etc. Agents use polling to check and possibly react to changes in the system state. Each agent's logic is relatively simple; the main complexity lies in their cooperation. Agents run concurrently, and collaborate using the databases as shared memory. The databases can be accessed directly by the agents if running locally or through a DIRAC service interface if necessary. This shared-memory model causes entities to occasionally get into inconsistent states. Tracing and fixing such problems becomes formidable due to the inherent parallelism present. We propose more rigorous methods to cope with this. Model checking is one such technique for analysis of an abstract model of a system. Unlike conventional testing, it allows full control over the parallel processes execution, and supports exhaustive state-space exploration. We used the mCRL2 language and toolset to model the behavior of two related DIRAC subsystems: the workload and storage management system. Based on process algebra, mCRL2 allows defining custom data types as well as functions over these. This makes it suitable for modeling the data manipulations made by DIRAC's agents. By visualizing the state space and replaying scenarios with the toolkit's simulator, we have detected race-conditions and deadlocks in these systems, which, in several cases, were confirmed to occur in the reality. Several properties of interest were formulated and verified with the tool. Our future direction is automating the translation from DIRAC to a formal model.
Kyrios, Michael; McQueen, Paul; Moulding, Richard
Compulsive buying is a serious but understudied problem, where individuals are unable to resist or control their buying behaviour, leading to substantial social and financial problems. To date there has been a lack of experimental research into the disorder. The relationship between mood and compulsive buying was examined in compulsive buyers (N = 18) and non-clinical controls (N = 17), using experimental information-processing paradigms. In study 1, it was expected that, if buying behaviours function as a coping strategy for depressed mood, then an induction of depressed mood would lead to an enhanced memory for appealing consumer-objects in compulsive buyers, but not controls. In study 2, we examined the association between emotional and functional constructs and consumer items. It was expected that compulsive buyers would show stronger semantic relationships and thus better episodic memory for object-emotion pairs, relative to object-function pairs, for appealing items. Unexpectedly, in study 1 the memory-facilitating effect of depressed mood was evident among control participants and absent among compulsive buyers. In study 2, compulsive buyers showed a lesser association of undesirable objects with positive emotional concepts than did non-clinical controls, and compulsive buyers were found to more strongly associate all consumer items with emotional concepts than with concepts of function. Key limitations were low power and possible floor effects due to error frequency data. These findings provide insights into the processes underlying CB phenomena, in particular supporting the role of mood in compulsive buying. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Storholm, Erik David; Satre, Derek D.; Kapadia, Farzana; Halkitis, Perry N.
Young gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (YMSM) are at increased likelihood of experiencing depression and condomless sexual behaviors The goal of the current investigation was to examine the relationship between negative mood and compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) and to assess for their individual and combined influence on sexual risk-taking behavior among a diverse sample of YMSM in New York City (the P18 Cohort Study). We first analyzed sociodemographic, depressive symptoms, CSB, and sexual risk-taking from the cross-sectional data of 509, 18- or 19-year-old YMSM recruited using non-probability sampling. We found a significant positive correlation between CSB and depression and between CSB and frequency of condomless anal sex acts reported over the past 30 days. Multivariate results found that the presence of both depression and CSB contributed to elevated sexual risk-taking among these urban YMSM. Clinical implications include the importance of assessing for CSB when depression is present and vice versa in order to improve HIV prevention. Informed by Minority Stress Theory and Syndemic Theory, our results suggest that interventions focused on the health of YMSM recognize that mental health, CSB and social context all interact to increase physical health vulnerability vis-a-vis sexual behaviors, depression, and CSB. Thus, HIV prevention and intervention programs need to incorporate mental health components and services that address these needs. PMID:26310878
Cavallotti, Simone; Casetta, Cecilia; Fanti, Valentina; Gambini, Orsola; Ostinelli, Edoardo G; Ranieri, Rebecca; Vanelli, Irene; D'Agostino, Armando
Although central to any exhaustive theory of human subjectivity, the relationship between dream and waking consciousness remains uncertain. Some findings suggest that dream consciousness can be influenced by severe disorders of thought content. The suppression of unwanted thoughts has been shown to influence dream content in healthy individuals. In order to better define this phenomenon, we evaluated the persistence of obsessive/compulsive themes across the dream and waking cognition of OCD patients and in a control group of healthy subjects. Participants were administered a shortened version of the Thematic Apperception Test to produce a waking fantasy narration, and were trained to keep a dream diary. Dream and waking narrative contents were analyzed in order to recognize obsessive/compulsive themes, and to calculate Mean Dream Obsession/Compulsion (MDO, MDC) and Mean TAT Obsession/Compulsion (MTO, MTC) parameters. No differences were found between the two populations in terms of MDO, MDC, MTO, nor MTC. Density of obsessive and compulsive themes were significantly higher in dream reports than in waking narratives for both groups. No correlation was observed between MDO/MDC scores and Y-BOCS obsession/compulsion scores in the OCD group. These findings strengthen the discontinuity hypothesis, suggesting that ruminative aspects of cognition are somehow interrupted during dream activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Holland, Grace; Tiggemann, Marika
Fitspiration is a recent Internet trend designed to motivate people to eat healthily and to exercise. The aim of the study was to investigate disordered eating and exercise in women who post fitspiration on Instagram. Participants were 101 women who post fitspiration images on Instagram and a comparison group of 102 women who post travel images. Both groups completed measures of disordered eating and compulsive exercise. Women who post fitspiration images scored significantly higher on drive for thinness, bulimia, drive for muscularity, and compulsive exercise. Almost a fifth (17.5%) of these women were at risk for diagnosis of a clinical eating disorder, compared to 4.3% of the travel group. Compulsive exercise was related to disordered eating in both groups, but the relationship was significantly stronger for women who post fitspiration images. For some women, posting fitspiration images on Instagram may signify maladaptive eating and exercise behaviors. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2017; 50:76-79). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kerkhof, P.; Finkenauer, C.; Muusses, L.D.
This article examines how compulsive Internet use and marital well-being are related to each other. We suggest that they are negatively related and explore whether compulsive Internet use predicts marital well-being or vice versa. The relation between compulsive Internet use and marital well-being
Koob, George F
Addiction is defined as a chronically relapsing disorder characterized by compulsive drug seeking that is hypothesized to derive from multiple sources of motivational dysregulation. Dr. Athina Markou made seminal contributions to our understanding of the neurobiology of addiction with her studies on the dysregulation of reward function using animal models with construct validity. Repeated overstimulation of the reward systems with drugs of abuse decreases reward function, characterized by brain stimulation reward and presumbably reflecting dysphoria-like states. The construct of negative reinforcement, defined as drug taking that alleviates a negative emotional state that is created by drug abstinence, is particularly relevant as a driving force in both the withdrawal/negative affect and preoccupation/anticipation stages of the addiction cycle. The negative emotional state that drives such negative reinforcement is hypothesized to derive from the dysregulation of key neurochemical circuits that drive incentive-salience/reward systems (dopamine, opioid peptides) in the ventral striatum and from the recruitment of brain stress systems (corticotropin-releasing factor, dynorphin) within the extended amygdala. As drug taking becomes compulsive-like, the factors that motivate behavior are hypothesized to shift to drug-seeking behavior that is driven not only by positive reinforcement but also by negative reinforcement. This shift in motivation is hypothesized to reflect the allostatic misregulation of hedonic tone such that drug taking makes the hedonic negative emotional state worse during the process of seeking temporary relief with compulsive drug taking.
Hameed, Irfan; Soomro, Yasir
This empirical research investigates the impact of windowsill placement on the compulsive buying behavior of consumers on three different types of products i.e., convenience products, shopping products, and specialty products. Positive effect of windowsill placement on all three types of product categories has been hypothesized. The categorical regression (Optimal scaling) was used to test the hypotheses. The data was collected via self administered questionnaire from Pakistan through systema...
Andreassen, Cecilie Schou; Griffiths, Mark D; Gjertsen, Siri Renate; Krossbakken, Elfrid; Kvam, Siri; Pallesen, Ståle
Aims Although relationships between addiction and personality have previously been explored, no study has ever simultaneously investigated the interrelationships between several behavioral addictions, and related these to the main dimensions of the five-factor model of personality. Methods In this study, 218 university students completed questionnaires assessing seven different behavioral addictions (i.e., Facebook addiction, video game addiction, Internet addiction, exercise addiction, mobile phone addiction, compulsive buying, and study addiction) as well as an instrument assessing the main dimensions of the five-factor model of personality. Results Of the 21 bivariate intercorrelations between the seven behavioral addictions, all were positive (and nine significantly). The results also showed that (i) Neuroticism was positively associated with Internet addiction, exercise addiction, compulsive buying, and study addiction, (ii) Extroversion was positively associated with Facebook addiction, exercise addiction, mobile phone addiction, and compulsive buying, (iii) Openness to experience was negatively associated with Facebook addiction and mobile phone addiction, (iv) Agreeableness was negatively associated with Internet addiction, exercise addiction, mobile phone addiction, and compulsive buying, and (v) Conscientiousness was negatively associated with Facebook addiction, video game addiction, Internet addiction, and compulsive buying and positively associated with exercise addiction and study addiction. Conclusions The positive associations between the seven behavioral addictions suggest one or several underlying pathological factors. Hierarchical multiple regressions showed that personality traits explained between 6% and 17% of the variance in the seven behavioral addictions, suggesting that personality to a varying degree explains scores on measures of addictive behaviors.
Full Text Available Óscar F Gonçalves,1–3 Marcelo C Batistuzzo,4 João R Sato5 1Neuropsychophysiology Lab, CIPsi, School of Psychology, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal; 2Spaulding Neuromodulation Center, Department of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 3Social and Cognitive Neuroscience Laboratory, Center for Health and Biological Sciences, Mackenzie Presbyterian University, 4Department and Institute of Psychiatry, University of São Paulo Medical School (FMUSP, 5Mathematics, Computing, and Cognition Center, Universidade Federal do ABC – UFABC, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: The current literature provides substantial evidence of brain alterations associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD symptoms (eg, checking, cleaning/decontamination, counting compulsions; harm or sexual, symmetry/exactness obsessions, and emotional problems (eg, defensive/appetitive emotional imbalance, disgust, guilt, shame, and fear learning/extinction and cognitive impairments associated with this disorder (eg, inhibitory control, working memory, cognitive flexibility. Building on this evidence, new clinical trials can now target specific brain regions/networks. Real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rtfMRI was introduced as a new therapeutic tool for the self-regulation of brain–mind. In this review, we describe initial trials testing the use of rtfMRI to target brain regions associated with specific OCD symptoms (eg, contamination, and other mind–brain processes (eg, cognitive – working memory, inhibitory control, emotional – defensive, appetitive systems, fear reduction through counter-conditioning found impaired in OCD patients. While this is a novel topic of research, initial evidence shows the promise of using rtfMRI in training the self-regulation of brain regions and mental processes associated with OCD. Additionally, studies with
Cain, Nicole M.; Ansell, Emily B.; Simpson, H. Blair; Pinto, Anthony
The core symptoms of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) often lead to interpersonal difficulties. However, little research has explored interpersonal functioning in OCPD. The current study examined interpersonal problems, interpersonal sensitivities, empathy, and systemizing, the drive to analyze and derive underlying rules for systems, in a sample of 25 OCPD individuals, 25 individuals with comorbid OCPD and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and 25 healthy controls. We found...
Marcinko, Darko; Bolanca, Marina; Rudan, Vlasta
Compulsive buying behaviour has recently received long overdue attention as a clinical issue. Aim of this report is to describe treatment of two female patients diagnosed with compulsive buying disorder in comorbidity with binge eating disorder. In both cases, criteria for diagnosing of other axis I or axis II disorder were not present. Fluvoxamine was used in pharmacotherapy, and psychodynamic psychotherapy as a psychotherapeutical approach. We conclude that fluvoxamine and psychodynamic psychotherapy may be effective in treatment of compulsive buyers in comorbidity with binge eating disorder.
Black, Donald W; Coryell, William; Crowe, Raymond; Shaw, Martha; McCormick, Brett; Allen, Jeff
This study investigates the possible relationship between pathological gambling (PG) and potential spectrum disorders including the DSM-IV impulse control disorders (intermittent explosive disorder, kleptomania, pyromania, trichotillomania) and several non-DSM disorders (compulsive buying disorder, compulsive sexual behavior, Internet addiction). PG probands, controls, and their first-degree relatives were assessed with instruments of known reliability. Detailed family history information was collected on relatives who were deceased or unavailable. Best estimate diagnoses were assigned blind to family status. The results were analyzed using logistic regression by the method of generalized estimating equations. The sample included 95 probands with PG, 91 controls, and 1075 first-degree relatives (537 PG, 538 controls). Compulsive buying disorder and having "any spectrum disorder" were more frequent in the PG probands and their first-degree relatives vs. controls and their relatives. Spectrum disorders were significantly more prevalent among PG relatives compared to control relatives (adjusted OR=8.37), though much of this difference was attributable to the contribution from compulsive buying disorder. We conclude that compulsive buying disorder is likely part of familial PG spectrum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Black, Donald W.; Coryell, William; Crowe, Raymond; Shaw, Martha; McCormick, Brett; Allen, Jeff
This study investigates the possible relationship between pathological gambling (PG) and potential spectrum disorders including the DSM-IV impulse control disorders (intermittent explosive disorder, kleptomania, pyromania, trichotillomania) and several non-DSM disorders (compulsive buying disorder, compulsive sexual behavior, Internet addiction). PG probands, controls, and their first-degree relatives were assessed with instruments of known reliability. Detailed family history information was collected on relatives who were deceased or unavailable. Best estimate diagnoses were assigned blind to family status. The results were analyzed using logistic regression by the method of generalized estimating equations. The sample included 95 probands with PG, 91 controls, and 1075 first-degree relatives (537 PG, 538 control). Compulsive buying disorder, having 1–2 spectrum disorder(s), and having “any spectrum disorder” were more frequent in the PG probands and their first-degree relatives vs. controls and their relatives. Spectrum disorders were significantly more prevalent among PG relatives compared to control relatives (adjusted OR = 8.37), though much of this difference was attributable to the contribution from compulsive buying disorder. We conclude that compulsive buying disorder is likely part of familial PG spectrum. PMID:25660732
Nicoli de Mattos, Cristiana; Kim, Hyoun S; Requião, Marinalva G; Marasaldi, Renata F; Filomensky, Tatiana Z; Hodgins, David C; Tavares, Hermano
Compulsive buying is a common disorder found worldwide. Although recent research has shed light into the prevalence, etiology and clinical correlates of compulsive buying disorder, less is known about gender differences. To address this empirical gap, we assessed potential gender differences in demographic and psychiatric co-morbidities in a sample of 171 compulsive buyers (20 men and 151 women) voluntarily seeking treatment in São Paulo, Brazil. A structured clinical interview confirmed the diagnosis of compulsive buying. Of the 171 participants, 95.9% (n = 164) met criteria for at least one co-morbid psychiatric disorder. The results found that male and female compulsive buyers did not differ in problem severity as assessed by the Compulsive Buying Scale. However, several significant demographic and psychiatric differences were found in a multivariate binary logistic regression. Specifically, male compulsive buyers were more likely to report being non-heterosexual, and reported fewer years of formal education. In regards to psychiatric co-morbidities, male compulsive buyers were more likely to be diagnosed with sexual addiction, and intermittent explosive disorder. Conversely, men had lower scores on the shopping subscale of the Shorter PROMIS Questionnaire. The results suggest that male compulsive buyers are more likely to present with co-morbid psychiatric disorders. Treatment planning for compulsive buying disorder would do well to take gender into account to address for potential psychiatric co-morbidities.
Harkin, Ben; Kessler, Klaus
A paradox of memory research is that repeated checking results in a decrease in memory certainty, memory vividness and confidence [van den Hout, M. A., & Kindt, M. (2003a). Phenomenological validity of an OCD-memory model and the remember/know distinction. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 41, 369-378; van den Hout, M. A., & Kindt, M. (2003b). Repeated checking causes memory distrust. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 41, 301-316]. Although these findings have been mainly attributed to changes in episodic long-term memory, it has been suggested [Shimamura, A. P. (2000). Toward a cognitive neuroscience of metacognition. Consciousness and Cognition, 9, 313-323] that representations in working memory could already suffer from detrimental checking. In two experiments we set out to test this hypothesis by employing a delayed-match-to-sample working memory task. Letters had to be remembered in their correct locations, a task that was designed to engage the episodic short-term buffer of working memory [Baddeley, A. D. (2000). The episodic buffer: a new component in working memory? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4, 417-423]. Of most importance, we introduced an intermediate distractor question that was prone to induce frustrating and unnecessary checking on trials where no correct answer was possible. Reaction times and confidence ratings on the actual memory test of these trials confirmed the success of this manipulation. Most importantly, high checkers [cf. VOCI; Thordarson, D. S., Radomsky, A. S., Rachman, S., Shafran, R, Sawchuk, C. N., & Hakstian, A. R. (2004). The Vancouver obsessional compulsive inventory (VOCI). Behaviour Research and Therapy, 42(11), 1289-1314] were less accurate than low checkers when frustrating checking was induced, especially if the experimental context actually emphasized the irrelevance of the misleading question. The clinical relevance of this result was substantiated by means of an extreme groups comparison across the two studies. The findings
Merlo, Lisa J.; Storch, Eric A.; Lehmkuhl, Heather D.; Jacob, Marni L.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Goodman, Wayne K.; Geffken, Gary R.
Lack of motivation may negatively impact cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) response for pediatric patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Motivational interviewing is a method for interacting with patients in order to decrease their ambivalence and support their self-efficacy in their efforts at behavior change. This paper presents a preliminary randomized trial (N = 16) to evaluate the effectiveness of adding motivational interviewing (MI) as an adjunct to CBT. Patients aged 6–17 who were participating in intensive family-based CBT for OCD were randomized to receive either CBT plus MI or CBT plus extra psychoeducation sessions. Results indicated that after 4 sessions, the mean CY-BOCS score for the CBT+MI group was significantly lower than for the CBT+psychoeducation group (t(14) = 2.51, p < .03, Cohen’s d = 1.34). In addition, the degree of reduction in CY-BOCS scores was significantly greater (t(14) = 2.14, p = .05, Cohen’s d = 1.02) for the CBT+MI group (mean change = 16.75, SD = 9.66) than for the CBT+psychoeducation group (mean change = 8.13, SD = 6.01). This effect decreased over time, and scores at post-treatment were not significantly different. However, participants in the MI group completed treatment on average three sessions earlier than those in the psychoeducation group, providing support for the utility of MI in facilitating rapid improvement and minimizing the burden of treatment for families. PMID:19675960
Ardizzone, Ignazio; Soletti, Laura; Panunzi, Sara; Carratelli, Teresa I
This study examines the obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) with normal and poor insight of illness and it detects the presence of autistic traits. The aim is to establish the relationship between OCD and Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD): comorbidity or subtype of OCD? The sample consists of 48 adolescents (aged 12-18) with a clinical diagnosis of OCD (according DSM-IV-TR). After administering the Children's Yale Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (CYBOCS) and the Brown Assessement Beliefs Scale (BABS), the sample is divided into two groups according to insight of illness. Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) and Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) were used to assist in the ASD diagnosis; Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders (SCID-II) was administered to assess personality disorders. 47% of subjects presents poor insight and 27% are included within the diagnostic criteria for autistic spectrum disorder. Poor insight in obsessive-compulsive symptoms is significantly associated with the presence of autistic traits. There is also a significant association between cluster hoarding and poor insight. This study suggests the existence of an obsessive autistic atypical subtype, where the compulsive dimension of repetitive behaviours vanishes in an autistic dimension with stereotyped manifestations. Further research should be conducted to better understand this obsessive autistic atypical subtype and to put it in the obsessive-compulsive spectrum in adolescence.
Kerkhof, Peter; Finkenauer, Catrin; Muusses, Linda D.
This article examines how compulsive Internet use and marital well-being are related to each other. We suggest that they are negatively related and explore whether compulsive Internet use predicts marital well-being or vice versa. The relation between compulsive Internet use and marital well-being is tested in a two-wave prospective study among…
De Caluwé, Elien; Rettew, David C; De Clercq, Barbara
Various studies have shown that obsessive-compulsive symptoms exist as part of not only obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) but also obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD). Despite these shared characteristics, there is an ongoing debate on the inclusion of OCPD into the recently developed DSM-5 obsessive-compulsive and related disorders (OCRDs) category. The current study aims to clarify whether this inclusion can be justified from an item response theory approach. The validity of the continuity model for understanding the association between OCD and OCPD was explored in 787 Dutch community and referred adolescents (70% female, 12-20 years old, mean = 16.16, SD = 1.40) studied between July 2011 and January 2013, relying on item response theory (IRT) analyses of self-reported OCD symptoms (Youth Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms Scale [YOCSS]) and OCPD traits (Personality Inventory for DSM-5 [PID-5]). The results support the continuity hypothesis, indicating that both OCD and OCPD can be represented along a single underlying spectrum. OCD, and especially the obsessive symptom domain, can be considered as the extreme end of OCPD traits. The current study empirically supports the classification of OCD and OCPD along a single dimension. This integrative perspective in OC-related pathology addresses the dimensional nature of traits and psychopathology and may improve the transparency and validity of assessment procedures. © Copyright 2014 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.
Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Sun Mi; Bae, Sujin; Renshaw, Perry F; Anderson, Jeffrey S
Individuals who are chronic, compulsive video game players experience an elevated incidence of major depression. Excessive or problematic game play can interact with depression clinically, and may magnify impulsive behavior associated with video gaming. Functional brain imaging was performed during a Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) task in 42 healthy control and 95 volunteers seeking treatment for compulsive video game playing, including 60 participants without major depression (pure internet gaming disorder, pure IGD) and 35 participants comorbid with major depression (IGD+MDD). In response to the WCST in contrast to fixation, activation was observed in canonical brain attentional networks including bilateral intraparietal sulcus, frontal eye fields, and middle temporal cortical regions as well as dorsolateral prefrontal, inferior parietal and anterior insula, anterior cingulate cortex in all participants. For WCST>Fixation contrasts, the IGD+MDD group exhibited greater relative activation within the left hippocampus, compared to healthy control participants. For WCST>Fixation contrasts, the IGD+MDD group exhibited greater relative activation within the left hippocampus and the right parahippocampal gyrus immediately posterior to the hippocampus, compared to the pure IGD group. In cohorts of individuals with a history of compulsive internet game play, individuals with depression showed failure to suppress default mode network activity during an attentionally demanding task, compared to individuals without depression, including comparison groups with and without a history of compulsive video gaming. This reduced suppression of the brain regions within the default mode network may be a consequence of depressive neurophysiology or represent a predisposition for depression within compulsive game players. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Maraz, Aniko; van den Brink, Wim; Demetrovics, Zsolt
Compulsive buying is a relatively new psychopathological concept and very few data are currently available regarding the prevalence and validity of compulsive buying disorder. In this cross-sectional study, we establish the prevalence of compulsive buying disorder in shopping mall visitors and
O'Sullivan, Sean S; Wu, Kit; Politis, Marios; Lawrence, Andrew D; Evans, Andrew H; Bose, Subrata K; Djamshidian, Atbin; Lees, Andrew J; Piccini, Paola
Impulsive-compulsive behaviours are a significant source of morbidity for patients with Parkinson's disease receiving dopaminergic therapy. The development of these behaviours may reflect sensitization of the neural response to non-drug rewards, similar to that proposed for sensitization to drug rewards in addiction. Here, by using (11)C-raclopride positron emission tomography imaging, we investigated the effects of reward-related cues and L-dopa challenge in patients with Parkinson's disease with and without impulsive-compulsive behaviours on striatal levels of synaptic dopamine. Eighteen patients (11 with and seven without impulsive-compulsive behaviours) underwent three (11)C-raclopride positron emission tomography scans. The impulsive-compulsive behaviours included hypersexuality, binge eating, punding, compulsive use of dopamine replacement therapy, compulsive buying and pathological gambling, with eight patients exhibiting more than one impulsive-compulsive behaviour. There were no significant differences in baseline dopamine D2 receptor availability between the Parkinson's disease groups. No differences were found when comparing the percentage change of raclopride binding potential between the two Parkinson's disease groups following L-dopa challenge with neutral cues. The group with Parkinson's disease with impulsive-compulsive behaviours had a greater reduction of ventral striatum (11)C-raclopride binding potential following reward-related cue exposure, relative to neutral cue exposure, following L-dopa challenge (16.3% compared with 5.8% in Parkinson's disease controls, P = 0.016). The heightened response of striatal reward circuitry to heterogeneous reward-related visual cues among a group of patients with different impulsive-compulsive behaviours is consistent with a global sensitization to appetitive behaviours with dopaminergic therapy in vulnerable individuals. Our findings are relevant for the broader debate on the relation between impulsive-compulsive
Gillan, Claire M.; Robbins, Trevor W.
Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) has become a paradigmatic case of goal-directed dysfunction in psychiatry. In this article, we review the neurobiological evidence, historical and recent, that originally led to this supposition and continues to support a habit hypothesis of OCD. We will then discuss a number of recent studies that have directly tested this hypothesis, using behavioural experiments in patient populations. Based on this research evidence, which suggests that rather than goal-directed avoidance behaviours, compulsions in OCD may derive from manifestations of excessive habit formation, we present the details of a novel account of the functional relationship between these habits and the full symptom profile of the disorder. Borrowing from a cognitive dissonance framework, we propose that the irrational threat beliefs (obsessions) characteristic of OCD may be a consequence, rather than an instigator, of compulsive behaviour in these patients. This lays the foundation for a potential shift in both clinical and neuropsychological conceptualization of OCD and related disorders. This model may also prove relevant to other putative disorders of compulsivity, such as substance dependence, where the experience of ‘wanting’ drugs may be better understood as post hoc rationalizations of otherwise goal-insensitive, stimulus-driven behaviour. PMID:25267818
Mueller, Astrid; Claes, Laurence; Mitchell, James E; Wonderlich, Steve A; Crosby, Ross D; de Zwaan, Martina
Personality prototypes based on the Big Five factor model were investigated in a treatment-seeking sample of 68 individuals with compulsive buying (CB). Cluster analysis of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) scales yielded two distinct personality clusters. Participants in cluster II scored significantly higher than those in cluster I on neuroticism and lower on the other four personality traits. Subjects in cluster II showed higher severity of CB, lower degree of control over CB symptoms, and were more anxious, interpersonally sensitive and impulsive. Furthermore, cluster II was characterized by higher rates of comorbid anxiety disorders, and cluster B personality disorders. The two personality prototypes did not differ with respect to obsessive-compulsive features. Finally and of considerable clinical significance, participants in cluster II reported lower remission rates after undergoing cognitive-behavioral therapy. Implications of the results for treatment are discussed. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lauren Rose Godier
Full Text Available The characteristic relentless self-starvation behaviour seen in Anorexia Nervosa (AN has been described as evidence of compulsivity, with increasing suggestion of parallels with addictive behaviour. This study used a thematic qualitative analysis to investigate the parallels between compulsive behaviour in AN and Substance Use Disorders (SUD. Forty individuals currently suffering from AN completed an online questionnaire reflecting on their experience of compulsive behaviour in AN. Eight main themes emerged from thematic qualitative analysis; compulsivity as central to AN, impaired control, escalating compulsions, emotional triggers, negative reactions, detrimental continuation of behaviour, functional impairment, and role in recovery. These results suggested that individuals with AN view the compulsive nature of their behaviour as central to the maintenance of their disorder, and as a significant barrier to recovery. The themes that emerged also showed parallels with the DSM-V criteria for Substance Use Disorders (SUDs, mapping onto the four groups of criteria (impaired control, social impairment, risky use of substance, pharmacological criteria. These results emphasise the need for further research to explore the possible parallels in behavioural and neural underpinnings of compulsivity in AN and SUDs, which may inform novel treatment avenues for AN.
Mehmet Zihni Sungur
Full Text Available Several authors have suggested that not only appraisal of significance of external events and signals from the body, but also appraisal of the personal significance of thoughts are important, and emphasized the conceptual limitations of the schema approach in cognitive model and developed the integrative information processing model of emotional disorders. According to this approach, the assessment of the meaning of thought, rather than thought itself is more important in the development and maintenance of the psychopathology. In the metacognitive model of obsessive compulsive disorder, three types of metacognitive beliefs are emphasized. These are; thought-action fusion (thought-action, thought-event, thought-object, metacognitive beliefs on performing the rituals and metacognitive beliefs on the warning to stop to terminate the rituals. According to the model, targeting directly to change in metacognitive beliefs will increase success in therapy. In this article, the concept of metacognition in emotional disorders, the metacognitive model of obsessive compulsive disorder and the advances that the model introduced in conceptualization and treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder have been discussed.
Sadri, Shalane K; McEvoy, Peter M; Egan, Sarah J; Kane, Robert T; Rees, Clare S; Anderson, Rebecca A
The evidence regarding whether co-morbid obsessive compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) is associated with treatment outcomes in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is mixed, with some research indicating that OCPD is associated with poorer response, and some showing that it is associated with improved response. We sought to explore the role of OCPD diagnosis and the personality domain of conscientiousness on treatment outcomes for exposure and response prevention for OCD. The impact of co-morbid OCPD and conscientiousness on treatment outcomes was examined in a clinical sample of 46 participants with OCD. OCPD diagnosis and scores on conscientiousness were not associated with poorer post-treatment OCD severity, as indexed by Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS) scores, although the relative sample size of OCPD was small and thus generalizability is limited. This study found no evidence that OCPD or conscientiousness were associated with treatment outcomes for OCD. Further research with larger clinical samples is required.
Kesebir, Sermin; Işitmez, Sema; Gündoğar, Duru
The objective of this study was to investigate the frequency of compulsive buying in bipolar disorder (BD), to compare it with healthy controls, and to search if there is a difference between bipolar cases with and without compulsive buying in terms of sociodemographic qualities, temperament, clinical characteristics and comorbid diagnoses. One-hundred outpatient cases diagnosed as BD according to DSM-IV were evaluated consecutively. Following the diagnosis interview (SCID-I and II) the subjects completed the mood disorders registry form, Compulsive Buying Scale and TEMPS-A. Compulsive buying scores were higher in bipolar patients than healthy controls (pcompulsive buying revealed higher cyclothymic and irritable temperament scores than other bipolar patients (p=0.029 vs 0.045). Premenstrual syndrome and postpartum onset were more frequent, while psychotic symptoms were less in compulsive buyer bipolar patients (p=0.002, 0.009 vs 0.034). Severity of episode was lower (p=0.01), number of episodes was higher (p=0.009). Acute onset and remission before and after maintenance treatment were more frequent in patients with compulsive buying (p=0.011 and p=0.011). Full remission between episodes was 100%. Cases with axis-1 and axis-2 comorbidities demonstrated higher compulsive buying scores (p=0.025 and 0.005). Treatment regimen differences between patients are a limitation of the study. This is the first study to relate compulsive buying with the clinical characteristics of BD. Our results reveal that compulsive buying in BD occurs together with mood episodes which are not very severe, but frequent and with abrupt onset. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Chamberlain, Samuel R.; Leppink, Eric W.; Redden, Sarah A.; Stein, Dan J.; Lochner, Christine; Grant, Jon E.
Background: Internet use is pervasive in many cultures. Little is known about the impact of Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD) symptoms on impulsive and compulsive psychopathologies in people who use the Internet. Method: 1323 adult Internet users completed an online questionnaire quantifying OCPD symptoms, likely occurrence of select mental disorders (OCD, ADHD, problematic Internet use, anxiety), and personality questionnaires of impulsivity (Barratt) and compulsivity (Pad...
M. S. George
Full Text Available Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD is an increasingly recognized disorder with a prevalence of 2–3% (Robins et al., 1984. Once thought to be psychodynamic in origin, OCD is now generally recognized as having a neurobiological cause. Although the exact pathophysiology of OCD in its pure form remains unknown, there are numerous reports of obsessive–compulsive symptoms arising in the setting of known neurological disease. In this paper, we review the reported cases of obsessive–compulsive symptoms associated with neurologic diseases and outline the known facts about the underlying neurobiology of OCD. Finally, we synthesize these findings into a proposed theory of the pathophysiology of OCD, in both its pure form and when it accompanies other neurological illness.
Samuel, Douglas B; Riddell, Ashley D B; Lynam, Donald R; Miller, Joshua D; Widiger, Thomas A
This study provides convergent, discriminant, and incremental validity data for the Five-Factor Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (FFOCI), a newly developed measure of traits relevant to obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) from the perspective of the Five-factor model (FFM). Twelve scales were constructed as maladaptive variants of specific FFM facets (e.g., Perfectionism as a maladaptive variant of FFM competence). On the basis of data from 407 undergraduates (oversampled for OCPD symptoms) these 12 scales demonstrated convergent correlations with established measures of OCPD and the FFM. Further, they obtained strong discriminant validity with respect to facets from other FFM domains. Most important, the individual scales and total score of the FFOCI obtained incremental validity beyond existing measures of the FFM and OCPD for predicting a composite measure of obsessive-compulsive symptomatology. The findings support the validity of the FFOCI as a measure of obsessive-compulsive personality traits, as well as of maladaptive variants of the FFM.
Rassin, E; Muris, P; Schmidt, H; Merckelbach, H
Research has shown that there are strong similarities in content between the obsessions and compulsions that characterize obsessive-compulsive disorder and nonclinical obsessions and compulsions. However, clinical and nonclinical obsessions and compulsions do differ with respect to characteristics like frequency, intensity, discomfort and elicited resistance. Two separate concepts have been invoked to explain how normal obsessions and compulsions may develop into clinical phenomena. First, it is suggested that thought-action fusion (TAF) contributes to obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Second, thought suppression may intensify obsessive-compulsive symptoms due to its paradoxical effect on intrusive thoughts. Although both phenomena have been found to contribute to obsessive-compulsive symptoms, possible interactions between these two have never been investigated. The current study explored how TAF and thought suppression interact in the development of obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Undergraduate psychology students (N = 173) completed questionnaires pertaining to TAF, thought suppression and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Covariances between the scores on these questionnaires were analyzed by means of structural equation modeling. Results suggest that TAF triggers thought suppression, while thought suppression, in turn, promotes obsessive-compulsive symptoms.
Stein, Dan J
In closing, we argue for two conclusions. First, there are advantages to using theoretically neutral terms (such as hypersexual disorder) that go beyond the compulsive-impulsive-addictive distinctions. Although the notion of theory-neutral observation cannot be defended, it is important not to rely on any particular theoretical framework before all the evidence is in. Our current nosology employs a range of contradictory terms and frameworks (eg, impulse control disorder, compulsive gambling and buying, trichotillomania, and kleptomania). In keeping with the approach taken in other DSM categories, it may be useful to find a more theory-neutral term that can cut across these conditions. Second, any conclusions drawn here about the nosology of hypersexual disorder must be tempered by the relative lack of rigorous psychobiological and systematic treatment data. A better understanding of the psychobiology of hypersexual disorder might provide greater confidence in one or the other theoretical model. The A-B-C model proposed here is tentative at best, given the relative absence of supporting data. Further, a richer assessment and treatment literature would allow clearer conclusions about the clinical utility of different nosological approaches. We emphasize the need for much additional work to characterize the phenomenology and psychobiology of hypersexual disorder and other conditions characterized by affective dysregulation, behavioral addiction, and cognitive dyscontrol, in the hope that such research would ultimately lead to improved assessment and management.
Kreiss, Deborah S; Coffman, Catherine F; Fiacco, Nicholas R; Granger, Jason C; Helton, Bernadette M; Jackson, Jennifer C; Kim, Leonid V; Mistry, Rishi S; Mizer, Tammie M; Palmer, Lolita V; Vacca, Jay A; Winkler, Stuart S; Zimmer, Benjamin A
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is characterized by recurrent, anxiety-producing thoughts accompanied by unwanted, overwhelming urges to perform ritualistic behaviors. Pharmacological treatments for this disorder (serotonin uptake inhibitors) are problematic because there is a 6-8 week delayed onset and half of the patients do not adequately respond. The present study evaluated whether Ritualistic Chewing Behaviors (RCBs) induced by the serotonin agonist mCPP in the rat is a behavioral model for OCD. The effects upon the RCBs induced by mCPP (1 mg/kg) were evaluated following treatments with either the serotonin antagonist mianserin (3 mg/kg), the dopamine antagonist haloperidol (1 mg/kg), the GABA modulator diazepam (10 mg/kg), or the serotonin uptake inhibitors clomipramine and fluvoxamine (15 mg/kg). The response to mCPP was blocked by acute treatment with mianserin, but not with acute haloperidol or diazepam. Further experiments revealed that the effects of mCPP were blocked by chronic, but not acute, treatment with clomipramine and fluvoxamine. A time-course demonstrated that 14 days of chronic treatment were required for blockade of the mCPP-evoked response. The current study demonstrates that mCPP-evoked RCBs may be a rodent model for OCD that can be used to predict the clinical efficacy and time course of novel OCD treatment. Future investigations may be able to use the current model as a tool for bench-marking corresponding changes in other measures of neurological activity that may provide insight into the mechanisms underlying OCD. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Thomas, Justin; Al-Menhali, Salwa; Humeidan, Majeda
Compulsive buying is particularly relevant in nations with high levels of consumer spending. Most previous studies have focused on European and North America populations. This study explores compulsive buying amongst citizens of the United Arab Emirates, an Arab nation with high retail outlet density, and high levels of consumer spending. Female college students (N=100) completed an English/Arabic version of the compulsive buying scale along with a measure of depression. Rates of compulsive buying were higher than those reported in any previously published study. Furthermore, in line with previous findings from other nations, compulsive buying was associated with elevated depressive symptomatology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Black, Donald W; Shaw, Martha; Allen, Jeff
The authors assessed clinical symptoms and self-reported shopping and spending behavior in people diagnosed with compulsive shopping (CS) at a 5-year follow-up interview. All met the criteria of McElroy et al. for lifetime CS and had the disorder for >1year. Structured and semistructured instruments and self-report questionnaires were used to collect data. Of the original 26 subjects, 17 (65%) were interviewed and are the focus of this report. At follow-up, their ages ranged from 23 to 67years (mean=44years). Lifetime psychiatric comorbidity was common, but few had current psychiatric disorders at follow-up. Interest in shopping and spending decreased for eight (47%), stayed the same for five (29%), and increased for four (24%) subjects. Eleven subjects (65%) reported having attempted to quit their CS and three (18%) reported successfully doing so. Triggers for returning to CS included feelings of pressure/excitement/tension to shop; boredom; negative feelings such as sadness, depression, frustration, or anger; and the desire for positive feelings like happiness, power, or elation. Mean scores on the Compulsive Buying Scale (CBS) and the shopping version of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale showed overall improvement in CS symptoms (d=1.16 and d=-1.19, respectively); subjects were also less impulsive (d=-0.48). At baseline and follow-up, those with a lifetime mood disorder tended to have greater CS severity. While the subjects showed overall improvement, most had ongoing symptoms of CS. The implications of the findings are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ciarrochi, Joseph; Parker, Philip; Sahdra, Baljinder; Marshall, Sarah; Jackson, Chris; Gloster, Andrew T.; Heaven, Patrick
Is compulsive Internet use (CIU) an antecedent to poor mental health, a consequence, or both? Study 1 used a longitudinal design to track the development of CIU and mental health in Grade 8 (N = 1,030 males, 1,038 females, M[subscript age] = 13.7), 9, 10, and 11. Study 2 extended Study 1 by examining the kinds of Internet behaviors most strongly…
Hunter, Katherine K.; Chenier, Jeffrey S.; Gresham, Frank M.
Internalizing behaviors are directed inward toward the child and are frequently overlooked in classrooms compared with externalizing behaviors. When internalizing behaviors are identified, cognitive-behavioral interventions (CBIs) are typically the intervention of choice; however, CBIs are time-consuming and require considerable skill and…
de Bloom, Jessica; Radstaak, Mirjam; Geurts, Sabine
Compulsive workers often face psychological and physical health disturbances because of working long hours and an obsessive preoccupation with work during off-job time. Prolonged respite episodes may either relief these employees from their daily stressors to recover or trigger withdrawal symptoms. Our research question was as follows: How do (1) work hours, (2) rumination and (3) affective well-being unfold for compulsive workers compared with non-compulsive workers across long vacations? In a longitudinal field study, work hours, rumination and affective well-being were assessed in 54 employees 2 weeks before, during and in the first, second and fourth week after a long summer vacation. Working compulsively was assessed 3 weeks before vacation. Work hours decreased during and increased after vacation. Levels of rumination dropped during vacation and remained below baseline until 2 weeks after vacation. Initial differences in rumination between obsessive and non-obsessive workers disappeared during and directly after vacation. Affective well-being rose during vacation and returned to baseline directly after vacation. Increases in affective well-being during vacation as well as decreases after vacation were greater in obsessive workers than in non-obsessive workers. Vacations seem to temporarily offset characteristic differences between obsessive and non-obsessive workers, decrease rumination and improve affective well-being. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Lejoyeux, Michel; Bailly, Florence; Moula, Hervé; Loi, Sabrina; Adès, Jean
The authors assessed the prevalence of compulsive buying (CB) among patients presenting an obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). They compared the buying style of patients with and without CB. One thousand five hundred consecutive patients were assessed by a general practitioner in Paris (France). Sixty patients presenting with OCD were included. Patients with CB associated with OCD (n = 14) were compared with those with "pure" OCD (n = 46). Sixty patients paired for sex and age and free from OCD, depression, and anxiety were also recruited among the clients of the same general practitioner. We compared 3 groups: controls, patients with OCD, and patients with OCD + CB. Prevalence of CB was 23% (14 cases) among patients with OCD and 6% (4 cases) in controls (chi(2)(1) = 5.3, P = .02). Patients presenting with OCD + CB had a higher number of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Revised Fourth Edition diagnostic criteria for OCD than patients with pure OCD (6.1 and 5.4, respectively, P = .001). Depression was more frequent in the OCD + CB group (78%) than in the OCD group (42%) and in controls (10%) (P = .02). Patients from the OCD + CB group had higher score at the CAGE questionnaire than those of the OCD group (2 vs 0.7, P = .003). Patients with OCD + CB considered 42% of their purchases as occasions not to be passed up compared with 15.4% in the OCD group and 8.6% in controls. OCD+CD patients used the items they bought after a longer delay than controls and patients with pure OCD (8.2 vs 3 and 3.1 days, respectively). Compulsive buying is more frequent in OCD than in controls. Patients presenting with OCD + CB show more depressive disorders and drink more alcohol. They are more highly implicated in the items they buy and they are more often disappointed by the items once they possess them.
Bejerot, S; von Knorring, L; Ekselius, L
As opposed to other psychiatric populations, subjects with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) smoke less than the general population. The present study aims at further investigating the relationship between smoking in OCD subjects and personality traits. Sixty-four subjects with OCD were interviewed concerning their smoking habits. Personality traits were evaluated using the Karolinska Scales of Personality, and specific obsessive-compulsive personality traits were elicited through self-report questionnaires. Non-smokers were more easily fatigued, more inclined to worry, more remorseful, less self-confident, less impulsive and became uneasy more frequently when urged to speed up, than smokers with OCD. Additionally, non-smokers fulfilled significantly more obsessive-compulsive personality disorder criteria as compared to the smokers (P < 0.001). We propose a clinical subtype of OCD related to non-smoking, psychasthenia, anxiety, and pronounced obsessive-compulsive personality disorder traits.
Kim, Kwanguk; Kim, Chan-Hyung; Kim, So-Yeon; Roh, Daeyoung; Kim, Sun I
The use of computers, especially for virtual reality (VR), to understand, assess, and treat various mental health problems has been developed for the last decade, including application for phobia, post-traumatic stress disorder, attention deficits, and schizophrenia. However, the number of VR tools addressing obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is still lacking due to the heterogeneous symptoms of OCD and poor understanding of the relationship between VR and OCD. This article reviews the empirical literatures for VR tools in the future, which involve applications for both clinical work and experimental research in this area, including examining symptoms using VR according to OCD patients' individual symptoms, extending OCD research in the VR setting to also study behavioral and physiological correlations of the symptoms, and expanding the use of VR for OCD to cognitive-behavioral intervention.
Demin, S A; Panischev, O Yu; Demina, N Yu
There were demonstrated capabilities of the Memory Function Formalism (MFF) in analyzing cross correlations in human brain bioelectric activity at obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). To extract the information about collective phenomena in (electroencephalogram) EEG brain activity we use the power spectra of memory functions and the memory quantifiers. We discover the pairs of the electrodes with the greatest differences in dynamic and stochastic parameters for patients with the different condition. The high OCD condition is characterized by the influence of the memory effects. The MFF cross correlation analysis allow to describe the collective phenomena in EEG dynamics at OCD including the dynamic, spectral and stochastic behavior. (paper)
Dittrich, Winand H; Johansen, Thomas
The nature of cognitive deficits in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by contradictory findings in terms of specific neuropsychological deficits. Selective impairments have been suggested to involve visuospatial memory, set shifting, decision-making and response inhibition. The aim of this study was to investigate cognitive deficits in decision-making and executive functioning in OCD. It was hypothesized that the OCD patients would be less accurate in their responses compared to the healthy controls in rational decision-making on a version of the Cambridge gambling task (CGT) and on the color-word interference test and on a version of the Tower of Hanoi test (tower test) of executive functioning. Thirteen participants with OCD were compared to a group of healthy controls (n = 13) matched for age, gender, education and verbal IQ. Results revealed significant differences between the OCD group and the healthy control group on quality of decision-making on the CGT and for achievement score on the tower test. On these two tasks the OCD group performed worse than the healthy control group. The symptom-dimension analysis revealed performance differences where safety checking patients were impaired on the tower test compared to contamination patients. Results are discussed in the framework of cognition and emotion processing and findings implicate that OCD models should address, specifically, the interaction between cognition and emotion. Here the emotional disruption hypothesis is forwarded to account for the dysfunctional behaviors in OCD. Further implications regarding methodological and inhibitory factors affecting cognitive information processing are highlighted. © 2013 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.
Dell'Osso, Bernardo; Allen, Andrea; Altamura, A Carlo; Buoli, Massimiliano; Hollander, Eric
Impulsive-compulsive buying disorder (ICBD) is an impulse control disorder not otherwise specified (ICD-NOS) characterized by impulsive drives and compulsive behaviours (buying unneeded things), personal distress, impaired social and vocational functioning and financial problems. Despite being described in the 19th century, serious attention to ICBD began only in the last decade with the first epidemiological and pharmacological investigation. Biological, social and psychological factors contribute to the aetiology of ICBD. Cognitive-behavioural therapy and selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors are currently considered the more effective interventions in the treatment of ICBD. The present review aims to provide a broad overview of the epidemiology, aetiology, phenomenology and treatment options of ICBD.
Full Text Available The concept of compulsion, in which addictive behaviour is said to be carried out against the will, is central to the disease theory of addiction and ubiquitous in modern definitions. The aims of this article are: (i to describe various meanings of compulsion in the literature; (ii to compare the part thought to be played by compulsion in addiction with its suggested role in obsessive-compulsive disorder; (iii to critically examine the place of compulsion in influential neurobiological accounts of addiction; (iv to summarise the empirical evidence bearing on the usefulness of the compulsion concept, evidence that seems at first sight incompatible with the notion of compulsion. This is followed by a discussion of which possible meanings of compulsion can survive an empirical test and what role they might play in understanding addiction, paying particular attention to a distinction between strong and weak senses of compulsion. A conclusion is that addictive behaviour cannot be considered compulsive at the time it is carried out, though other possible meanings of compulsion as an explanation or description of addictive behaviour and experience are discussed. Among other conclusions, it is suggested that, although in some senses of the term it may seem arbitrary whether or not âcompulsionâ should be retained, its use has important consequences for the public understanding of addiction, and is likely to deter people's attempts to overcome their addictions and their chances of success. Keywords: Addiction, Compulsion, Disease theory, Neurobiological theories, Voluntary behaviour, Operant behaviour, Public understanding
Chiapa, Amanda; Smith, Justin D; Kim, Hanjoe; Dishion, Thomas J; Shaw, Daniel S; Wilson, Melvin N
Therapist fidelity to evidence-based family interventions has consistently been linked to child and family outcomes. However, few studies have evaluated the potential ebb and flow of fidelity of therapists over time. We examined therapist drift in fidelity over 4 years in the context of a Family Check-Up prevention services in early childhood (ages 2-5 years). At age 2, families engaging in Women, Infants, and Children Nutritional Supplement Program services were randomized and offered annual Family Check-Ups. Seventy-nine families with a child in the clinical range of problem behaviors at age 2 years were included in this analysis. Latent growth modeling revealed a significant linear decline in fidelity over time (M = -0.35, SD = 0.35) and that steeper declines were related to less improvement in caregiver-reported problem behaviors assessed at ages 7.5/8.5 years (b = -.69, p = .003; β = -.95, 95% CI [-2.11, -0.22]). These findings add to the literature concerning the need to continually monitor therapist fidelity to an evidence-based practice over time to optimize family benefits. Limitations and directions for future research are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Juliana Belo Diniz
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In obsessive-compulsive disorder, early treatment discontinuation can hamper the effectiveness of first-line treatments. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the clinical correlates of early treatment discontinuation among obsessive-compulsive disorder patients. METHODS: A group of patients who stopped taking selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs or stopped participating in cognitive behavioral therapy before completion of the first twelve weeks (total n = 41; n = 16 for cognitive behavioral therapy and n = 25 for SSRIs were compared with a paired sample of compliant patients (n = 41. Demographic and clinical characteristics were obtained at baseline using structured clinical interviews. Chisquare and Mann-Whitney tests were used when indicated. Variables presenting a p value <0.15 for the difference between groups were selected for inclusion in a logistic regression analysis that used an interaction model with treatment dropout as the response variable. RESULTS: Agoraphobia was only present in one (2.4% patient who completed the twelve-week therapy, whereas it was present in six (15.0% patients who dropped out (p = 0.044. Social phobia was present in eight (19.5% patients who completed the twelve-week therapy and eighteen (45% patients who dropped out (p = 0.014. Generalized anxiety disorder was present in eight (19.5% patients who completed the twelve-week therapy and twenty (50% dropouts (p = 0.004, and somatization disorder was not present in any of the patients who completed the twelveweek therapy; however, it was present in six (15% dropouts (p = 0.010. According to the logistic regression model, treatment modality (p = 0.05, agoraphobia, the Brown Assessment of Beliefs Scale scores (p = 0.03 and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (p = 0.02 scores were significantly associated with the probability of treatment discontinuation irrespective of interactions with other variables. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Early treatment
Mancebo, Maria C; Eisen, Jane L; Grant, Jon E; Rasmussen, Steven A
The overlap between obsessive compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) has received increasing recognition and continues to be a source of much debate. With the advent of new research methodologies, researchers have attempted to distinguish whether OCPD and OCD are two distinct phenomena that can co-occur or whether they are similar, overlapping constructs. MEDLINE was used to systematically review the OCPD and OCD literature published between 1991 and 2004. Using the more stringent DSM-IV criteria, results from OCD clinical samples suggest that the majority of individuals with OCD (75%) do not have OCPD. Similarly, results from personality disorder samples suggest that the majority of individuals with OCPD (80%) do not have OCD. While there is evidence that OCD and OCPD are linked, the literature does not support either one as a necessary or sufficient component of the other.
Tatsuzawa, Yasutaka; Yoshimasu, Haruo; Moriyama, Yasushi; Furusawa, Teruyuki; Yoshino, Aihide
The Obsessive-Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS) is a self-rating questionnaire that measures cognitive and behavioral aspects of craving for alcohol. The OCDS consists of two subscales: the obsessive thoughts of drinking subscale (OS) and the compulsive drinking subscale (CS). This study aims to validate the Japanese version of the OCDS. First, internal consistency and discriminant validity were evaluated. Second, a prospective longitudinal 3-month outcome study of 67 patients with alcohol dependence who participated in a relapse prevention program was designed to assess the concurrent and predictive validity of the OCDS. The OCDS demonstrated high internal consistency. The OS had high discriminant validity, while the CS did not. Twenty-three patients (34.3%) dropped out of treatment. These patients had significantly higher OS scores than those who completed the program. At 3 months, the relapse group had significantly higher OCDS scores than the no relapse group. Also, the OCDS score was higher in subjects who had early-onset alcohol dependence than late-onset dependence. The OCDS is useful for evaluating cognitive aspect of craving and predicts dropout and relapse.
Mueller, Astrid; Mitchell, James E; Mertens, Christian; Mueller, Ulrike; Silbermann, Andrea; Burgard, Melissa; de Zwaan, Martina
The aim of this pilot study was to compare a German (Bavaria) and an American (North Dakota) sample of women suffering from compulsive buying. Thirty-eight German and 39 American female compulsive buyers were screened with the Compulsive Buying Scale (CBS), and the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale-Shopping Version (Y-BOCS-SV) prior to entering a group treatment study. Psychiatric co-morbidity was assessed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders (SCID). There were no statistically significant differences between the German sample and the American sample with regard to age (mean 43.7 and 45 years, respectively), and with regard to the scores on the CBS and the Y-BOCS-SV. A high lifetime co-morbidity rate with Axis I disorders, especially mood disorders, anxiety disorders, substance use disorders, OCD, and binge eating disorder was detected in both samples. Almost all participants met criteria for at least one lifetime Axis I disorder. However, German compulsive buyers showed significantly higher current prevalence rates of any affective disorder, and higher current and lifetime prevalence rates of any anxiety disorder and somatoform disorder. In addition, German compulsive buyers were significantly more likely to have more than one Axis I disorder. The groups did not differ with regard to age and with regard to the severity of compulsive buying and showed a high co-morbidity with Axis I disorders. However, the German compulsive buying sample presented with significantly more psychiatric co-morbidity compared to the American sample. Further research is needed to provide a better understanding of this disorder in general and cross-culturally.
The concept of compulsion, in which addictive behaviour is said to be carried out against the will, is central to the disease theory of addiction and ubiquitous in modern definitions. The aims of this article are: (i) to describe various meanings of compulsion in the literature; (ii) to compare the part thought to be played by compulsion in addiction with its suggested role in obsessive-compulsive disorder; (iii) to critically examine the place of compulsion in influential neurobiological accounts of addiction; (iv) to summarise the empirical evidence bearing on the usefulness of the compulsion concept, evidence that seems at first sight incompatible with the notion of compulsion. This is followed by a discussion of which possible meanings of compulsion can survive an empirical test and what role they might play in understanding addiction, paying particular attention to a distinction between strong and weak senses of compulsion. A conclusion is that addictive behaviour cannot be considered compulsive at the time it is carried out , though other possible meanings of compulsion as an explanation or description of addictive behaviour and experience are discussed. Among other conclusions, it is suggested that, although in some senses of the term it may seem arbitrary whether or not 'compulsion' should be retained, its use has important consequences for the public understanding of addiction, and is likely to deter people's attempts to overcome their addictions and their chances of success.
Williams, Monnica T.; Mugno, Beth; Franklin, Martin; Faber, Sonya
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a severe condition with varied symptom presentations. The cognitive-behavioral treatment with the most empirical support is currently exposure and ritual prevention (EX/RP); however, clinical impression and some empirical data suggest that certain OCD symptoms are more responsive to treatment than others. Prior work identifying symptom dimensions within OCD is discussed, including epidemiological findings, factor analytic studies, and biological findings...
O'Connor, Kieron; Aardema, Frederick
Inferential confusion occurs when a person mistakes an imagined possibility for a real probability and might account for some types of thought-action and other fusions reported in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Inferential confusion could account for the ego-dystonic nature of obsessions and their recurrent nature, since the person acts "as if" an imagined aversive inference is probable and tries unsuccessfully to modify this imaginary probability in reality. The clinical implications of the inferential confusion model focus primarily on the role of the imagination in obsessive-compulsive disorder rather than on cognitive beliefs.
Brem, Meagan J; Shorey, Ryan C; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L
Approximately 31% of men in treatment for a substance use disorders (SUD) engage in compulsive sexual behavior (CSB). Shame, a well-documented consequence of CSB, increases the likelihood of relapse following treatment for SUDs. Despite the risk of relapse, prior research has not investigated factors that may attenuate the relation between CSB and shame. Dispositional mindfulness is one such factor known to mitigate shame. However, researchers have yet to examine dispositional mindfulness as a moderator of the relationship between CSB and shame among a sample of men in treatment for SUDs. In an effort to inform intervention efforts, the present study aimed to investigate the hypothesis that CSB would not relate to shame among men with high, as opposed to low, levels of dispositional mindfulness. The present study reviewed medical records of 184 men in residential treatment for SUDs who completed cross-sectional measures of shame, CSB, dispositional mindfulness, and substance use problems. Results demonstrated a significant interaction between CSB and dispositional mindfulness such that CSB positively related to shame at low, but not mean or high, levels of dispositional mindfulness. These results support and extend previous mindfulness and CSB treatment research. Findings suggested that intervention efforts for CSB may benefit from increasing dispositional mindfulness in an effort to reduce shame-related cognitions.
Mété, D; Dafreville, C; Paitel, V; Wind, P
Aripiprazole, an atypical or second-generation antipsychotic, is usually well tolerated. It is an approved treatment for schizophrenia and mania in bipolar disorder type 1. Unlike the other antipsychotics, it has high affinity agonist properties for dopamine D2 and D3 receptors. It has also 5-HT1A partial agonist and 5-HT2A antagonist properties. Aripiprazole is a first or second line treatment frequently used because it has reduced side effects such as weight gain, sleepiness, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, hyperprolactinemia and extrapyramidal symptoms. We report the case of a 28-year-old male patient diagnosed with schizoid personality disorder. He was a moderate smoker with occasional social gambling habits. After several psychotic episodes, he was first treated with risperidone, but he experienced excessive sedation, decreased libido, erectile dysfunction and was switched to 15 mg aripiprazole. He developed an addiction habit for gambling at casino slot machines. Due to large gambling debts, he requested placement on a voluntary self-exclusion list. Thereafter, he turned his attention towards scratch card gambling. The patient described his experience of gambling as a "hypnotic state". He got several personal loans to obtain money to continue gambling. He was then referred to an addiction unit. Before being treated with aripiprazole, he was an exclusive heterosexual with a poor sexual activity. Under treatment, he switched to a homosexual behavior with hypersexuality, unprotected sex and sadomasochistic practices. The craving for gambling and compulsive sexual behavior ceased two weeks after aripiprazole was discontinued and he was switched to amisulpride. Thereafter, he reported a return to a heterosexual orientation. Compulsive behaviors such as gambling, hypersexuality and new sexual orientation are common in patients with Parkinson's disease treated with dopaminergic agonists. These behaviors involve the reward system, with an enhanced dopaminergic
Full Text Available Abstract Background Obsessive-compulsive disorder is associated with a relevant impairment in social and interpersonal functioning and severe disability. This seems to be particularly true for the poor insight subtype, characterised by a lack of consciousness of illness and, consequently, compliance with treatment. Poor responsiveness to serotonergic drugs in poor insight obsessive-compulsive patients may also require an augmentation therapy with atypical antipsychotics. Methods We reviewed a case in which a patient with a long history of poor insight obsessive-compulsive disorder was treated with a high dosage of serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Results The treatment resulted in a poor outcome. This patient was therefore augmentated with aripiprazole. Conclusion Doctors should consider aripiprazole as a possible augmentation strategy for serotonergic poor responder obsessive-compulsive patients, but further research on these subjects is needed.
Full Text Available Jianbo Lai,1,2 Qiaoqiao Lu,1 Peng Zhang,2,3 Tingting Xu,2,3 Yi Xu,1,2 Shaohua Hu1,2 1Department of Psychiatry, the First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, 2The Key Laboratory of Mental Disorder’s Management in Zhejiang Province, 3Department of Psychiatry, Mental Health Centre, Xiaoshan Hospital of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Comorbid obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD and bipolar disorder (BD have long been an intractable problem in clinical practice. The increased risk of manic/hypomanic switch hinders the use of antidepressants for managing coexisting OCD symptoms in BD patients. We herein present a case of a patient with BD–OCD comorbidity, who was successfully treated with mood stabilizers and aripiprazole augmentation. The young female patient reported recurrent depressive episodes and aggravating compulsive behaviors before hospitalization. Of note, the patient repetitively attempted suicide and reported dangerous driving because of intolerable mental sufferings. The preexisting depressive episode and OCD symptoms prompted the use of paroxetine, which consequently triggered the manic switching. Her diagnosis was revised into bipolar I disorder. Minimal response with mood stabilizers prompted the addition of aripiprazole (a daily dose of 10 mg, which helped to achieve significant remission in emotional and obsessive–compulsive symptoms. This case highlights the appealing efficacy of a small dose of aripiprazole augmentation for treating BD–OCD comorbidity. Well-designed clinical trials are warranted to verify the current findings. Keywords: aripiprazole, bipolar disorder, obsessive–compulsive disorder, suicide
Noetel, Melissa; Miskovic-Wheatley, Jane; Crosby, Ross D.; Hay, Phillipa; Madden, Sloane; Touyz, Stephen
Background The aim of the current study was to contribute to the development of a clinical profile of compulsive exercise in adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa (AN), by examining associations between compulsive exercise and eating and general psychopathology. Method A sample of 60 female adolescent inpatients with AN completed a self-report measure of compulsive exercise and a series of standardized self-report questionnaires assessing eating and general psychopathology. Results Higher levels ...
Ersche, Karen D; Bullmore, Edward T; Craig, Kevin J; Shabbir, Shaila S; Abbott, Sanja; Müller, Ulrich; Ooi, Cinly; Suckling, John; Barnes, Anna; Sahakian, Barbara J; Merlo-Pich, Emilio V; Robbins, Trevor W
There are no effective pharmacotherapies for stimulant dependence but there are many plausible targets for development of novel therapeutics. We hypothesized that dopamine-related targets are relevant for treatment of stimulant dependence, and there will likely be individual differences in response to dopaminergic challenges. To measure behavioral and brain functional markers of drug-related attentional bias in stimulant-dependent individuals studied repeatedly after short-term dosing with dopamine D(2)/D(3) receptor antagonist and agonist challenges. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-groups, crossover design using pharmacological functional magnetic resonance imaging. Clinical research unit (GlaxoSmithKline) and local community in Cambridge, England. Stimulant-dependent individuals (n = 18) and healthy volunteers (n = 18). Amisulpride (400 mg), pramipexole dihydrochloride (0.5 mg), or placebo were administered in counterbalanced order at each of 3 repeated testing sessions. Attentional bias for stimulant-related words was measured during functional magnetic resonance imaging by a drug-word Stroop paradigm; trait impulsivity and compulsivity of dependence were assessed at baseline by questionnaire. Drug users demonstrated significant attentional bias for drug-related words, which was correlated with greater activation of the left prefrontal and right cerebellar cortex. Attentional bias was greater in people with highly compulsive patterns of stimulant abuse; the effects of dopaminergic challenges on attentional interference and related frontocerebellar activation were different between high- and low-compulsivity subgroups. Greater attentional bias for and greater prefrontal activation by stimulant-related words constitute a candidate neurocognitive marker for dependence. Individual differences in compulsivity of stimulant dependence had significant effects on attentional bias, its brain functional representation, and its short-term modulation
Witjas, T; Eusebio, A; Fluchère, F; Azulay, J-P
In Parkinson's disease, the degeneration of the dopaminergic system and the longstanding exposure to dopamine replacement therapy (DRT) may cause, in a group of vulnerable patients, dysregulation of the brain reward system. These patients develop DRT-related compulsions, which include addiction to levodopa or dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS), punding, and impulse control disorders (ICDs). ICDs or behavioral addiction reported in Parkinson's disease include pathological gambling, hypersexuality, compulsive buying and binge eating. Although the underlying pathophysiology is still poorly understood, these behaviors are linked by their reward-based and repetitive nature. Such behaviors may result in devastating psychosocial impairment for the patients and are often hidden. The recognition of these behaviors is important and allows a better clinical management. Although the limited data do not permit particular therapeutic strategies, some approaches are worth considering: DRT reduction, trials of non-dopaminergic medications and subthalamic chronic stimulation. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
Brendan J. Kelley
Full Text Available The dopamine agonists ropinirole and pramipexole exhibit highly specific affinity for the cerebral dopamine D3 receptor. Use of these medications in Parkinson’s disease has been complicated by the emergence of pathologic behavioral patterns such as hypersexuality, pathologic gambling, excessive hobbying, and other circumscribed obsessive-compulsive disorders of impulse control in people having no history of such disorders. These behavioral changes typically remit following discontinuation of the medication, further demonstrating a causal relationship. Expression of the D3 receptor is particularly rich within the limbic system, where it plays an important role in modulating the physiologic and emotional experience of novelty, reward, and risk assessment. Converging neuroanatomical, physiological, and behavioral science data suggest the high D3 affinity of these medications as the basis for these behavioral changes. These observations suggest the D3 receptor as a therapeutic target for obsessive-compulsive disorder and substance abuse, and improved understanding of D3 receptor function may aid drug design of future atypical antipsychotics.
Chu, Brian C; Colognori, Daniela B; Yang, Guang; Xie, Min-ge; Lindsey Bergman, R; Piacentini, John
Behavioral engagement and cognitive coping have been hypothesized to mediate effectiveness of exposure-based therapies. Identifying which specific child factors mediate successful therapy and which therapist factors facilitate change can help make our evidence-based treatments more efficient and robust. The current study examines the specificity and temporal sequence of relations among hypothesized client and therapist mediators in exposure therapy for pediatric Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD). Youth coping (cognitive, behavioral), youth safety behaviors (avoidance, escape, compulsive behaviors), therapist interventions (cognitive, exposure extensiveness), and youth anxiety were rated via observational ratings of therapy sessions of OCD youth (N=43; ages=8 - 17; 62.8% male) who had received Exposure and Response Prevention (ERP). Regression analysis using Generalized Estimation Equations and cross-lagged panel analysis (CLPA) were conducted to model anxiety change within and across sessions, to determine formal mediators of anxiety change, and to establish sequence of effects. Anxiety ratings decreased linearly across exposures within sessions. Youth coping and therapist interventions significantly mediated anxiety change across exposures, and youth-interfering behavior mediated anxiety change at the trend level. In CLPA, youth-interfering behaviors predicted, and were predicted by, changes in anxiety. Youth coping was predicted by prior anxiety change. The study provides a preliminary examination of specificity and temporal sequence among child and therapist behaviors in predicting youth anxiety. Results suggest that therapists should educate clients in the natural rebound effects of anxiety between sessions and should be aware of the negatively reinforcing properties of avoidance during exposure. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Fontenelle, Leonardo F; Quintas, Julliana N; Yücel, Murat
Many of the currently available treatments for obsessive-compulsive and related disorders (OCRDs) such as pharmacotherapy augmentation strategies, partial hospitalization programs, deep brain stimulation, and neurosurgery are efficacious for individuals suffering from more severe forms of these conditions. Unfortunately, the application of these treatments in milder forms of illness and subclinical samples, which affect a substantial portion of the population, is not justifiable by their costs (e.g. cognitive-behavioral therapy) and/or potential for side effects (serotonin-reuptake inhibitors associated sexual side effects). As such, there is an urgent need to develop simple yet effective treatments, such as modifiable lifestyle interventions, that can be employed on a broader scale. Here, we review the current state of evidence that supports or refutes the efficacy of lifestyle approaches for OCRDs. We focus on dimensions of lifestyle that are deemed important for cardiovascular diseases; namely, physical activity, stress, sleep, diet and eating behaviors, alcohol consumption, and smoking. Despite the relative scarcity of well-designed randomized controlled trials targeting unhealthy life styles in OCRDs, we found meditation-based therapies and interventions focusing on eliminating sedentarism to be promising approaches. In the future, these strategies may represent valid alternative for subjects with subthreshold symptoms or at risk for OCRDs or other "compulsive" disorders. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Testa, Renée; Pantelis, Christos; Fontenelle, Leonardo F
Our objective was to describe the prevalence, comorbidity, and neuropsychological profiles of children with hoarding and learning disabilities. From 61 children with learning disabilities, 16.4% exhibited hoarding as a major clinical issue. Although children with learning disabilities and hoarding displayed greater rates of obsessive-compulsive disorder (30%) as compared to those with learning disabilities without hoarding (5.9%), the majority of patients belonging to the former group did not display obsessive-compulsive disorder diagnosis. When learning disability patients with hoarding were compared to age-, sex-, and IQ-matched learning disability subjects without hoarding, hoarders exhibited a slower learning curve on word list-learning task. In conclusion, salient hoarding behaviors were found to be relatively common in a sample of children with learning disabilities and not necessarily associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder, supporting its nosological independence. It is unclear whether underlying cognitive features may play a major role in the development of hoarding behaviors in children with learning disabilities.
Delucchi, K.L.; Katerberg, H.; Stewart, S.E.; Denys, D.A.; Lochner, C.; Stack, D.E.; den Boer, J.A.; van Balkom, A.J.L.M.; Jenike, M.A.; Stein, D.J.; Cath, D.C.; Mathews, C.A.
Objective: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is phenomenologically heterogeneous, and findings of underlying structure classification based on symptom grouping have been ambiguous to date. Variable-centered approaches, primarily factor analysis, have been used to identify homogeneous groups of
Chamberlain, Samuel R; Ioannidis, Konstantinos; Grant, Jon E
Background and aims Problematic Internet use (PIU) is commonplace but is not yet recognized as a formal mental disorder. Excessive Internet use could result from other conditions such as gambling disorder. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of impulsive-compulsive comorbidities on the presentation of PIU, defined using Young's Diagnostic Questionnaire. Methods A total of 123 adults aged 18-29 years were recruited using media advertisements, and attended the research center for a detailed psychiatric assessment, including interviews, completion of questionnaires, and neuropsychological testing. Participants were classified into three groups: PIU with no comorbid impulsive/compulsive disorders (n = 18), PIU with one or more comorbid impulsive/compulsive disorders (n = 37), and healthy controls who did not have any mental health diagnoses (n = 67). Differences between the three groups were characterized in terms of demographic, clinical, and cognitive variables. Effect sizes for overall effects of group were also reported. Results The three groups did not significantly differ on age, gender, levels of education, nicotine consumption, or alcohol use (small effect sizes). Quality of life was significantly impaired in PIU irrespective of whether or not individuals had comorbid impulsive/compulsive disorders (large effect size). However, impaired response inhibition and decision-making were only identified in PIU with impulsive/compulsive comorbidities (medium effect sizes). Discussion and conclusions Most people with PIU will have one or more other impulsive/compulsive disorders, but PIU can occur without such comorbidities and still present with impaired quality of life. Response inhibition and decision-making appear to be disproportionately impacted in the case of PIU comorbid with other impulsive/compulsive conditions, which may account for some of the inconsistencies in the existing literature. Large scale international collaborations are
van Oppen, P.C.; van Balkom, A.J.L.M.; de Haan, E.; van Dyck, R.
BACKGROUND: Information regarding the long-term effectiveness of the combination of pharmacotherapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is limited. Our study is the first to examine the long-term effectiveness of cognitive therapy (CT) and
Tsuno, Kanami; Yoshimasu, Kouichi; Hayashi, Takashi; Tatsuta, Nozomi; Ito, Yuki; Kamijima, Michihiro; Nakai, Kunihiko
Nowadays, attention deficit hyperactivity (ADH) problems are observed commonly among school-age children. However, questionnaires specific to ADH behaviors among preschool children are very few. The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability and validity of the 25-item Behavioral Check List (BCL), which was developed from interviews of parents with children who were diagnosed as having Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and measures ADH behaviors in preschool age. We recruited 22 teachers from 10 nurseries/kindergartens in Miyagi Prefecture, Japan. A total of 138 preschool children were assessed using the BCL. To investigate inter-rater reliability, two teachers from each facility assess seven to twenty children in their class, and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated. The teachers additionally answered questions in the 1/5-5 Caregiver-Teacher Report Form (C-TRF) to investigate the criterion validity of the BCL. To investigate structural validity, exploratory factor analysis with promax rotation and confirmatory factor analysis were performed. The internal consistency reliability of the BCL was good (α = 0.92) and correlation analyses also confirmed its excellent criterion validity. Although exploratory factor analysis for the BCL yielded a five-factor model that consisted of a factor structure different from that of the original one, the results were similar to the original six factors. The ICCs of the BCL were 0.38-0.99 and it was not high enough for inter-rater reliability in some facilities. However, there is a possibility to improve it by giving raters adequate explanations when using BCL. The present study showed acceptable levels of reliability and validity of the BCL among Japanese preschool children.
A study examined the use of sensory integration techniques to reduce the maladaptive behaviors that interfered with the learning of nine high school students with mental impairments attending a special school. Maladaptive behaviors identified included rocking, toe walking, echolalia, resistance to change, compulsive behaviors, aggression,…
Full Text Available Multidimensional Inventory Check List of Symptoms (SCL-90-r is based on self-evaluation and it has been used for determination of level of: somatisation, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobias, paranoia and psychosis at persons which are exposed to long term emotional and physical stress. Our goal was to determine relations of physical trauma and psychological changes at persons with lower extremities amputations and to determine factors which influence those changes. Thirty seven persons with lower extremities amputations were examined. The sample included 26 (70.2 % veterans and 11 (29.7 % civilians with diseases related amputations. They voluntarily filled Check List of Symptoms SCL-90-r. Symptoms Inventory includes 9 dimensions of primary symptoms: SCL1-somatisation, SCL2-obsessive-compulsive symptoms, SCL3-interpersonal sensitivity, SCL4-depression, SCL5-anxiety, SCL6-hostility, SCL7-phobias, SCL8-paranoia, SCL9-psychosis and SCL10-extra scale. Inventory includes 90 statements, each evaluated with five-level scale of disorder. Every answer is graded with 0-4 points. Thirty seven persons with lower extremities amputations and average chronological age 46.2 +/- 10.92 years were analyzed. Considering marital status 30 (81.1 % of them were married, 4 (10.8 % were not married and 3 (8.1 % were widowers. Considering level of amputation 27 of them (73.0 % had amputation below knee, 5 (13.5 % of them amputation above knee and 5 of them (13.5 % foot amputation. SCL-90-r in both groups determined high level of sensitivity, anxiety, hostility and paranoia. Veterans showed higher level of paranoia comparing to civilians (p<0.002, and younger veterans and married ones had higher level of paranoia comparing to other veterans (p<0.01. Persons with amputations below and above knee showed higher level of paranoia comparing those with foot amputation (p<0.001. Persons with lower extremities
Kachani, Adriana Trejger; Barroso, Lucia Pereira; Brasiliano, Silvia; Cordás, Táki Athanássios; Hochgraf, Patrícia Brunfentrinker
Compare inadequate eating behaviors and their relationship to body checking in three groups: patients with anorexia nervosa (AN), patients with bulimia nervosa (BN) and a control group (C). Eighty three outpatients with eating disorders (ED) and 40 controls completed eating attitudes and body checking questionnaires. The overall relationship between the eating attitude and body checking was statistically significant in all three groups. The worse the eating attitude, the greater the body checking behavior. However, when we look at each group individually, the relationship was only statistically significant in the AN group (r=.354, p=0.020). The lower the desired weight and the worse the eating attitude, the more people check themselves, although in the presence of an ED the relationship between body checking and food restrictions is greater. In patients displaying the AN subgroup, body checking is also related to continued dietary control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vendruscolo, Leandro F.; Barbier, Estelle; Schlosburg, Joel E.; Misra, Kaushik K.; Whitfield, Timothy W.; Logrip, Marian L.; Rivier, Catherine; Repunte-Canonigo, Vez; Zorrilla, Eric P.; Sanna, Pietro P.; Heilig, Markus; Koob, George F.
Alcoholism is characterized by a compulsion to seek and ingest alcohol, loss of control over intake, and the emergence of a negative emotional state during abstinence. We hypothesized that sustained activation of neuroendocrine stress systems (e.g., corticosteroid release via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal [HPA] axis) by alcohol intoxication and withdrawal and consequent alterations in glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) activation drive compulsive alcohol dri...
Peris, Tara S.; Sugar, Catherine A.; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Chang, Susanna; Langley, Audra; Piacentini, John
Objective To examine family conflict, parental blame, and poor family cohesion as predictors of treatment outcome for youth receiving family-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (FCBT) for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Methods We analyzed data from a sample of youth who were randomized to FCBT (n = 49; 59% male; mean age = 12.43 years) as part of a larger randomized clinical trial. Youngsters and their families were assessed by an independent evaluator (IE) pre- and post- FCBT using a standardized battery of measures evaluating family functioning and OCD symptom severity. Family conflict and cohesion were measured via parent self-report on the Family Environment Scale (FES; Moos & Moos, 1994) and parental blame was measured using parent self-report on the Parental Attitudes and Behaviors Scale (PABS; Peris, 2008b). Symptom severity was rated by IE’s using the Children’s Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS; Scahill et al., 1997). Results Families with lower levels of parental blame and family conflict and higher levels of family cohesion at baseline were more likely to have a child who responded to FCBT treatment even after adjusting for baseline symptom severity compared to families who endorsed higher levels of dysfunction prior to treatment. In analyses using both categorical and continuous outcome measures, higher levels of family dysfunction and difficulty in higher number of domains of family functioning were associated with lower rates of treatment response. In addition, changes in family cohesion predicted response to FCBT controlling for baseline symptom severity. Conclusions Findings speak to the role of the family in treatment for childhood OCD and highlight potential targets for future family interventions. PMID:22309471
Scahill, Lawrence; Sukhodolsky, Denis G.; Anderberg, Emily; Dimitropoulos, Anastasia; Dziura, James; Aman, Michael G.; McCracken, James; Tierney, Elaine; Hallett, Victoria; Katz, Karol; Vitiello, Benedetto; McDougle, Christopher
Repetitive behavior is a core feature of autism spectrum disorder. We used 8-week data from two federally funded, multi-site, randomized trials with risperidone conducted by the Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology Autism Network to evaluate the sensitivity of the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale modified for autism…
Pinto, Anthony; Greene, Ashley L.; Storch, Eric A.; Simpson, H. Blair
Identifying risk factors of psychopathology has been an important research challenge. Prior studies examining the impact of childhood temperament on adult disorder have largely focused on undercontrolled and inhibited presentations, with little study of overcontrolled traits such as obsessive-compulsive personality traits (OCPTs). We compared rates of childhood OCPTs in adults with OCD (without OCPD) (n = 28) to adults with OCPD (without OCD) (n = 27), adults with both OCD and OCPD (n = 28), ...
Lochner, Christine; Hemmings, Sian M J; Kinnear, Craig J; Niehaus, Dana J H; Nel, Daniel G; Corfield, Valerie A; Moolman-Smook, Johanna C; Seedat, Soraya; Stein, Dan J
Comorbidity of certain obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders (OCSDs; such as Tourette's disorder) in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) may serve to define important OCD subtypes characterized by differing phenomenology and neurobiological mechanisms. Comorbidity of the putative OCSDs in OCD has, however, not often been systematically investigated. The Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition , Axis I Disorders-Patient Version as well as a Structured Clinical Interview for Putative OCSDs (SCID-OCSD) were administered to 210 adult patients with OCD (N = 210, 102 men and 108 women; mean age, 35.7 +/- 13.3). A subset of Caucasian subjects (with OCD, n = 171; control subjects, n = 168), including subjects from the genetically homogeneous Afrikaner population (with OCD, n = 77; control subjects, n = 144), was genotyped for polymorphisms in genes involved in monoamine function. Because the items of the SCID-OCSD are binary (present/absent), a cluster analysis (Ward's method) using the items of SCID-OCSD was conducted. The association of identified clusters with demographic variables (age, gender), clinical variables (age of onset, obsessive-compulsive symptom severity and dimensions, level of insight, temperament/character, treatment response), and monoaminergic genotypes was examined. Cluster analysis of the OCSDs in our sample of patients with OCD identified 3 separate clusters at a 1.1 linkage distance level. The 3 clusters were named as follows: (1) "reward deficiency" (including trichotillomania, Tourette's disorder, pathological gambling, and hypersexual disorder), (2) "impulsivity" (including compulsive shopping, kleptomania, eating disorders, self-injury, and intermittent explosive disorder), and (3) "somatic" (including body dysmorphic disorder and hypochondriasis). Several significant associations were found between cluster scores and other variables; for example, cluster I scores were associated
Sharma, Ashish; Goyal, Vinay; Behari, Madhuri; Srivastva, Achal; Shukla, Garima; Vibha, Deepti
There is limited data on the prevalence of impulse control disorder and related behaviors (ICD-RBs) in Indian patients with Parkinson's Disease (PD). In the context of potential genetic and environmental factors affecting the expression of ICD-RBs, studying other multiethnic populations may bring in-sights into the mechanisms of these disorders. To ascertain point prevalence estimate of ICD-RBs in Indian PD patients, using the validated "Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders in Parkinson's disease (QUIP)" and to examine their association with Dopamine replacement therapy (DRT). This was a hospital based observational cross-sectional study. After taking informed consent, patients and their informants (spouse, or primary caregiver) were made to complete the QUIP, and were instructed to answer questions based on behaviors that occurred anytime during PD that lasted at least four consecutive weeks. Total of 299 patients participated in the study. At least one ICD-RB was present in 128 (42.8%), at least one Impulse control disorder (ICD) was present in 74 (24.75%) and at least one Impulse control related compulsive behaviour (ICRB) was present in 93 (31.1%) patients. Punding was the most frequent (12.4%) followed by hyper sexuality (11.04%), compulsive hobbyism (9.4%), compulsive shopping (8.4%), compulsive medication use (7.7%), compulsive eating (5.35%), walkabout (4%) and pathological gambling (3.3%). ≥ 2 ICD-RBs were observed in 15.7% of patients. After multivariate analysis, younger age of onset, being unmarried were specifically associated with presence of ICD. Longer disease duration was specifically associated with presence of ICRB. Whereas smoking and higher dopamine levodopa equivalent daily doses (DA LEDD) were associated with both presence of ICD and ICRB. Higher LD LEDD was specifically associated with presence of ICD-RB. Our study revealed a relatively higher frequency of ICD-RBs, probably because of the use of screening instrument and because
PAAST, Negin; KHOSRAVI, Zohreh; MEMARI, Amir Hossein; SHAYESTEHFAR, Monir; ARBABI, Mohammad
Background Cognitive functioning in individuals with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and with Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD) has not been adequately studied. Aim Examine the cognitive flexibility and planning ability of individuals with OCD and OCPD. Methods Twenty patients with OCD and 25 patients with OCPD who had not taken medication in the previous two weeks were identified in an outpatient psychology clinic in Tehran, and 25 healthy control subjects were identified ...
Woon, Luke Sy-Cherng; Kanapathy, Anita; Zakaria, Hazli; Alfonso, César A
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a debilitating psychiatric disorder that often runs a chronic unremitting course. Treatment outcomes can be unsatisfactory despite the availability of various somatic and psychological therapies. Psychodynamic psychotherapy in combination with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) with exposure and response prevention (ERP) could help patients with treatment-resistant OCD achieve better outcomes. An integrative approach can help patients gain insight, strengthen the therapeutic alliance, improve treatment adherence, and provide symptomatic relief when other treatments seem insufficient or have failed. We describe the treatment process of a person with treatment-resistant OCD who received pharmacotherapy, concurrent CBT/ERP, and a brief course of psychodynamic psychotherapy. Case formulations from cognitive behavioral and psychodynamic perspectives are presented. The authors discuss the advantages of doing a psychodynamic assessment and formulation in treatment refractory cases and the wisdom of integrating psychotherapy interventions for OCD, as well as the unique clinical features of cases that warrant a multimodal treatment approach.
Full Text Available Nobuhiko Hashimoto,1 Shutaro Nakaaki,2 Akiko Kawaguchi,1 Junko Sato,1 Harumasa Kasai,3 Takashi Nakamae,4 Jin Narumoto,4 Jun Miyata,5 Toshi A Furukawa,6,7 Masaru Mimura2 1Department of Psychiatry and Cognitive-Behavioral Medicine, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, Japan; 2Department of Neuropsychiatry, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Central Radiology, Nagoya City University Hospital, Nagoya, Japan; 4Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan; 5Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan; 6Department of Health Promotion and Human Behavior, 7Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine/School of Public Health, Kyoto, Japan Background: Although several functional imaging studies have demonstrated that behavior therapy (BT modifies the neural circuits involved in the pathogenesis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD, the structural abnormalities underlying BT-resistant OCD remain unknown. Methods: In this study, we examined the existence of regional structural abnormalities in both the gray matter and the white matter of patients with OCD at baseline using voxel-based morphometry in responders (n=24 and nonresponders (n=15 to subsequent BT. Three-dimensional T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging was performed before the completion of 12 weeks of BT. Results: Relative to the responders, the nonresponders exhibited significantly smaller gray matter volumes in the right ventromedial prefrontal cortex, the right orbitofrontal cortex, the right precentral gyrus, and the left anterior cingulate cortex. In addition, relative to the responders, the nonresponders exhibited significantly smaller white matter volumes in the left cingulate bundle and the left superior frontal white matter. Conclusion: These results suggest that the brain
Silbermann, Andrea; Henkel, Andreas; Müller, Astrid; de Zwaan, Martina
Although compulsive buying is a disorder that has begun to receive attention from researchers in recent years, relatively little is known about the relationship between compulsive buying, mood, and daily stressful events. In our pilot study ecological momentary assessment (EMA) was used to examine the described relationships for the first time. 26 patients, who met criteria for compulsive buying, self-monitored their pathological behaviour, their momentary mood and the occurrence of stressful events four times a day on a handheld computer for a period of two weeks. On days with excessive buying behaviour patients reported significantly more daily stressful events compared to days without pathological buying. Before the buying episode patients recorded significantly more positive emotions. The most common consequence of compulsive buying was a significant decrease of positive affects. Thus the results of the current study suggest that mood states and daily stressful events are associated with compulsive buying behaviour. Although mood got worse immediately after excessive buying, this negative consequence did not reduce the frequency of pathological behaviour. This could implicate a high presence-orientation and impulsivity of the patients.
The SOLA-LOOP computer code for transient, nonequilibrium, two-phase flows in networks has been coupled with a simple valve model to analyze a feedwater pipe breakage with a back-pressure check valve. Three tests from the Superheated Steam Reactor Safety Program Project (PHDR) at Kahl, West Germany, are analyzed, and the calculated transient back-pressure check valve behavior and fluid dynamics effects are found to be in excellent agreement with the experimentally measured data
Compton, Scott; Thomsen, Per Hove; Weidle, Bernhard; Dahl, Kitty; Nissen, Judith Becker; Torp, Nor Christian; Hybel, Katja; Melin, Karin Holmgren; Valderhaug, Robert; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Ivarsson, Tord
Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the presence of tic disorder is negatively associated with sertraline (SRT) outcomes, but not with continued cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), in a sample of youth who were unresponsive to an initial full course of CBT. Methods: In the Nordic Long-Term OCD Study, children and adolescents with OCD who were rated as nonresponders to 14 weeks of open-label CBT were randomized to continued CBT (n=28) or SRT treatment (n=22) for an additional 16 weeks of treatment. We investigated whether the presence or absence of comorbid tic disorder moderated treatment outcomes on the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS). Results: Twelve out of 50 (24.0%) participants were diagnosed with comorbid tic disorder, with 7 receiving continued CBT and 5 receiving SRT, respectively. In patients without tic disorder, results showed no significant between-group differences on average CY-BOCS scores. However, in patients with comorbid tic disorder, those who received SRT had significantly lower average CY-BOCS scores than those who received continued CBT. Conclusions: Children and adolescents with OCD and comorbid tic disorder, who are nonresponders to an initial 14 week course of CBT, may benefit more from a serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) than from continued CBT. PMID:26091197
Full Text Available Childhood Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD is a prevalent and impairing condition that can be effectively treated with Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT. However, a majority of children and adolescents do not have access to CBT. Internet-delivered CBT (ICBT has been suggested as a way to increase availability to effective psychological treatments. Yet, the research on ICBT in children and adolescents has been lagging behind significantly both when it comes to quantitative as well as qualitative studies. The aim of the current study was to describe the experience of ICBT in adolescents with OCD.Eight adolescents with OCD that had received ICBT were interviewed with qualitative methodology regarding their experiences of the intervention. Data was summarized into thematic categories.Two overarching themes were identified, autonomy and support, each consisting of three primary themes (self-efficacy, flexibility, secure self-disclosure and clinician support, parental support, identification/normalization, respectively.The experiential hierarchical model that was identified in this study is, in part, transferrable to previous research. In addition, it highlights the need of further study of important process variables of ICBT in young patient populations.
Storch, Eric A.; Bussing, Regina; Jacob, Marni L.; Nadeau, Joshua M.; Crawford, Erika; Mutch, P. Jane; Mason, Dana; Lewin, Adam B.; Murphy, Tanya K.
This study examined the frequency and sociodemographic and clinical correlates of suicidal ideation in a sample of children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Fifty-four youth with OCD and their parent(s) were administered the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime, Children’s Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, and Children’s Depression Rating Scale-Revised. Children completed the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire - Junior, Child Obsessive Compulsive Impact Scale–Child, and Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children; parents completed the Child Obsessive Compulsive Impact Scale–Parent, Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham–IV Parent Scale, and Young Mania Rating Scale–Parent Version. Seven youth endorsed clinically significant levels of suicidal ideation on the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire - Junior. Suicidal ideation was significantly related to clinician-rated depressive symptoms, age, child-rated impairment and anxiety symptoms, and symmetry, sexuality/religiosity and miscellaneous symptom dimensions. There was no significant association between suicidal ideation and obsessive-compulsive symptom severity, comorbidity patterns, or several parent-rated indices (e.g., impairment, impulsivity). These results provide initial information regarding the frequency and correlates of suicidal ideation in treatment-seeking youth with OCD. Clinical implications are discussed, as well as directions for future research. PMID:24682580
Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to examine relationships between sexual compulsivity, depression (including level of self-esteem anxiety, and the use of tobacco, alcohol and drugs in a sample of 1,711 students from Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Sexual compulsivity, depression, and anxiety were measured with standardized scales and inventories (the Sexual Compulsivity Scale – SCS, the Beck Depression Inventory – BDI, and the Spielberger’s State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait, STAI-T, respectively, whereas specific questions about tobacco, alcohol, and drug use were modified for the purpose of this study. Results indicated positive, significant but low correlations between sexual compulsivity and depression; sexual compulsivity and anxiety; and sexual compulsivity and substance use; whereas a low, negative but significant correlation was obtained between sexual compulsivity and self-esteem. The strongest predictor of sexual compulsivity was drug use; two other significant predictors were alcohol and depression. Limitations of the study are discussed in the end.
Black, D W
Compulsive buying disorder is characterised by excessive or poorly controlled preoccupations, urges or behaviours regarding shopping and spending, which lead to adverse consequences. Compulsive buying disorder has been estimated to affect from 2 to 8% of the general adult population in the US; 80 to 95% of those affected are female. Onset occurs in the late teens or early twenties, and the disorder is generally chronic. Psychiatric comorbidity is frequent, particularly mood, anxiety, substance use, eating and personality disorders. Treatment has not been well delineated, but individual and group psychotherapy, cognitive-behavioural therapy and 12-step programmes may be helpful. Debt consolidation and credit counselling will be appropriate for many individuals who have compulsive buying disorder. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) re- uptake inhibitors may help some patients regulate their buying impulses. Self-help books are also available.
Gruner, Patricia; Pittenger, Christopher
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is characterized by maladaptive patterns of repetitive, inflexible cognition and behavior that suggest a lack of cognitive flexibility. Consistent with this clinical observation, many neurocognitive studies suggest behavioral and neurobiological abnormalities in cognitive flexibility in individuals with OCD. Meta-analytic reviews support a pattern of cognitive inflexibility, with effect sizes generally in the medium range. Heterogeneity in assessments and the way underlying constructs have been operationalized point to the need for better standardization across studies, as well as more refined overarching models of cognitive flexibility and executive function (EF). Neuropsychological assessments of cognitive flexibility include measures of attentional set shifting, reversal and alternation, cued task-switching paradigms, cognitive control measures such as the Trail-Making and Stroop tasks, and several measures of motor inhibition. Differences in the cognitive constructs and neural substrates associated with these measures suggest that performance within these different domains should be examined separately. Additional factors, such as the number of consistent trials prior to a shift and whether a shift is explicitly signaled or must be inferred from a change in reward contingencies, may influence performance, and thus mask or accentuate deficits. Several studies have described abnormalities in neural activation in the absence of differences in behavioral performance, suggesting that our behavioral probes may not be adequately sensitive, but also offering important insights into potential compensatory processes. The fact that deficits of moderate effect size are seen across a broad range of classic neuropsychological tests in OCD presents a conceptual challenge, as clinical symptomatology suggests greater specificity. Traditional cognitive probes may not be sufficient to delineate specific domains of deficit in this and other
Leite, Priscilla Lourenço; Silva, Adriana Cardoso
Compulsive buying can be characterized as an almost irresistible impulse to acquire various items. This is a current issue and the prevalence rate in the global population is around 5 to 8%. Some surveys indicate that the problem is growing in young and low-income populations. To evaluate the prevalence of compulsive buying among people with low personal monthly incomes and analyze relationships with socio-demographic data. The Compulsive Buying Scale was administered to screen for compulsive buying and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was used to assess anxiety and depression in a sample of 56 participants. Pearson coefficients were used to test for correlations. The results indicated that 44.6% presented an average family income equal to or greater than 2.76 minimum wages. It is possible that compulsive buying is not linked to the purchasing power since it was found in a low-income population. Despite the small sample, the results of this study are important for understanding the problem in question.
Storch, Eric A.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Goodman, Wayne K.; Geffken, Gary R.; Lewin, Adam B.; Henin, Aude; Micco, Jamie A.; Sprich, Susan; Wilhelm, Sabine; Bengtson, Michael; Geller, Daniel A.
Background Research on the neural circuitry underlying fear extinction has led to the examination of d-cycloserine (DCS), a partial agonist at the NMDA receptor in the amygdala, as a method of enhancing exposure therapy outcome. Preliminary results have supported the use of DCS to augment exposure therapy in adult anxiety disorders; however, no data have been reported in any childhood anxiety disorder. Thus, we sought to preliminarily examine if weight-adjusted DCS doses (25 or 50mg) enhanced the overall efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method Participants were 30 youth (ages 8–17) with a primary diagnosis of OCD. The study design was a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled augmentation trial examining CBT+DCS versus CBT+Placebo (15 youth per group). All patients received 7 E/RP sessions paired with DCS or placebo taken 1 hour prior to sessions. Results Although not significantly different, compared to the CBT+Placebo group, youth in the CBT+DCS arm showed small-to-moderate treatment effects (d=.31 to .47 on primary outcomes). No adverse events were recorded. Conclusions The present results complement findings in adult OCD and non-OCD anxiety disorders and provide initial support for a more extensive study of DCS augmentation of CBT among youth with OCD. PMID:20817153
Fink, Jakob; Hendrikx, Friederike; Stierle, Christian; Stengler, Katarina; Jahn, Ina; Exner, Cornelia
Lower performance on memory tests in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been repeatedly observed. However, the origins of these performance deficits are not sufficiently explained. In this study we tested if OCD-related extensive focus of attention on thoughts (heightened self-consciousness) could be an explanatory mechanism for lower memory performance. Heightened situational self-consciousness was manipulated by instructing participants to either monitor neutral thoughts or to monitor OCD-related thoughts. We included a Behavioral Avoidance Task based on individual obsessions and compulsions to induce OCD-related thoughts. Participants were asked to perform these monitoring tasks in parallel to a taxing verbal memory task, resulting in learning under divided attention. The two conditions of learning under divided attention were compared to a single-task condition. Twenty-four participants with OCD and 24 healthy controls took part in these three learning conditions. The results indicate that in both groups memory performance deteriorated in the two conditions with divided attention compared to the single task condition. In the OCD-related thought monitoring condition (OTM) self-consciousness and Behavioral Avoidance Task-induced stress and fear were particularly increased and memory performance further deteriorated in the OCD group. This finding highlights an important and underestimated mechanism (personal involvement) which might serve to better understand lower memory performance in OCD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Villardefrancos, Estíbaliz; Otero-López, José Manuel
Compulsive buying has become a severe problem among young people. The prominent role that psychological variables play in this phenomenon support their consideration in establishing a risk profile for compulsive buying that serves as a guide for the development of prevention and treatment programs with guarantees of effectiveness. However, there are only a small number of studies in existence which have explored the compulsive buying prevalence among students, and none of them have been conducted in a Mediterranean country. This study aims to estimate the compulsive buying prevalence in a sample of university students from the region of Galicia (Spain). We also intend to determine if statistically significant differences exist between compulsive buyers and non-compulsive buyers in relation with gender, materialistic values, psychological distress symptoms and subjective well-being. Lastly, the clarification of which of the determinants examined represent risk or protection factors for compulsive buying constitutes another important objective of this paper. A total sample of 1448 university students participated in this study. They answered a battery of self-reports assessing gender, compulsive buying propensity, materialism, distress symptomatology, and well-being. Participants were initially classified as either compulsive buyers or non-compulsive buyers. Both groups were compared for the aforementioned variables through chi-square testing or variance analyses. Then, a multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine which of these determinants make up a risk profile for compulsive buying. The estimated prevalence of compulsive buying in the sample of university students considered was 7.4%. Statistically significant differences between compulsive buyers and non-compulsive buyers were detected for gender, and each and every one of the psychological variables explored. Specifically, it was confirmed that compulsive buyers obtained significantly
Müller, Astrid; Claes, Laurence; Georgiadou, Ekaterini; Möllenkamp, Maike; Voth, Eva M; Faber, Ron J; Mitchell, James E; de Zwaan, Martina
The aim of the present work was to examine the influence of reactive and regulatory temperament on compulsive buying (CB) in a sample of 102 patients (79 women, 23 men) with clinical CB. All participants answered the Compulsive Buying Scale (CBS), the Behavioral Inhibition System and Behavioral Activation System Scales (BIS/BAS), and the Effortful Control subscale (ATQ-EC) of the Adult Temperament Questionnaire-Short Form. Based on previous studies demonstrating that depression and materialism are linked with CB, in addition, the Patient Health Questionnaire depression scale (PHQ-9) and the Materialistic Values Scale (MVS) were administered. CBS scores were significantly correlated with the MVS, PHQ-9, and BAS scores. The findings of the hierarchical regression analysis, however, indicated that in the present sample of treatment-seeking patients the only significant association was found between CB and depression. The results highlight the prominent role of depression in CB. There is a need for longitudinal studies in order to answer the question whether depression is the cause or the consequence of CB. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nielen, Maria Margaretha Anna
Obsessive-compulsion diorder (ocd) is characterized by recurrent obsessions and/or compulsions. Obsessions are intrusive and unwanted thoughts, images or feelings which elicit considerable anxiety and discomfort. Commonly recurring themes in obsessions are aggression, blasphemy, death and
Full remission and relapse of obsessive-compulsive symptoms after cognitive-behavioral group therapy: a two-year follow-up Remissão completa e recaídas dos sintomas obsessivo-compulsivos depois da terapia cognitivo-comportamental em grupo: dois anos de acompanhamento
Daniela Tusi Braga
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess whether the results obtained with 12 sessions of cognitive-behavioral group therapy with obsessive-compulsive patients were maintained after two years, and whether the degree of symptom remission was associated with relapse. METHOD: Forty-two patients were followed. The severity of symptoms was measured at the end of cognitive-behavioral group therapy and at 18 and 24 months of follow-up. The assessment scales used were the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, Clinical Global Impression, Beck Depression Inventory, and Beck Anxiety Inventory. RESULTS: The reduction in symptom severity observed at the end of treatment was maintained during the two-year follow-up period (F = 57.881; p OBJETIVO: Avaliar se os resultados obtidos com 12 sessões de terapia cognitivo-comportamental em grupo para pacientes com transtorno obsessivo-compulsivo foram mantidos depois de dois anos do final do tratamento e se o grau de remissão dos sintomas esteve associado às recaídas. MÉTODO: Quarenta e dois pacientes foram acompanhados. A gravidade dos sintomas foi avaliada no final da terapia cognitivo-comportamental em grupo, 18 e 24 meses após o término do tratamento. As escalas utilizadas para avaliação foram Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, Clinical Global Impression, Beck Depression Inventory e Beck Anxiety Inventory. RESULTADOS: A redução da gravidade dos sintomas observada no final do tratamento foi mantida durante o período de dois anos de acompanhamento (F = 57,881; p < 0,001. Ao final do tratamento, 9 (21,4% pacientes apresentaram remissão completa, 22 (52,4% remissão parcial e 11 (26,2% não apresentaram mudança na Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale. Dois anos depois, 13 pacientes (31,0% apresentaram remissão completa dos sintomas, 20 (47,6% apresentaram remissão parcial, e 9 (21,4% não apresentaram mudança na Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale. A remissão completa dos sintomas ao
Husain, Nusrat; Chaudhry, Imran; Raza-ur-Rehman; Ahmed, Ghazal Riaz
To explore the association between self-esteem and obsessive compulsive disorder in a low-income country, and to conduct an in-depth analysis into the said relationship by identifying any confounding variables that might exist. The cross-sectional study was conducted at the psychiatry out-patient clinic of Civil Hospital, Karachi, from January to March 2008, and comprised 65 patients diagnosed with obsessive compulsive disorder and 30 healthy controls. The participatnts completed the Janis and Field Social Adequacy scale and the Rosenberg Self-esteem scale. SPSS 15 was used for statistical analysis. Significantly different scores were reported on both measures of self-esteem between the patients and the controls (pself-esteem in the patients compared to the controls. Data replicated earlier findings from populations in high-income countries.
Nicoli de Mattos, Cristiana; Kim, Hyoun S.; Requi?o, Marinalva G.; Marasaldi, Renata F.; Filomensky, Tatiana Z.; Hodgins, David C.; Tavares, Hermano
Compulsive buying is a common disorder found worldwide. Although recent research has shed light into the prevalence, etiology and clinical correlates of compulsive buying disorder, less is known about gender differences. To address this empirical gap, we assessed potential gender differences in demographic and psychiatric co-morbidities in a sample of 171 compulsive buyers (20 men and 151 women) voluntarily seeking treatment in São Paulo, Brazil. A structured clinical interview confirmed the ...
Grisham, Jessica R; Henry, Julie D; Williams, Alishia D; Bailey, Phoebe E
Increasing emphasis has been placed on the role of socioemotional functioning in models of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The present study investigated whether OCD symptoms were associated with capacity for theory of mind (ToM) and basic affect recognition. Non-clinical volunteers (N=204) completed self report measures of OCD and general psychopathology, in addition to behavioral measures of ToM and affect recognition. The results indicated that higher OCD symptoms were associated with reduced ToM, as well as reduced accuracy decoding the specific emotion of disgust. Importantly, these relationships could not be attributed to other, more general features of psychopathology. The findings of the current study therefore further our understanding of how the processing and interpretation of social and emotional information is affected in the context of OCD symptomatology, and are discussed in relation to neuropsychological models of OCD. 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Naomi A. Fineberg
Full Text Available Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD is an early-onset disorder characterized by perfectionism, need for control, and cognitive rigidity. Its nosological status is currently under review. Historically, OCPD has been conceptualized as bearing a close relationship with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD. In this article, we discuss the diagnosis of OCPD in anticipation of its review for the ICD-11, from the perspective of clinical utility, global applicability, and research planning. Considering the recent establishment of an obsessive-compulsive and related disorders (OCRD category in DSM-5, we focus on the relationship between OCPD and the disorders that are currently thought to bear a close relationship with OCD, including DSM-5 OCRD, and other compulsive disorders such as eating disorder and autistic spectrum disorder (that were not included in the DSM-5 OCRD category, as well as with the personality disorders, focusing on nosological determinants such as phenomenology, course of illness, heritability, environmental risk factors, comorbidity, neurocognitive endophenotypes, and treatment response. Based on this analysis, we attempt to draw conclusions as to its optimal placement in diagnostic systems and draw attention to key research questions that could be explored in field trials.
Fineberg, Naomi A; Reghunandanan, Samar; Kolli, Sangeetha; Atmaca, Murad
Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) is an early-onset disorder characterized by perfectionism, need for control, and cognitive rigidity. Its nosological status is currently under review. Historically, OCPD has been conceptualized as bearing a close relationship with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In this article, we discuss the diagnosis of OCPD in anticipation of its review for the ICD-11, from the perspective of clinical utility, global applicability, and research planning. Considering the recent establishment of an obsessive-compulsive and related disorders (OCRD) category in DSM-5, we focus on the relationship between OCPD and the disorders that are currently thought to bear a close relationship with OCD, including DSM-5 OCRD, and other compulsive disorders such as eating disorder and autistic spectrum disorder (that were not included in the DSM-5 OCRD category), as well as with the personality disorders, focusing on nosological determinants such as phenomenology, course of illness, heritability, environmental risk factors, comorbidity, neurocognitive endophenotypes, and treatment response. Based on this analysis, we attempt to draw conclusions as to its optimal placement in diagnostic systems and draw attention to key research questions that could be explored in field trials.
Prete, M Irene; Guido, Gianluigi; Pichierri, Marco
The authors hypothesize a concept, Consumer Hypnotic-Like Suggestibility (CHLS), defined as an altered state of consciousness, as a state causing a tendency to respond positively to messages aimed at inducing consumers to make unplanned purchases. This study aims to investigate the associations of CHLS with interpersonal variables and compulsive purchasing--a frequent and uncontrollable preoccupation with buying or impulses to buy. A study was conducted on a sample of 232 subjects (n = 111 men; M age = 41 yr.), through the administration of a questionnaire, which measured: CHLS, compulsive purchasing, consumer susceptibility to interpersonal influence (the necessity to enhance one's image in the opinion of others through the consumption of products), and consumer atmospherics, i.e., environmental stimuli known to influence purchasing decisions. Modeling and mediation analyses suggested that internal and external drivers--Consumer Susceptibility to Interpersonal Influence and atmospherics--are positively related to CHLS which affects compulsive purchasing.
Full Text Available Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD is a common and chronic condition that can have disabling effects throughout the patient's lifespan. Frequent symptoms among OCD patients include fear of contamination and washing compulsions. Several studies have shown a link between contamination fears, disgust over-reactivity, and insula activation in OCD. In concordance with the role of insula in disgust processing, new neural models based on neuroimaging studies suggest that abnormally high activations of insula could be implicated in OCD psychopathology, at least in the subgroup of patients with contamination fears and washing compulsions.In the current study, we used a Brain Computer Interface (BCI based on real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rtfMRI to aid OCD patients to achieve down-regulation of the Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD signal in anterior insula. Our first aim was to investigate whether patients with contamination obsessions and washing compulsions can learn to volitionally decrease (down-regulate activity in the insula in the presence of disgust/anxiety provoking stimuli. Our second aim was to evaluate the effect of down-regulation on clinical, behavioural and physiological changes pertaining to OCD symptoms. Hence, several pre- and post-training measures were performed, i.e., confronting the patient with a disgust/anxiety inducing real-world object (Ecological Disgust Test, and subjective rating and physiological responses (heart rate, skin conductance level of disgust towards provoking pictures.Results of this pilot study, performed in 3 patients (2 females, show that OCD patients can gain self-control of the BOLD activity of insula, albeit to different degrees. In two patients positive changes in behaviour in the EDT were observed following the rtfMRI trainings. Behavioural changes were also confirmed by reductions in the negative valence and in the subjective perception of disgust towards symptom provoking images
Blum, K; Braverman, E R; Holder, J M; Lubar, J F; Monastra, V J; Miller, D; Lubar, J O; Chen, T J; Comings, D E
The dopaminergic system, and in particular the dopamine D2 receptor, has been implicated in reward mechanisms. The net effect of neurotransmitter interaction at the mesolimbic brain region induces "reward" when dopamine (DA) is released from the neuron at the nucleus accumbens and interacts with a dopamine D2 receptor. "The reward cascade" involves the release of serotonin, which in turn at the hypothalmus stimulates enkephalin, which in turn inhibits GABA at the substania nigra, which in turn fine tunes the amount of DA released at the nucleus accumbens or "reward site." It is well known that under normal conditions in the reward site DA works to maintain our normal drives. In fact, DA has become to be known as the "pleasure molecule" and/or the "antistress molecule." When DA is released into the synapse, it stimulates a number a DA receptors (D1-D5) which results in increased feelings of well-being and stress reduction. A consensus of the literature suggests that when there is a dysfunction in the brain reward cascade, which could be caused by certain genetic variants (polygenic), especially in the DA system causing a hypodopaminergic trait, the brain of that person requires a DA fix to feel good. This trait leads to multiple drug-seeking behavior. This is so because alcohol, cocaine, heroin, marijuana, nicotine, and glucose all cause activation and neuronal release of brain DA, which could heal the abnormal cravings. Certainly after ten years of study we could say with confidence that carriers of the DAD2 receptor A1 allele have compromised D2 receptors. Therefore lack of D2 receptors causes individuals to have a high risk for multiple addictive, impulsive and compulsive behavioral propensities, such as severe alcoholism, cocaine, heroin, marijuana and nicotine use, glucose bingeing, pathological gambling, sex addiction, ADHD, Tourette's Syndrome, autism, chronic violence, posttraumatic stress disorder, schizoid/avoidant cluster, conduct disorder and antisocial
Luis F. González
Full Text Available Abstract Background Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD is a severe neuropsychiatric condition affecting 1–3% of the worldwide population. OCD has a strong genetic component, and the SLC1A1 gene that encodes neuronal glutamate transporter EAAT3 is a strong candidate for this disorder. To evaluate the impact of reduced EAAT3 expression in vivo, we studied male EAAT3 heterozygous and wild-type littermate mice using a battery of behavioral paradigms relevant to anxiety (open field test, elevated plus maze and compulsivity (marble burying, as well as locomotor activity induced by amphetamine. Using high-performance liquid chromatography, we also determined tissue neurotransmitter levels in cortex, striatum and thalamus—brain areas that are relevant to OCD. Results Compared to wild-type littermates, EAAT3 heterozygous male mice have unaltered baseline anxiety-like, compulsive-like behavior and locomotor activity. Administration of acute amphetamine (5 mg/kg intraperitoneally increased locomotion with no differences across genotypes. Tissue levels of glutamate, GABA, dopamine and serotonin did not vary between EAAT3 heterozygous and wild-type mice. Conclusions Our results indicate that reduced EAAT3 expression does not impact neurotransmitter content in the corticostriatal circuit nor alter anxiety or compulsive-like behaviors.
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Obsessive compulsive symptoms are prevalent in individuals with eating disorders at clinical level. The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between obsessive compulsive features and pathological eating attitudes. Methods: This research is a correlational study. A sample of 790 university students were selected using stratified random sampling method and investigated by Obsessive Compulsive Inventory-Revised (OCI-R, and Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26 questionnaires. Data were analyzed using multivariate regression analysis. Results: There were a correlation between obsessive-compulsive features and pathological eating attitudes (p<0.001, r=0.38, The results showed that obsessive-compulsive features can predict 15% of pathological eating attitudes (p<0.001, r2=0.15. Conclusion: The identified correlation is possibly related to common components between obsessive compulsive and eating disorders.
Sun Da; Zhan Hongwei; Ye Xiaojuan; He Gangqiang
Purpose Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic anxiety disorder of unknown aetiology. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the changes of brain function in patients with OCD. Methods: Regional cerebral perfusion was investigated using SPECT in 25 patients with OCD. The mean ages of the patients were 29.04 (1 8-46) years old. The clinical symptom consists of repeating thinking (suspect, worry, nervous) and repeating action (checking, washing, counting, making telephone calls) principally. After administration of 740-925 MBq (20-25 mCi) 99mTc-ECD a single photon emission tomography study was performed and then transaxial, sagittal and coronal slices were obtained. For the semiquantitative analysis of the data Results: 92 per cent of patients (23125) had relative hypoperfusions in some cerebral regions. The patients had a significant decrease of rCBF in the frontal lobes, temporal lobes, basal ganglia, thalamus, and cingulate gyrus. There were no correlation between the change of rCBF and age of age or course of disease. But there were some correlation with clinical symptom. Conclusion: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been linked to a dysfunction of brain orbitofrontal-striatum-pallidum-thalamus networks that were confirmed by PET SPECT functional imaging studies. These study indicated hypoperfusion in frontal lobes, basal ganglion, thalamus in OCD patients, and suggests a reduced serotonergic input into the fronto-subcortical circuits in OCD, thereby diminishing the inhibitory regulation of serotonin on these circuits. According to our results, patients with OCD had profound dysfunction of the frontal and temporal cortices, and basal ganglia. These may reflect a fundamental feature of clinical neuropathophysiology in OCD, and support previous findings about dysfunction of frontal-subcortical circuits in this disorder. (authors)
O'Leary, Emily Marie; Rucklidge, Julia Jane; Blampied, Neville
In obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), inflated responsibility (IR) beliefs and thought-action fusion (TAF) are two cognitive schema argued to contribute to obsessions and compulsions. We investigated whether IR and TAF are OCD-specific or whether they occur in other anxiety disorders. Adults diagnosed with OCD (n = 20) or other anxiety disorders…
Soares, Célia; Fernandes, Natália; Morgado, Pedro
At present, no treatment recommendations can be made for compulsive buying disorder. Recent studies have found evidence for the efficacy of psychotherapeutic options, but less is known regarding the best pharmacologic treatment. The purpose of this review is to present and analyze the available published evidence on the pharmacological treatment of compulsive buying disorder. To achieve this, we conducted a review of studies focusing on the pharmacological treatment of compulsive buying by searching the PubMed/MEDLINE database. Selection criteria were applied, and 21 studies were identified. Pharmacological classes reported included antidepressants, mood stabilizers, opioid antagonists, second-generation antipsychotics, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists. We found only placebo-controlled trials for fluvoxamine; none showed effectiveness against placebo. Three open-label trials reported clinical improvement with citalopram; one was followed by a double-blind discontinuation. Escitalopram was effective in an open-label trial but did not show efficacy in the double-blind phase. Memantine was identified as effective in a pilot open-label study. Fluoxetine, bupropion, nortriptyline, clomipramine, topiramate and naltrexone were only reported to be effective in clinical cases. According to the available literature, there is no evidence to propose a specific pharmacologic agent for compulsive buying disorder. Future research is required for a better understanding of both pathogenesis and treatment of this disorder.
Remenska, Daniela; Willemse, Tim; Bal, Henri; Verstoep, Kees; Fokkink, Wan; Charpentier, Philippe; Diaz, Ricardo Graciani; Lanciotti, Elisa; Roiser, Stefan; Ciba, Krzysztof
DIRAC is the grid solution developed to support LHCb production activities as well as user data analysis. It consists of distributed services and agents delivering the workload to the grid resources. Services maintain database back-ends to store dynamic state information of entities such as jobs, queues, staging requests, etc. Agents use polling to check and possibly react to changes in the system state. Each agent's logic is relatively simple, the main complexity lies in their cooperation. Agents run concurrently, and collaborate using the databases as shared memory. The databases can be accessed directly by the agents if running locally or through a DIRAC service interface if necessary. This shared-memory model causes entities to occasionally get into inconsistent states. Tracing and fixing such problems becomes formidable due to the inherent parallelism present. We propose more rigorous methods to cope with this. Model checking is one such technique for analysis of an abstract model of a system. Unlike con...
Priscilla Lourenço Leite
Full Text Available Introduction: Compulsive buying can be characterized as an almost irresistible impulse to acquire various items. This is a current issue and the prevalence rate in the global population is around 5 to 8%. Some surveys indicate that the problem is growing in young and low-income populations. Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence of compulsive buying among people with low personal monthly incomes and analyze relationships with socio-demographic data. Methods: The Compulsive Buying Scale was administered to screen for compulsive buying and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was used to assess anxiety and depression in a sample of 56 participants. Pearson coefficients were used to test for correlations. Results: The results indicated that 44.6% presented an average family income equal to or greater than 2.76 minimum wages. It is possible that compulsive buying is not linked to the purchasing power since it was found in a low-income population. Conclusion: Despite the small sample, the results of this study are important for understanding the problem in question.
Suppa, Antonio; Marsili, Luca; Di Stasio, Flavio; Berardelli, Isabella; Roselli, Valentina; Pasquini, Massimo; Cardona, Francesco; Berardelli, Alfredo
Gilles de la Tourette syndrome is characterized by motor/vocal tics commonly associated with psychiatric disorders, including obsessive-compulsive disorder. We investigated primary motor cortex and brainstem plasticity in Tourette patients, exposed and unexposed to chronic drug treatment, with and without psychiatric disturbances. We also investigated primary motor cortex and brainstem plasticity in obsessive-compulsive disorder. We studied 20 Tourette patients with and without psychiatric disturbances, 15 with obsessive-compulsive disorder, and 20 healthy subjects. All groups included drug-naïve patients. We conditioned the left primary motor cortex with intermittent/continuous theta-burst stimulation and recorded motor evoked potentials. We conditioned the supraorbital nerve with facilitatory/inhibitory high-frequency stimulation and recorded the blink reflex late response area. In healthy subjects, intermittent theta-burst increased and continuous theta-burst stimulation decreased motor evoked potentials. Differently, intermittent theta-burst failed to increase and continuous theta-burst stimulation failed to decrease motor evoked potentials in Tourette patients, with and without psychiatric disturbances. In obsessive-compulsive disorder, intermittent/continuous theta-burst stimulation elicited normal responses. In healthy subjects and in subjects with obsessive-compulsive disorder, the blink reflex late response area increased after facilitatory high-frequency and decreased after inhibitory high-frequency stimulation. Conversely, in Tourette patients, with and without psychiatric disturbances, facilitatory/inhibitory high-frequency stimulation left the blink reflex late response area unchanged. Theta-burst and high-frequency stimulation elicited similar responses in drug-naïve and chronically treated patients. Tourette patients have reduced plasticity regardless of psychiatric disturbances. These findings suggest that abnormal plasticity contributes to the
Grønhøj Larsen, Christian; Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl; Gøtzsche, Peter C
To investigate whether Danish providers of general health checks present a balanced account of possible benefits and harms on their websites and whether the health checks are evidence-based.......To investigate whether Danish providers of general health checks present a balanced account of possible benefits and harms on their websites and whether the health checks are evidence-based....
Pathological gambling (PG) is a chronic and progressive condition, defined as “persistent and recurrent maladaptive gambling behaviour”; it is currently classified among the Impulse control disorders (Not Elsewhere Classified) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders – Fourth Edition - Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR). The diag