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Sample records for compton wavelength

  1. Arthur H. Compton and Compton Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    dropdown arrow Site Map A-Z Index Menu Synopsis Arthur H. Compton and Compton Scattering Resources with Additional Information * Compton Honored * Compton Scattering Arthur H. Compton Courtesy of Lawrence Berkeley , 1923 Establishing Site X: Letter, Arthur H. Compton to Enrico Fermi, September 14, 1942, DOE Technical

  2. Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botto, D.J.; Pratt, R.H.

    1979-05-01

    The current status of Compton scattering, both experimental observations and the theoretical predictions, is examined. Classes of experiments are distinguished and the results obtained are summarized. The validity of the incoherent scattering function approximation and the impulse approximation is discussed. These simple theoretical approaches are compared with predictions of the nonrelativistic dipole formula of Gavrila and with the relativistic results of Whittingham. It is noted that the A -2 based approximations fail to predict resonances and an infrared divergence, both of which have been observed. It appears that at present the various available theoretical approaches differ significantly in their predictions and that further and more systematic work is required

  3. Compton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botto, D.J.; Pratt, R.H.

    1979-05-01

    The current status of Compton scattering, both experimental observations and the theoretical predictions, is examined. Classes of experiments are distinguished and the results obtained are summarized. The validity of the incoherent scattering function approximation and the impulse approximation is discussed. These simple theoretical approaches are compared with predictions of the nonrelativistic dipole formula of Gavrila and with the relativistic results of Whittingham. It is noted that the A/sup -2/ based approximations fail to predict resonances and an infrared divergence, both of which have been observed. It appears that at present the various available theoretical approaches differ significantly in their predictions and that further and more systematic work is required.

  4. Compton radiography, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuyama, Shinichi; Sera, Koichiro; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Shishido, Fumio; Mishina, Hitoshi.

    1977-01-01

    Compton radiography, a tomographic technic with Compton-scattered rays of a monochromatic gamma ray beam, was feasible of tomographing a chest phantom. The result suggested that the technic could be extended to imaging of the lung and the surrounding structures of the chest wall, mediastinum and liver in Compton tomographic mode. (auth.)

  5. Compton radiography, 4. Magnification compton radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuyama, S; Sera, K; Shishido, F; Fukuda, H [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Research Inst. for Tuberculosis and Cancer; Mishina, H

    1978-03-01

    Compton radiography permits an acquisition of direct magnification Compton radiograms by use of a pinhole collimator, rendering it feasible to overcome the resolution of the scinticamera being employed. An improvement of resolution was attained from 7 mm to 1 mm separation. Usefulness of its clinical application can be seen in orientation of puncture and biopsy in deep structures and detection of various foreign bodies penetrated by blasts and so on under the ''magnification Compton fluoroscopy'' which can be developed on this principle in the near future.

  6. Compton tomography system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubsky, Victor; Romanoov, Volodymyr; Shoemaker, Keith; Patton, Edward Matthew; Jannson, Tomasz

    2016-02-02

    A Compton tomography system comprises an x-ray source configured to produce a planar x-ray beam. The beam irradiates a slice of an object to be imaged, producing Compton-scattered x-rays. The Compton-scattered x-rays are imaged by an x-ray camera. Translation of the object with respect to the source and camera or vice versa allows three-dimensional object imaging.

  7. Compton current detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho Campos, J.S. de.

    1984-01-01

    The project and construction of a Compton current detector, with cylindrical geometry using teflon as dielectric material; for electromagnetic radiation in range energy between 10 KeV and 2 MeV are described. The measurements of Compton current in teflon were obtained using an electrometer. The Compton current was promoted by photon flux proceeding from X ray sources (MG 150 Muller device) and gamma rays of 60 Co. The theory elaborated to explain the experimental results is shown. The calibration curves for accumulated charge and current in detector in function of exposition rates were obtained. (M.C.K.) [pt

  8. The Compton generator revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siboni, S.

    2014-09-01

    The Compton generator, introduced in 1913 by the US physicist A H Compton as a relatively simple device to detect the Earth's rotation with respect to the distant stars, is analyzed and discussed in a general perspective. The paper introduces a generalized definition of the generator, emphasizing the special features of the original apparatus, and provides a suggestive interpretation of the way the device works. To this end, an intriguing electromagnetic analogy is developed, which turns out to be particularly useful in simplifying the calculations. Besides the more extensive description of the Compton generator in itself, the combined use of concepts and methods coming from different fields of physics, such as particle dynamics in moving references frames, continuum mechanics and electromagnetism, may be of interest to both teachers and graduate students.

  9. Nuclear Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christillin, P.

    1986-01-01

    The theory of nuclear Compton scattering is reformulated with explicit consideration of both virtual and real pionic degrees of freedom. The effects due to low-lying nuclear states, to seagull terms, to pion condensation and to the Δ dynamics in the nucleus and their interplay in the different energy regions are examined. It is shown that all corrections to the one-body terms, of diffractive behaviour determined by the nuclear form factor, have an effective two-body character. The possibility of using Compton scattering as a complementary source of information about nuclear dynamics is restressed. (author)

  10. Voltmeter with Compton electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, N R; Gorbics, S G; Weidenheimer, D M [Berkeley Research Associates, Springfield, VA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A technique to measure the electron end point energy of bremsstrahlung in the MV regime using only two detectors is described. One of the detector measures the total radiation, the other filters out all except the hardest photons by looking only at their Compton electrons, whose average energy is determined with a magnetic field. (author). 4 figs., 2 refs.

  11. Compton scattering revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, R.H., E-mail: rpratt@pitt.ed [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); LaJohn, L.A., E-mail: lal18@pitt.ed [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Florescu, V., E-mail: flor@barutu.fizica.unibuc.r [Centre for Advanced Quantum Physics, University of Bucharest, MG-11 Bucharest-Magurele, 077125 Magurele (Romania); Suric, T., E-mail: suric@irb.h [R. Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Chatterjee, B.K., E-mail: barun_k_chatterjee@yahoo.co [Department of Physics, Bose Institute, Kolkata 700009 (India); Roy, S.C., E-mail: suprakash.roy@gmail.co [Department of Physics, Bose Institute, Kolkata 700009 (India)

    2010-02-15

    We review the standard theory of Compton scattering from bound electrons, and we describe recent findings that require modification of the usual understanding, noting the nature of consequences for experiment. The subject began with Compton and scattering from free electrons. Experiment actually involved bound electrons, and this was accommodated with the use of impulse approximation (IA), which described inelastic scattering from bound electrons in terms of scattering from free electrons. This was good for the Compton peak but failed for soft final photons. The standard theory was formalized by Eisenberger and Platzman (EP) [1970. Phys. Rev. A 2, 415], whose work also suggested why impulse approximation was better than one would expect, for doubly differential cross sections (DDCS), but not for triply differential cross sections (TDCS). A relativistic version of IA (RIA) was worked out by Ribberfors [1975. Phys. Rev. B 12, 2067]. And Suric et al. [1991. Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 189] and Bergstrom et al. [1993. Phys. Rev. A 48, 1134] developed a full relativistic second order S-matrix treatment, not making impulse approximation, but within independent particle approximation (IPA). Newer developments in the theory of Compton scattering include: (1) Demonstration that the EP estimates of the validity of IA are incorrect, although the qualitative conclusion remains unchanged; IA is not to be understood as the first term in a standard series expansion. (2) The greater validity of IA for DDCS than for the TDCS, which when integrated give DDCS, is related to the existence of a sum rule, only valid for DDCS. (3) The so-called 'asymmetry' of a Compton profile is primarily to be understood as simply the shift of the peak position in the profile; symmetric and anti-symmetric deviations from a shifted Compton profile are very small, except for high Z inner shells where further p{sup -}>.A{sup -}> effects come into play. (4) Most relativistic effects, except at low

  12. Compton scattering revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, R.H.; LaJohn, L.A.; Florescu, V.; Suric, T.; Chatterjee, B.K.; Roy, S.C.

    2010-01-01

    We review the standard theory of Compton scattering from bound electrons, and we describe recent findings that require modification of the usual understanding, noting the nature of consequences for experiment. The subject began with Compton and scattering from free electrons. Experiment actually involved bound electrons, and this was accommodated with the use of impulse approximation (IA), which described inelastic scattering from bound electrons in terms of scattering from free electrons. This was good for the Compton peak but failed for soft final photons. The standard theory was formalized by Eisenberger and Platzman (EP) [1970. Phys. Rev. A 2, 415], whose work also suggested why impulse approximation was better than one would expect, for doubly differential cross sections (DDCS), but not for triply differential cross sections (TDCS). A relativistic version of IA (RIA) was worked out by Ribberfors [1975. Phys. Rev. B 12, 2067]. And Suric et al. [1991. Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 189] and Bergstrom et al. [1993. Phys. Rev. A 48, 1134] developed a full relativistic second order S-matrix treatment, not making impulse approximation, but within independent particle approximation (IPA). Newer developments in the theory of Compton scattering include: (1) Demonstration that the EP estimates of the validity of IA are incorrect, although the qualitative conclusion remains unchanged; IA is not to be understood as the first term in a standard series expansion. (2) The greater validity of IA for DDCS than for the TDCS, which when integrated give DDCS, is related to the existence of a sum rule, only valid for DDCS. (3) The so-called 'asymmetry' of a Compton profile is primarily to be understood as simply the shift of the peak position in the profile; symmetric and anti-symmetric deviations from a shifted Compton profile are very small, except for high Z inner shells where further p → .A → effects come into play. (4) Most relativistic effects, except at low energies, are to be

  13. Compton Polarimetry at ELSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillert, Wolfgang; Aurand, Bastian; Wittschen, Juergen

    2009-01-01

    Part of the future polarization program performed at the Bonn accelerator facility ELSA will rely on precision Compton polarimetry of the stored transversely polarized electron beam. Precise and fast polarimetry poses high demands on the light source and the detector which were studied in detail performing numerical simulations of the Compton scattering process. In order to experimentally verify these calculations, first measurements were carried out using an argon ion laser as light source and a prototype version of a counting silicon microstrip detector. Calculated and measured intensity profiles of backscattered photons are presented and compared, showing excellent agreement. Background originating from beam gas radiation turned out to be the major limitation of the polarimeter performance. In order to improve the situation, a new polarimeter was constructed and is currently being set up. Design and expected performance of this polarimeter upgrade are presented.

  14. Compton radiography, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuyama, Shinichi; Sera, Koichiro; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Shishido, Fumio; Matsuzawa, Taiju

    1977-01-01

    Tomographic images of an object are obtainable by irradiating it with a collimated beam of monochromatic gamma rays and recording the resultant Compton rays scattered upward at right angles. This is the scattered-ray principle of the formation of a radiation image that differs from the traditional ''silhouette principle'' of radiography, and that bears prospects of stereopsis as well as cross-section tomography. (Evans, J.)

  15. Research of synchrotron radiation by virtual photon and compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Xianzhu

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a new theory to explain the synchrotron radiation. When charged particle does circular motion in the accelerator, the magnetic field of the accelerator can be taken as periodic, and equivalent to virtual photon. By Compton scattering of virtual photon and charged particle, the virtual photon can be transformed into photon to radiate out. According to this theory, the formula of photon wavelength in synchrotron radiation is found out, and the calculation results of wavelength is consonant with experimental data. (author)

  16. Crystal Compton Camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziock, Klaus-Peter [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Braverman, Joshua B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Harrison, Mark J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hornback, Donald Eric [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Fabris, Lorenzo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Newby, Jason [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2013-09-26

    Stand-off detection is one of the most important radiation detection capabilities for arms control and the control of illicit nuclear materials. For long range passive detection one requires a large detector and a means of “seeing through” the naturally occurring and varying background radiation, i.e. imaging. Arguably, Compton imaging is the best approach over much of the emission band suitable for long range detection. It provides not only imaging, but more information about the direction of incidence of each detected gamma-ray than the alternate approach of coded-aperture imaging. The directional information allows one to reduce the background and hence improve the sensitivity of a measurement. However, to make an efficient Compton imager requires localizing and measuring the simultaneous energy depositions when gamma-rays Compton scatter and are subsequently captured within a single, large detector volume. This concept has been demonstrated in semi-conductor detectors (HPGe, CZT, Si) but at ~ $1k/cm3 these materials are too expensive to build the large systems needed for standoff detection. Scintillator detectors, such as NaI(Tl), are two orders of magnitude less expensive and possess the energy resolution required to make such an imager. However, they do not currently have the ability to localize closely spaced, simultaneous energy depositions in a single large crystal. In this project we are applying a new technique that should, for the first time ever, allow cubic-millimeter event localization in a bulk scintillator crystal.

  17. Compton Operator in Quantum Electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Hector Luna; Garcia, Luz Maria

    2015-01-01

    In the frame in the quantum electrodynamics exist four basic operators; the electron self-energy, vacuum polarization, vertex correction, and the Compton operator. The first three operators are very important by its relation with renormalized and Ward identity. However, the Compton operator has equal importance, but without divergence, and little attention has been given it. We have calculated the Compton operator and obtained the closed expression for it in the frame of dimensionally continuous integration and hypergeometric functions

  18. Compton scattering at high intensities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinzl, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.heinzl@plymouth.ac.u [University of Plymouth, School of Mathematics and Statistics, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-01

    High-intensity Compton scattering takes place when an electron beam is brought into collision with a high power laser. We briefly review the main intensity signatures using the formalism of strong-field quantum electrodynamics.

  19. Compton suppression gamma ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landsberger, S.; Iskander, F.Y.; Niset, M.; Heydorn, K.

    2002-01-01

    In the past decade there have been many studies to use Compton suppression methods in routine neutron activation analysis as well as in the traditional role of low level gamma ray counting of environmental samples. On a separate path there have been many new PC based software packages that have been developed to enhance photopeak fitting. Although the newer PC based algorithms have had significant improvements, they still suffer from being effectively used in weak gamma ray lines in natural samples or in neutron activated samples that have very high Compton backgrounds. We have completed a series of experiments to show the usefulness of Compton suppression. As well we have shown the pitfalls when using Compton suppression methods for high counting deadtimes as in the case of neutron activated samples. We have also investigated if counting statistics are the same both suppressed and normal modes. Results are presented in four separate experiments. (author)

  20. Weak Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ales Psaker; Wolodymyr Melnitchouk; Anatoly Radyushkin

    2006-01-01

    We extend the analysis of the deeply virtual Compton scattering process to the weak interaction sector in the generalized Bjorken limit. The virtual Compton scattering amplitudes for the weak neutral and charged currents are calculated at the leading twist within the framework of the nonlocal light-cone expansion via coordinate space QCD string operators. Using a simple model, we estimate cross sections for neutrino scattering off the nucleon, relevant for future high intensity neutrino beam facilities

  1. The Compton-Schwarzschild correspondence from extended de Broglie relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lake, Matthew J. [The Institute for Fundamental Study, “The Tah Poe Academia Institute' ,Naresuan University, Phitsanulok 65000 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Ministry of Education,Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Carr, Bernard [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London,Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2015-11-17

    The Compton wavelength gives the minimum radius within which the mass of a particle may be localized due to quantum effects, while the Schwarzschild radius gives the maximum radius within which the mass of a black hole may be localized due to classial gravity. In a mass-radius diagram, the two lines intersect near the Planck point (l{sub P},m{sub P}), where quantum gravity effects become significant. Since canonical (non-gravitational) quantum mechanics is based on the concept of wave-particle duality, encapsulated in the de Broglie relations, these relations should break down near (l{sub P},m{sub P}). It is unclear what physical interpretation can be given to quantum particles with energy E≫m{sub P}c{sup 2}, since they correspond to wavelengths λ≪l{sub P} or time periods τ≪t{sub P} in the standard theory. We therefore propose a correction to the standard de Broglie relations, which gives rise to a modified Schrödinger equation and a modified expression for the Compton wavelength, which may be extended into the region E≫m{sub P}c{sup 2}. For the proposed modification, we recover the expression for the Schwarzschild radius for E≫m{sub P}c{sup 2} and the usual Compton formula for E≪m{sub P}c{sup 2}. The sign of the inequality obtained from the uncertainty principle reverses at m≈m{sub P}, so that the Compton wavelength and event horizon size may be interpreted as minimum and maximum radii, respectively. We interpret the additional terms in the modified de Broglie relations as representing the self-gravitation of the wave packet.

  2. Compton backscattered collmated X-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, Ronald D.; Huang, Zhirong

    2000-01-01

    A high-intensity, inexpensive and collimated x-ray source for applications such as x-ray lithography is disclosed. An intense pulse from a high power laser, stored in a high-finesse resonator, repetitively collides nearly head-on with and Compton backscatters off a bunched electron beam, having relatively low energy and circulating in a compact storage ring. Both the laser and the electron beams are tightly focused and matched at the interaction region inside the optical resonator. The laser-electron interaction not only gives rise to x-rays at the desired wavelength, but also cools and stabilizes the electrons against intrabeam scattering and Coulomb repulsion with each other in the storage ring. This cooling provides a compact, intense bunch of electrons suitable for many applications. In particular, a sufficient amount of x-rays can be generated by this device to make it an excellent and flexible Compton backscattered x-ray (CBX) source for high throughput x-ray lithography and many other applications.

  3. Compton backscattered collimated x-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, R.D.; Huang, Z.

    1998-10-20

    A high-intensity, inexpensive and collimated x-ray source is disclosed for applications such as x-ray lithography is disclosed. An intense pulse from a high power laser, stored in a high-finesse resonator, repetitively collides nearly head-on with and Compton backscatters off a bunched electron beam, having relatively low energy and circulating in a compact storage ring. Both the laser and the electron beams are tightly focused and matched at the interaction region inside the optical resonator. The laser-electron interaction not only gives rise to x-rays at the desired wavelength, but also cools and stabilizes the electrons against intrabeam scattering and Coulomb repulsion with each other in the storage ring. This cooling provides a compact, intense bunch of electrons suitable for many applications. In particular, a sufficient amount of x-rays can be generated by this device to make it an excellent and flexible Compton backscattered x-ray (CBX) source for high throughput x-ray lithography and many other applications. 4 figs.

  4. Critical review of Compton imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzzardi, R.; Licitra, G.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reviews the basic aspects, problems, and applications of Compton imaging including those related to nonmedical applications. The physics and technology at the base of this specific methodology are analyzed and the relative differences and merits with respect to other imaging techniques, using ionizing radiations, are reviewed. The basic Compton imaging approaches, i.e., point-by-point, line-by-line, and plane-by-plane, are analyzed. Specifically, physical design and technological aspects are reviewed and discussed. Furthermore, the most important clinical applications of the different methods are presented and discussed. Finally, possibilities and applications of the Compton imaging method to other nonmedical fields, as in the case of the important area of object defects recognition, are analyzed and reviewed. 56 references

  5. Inverse comptonization vs. thermal synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenimore, E.E.; Klebesadel, R.W.; Laros, J.G.

    1983-01-01

    There are currently two radiation mechanisms being considered for gamma-ray bursts: thermal synchrotron and inverse comptonization. They are mutually exclusive since thermal synchrotron requires a magnetic field of approx. 10 12 Gauss whereas inverse comptonization cannot produce a monotonic spectrum if the field is larger than 10 11 and is too inefficient relative to thermal synchrotron unless the field is less than 10 9 Gauss. Neither mechanism can explain completely the observed characteristics of gamma-ray bursts. However, we conclude that thermal synchrotron is more consistent with the observations if the sources are approx. 40 kpc away whereas inverse comptonization is more consistent if they are approx. 300 pc away. Unfortunately, the source distance is still not known and, thus, the radiation mechanism is still uncertain

  6. Inverse Compton gamma-rays from pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morini, M.

    1983-01-01

    A model is proposed for pulsar optical and gamma-ray emission where relativistic electrons beams: (i) scatter the blackbody photons from the polar cap surface giving inverse Compton gamma-rays and (ii) produce synchrotron optical photons in the light cylinder region which are then inverse Compton scattered giving other gamma-rays. The model is applied to the Vela pulsar, explaining the first gamma-ray pulse by inverse Compton scattering of synchrotron photons near the light cylinder and the second gamma-ray pulse partly by inverse Compton scattering of synchrotron photons and partly by inverse Compton scattering of the thermal blackbody photons near the star surface. (author)

  7. Maximum Likelihood Compton Polarimetry with the Compton Spectrometer and Imager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowell, A. W.; Boggs, S. E; Chiu, C. L.; Kierans, C. A.; Sleator, C.; Tomsick, J. A.; Zoglauer, A. C. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley (United States); Chang, H.-K.; Tseng, C.-H.; Yang, C.-Y. [Institute of Astronomy, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan (China); Jean, P.; Ballmoos, P. von [IRAP Toulouse (France); Lin, C.-H. [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taiwan (China); Amman, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (United States)

    2017-10-20

    Astrophysical polarization measurements in the soft gamma-ray band are becoming more feasible as detectors with high position and energy resolution are deployed. Previous work has shown that the minimum detectable polarization (MDP) of an ideal Compton polarimeter can be improved by ∼21% when an unbinned, maximum likelihood method (MLM) is used instead of the standard approach of fitting a sinusoid to a histogram of azimuthal scattering angles. Here we outline a procedure for implementing this maximum likelihood approach for real, nonideal polarimeters. As an example, we use the recent observation of GRB 160530A with the Compton Spectrometer and Imager. We find that the MDP for this observation is reduced by 20% when the MLM is used instead of the standard method.

  8. The Compton polarimeter at ELSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doll, D.

    1998-06-01

    In order to measure the degree of transverse polarization of the stored electron beam in the Electron Stretcher Accelerator ELSA a compton polarimeter is built up. The measurement is based on the polarization dependent cross section for the compton scattering of circular polarized photons off polarized electrons. Using a high power laser beam and detecting the scattered photons a measuring time of two minutes with a statistical error of 5% is expected from numerical simulations. The design and the results of a computer controlled feedback system to enhance the laser beam stability at the interaction point in ELSA are presented. The detection of the scattered photons is based on a lead converter and a silicon-microstrip detector. The design and test results of the detector module including readout electronic and computer control are discussed. (orig.)

  9. Compton radiography, 2. Clinical significance of Compton radiography of a chest phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuyama, S; Sera, K; Fukuda, H; Shishido, F [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Research Inst. for Tuberculosis, Leprosy and Cancer; Mishina, H

    1977-09-01

    Compton radiography, a tomographic technic with Compton-scattered rays of a monochromatic gamma ray beam, was feasible of tomographing a chest phantom. The result suggested that the technic could be extended to imaging of the lung and the surrounding structures of the chest wall, mediastinum and liver in Compton tomographic mode.

  10. Compton scattering on 208Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberico, W.M.; Molinari, A.

    1982-01-01

    In this paper we briefly review the formalism of the nuclear Compton scattering in the frame of the low-energy theorems (LET). We treat the resonant terms of the amplitude, having collective intermediate nuclear states, as a superposition of Lorentz lines with energy, width and strength fixed by the photo-absorption experiments. The gauge terms are evaluated starting from a simple, but realistic, nuclear Hamiltonian. Dynamical nucleon-nucleon correlations are consistently taken into account, beyond those imposed by the Pauli principle. The comparison of the theoretical predictions with the data of elastic diffusion of photons from 208 Pb shows that LET are insufficient to account for the experiment. (orig.)

  11. Use of primary beam filtration in estimating mass attenuation coefficients by Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connor, B.H.; Chang, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    Mass attenuation coefficients (MACs) are frequently estimated over a range of wavelengths in x-ray spectrometry from the intensity of the Compton peak I /SUB C/ associated with a prominent tube line. The MAC μ /SUB ll/ at wavelength lambda is estimated from the MAC at the Compton wavelength lambda /SUB C/ with the approximations μ /SUB ll/ α μ /SUB C/ and μ /SUB C/ α l/I /SUB C/ , Systematic errors may introduce absorption edge bias (AEB) effects into the results, caused by sample components with absorption edges between lambda /SUB C/ and lambda. A procedure is described which eliminates AEB effects by measuring I /SUB C/ using emission radiation from a primary beam filter

  12. X-ray Compton line scan tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupsch, Andreas; Lange, Axel; Jaenisch, Gerd-Ruediger [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany). Fachgruppe 8.5 - Mikro-ZfP; Hentschel, Manfred P. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany); Kardjilov, Nikolay; Markoetter, Henning; Hilger, Andre; Manke, Ingo [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) (Germany); Toetzke, Christian [Potsdam Univ. (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The potentials of incoherent X-ray scattering (Compton) computed tomography (CT) are investigated. The imaging of materials of very different atomic number or density at once is generally a perpetual challenge for X-ray tomography or radiography. In a basic laboratory set-up for simultaneous perpendicular Compton scattering and direct beam attenuation tomography are conducted by single channel photon counting line scans. This results in asymmetric distortions of the projection profiles of the scattering CT data set. In a first approach, corrections of Compton scattering data by taking advantage of rotational symmetry yield tomograms without major geometric artefacts. A cylindrical sample composed of PE, PA, PVC, glass and wood demonstrates similar Compton contrast for all the substances, while the conventional absorption tomogram only reveals the two high order materials. Comparison to neutron tomography reveals astonishing similarities except for the glass component (without hydrogen). Therefore, Compton CT offers the potential to replace neutron tomography, which requires much more efforts.

  13. Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    This photograph shows the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (GRO) being deployed by the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) arm aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS-37 mission in April 1991. The GRO reentered Earth atmosphere and ended its successful mission in June 2000. For nearly 9 years, the GRO Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE), designed and built by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), kept an unblinking watch on the universe to alert scientists to the invisible, mysterious gamma-ray bursts that had puzzled them for decades. By studying gamma-rays from objects like black holes, pulsars, quasars, neutron stars, and other exotic objects, scientists could discover clues to the birth, evolution, and death of stars, galaxies, and the universe. The gamma-ray instrument was one of four major science instruments aboard the Compton. It consisted of eight detectors, or modules, located at each corner of the rectangular satellite to simultaneously scan the entire universe for bursts of gamma-rays ranging in duration from fractions of a second to minutes. In January 1999, the instrument, via the Internet, cued a computer-controlled telescope at Las Alamos National Laboratory in Los Alamos, New Mexico, within 20 seconds of registering a burst. With this capability, the gamma-ray experiment came to serve as a gamma-ray burst alert for the Hubble Space Telescope, the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, and major gound-based observatories around the world. Thirty-seven universities, observatories, and NASA centers in 19 states, and 11 more institutions in Europe and Russia, participated in the BATSE science program.

  14. A simple scanner for Compton tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Cesareo, R; Brunetti, A; Golosio, B; Castellano, A

    2002-01-01

    A first generation CT-scanner was designed and constructed to carry out Compton images. This CT-scanner is composed of a 80 kV, 5 mA X-ray tube and a NaI(Tl) X-ray detector; the tube is strongly collimated, generating a X-ray beam of 2 mm diameter, whilst the detector is not collimated to collect Compton photons from the whole irradiated cylinder. The performances of the equipment were tested contemporaneous transmission and Compton images.

  15. Deeply virtual Compton scattering. Results and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, W.D.

    2005-03-01

    Access to generalised parton distributions (GPDs) through deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) is briefly described. Presently available experimental results on DVCS are summarized in conjunction with plans for future measurements. (orig.)

  16. Computer control in a compton scattering spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Ningzhuo; Chen Tao; Gong Zhufang; Yang Baozhong; Mo Haiding; Hua Wei; Bian Zuhe

    1995-01-01

    The authors introduced the hardware and software of computer autocontrol of calibration and data acquisition in a Compton Scattering spectrometer which consists of a HPGe detector, Amplifiers and a MCA

  17. Neutron Compton scattering from selectively deuterated acetanilide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanderlingh, U. N.; Fielding, A. L.; Middendorf, H. D.

    With the aim of developing the application of neutron Compton scattering (NCS) to molecular systems of biophysical interest, we are using the Compton spectrometer EVS at ISIS to characterize the momentum distribution of protons in peptide groups. In this contribution we present NCS measurements of the recoil peak (Compton profile) due to the amide proton in otherwise fully deuterated acetanilide (ACN), a widely studied model system for H-bonding and energy transfer in biomolecules. We obtain values for the average width of the potential well of the amide proton and its mean kinetic energy. Deviations from the Gaussian form of the Compton profile, analyzed on the basis of an expansion due to Sears, provide data relating to the Laplacian of the proton potential.

  18. Testing special relativity theory using Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contreras S, H.; Hernandez A, L.; Baltazar R, A.; Escareno J, E.; Mares E, C. A.; Hernandez V, C.; Vega C, H. R.

    2010-10-01

    The validity of the special relativity theory has been tested using the Compton scattering. Since 1905 several experiments has been carried out to show that time, mass, and length change with the velocity, in this work the Compton scattering has been utilized as a simple way to show the validity to relativity. The work was carried out through Monte Carlo calculations and experiments with different gamma-ray sources and a gamma-ray spectrometer with a 3 x 3 NaI (Tl) detector. The pulse-height spectra were collected and the Compton edge was observed. This information was utilized to determine the relationship between the electron's mass and energy using the Compton -knee- position, the obtained results were contrasted with two collision models between photon and electron, one model was built using the classical physics and another using the special relativity theory. It was found that calculations and experiments results fit to collision model made using the special relativity. (Author)

  19. Colour coherence in deep inelastic Compton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebedev, A.I.; Vazdik, J.A. (Lebedev Physical Inst., Academy of Sciences, Moscow (USSR))

    1992-01-01

    MC simulation of Deep Inelastic Compton on proton - both QED and QCD - was performed on the basis of LUCIFER program for HERA energies. Charged hadron flow was calculated for string and independent fragmentation with different cuts on p{sub t} and x. It is shown that interjet colour coherence leads in the case of QCD Compton to the drag effects diminishing the hadron flow in the direction between quark jet and proton remnant jet. (orig.).

  20. Colour coherence in deep inelastic Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, A.I.; Vazdik, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    MC simulation of Deep Inelastic Compton on proton - both QED and QCD - was performed on the basis of LUCIFER program for HERA energies. Charged hadron flow was calculated for string and independent fragmentation with different cuts on p t and x. It is shown that interjet colour coherence leads in the case of QCD Compton to the drag effects diminishing the hadron flow in the direction between quark jet and proton remnant jet. (orig.)

  1. Using Compton scattering for random coincidence rejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolstein, M.; Chmeissani, M.

    2016-01-01

    The Voxel Imaging PET (VIP) project presents a new approach for the design of nuclear medicine imaging devices by using highly segmented pixel CdTe sensors. CdTe detectors can achieve an energy resolution of ≈ 1% FWHM at 511 keV and can be easily segmented into submillimeter sized voxels for optimal spatial resolution. These features help in rejecting a large part of the scattered events from the PET coincidence sample in order to obtain high quality images. Another contribution to the background are random events, i.e., hits caused by two independent gammas without a common origin. Given that 60% of 511 keV photons undergo Compton scattering in CdTe (i.e. 84% of all coincidence events have at least one Compton scattering gamma), we present a simulation study on the possibility to use the Compton scattering information of at least one of the coincident gammas within the detector to reject random coincidences. The idea uses the fact that if a gamma undergoes Compton scattering in the detector, it will cause two hits in the pixel detectors. The first hit corresponds to the Compton scattering process. The second hit shall correspond to the photoelectric absorption of the remaining energy of the gamma. With the energy deposition of the first hit, one can calculate the Compton scattering angle. By measuring the hit location of the coincident gamma, we can construct the geometric angle, under the assumption that both gammas come from the same origin. Using the difference between the Compton scattering angle and the geometric angle, random events can be rejected.

  2. Compton suppression through rise-time analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvi, S.; Celiktas, C.

    2007-01-01

    We studied Compton suppression for 60 Co and 137 Cs radioisotopes using a signal selection criterion based on contrasting the fall time of the signals composing the photo peak with those composing the Compton continuum. The fall time criterion is employed by using the pulse shape analysis observing the change in the fall times of the gamma-ray pulses. This change is determined by measuring the changes in the rise times related to the fall time of the scintillator and the timing signals related to the fall time of the input signals. We showed that Compton continuum suppression is achieved best via the precise timing adjustment of an analog rise-time analyzer connected to a NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometer

  3. Nucleon structure study by virtual compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthot, J.; Bertin, P.Y.; Breton, V.; Fonvielle, H.; Hyde-Wright, C.; Quemener, G.; Ravel, O.; Braghieri, A.; Pedroni, P.; Boeglin, W.U.; Boehm, R.; Distler, M.; Edelhoff, R.; Friedrich, J.; Geiges, R.; Jennewein, P.; Kahrau, M.; Korn, M.; Kramer, H.; Krygier, K.W.; Kunde, V.; Liesenfeld, A.; Merle, K.; Neuhausen, R.; Offermann, E.A.J.M.; Pospischil, T.; Rosner, G.; Sauer, P.; Schmieden, H.; Schardt, S.; Tamas, G.; Wagner, A.; Walcher, T.; Wolf, S.

    1995-01-01

    We propose to study nucleon structure by Virtual Compton Scattering using the reaction p(e,e'p)γ with the MAMI facility. We will detect the scattered electron and the recoil proton in coincidence in the high resolution spectrometers of the hall A1. Compton events will be separated from the other channels (principally π 0 production) by missing-mass reconstruction. We plan to investigate this reaction near threshold. Our goal is to measure new electromagnetic observables which generalize the usual magnetic and electric polarizabilities. (authors). 9 refs., 18 figs., 7 tabs

  4. Theorems of low energy in Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chahine, J.

    1984-01-01

    We have obtained the low energy theorems in Compton scattering to third and fouth order in the frequency of the incident photon. Next we calculated the polarized cross section to third order and the unpolarized to fourth order in terms of partial amplitudes not covered by the low energy theorems, what will permit the experimental determination of these partial amplitudes. (Author) [pt

  5. Compton scattering collision module for OSIRIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Gaudio, Fabrizio; Grismayer, Thomas; Fonseca, Ricardo; Silva, Luís

    2017-10-01

    Compton scattering plays a fundamental role in a variety of different astrophysical environments, such as at the gaps of pulsars and the stagnation surface of black holes. In these scenarios, Compton scattering is coupled with self-consistent mechanisms such as pair cascades. We present the implementation of a novel module, embedded in the self-consistent framework of the PIC code OSIRIS 4.0, capable of simulating Compton scattering from first principles and that is fully integrated with the self-consistent plasma dynamics. The algorithm accounts for the stochastic nature of Compton scattering reproducing without approximations the exchange of energy between photons and unbound charged species. We present benchmarks of the code against the analytical results of Blumenthal et al. and the numerical solution of the linear Kompaneets equation and good agreement is found between the simulations and the theoretical models. This work is supported by the European Research Council Grant (ERC- 2015-AdG 695088) and the Fundao para a Céncia e Tecnologia (Bolsa de Investigao PD/BD/114323/2016).

  6. On the Compton Twist-3 Asymmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korotkiyan, V.M.; Teryaev, O.V.

    1994-01-01

    The 'fermionic poles' contribution to the twist-3 single asymmetry in the gluon Compton process is calculated. The 'gluonic poles' existence seems to contradict the density matrix positivity. Qualitative predictions for the direct photon and jets asymmetries are presented. 13 refs., 2 figs

  7. Compton's Kinematics and Einstein - Ehrenfest's radiation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barranco, A.V.; Franca, H.M.

    1988-09-01

    The Compton Kinematic relations are obtained from entirely classical arguments, that is, without the corpuscular concept of the photon. The calculations are nonrelativistic and result from Einstein and Ehrenfest's radiation theory modified in order to introduce the effects of the classical zero-point fileds characteristic of Stochastic Electrodynamics. (author) [pt

  8. Constraints on low energy Compton scattering amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raszillier, I.

    1979-04-01

    We derive the constraints and correlations of fairly general type for Compton scattering amplitudes at energies below photoproduction threshold and fixed momentum transfer, following from (an upper bound on) the corresponding differential cross section above photoproduction threshold. The derivation involves the solution of an extremal problem in a certain space of vector - valued analytic functions. (author)

  9. Wavelength converter technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kloch, Allan; Hansen, Peter Bukhave; Poulsen, Henrik Nørskov

    1999-01-01

    Wavelength conversion is important since it ensures full flexibility of the WDM network layer. Progress in optical wavelength converter technology is reviewed with emphasis on all-optical wavelength converter types based on semiconductor optical amplifiers.......Wavelength conversion is important since it ensures full flexibility of the WDM network layer. Progress in optical wavelength converter technology is reviewed with emphasis on all-optical wavelength converter types based on semiconductor optical amplifiers....

  10. Angle-averaged Compton cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickel, G.H.

    1983-01-01

    The scattering of a photon by an individual free electron is characterized by six quantities: α = initial photon energy in units of m 0 c 2 ; α/sub s/ = scattered photon energy in units of m 0 c 2 ; β = initial electron velocity in units of c; phi = angle between photon direction and electron direction in the laboratory frame (LF); theta = polar angle change due to Compton scattering, measured in the electron rest frame (ERF); and tau = azimuthal angle change in the ERF. We present an analytic expression for the average of the Compton cross section over phi, theta, and tau. The lowest order approximation to this equation is reasonably accurate for photons and electrons with energies of many keV

  11. Stochastic Electrodynamics and the Compton effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franca, H.M.; Barranco, A.V.

    1987-12-01

    Some of the main qualitative features of the Compton effect are tried to be described within the realm of Classical Stochastic Electrodynamics (SED). It is found indications that the combined action of the incident wave (frequency ω), the radiation reaction force and the zero point fluctuating electromagnetic fields of SED, are able to given a high average recoil velocity v/c=α/(1+α) to the charged particle. The estimate of the parameter α gives α ∼ ℎω/mc 2 where 2Πℎ is the constant and mc 2 is the rest energy of the particle. It is verified that this recoil is just that necessary to explain the frequency shift, observed in the scattered radiation as due to a classical double Doppler shift. The differential cross section for the radiation scattered by the recoiling charge using classical electromagnetism also calculated. The same expression as obtained by Compton in his fundamental work of 1923 is found. (author) [pt

  12. Angle-averaged Compton cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickel, G.H.

    1983-01-01

    The scattering of a photon by an individual free electron is characterized by six quantities: ..cap alpha.. = initial photon energy in units of m/sub 0/c/sup 2/; ..cap alpha../sub s/ = scattered photon energy in units of m/sub 0/c/sup 2/; ..beta.. = initial electron velocity in units of c; phi = angle between photon direction and electron direction in the laboratory frame (LF); theta = polar angle change due to Compton scattering, measured in the electron rest frame (ERF); and tau = azimuthal angle change in the ERF. We present an analytic expression for the average of the Compton cross section over phi, theta, and tau. The lowest order approximation to this equation is reasonably accurate for photons and electrons with energies of many keV.

  13. High-Energy Compton Scattering Light Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Hartemann, Fred V; Barty, C; Crane, John; Gibson, David J; Hartouni, E P; Tremaine, Aaron M

    2005-01-01

    No monochromatic, high-brightness, tunable light sources currently exist above 100 keV. Important applications that would benefit from such new hard x-ray sources include: nuclear resonance fluorescence spectroscopy, time-resolved positron annihilation spectroscopy, and MeV flash radiography. The peak brightness of Compton scattering light sources is derived for head-on collisions and found to scale with the electron beam brightness and the drive laser pulse energy. This gamma 2

  14. Laser Compton polarimetry of proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stillman, A.

    1995-01-01

    A need exists for non-destructive polarization measurements of the polarized proton beams in the AGS and, in the future, in RHIC. One way to make such measurements is to scatter photons from the polarized beams. Until now, such measurements were impossible because of the extremely low Compton scattering cross section from protons. Modern lasers now can provide enough photons per laser pulse not only to scatter from proton beams but also, at least in RHIC, to analyze their polarization

  15. Future measurements of deeply virtual Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korotkov, V.A.; Nowak, W.D.

    2001-09-01

    Prospects for future measurements of Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering are studied using different simple models for parameterizations of generalized parton distributions (GPDs). Measurements of the lepton charge and lepton beam helicity asymmetry will yield important input for theoretical models towards the future extraction of GPDs. The kinematics of the HERMES experiment, complemented with a recoil detector, was adopted to arrive at realistic projected statistical uncertainties. (orig.)

  16. Signature of inverse Compton emission from blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Haritma; Mohan, Prashanth; Wierzcholska, Alicja; Gu, Minfeng

    2018-01-01

    Blazars are classified into high-, intermediate- and low-energy-peaked sources based on the location of their synchrotron peak. This lies in infra-red/optical to ultra-violet bands for low- and intermediate-peaked blazars. The transition from synchrotron to inverse Compton emission falls in the X-ray bands for such sources. We present the spectral and timing analysis of 14 low- and intermediate-energy-peaked blazars observed with XMM-Newton spanning 31 epochs. Parametric fits to X-ray spectra help constrain the possible location of transition from the high-energy end of the synchrotron to the low-energy end of the inverse Compton emission. In seven sources in our sample, we infer such a transition and constrain the break energy in the range 0.6-10 keV. The Lomb-Scargle periodogram is used to estimate the power spectral density (PSD) shape. It is well described by a power law in a majority of light curves, the index being flatter compared to general expectation from active galactic nuclei, ranging here between 0.01 and 1.12, possibly due to short observation durations resulting in an absence of long-term trends. A toy model involving synchrotron self-Compton and external Compton (EC; disc, broad line region, torus) mechanisms are used to estimate magnetic field strength ≤0.03-0.88 G in sources displaying the energy break and infer a prominent EC contribution. The time-scale for variability being shorter than synchrotron cooling implies steeper PSD slopes which are inferred in these sources.

  17. Colour dipoles and virtual Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDermott, M.

    2002-01-01

    An analysis of Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) is made within the colour dipole model. We compare and contrast two models for the dipole cross-section which have been successful in describing structure function data. Both models agree with the available cross section data on DVCS from HERA. We give predictions for various azimuthal angle asymmetries in HERA kinematics and for the DVCS cross section in the THERA region. (orig.)

  18. Proceedings of the Fourth Compton Symposium. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dermer, C.D.; Strickman, M.S.; Kurfess, J.D.

    1997-01-01

    These proceedings represent the papers presented at the Fourth Compton Symposium held in Williamsburg, Virginia in April, 1997. This symposium gives the latest development in gamma ray astronomy and summarizes the results obtained by the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. One of the missions of the Observatory has been the study of physical processes taking place in the most dynamic sites in the Universe, including supernovae, novae, pulsars, black holes, active galaxies, and gamma-ray bursts. The energies covered range from hard X-ray to gamma-ray regions from 15 KeV to 30 GeV. The Burst and Transient Experiment (BASTE) measures brightness variations in gamma-ray bursts and solar flares. The Oriented Scintillation Spectroscopy Experiment (OSSE), measures spectral output of astrophysical sources in the 0.05 to 10 MeV range. The Imaging Compton Telescope (COMPTEL) detects gamma-rays and performs sky survey in the energy range 1 to 30 MeV. The Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) covers the broadest energy range from 20 MeV to 30 GeV. The papers presented result from all of the above. There were 249 papers presented and out of these, 6 have been abstracted for the Energy, Science and Technology database

  19. Helium Compton Form Factor Measurements at CLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voutier, Eric J.-M. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et Cosmologie

    2013-07-01

    The distribution of the parton content of nuclei, as encoded via the generalized parton distributions (GPDs), can be accessed via the deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) process contributing to the cross section for leptoproduction of real photons. Similarly to the scattering of light by a material, DVCS provides information about the dynamics and the spatial structure of hadrons. The sensitivity of this process to the lepton beam polarization allows to single-out the DVCS amplitude in terms of Compton form factors that contain GPDs information. The beam spin asymmetry of the $^4$He($\\vec {\\mathrm e}$,e$' \\gamma ^4$He) process was measured in the experimental Hall B of the Jefferson Laboratory to extract the real and imaginary parts of the twist-2 Compton form factor of the $^4$He nucleus. The experimental results reported here demonstrate the relevance of this method for such a goal, and suggest the dominance of the Bethe-Heitler amplitude to the unpolarized process in the kinematic range explored by the experiment.

  20. Compton radiography, 3. Compton scinti-tomography of the chest diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuyama, S; Sera, K; Shishido, F; Fukuda, H [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Research Inst. for Tuberculosis, Leprosy and Cancer; Mishina, H

    1977-10-01

    The compton radiography aims at collection of depth information by recording with a scinticamera those Compton rays that have resulted from scattering of a monoenergetic gamma beam by a volume of interest. Appreciably clear clinical scinti-tomograms were obtained of the chest wall, and intrathoracic structures such as the lungs, intrapulmonary pathologies, and mediastinum. This was achieved without any computer assistance for image reconstruction such as those in the case of XCT. Apparently, suitable corrections of the attenuations of the primary monoenergetic gamma rays and secondary Compton rays would greatly improve the image quality, and imaging time and radiation exposure as well. This technic is simple in principle, relatively cheap, and yet prospective of development of stereoptic fluoroscopy that would be extremely helpful in guiding such procedures as visceral biopsies.

  1. Source of X-ray radiation based on back compton scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Bulyak, E V; Karnaukhov, I M; Kononenko, S G; Lapshin, V G; Mytsykov, A O; Telegin, Yu P; Shcherbakov, A A; Zelinsky, Andrey Yurij

    2000-01-01

    Applicability was studied and previous estimation was done of power X-ray beams generation by backward Compton scattering of a laser photon beam on a cooled down electron beam. The few MeV electron beam circulating in a compact storage ring can be cooled down by interaction of that beam with powerful laser radiation of micrometer wavelength to achieve normalized emittance of 10 sup - sup 7 m. A tunable X-ray source of photons of energy ranging from few keV up to a hundred keV could result from the interaction of the laser beam with a dense electron beam.

  2. Source of X-ray radiation based on back compton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulyak, E.V.; Gladkikh, P.I.; Karnaukhov, I.M.; Kononenko, S.G.; Lapshin, V.I.; Mytsykov, A.O.; Telegin, Yu.N.; Shcherbakov, A.A. E-mail: shcherbakov@kipt.kharkov.ua; Zelinsky, A.Yu

    2000-06-21

    Applicability was studied and previous estimation was done of power X-ray beams generation by backward Compton scattering of a laser photon beam on a cooled down electron beam. The few MeV electron beam circulating in a compact storage ring can be cooled down by interaction of that beam with powerful laser radiation of micrometer wavelength to achieve normalized emittance of 10{sup -7} m. A tunable X-ray source of photons of energy ranging from few keV up to a hundred keV could result from the interaction of the laser beam with a dense electron beam.

  3. Source of X-ray radiation based on back compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulyak, E.V.; Gladkikh, P.I.; Karnaukhov, I.M.; Kononenko, S.G.; Lapshin, V.I.; Mytsykov, A.O.; Telegin, Yu.N.; Shcherbakov, A.A.; Zelinsky, A.Yu.

    2000-01-01

    Applicability was studied and previous estimation was done of power X-ray beams generation by backward Compton scattering of a laser photon beam on a cooled down electron beam. The few MeV electron beam circulating in a compact storage ring can be cooled down by interaction of that beam with powerful laser radiation of micrometer wavelength to achieve normalized emittance of 10 -7 m. A tunable X-ray source of photons of energy ranging from few keV up to a hundred keV could result from the interaction of the laser beam with a dense electron beam

  4. Advanced Source Deconvolution Methods for Compton Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoglauer, Andreas

    The next generation of space telescopes utilizing Compton scattering for astrophysical observations is destined to one day unravel the mysteries behind Galactic nucleosynthesis, to determine the origin of the positron annihilation excess near the Galactic center, and to uncover the hidden emission mechanisms behind gamma-ray bursts. Besides astrophysics, Compton telescopes are establishing themselves in heliophysics, planetary sciences, medical imaging, accelerator physics, and environmental monitoring. Since the COMPTEL days, great advances in the achievable energy and position resolution were possible, creating an extremely vast, but also extremely sparsely sampled data space. Unfortunately, the optimum way to analyze the data from the next generation of Compton telescopes has not yet been found, which can retrieve all source parameters (location, spectrum, polarization, flux) and achieves the best possible resolution and sensitivity at the same time. This is especially important for all sciences objectives looking at the inner Galaxy: the large amount of expected sources, the high background (internal and Galactic diffuse emission), and the limited angular resolution, make it the most taxing case for data analysis. In general, two key challenges exist: First, what are the best data space representations to answer the specific science questions? Second, what is the best way to deconvolve the data to fully retrieve the source parameters? For modern Compton telescopes, the existing data space representations can either correctly reconstruct the absolute flux (binned mode) or achieve the best possible resolution (list-mode), both together were not possible up to now. Here we propose to develop a two-stage hybrid reconstruction method which combines the best aspects of both. Using a proof-of-concept implementation we can for the first time show that it is possible to alternate during each deconvolution step between a binned-mode approach to get the flux right and a

  5. Laser Compton polarimetry at JLab and MAMI. A status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diefenbach, J.; Imai, Y.; Han Lee, J.; Maas, F.; Taylor, S.

    2007-01-01

    For modern parity violation experiments it is crucial to measure and monitor the electron beam polarization continuously. In the recent years different high-luminosity concepts, for precision Compton backscattering polarimetry, have been developed, to be used at modern CW electron beam accelerator facilities. As Compton backscattering polarimetry is free of intrinsic systematic uncertainties, it can be a superior alternative to other polarimetry techniques such as Moeller and Mott scattering. State-of-the-art high-luminosity Compton backscattering designs currently in use and under development at JLab and Mainz are compared to each other. The latest results from the Mainz A4 Compton polarimeter are presented. (orig.)

  6. Induced Compton scattering effects in radiation transport approximations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, D.R. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    In this thesis the method of characteristics is used to solve radiation transport problems with induced Compton scattering effects included. The methods used to date have only addressed problems in which either induced Compton scattering is ignored, or problems in which linear scattering is ignored. Also, problems which include both induced Compton scattering and spatial effects have not been considered previously. The introduction of induced scattering into the radiation transport equation results in a quadratic nonlinearity. Methods are developed to solve problems in which both linear and nonlinear Compton scattering are important. Solutions to scattering problems are found for a variety of initial photon energy distributions

  7. Induced Compton-scattering effects in radiation-transport approximations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, D.R. Jr.

    1982-02-01

    The method of characteristics is used to solve radiation transport problems with induced Compton scattering effects included. The methods used to date have only addressed problems in which either induced Compton scattering is ignored, or problems in which linear scattering is ignored. Also, problems which include both induced Compton scattering and spatial effects have not been considered previously. The introduction of induced scattering into the radiation transport equation results in a quadratic nonlinearity. Methods are developed to solve problems in which both linear and nonlinear Compton scattering are important. Solutions to scattering problems are found for a variety of initial photon energy distributions

  8. The effect of Compton scattering on quantitative SPECT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, J.W.; Jaszczak, R.J.; Starmer, C.F.

    1982-01-01

    A Monte Carlo code has been developed to simulate the response of a SPECT system. The accuracy of the code has been verified and has been used in this research to study and illustrate the effects of Compton scatter on quantitative SPECT measurements. The effects of Compton scattered radiation on gamma camera response have been discussed by several authors, and will be extended to rotating gamma camera SPECT systems. The unique feature of this research includes the pictorial illustration of the Compton scattered and the unscattered components of the photopeak data on SPECT imaging by simulating phantom studies with and without Compton scatter

  9. Virtual Compton scattering off protons at moderately large momentum transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroll, P.

    1996-01-01

    The amplitudes for virtual Compton scattering off protons are calculated within the framework of the diquark model in which protons are viewed as being built up by quarks and diquarks. The latter objects are treated as quasi-elementary constituents of the proton. Virtual Compton scattering, electroproduction off protons and the Bethe-Heitler contamination are photon discussed for various kinematical situations. We particularly emphasize the role of the electron asymmetry for measuring the relative phases between the virtual Compton and the Bethe-Heitler amplitudes. It is also shown that the model is able to describe very well the experimental data for real Compton scattering off protons. (orig.)

  10. Compton Backscattering Concept for the Production of Molybdenum-99

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merminga, L.; Krafft, G.A.

    2009-01-01

    The medical isotope Molybdenum-99 is presently used for 80-85% of all nuclear medicine procedures and is produced by irradiating highly enriched uranium U-235 targets in NRU reactors. It was recently proposed that an electron linac be used for the production of 99Mo via photo-fission of a natural uranium target coming from the excitation of the giant dipole resonance around 15 MeV. The photons can be produced using the braking radiation ('bremsstrahlung') spectrum of an electron beam impinged on a high Z material. In this paper we present an alternate concept for the production of 99Mo which is also based on photo-fission of U-238, but where the ∼15 MeV gamma-rays are produced by Compton backscattering of laser photons from relativistic electrons. We assume a laser wavelength of 330 nm, resulting in 485 MeV electron beam energy, and 10 mA of average current. Because the induced energy spread on the electron beam is a few percent, one may recover most of the electron beam energy, which substantially increases the efficiency of the system. The accelerator concept, based on a three-pass recirculation system with energy recovery, is described and efficiency estimates are presented.

  11. Beam dynamics in Compton ring gamma sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Bulyak

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Electron storage rings of GeV energy with laser pulse stacking cavities are promising intense sources of polarized hard photons which, via pair production, can be used to generate polarized positron beams. In this paper, the dynamics of electron bunches circulating in a storage ring and interacting with high-power laser pulses is studied both analytically and by simulation. Both the common features and the differences in the behavior of bunches interacting with an extremely high power laser pulse and with a moderate pulse are discussed. Also considerations on particular lattice designs for Compton gamma rings are presented.

  12. Experimental confirmation of neoclassical Compton scattering theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aristov, V. V., E-mail: aristov@iptm.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Microelectronics Technology and High Purity Materials (Russian Federation); Yakunin, S. N. [National Research Centre “Kurchatov Institute” (Russian Federation); Despotuli, A. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Microelectronics Technology and High Purity Materials (Russian Federation)

    2013-12-15

    Incoherent X-ray scattering spectra of diamond and silicon crystals recorded on the BESSY-2 electron storage ring have been analyzed. All spectral features are described well in terms of the neoclassical scattering theory without consideration for the hypotheses accepted in quantum electrodynamics. It is noted that the accepted tabular data on the intensity ratio between the Compton and Rayleigh spectral components may significantly differ from the experimental values. It is concluded that the development of the general theory (considering coherent scattering, incoherent scattering, and Bragg diffraction) must be continued.

  13. The development of a Compton lung densitometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loo, B.W.; Goulding, F.S.; Madden, N.W.; Simon, D.S.

    1988-11-01

    A field instrument is being developed for the non-invasive determination of absolute lung density using unique Compton backscattering techniques. A system consisting of a monoenergetic gamma-ray beam and a shielded high resolution high-purity-germanium (HPGe) detector in a close-coupled geometry is designed to minimize errors due to multiple scattering and uncontrollable attenuation in the chestwall. Results of studies on system performance with phantoms, the optimization of detectors, and the fabrication of a practical gamma-ray source are presented. 3 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. The development of a Compton lung densitometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loo, B.W.; Goulding, F.S.; Madden, N.W.; Simon, D.S.

    1988-11-01

    A field instrument is being developed for the non-invasive determination of absolute lung density using unique Compton backscattering techniques. A system consisting of a monoenergetic gamma-ray beam and a shielded high resolution high-purity-germanium (HPGe) detector in a close-coupled geometry is designed to minimize errors due to multiple scattering and uncontrollable attenuation in the chestwall. Results of studies on system performance with phantoms, the optimization of detectors, and the fabrication of a practical gamma-ray source are presented. 3 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  15. A Compton polarimeter for CEBAF Hall A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardin, G; Cavata, C; Frois, B; Juillard, M; Kerhoas, S; Languillat, J C; Legoff, J M; Mangeot, P; Martino, J; Platchkov, S; Rebourgeard, P; Vernin, P; Veyssiere, C; CEBAF Hall A Collaboration

    1994-09-01

    The physic program at CEBAF Hall A includes several experiments using 4 GeV polarized electron beam: parity violation in electron elastic scattering from proton and {sup 4}He, electric form factor of the proton by recoil polarization, neutron spin structure function at low Q{sup 2}. Some of these experiments will need beam polarization measurement and monitoring with an accuracy close to 4%, for beam currents ranging from 100 nA to 100 microA. A project of a Compton Polarimeter that will meet these requirements is presented. It will comprise four dipoles and a symmetric cavity consisting of two identical mirrors. 1 fig., 10 refs.

  16. Cork quality estimation by using Compton tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunetti, Antonio; Cesareo, Roberto; Golosio, Bruno; Luciano, Pietro; Ruggero, Alessandro

    2002-01-01

    The quality control of cork stoppers is mandatory in order to guarantee the perfect conservation of the wine. Several techniques have been developed but until now the quality control was essentially related to the status of the external surface. Thus possible cracks or holes inside the stopper will be hidden. In this paper a new technique based on X-ray Compton tomography is described. It is a non-destructive technique that allows one to reconstruct and visualize the cross-section of the cork stopper analyzed, and so to put in evidence the presence of internal imperfections. Some results are reported and compared with visual classification

  17. Transverse tomography by Compton scattering scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askienazy, S.; Lumbroso, J.; Lacaille, J.M.; Fredy, D.; Constans, J.P.; Barritault, L.

    The technique of tomography by Compton-scattering was applied to the exploration of the brain. Studies were carried out on phantoms and on patients and the first results are considered highly encouraging. On a phantom skull, holes at a depth of 7 cm are visible even on analogue documents and whatever their position with regard to the bone. On patients the ventricle cavities were revealed and comparisons with gas encephalograpy showed good agreement between the two techniques. The studies on phantoms also testified to the very low dose received by the patient: about 300 mRem for 2 million counts per section [fr

  18. Cork quality estimation by using Compton tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Brunetti, A; Golosio, B; Luciano, P; Ruggero, A

    2002-01-01

    The quality control of cork stoppers is mandatory in order to guarantee the perfect conservation of the wine. Several techniques have been developed but until now the quality control was essentially related to the status of the external surface. Thus possible cracks or holes inside the stopper will be hidden. In this paper a new technique based on X-ray Compton tomography is described. It is a non-destructive technique that allows one to reconstruct and visualize the cross-section of the cork stopper analyzed, and so to put in evidence the presence of internal imperfections. Some results are reported and compared with visual classification.

  19. Study of Compton scattering influence in cardiac SPECT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munhoz, A.C.L.; Abe, R.; Zanardo, E.L.; Robilotta, C.C.

    1992-01-01

    The reduction effect from Compton fraction in the quality of and image is evaluated, with two ways of acquisition data: one, with the window of energetic analyser dislocated over the photopeak and the other, with two windows, one over the Compton contribution and the other, placed in the center over the photopeak. (C.G.C.)

  20. Constraint on Parameters of Inverse Compton Scattering Model for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B2319+60, two parameters of inverse Compton scattering model, the initial Lorentz factor and the factor of energy loss of relativistic particles are constrained. Key words. Pulsar—inverse Compton scattering—emission mechanism. 1. Introduction. Among various kinds of models for pulsar radio emission, the inverse ...

  1. Compton scattering of photons from electrons bound in light elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergstrom, P.M. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    A brief introduction to the topic of Compton scattering from bound electrons is presented. The fundamental nature of this process in understanding quantum phenomena is reviewed. Methods for accurate theoretical evaluation of the Compton scattering cross section are presented. Examples are presented for scattering of several keV photons from helium

  2. Time-independent inverse compton spectrum for photons from a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The general theoretical aspects of inverse Compton scattering was investigated and an equation for the timeindependent inverse Compton spectrum for photons from a plasma cloud of finite extent was derived. This was done by convolving the Kompaneets equation used for describing the evolution of the photon spectrum ...

  3. Proton compton scattering in the resonance region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Takanobu.

    1979-12-01

    Differential cross sections of the proton Compton scattering have been measured in the energy range between 400 and 1150 MeV at CMS angles of 130 0 , 100 0 and 70 0 . The recoil proton was detected with a magnetic spectrometer using multi-wire proportional chambers and wire spark chambers. In coincidence with the proton, the scattered photon was detected with a lead glass Cerenkov counter of the total absorption type with a lead plate converter, and horizontal and vertical scintillation counter hodoscopes. The background due to the neutral pion photoproduction, was subtracted by using the kinematic relations between the scattered photon and the recoil proton. Theoretical calculations based on an isobar model with two components, that is, the resonance plus background, were done, and the photon couplings of the second resonance region were determined firstly from the proton Compton data. The results are that the helicity 1/2 photon couplings of P 11 (1470) and S 11 (1535), and the helicity 3/2 photon coupling of D 13 (1520) are consistent with those determined from the single pion photoproduction data, but the helicity 1/2 photon coupling of D 13 (1520) has a somewhat larger value than that from the single pion photoproduction data. (author)

  4. Virtual compton scattering at low energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lhuillier, D.

    1997-09-01

    The work described in this PhD is a study of the Virtual Compton scattering (VCS) off the proton at low energy, below pion production threshold. Our experiment has been carried out at MAMI in the collaboration with the help of two high resolution spectrometers. Experimentally, the VCS process is the electroproduction of photons off a liquid hydrogen target. First results of data analysis including radiative corrections are presented and compared with low energy theorem prediction. VCS is an extension of the Real Compton Scattering. The virtuality of the incoming photon allows us to access new observables of the nucleon internal structure which are complementarity to the elastic form factors: the generalized polarizabilities (GP). They are function of the squared invariant mass of the virtual photo. The mass limit of these observables restore the usual electric and magnetic polarizabilities. Our experiment is the first measurement of the VCS process at a virtual photon mass equals 0.33 Ge V square. The experimental development presents the analysis method. The high precision needed in the absolute cross-section measurement required an accurate estimate of radiative corrections to the VCS. This new calculation, which has been performed in the dimensional regulation scheme, composes the theoretical part of this thesis. At low q', preliminary results agree with low energy theorem prediction. At higher q', substraction of low energy theorem contribution to extract GP is discussed. (author)

  5. A dual purpose Compton suppression spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Parus, J; Raab, W; Donohue, D

    2003-01-01

    A gamma-ray spectrometer with a passive and an active shield is described. It consists of a HPGe coaxial detector of 42% efficiency and 4 NaI(Tl) detectors. The energy output pulses of the Ge detector are delivered into the 3 spectrometry chains giving the normal, anti- and coincidence spectra. From the spectra of a number of sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs and sup 6 sup 0 Co sources a Compton suppression factor, SF and a Compton reduction factor, RF, as the parameters characterizing the system performance, were calculated as a function of energy and source activity and compared with those given in literature. The natural background is reduced about 8 times in the anticoincidence mode of operation, compared to the normal spectrum which results in decreasing the detection limits for non-coincident gamma-rays up to a factor of 3. In the presence of other gamma-ray activities, in the range from 5 to 11 kBq, non- and coincident, the detection limits can be decreased for some nuclides by a factor of 3 to 5.7.

  6. Recent results from the Compton Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelson, P.F.; Hansen, W.W. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The Compton Observatory is an orbiting astronomical observatory for gamma-ray astronomy that covers the energy range from about 30 keV to 30 GeV. The Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET), one of four instruments on-board, is capable of detecting and imaging gamma radiation from cosmic sources in the energy range from approximately 20 MeV to 30 GeV. After about one month of tests and calibration following the April 1991 launch, a 15-month all sky survey was begun. This survey is now complete and the Compton Observatory is well into Phase II of its observing program which includes guest investigator observations. Among the highlights from the all-sky survey discussed in this presentation are the following: detection of five pulsars with emission above 100 MeV; detection of more than 24 active galaxies, the most distant at redshift greater than two; detection of many high latitude, unidentified gamma-ray sources, some showing significant time variability; detection of at least two high energy gamma-ray bursts, with emission in one case extending to at least 1 GeV. EGRET has also detected gamma-ray emission from solar flares up to energies of at least 2 GeV and has observed gamma-rays from the Large Magellanic Cloud.

  7. Deeply virtual Compton scattering at Jefferson Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biselli, Angela S. [Fairfield University - Department of Physics 1073 North Benson Road, Fairfield, CT 06430, USA; Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-08-01

    The generalized parton distributions (GPDs) have emerged as a universal tool to describe hadrons in terms of their elementary constituents, the quarks and the gluons. Deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) on a proton or neutron ($N$), $e N \\rightarrow e' N' \\gamma$, is the process more directly interpretable in terms of GPDs. The amplitudes of DVCS and Bethe-Heitler, the process where a photon is emitted by either the incident or scattered electron, can be accessed via cross-section measurements or exploiting their interference which gives rise to spin asymmetries. Spin asymmetries, cross sections and cross-section differences can be connected to different combinations of the four leading-twist GPDs (${H}$, ${E}$, ${\\tilde{H}}$, ${\\tilde{E}}$) for each quark flavors, depending on the observable and on the type of target. This paper gives an overview of recent experimental results obtained for DVCS at Jefferson Laboratory in the halls A and B. Several experiments have been done extracting DVCS observables over large kinematics regions. Multiple measurements with overlapping kinematic regions allow to perform a quasi-model independent extraction of the Compton form factors, which are GPDs integrals, revealing a 3D image of the nucleon.

  8. Compton scattering and γ-quanta monochromatization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goryachev, B.I.; Shevchenko, V.G.

    1979-01-01

    The γ-quanta monochromatization method is proposed for sdudying high-excited states and mechanisms of nuclei photodisintegration. The method is based on the properties of photon Compton scattering. It permits to obtain high energy resolution without accurate analysis of the particle energies taking part in the scattering process. A possible design of the compton γ- monochromator is presented. The γ-quanta scatterer of the elements with a small nucleus charge (e.g. LiH) is placed inside the β-spectrometer of low resolution. The monochromator is expected to operate in the γ-beam of the high-current synchrotron, and it provides for a rather good energy resolution rho(W) while studying the high-excited nucleus states (rho(W) approximately 2% in the range of the giant dipole resonance). With the γ-quanta energy growth rho(W) increases as Wsup(0.6). The monochromator permits to obtain high statistical accuracy for a smaller period of time (at a considerably better energy resolution) than while working with a bremsstrahlung spectrum. The yield of quasimonochromatic photons related to the ΔW(ΔW = rho(W)W) range of energy resolution increases as Wsup(0.6). This fact makes it promjssing to use monochromator in the energy range considerably exceeding the characteristic energy of the gigantic dipole resonance

  9. Relativistic wave equations and compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutanto, S.H.; Robson, B.A.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Recently an eight-component relativistic wave equation for spin-1/2 particles was proposed.This equation was obtained from a four-component spin-1/2 wave equation (the KG1/2 equation), which contains second-order derivatives in both space and time, by a procedure involving a linearisation of the time derivative analogous to that introduced by Feshbach and Villars for the Klein-Gordon equation. This new eight-component equation gives the same bound-state energy eigenvalue spectra for hydrogenic atoms as the Dirac equation but has been shown to predict different radiative transition probabilities for the fine structure of both the Balmer and Lyman a-lines. Since it has been shown that the new theory does not always give the same results as the Dirac theory, it is important to consider the validity of the new equation in the case of other physical problems. One of the early crucial tests of the Dirac theory was its application to the scattering of a photon by a free electron: the so-called Compton scattering problem. In this paper we apply the new theory to the calculation of Compton scattering to order e 2 . It will be shown that in spite of the considerable difference in the structure of the new theory and that of Dirac the cross section is given by the Klein-Nishina formula

  10. Thermal Comptonization in standard accretion disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maraschi, L.; Molendi, S.

    1990-01-01

    The standard model of an accretion disk is considered. The temperature in the inner region is computed assuming that the radiated power derives from Comptonized photons, produced in a homogeneous single-temperature plasma, supported by radiation pressure. The photon production mechanisms are purely thermal, including ion-electron bremsstrahlung, bound-free and bound-bound processes, and e-e bremsstrahlung. Pair production is not included, which limits the validity of the treatment to kT less than 60 keV. Three different approximations for the effects of Comptonization on the energy loss are used, yielding temperatures which agree within 50 percent. The maximum temperature is very sensitive to the accretion rate and viscosity parameters, ranging, for a 10 to the 8th solar mass black hole, between 0.1 and 50 keV for m between 0.1 and 1 and alpha between 0.1 and 1 and, for a 10-solar-mass black hole, between 0.6 and 60 keV for m between 0.1 and 0.9 and alpha between 0.1 and 0.5. For high viscosity and accretion rates, the emission spectra show a flat component following a peak corresponding to the temperature of the innermost optically thick annulus. 28 refs

  11. Compton effect thermally activated depolarization dosimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Paul R.

    1978-01-01

    A dosimetry technique for high-energy gamma radiation or X-radiation employs the Compton effect in conjunction with radiation-induced thermally activated depolarization phenomena. A dielectric material is disposed between two electrodes which are electrically short circuited to produce a dosimeter which is then exposed to the gamma or X radiation. The gamma or X-radiation impinging on the dosimeter interacts with the dielectric material directly or with the metal composing the electrode to produce Compton electrons which are emitted preferentially in the direction in which the radiation was traveling. A portion of these electrons becomes trapped in the dielectric material, consequently inducing a stable electrical polarization in the dielectric material. Subsequent heating of the exposed dosimeter to the point of onset of ionic conductivity with the electrodes still shorted through an ammeter causes the dielectric material to depolarize, and the depolarization signal so emitted can be measured and is proportional to the dose of radiation received by the dosimeter.

  12. Description of the double Compton spectrometer at Mayence MPI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borchert, H.; Ziegler, B.; Gimm, H.; Zieger, A.; Hughes, R.J.; Ahrens, J.

    1977-01-01

    The double Compton spectrometer of the Laboratories of the Mayence Linear Accelerator consists in two identical magnetic spectrometers, in which the electron scattered forwards by photons through a Compton process, are detected. The spectrometers have been built to detect 10-350 MeV photons and, as they involve thin Compton targets, their effect on the photon flux is negligible. They are put in cascade inside a well collimated bremsstrahlung beam. A thick absorbing target (max. thickness 2m) can be inserted inside the beam. The facility is outlined, some special properties of the accelerator and the bremsstrahlung beam are given. The properties of a Compton spectrometer involving eleven detectors are given by eleven response functions giving the relations between the photon flux impinging the Compton target and the counting rates of the detectors for a given adjustment of the magnets. A Monte-Carlo method is used for the calculation together with analytical methods neglecting the multiple scattering effects [fr

  13. Compton recoil electron tracking with silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, T.J.; Ait-Ouamer, F.; Schwartz, I.; Tumer, O.T.; White, R.S.; Zych, A.D.

    1992-01-01

    The application of silicon strip detectors to Compton gamma ray astronomy telescopes is described in this paper. The Silicon Compton Recoil Telescope (SCRT) tracks Compton recoil electrons in silicon strip converters to provide a unique direction for Compton scattered gamma rays above 1 MeV. With strip detectors of modest positional and energy resolutions of 1 mm FWHM and 3% at 662 keV, respectively, 'true imaging' can be achieved to provide an order of magnitude improvement in sensitivity to 1.6 x 10 - 6 γ/cm 2 -s at 2 MeV. The results of extensive Monte Carlo calculations of recoil electrons traversing multiple layers of 200 micron silicon wafers are presented. Multiple Coulomb scattering of the recoil electron in the silicon wafer of the Compton interaction and the next adjacent wafer is the basic limitation to determining the electron's initial direction

  14. Extraction of Generalized Parton Distributions from combined Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering and Timelike Compton scattering fits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boer, Marie

    2017-09-01

    Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) contain the correlation between the parton's longitudinal momentum and their transverse distribution. They are accessed through hard exclusive processes, such as Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS). DVCS has already been measured in several experiments and several models allow for extracting GPDs from these measurements. Timelike Compton Scattering (TCS) is, at leading order, the time-reversal equivalent process to DVCS and accesses GPDs at the same kinematics. Comparing GPDs extracted from DVCS and TCS is a unique way for proving GPD universality. Combining fits from the two processes will also allow for better constraining the GPDs. We will present our method for extracting GPDs from DVCS and TCS pseudo-data. We will compare fit results from the two processes in similar conditions and present what can be expected in term of contraints on GPDs from combined fits.

  15. Light Higgs production at the Compton Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jikia, G.; Soeldner-Rembold, S.

    2000-01-01

    We have studied the production of a light Higgs boson with a mass of 120 GeV in photon-photon collisions at a Compton collider. The event generator for the backgrounds to a Higgs signal due to b-barb and c-barc heavy quark pair production in polarized γγ collisions is based on a complete next-to-leading order (NLO) perturbative QCD calculation. For J z = 0 the large double-logarithmic corrections up to four loops are also included. It is shown that the two-photon width of the Higgs boson can be measured with high statistical accuracy of about 2% for integrated γγ luminosity in the hard part of the spectrum of 40 fb -1 . As a result the total Higgs boson width can be calculated in a model independent way to an accuracy of about 14%

  16. Deuteron Compton scattering below pion photoproduction threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levchuk, M. I.; L'vov, A. I.

    2000-07-01

    Deuteron Compton scattering below pion photoproduction threshold is considered in the framework of the nonrelativistic diagrammatic approach with the Bonn OBE potential. A complete gauge-invariant set of diagrams is taken into account which includes resonance diagrams without and with NN-rescattering and diagrams with one- and two-body seagulls. The seagull operators are analyzed in detail, and their relations with free- and bound-nucleon polarizabilities are discussed. It is found that both dipole and higher-order polarizabilities of the nucleon are required for a quantitative description of recent experimental data. An estimate of the isospin-averaged dipole electromagnetic polarizabilities of the nucleon and the polarizabilities of the neutron is obtained from the data.

  17. Deuteron Compton scattering below pion photoproduction threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levchuk, M.I.; L'vov, A.I.

    2000-01-01

    Deuteron Compton scattering below pion photoproduction threshold is considered in the framework of the nonrelativistic diagrammatic approach with the Bonn OBE potential. A complete gauge-invariant set of diagrams is taken into account which includes resonance diagrams without and with NN-rescattering and diagrams with one- and two-body seagulls. The seagull operators are analyzed in detail, and their relations with free- and bound-nucleon polarizabilities are discussed. It is found that both dipole and higher-order polarizabilities of the nucleon are required for a quantitative description of recent experimental data. An estimate of the isospin-averaged dipole electromagnetic polarizabilities of the nucleon and the polarizabilities of the neutron is obtained from the data

  18. Deuteron Compton scattering below pion photoproduction threshold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levchuk, M.I. E-mail: levchuk@dragon.bas-net.by; L' vov, A.I. E-mail: lvov@x4u.lebedev.ru

    2000-07-17

    Deuteron Compton scattering below pion photoproduction threshold is considered in the framework of the nonrelativistic diagrammatic approach with the Bonn OBE potential. A complete gauge-invariant set of diagrams is taken into account which includes resonance diagrams without and with NN-rescattering and diagrams with one- and two-body seagulls. The seagull operators are analyzed in detail, and their relations with free- and bound-nucleon polarizabilities are discussed. It is found that both dipole and higher-order polarizabilities of the nucleon are required for a quantitative description of recent experimental data. An estimate of the isospin-averaged dipole electromagnetic polarizabilities of the nucleon and the polarizabilities of the neutron is obtained from the data.

  19. Exclusive compton scattering on the proton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.P.; Chudakov, E.; DeJager, C.; Degtyarenko, P.; Ent, R.; Gomez, J.; Hansen, O.; Keppel, C.; Klein, F.; Kuss, M.

    1999-01-01

    An experiment is proposed to measure the cross sections for Real Compton Scattering from the proton in the energy range 3-6 GeV and over a wide angular range, and to measure the longitudinal and transverse components of the polarization transfer to the recoil proton at a single kinematic point. Together, these measurements will test models of the reaction mechanism and determine new structure functions of the proton that are related to the same non-forward parton densities that determine the elastic electron scattering form factors and the parton densities. The experiment utilizes an untagged Bremsstrahlung photon beam and the standard Hall A cryogenic targets. The scattered photon is detected in a photon spectrometer, currently under construction. The coincident recoil proton is detected in one of the Hall A magnetic spectrometers and its polarization components are measured in the existing Focal Plane Polarimeter. This proposal extends and supersedes E97 - 108 which was approved by PAC13. (author)

  20. Exclusive compton scattering on the proton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, J.P.; Chudakov, E.; DeJager, C.; Degtyarenko, P.; Ent, R.; Gomez, J.; Hansen, O.; Keppel, C.; Klein, F.; Kuss, M. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)] [and others

    1999-07-01

    An experiment is proposed to measure the cross sections for Real Compton Scattering from the proton in the energy range 3-6 GeV and over a wide angular range, and to measure the longitudinal and transverse components of the polarization transfer to the recoil proton at a single kinematic point. Together, these measurements will test models of the reaction mechanism and determine new structure functions of the proton that are related to the same non-forward parton densities that determine the elastic electron scattering form factors and the parton densities. The experiment utilizes an untagged Bremsstrahlung photon beam and the standard Hall A cryogenic targets. The scattered photon is detected in a photon spectrometer, currently under construction. The coincident recoil proton is detected in one of the Hall A magnetic spectrometers and its polarization components are measured in the existing Focal Plane Polarimeter. This proposal extends and supersedes E97 - 108 which was approved by PAC13. (author)

  1. Exclusive Compton Scattering on the Proton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J. P.; Chudakov, E.; DeJager, C.; Degtyarenko, P.; Ent, R.; Gomez, J.; Hansen, O.; Keppel, C.; Klein, F.; Kuss, M.; LeRose, J.; Liang, M.; Michaels, R.; Mitchell, J.; Liyanage, N.; Rutt, P.; Saha, A.; Wojtsekhowski, B.; Bouwhuis, M.; Chang, T.H.; Holt, R. J.; Nathan, A. M.; Roedelbronn, M.; Wijesooriya, K.; Williamson, S. E.; Dodge, G.; Hyde-Wright, C.; Radyushkin, A.; Sabatie, F.; Weinstein, L. B.; Ulmer, P.; Bosted, P.; Finn, J. M.; Jones, M.; Churchwell, S.; Howell, C.; Gilman, R.; Glashausser, C.; Jiang, X.; Ransome, R.; Strauch, S.; Berthot, J.; Bertin, P.; Fonvielle, H.; Roblin, Y.; Bertozzi, W.; Gilad, S.; Rowntree, D.; Zu, Z.; Brown, D.; Chang, G.; Afanasev, A.; Egiyan, K.; Hoohauneysan, E.; Ketikyan, A.; Mailyan, S.; Petrosyan, A.; Shahinyan, A.; Voskanyan, H.; Boeglin, W.; Markowitz, P.; Hines, J.; Strobel, G.; Templon, J.; Feldman, G.; Morris, C. L.; Gladyshev, V.; Lindgren, R. A.; Calarco, J.; Hersman, W.; Leuschner, M.; Gasparian, A.

    1999-01-01

    An experiment is proposed to measure the cross sections for Real Compton Scattering from the proton in the energy range 3-6 GeV and over a wide angular range; and to measure the longitudinal and transverse components of the polarization transfer to the recoil proton at a single kinematic point. Together; these measurements will test models of the reaction mechanism and determine new structure functions of the proton that are related to the same nonforward parton densities that determine the elastic electron scattering form factors and the parton densities. The experiment utilizes an untagged bremsstrahlung photon beam and the standard Hall A cryogenic targets. The scattered photon is detected in a photon spectrometer; currently under construction. The coincident recoil proton is detected in one of the Hall A magnetic spectrometers and its polarization components are measured in the existing Focal Plane Polarimeter. This proposal extends and supercedes E97-108 which was approved by PAC13

  2. A filtered backprojection reconstruction algorithm for Compton camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lojacono, Xavier; Maxim, Voichita; Peyrin, Francoise; Prost, Remy [Lyon Univ., Villeurbanne (France). CNRS, Inserm, INSA-Lyon, CREATIS, UMR5220; Zoglauer, Andreas [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Space Sciences Lab.

    2011-07-01

    In this paper we present a filtered backprojection reconstruction algorithm for Compton Camera detectors of particles. Compared to iterative methods, widely used for the reconstruction of images from Compton camera data, analytical methods are fast, easy to implement and avoid convergence issues. The method we propose is exact for an idealized Compton camera composed of two parallel plates of infinite dimension. We show that it copes well with low number of detected photons simulated from a realistic device. Images reconstructed from both synthetic data and realistic ones obtained with Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate the efficiency of the algorithm. (orig.)

  3. High-pressure system for Compton scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oomi, G.; Honda, F.; Kagayama, T.; Itoh, F.; Sakurai, H.; Kawata, H.; Shimomura, O.

    1998-01-01

    High-pressure apparatus for Compton scattering experiments has been developed to study the momentum distribution of conduction electrons in metals and alloys at high pressure. This apparatus was applied to observe the Compton profile of metallic Li under pressure. It was found that the Compton profile at high pressure could be obtained within several hours by using this apparatus and synchrotron radiation. The result on the pressure dependence of the Fermi momentum of Li obtained here is in good agreement with that predicted from the free-electron model

  4. Compton scatter imaging: A tool for historical exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, G.; Harding, E.

    2010-01-01

    This review discusses the principles and technological realisation of a technique, termed Compton scatter imaging (CSI), which is based on spatially resolved detection of Compton scattered X-rays. The applicational focus of this review is to objects of historical interest. Following a historical survey of CSI, a description is given of the major characteristics of Compton X-ray scatter. In particular back-scattered X-rays allow massive objects to be imaged, which would otherwise be too absorbing for the conventional transmission X-ray technique. The ComScan (an acronym for Compton scatter scanner) is a commercially available backscatter imaging system, which is discussed here in some detail. ComScan images from some artefacts of historical interest, namely a fresco, an Egyptian mummy and a mediaeval clasp are presented and their use in historical analysis is indicated. The utility of scientific and technical advance for not only exploring history, but also restoring it, is briefly discussed.

  5. Applicability of compton imaging in nuclear decommissioning activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ljubenov, V.Lj.; Marinkovic, P.M.

    2002-01-01

    During the decommissioning of nuclear facilities significant part of the activities is related to the radiological characterization, waste classification and management. For these purposes a relatively new imaging technique, based on information from the gamma radiation that undergoes Compton scattering, is applicable. Compton imaging systems have a number of advantages for nuclear waste characterization, such as identifying hot spots in mixed waste in order to reduce the volume of high-level waste requiring extensive treatment or long-term storage, imaging large contaminated areas and objects etc. Compton imaging also has potential applications for monitoring of production, transport and storage of nuclear materials and components. This paper discusses some system design requirements and performance specifications for these applications. The advantages of Compton imaging are compared to competing imaging techniques. (author)

  6. Fast sampling algorithm for the simulation of photon Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brusa, D.; Salvat, F.

    1996-01-01

    A simple algorithm for the simulation of Compton interactions of unpolarized photons is described. The energy and direction of the scattered photon, as well as the active atomic electron shell, are sampled from the double-differential cross section obtained by Ribberfors from the relativistic impulse approximation. The algorithm consistently accounts for Doppler broadening and electron binding effects. Simplifications of Ribberfors' formula, required for efficient random sampling, are discussed. The algorithm involves a combination of inverse transform, composition and rejection methods. A parameterization of the Compton profile is proposed from which the simulation of Compton events can be performed analytically in terms of a few parameters that characterize the target atom, namely shell ionization energies, occupation numbers and maximum values of the one-electron Compton profiles. (orig.)

  7. Virtual compton scattering off protons at moderately large momentum transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroll, P; Schuermann, M [Wuppertal Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany); Guichon, P A.M. [CEA Centre d` Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. d` Astrophysique, de la Physique des Particules, de la Physique Nucleaire et de l` Instrumentation Associee

    1995-06-28

    The amplitudes for virtual Compton scattering off protons are calculated within the framework of the diquark model in which protons are viewed as being built up by quarks and diquarks. The latter objects are treated as quasi-elementary constituents of the proton. Virtual Compton scattering, electroproduction of photons and the Bethe-Heitler contamination are discussed for various kinematical situations. We particularly emphasize the role of the electron asymmetry for measuring the relative phases between the virtual Compton and the Bethe-Heitler amplitudes. It is also shown that the model is able to describe very well the experimental data for real Compton scattering off protons. (authors). 35 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Electronic structure of hafnium: A Compton profile study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    To extract the true Compton profile from the raw data, the raw data were cor- rected for ... For the present sample and experimental conditions, the contribution of .... are in better agreement with the simple renormalized free atom calculations for.

  9. Virtual compton scattering off protons at moderately large momentum transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroll, P.; Schuermann, M.; Guichon, P.A.M.

    1995-01-01

    The amplitudes for virtual Compton scattering off protons are calculated within the framework of the diquark model in which protons are viewed as being built up by quarks and diquarks. The latter objects are treated as quasi-elementary constituents of the proton. Virtual Compton scattering, electroproduction of photons and the Bethe-Heitler contamination are discussed for various kinematical situations. We particularly emphasize the role of the electron asymmetry for measuring the relative phases between the virtual Compton and the Bethe-Heitler amplitudes. It is also shown that the model is able to describe very well the experimental data for real Compton scattering off protons. (authors). 35 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  10. Deconvolution of shift-variant broadening for Compton scatter imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Brian L.; Martin, Jeffrey B.; Roggemann, Michael C.

    1999-01-01

    A technique is presented for deconvolving shift-variant Doppler broadening of singly Compton scattered gamma rays from their recorded energy distribution. Doppler broadening is important in Compton scatter imaging techniques employing gamma rays with energies below roughly 100 keV. The deconvolution unfolds an approximation to the angular distribution of scattered photons from their recorded energy distribution in the presence of statistical noise and background counts. Two unfolding methods are presented, one based on a least-squares algorithm and one based on a maximum likelihood algorithm. Angular distributions unfolded from measurements made on small scattering targets show less evidence of Compton broadening. This deconvolution is shown to improve the quality of filtered backprojection images in multiplexed Compton scatter tomography. Improved sharpness and contrast are evident in the images constructed from unfolded signals

  11. Compton suppression naa in the analysis of food and beverages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Y.A.; Ewa, I.O.B.; Umar, I.M.; Funtua, I.I.; Lanberger, S.; O'kelly, D.J.; Braisted, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    Applicability and performance of Compton suppression method in the analysis of food and beverages was re-established in this study. Using ''1''3''7Cs and ''6''0Co point sources Compton Suppression Factors (SF), Compton Reduction Factors (RF), Peak-to-Compton ratio (P/C), Compton Plateau (C p l), and Compton Edge (C e ) were determined for each of the two sources. The natural background reduction factors in the anticoincidence mode compared to the normal mode were evaluated. The reported R.F. values of the various Compton spectrometers for ''6''0Co source at energy 50-210 keV (backscattering region), 600 keV (Compton edge corresponding to 1173.2 keV gamma-ray) and 1110 keV (Compton edge corresponding to 1332.5 keV gamma-ray) were compared with that of the present work. Similarly the S.F. values of the spectrometers for ''1''3''7Cs source were compared at the backscattered energy region (S.F. b = 191-210 keV), Compton Plateau (S.F. p l = 350-370 keV), and Compton Edge (S.F. e = 471-470 keV) and all were found to follow a similar trend. We also compared peak reduction ratios for the two cobalt energies (1173.2 and 1332.5) with the ones reported in literature and two results agree well. Applicability of the method to food and beverages was put to test for twenty one major, minor, and trace elements (Ba, Sr, I, Br, Cu, V, Mg, Na, Cl, Mn, Ca, Sn,K, Cd, Zn, As, Sb, Ni, Cs, Fe, and Co) commonly found in food, milk, tea and tobacco. The elements were assayed using five National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) certified reference materials (Non-fat powdered milk, Apple leaves, Tomato leaves, and Citrus leaves). The results obtained shows good agreement with NIST certified values, indicating that the method is suitable for simultaneous determination of micro-nutrients, macro-nutrients and heavy elements in food and beverages without undue interference problems

  12. Bin mode estimation methods for Compton camera imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, S.; Odaka, H.; Uemura, M.; Takahashi, T.; Watanabe, S.; Takeda, S.

    2014-01-01

    We study the image reconstruction problem of a Compton camera which consists of semiconductor detectors. The image reconstruction is formulated as a statistical estimation problem. We employ a bin-mode estimation (BME) and extend an existing framework to a Compton camera with multiple scatterers and absorbers. Two estimation algorithms are proposed: an accelerated EM algorithm for the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) and a modified EM algorithm for the maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation. Numerical simulations demonstrate the potential of the proposed methods

  13. Wavelength conversion devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Benny; Durhuus, Terji; Jørgensen, Carsten

    1996-01-01

    system requirements. The ideal wavelength converter should be transparent to the bit rate and signal format and provide an unchirped output signal with both a high extinction ratio and a large signal-to-noise ratio. It should allow conversion to both shorter and longer wavelengths with equal performance...

  14. Deeply virtual Compton scattering off "4He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattawy, M.

    2015-01-01

    The "4He nucleus is of particular interest to study nuclear GPDs (Generalized Parton Distributions) as its partonic structure is described by only one chirally-even GPD. It is also a simple few-body system and has a high density that makes it the ideal target to investigate nuclear effects on partons. The experiment described in this thesis is JLab-E08-24, which was carried out in 2009 by the CLAS collaboration during the 'EG6' run. In this experiment, a 6 GeV longitudinally-polarized electron beam was scattered onto a 6 atm "4He gaseous target. During this experiment, in addition to the CLAS detector, a Radial Time Projection Chamber (RTPC), to detect low-energy nuclear recoils, and an Inner Calorimeter (IC), to improve the detection of photons at very forward angles, were used. We carried out a full analysis on our 6 GeV dataset, showing the feasibility of measuring exclusive nuclear Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) reactions. The analysis included: the identification of the final-state particles, the DVCS event selection, the π"0 background subtraction. The beam-spin asymmetry was then extracted for both DVCS channels and compared to the ones of the free-proton DVCS reaction, and to theoretical predictions from two models. Finally, the real and the imaginary parts of the "4He CFF (Compton Form Factor) HA have been extracted. Different levels of agreement were found between our measurements and the theoretical calculations. This thesis is organized as follows: In chapter 1, the available theoretical tools to study hadronic structure are presented, with an emphasis on the nuclear effects and GPDs. In chapter 2, the characteristics of the CLAS spectrometer are reviewed. In chapter 3, the working principle and the calibration aspects of the RTPC are discussed. In chapter 4, the identification of the final-state particles and the Monte-Carlo simulation are presented. In chapter 5, the selection of the DVCS events, the background subtraction, and uncertainty

  15. INJECTION EFFICIENCY IN COMPTON RING NESTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. I. Gladkikh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available NESTOR is the hard X-ray source that is under commissioning at NSC KIPT. NESTOR based on the Compton scattering of laser photons on relativistic electrons. The structure of the facility can be represented as the following components: a linear accelerator, a transport channel, a storage ring, and a laser-optical system. Electrons are stored in the storage ring for energy of 40-200 MeV. Inevitable alignment errors of magnetic elements are strongly effect on the beam dynamics in the storage ring. These errors lead to a shift of the equilibrium orbit relative to the ideal one. Significant shift of the equilibrium orbit could lead to loss of the beam on physical apertures. Transverse sizes of electron and laser beams are only few tens of microns at the interaction point. The shift of electron beam at the interaction point could greatly complicate the operation adjustment of storage ring without sufficient beam position diagnostic system. This article presents the simulation results of the efficiency of electron beam accumulation in the NESTOR storage ring. Also, this article is devoted to electron beam dynamics due to alignment errors of magnetic element in the ring.

  16. New Compton densitometer for measuring pulmonary edema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loo, B.W.; Goulding, F.S.; Simon, D.S.

    1985-10-01

    Pulmonary edema is the pathological increase of extravascular lung water found most often in patients with congestive heart failure and other critically ill patients who suffer from intravenous fluid overload. A non-invasive lung density monitor that is accurate, easily portable, safe and inexpensive is needed for clinical evaluation of pulmonary edema. Other researchers who have employed Compton scattering techniques generally used systems of extended size and detectors with poor energy resolution. This has resulted in significant systematic biases from multiply-scattered photons and larger errors in counting statistics at a given radiation dose to the patient. We are proposing a patented approach in which only backscattered photons are measured with a high-resolution HPGe detector in a compact system geometry. By proper design and a unique data extraction scheme, effects of the variable chest wall on lung density measurements are minimized. Preliminary test results indicate that with a radioactive source of under 30 GBq, it should be possible to make an accurate lung density measurement in one minute, with a risk of radiation exposure to the patient a thousand times smaller than that from a typical chest x-ray. The ability to make safe, frequent lung density measurements could be very helpful for monitoring the course of P.E. at the hospital bedside or outpatient clinics, and for evaluating the efficacy of therapy in clinical research. 6 refs., 5 figs.

  17. Compton Composites Late in the Early Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Mayer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Beginning roughly two hundred years after the big-bang, a tresino phase transition generated Compton-scale composite particles and converted most of the ordinary plasma baryons into new forms of dark matter. Our model consists of ordinary electrons and protons that have been bound into mostly undetectable forms. This picture provides an explanation of the composition and history of ordinary to dark matter conversion starting with, and maintaining, a critical density Universe. The tresino phase transition started the conversion of ordinary matter plasma into tresino-proton pairs prior to the the recombination era. We derive the appropriate Saha–Boltzmann equilibrium to determine the plasma composition throughout the phase transition and later. The baryon population is shown to be quickly modified from ordinary matter plasma prior to the transition to a small amount of ordinary matter and a much larger amount of dark matter after the transition. We describe the tresino phase transition and the origin, quantity and evolution of the dark matter as it takes place from late in the early Universe until the present.

  18. Scaling limit of deeply virtual Compton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Radyushkin

    2000-07-01

    The author outlines a perturbative QCD approach to the analysis of the deeply virtual Compton scattering process {gamma}{sup *}p {r_arrow} {gamma}p{prime} in the limit of vanishing momentum transfer t=(p{prime}{minus}p){sup 2}. The DVCS amplitude in this limit exhibits a scaling behavior described by a two-argument distributions F(x,y) which specify the fractions of the initial momentum p and the momentum transfer r {equivalent_to} p{prime}{minus}p carried by the constituents of the nucleon. The kernel R(x,y;{xi},{eta}) governing the evolution of the non-forward distributions F(x,y) has a remarkable property: it produces the GLAPD evolution kernel P(x/{xi}) when integrated over y and reduces to the Brodsky-Lepage evolution kernel V(y,{eta}) after the x-integration. This property is used to construct the solution of the one-loop evolution equation for the flavor non-singlet part of the non-forward quark distribution.

  19. New Compton densitometer for measuring pulmonary edema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loo, B.W.; Goulding, F.S.; Simon, D.S.

    1985-10-01

    Pulmonary edema is the pathological increase of extravascular lung water found most often in patients with congestive heart failure and other critically ill patients who suffer from intravenous fluid overload. A non-invasive lung density monitor that is accurate, easily portable, safe and inexpensive is needed for clinical evaluation of pulmonary edema. Other researchers who have employed Compton scattering techniques generally used systems of extended size and detectors with poor energy resolution. This has resulted in significant systematic biases from multiply-scattered photons and larger errors in counting statistics at a given radiation dose to the patient. We are proposing a patented approach in which only backscattered photons are measured with a high-resolution HPGe detector in a compact system geometry. By proper design and a unique data extraction scheme, effects of the variable chest wall on lung density measurements are minimized. Preliminary test results indicate that with a radioactive source of under 30 GBq, it should be possible to make an accurate lung density measurement in one minute, with a risk of radiation exposure to the patient a thousand times smaller than that from a typical chest x-ray. The ability to make safe, frequent lung density measurements could be very helpful for monitoring the course of P.E. at the hospital bedside or outpatient clinics, and for evaluating the efficacy of therapy in clinical research. 6 refs., 5 figs

  20. Short wavelength FELS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    The generation of coherent ultraviolet and shorter wavelength light is presently limited to synchrotron sources. The recent progress in the development of brighter electron beams enables the use of much lower energy electron rf linacs to reach short-wavelengths than previously considered possible. This paper will summarize the present results obtained with synchrotron sources, review proposed short- wavelength FEL designs and then present a new design which is capable of over an order of magnitude higher power to the extreme ultraviolet. 17 refs., 10 figs

  1. Short wavelength FELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheffield, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    The generation of coherent ultraviolet and shorter wavelength light is presently limited to synchrotron sources. The recent progress in the development of brighter electron beams enables the use of much lower energy electron rf linacs to reach short-wavelengths than previously considered possible. This paper will summarize the present results obtained with synchrotron sources, review proposed short- wavelength FEL designs and then present a new design which is capable of over an order of magnitude higher power to the extreme ultraviolet. 17 refs., 10 figs.

  2. Virtual compton scattering at low energy; Diffusion compton virtuelle a basse energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lhuillier, D

    1997-09-01

    The work described in this PhD is a study of the Virtual Compton scattering (VCS) off the proton at low energy, below pion production threshold. Our experiment has been carried out at MAMI in the collaboration with the help of two high resolution spectrometers. Experimentally, the VCS process is the electroproduction of photons off a liquid hydrogen target. First results of data analysis including radiative corrections are presented and compared with low energy theorem prediction. VCS is an extension of the Real Compton Scattering. The virtuality of the incoming photon allows us to access new observables of the nucleon internal structure which are complementarity to the elastic form factors: the generalized polarizabilities (GP). They are function of the squared invariant mass of the virtual photo. The mass limit of these observables restore the usual electric and magnetic polarizabilities. Our experiment is the first measurement of the VCS process at a virtual photon mass equals 0.33 Ge V square. The experimental development presents the analysis method. The high precision needed in the absolute cross-section measurement required an accurate estimate of radiative corrections to the VCS. This new calculation, which has been performed in the dimensional regulation scheme, composes the theoretical part of this thesis. At low q', preliminary results agree with low energy theorem prediction. At higher q', substraction of low energy theorem contribution to extract GP is discussed. (author)

  3. Virtual compton scattering at low energy; Diffusion compton virtuelle a basse energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lhuillier, D

    1997-09-01

    The work described in this PhD is a study of the Virtual Compton scattering (VCS) off the proton at low energy, below pion production threshold. Our experiment has been carried out at MAMI in the collaboration with the help of two high resolution spectrometers. Experimentally, the VCS process is the electroproduction of photons off a liquid hydrogen target. First results of data analysis including radiative corrections are presented and compared with low energy theorem prediction. VCS is an extension of the Real Compton Scattering. The virtuality of the incoming photon allows us to access new observables of the nucleon internal structure which are complementarity to the elastic form factors: the generalized polarizabilities (GP). They are function of the squared invariant mass of the virtual photo. The mass limit of these observables restore the usual electric and magnetic polarizabilities. Our experiment is the first measurement of the VCS process at a virtual photon mass equals 0.33 Ge V square. The experimental development presents the analysis method. The high precision needed in the absolute cross-section measurement required an accurate estimate of radiative corrections to the VCS. This new calculation, which has been performed in the dimensional regulation scheme, composes the theoretical part of this thesis. At low q', preliminary results agree with low energy theorem prediction. At higher q', substraction of low energy theorem contribution to extract GP is discussed. (author)

  4. Compton spectra of atoms at high x-ray intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Sang-Kil; Geffert, Otfried; Santra, Robin

    2017-03-01

    Compton scattering is the nonresonant inelastic scattering of an x-ray photon by an electron and has been used to probe the electron momentum distribution in gas-phase and condensed-matter samples. In the low x-ray intensity regime, Compton scattering from atoms dominantly comes from bound electrons in neutral atoms, neglecting contributions from bound electrons in ions and free (ionized) electrons. In contrast, in the high x-ray intensity regime, the sample experiences severe ionization via x-ray multiphoton multiple ionization dynamics. Thus, it becomes necessary to take into account all the contributions to the Compton scattering signal when atoms are exposed to high-intensity x-ray pulses provided by x-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs). In this paper, we investigate the Compton spectra of atoms at high x-ray intensity, using an extension of the integrated x-ray atomic physics toolkit, xatom. As the x-ray fluence increases, there is a significant contribution from ionized electrons to the Compton spectra, which gives rise to strong deviations from the Compton spectra of neutral atoms. The present study provides not only understanding of the fundamental XFEL-matter interaction but also crucial information for single-particle imaging experiments, where Compton scattering is no longer negligible. , which features invited work from the best early-career researchers working within the scope of J. Phys. B. This project is part of the Journal of Physics series’ 50th anniversary celebrations in 2017. Sang-Kil Son was selected by the Editorial Board of J. Phys. B as an Emerging Leader.

  5. Inverse Compton gamma-ray source for nuclear physics and related applications at the Duke FEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Shea, P.G.; Litvinenko, V.N.; Madey, J.M.J.

    1995-01-01

    In recent years the development of intense, short-wavelength FEL light sources has opened opportunities for the development new applications of high-energy Compton-backscattered photons. These applications range from medical imaging with X-ray photons to high-energy physics with γγ colliders. In this paper we discuss the possibilities for nuclear physics studies using polarized Compton backscattered γ-rays from the Duke storage-ring-driven UV-FEL. There are currently a number of projects that produce polarized γ-rays for nuclear physics studies. All of these facilities operate by scattering conventional laser-light against electrons circulating in a storage ring. In our scheme, intra-cavity scattering of the UV-FEL light will produce a γ-flux enhancement of approximately 10 3 over existing sources. The Duke ring can operate at energies up to 1.2 GeV and can produce FEL photons up to 12.5 eV. We plan to generate γ-rays up to 200 MeV in energy with an average flux in excess of 10 7 /s/MeV, using a modest scattering beam of 10-mA average stored current. The γ-ray energy may be tuned by varying the FEL wavelength or by adjusting the stored electron beam energy. Because of the intense flux, we can eliminate the need for photon energy tagging by collimating of the γ-ray beam. We will discuss the characteristics of the device and its research opportunities

  6. Compton scatter correction for planner scintigraphic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaan Steelandt, E; Dobbeleir, A; Vanregemorter, J [Algemeen Ziekenhuis Middelheim, Antwerp (Belgium). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy

    1995-12-01

    A major problem in nuclear medicine is the image degradation due to Compton scatter in the patient. Photons emitted by the radioactive tracer scatter in collision with electrons of the surrounding tissue. Due to the resulting loss of energy and change in direction, the scattered photons induce an object dependant background on the images. This results in a degradation of the contrast of warm and cold lesions. Although theoretically interesting, most of the techniques proposed in literature like the use of symmetrical photopeaks can not be implemented on the commonly used gamma camera due to the energy/linearity/sensitivity corrections applied in the detector. A method for a single energy isotope based on existing methods with adjustments towards daily practice and clinical situations is proposed. It is assumed that the scatter image, recorded from photons collected within a scatter window adjacent to the photo peak, is a reasonable close approximation of the true scatter component of the image reconstructed from the photo peak window. A fraction `k` of the image using the scatter window is subtracted from the image recorded in the photo peak window to produce the compensated image. The principal matter of the method is the right value for the factor `k`, which is determined in a mathematical way and confirmed by experiments. To determine `k`, different kinds of scatter media are used and are positioned in different ways in order to simulate a clinical situation. For a secondary energy window from 100 to 124 keV below a photo peak window from 126 to 154 keV, a value of 0.7 is found. This value has been verified using both an antropomorph thyroid phantom and the Rollo contrast phantom.

  7. Polarization observables in Virtual Compton Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doria, Luca

    2007-10-01

    Virtual Compton Scattering (VCS) is an important reaction for understanding nucleon structure at low energies. By studying this process, the generalized polarizabilities of the nucleon can be measured. These observables are a generalization of the already known polarizabilities and will permit theoretical models to be challenged on a new level. More specifically, there exist six generalized polarizabilities and in order to disentangle them all, a double polarization experiment must be performed. Within this work, the VCS reaction p(e,e'p)γ was measured at MAMI using the A1 Collaboration three spectrometer setup with Q 2 =0.33 (GeV/c) 2 . Using the highly polarized MAMI beam and a recoil proton polarimeter, it was possible to measure both the VCS cross section and the double polarization observables. Already in 2000, the unpolarized VCS cross section was measured at MAMI. In this new experiment, we could confirm the old data and furthermore the double polarization observables were measured for the first time. The data were taken in five periods between 2005 and 2006. In this work, the data were analyzed to extract the cross section and the proton polarization. For the analysis, a maximum likelihood algorithm was developed together with the full simulation of all the analysis steps. The experiment is limited by the low statistics due mainly to the focal plane proton polarimeter efficiency. To overcome this problem, a new determination and parameterization of the carbon analyzing power was performed. The main result of the experiment is the extraction of a new combination of the generalized polarizabilities using the double polarization observables. (orig.)

  8. Polarization observables in Virtual Compton Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doria, Luca

    2007-10-15

    Virtual Compton Scattering (VCS) is an important reaction for understanding nucleon structure at low energies. By studying this process, the generalized polarizabilities of the nucleon can be measured. These observables are a generalization of the already known polarizabilities and will permit theoretical models to be challenged on a new level. More specifically, there exist six generalized polarizabilities and in order to disentangle them all, a double polarization experiment must be performed. Within this work, the VCS reaction p(e,e'p){gamma} was measured at MAMI using the A1 Collaboration three spectrometer setup with Q{sup 2}=0.33 (GeV/c){sup 2}. Using the highly polarized MAMI beam and a recoil proton polarimeter, it was possible to measure both the VCS cross section and the double polarization observables. Already in 2000, the unpolarized VCS cross section was measured at MAMI. In this new experiment, we could confirm the old data and furthermore the double polarization observables were measured for the first time. The data were taken in five periods between 2005 and 2006. In this work, the data were analyzed to extract the cross section and the proton polarization. For the analysis, a maximum likelihood algorithm was developed together with the full simulation of all the analysis steps. The experiment is limited by the low statistics due mainly to the focal plane proton polarimeter efficiency. To overcome this problem, a new determination and parameterization of the carbon analyzing power was performed. The main result of the experiment is the extraction of a new combination of the generalized polarizabilities using the double polarization observables. (orig.)

  9. Importance of Doppler broadening in Compton scatter imaging techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Donepudi V.; Takeda, Tohoru; Itai, Yuji; Seltzer, S. M.; Hubbell, John H.; Zeniya, Tsutomu; Akatsuka, Takao; Cesareo, Roberto; Brunetti, Antonio; Gigante, Giovanni E.

    2001-12-01

    Compton scattering is a potential tool for the determination of bone mineral content or tissue density for dose planning purposes, and requires knowledge of the energy distribution of the X-rays through biological materials of medical interest in the X-ray and (gamma) -ray region. The energy distribution is utilized in a number of ways in diagnostic radiology, for example, in determining primary photon spectra, electron densities in separate volumes, and in tomography and imaging. The choice of the X-ray energy is more related to X-ray absorption, where as that of the scattering angle is more related to geometry. The evaluation of all the contributions are mandatory in Compton profile measurements and is important in X-ray imaging systems in order to achieve good results. In view of this, Compton profile cross-sections for few biological materials are estimated at nineteen K(alpha) X-ray energies and 60 keV (Am-241) photons. Energy broadening, geometrical broadening from 1 to 180 degree(s), FWHM of J(Pz) and FWHM of Compton energy broadening has been evaluated at various incident photon energies. These values are estimated around the centroid of the Compton profile with an energy interval of 0.1 keV and 1.0 keV for 60 keV photons. The interaction cross sections for the above materials are estimated using fractions-by-weight of the constituent elements. Input data for these tables are purely theoretical.

  10. Dispersion relations in real and virtual Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drechsel, D.; Pasquini, B.; Vanderhaeghen, M.

    2003-01-01

    A unified presentation is given on the use of dispersion relations in the real and virtual Compton scattering processes off the nucleon. The way in which dispersion relations for Compton scattering amplitudes establish connections between low energy nucleon structure quantities, such as polarizabilities or anomalous magnetic moments, and the nucleon excitation spectrum is reviewed. We discuss various sum rules for forward real and virtual Compton scattering, such as the Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn sum rule and its generalizations, the Burkhardt-Cottingham sum rule, as well as sum rules for forward nucleon polarizabilities, and review their experimental status. Subsequently, we address the general case of real Compton scattering (RCS). Various types of dispersion relations for RCS are presented as tools for extracting nucleon polarizabilities from the RCS data. The information on nucleon polarizabilities gained in this way is reviewed and the nucleon structure information encoded in these quantities is discussed. The dispersion relation formalism is then extended to virtual Compton scattering (VCS). The information on generalized nucleon polarizabilities extracted from recent VCS experiments is described, along with its interpretation in nucleon structure models. As a summary, the physics content of the existing data is discussed and some perspectives for future theoretical and experimental activities in this field are presented

  11. Compton-thick AGN at high and low redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akylas, A.; Georgantopoulos, I.; Corral, A.; Ranalli, P.; Lanzuisi, G.

    2017-10-01

    The most obscured sources detected in X-ray surveys, the Compton-thick AGN present great interest both because they represent the hidden side of accretion but also because they may signal the AGN birth. We analyse the NUSTAR observations from the serendipitous observations in order to study the Compton-thick AGN at the deepest possible ultra-hard band (>10 keV). We compare our results with our SWIFT/BAT findings in the local Universe, as well as with our results in the CDFS and COSMOS fields. We discuss the comparison with X-ray background synthesis models finding that a low fraction of Compton-thick sources (about 15 per cent of the obscured population) is compatible with both the 2-10keV band results and those at harder energies.

  12. Pulsar high energy emission due to inverse Compton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyutikov, Maxim

    2013-06-15

    We discuss growing evidence that pulsar high energy is emission is generated via Inverse Compton mechanism. We reproduce the broadband spectrum of Crab pulsar, from UV to very high energy gamma-rays - nearly ten decades in energy, within the framework of the cyclotron-self-Compton model. Emission is produced by two counter-streaming beams within the outer gaps, at distances above ∼ 20 NS radii. The outward moving beam produces UV-X-ray photons via Doppler-booster cyclotron emission, and GeV photons by Compton scattering the cyclotron photons produced by the inward going beam. The scattering occurs in the deep Klein-Nishina regime, whereby the IC component provides a direct measurement of particle distribution within the magnetosphere. The required plasma multiplicity is high, ∼10{sup 6} – 10{sup 7}, but is consistent with the average particle flux injected into the pulsar wind nebula.

  13. Inverse compton emission of gamma rays near the pulsar surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morini, M.

    1981-01-01

    The physical conditions near pulsar surface that might give rise to gamma ray emission from Crab and Vela pulsars are not yet well understood. Here I suggest that, in the context of the vacuum discharge mechanism proposed by Ruderman and Sutherland (1975), gamma rays are produced by inverse Compton scattering of secondary electrons with the thermal radiation of the star surface as well as for curvature and synchotron radiation. It is found that inverse Compton scattering is relevant if the neutron star surface temperature is greater than 10 6 K or of the polar cap temperature is of the order of 5 x 10 6 K. Inverse Compton scattering in anisotropic photon fields and Klein-Nishina regime is here carefully considered. (orig.)

  14. The hydrogen anomaly problem in neutron Compton scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Erik B.

    2018-03-01

    Neutron Compton scattering (also called ‘deep inelastic scattering of neutrons’, DINS) is a method used to study momentum distributions of light atoms in solids and liquids. It has been employed extensively since the start-up of intense pulsed neutron sources about 25 years ago. The information lies primarily in the width and shape of the Compton profile and not in the absolute intensity of the Compton peaks. It was therefore not immediately recognized that the relative intensities of Compton peaks arising from scattering on different isotopes did not always agree with values expected from standard neutron cross-section tables. The discrepancies were particularly large for scattering on protons, a phenomenon that became known as ‘the hydrogen anomaly problem’. The present paper is a review of the discovery, experimental tests to prove or disprove the existence of the hydrogen anomaly and discussions concerning its origin. It covers a twenty-year-long history of experimentation, theoretical treatments and discussions. The problem is of fundamental interest, since it involves quantum phenomena on the subfemtosecond time scale, which are not visible in conventional thermal neutron scattering but are important in Compton scattering where neutrons have two orders of magnitude times higher energy. Different H-containing systems show different cross-section deficiencies and when the scattering processes are followed on the femtosecond time scale the cross-section losses disappear on different characteristic time scales for each H-environment. The last section of this review reproduces results from published papers based on quantum interference in scattering on identical particles (proton or deuteron pairs or clusters), which have given a quantitative theoretical explanation both regarding the H-cross-section reduction and its time dependence. Some new explanations are added and the concluding chapter summarizes the conditions for observing the specific quantum

  15. A counting silicon microstrip detector for precision compton polarimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Doll, D W; Hillert, W; Krüger, H; Stammschroer, K; Wermes, N

    2002-01-01

    A detector for the detection of laser photons backscattered off an incident high-energy electron beam for precision Compton polarimetry in the 3.5 GeV electron stretcher ring ELSA at Bonn University has been developed using individual photon counting. The photon counting detector is based on a silicon microstrip detector system using dedicated ASIC chips. The produced hits by the pair converted Compton photons are accumulated rather than individually read out. A transverse profile displacement can be measured with mu m accuracy rendering a polarization measurement of the order of 1% on the time scale of 10-15 min possible.

  16. Geometrical effects determinant of the Compton profile shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartori, Renzo; Mainardi, R.T.

    1987-01-01

    The main purpose of this work is to evaluate the influence of the experimental set up on the shape of the Compton line. In any scattering experiment, the scattering angle is not well defined due to the collimators aperture and thus, a distribution of angles is found for each set up. This, in turn, produces the energies' distribution of the scattered photons around a mean value. This contribution has been evaluated and found it to be significant for several cases. In order to do this evaluation, a response function, that is numerically generated for each experimental set up and convoluted with the Compton profile, was defined. (Author) [es

  17. High-repetition intra-cavity source of Compton radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogorelsky, I; Polyanskiy, M; Agustsson, R; Campese, T; Murokh, A; Ovodenko, A; Shaftan, T

    2014-01-01

    We report our progress in developing a high-power Compton source for a diversity of applications ranging from university-scale compact x-ray light sources and metrology tools for EUV lithography, to high-brilliance gamma-sources for nuclear analysis. Our conceptual approach lies in multiplying the source’s repetition rate and increasing its average brightness by placing the Compton interaction point inside the optical cavity of an active laser. We discuss considerations in its design, our simulations, and tests of the laser’s cavity that confirm the feasibility of the proposed concept. (paper)

  18. Final-photon angular distributions in Compton double-ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornberg, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    Angular distributions of the scattered-photon in two-electron ionization of helium by Compton scattering are reported. Our calculations are performed as a direct integration over Compton profiles. We show that backward scattering is adequately described using an uncorrelated final-state approximation, as compared with impulse approximation (IA) results. The relation dσ c 2+ /dΩ = R c dσ c + /dΩ is fulfilled within IA at high-photon energies, with R c the asymptotic shake-off ratio. (orig.)

  19. Reconstructed Image Spatial Resolution of Multiple Coincidences Compton Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreyev, Andriy; Sitek, Arkadiusz; Celler, Anna

    2010-02-01

    We study the multiple coincidences Compton imager (MCCI) which is based on a simultaneous acquisition of several photons emitted in cascade from a single nuclear decay. Theoretically, this technique should provide a major improvement in localization of a single radioactive source as compared to a standard Compton camera. In this work, we investigated the performance and limitations of MCCI using Monte Carlo computer simulations. Spatial resolutions of the reconstructed point source have been studied as a function of the MCCI parameters, including geometrical dimensions and detector characteristics such as materials, energy and spatial resolutions.

  20. Experimental and theoretical Compton profiles of Be, C and Al

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, Julio C., E-mail: jaguiar@arn.gob.a [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Av. Del Libertador 8250, C1429BNP, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Instituto de Fisica ' Arroyo Seco' , Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, U.N.C.P.B.A., Pinto 399, 7000 Tandil (Argentina); Di Rocco, Hector O. [Instituto de Fisica ' Arroyo Seco' , Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, U.N.C.P.B.A., Pinto 399, 7000 Tandil (Argentina); Arazi, Andres [Laboratorio TANDAR, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. General Paz 1499, 1650 San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2011-02-01

    The results of Compton profile measurements, Fermi momentum determinations, and theoretical values obtained from a linear combination of Slater-type orbital (STO) for core electrons in beryllium; carbon and aluminium are presented. In addition, a Thomas-Fermi model is used to estimate the contribution of valence electrons to the Compton profile. Measurements were performed using monoenergetic photons of 59.54 keV provided by a low-intensity Am-241 {gamma}-ray source. Scattered photons were detected at 90{sup o} from the beam direction using a p-type coaxial high-purity germanium detector (HPGe). The experimental results are in good agreement with theoretical calculations.

  1. Environmental radioactivity measurements Using a compton suppression spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharshar, T.; Elnimr, T.

    1998-01-01

    The natural and artificial radioactivities of some environmental samples such as soil and vegetables have been studied through gamma-ray spectroscopy with a new constructed compton suppression spectrometer (CSS). The spectrometer consists of a 10% p-type HPGe detector as a main detector, an annular NE-102 A plastic scintillator as a guard detector, and a fast-slow coincidence system employing standard electronic modules for anti-compton operation. This study shows that CSS is a powerful tool for measuring the low level activities of environmental samples

  2. The scanning Compton polarimeter for the SLD experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, M.

    1996-10-01

    For the 1994/95 run of the SLD experiment at SLAC, a Compton polarimeter measured the luminosity-weighted electron beam polarization to be (77.2 ± 0.5)%. This excellent accuracy is achieved by measuring the rate asymmetry of Compton-scattered electrons near the kinematic endpoint. The polarimeter takes data continuously while the electron and positron beams are in collision and achieves a statistical precision of better than 1% in a three minute run. To calibrate the polarimeter and demonstrate its accuracy, many scans are frequently done. These include scans of the laser polarization, the detector position with respect to the kinematic edge, and the laser power

  3. A compact X-ray source based on Compton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulyak, E.; Gladkikh, P.; Grigor' ev, Yu.; Guk, I.; Karnaukhov, I.; Khodyachikh, A.; Kononenko, S.; Mocheshnikov, N.; Mytsykov, A.; Shcherbakov, A. E-mail: shcherbakov@kipt.kharkov.ua; Tarasenko, A.; Telegin, Yu.; Zelinsky, A

    2001-07-21

    The main parameters of Kharkov electron storage ring N-100 with a beam energy range from 70 to 150 MeV are presented. The main results that were obtained in experimental researches are briefly described. The future of the N-100 upgrade to the development of the X-ray generator based on Compton back-scattering are presented. The electron beam energy range will be extended up to 250 MeV and the circumference of the storage ring will be 13.72 m. The lattice, parameters of the electron beam and the Compton back-scattering photons flux are described.

  4. Beam dynamics simulation in the X-ray Compton source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gladkikh, P.; Karnaukhov, I.; Telegin, Yu.; Shcherbakov, A. E-mail: shcherbakov@kipt.kharkov.ua; Zelinsky, A

    2002-05-01

    At the National Science Center 'Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology' the X-ray source based on Compton scattering has been developed. The computer code for simulation of electron beam dynamics with taking into account the Compton scattering effect based on Monte Carlo method is described in this report. The first results of computer simulation of beam dynamics with electron-photon interaction, parameters of electron and photon beams are presented. Calculations were carried out with the lattice of synchrotron light source SRS-800 Ukrainian Synchrotron Center.

  5. Beam dynamics simulation in the X-ray Compton source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladkikh, P.; Karnaukhov, I.; Telegin, Yu.; Shcherbakov, A.; Zelinsky, A.

    2002-01-01

    At the National Science Center 'Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology' the X-ray source based on Compton scattering has been developed. The computer code for simulation of electron beam dynamics with taking into account the Compton scattering effect based on Monte Carlo method is described in this report. The first results of computer simulation of beam dynamics with electron-photon interaction, parameters of electron and photon beams are presented. Calculations were carried out with the lattice of synchrotron light source SRS-800 Ukrainian Synchrotron Center

  6. A compact X-ray source based on Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulyak, E.; Gladkikh, P.; Grigor'ev, Yu.; Guk, I.; Karnaukhov, I.; Khodyachikh, A.; Kononenko, S.; Mocheshnikov, N.; Mytsykov, A.; Shcherbakov, A.; Tarasenko, A.; Telegin, Yu.; Zelinsky, A.

    2001-01-01

    The main parameters of Kharkov electron storage ring N-100 with a beam energy range from 70 to 150 MeV are presented. The main results that were obtained in experimental researches are briefly described. The future of the N-100 upgrade to the development of the X-ray generator based on Compton back-scattering are presented. The electron beam energy range will be extended up to 250 MeV and the circumference of the storage ring will be 13.72 m. The lattice, parameters of the electron beam and the Compton back-scattering photons flux are described

  7. Beam dynamics simulation in the X-ray Compton source

    CERN Document Server

    Gladkikh, P; Telegin, Yu P; Shcherbakov, A; Zelinsky, A

    2002-01-01

    At the National Science Center 'Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology' the X-ray source based on Compton scattering has been developed. The computer code for simulation of electron beam dynamics with taking into account the Compton scattering effect based on Monte Carlo method is described in this report. The first results of computer simulation of beam dynamics with electron-photon interaction, parameters of electron and photon beams are presented. Calculations were carried out with the lattice of synchrotron light source SRS-800 Ukrainian Synchrotron Center.

  8. Analysis of materials in ducts by Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouveia, M.A.G.; Lopes, R.T.; Jesus, E.F.O. de; Camerini, C.S.

    2000-01-01

    This work presents the use of the Compton Scattering Technique as essay, for materials characterization in petroleum ducts. The essay have been accomplished in laboratory ambit, so that the presented results should be analyzed so that the system can come to be used in the field. The inspection was performed using Compton Scattering techniques, with two detectors aligned, in an angle of 90 degrees with a source of Cs-137 with energy of 662 keV. The results demonstrated the good capacity of the system to detect materials deposited in petroleum ducts during petroleum transportation. (author)

  9. Comptonization of gamma rays by cold electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Yueming; Ross, R.R.; Mccray, R.

    1991-01-01

    An analytic method is developed for calculating the emergent spectrum of gamma-rays and X-rays scattered in a homogeneous medium with low-temperature electrons. The Klein-Nishina corrections of the scattering cross section and absorption processes are taken in account. The wavelength relaxation and the spatial diffusion problems are solved separately, and the emergent spectrum is calculated by convolving the evolution function of the spectrum in an infinite medium with the photon luminosity resulting from the spatial diffusion in a finite sphere. The analytic results are compared with that of Monte Carlo calculations and it is concluded that the analytic result is quite accurate. 9 refs

  10. Wavelength conversion technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkjær, Kristian

    1998-01-01

    Optical wavelength conversion is currently attracting much interest. This is because it enables full flexibility and eases management of WDM fibre networks. The tutorial will review existing and potential application areas. Examples of node architectures and network demonstrators that use wavelen...

  11. Study of Compton broadening due to electron-photon scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasa Rao M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the effects of Compton broadening due to electron-photon scattering in hot stellar atmospheres. A purely electron-photon scattering media is assumed to have plane parallel geometry with an input radia­tion field localized on one side of the slab. The method is based on the discrete space theory of radiative transfer for the intensity of emitted radiation. The solution is developed to study the importance of scattering of radiation by free electrons in high temperature stellar atmospheres which produces a brodening and shift in spectral lines because of the Compton effect and the Doppler effect arising from mass and thermal motions of scattering electrons. It is noticed that the Comptonized spectrum depends on three parameters: the optical depth of the medium, the temperature of the thermal electrons and the viewing angle. We also showed that the Compton effect produces red shift and asymmetry in the line. These two effects increase as the optical depth increases. It is also noticed that the emergent specific intensities become completely asymmetric for higher optical depths.

  12. Study of Compton Broadening Due to Electron-Photon Scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasa Rao, M.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the effects of Compton broadening due to electron-photon scattering in hot stellar atmospheres. A purely electron-photon scattering media is assumed to have plane parallel geometry with an input radiation field localized on one side of the slab. The method is based on the discrete space theory of radiative transfer for the intensity of emitted radiation.The solution is developed to study the importance of scattering of radiation by free electrons in high temperature stellar atmospheres which produces a brodening and shift in spectral lines because of the Compton effect and the Doppler effect arising from mass and thermal motions of scattering electrons.It is noticed that the Comptonized spectrum depends on three parameters: the optical depth of the medium, the temperature of the thermal electrons and the viewing angle.We also showed that the Compton effect produces red shift and asymmetry in the line. These two effects increase as the optical depth increases. It is also noticed that the emergent specific intensities become completely asymmetric for higher optical depths.

  13. Comprehensive study of observables in Compton scattering on the nucleon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grießhammer, Harald W.; McGovern, Judith A.; Phillips, Daniel R.

    2018-03-01

    We present an analysis of 13 observables in Compton scattering on the proton. Cross sections, asymmetries with polarised beam and/or targets, and polarisation-transfer observables are investigated for energies up to the Δ(1232) resonance to determine their sensitivity to the proton's dipole scalar and spin polarisabilities. The Chiral Effective Field Theory Compton amplitude we use is complete at N4LO, O(e2δ4), for photon energies ω˜ m_{π}, and so has an accuracy of a few per cent there. At photon energies in the resonance region, it is complete at NLO, O(e2δ0), and so its accuracy there is about 20%. We find that for energies from pion-production threshold to about 250 MeV, multiple asymmetries have significant sensitivity to presently ill-determined combinations of proton spin polarisabilities. We also argue that the broad outcomes of this analysis will be replicated in complementary theoretical approaches, e.g., dispersion relations. Finally, we show that below the pion-production threshold, 6 observables suffice to reconstruct the Compton amplitude, and above it 11 are required. Although not necessary for polarisability extractions, this opens the possibility to perform "complete" Compton-scattering experiments. An interactive Mathematica notebook, including results for the neutron, is available from judith.mcgovern@manchester.ac.uk.

  14. A Compton Imaging Prototype for Range Verification in Particle Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golnik, C.; Hueso Gonzalez, F.; Kormoll, T.; Pausch, G.; Rohling, H.; Fiedler, F.; Heidel, K.; Schoene, S.; Sobiella, M.; Wagner, A.; Enghardt, W.

    2013-06-01

    During the 2012 AAPM Annual Meeting 33 percent of the delegates considered the range uncertainty in proton therapy as the main obstacle of becoming a mainstream treatment modality. Utilizing prompt gamma emission, a side product of particle tissue interaction, opens the possibility of in-beam dose verification, due to the direct correlation between prompt gamma emission and particle dose deposition. Compton imaging has proven to be a technique to measure three dimensional gamma emission profiles and opens the possibility of adaptive dose monitoring and treatment correction. We successfully built a Compton Imaging prototype, characterized the detectors and showed the imaging capability of the complete device. The major advantage of CZT detectors is the high energy resolution and the high spatial resolution, which are key parameters for Compton Imaging. However, our measurements at the proton beam accelerator facility KVI in Groningen (Netherlands) disclosed a spectrum of prompt gamma rays under proton irradiation up to 4.4 MeV. As CZT detectors of 5 mm thickness do not efficiently absorb photons in such energy ranges, another absorption, based on a Siemens LSO block detector is added behind CZT1. This setup provides a higher absorption probability of high energy photons. With a size of 5.2 cm x 5.2 cm x 2.0 cm, this scintillation detector further increases the angular acceptance of Compton scattered photons due to geometric size. (authors)

  15. Infrared phenomena in quantum electrodynamics : II. Bremsstrahlung and compton scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haeringen, W. van

    The infrared aspects of quantum electrodynamics are discussed by treating two examples of scattering processes, bremsstrahlung and Compton scattering. As in the previous paper one uses a non-covariant diagram technique which gives very clear insight in the cancelling of infrared divergences between

  16. On a low intensity 241 Am Compton spectrometer for measurement ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, a new design and construction of a low intensity (100 mCi) 241Am -ray Compton spectrometer is presented. The planar spectrometer is based on a small disc source with the shortest geometry. Measurement of the momentum density of polycrystalline Al is used to evaluate the performance of the new design.

  17. Electronic properties and Compton profiles of silver iodide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have carried out an extensive study of electronic properties of silver iodide in - and -phases. The theoretical Compton profiles, energy bands, density of states and anisotropies in momentum densities are computed using density functional theories. We have also employed full-potential linearized augmented ...

  18. X-ray generator based on Compton scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Androsov, V.P.; Agafonov, A.V.; Botman, J.I.M.; Bulyak, E.V.; Drebot, I.; Gladkikh, P.I.; Grevtsev, V.; Ivashchenko, V.; Karnaukhov, I.M.; Lapshin, V.I.

    2005-01-01

    Nowadays, the sources of the X-rays based on a storage ring with low beam energy and Compton scattering of intense laser beam are under development in several laboratories. In the paper the state-of-art in development and construction of cooperative project of a Kharkov advanced X-ray source NESTOR

  19. Einstein-Ehrenfest's radiation theory and Compton-Debye's kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barranco, A.V.; Franca, H.M.

    1990-01-01

    Einstein and Ehrenfest's radiation theory is modified in order to introduce the efeects of random zero-point fields, characteristics of classical stochastic electrodynamics. As a result, the Compton and Debye's kinematic relations are obtained within the realm of a completely undulatory theory, that is, without having to consider the corpuscular character of the photon. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  20. A New Comptonization Model for Weakly Magnetized Accreting NS LMXBs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paizis, A.; Farinelli, R.; Titarchuk, L.; Frontera, F.; Cocchi, M.; Ferrigno, C.

    2009-05-01

    We have developed a new Comptonization model to propose, for the first time, a self consistent physical interpretation of the complex spectral evolution seen in NS LMXBs. The model and its application to LMXBs are presented and compared to the Simbol-X expected capabilities.

  1. Attenuation studies near K-absorption edges using Compton ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The results are consistent with theoretical values derived from the XCOM package. Keywords. Photon interaction; 241Am; gamma ray attenuation; Compton scattering; absorption edge; rare earth elements. PACS Nos 32.80.-t; 32.90.+a. 1. Introduction. Photon interaction studies at energies around the absorption edge have ...

  2. Strong anisotropy in the low temperature Compton profiles of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Compton profiles of momentum distribution of conduction electrons in the orthorhombic phase of -Ga metal at low temperature are calculated in the band model for the three crystallographic directions (100), (010), and (001). Unlike the results at room temperature, previously reported by Lengeler, Lasser and Mair, the ...

  3. Gamma-spectrometry with Compton suppressed detectors arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schueck, C.; Hannachi, F.; Chapman, R.

    1985-01-01

    Recent results of experiments performed with two different Compton-suppressed detectors arrays in Daresbury and Berkeley (/sup 163,164/Yb and 154 Er, respectively), are presented together with a brief description of the national French array presently under construction in Strasbourg. 25 refs., 15 figs

  4. Accurate Compton scattering measurements for N{sub 2} molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Kohjiro [Advanced Technology Research Center, Gunma University, 1-5-1 Tenjin-cho, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); Itou, Masayoshi; Tsuji, Naruki; Sakurai, Yoshiharu [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI), 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Hosoya, Tetsuo; Sakurai, Hiroshi, E-mail: sakuraih@gunma-u.ac.jp [Department of Production Science and Technology, Gunma University, 29-1 Hon-cho, Ota, Gunma 373-0057 (Japan)

    2011-06-14

    The accurate Compton profiles of N{sub 2} gas were measured using 121.7 keV synchrotron x-rays. The present accurate measurement proves the better agreement of the CI (configuration interaction) calculation than the Hartree-Fock calculation and suggests the importance of multi-excitation in the CI calculations for the accuracy of wavefunctions in ground states.

  5. The NuSTAR View of Nearby Compton-thick Active Galactic Nuclei: The Cases of NGC 424, NGC 1320, and IC 2560

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baloković, M.; Comastri, A.; Harrison, F. A.; Alexander, D. M.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Bauer, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Brandt, W. N.; Brightman, M.; Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W.; Moro, A. Del; Gandhi, P.; Hailey, C. J.; Koss, M.; Lansbury, G. B.; Luo, B.; Madejski, G. M.; Marinucci, A.; Matt, G.; Markwardt, C. B.; Puccetti, S.; Reynolds, C. S.; Risaliti, G.; Rivers, E.; Stern, D.; Walton, D. J.; Zhang, W. W.

    2014-09-30

    We present X-ray spectral analyses for three Seyfert 2 active galactic nuclei, NGC 424, NGC 1320, and IC 2560, observed by NuSTAR in the 3-79 keV band. The high quality hard X-ray spectra allow detailed modeling of the Compton reflection component for the first time in these sources. Using quasi-simultaneous NuSTAR and Swift/XRT data, as well as archival XMM-Newton data, we find that all three nuclei are obscured by Compton-thick material with column densities in excess of ~ 5 x 1024 cm-2, and that their X-ray spectra above 3 keV are dominated by reflection of the intrinsic continuum on Compton-thick material. Due to the very high obscuration, absorbed intrinsic continuum components are not formally required by the data in any of the sources. We constrain the intrinsic photon indices and the column density of the reflecting medium through the shape of the reflection spectra. Using archival multi-wavelength data we recover the intrinsic X-ray luminosities consistent with the broadband spectral energy distributions. Our results are consistent with the reflecting medium being an edge-on clumpy torus with a relatively large global covering factor and overall reflection efficiency of the order of 1%. Given the unambiguous confirmation of the Compton-thick nature of the sources, we investigate whether similar sources are likely to be missed by commonly used selection criteria for Compton-thick AGN, and explore the possibility of finding their high-redshift counterparts.

  6. Wavelength sweepable laser source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Wavelength sweepable laser source is disclosed, wherein the laser source is a semiconductor laser source adapted for generating laser light at a lasing wavelength. The laser source comprises a substrate, a first reflector, and a second reflector. The first and second reflector together defines...... and having a rest position, the second reflector and suspension together defining a microelectromechanical MEMS oscillator. The MEMS oscillator has a resonance frequency and is adapted for oscillating the second reflector on either side of the rest position.; The laser source further comprises electrical...... connections adapted for applying an electric field to the MEMS oscillator. Furthermore, a laser source system and a method of use of the laser source are disclosed....

  7. Evaluation of Position Resolution for a Prototype Whole-Body PET Detector Based on Suppressing Backgrounds by Compton Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujihara, Kento; Emoto, Yusaku; Ito, Hiroshi; Kaneko, Naomi; Kaneko, Hideyuki; Kawai, Hideyuki; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Mizuno, Takahiro

    2018-01-01

    Existing PET (Positron Emission Tomography) systems make clear images in demonstration (measuring small PET reagent in pure water), however images in real diagnosis become unclear. The authors suspected that this problem was caused by Compton scattering in a detector. When PET systems observe plural photomultiplier tube outputs, an original emission point is regarded as centroid of the outputs. However, even if plural emission in Compton scattering occur, these systems calculate original point in the same way as single emission. Therefore, the authors considered that rejecting Compton scattering events makes PET systems much better, and made prototype counter. Main components of the prototype counter are plate-like high-growth-rate (HGR) La-GPS scintillators and wavelength shifting fibers (WLSF). HGR crystals grow 10 times as fast as a mono-crystal (a normal mono-crystal grows at 2 - 3 mm an hour). Thus, it includes microbubble and its transparency get worth. Consequently, HGR crystals usually are not used in radiation measuring instruments. However, this time they are used on the purpose. Because of their low transparency, scintillation lights come out right above and right under of emission position. Therefore, Compton scattering events is rejected easily. The prototype detector has an effective area of 300 by 300 square mm. The detector consists of 24 layers. One layer consists of HGR La-GPS scintillator of 1 mm thickness. Top and bottom surface of scintillator were covered by dual sheets of WLSF with a diameter of 0.2 mm. Sheets of WLSF on top and bottom of the scintillator make a right angle with each other, and measure X- and Y-components. Z-component is measured by difference of WLSF outputs between top and bottom. If plural layers output signals, this counter regards the event as Compton scattering event, and reject the event. Even if only a layer output signals, the event is rejected when number output signals from WLSF is more than 1.5 times of single

  8. MIT wavelength tables. Volume 2. Wavelengths by element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phelps, F.M. III.

    1982-01-01

    This volume is the first stage of a project to expand and update the MIT wavelength tables first compiled in the 1930's. For 109,325 atomic emission lines, arranged by element, it presents wavelength in air, wavelength in vacuum, wave number and intensity. All data are stored on computer-readable magnetic tape

  9. Simplified slow anti-coincidence circuit for Compton suppression systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Azmi, Darwish

    2008-01-01

    Slow coincidence circuits for the anti-coincidence measurements have been considered for use in Compton suppression technique. The simplified version of the slow circuit has been found to be fast enough, satisfactory and allows an easy system setup, particularly with the advantage of the automatic threshold setting of the low-level discrimination. A well-type NaI detector as the main detector surrounded by plastic guard detector has been arranged to investigate the performance of the Compton suppression spectrometer using the simplified slow circuit. The system has been tested to observe the improvement in the energy spectra for medium to high-energy gamma-ray photons from terrestrial and environmental samples

  10. The Compton-thick Growth of Supermassive Black Holes constrained

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchner, J.; Georgakakis, A.; Nandra, K.

    2017-10-01

    A heavily obscured growth phase of supermassive black holes (SMBH) is thought to be important in the co-evolution with galaxies. X-rays provide a clean and efficient selection of unobscured and obscured AGN. Recent work with deeper observations and improved analysis methodology allowed us to extend constraints to Compton-thick number densities. We present the first luminosity function of Compton-thick AGN at z=0.5-4 and constrain the overall mass density locked into black holes over cosmic time, a fundamental constraint for cosmological simulations. Recent studies including ours find that the obscuration is redshift and luminosity-dependent in a complex way, which rules out entire sets of obscurer models. A new paradigm, the radiation-lifted torus model, is proposed, in which the obscurer is Eddington-rate dependent and accretion creates and displaces torus clouds. We place observational limits on the behaviour of this mechanism.

  11. Laser Compton Scattering Gamma Ray Induced Photo-Trasmutation

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Dazhi

    2004-01-01

    High brightness beams of gamma rays produced with laser Compton scattering have the potential to realize photo-transmutation through (γ,n) reaction, implying an efficient method to dispose long-lived fission products. Preliminary investigations have been carried out in understanding the feasibility of development of a transmutation facility to repose nuclear waste. A laser Compton scattering experimental setup based on a storage ring started to generate gamma-ray beams for studying the coupling of gamma photons and nuclear giant resonance. This paper demonstrates the dependency of nuclear transmutation efficiency on target dimensions and gamma ray features. 197Au sample was adopted in our experiment, and experimental results correspond to the theoretical estimations.

  12. Deeply virtual compton scattering on a virtual pion target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amrath, D.; Diehl, M.; Lansberg, J.P.; Heidelberg Univ.

    2008-07-01

    We study deeply virtual Compton scattering on a virtual pion that is emitted by a proton. Using a range of models for the generalized parton distributions of the pion, we evaluate the cross section, as well as the beam spin and beam charge asymmetries in the leading-twist approximation. Studying Compton scattering on the pion in suitable kinematics puts high demands on both beam energy and luminosity, and we find that the corresponding requirements will first be met after the energy upgrade at Jefferson Laboratory. As a by-product of our study, we construct a parameterization of pion generalized parton distributions that has a non-trivial interplay between the x and t dependence and is in good agreement with form factor data and lattice calculations. (orig.)

  13. Electronic properties of Be and Al by Compton scattering technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguiar, J.C.; Di Rocco, H.O.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, electronic properties of beryllium and aluminum are examined by using Compton scattering technique. The method is based on the irradiation of samples using a beam narrow of mono- energetic photons of 59.54 keV product of radioactive decay of Am -241 . Scattered radiation is collected by a high resolution semiconductor detector positioned at an angle of 90°. The measured spectrum is commonly called Compton profile and contains useful information about the electronic structure of the material. The experimental results are compared with theoretical calculations such as density functional theory showing a good agreement. However, these results show some discrepancies with many libraries used in codes such as Monte Carlo simulation. Since these libraries are based on the values tabulated by Biggs, Mendelsohn and Mann 1975 thus overestimating the scattered radiation on the material. (authors) [es

  14. The Mathematical Foundations of 3D Compton Scatter Emission Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. T. Truong

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical principles of tomographic imaging using detected (unscattered X- or gamma-rays are based on the two-dimensional Radon transform and many of its variants. In this paper, we show that two new generalizations, called conical Radon transforms, are related to three-dimensional imaging processes based on detected Compton scattered radiation. The first class of conical Radon transform has been introduced recently to support imaging principles of collimated detector systems. The second class is new and is closely related to the Compton camera imaging principles and invertible under special conditions. As they are poised to play a major role in future designs of biomedical imaging systems, we present an account of their most important properties which may be relevant for active researchers in the field.

  15. Model independent dispersion approach to proton Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caprini, I.; Radescu, E.E.

    1980-12-01

    The proton Compton scattering at low and intermediate energies is studied by means of a dispersion framework which exploits in an optimal way the (fixed momentum transfer) analyticity properties of the amplitudes in conjunction with the consequences of the (s-channel) unitarity. The mathematical background of the work consists of methods specific to boundary value problems for analytic vector-valued functions and interpolation theory. In comparison with previous related work, the external problems to be solved now are much more difficult because of the inclusion of the photoproduction input and also lead to additional computational complications. The lower bounds on the differential cross-section, obtained without any reference to subtractions and annihilation channel contributions, appear sufficiently restrictive to evidentiate rigorously some inconsistencies between results of single pion photoproduction multipole extractions and proton Compton scattering data. (author)

  16. Complete $O(\\alpha)$ QED corrections to polarized Compton scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Denner, Ansgar

    1999-01-01

    The complete QED corrections of O(alpha) to polarized Compton scattering are calculated for finite electron mass and including the real corrections induced by the processes e^- gamma -> e^- gamma gamma and e^- gamma -> e^- e^- e^+. All relevant formulas are listed in a form that is well suited for a direct implementation in computer codes. We present a detailed numerical discussion of the O(alpha)-corrected cross section and the left-right asymmetry in the energy range of present and future Compton polarimeters, which are used to determine the beam polarization of high-energetic e^+- beams. For photons with energies of a few eV and electrons with SLC energies or smaller, the corrections are of the order of a few per mille. In the energy range of future e^+e^- colliders, however, they reach 1-2% and cannot be neglected in a precision polarization measurement.

  17. Nucleon Compton Scattering with Two Space-Like Photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrei Afanasev; I. Akushevich; N.P. Merenkov

    2002-01-01

    We calculate two-photon exchange effects for elastic electron-proton scattering at high momentum transfers. The corresponding nucleon Compton amplitude is defined by two space-like virtual photons that appear to have significant virtualities. We make predictions for (a) a single-spin beam asymmetry, and (b) a single-spin target asymmetry or recoil proton polarization caused by an unpolarized electron beam

  18. Dyson Orbitals, Quasi-Particle effects and Compton scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Barbiellini, B.; Bansil, A.

    2004-01-01

    Dyson orbitals play an important role in understanding quasi-particle effects in the correlated ground state of a many-particle system and are relevant for describing the Compton scattering cross section beyond the frameworks of the impulse approximation (IA) and the independent particle model (IPM). Here we discuss corrections to the Kohn-Sham energies due to quasi-particle effects in terms of Dyson orbitals and obtain a relatively simple local form of the exchange-correlation energy. Illust...

  19. Compton scattering at finite temperature: thermal field dynamics approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juraev, F.I.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Compton scattering is a classical problem of quantum electrodynamics and has been studied in its early beginnings. Perturbation theory and Feynman diagram technique enables comprehensive analysis of this problem on the basis of which famous Klein-Nishina formula is obtained [1, 2]. In this work this problem is extended to the case of finite temperature. Finite-temperature effects in Compton scattering is of practical importance for various processes in relativistic thermal plasmas in astrophysics. Recently Compton effect have been explored using closed-time path formalism with temperature corrections estimated [3]. It was found that the thermal cross section can be larger than that for zero-temperature by several orders of magnitude for the high temperature realistic in astrophysics [3]. In our work we use a main tool to account finite-temperature effects, a real-time finite-temperature quantum field theory, so-called thermofield dynamics [4, 5]. Thermofield dynamics is a canonical formalism to explore field-theoretical processes at finite temperature. It consists of two steps, doubling of Fock space and Bogolyubov transformations. Doubling leads to appearing additional degrees of freedom, called tilded operators which together with usual field operators create so-called thermal doublet. Bogolyubov transformations make field operators temperature-dependent. Using this formalism we treat Compton scattering at finite temperature via replacing in transition amplitude zero-temperature propagators by finite-temperature ones. As a result finite-temperature extension of the Klein-Nishina formula is obtained in which differential cross section is represented as a sum of zero-temperature cross section and finite-temperature correction. The obtained result could be useful in quantum electrodynamics of lasers and for relativistic thermal plasma processes in astrophysics where correct account of finite-temperature effects is important. (author)

  20. Detection of detachments and inhomogeneities in frescos by Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellano, A.; Cesareo, R.; Buccolieri, G.; Donativi, M.; Palama, F.; Quarta, S.; De Nunzio, G.; Brunetti, A.; Marabelli, M.; Santamaria, U.

    2005-01-01

    A mobile instrument has been developed for the detection and mapping of detachments in frescos by using Compton back scattered photons. The instrument is mainly composed of a high energy X-ray tube, an X-ray detection system and a translation table. The instrument was first applied to samples simulating various detachment situations, and then transferred to the Vatican Museum to detect detachments and inhomogeneities in the stanza di Eliodoro, one of the 'Raphael's stanze'

  1. Detection of detachments and inhomogeneities in frescos by Compton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellano, A. [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita di Lecce, 73100 Lecce (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Lecce, via per Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Cesareo, R. [Istituto di Matematica e Fisica, Universita di Sassari, 07100 Sassari (Italy) and INFN, Sezione di Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria di Monserrato, 09042 Cagliari (Italy)]. E-mail: cesareo@uniss.it; Buccolieri, G. [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita di Lecce, 73100 Lecce (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Lecce, via per Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Donativi, M. [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita di Lecce, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Palama, F. [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita di Lecce, 73100 Lecce (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Lecce, via per Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Quarta, S. [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita di Lecce, 73100 Lecce (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Lecce, via per Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); De Nunzio, G. [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita di Lecce, 73100 Lecce (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Lecce, via per Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Brunetti, A. [Istituto di Matematica e Fisica, Universita di Sassari, 07100 Sassari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria di Monserrato, 09042 Cagliari (Italy); Marabelli, M. [Istituto Centrale del Restauro, P.zza S. Francesco di Paola, 00184 Rome (Italy); Santamaria, U. [Laboratori dei Musei Vaticani, Citta del Vaticano, Rome (Italy)

    2005-07-01

    A mobile instrument has been developed for the detection and mapping of detachments in frescos by using Compton back scattered photons. The instrument is mainly composed of a high energy X-ray tube, an X-ray detection system and a translation table. The instrument was first applied to samples simulating various detachment situations, and then transferred to the Vatican Museum to detect detachments and inhomogeneities in the stanza di Eliodoro, one of the 'Raphael's stanze'.

  2. Quantitative Compton suppression spectrometry at elevated counting rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westphal, G.P.; Joestl, K.; Schroeder, P.; Lauster, R.; Hausch, E.

    1999-01-01

    For quantitative Compton suppression spectrometry the decrease of coincidence efficiency with counting rate should be made negligible to avoid a virtual increase of relative peak areas of coincident isomeric transitions with counting rate. To that aim, a separate amplifier and discriminator has been used for each of the eight segments of the active shield of a new well-type Compton suppression spectrometer, together with an optimized, minimum dead-time design of the anticoincidence logic circuitry. Chance coincidence losses in the Compton suppression spectrometer are corrected instrumentally by comparing the chance coincidence rate to the counting rate of the germanium detector in a pulse-counting Busy circuit (G.P. Westphal, J. Rad. Chem. 179 (1994) 55) which is combined with the spectrometer's LFC counting loss correction system. The normally not observable chance coincidence rate is reconstructed from the rates of germanium detector and scintillation detector in an auxiliary coincidence unit, after the destruction of true coincidence by delaying one of the coincidence partners. Quantitative system response has been tested in two-source measurements with a fixed reference source of 60 Co of 14 kc/s, and various samples of 137 Cs, up to aggregate counting rates of 180 kc/s for the well-type detector, and more than 1400 kc/s for the BGO shield. In these measurements, the net peak areas of the 1173.3 keV line of 60 Co remained constant at typical values of 37 000 with and 95 000 without Compton suppression, with maximum deviations from the average of less than 1.5%

  3. Formal analogy between Compton scattering and Doppler effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, A.; Olsen, Jørgen Seir

    1966-01-01

    Viewed from the scatterer, the energy of the incoming photon or particle is equal to that of the outgoing, and the angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection, when the direction of the velocity of the scatterer after the collision is taken as reference. This paper sets out to prove...... this statement in a more simple and direct way. The authors only consider the Compton scatting process as it is quite analogous to the particle case....

  4. Deeply virtual Compton scattering: How to test handbag dominance?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gousset, T.; Gousset, T.; Diehl, M.; Pire, B.; Diehl, M.; Ralston, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    We propose detailed tests of the handbag approximation in exclusive deeply virtual Compton scattering. Those tests make no use of any prejudice about parton correlations in the proton which are basically unknown objects and beyond the scope of perturbative QCD. Since important information on the proton substructure can be gained in the regime of light cone dominance we consider that such a class of tests is of special relevance. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  5. Directional Unfolded Source Term (DUST) for Compton Cameras.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Dean J.; Mitchell, Dean J.; Horne, Steven M.; O' Brien, Sean; Thoreson, Gregory G

    2018-03-01

    A Directional Unfolded Source Term (DUST) algorithm was developed to enable improved spectral analysis capabilities using data collected by Compton cameras. Achieving this objective required modification of the detector response function in the Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS). Experimental data that were collected in support of this work include measurements of calibration sources at a range of separation distances and cylindrical depleted uranium castings.

  6. Timelike Compton scattering off the neutron and generalized parton distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boer, M.; Guidal, M. [CNRS-IN2P3, Universite Paris-Sud, Institut de Physique Nucleaire d' Orsay, Orsay (France); Vanderhaeghen, M. [Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet, Institut fuer Kernphysik and PRISMA Cluster of Excellence, Mainz (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    We study the exclusive photoproduction of an electron-positron pair on a neutron target in the Jefferson Lab energy domain. The reaction consists of two processes: the Bethe-Heitler and the Timelike Compton Scattering. The latter process provides potentially access to the Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) of the nucleon. We calculate all the unpolarized, single- and double-spin observables of the reaction and study their sensitivities to GPDs. (orig.)

  7. Resonant Inverse Compton Scattering Spectra from Highly Magnetized Neutron Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadiasingh, Zorawar; Baring, Matthew G.; Gonthier, Peter L.; Harding, Alice K.

    2018-02-01

    Hard, nonthermal, persistent pulsed X-ray emission extending between 10 and ∼150 keV has been observed in nearly 10 magnetars. For inner-magnetospheric models of such emission, resonant inverse Compton scattering of soft thermal photons by ultrarelativistic charges is the most efficient production mechanism. We present angle-dependent upscattering spectra and pulsed intensity maps for uncooled, relativistic electrons injected in inner regions of magnetar magnetospheres, calculated using collisional integrals over field loops. Our computations employ a new formulation of the QED Compton scattering cross section in strong magnetic fields that is physically correct for treating important spin-dependent effects in the cyclotron resonance, thereby producing correct photon spectra. The spectral cutoff energies are sensitive to the choices of observer viewing geometry, electron Lorentz factor, and scattering kinematics. We find that electrons with energies ≲15 MeV will emit most of their radiation below 250 keV, consistent with inferred turnovers for magnetar hard X-ray tails. More energetic electrons still emit mostly below 1 MeV, except for viewing perspectives sampling field-line tangents. Pulse profiles may be singly or doubly peaked dependent on viewing geometry, emission locale, and observed energy band. Magnetic pair production and photon splitting will attenuate spectra to hard X-ray energies, suppressing signals in the Fermi-LAT band. The resonant Compton spectra are strongly polarized, suggesting that hard X-ray polarimetry instruments such as X-Calibur, or a future Compton telescope, can prove central to constraining model geometry and physics.

  8. ILC beam energy measurement by means of laser Compton backscattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muchnoi, N. [Budker Inst. for Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Schreiber, H.J.; Viti, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2008-10-15

    A novel, non-invasive method of measuring the beam energy at the International Linear Collider is proposed. Laser light collides head-on with beam particles and either the energy of the Compton scattered electrons near the kinematic end-point is measured or the positions of the Compton backscattered {gamma}-rays, the edge electrons and the unscattered beam particles are recorded. A compact layout for the Compton spectrometer is suggested. It consists of a bending magnet and position sensitive detectors operating in a large radiation environment. Several options for high spatial resolution detectors are discussed. Simulation studies support the use of an infrared or green laser and quartz fiber detectors to monitor the backscattered photons and edge electrons. Employing a cavity monitor, the beam particle position downstream of the magnet can be recorded with submicrometer precision. Such a scheme provides a feasible and promising method to access the incident beam energy with precisions of 10{sup -4} or better on a bunch-to-bunch basis while the electron and positron beams are in collision. (orig.)

  9. Compton profile with synchrotron light - application to Y-123 superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De, Udayan

    2005-01-01

    Electron beam accelerated to 6 GeV in the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) at Grenoble, France, can deliver highly mono-energetic, intense (10 12 photons/sec at sample at 100 mA ring current) and fine photon beam reaching x-ray and γ energies. So photons of 57 keV from this synchrotron has been used for Compton Profile or CP experiment (at different temperatures down to 70 K) on our YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 or Y-123 single crystals with T c = 91 K. Photons, Compton scattered even at a definite angle, θ, show a distribution (called Compton Profile) of energy and hence of momentum reflecting the EMD or electron momentum distribution in the solid. The temperature variation of S-parameter, defined as the fraction of low momentum electrons, has been found from preliminary CP data. It confirmed the surprising double minimum found from Doppler broadening of positron annihilation radiation lineshape (DBPARL). The CP set-up at the synchrotron including the detectors and cryogenics as well as the new results are outlined. (author)

  10. Electronic structure of the palladium hydride studied by compton scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Mizusaki, S; Yamaguchi, M; Hiraoka, N; Itou, M; Sakurai, Y

    2003-01-01

    The hydrogen-induced changes in the electronic structure of Pd have been investigated by Compton scattering experiments associated with theoretical calculations. Compton profiles (CPs) of single crystal of Pd and beta phase hydride PdH sub x (x=0.62-0.74) have been measured along the [100], [110] and [111] directions with a momentum resolution of 0.14-0.17 atomic units using 115 keV x-rays. The theoretical Compton profiles have been calculated from the wavefunctions obtained utilizing the full potential linearized augmented plane wave method within the local density approximation for Pd and stoichiometric PdH. The experimental and the theoretical results agreed well with respect to the difference in the CPs between PdH sub x and Pd, and the anisotropy in the CPs of Pd or PdH sub x. This study provides lines of evidence that upon hydride formation the lowest valance band of Pd is largely modified due to hybridization with H 1s-orbitals and the Fermi energy is raised into the sp-band. (author)

  11. ILC beam energy measurement by means of laser Compton backscattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muchnoi, N.; Schreiber, H.J.; Viti, M.

    2008-10-01

    A novel, non-invasive method of measuring the beam energy at the International Linear Collider is proposed. Laser light collides head-on with beam particles and either the energy of the Compton scattered electrons near the kinematic end-point is measured or the positions of the Compton backscattered γ-rays, the edge electrons and the unscattered beam particles are recorded. A compact layout for the Compton spectrometer is suggested. It consists of a bending magnet and position sensitive detectors operating in a large radiation environment. Several options for high spatial resolution detectors are discussed. Simulation studies support the use of an infrared or green laser and quartz fiber detectors to monitor the backscattered photons and edge electrons. Employing a cavity monitor, the beam particle position downstream of the magnet can be recorded with submicrometer precision. Such a scheme provides a feasible and promising method to access the incident beam energy with precisions of 10 -4 or better on a bunch-to-bunch basis while the electron and positron beams are in collision. (orig.)

  12. Laser-electron Compton interaction in plasma channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogorelsky, I.V.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Hirose, T.

    1998-10-01

    A concept of high intensity femtosecond laser synchrotron source (LSS) is based on Compton backscattering of focused electron and laser beams. The short Rayleigh length of the focused laser beam limits the length of interaction to a few picoseconds. However, the technology of the high repetition rate high-average power picosecond lasers required for high put through LSS applications is not developed yet. Another problem associated with the picosecond laser pulses is undesirable nonlinear effects occurring when the laser photons are concentrated in a short time interval. To avoid the nonlinear Compton scattering, the laser beam has to be split, and the required hard radiation flux is accumulated over a number of consecutive interactions that complicates the LSS design. In order to relieve the technological constraints and achieve a practically feasible high-power laser synchrotron source, the authors propose to confine the laser-electron interaction region in the extended plasma channel. This approach permits to use nanosecond laser pulses instead of the picosecond pulses. That helps to avoid the nonlinear Compton scattering regime and allows to utilize already existing technology of the high-repetition rate TEA CO 2 lasers operating at the atmospheric pressure. They demonstrate the advantages of the channeled LSS approach by the example of the prospective polarized positron source for Japan Linear Collider

  13. 'PET -Compton' system. Comparative evaluation with PET system using Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Garcia, Angelina; Arista Romeu, Eduardo; Abreu Alfonso, Yamiel; Leyva Fabelo, Antonio; Pinnera Hernandez, Ibrahin; Bolannos Perez, Lourdes; Rubio Rodriguez, Juan A; Perez Morales, Jose M.; Arce Dubois, Pedro; Vela Morales, Oscar; Willmott Zappacosta, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in small animals has actually achieved spatial resolution round about 1 mm and currently there are under study different approaches to improve this spatial resolution. One of them combines PET technology with Compton Cameras. This paper presents the idea of the so called 'PET-Compton' systems and includes comparative evaluation of spatial resolution and global efficiency in both PET and PET-Compton system by means of Monte Carlo simulations using Geant4 code. Simulation is done on a PET-Compton system consisting of LYSO-LuYAP scintillating detectors of particular small animal PET scanner named 'Clear-PET' and for Compton detectors based on CdZnTe semiconductor. A group of radionuclides that emits a positron (e + ) and γ quantum almost simultaneously and fulfills some selection criteria for their possible use in PET-Compton systems for medical and biological applications were studied under simulation conditions. (Author)

  14. CsI Calorimeter for a Compton-Pair Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Eric J.

    We propose to build and test a hodoscopic CsI(Tl) scintillating-crystal calorimeter for a medium-energy γ-ray Compton and pair telescope. The design and technical approach for this calorimeter relies deeply on heritage from the Fermi LAT CsI Calorimeter, but it dramatically improves the low-energy performance of that design by reading out the scintillation light with silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs), making the technology developed for Fermi applicable in the Compton regime. While such a hodoscopic calorimeter is useful for an entire class of medium-energy γ-ray telescope designs, we propose to build it explicitly to support beam tests and balloon flight of the Proto-ComPair telescope, the development and construction of which was funded in a four-year APRA program beginning in 2015 ("ComPair: Steps to a Medium Energy γ-ray Mission" with PI J. McEnery of GSFC). That award did not include funding for its CsI calorimeter subsystem, and this proposal is intended to cover that gap. ComPair is a MIDEX-class instrument concept to perform a high-sensitivity survey of the γ-ray sky from 0.5 MeV to 500 MeV. ComPair is designed to provide a dramatic increase in sensitivity relative to previous instruments in this energy range (predominantly INTEGRAL/SPI and Compton COMPTEL), with the same transformative sensitivity increase - and corresponding scientific return- that the Fermi Large Area Telescope provided relative to Compton EGRET. To enable transformative science over a broad range of MeV energies and with a wide field of view, ComPair is a combined Compton telescope and pair telescope employing a silicon-strip tracker (for Compton scattering and pair conversion and tracking) and a solid-state CdZnTe calorimeter (for Compton absorption) and CsI calorimeter (for pair calorimetry), surrounded by a plastic scintillator anti-coincidence detector. Under the current proposal, we will complete the detailed design, assembly, and test of the CsI calorimeter for the risk

  15. From neutron Compton profiles to momentum distribution: Assessment of direct numerical determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senesi, R.; Flammini, D.; Romanelli, G.; Andreani, C.

    2013-01-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering at high momentum transfers, in the neutron Compton scattering regime, provides an access to the neutron Compton profiles, the analogous of Compton profiles in X-ray scattering. The line shape analysis of the neutron Compton profiles is usually carried out making use of multiparametric nonlinear fitting, garnering detailed information about the momentum distribution of the target atoms. This paper presents the proposal to directly determine numerically the momentum distribution from the profiles, thus eliminating the possible instabilities present in multiparametric fitting. A comparison with Monte Carlo simulations and with previous measurements on polycrystalline ice provides quantitative assessments of the proposed method

  16. Doppler broadening and its contribution to Compton energy-absorption cross sections: An analysis of the Compton component in terms of mass-energy absorption coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, D.V.; Takeda, T.; Itai, Y.; Akatsuka, T.; Cesareo, R.; Brunetti, A.; Gigante, G.E.

    2002-01-01

    Compton energy absorption cross sections are calculated using the formulas based on a relativistic impulse approximation to assess the contribution of Doppler broadening and to examine the Compton profile literature and explore what, if any, effect our knowledge of this line broadening has on the Compton component in terms of mass-energy absorption coefficient. Compton energy-absorption cross sections are evaluated for all elements, Z=1-100, and for photon energies 1 keV-100 MeV. Using these cross sections, the Compton component of the mass-energy absorption coefficient is derived in the energy region from 1 keV to 1 MeV for all the elements Z=1-100. The electron momentum prior to the scattering event should cause a Doppler broadening of the Compton line. The momentum resolution function is evaluated in terms of incident and scattered photon energy and scattering angle. The overall momentum resolution of each contribution is estimated for x-ray and γ-ray energies of experimental interest in the angular region 1 deg. -180 deg. . Also estimated is the Compton broadening using nonrelativistic formula in the angular region 1 deg. -180 deg., for 17.44, 22.1, 58.83, and 60 keV photons for a few elements (H, C, N, O, P, S, K, and Ca) of biological importance

  17. Doppler Broadening and its Contribution to Compton Energy-Absorption Cross Sections: An Analysis of the Compton Component in Terms of Mass-Energy Absorption Coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, D. V.; Takeda, T.; Itai, Y.; Akatsuka, T.; Cesareo, R.; Brunetti, A.; Gigante, G. E.

    2002-09-01

    Compton energy absorption cross sections are calculated using the formulas based on a relativistic impulse approximation to assess the contribution of Doppler broadening and to examine the Compton profile literature and explore what, if any, effect our knowledge of this line broadening has on the Compton component in terms of mass-energy absorption coefficient. Compton energy-absorption cross sections are evaluated for all elements, Z=1-100, and for photon energies 1 keV-100 MeV. Using these cross sections, the Compton component of the mass-energy absorption coefficient is derived in the energy region from 1 keV to 1 MeV for all the elements Z=1-100. The electron momentum prior to the scattering event should cause a Doppler broadening of the Compton line. The momentum resolution function is evaluated in terms of incident and scattered photon energy and scattering angle. The overall momentum resolution of each contribution is estimated for x-ray and γ-ray energies of experimental interest in the angular region 1°-180°. Also estimated is the Compton broadening using nonrelativistic formula in the angular region 1°-180°, for 17.44, 22.1, 58.83, and 60 keV photons for a few elements (H, C, N, O, P, S, K, and Ca) of biological importance.

  18. Experimental study of angular dependence in double photon Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandhu, B.S.; Dewan, R.; Saddi, M.B.; Singh, B.; Ghumman, B.S.

    2000-01-01

    The collision differential cross-section and energy of one of the final photons for double photon Compton scattering have been measured as a function of scattering angle θ 1 . The incident photon energy is 0.662 MeV and thin aluminium foils are used as a scatterer. The two simultaneously emitted photons in this higher order process are detected in coincidence using two NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometers and 30 ns timing electronics. The measured values for energy and collision differential cross-section agree with theory within experimental estimated error. The present data provide information of angular dependence in this higher order process

  19. Meson-induced correlations of nucleons in nuclear Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huett, M.; Milstein, A.I.

    1998-01-01

    The nonresonant (seagull) contribution to the nuclear Compton amplitude at low energies is strongly influenced by nucleon correlations arising from meson exchange. We study this problem in a modified Fermi gas model, where nuclear correlation functions are obtained with the help of perturbation theory. The dependence of the mesonic seagull amplitude on the nuclear radius is investigated and the influence of a realistic nuclear density on this amplitude is discussed. We found that different form factors appear for the static part (proportional to the enhancement constant κ) of the mesonic seagull amplitude and for the parts, which contain the contribution from electromagnetic polarizabilities. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  20. Compton scattering by mesons in nuclei: Experiment on 208Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuhrberg, K.; Martin, G.; Haeger, D.; Ludwig, M.; Schumacher, M.; Andersson, B.E.; Blomqvist, K.I.; Ruijter, H.; Sandell, A.; Schroeder, B.; Hayward, E.; Nilsson, L.; Zorro, R.

    1992-01-01

    Using 58 and 73 MeV tagged photons and scattering angles from 60deg to 150deg, it is shown that is possible to observe Compton scattering by 'mesons in nuclei ' through an incomplete cancellation of the mesonic (exchange- current) seagull amplitude by parts of the nuclear resonance amplitude related to the giant-dipole resonance of 208 Pb. This phenomenon is a property of an extended nucleus and , therefore, cannot be dtudied on the deuteron. Predictions of the exchange form factor which determines the angular distribution of the exchange seagull amplitude are compared with experimental data. (orig.)

  1. Compton profiles by inelastic ion-electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeckl, H.; Bell, F.

    1983-01-01

    It is shown that Compton profiles (CP) can be measured by inelastic ion-electron scattering. Within the impulse approximation the binary-encounter peak (BEP) reflects the CP of the target atom whereas the electron-loss peak (ELP) is given by projectile CP's. Evaluation of experimental data reveals that inelastic ion-electron scattering might be a promising method to supply inelastic electron or photon scattering for the determination of target CP's. The measurement of projectile CP's is unique to ion scattering since one gains knowledge about wave-function effects because of the high excitation degree of fast heavy-ion projectiles

  2. Compton profiles of some 4d transition-metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, B.K.; Tomak, M.

    1982-08-01

    We have computed Compton profiles for 4d transition-metals using the Renormalized Free Atom (RFA) model for two different electron configurations, namely 4dsup(n-1)5s 1 and 4dsup(n-2)5s 2 . The results for niobium and molybdenum are presented and compared with those obtained for these metals within free atom model. For low values of momenta the RFA profiles are broader than the latter ones. The constancy of J(0) values reported for 3d-metals is shown to be present also in case of 4d-metals. (author)

  3. Measurement of Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Adloff, C.; Andrieu, B.; Anthonis, T.; Arkadov, V.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Babaev, A.; Bahr, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Bate, P.; Beglarian, A.; Behnke, O.; Beier, C.; Belousov, A.; Benisch, T.; Berger, Christoph; Berndt, T.; Bizot, J.C.; Boudry, V.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Broker, H.B.; Brown, D.P.; Bruckner, W.; Bruncko, D.; Burger, J.; Busser, F.W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Burrage, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Cao, Jun; Caron, S.; Clarke, D.; Clerbaux, B.; Collard, C.; Contreras, J.G.; Coppens, Y.R.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cousinou, M.C.; Cox, B.E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Dau, W.D.; Daum, K.; Davidsson, M.; Delcourt, B.; Delerue, N.; Demirchyan, R.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dingfelder, J.; Dixon, P.; Dodonov, V.; Dowell, J.D.; Droutskoi, A.; Dubak, A.; Duprel, C.; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, D.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ellerbrock, M.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Erdmann, W.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Ferencei, J.; Ferron, S.; Fleischer, M.; Fleming, Y.H.; Flugge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Foresti, I.; Formanek, J.; Foster, J.M.; Franke, G.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Garvey, J.; Gassner, J.; Gayler, Joerg; Gerhards, R.; Gerlich, C.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Goldberg, M.; Goodwin, C.; Grab, C.; Grassler, H.; Greenshaw, T.; Grindhammer, Guenter; Hadig, T.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Haynes, W.J.; Heinemann, B.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hengstmann, S.; Henschel, H.; Heremans, R.; Herrera, G.; Herynek, I.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hilgers, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hladky, J.; Hoting, P.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hurling, S.; Ibbotson, M.; Issever, C .; Jacquet, M.; Jaffre, M.; Janauschek, L.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, D.P.; Jones, M.A.S.; Jung, H.; Kastli, H.K.; Kant, D.; Kapichine, M.; Karlsson, M.; Karschnick, O.; Keil, F.; Keller, N.; Kennedy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kermiche, S.; Kiesling, Christian M.; Kjellberg, P.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, T.; Knies, G.; Koblitz, B.; Kolya, S.D.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kotelnikov, S.K.; Koutouev, R.; Koutov, A.; Krehbiel, H.; Kroseberg, J.; Kruger, K.; Kupper, A.; Kuhr, T.; Kurca, T.; Lahmann, R.; Lamb, D.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka, T.; Laycock, P.; Lebailly, E.; Lebedev, A.; Leissner, B.; Lemrani, R.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindstroem, M.; List, B.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lobodzinski, B.; Loginov, A.; Loktionova, N.; Lubimov, V.; Luders, S.; Luke, D.; Lytkin, L.; Mahlke-Kruger, H.; Malden, N.; Malinovski, E.; Malinovski, I.; Maracek, R.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martyn, H.U.; Martyniak, J.; Maxfield, S.J.; Meer, D.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Meyer, P.O.; Mikocki, S.; Milstead, D.; Mkrtchyan, T.; Mohr, R.; Mohrdieck, S.; Mondragon, M.N.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nagovizin, V.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, J.; Naumann, T.; Nellen, G.; Newman, Paul R.; Nicholls, T.C.; Niebergall, F.; Niebuhr, C.; Nix, O.; Nowak, G.; Olsson, J.E.; Ozerov, D.; Panassik, V.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Peez, M.; Perez, E.; Phillips, J.P.; Pitzl, D.; Poschl, R.; Potachnikova, I.; Povh, B.; Rabbertz, K.; Radel, G.; Rauschenberger, J.; Reimer, P.; Reisert, B.; Reyna, D.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Scheins, J.; Schilling, F.P.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schneider, M.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schorner, T.; Schroder, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Schwanenberger, C.; Sedlak, K.; Sefkow, F.; Chekelian, V.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Sirois, Y.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Solovev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Spitzer, H.; Stamen, R.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Straumann, U.; Swart, M.; Tasevsky, M.; Chernyshov, V.; Chetchelnitski, S.; Thompson, Graham; Thompson, P.D.; Tobien, N.; Traynor, D.; Truoel, Peter; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Turney, J.E.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Udluft, S.; Urban, Marcel; Usik, A.; Valkar, S.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vassilev, S.; Vazdik, Y.; Vichnevski, A.; Wacker, K.; Wallny, R.; Waugh, B.; Weber, G.; Weber, M.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Werner, M.; Werner, N.; White, G.; Wiesand, S.; Wilksen, T.; Winde, M.; Winter, G.G.; Wissing, C.; Wobisch, M.; Wunsch, E.; Wyatt, A.C.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zomer, F.; Zsembery, J.; zur Nedden, M.

    2001-01-01

    A measurement is presented of elastic Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering e^+ + p -> e^+ + photon + p at HERA using data taken with the H1 detector. The cross section is measured as a function of the photon virtuality, Q^2, and the invariant mass, W, of the gamma p system, in the kinematic range 2 < Q^2 < 20 GeV^2, 30 < W < 120 GeV and |t| < 1 GeV^2, where t is the squared momentum transfer to the proton. The measurement is compared to QCD based calculations.

  4. Kharkov X-ray Generator Based On Compton Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shcherbakov, A.; Zelinsky, A.; Mytsykov, A.; Gladkikh, P.; Karnaukhov, I.; Lapshin, V.; Telegin, Y.; Androsov, V.; Bulyak, E.; Botman, J.I.M.; Tatchyn, R.; Lebedev, A.

    2004-01-01

    Nowadays X-ray sources based on storage rings with low beam energy and Compton scattering of intense laser beams are under development in several laboratories. An international cooperative project of an advanced X-ray source of this type at the Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT) is described. The status of the project is reviewed. The design lattice of the storage ring and calculated X-ray beam parameters are presented. The results of numerical simulation carried out for proposed facility show a peak spectral X-ray intensity of about 1014 can be produced

  5. Sources of the X-rays Based on Compton Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Androsov, V.; Bulyak, E.; Gladkikh, P.; Karnaukhov, I.; Mytsykov, A.; Telegin, Yu.; Shcherbakov, A.; Zelinsky, A.

    2007-01-01

    The principles of the intense X-rays generation by laser beam scattering on a relativistic electron beam are described and description of facilities assigned to produce the X-rays based on Compton scattering is presented. The possibilities of various types of such facilities are estimated and discussed. The source of the X-rays based on a storage ring with low beam energy is described in details and advantages of the sources of such type are discussed.The results of calculation and numerical simulation carried out for laser electron storage ring NESTOR that is under development in NSC KIPT show wide prospects of the accelerator facility of such type

  6. MICROBUNCH TEMPORAL DIAGNOSTIC BY COMPTON SCATTERING IN INTERFERING LASER BEAMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AMATUNI, A.TS.; POGORELSKY, I.V.

    1998-01-01

    The exact solution of the classical nonlinear equation of motion for a relativistic electron in the field of two electromagnetic (EM) waves is obtained. For the particular case of the linearly polarized standing EM wave in the planar optical cavity, the intensity of the nonlinear Compton scattering, the time of flight, and the momentum variation after the relativistic electron passes along the cavity axis are calculated in weak and strong field limits. The extent of these effects depends on the initial phase of the EM wave when the electron enters the cavity. This can be used for the production, diagnosis, and acceleration of relativistic electron (positron) microbunches

  7. The electron beam dynamics simulation in the laser-electron storage ring involving compton and intrabeam scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladkikh, P.I.; Telegin, Yu.N.; Karnaukhov, I.M.

    2002-01-01

    The feasibility of the development of intense X-ray sources based on Compton scattering in laser-electron storage rings is discussed. The results of the electron beam dynamics simulation involving Compton and intrabeam scattering are presented

  8. The electron beam dynamics simulation in the laser-electron storage ring involving compton and intrabeam scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Gladkikh, P I; Karnaukhov, I M

    2002-01-01

    The feasibility of the development of intense X-ray sources based on Compton scattering in laser-electron storage rings is discussed. The results of the electron beam dynamics simulation involving Compton and intrabeam scattering are presented.

  9. The Contribution of Compton-Thick AGN/ULIRGs to the X-Ray Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardini, Emanuele

    Accretion onto the supermassive black holes located at the centre of Active Galactic Nuclei(AGN) is one of the most efficient power sources in the Universe, and provides a significant contribution to the energy radiated over cosmic times. The spectral shape of the X-ray background and its progressive resolution strongly suggests that most AGN are heavily obscured by large amounts of dust and gas. Their primary radiation field is reprocessed and re-emitted at longer wavelengths, driving a huge IR luminosity. Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs) are the local counterparts of the high-redshift (z sport the typical features of buried AGN in the mid-IR. IRAS 12127 1412 was observed for the first time in the X-rays by our group. Its Chandra spectrum clearly shows the signatures of AGN reflection at 2 10 keV. Similar properties were previously found in IRAS 00182 7112. Our Suzaku observations will allow to pinpont the AGN emission above 10 keV, and will provide fundamental information on the physical and geometrical structure of Compton-thick AGN embedded in a nuclear starburst. These sources are believed to experience the very initial phase of the AGN feedback on the surrounding environment, eventually leading to the formation of powerful optically- bright quasars. Besides this, we stress another remarkable opportunity related to the study of these two ULIRGs. Due to their really unique mid-IR and hard X-ray spectral properties, IRAS 00182 7112 and IRAS 12127 1412 can be considered as representative templates for a significant fraction of the obscured AGN population. Their broadband spectral energy distribution can then be used to calibrate new photometric diagnostics based on mid-IR colors and bolometric corrections, capable of selecting their faint counterparts within the IR deep fields. The wealth of data in the WISE and Spitzer archives will allow a complete census of this AGN subclass. The reflection efficiency inferred from our new Suzaku observations will make

  10. Characterization of a Compton suppression system and the applicability of Poisson statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, G.; Landsberger, S.; Welch, L.

    2008-01-01

    The Compton suppression system (CSS) has been thoroughly characterized at the University of Texas' Nuclear Engineering Teaching Laboratory (NETL). Effects of dead-time, sample displacement from primary detector, and primary energy detector position relative to the active shield detector have been measured and analyzed. Also, the applicability of Poisson counting statistics to Compton suppression spectroscopy has been evaluated. (author)

  11. The Compton Camera - medical imaging with higher sensitivity Exhibition LEPFest 2000

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    The Compton Camera reconstructs the origin of Compton-scattered X-rays using electronic collimation with Silicon pad detectors instead of the heavy conventional lead collimators in Anger cameras - reaching up to 200 times better sensitivity and a factor two improvement in resolution. Possible applications are in cancer diagnosis, neurology neurobiology, and cardiology.

  12. PET-COMPTON System. Comparative evaluation with PET System using Monte Carlo Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Garcia, Angelina; Arista Romeu, Eduardo; Abreu Alfonso, Yamiel; Leyva Fabelo, Antonio; Pinnera HernAndez, Ibrahin; Bolannos Perez, Lourdes; Rubio Rodriguez, Juan A.; Perez Morales, Jose M.; Arce Dubois, Pedro; Vela Morales, Oscar; Willmott Zappacosta, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in small animals has actually achieved spatial resolution round about 1 mm and currently there are under study different approaches to improve this spatial resolution. One of them combines PET technology with Compton Cameras. This paper presents the idea of the so called PET-Compton systems and has included comparative evaluation of spatial resolution and global efficiency in both PET and PET-Compton system by means of Monte Carlo simulations using Geant4 code. Simulation was done on a PET-Compton system made-up of LYSO-LuYAP scintillating detectors of particular small animal PET scanner named Clear-PET and for Compton detectors based on CdZnTe semiconductor. A group of radionuclides that emits a positron (e+) and quantum almost simultaneously and fulfills some selection criteria for their possible use in PET-Compton systems for medical and biological applications were studied under simulation conditions. By means of analytical reconstruction using SSRB (Single Slide Rebinning) method were obtained superior spatial resolution in PET-Compton system for all tested radionuclides (reaching sub-millimeter values of for 22Na source). However this analysis done by simulation have shown limited global efficiency values in PET-Compton system (in the order of 10 -5 -10 -6 %) instead of values around 5*10 -1 % that have been achieved in PET system. (author)

  13. Compton camera imaging and the cone transform: a brief overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzioglu, Fatma; Kuchment, Peter; Kunyansky, Leonid

    2018-05-01

    While most of Radon transform applications to imaging involve integrations over smooth sub-manifolds of the ambient space, lately important situations have appeared where the integration surfaces are conical. Three of such applications are single scatter optical tomography, Compton camera medical imaging, and homeland security. In spite of the similar surfaces of integration, the data and the inverse problems associated with these modalities differ significantly. In this article, we present a brief overview of the mathematics arising in Compton camera imaging. In particular, the emphasis is made on the overdetermined data and flexible geometry of the detectors. For the detailed results, as well as other approaches (e.g. smaller-dimensional data or restricted geometry of detectors) the reader is directed to the relevant publications. Only a brief description and some references are provided for the single scatter optical tomography. This work was supported in part by NSF DMS grants 1211463 (the first two authors), 1211521 and 141877 (the third author), as well as a College of Science of Texas A&M University grant.

  14. Comptonization effects in spherical accretion onto black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ipser, J.R.; Price, R.H.

    1983-01-01

    For spherical accretion of gas onto a black hole, dissipative heating (from magnetic reconnection), dissipation of turbulence, etc.) leads at high accretion rates to densities and temperatures at which Comptonization unavoidably plays an important role, both in determining gas temperature and in forming the emergent spectrum. A careful and reliable treatment of the interaction of the gas with the radiation field is greatly complicated by the necessity of dealing with the essentially nonlocal nature of Comptonization. We limit ourselves here to finding approximate descriptions of some observational features of such astrophysical objects with a simple, yet justifiable, Ansatz that evades the complexities of nonlocality. The results for accretion spectra are of interest, e.g., in connection with galactic halo objects (1--10 5 M/sub sun/). High mass (10 7 --10 10 M/sub sun/) cases are of interest as models for active galactic nuclei. In particular, a very natural connection between the ratio of luminosity to Eddington luminosity and the hardness of X-ray spectra emerges, suggesting that the observed X-ray hardness ratios of luminous sources are a consequence of those sources being more or less Eddington limited

  15. Compton Scattering of Quasi-Real Virtual Photons at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Achard, P.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Alcaraz, J.; Alemanni, G.; Allaby, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alviggi, M.G.; Anderhub, H.; Andreev, Valery P.; Anselmo, F.; Arefiev, A.; Azemoon, T.; Aziz, T.; Bagnaia, P.; Bajo, A.; Baksay, G.; Baksay, L.; Baldew, S.V.; Banerjee, S.; Banerjee, Sw.; Barczyk, A.; Barillere, R.; Bartalini, P.; Basile, M.; Batalova, N.; Battiston, R.; Bay, A.; Becattini, F.; Becker, U.; Behner, F.; Bellucci, L.; Berbeco, R.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Betev, B.L.; Biasini, M.; Biglietti, M.; Biland, A.; Blaising, J.J.; Blyth, S.C.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bohm, A.; Boldizsar, L.; Borgia, B.; Bottai, S.; Bourilkov, D.; Bourquin, M.; Braccini, S.; Branson, J.G.; Brochu, F.; Burger, J.D.; Burger, W.J.; Cai, X.D.; Capell, M.; Cara Romeo, G.; Carlino, G.; Cartacci, A.; Casaus, J.; Cavallari, F.; Cavallo, N.; Cecchi, C.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo, M.; Chang, Y.H.; Chemarin, M.; Chen, A.; Chen, G.; Chen, G.M.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, H.S.; Chiefari, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Clare, I.; Clare, R.; Coignet, G.; Colino, N.; Costantini, S.; de la Cruz, B.; Cucciarelli, S.; de Asmundis, R.; Deglon, P.; Debreczeni, J.; Degre, A.; Dehmelt, K.; Deiters, K.; della Volpe, D.; Delmeire, E.; Denes, P.; DeNotaristefani, F.; De Salvo, A.; Diemoz, M.; Dierckxsens, M.; Dionisi, C.; Dittmar, M.; Doria, A.; Dova, M.T.; Duchesneau, D.; Duda, M.; Echenard, B.; Eline, A.; El Hage, A.; El Mamouni, H.; Engler, A.; Eppling, F.J.; Extermann, P.; Falagan, M.A.; Falciano, S.; Favara, A.; Fay, J.; Fedin, O.; Felcini, M.; Ferguson, T.; Fesefeldt, H.; Fiandrini, E.; Field, J.H.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, P.H.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, I.; Forconi, G.; Freudenreich, K.; Furetta, C.; Galaktionov, Iouri; Ganguli, S.N.; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gataullin, M.; Gentile, S.; Giagu, S.; Gong, Z.F.; Grenier, Gerald Jean; Grimm, O.; Gruenewald, M.W.; Guida, M.; Gupta, V.K.; Gurtu, A.; Gutay, L.J.; Haas, D.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hebbeker, T.; Herve, Alain; Hirschfelder, J.; Hofer, H.; Hohlmann, M.; Holzner, G.; Hou, S.R.; Jin, B.N.; Jindal, P.; Jones, Lawrence W.; de Jong, P.; Josa-Mutuberria, I.; Kaur, M.; Kienzle-Focacci, M.N.; Kim, J.K.; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, W.; Klimentov, A.; Konig, A.C.; Kopal, M.; Koutsenko, V.; Kraber, M.; Kraemer, R.W.; Kruger, A.; Kunin, A.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Laktineh, I.; Landi, G.; Lebeau, M.; Lebedev, A.; Lebrun, P.; Lecomte, P.; Lecoq, P.; Le Coultre, P.; Le Goff, J.M.; Leiste, R.; Levtchenko, M.; Levtchenko, P.; Li, C.; Likhoded, S.; Lin, C.H.; Lin, W.T.; Linde, F.L.; Lista, L.; Liu, Z.A.; Lohmann, W.; Longo, E.; Lu, Y.S.; Luci, C.; Luminari, L.; Lustermann, W.; Ma, W.G.; Malgeri, L.; Malinin, A.; Mana, C.; Mans, J.; Martin, J.P.; Marzano, F.; Mazumdar, K.; McNeil, R.R.; Mele, S.; Merola, L.; Meschini, M.; Metzger, W.J.; Mihul, A.; Milcent, H.; Mirabelli, G.; Mnich, J.; Mohanty, G.B.; Muanza, G.S.; Muijs, A.J.M.; Musicar, B.; Musy, M.; Nagy, S.; Natale, S.; Napolitano, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Newman, H.; Nisati, A.; Novak, T.; Kluge, Hannelies; Ofierzynski, R.; Organtini, G.; Pal, I.; Palomares, C.; Paolucci, P.; Paramatti, R.; Passaleva, G.; Patricelli, S.; Paul, Thomas Cantzon; Pauluzzi, M.; Paus, C.; Pauss, F.; Pedace, M.; Pensotti, S.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Piccolo, D.; Pierella, F.; Pioppi, M.; Piroue, P.A.; Pistolesi, E.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Pojidaev, V.; Pothier, J.; Prokofiev, D.; Rahal-Callot, G.; Rahaman, Mohammad Azizur; Raics, P.; Raja, N.; Ramelli, R.; Rancoita, P.G.; Ranieri, R.; Raspereza, A.; Razis, P.; Ren, D.; Rescigno, M.; Reucroft, S.; Riemann, S.; Riles, Keith; Roe, B.P.; Romero, L.; Rosca, A.; Rosemann, C.; Rosenbleck, C.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Roth, Stefan; Rubio, J.A.; Ruggiero, G.; Rykaczewski, H.; Sakharov, A.; Saremi, S.; Sarkar, S.; Salicio, J.; Sanchez, E.; Schafer, C.; Schegelsky, V.; Schmidt-Kaerst, S.; Schopper, H.; Schotanus, D.J.; Sciacca, C.; Servoli, L.; Shevchenko, S.; Shivarov, N.; Shoutko, V.; Shumilov, E.; Shvorob, A.; Son, D.; Souga, C.; Spillantini, P.; Steuer, M.; Stickland, D.P.; Stoyanov, B.; Straessner, A.; Sudhakar, K.; Sultanov, G.; Sun, L.Z.; Sushkov, S.; Suter, H.; Swain, J.D.; Szillasi, Z.; Tang, X.W.; Tarjan, P.; Tauscher, L.; Taylor, L.; Tellili, B.; Teyssier, D.; Timmermans, Charles; Ting, Samuel C.C.; Ting, S.M.; Tonwar, S.C.; Toth, J.; Tully, C.; Tung, K.L.; Ulbricht, J.; Valente, E.; Van de Walle, R.T.; Vasquez, R.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vetlitsky, I.; Viertel, G.; Villa, S.; Vivargent, M.; Vlachos, S.; Vodopianov, I.; Vogel, H.; Vogt, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Vorobyov, A.A.; Wadhwa, M.; Wang, Q.; Wang, X.L.; Wang, Z.M.; Weber, M.; Wynhoff, S.; Xia, L.; Xu, Z.Z.; Yamamoto, J.; Yang, B.Z.; Yang, H.J.; Yeh, S.C.; Zalite, An.; Zhang, Z.P.; Zhao, J.; Zhu, G.Y.; Zhu, R.Y.; Zhuang, H.L.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, B.; Zoller, M.

    2005-01-01

    Compton scattering of quasi-real virtual photons, gamma e+- -> gamma e+-, is studied with 0.6fb-1 of data collected by the L3 detector at the LEP e+e- collider at centre-of-mass energies root(s')=189-209GeV. About 4500 events produced by the interaction of virtual photons emitted by e+- of one beam with e-+ of the opposite beam are collected for effective centre-of-mass energies of the photon-electron and photon-positron systems in the range from root(s')= 35GeV up to root(s')=175GeV, the highest energy at which Compton scattering was ever probed. The cross sections of the gamma e+- -> gamma e+- process as a function of root(s') and of the rest-frame scattering angle are measured, combined with previous L3 measurements down to root(s')~20GeV, and found to agree with the QED expectations.

  16. Induced Compton scattering of a laser in an inhomogeneous plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.S.; Tripathi, V. K.

    2003-01-01

    A laser propagating through a high temperature low density plasma undergoes induced Compton backscattering involving the coupling of the laser pump and the scattered electromagnetic wave via the resonant electrons or the resistive quasimode. The region of nonlinear interaction is localized due to plasma inhomogeneity. At short density scale lengths when the interaction region is strongly localized and resonant electrons quickly move out of it, the electron distribution function remains Maxwellian and Compton reflectivity is significant at laser intensity >10 16 W/cm 2 . In gentle density gradients the resonant electrons are trapped in the ponderomotive and self-consistent potential well of the quasimode as they enter the interaction region. The ones with velocity v z p (v p being the phase velocity of the ponderomotive wave propagating along z direction) are accelerated to v p while those with v z >v p are retarded to v p . Since the number of the former is more than that of the latter there is a net momentum transfer to electrons. Momentum and action conservation lead to a reflectivity, R, that initially goes as the square of pump intensity, then rises gradually at higher intensity. R decreases rapidly with v th /v p , where v th is the thermal velocity of electrons

  17. Development of Compton gamma-ray sources at LLNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, F.; Anderson, S. G.; Ebbers, C. A.; Gibson, D. J.; Hartemann, F. V.; Marsh, R. A.; Messerly, M. J.; Prantil, M. A.; Wu, S.; Barty, C. P. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, NIF and Photon Science, 7000 East avenue, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)

    2012-12-21

    Compact Compton scattering gamma-ray sources offer the potential of studying nuclear photonics with new tools. The optimization of such sources depends on the final application, but generally requires maximizing the spectral density (photons/eV) of the gamma-ray beam while simultaneously reducing the overall bandwidth on target to minimize noise. We have developed an advanced design for one such system, comprising the RF drive, photoinjector, accelerator, and electron-generating and electron-scattering laser systems. This system uses a 120 Hz, 250 pC, 2 ps, 0.35 mm mrad electron beam with 250 MeV maximum energy in an X-band accelerator scattering off a 150 mJ, 10 ps, 532 nm laser to generate 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} photons/eV/s/Sr at 0.5 MeV with an overall bandwidth of less than 1%. The source will be able to produce photons up to energies of 2.5 MeV. We also discuss Compton scattering gamma-ray source predictions given by numerical codes.

  18. Compton Reflection in AGN with Simbol-X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, V.; Courvoisier, T. J.-L.; Gehrels, N.; Lubiński, P.; Malzac, J.; Petrucci, P. O.; Shrader, C. R.; Soldi, S.

    2009-05-01

    AGN exhibit complex hard X-ray spectra. Our current understanding is that the emission is dominated by inverse Compton processes which take place in the corona above the accretion disk, and that absorption and reflection in a distant absorber play a major role. These processes can be directly observed through the shape of the continuum, the Compton reflection hump around 30 keV, and the iron fluorescence line at 6.4 keV. We demonstrate the capabilities of Simbol-X to constrain complex models for cases like MCG-05-23-016, NGC 4151, NGC 2110, and NGC 4051 in short (10 ksec) observations. We compare the simulations with recent observations on these sources by INTEGRAL, Swift and Suzaku. Constraining reflection models for AGN with Simbol-X will help us to get a clear view of the processes and geometry near to the central engine in AGN, and will give insight to which sources are responsible for the Cosmic X-ray background at energies >20 keV.

  19. Design Study for Direction Variable Compton Scattering Gamma Ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kii, T.; Omer, M.; Negm, H.; Choi, Y. W.; Kinjo, R.; Yoshida, K.; Konstantin, T.; Kimura, N.; Ishida, K.; Imon, H.; Shibata, M.; Shimahashi, K.; Komai, T.; Okumura, K.; Zen, H.; Masuda, K.; Hori, T.; Ohgaki, H.

    2013-03-01

    A monochromatic gamma ray beam is attractive for isotope-specific material/medical imaging or non-destructive inspection. A laser Compton scattering (LCS) gamma ray source which is based on the backward Compton scattering of laser light on high-energy electrons can generate energy variable quasi-monochromatic gamma ray. Due to the principle of the LCS gamma ray, the direction of the gamma beam is limited to the direction of the high-energy electrons. Then the target object is placed on the beam axis, and is usually moved if spatial scanning is required. In this work, we proposed an electron beam transport system consisting of four bending magnets which can stick the collision point and control the electron beam direction, and a laser system consisting of a spheroidal mirror and a parabolic mirror which can also stick the collision point. Then the collision point can be placed on one focus of the spheroid. Thus gamma ray direction and collision angle between the electron beam and the laser beam can be easily controlled. As the results, travelling direction of the LCS gamma ray can be controlled under the limitation of the beam transport system, energy of the gamma ray can be controlled by controlling incident angle of the colliding beams, and energy spread can be controlled by changing the divergence of the laser beam.

  20. Detection of inverse Compton scattering in plasma wakefield experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohlen, Simon

    2016-12-15

    Inverse Compton scattering (ICS) is the process of scattering of photons and electrons, where the photons gain a part of the electrons energy. In combination with plasma wakefield acceleration (PWA), ICS offers a compact MeV γ-ray source. A numerical study of ICS radiation produced in PWA experiments at FLASHForward was performed, using an ICS simulation code and the results from particle-in-cell modelling. The possibility of determining electron beam properties from measurements of the γ-ray source was explored for a wide range of experimental conditions. It was found that information about the electron divergence, the electron spectrum and longitudinal information can be obtained from measurements of the ICS beams for some cases. For the measurement of the ICS profile at FLASHForward, a CsI(Tl) scintillator array was chosen, similar to scintillators used in other ICS experiments. To find a suitable detector for spectrum measurements, an experimental test of a Compton spectrometer at the RAL was conducted. This test showed that a similar spectrometer could also be used at FLASHForward. However, changes to the spectrometer could be needed in order to use the pair production effect. In addition, further studies using Geant4 could lead to a better reconstruction of the obtained data. The studies presented here show that ICS is a promising method to analyse electron parameters from PWA experiments in further detail.

  1. Asymmetry and the shift of the Compton profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, B.K.; Roy, S.C.; Suric, T.; LaJohn, L.A.; Pratt, R.H.

    2007-01-01

    We show that the conventionally defined asymmetry of the Compton profile (CP) is, to a large extent, simply a shift of CP. Compton scattering is widely used in studying the electron momentum distribution (EMD) of complex systems. Extraction of information about the EMD is based on an impulse approximation (IA) description of the process. In IA the scattering from bound electrons is described as scattering from the EMD of free electrons. Most often the angular and energy distributions of scattered photons (doubly differential cross sections (DDCS)) is measured and presented in terms of CP, which is just the DDCS normalized by a kinematical factor. The deviations of measured CP from the IA results are conventionally described as an asymmetry of CP about the IA peak position. IA predicts CP to be symmetric. We have examined the discrepancy between IA predictions (and the corresponding relativistic version of IA, RIA) and more rigorous approaches (A 2 and S-matrix), using independent particle approximations for the description of the bound state of electrons. In the nonrelativistic region (in which many measurements of CP are performed) we find that the conventional asymmetry can largely be understood as the shift of the peak position. The true asymmetry with respect to the shifted peak position is in fact much smaller. RIA has similar properties to IA, except that for atoms with high nuclear charge the p → .A → interaction may modify the shift and limit the utility of description as a shift

  2. Compton suppression gamma-counting: The effect of count rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, H.T.

    1984-01-01

    Past research has shown that anti-coincidence shielded Ge(Li) spectrometers enhanced the signal-to-background ratios for gamma-photopeaks, which are situated on high Compton backgrounds. Ordinarily, an anti- or non-coincidence spectrum (A) and a coincidence spectrum (C) are collected simultaneously with these systems. To be useful in neutron activation analysis (NAA), the fractions of the photopeak counts routed to the two spectra must be constant from sample to sample to variations must be corrected quantitatively. Most Compton suppression counting has been done at low count rate, but in NAA applications, count rates may be much higher. To operate over the wider dynamic range, the effect of count rate on the ratio of the photopeak counts in the two spectra (A/C) was studied. It was found that as the count rate increases, A/C decreases for gammas not coincident with other gammas from the same decay. For gammas coincident with other gammas, A/C increases to a maximum and then decreases. These results suggest that calibration curves are required to correct photopeak areas so quantitative data can be obtained at higher count rates. ?? 1984.

  3. Recording {gamma} spectrometer with elimination of compton background; Spectrographe {gamma} enregistreur avec elimination du bruit de fond compton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julliot, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    This instrument, derived from the recording {gamma} spectrograph, gives better definition of photoelectric peaks by elimination of pulses caused by {gamma} photons incompletely absorbed in the scintillator (Compton effect). This system uses an original method devised by Peirson: the spectrum, devoid of photoelectric peak, supplied by a detector equipped with an anthracene scintillator, is cut off from the spectrum provided by a conventional detector equipped with a Nal (T1) scintillator. The regulation of the mechanical system, detector support and source allows the detection yields to be adjusted. The electronic system is identical in presentation with that of the recording spectrograph. (author) [French] Cet appareil derive du spectrographe {gamma} enregistreur permet d'obtenir une meilleure definition des pics photoelectriques, par elimination des impulsions provenant des photons {gamma} incompletement absorbes dans le scintillateur (effet Compton). Cet ensemble met en oeuvre une methode originale due a Peirson: le spectre, depourvu de pic photoelectrique, fourni par un detecteur, equipe avec un scintillateur d'anthracene, est retranche du spectre donne par un detecteur classique, equipe avec un scintillateur de NaI (T1). Le reglage de l'ensemble mecanique, support des detecteurs et de la source, permet d'ajuster les rendements de detection. L'ensemble electronique se presente sous un aspect identique a celui du spectrographe enregistreur. (auteur)

  4. Topology optimised wavelength dependent splitters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, K. K.; Burgos Leon, J.; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn

    A photonic crystal wavelength dependent splitter has been constructed by utilising topology optimisation1. The splitter has been fabricated in a silicon-on-insulator material (Fig. 1). The topology optimised wavelength dependent splitter demonstrates promising 3D FDTD simulation results....... This complex photonic crystal structure is very sensitive against small fabrication variations from the expected topology optimised design. A wavelength dependent splitter is an important basic building block for high-performance nanophotonic circuits. 1J. S. Jensen and O. Sigmund, App. Phys. Lett. 84, 2022...

  5. AWG Filter for Wavelength Interrogator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Richard J. (Inventor); Costa, Joannes M. (Inventor); Faridian, Fereydoun (Inventor); Moslehi, Behzad (Inventor); Sotoudeh, Vahid (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A wavelength interrogator is coupled to a circulator which couples optical energy from a broadband source to an optical fiber having a plurality of sensors, each sensor reflecting optical energy at a unique wavelength and directing the reflected optical energy to an AWG. The AWG has a detector coupled to each output, and the reflected optical energy from each grating is coupled to the skirt edge response of the AWG such that the adjacent channel responses form a complementary pair response. The complementary pair response is used to convert an AWG skirt response to a wavelength.

  6. Towards short wavelengths FELs workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Zvi, I.; Winick, H.

    1993-01-01

    This workshop was caged because of the growing perception in the FEL source community that recent advances have made it possible to extend FEL operation to wavelengths about two orders of magnitude shorter than the 240 nm that has been achieved to date. In addition short wavelength FELs offer the possibilities of extremely high peak power (several gigawatts) and very short pulses (of the order of 100 fs). Several groups in the USA are developing plans for such short wavelength FEL facilities. However, reviewers of these plans have pointed out that it would be highly desirable to first carry out proof-of-principle experiments at longer wavelengths to increase confidence that the shorter wavelength devices will indeed perform as calculated. The need for such experiments has now been broadly accepted by the FEL community. Such experiments were the main focus of this workshop as described in the following objectives distributed to attendees: (1) Define measurements needed to gain confidence that short wavelength FELs will perform as calculated. (2) List possible hardware that could be used to carry out these measurements in the near term. (3) Define a prioritized FEL physics experimental program and suggested timetable. (4) Form collaborative teams to carry out this program

  7. Towards short wavelengths FELs workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Zvi, I.; Winick, H.

    1993-11-01

    This workshop was caged because of the growing perception in the FEL source community that recent advances have made it possible to extend FEL operation to wavelengths about two orders of magnitude shorter than the 240 nm that has been achieved to date. In addition short wavelength FEL's offer the possibilities of extremely high peak power (several gigawatts) and very short pulses (of the order of 100 fs). Several groups in the USA are developing plans for such short wavelength FEL facilities. However, reviewers of these plans have pointed out that it would be highly desirable to first carry out proof-of-principle experiments at longer wavelengths to increase confidence that the shorter wavelength devices will indeed perform as calculated. The need for such experiments has now been broadly accepted by the FEL community. Such experiments were the main focus of this workshop as described in the following objectives distributed to attendees: (1) Define measurements needed to gain confidence that short wavelength FEL's will perform as calculated. (2) List possible hardware that could be used to carry out these measurements in the near term. (3) Define a prioritized FEL physics experimental program and suggested timetable. (4) Form collaborative teams to carry out this program.

  8. A Compton camera application for the GAMOS GEANT4-based framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harkness, L.J., E-mail: ljh@ns.ph.liv.ac.uk [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Arce, P. [Department of Basic Research, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Judson, D.S.; Boston, A.J.; Boston, H.C.; Cresswell, J.R.; Dormand, J.; Jones, M.; Nolan, P.J.; Sampson, J.A.; Scraggs, D.P.; Sweeney, A. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Lazarus, I.; Simpson, J. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom)

    2012-04-11

    Compton camera systems can be used to image sources of gamma radiation in a variety of applications such as nuclear medicine, homeland security and nuclear decommissioning. To locate gamma-ray sources, a Compton camera employs electronic collimation, utilising Compton kinematics to reconstruct the paths of gamma rays which interact within the detectors. The main benefit of this technique is the ability to accurately identify and locate sources of gamma radiation within a wide field of view, vastly improving the efficiency and specificity over existing devices. Potential advantages of this imaging technique, along with advances in detector technology, have brought about a rapidly expanding area of research into the optimisation of Compton camera systems, which relies on significant input from Monte-Carlo simulations. In this paper, the functionality of a Compton camera application that has been integrated into GAMOS, the GEANT4-based Architecture for Medicine-Oriented Simulations, is described. The application simplifies the use of GEANT4 for Monte-Carlo investigations by employing a script based language and plug-in technology. To demonstrate the use of the Compton camera application, simulated data have been generated using the GAMOS application and acquired through experiment for a preliminary validation, using a Compton camera configured with double sided high purity germanium strip detectors. Energy spectra and reconstructed images for the data sets are presented.

  9. Science Flight Program of the Nuclear Compton Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggs, Steven

    This is the lead proposal for this program. We are proposing a 5-year program to perform the scientific flight program of the Nuclear Compton Telescope (NCT), consisting of a series of three (3) scientific balloon flights. NCT is a balloon-borne, wide-field telescope designed to survey the gamma-ray sky (0.2-5 MeV), performing high-resolution spectroscopy, wide-field imaging, and polarization measurements. NCT has been rebuilt as a ULDB payload under the current 2-year APRA grant. (In that proposal we stated our goal was to return at this point to propose the scientific flight program.) The NCT rebuild/upgrade is on budget and schedule to achieve flight-ready status in Fall 2013. Science: NCT will map the Galactic positron annihilation emission, shedding more light on the mysterious concentration of this emission uncovered by INTEGRAL. NCT will survey Galactic nucleosynthesis and the role of supernova and other stellar populations in the creation and evolution of the elements. NCT will map 26-Al and positron annihilation with unprecedented sensitivity and uniform exposure, perform the first mapping of 60-Fe, search for young, hidden supernova remnants through 44-Ti emission, and enable a host of other nuclear astrophysics studies. NCT will also study compact objects (in our Galaxy and AGN) and GRBs, providing novel measurements of polarization as well as detailed spectra and light curves. Design: NCT is an array of germanium gamma-ray detectors configured in a compact, wide-field Compton telescope configuration. The array is shielded on the sides and bottom by an active anticoincidence shield but is open to the 25% of the sky above for imaging, spectroscopy, and polarization measurements. The instrument is mounted on a zenith-pointed gondola, sweeping out ~50% of the sky each day. This instrument builds off the Compton telescope technique pioneered by COMPTEL on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. However, by utilizing modern germanium semiconductor strip detectors

  10. Fast cooling of bunches in compton storage rings*

    CERN Document Server

    Bulyak, E; Zimmermann, F

    2011-01-01

    We propose an enhancement of laser radiative cooling by utilizing laser pulses of small spatial and temporal dimensions, which interact only with a fraction of an electron bunch circulating in a storage ring. We studied the dynamics of such electron bunch when laser photons scatter off the electrons at a collision point placed in a section with nonzero dispersion. In this case of ‘asymmetric cooling’, the stationary energy spread is much smaller than under conditions of regular scattering where the laser spot size is larger than the electron beam; and the synchrotron oscillations are damped faster. Coherent oscillations of large amplitude may be damped within one synchrotron period, so that this method can support the rapid successive injection of many bunches in longitudinal phase space for stacking purposes. Results of extensive simulations are presented for the performance optimization of Compton gamma-ray sources and damping rings.

  11. Laser propagation and compton scattering in parabolic plasma channel

    CERN Document Server

    Dongguo, L; Yokoya, K; Hirose, T

    2003-01-01

    A Gaussian laser beam propagating in a parabolic plasma channel is discussed in this paper. For a weak laser, plasma density perturbation induced by interaction between the laser field and plasma is very small, the refractive index can be assumed to be constant with respect to time variable. For a parabolic plasma channel, through the static propagation equation, we obtain an analytical solution of the profile function of the Gaussian laser beam for an unmatched case and give the general condition for the matched case. As the laser intensity increases, an effect due to strong laser fields is included. We discuss how to design and select the distribution of plasma density for a certain experiment in which a plasma channel is utilized to guide a laser beam. The number of scattered photons (X-rays) generated through Compton backscattering in a plasma channel is discussed. (author)

  12. Second LaBr3 Compton Telescope Prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llosa, Gabriela; Cabello, Jorge; Gillam, John-E.; Lacasta, Carlos; Oliver, Josep F.; Rafecas, Magdalena; Solaz, Carles; Solevi, Paola; Stankova, Vera; Torres-Espallardo, Irene; Trovato, Marco

    2013-06-01

    A Compton telescope for dose delivery monitoring in hadron therapy is under development at IFIC Valencia within the European project ENVISION. The telescope will consist of three detector planes, each one composed of a LaBr 3 continuous scintillator crystal coupled to four silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) arrays. After the development of a first prototype which served to assess the principle, a second prototype with larger crystals has been assembled and is being tested. The current version of the prototype consists of two detector layers, each one composed of a 32.5 x 35 mm 2 crystal coupled to four SiPM arrays. The VATA64HDR16 ASIC has been employed as front-end electronics. The readout system consists of a custom made data acquisition board. Tests with point-like sources have been carried out in the laboratory, assessing the correct functioning of the device. The system optimization is ongoing. (authors)

  13. Compton scattering from nuclei and photo-absorption sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorchtein, Mikhail; Hobbs, Timothy; Londergan, J. Timothy; Szczepaniak, Adam P.

    2011-01-01

    We revisit the photo-absorption sum rule for real Compton scattering from the proton and from nuclear targets. In analogy with the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule appropriate at low energies, we propose a new 'constituent quark model' sum rule that relates the integrated strength of hadronic resonances to the scattering amplitude on constituent quarks. We study the constituent quark model sum rule for several nuclear targets. In addition, we extract the α=0 pole contribution for both proton and nuclei. Using the modern high-energy proton data, we find that the α=0 pole contribution differs significantly from the Thomson term, in contrast with the original findings by Damashek and Gilman.

  14. Laser-Compton Scattering as a Potential Electron Beam Monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chouffani, K.; Wells, D.; Harmon, F.; Lancaster, G.; Jones, J.

    2002-01-01

    LCS experiments were carried out at the Idaho Accelerator Center (IAC); sharp monochromatic x-ray lines were observed. These are produced using the so-called inverse Compton effect, whereby optical laser photons are collided with a relativistic electron beam. The back-scattered photons are then kinematically boosted to keV x-ray energies. We have first demonstrated these beams using a 20 MeV electron beam collided with a 100 MW, 7 ns Nd; YAG laser. We observed narrow LCS x-ray spectral peaks resulting from the interaction of the electron beam with the Nd; YAG laser second harmonic (532 nm). The LCS x-ray energy lines and energy deviations were measured as a function of the electron beam energy and energy-spread respectively. The results showed good agreement with the predicted valves. LCS could provide an excellent probe of electron beam energy, energy spread, transverse and longitudinal distribution and direction

  15. Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering Studies at Jefferson Lab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabatie, F.

    2010-11-01

    This document describes the early experimental effort at Jefferson Lab to unravel the Generalized Parton Distributions (GPD), using the Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) process. The GPDs contain the usual form factors and parton distribution functions, but in addition, they include correlations between states of different longitudinal and transverse momenta. They therefore give access to a three-dimensional picture of the nucleon. DVCS is the cleanest process allowing to extract GPDs, and as early as 2000, a number of experiments were proposed for this purpose. The results of the first exploratory experiments are presented as well as the first measurements of linear combinations of GPDs. In addition, a thorough discussion on the insights gained from these early experiments is proposed, linked with the theoretical tools used to extract GPDs from DVCS data. Finally, improvements on what was done for this first experimental phase are proposed and discussed, and new proposals and measurements are described. (author)

  16. Compton imaging with the PorGamRays spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judson, D.S., E-mail: dsj@ns.ph.liv.ac.uk [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L697ZE (United Kingdom); Boston, A.J. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L697ZE (United Kingdom); Coleman-Smith, P.J. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Cullen, D.M. [Schuster Laboratory, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Hardie, A. [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Harkness, L.J. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L697ZE (United Kingdom); Jones, L.L. [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Jones, M. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L697ZE (United Kingdom); Lazarus, I. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Nolan, P.J. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L697ZE (United Kingdom); Pucknell, V. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Rigby, S.V. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L697ZE (United Kingdom); Seller, P. [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Scraggs, D.P. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L697ZE (United Kingdom); Simpson, J. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Slee, M.; Sweeney, A. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L697ZE (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-01

    The PorGamRays project aims to develop a portable gamma-ray detection system with both spectroscopic and imaging capabilities. The system is designed around a stack of thin Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detectors. The imaging capability utilises the Compton camera principle. Each detector is segmented into 100 pixels which are read out through custom designed Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs). This device has potential applications in the security, decommissioning and medical fields. This work focuses on the near-field imaging performance of a lab-based demonstrator consisting of two pixelated CZT detectors, each of which is bonded to a NUCAM II ASIC. Measurements have been made with point {sup 133}Ba and {sup 57}Co sources located {approx}35mm from the surface of the scattering detector. Position resolution of {approx}20mm FWHM in the x and y planes is demonstrated.

  17. Virtual compton scattering on the proton below pion threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertin, P.Y.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary results of an electron-proton interaction experiment carried out with the accelerator of MAMI at Mainz (Germany) for the recording of virtual compton scattering events. More than 2 10 4 events were recorded in a two days run with a liquid hydrogen target. The main limitation for the counting rate comes from the limitation of the acquisition rate (100 Hz) and the single rates (10 5 ) in the drift chambers. The aim of this experiment is the understanding of both the low energy expansion and the generalized polarizabilities in order to compare, confirm or exclude the models of Quantum Chromodynamics used for the understanding of the nucleon. (J.S.). 3 refs., 5 figs

  18. Virtual compton scattering on the proton below pion threshold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertin, P.Y.; VCS Collaboration

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents the preliminary results of an electron-proton interaction experiment carried out with the accelerator of MAMI at Mainz (Germany) for the recording of virtual compton scattering events. More than 2 10{sup 4} events were recorded in a two days run with a liquid hydrogen target. The main limitation for the counting rate comes from the limitation of the acquisition rate (100 Hz) and the single rates (10{sup 5}) in the drift chambers. The aim of this experiment is the understanding of both the low energy expansion and the generalized polarizabilities in order to compare, confirm or exclude the models of Quantum Chromodynamics used for the understanding of the nucleon. (J.S.). 3 refs., 5 figs.

  19. Lorentz violation and black-hole thermodynamics: Compton scattering process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kant, E.; Klinkhamer, F.R.; Schreck, M.

    2009-01-01

    A Lorentz-noninvariant modification of quantum electrodynamics (QED) is considered, which has photons described by the nonbirefringent sector of modified Maxwell theory and electrons described by the standard Dirac theory. These photons and electrons are taken to propagate and interact in a Schwarzschild spacetime background. For appropriate Lorentz-violating parameters, the photons have an effective horizon lying outside the Schwarzschild horizon. A particular type of Compton scattering event, taking place between these two horizons (in the photonic ergoregion) and ultimately decreasing the mass of the black hole, is found to have a nonzero probability. These events perhaps allow for a violation of the generalized second law of thermodynamics in the Lorentz-noninvariant theory considered.

  20. Anomalous neutron Compton scattering cross section in zirconium hydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul-Redah, T.; Krzystyniak, M.; Mayers, J.; Chatzidimitriou-Dreismann, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    In the last few years we observed a shortfall of intensity of neutrons scattered from protons in various materials including metal hydrogen systems using neutron Compton scattering (NCS) on the VESUVIO instrument (ISIS, UK). This anomaly has been attributed to the existence of short-lived quantum entangled states of protons in these materials. Here we report on results of very recent NCS measurements on ZrH 2 at room temperature. Also here an anomalous shortfall of scattering intensity due to protons is observed. In contrast to previous experiments on NbH 0.8 , the anomalies found in ZrH 2 are independent of the scattering angle (or momentum transfer). These different results are discussed in the light of recent criticisms and experimental tests related to the data analysis procedure on VESUVIO

  1. Generation of laser Compton gamma-rays using Compact ERL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shizuma, Toshiyuki; Hajima, Ryoichi; Nagai, Ryoji; Hayakawa, Takehito; Mori, Michiaki; Seya, Michio

    2015-01-01

    Nondestructive isotope-specific assay system using nuclear resonance fluorescence has been developed at JAEA. In this system, intense, mono-energetic laser Compton scattering (LCS) gamma-rays are generated by combining an energy recovery linac (ERL) and laser enhancement cavity. As technical development for such an intense gamma-ray source, we demonstrated generation of LCS gamma-rays using Compact ERL (supported by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology) developed in collaboration with KEK. We also measured X-ray fluorescence for elements near iron region by using mono-energetic LCS gamma-rays. In this presentation, we will show results of the experiment and future plan. (author)

  2. A Compton camera prototype for prompt gamma medical imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirolf P.G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Compton camera prototype for a position-sensitive detection of prompt γ rays from proton-induced nuclear reactions is being developed in Garching. The detector system allows to track the Comptonscattered electrons. The camera consists of a monolithic LaBr3:Ce scintillation absorber crystal, read out by a multi-anode PMT, preceded by a stacked array of 6 double-sided silicon strip detectors acting as scatterers. The LaBr3:Ce crystal has been characterized with radioactive sources. Online commissioning measurements were performed with a pulsed deuteron beam at the Garching Tandem accelerator and with a clinical proton beam at the OncoRay facility in Dresden. The determination of the interaction point of the photons in the monolithic crystal was investigated.

  3. Deeply virtual compton scattering in color dipole formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, Magno V.T.

    2007-01-01

    In this contribution we summarize recent investigations on the Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) within the color dipole approach. The color dipole cross section is implemented through the phenomenological saturation model. The role played by its QCD evolution and skewedness effects in the DVCS cross section are discussed. The results are compared with the recent H1 and ZEUS Collaborations data. The skewing factor, defined as the ratio of the imaginary parts of the amplitudes Im A(γ* p → γ* p)/ Im A(γ* p → γ p) can be extracted from the data using recent DVCS and the inclusive inelastic cross section measurements at DESY-HERA. We report on this experimental extraction and compare the results to the theoretical predictions for NLO QCD and the color dipole approach. (author)

  4. Hybrid coded aperture and Compton imaging using an active mask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, L.J.; Wallace, M.S.; Galassi, M.C.; Hoover, A.S.; Mocko, M.; Palmer, D.M.; Tornga, S.R.; Kippen, R.M.; Hynes, M.V.; Toolin, M.J.; Harris, B.; McElroy, J.E.; Wakeford, D.; Lanza, R.C.; Horn, B.K.P.; Wehe, D.K.

    2009-01-01

    The trimodal imager (TMI) images gamma-ray sources from a mobile platform using both coded aperture (CA) and Compton imaging (CI) modalities. In this paper we will discuss development and performance of image reconstruction algorithms for the TMI. In order to develop algorithms in parallel with detector hardware we are using a GEANT4 [J. Allison, K. Amako, J. Apostolakis, H. Araujo, P.A. Dubois, M. Asai, G. Barrand, R. Capra, S. Chauvie, R. Chytracek, G. Cirrone, G. Cooperman, G. Cosmo, G. Cuttone, G. Daquino, et al., IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-53 (1) (2006) 270] based simulation package to produce realistic data sets for code development. The simulation code incorporates detailed detector modeling, contributions from natural background radiation, and validation of simulation results against measured data. Maximum likelihood algorithms for both imaging methods are discussed, as well as a hybrid imaging algorithm wherein CA and CI information is fused to generate a higher fidelity reconstruction.

  5. Longitudinal Target-Spin Asymmetries for Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seder, E.; Biselli, A.; Pisano, S.; Niccolai, S.; Smith, G. D.; Joo, K.; Adhikari, K.; Amaryan, M. J.; Anderson, M. D.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Avakian, H.; Battaglieri, M.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Bono, J.; Boiarinov, S.; Bosted, P.; Briscoe, W.; Brock, J.; Brooks, W. K.; Bültmann, S.; Burkert, V. D.; Carman, D. S.; Carlin, C.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Charles, G.; Colaneri, L.; Cole, P. L.; Contalbrigo, M.; Crabb, D.; Crede, V.; D'Angelo, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Doughty, D.; Dupre, R.; El Fassi, L.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Eugenio, P.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Filippi, A.; Fleming, J. A.; Fradi, A.; Garillon, B.; Garçon, M.; Gevorgyan, N.; Ghandilyan, Y.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Goetz, J. T.; Gohn, W.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guegan, B.; Guidal, M.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Hakobyan, H.; Hanretty, C.; Harrison, N.; Hattawy, M.; Hirlinger Saylor, N.; Holtrop, M.; Hughes, S. M.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Isupov, E. L.; Jo, H. S.; Joosten, S.; Keith, C. D.; Keller, D.; Khachatryan, G.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; Klein, A.; Klein, F. J.; Koirala, S.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuhn, S. E.; Lenisa, P.; Livingston, K.; Lu, H. Y.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Markov, N.; Mayer, M.; McKinnon, B.; Meekins, D. G.; Mineeva, T.; Mirazita, M.; Mokeev, V.; Montgomery, R.; Moody, C. I.; Moutarde, H.; Movsisyan, A.; Munoz Camacho, C.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Niculescu, I.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Paolone, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Park, K.; Park, S.; Pasyuk, E.; Peng, P.; Phelps, W.; Pogorelko, O.; Price, J. W.; Prok, Y.; Protopopescu, D.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Ripani, M.; Rizzo, A.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Roy, P.; Sabatié, F.; Salgado, C.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Senderovich, I.; Simonyan, A.; Skorodumina, I.; Sokhan, D.; Sparveris, N.; Stepanyan, S.; Stoler, P.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Strauch, S.; Sytnik, V.; Taiuti, M.; Tang, W.; Tian, Y.; Ungaro, M.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N. K.; Watts, D. P.; Wei, X.; Weinstein, L. B.; Wood, M. H.; Zachariou, N.; Zana, L.; Zhang, J.; Zonta, I.; CLAS Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    A measurement of the electroproduction of photons off protons in the deeply inelastic regime was performed at Jefferson Lab using a nearly 6 GeV electron beam, a longitudinally polarized proton target, and the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer. Target-spin asymmetries for e p →e'p'γ events, which arise from the interference of the deeply virtual Compton scattering and the Bethe-Heitler processes, were extracted over the widest kinematics in Q2 , xB, t , and ϕ , for 166 four-dimensional bins. In the framework of generalized parton distributions, at leading twist the t dependence of these asymmetries provides insight into the spatial distribution of the axial charge of the proton, which appears to be concentrated in its center. These results also bring important and necessary constraints for the existing parametrizations of chiral-even generalized parton distributions.

  6. Deeply virtual Compton scattering from gauge/gravity duality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Miguel S.; Djuric, Marko [University of Porto (Portugal)

    2013-04-15

    We use gauge/gravity duality to study deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) in the limit of high center of mass energy at fixed momentum transfer, corresponding to the limit of low Bjorken x, where the process is dominated by the exchange of the pomeron. At strong coupling, the pomeron is described as the graviton Regge trajectory in AdS space, with a hard wall to mimic confinement effects. This model agrees with HERA data in a large kinematical range. The behavior of the DVCS cross section for very high energies, inside saturation, can be explained by a simple AdS black disk model. In a restricted kinematical window, this model agrees with HERA data as well.

  7. Deeply virtual Compton scattering from gauge/gravity duality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Miguel S.; Djurić, Marko

    2013-01-01

    We use gauge/gravity duality to study deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) in the limit of high center of mass energy at fixed momentum transfer, corresponding to the limit of low Bjorken x, where the process is dominated by the exchange of the pomeron. At strong coupling, the pomeron is described as the graviton Regge trajectory in AdS space, with a hard wall to mimic confinement effects. This model agrees with HERA data in a large kinematical range. The behavior of the DVCS cross section for very high energies, inside saturation, can be explained by a simple AdS black disk model. In a restricted kinematical window, this model agrees with HERA data as well.

  8. Nuclear photon science with inverse compton photon beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Mamoru

    2007-01-01

    Recent developments of the synchrotron radiation facilities and intense lasers are now guiding us to a new research frontier with probes of a high energy GeV photon beam and an intense and short pulse MeV γ-ray beam. New directions of the science developments with photo-nuclear reactions are discussed. The inverse Compton γ-ray has two good advantages for searching for a microscopic quantum world; they are 1) good emittance and 2) high linear and circular polarizations. With these advantages, photon beams in the energy range from MeV to GeV are used for studying hadron structure, nuclear structure, astrophysics, materials science, as well as for applying medical science. (author)

  9. Measurement of Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aktas, A.; Anthonis, T.; Aplin, S.; Asmone, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Babaev, A.; Backovic, S.; Bahr, J.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baudrand, S.; Baumgartner, S.; Becker, J.; Beckingham, M.; Behnke, O.; Behrendt, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, Ch.; Berger, N.; Bizot, J.C.; Boenig, M.-O.; Boudry, V.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brisson, V.; Brown, D.P.; Bruncko, D.; Busser, F.W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Caron, S.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Contreras, J.G.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cox, B.E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Dau, W.D.; Daum, K.; de Boer, Y.; Delcourt, B.; Demirchyan, R.; De Roeck, A.; Desch, K.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, Guenter; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Ellerbrock, M.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, W.; Essenov, S.; Falkewicz, A.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Ferencei, J.; Finke, L.; Fleischer, M.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleming, Y.H.; Flucke, G.; Fomenko, A.; Foresti, I.; Franke, G.; Frisson, T.; Gabathuler, E.; Garutti, E.; Gayler, J.; Gerlich, C.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Ginzburgskaya, S.; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Goettlich, M.; Gogitidze, N.; Gorbounov, S.; Goyon, C.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Gregori, M.; Grell, B.R.; Grindhammer, Guenter; Gwilliam, C.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Haller, J.; Hansson, M.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Henschel, H.; Henshaw, O.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Ibbotson, M.; Ismail, M.; Jacquet, M.; Janauschek, L.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, D.P.; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Keller, N.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, Christian M.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Klimkovich, T.; Kluge, T.; Knies, G.; Knutsson, A.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Koutouev, R.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kruger, K.; Kuckens, J.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka, T.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leiner, B.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindfeld, L.; Lipka, K.; List, B.; Lobodzinska, E.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I.; Lueders, H.; Luke, D.; Lux, T.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malden, N.; Malinovski, E.; Mangano, S.; Marage, P.; Marshall, R.; Martisikova, M.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxeld, S.J.; Meer, D.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Milstead, D.; Mladenov, D.; Mohamed, A.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nankov, K.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, Paul R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nikitin, D.; Nowak, G.; Nozicka, M.; Oganezov, R.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J.E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Papadopoulou, T.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Peez, M.; Perez, E.; Perez-Astudillo, D.; Perieanu, A.; Petrukhin, A.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Portheault, B.; Povh, B.; Prideaux, P.; Raicevic, N.; Reimer, P.; Rimmer, A.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Salvaire, F.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauvan, E.; Schatzel, S.; Schilling, F.-P.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, C.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schroder, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Sedlak, K.; Sefkow, F.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Sirois, Y.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Strauch, I.; Straumann, U.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, Graham; Thompson, P.D.; Tomasz, F.; Traynor, D.; Truoel, Peter; Tsakov, I.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Urban, Marcel; Usik, A.; Utkin, D.; Valkar, S.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Veelken, C.; Vest, A.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; Vujicic, B.; Wacker, K.; Wagner, J.; Weber, G.; Weber, R.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Werner, N.; Wessels, M.; Wessling, B.; Wigmore, C.; Wissing, Ch.; Wolf, R.; Wunsch, E.; Xella, S.; Yan, W.; Yeganov, V.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokin, A.; Zimmermann, J.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.

    2005-01-01

    A measurement is presented of elastic deeply virtual Compton scattering \\gamma* p \\to \\gamma p made using e^+ p collision data corresponding to a luminosity of 46.5 pb^{-1}, taken with the H1 detector at HERA. The cross section is measured as a function of the photon virtuality, Q^2, the invariant mass of the \\gamma* p system, W, and for the first time, differentially in the squared momentum transfer at the proton vertex, t, in the kinematic range 2 < Q^2 < 80 GeV^2, 30 < W < 140 GeV and |t| < 1 GeV^2. QCD based calculations at next-to-leading order using generalized parton distributions can describe the data, as can colour dipole model predictions.

  10. Deeply virtual compton scattering at 6 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthot, J.; Chen, J.P.; Chudakov, E.

    2000-01-01

    We propose a measurement of the Deep Virtual Compton Scattering process (DVCS) ep → epγ in Hall A at Jefferson Lab with a 6 GeV beam. We are able to explore the onset of Q 2 scaling, by measuring a beam helicity asymmetry for Q 2 ranging from 1.5 to 2.5 GeV 2 at x B ∼0.35. At this kinematics, the asymmetry is dominated by the DVCS - Bethe-Heitler (BH) interference, which is proportional to the imaginary part of the DVCS amplitude amplified by the full magnitude of the BH amplitude. The imaginary part of the DVCS amplitude is expected to scale early. Indeed, the imaginary part of the forward Compton amplitude measured in deep inelastic scattering (via the optical theorem) scales at Q 2 as low as 1 GeV 2 . If the scaling regime is reached, we will make an 8% measurement of the skewed parton distributions (SPD) contributing to the DVCS amplitude. Also, this experiment allows us to separately estimate the size of the higher-twist effects, since they are only suppressed by an additional factor 1/Q compared to the leading-twist term, and have a different angular dependence. We use a polarized electron beam and detect the scattered electron in the HRSe, the real photon in an electromagnetic calorimeter (under construction) and the recoil proton in a shielded scintillator array (to be constructed). This allows as to determine the difference in cross-sections for electrons of opposite helicities. This observable is directly linked to the SPD's. We estimate that 25 days of beam (600 hours) are needed to achieve this goal. (authors)

  11. Deeply virtual compton scattering at 6 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthot, J. [Universite Blaise Pascal, Clermont-Ferrand II, Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire (CNRS), 63 - Aubiere (France); Chen, J.P.; Chudakov, E. [National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia (United States)] [and others

    2000-07-01

    We propose a measurement of the Deep Virtual Compton Scattering process (DVCS) ep {yields} ep{gamma} in Hall A at Jefferson Lab with a 6 GeV beam. We are able to explore the onset of Q{sup 2} scaling, by measuring a beam helicity asymmetry for Q{sup 2} ranging from 1.5 to 2.5 GeV{sup 2} at x{sub B}{approx}0.35. At this kinematics, the asymmetry is dominated by the DVCS - Bethe-Heitler (BH) interference, which is proportional to the imaginary part of the DVCS amplitude amplified by the full magnitude of the BH amplitude. The imaginary part of the DVCS amplitude is expected to scale early. Indeed, the imaginary part of the forward Compton amplitude measured in deep inelastic scattering (via the optical theorem) scales at Q{sup 2} as low as 1 GeV{sup 2}. If the scaling regime is reached, we will make an 8% measurement of the skewed parton distributions (SPD) contributing to the DVCS amplitude. Also, this experiment allows us to separately estimate the size of the higher-twist effects, since they are only suppressed by an additional factor 1/Q compared to the leading-twist term, and have a different angular dependence. We use a polarized electron beam and detect the scattered electron in the HRSe, the real photon in an electromagnetic calorimeter (under construction) and the recoil proton in a shielded scintillator array (to be constructed). This allows as to determine the difference in cross-sections for electrons of opposite helicities. This observable is directly linked to the SPD's. We estimate that 25 days of beam (600 hours) are needed to achieve this goal. (authors)

  12. Virtual Compton Scattering off a Spinless Target in the AdS/QCD correspondence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallon, Samuel [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique d' Orsay - LPT, Bat. 210, Univ. Paris-Sud 11, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Marquet, Cyrille [IPhT - Institut de Physique Theorique, Orme des Merisiers bat. 774, PC 136, CEA/DSM/IPhT, CEA/Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Roiesnel, Claude [Centre de Physique Theorique - CPHT, UMR 7644, Ecole Polytechnique, Bat. 6, RDC, F91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France)

    2010-07-01

    We study the doubly virtual Compton scattering off a spinless target {gamma}* P {yields} {gamma}* P' within the Anti-de Sitter(AdS)/QCD formalism. We find that the general structure allowed by the Lorentz invariance and gauge invariance of the Compton amplitude is not easily reproduced with the standard recipes of the AdS/QCD correspondence. In the soft-photon regime, where the semi-classical approximation is supposed to apply best, we show that the measurements of the electric and magnetic polarizabilities of a target like the charged pion in real Compton scattering, can already serve as stringent tests. (author)

  13. Use of implicit Monte Carlo radiation transport with hydrodynamics and compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleck, J.A. Jr.

    1971-03-01

    It is shown that the combination of implicit radiation transport and hydrodynamics, Compton scattering, and any other energy transport can be simply carried out by a ''splitting'' procedure. Contributions to material energy exchange can be reckoned separately for hydrodynamics, radiation transport without scattering, Compton scattering, plus any other possible energy exchange mechanism. The radiation transport phase of the calculation would be implicit, but the hydrodynamics and Compton portions would not, leading to possible time step controls. The time step restrictions which occur on radiation transfer due to large Planck mean absorption cross-sections would not occur

  14. Synchrotron self-inverse Compton radiation from reverse shock on GRB 120326A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urata, Yuji [Institute of Astronomy, National Central University, Chung-Li 32054, Taiwan (China); Huang, Kuiyun; Takahashi, Satoko [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Im, Myungshin; Kim, Jae-Woo; Jang, Minsung [Center for the Exploration of the Origin of the Universe, Department of Physics and Astronomy, FPRD, Seoul National University, Shillim-dong, San 56-1, Kwanak-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yamaoka, Kazutaka [Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan); Tashiro, Makoto [Department of Physics, Saitama University, Shimo-Okubo, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Pak, Soojong, E-mail: urata@astro.ncu.edu.tw [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Gyeonggi 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-10

    We present multi-wavelength observations of a typical long duration GRB 120326A at z = 1.798, including rapid observations using a Submillimeter Array (SMA) and a comprehensive monitoring in the X-ray and optical. The SMA observation provided the fastest detection to date among seven submillimeter afterglows at 230 GHz. The prompt spectral analysis, using Swift and Suzaku, yielded a spectral peak energy of E{sub peak}{sup src}=107.8{sub −15.3}{sup +15.3} keV and an equivalent isotropic energy of E{sub iso} as 3.18{sub −0.32}{sup +0.40}×10{sup 52} erg. The temporal evolution and spectral properties in the optical were consistent with the standard forward shock synchrotron with jet collimation (6.°69 ± 0.°16). The forward shock modeling, using a two-dimensional relativistic hydrodynamic jet simulation, was also determined by the reasonable burst explosion and the synchrotron radiation parameters for the optical afterglow. The X-ray light curve showed no apparent jet break and the temporal decay index relation between the X-ray and optical (αo – α{sub X} = –1.45 ± 0.10) indicated different radiation processes in each of them. Introducing synchrotron self-inverse Compton radiation from reverse shock is a possible solution, and the detection and slow decay of the afterglow in submillimeter supports that this is a plausible idea. The observed temporal evolution and spectral properties, as well as forward shock modeling parameters, enabled us to determine reasonable functions to describe the afterglow properties. Because half of the events share similar properties in the X-ray and optical as the current event, GRB 120326A will be a benchmark with further rapid follow-ups, using submillimeter instruments such as an SMA and the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array.

  15. Synchrotron self-inverse Compton radiation from reverse shock on GRB 120326A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urata, Yuji; Huang, Kuiyun; Takahashi, Satoko; Im, Myungshin; Kim, Jae-Woo; Jang, Minsung; Yamaoka, Kazutaka; Tashiro, Makoto; Pak, Soojong

    2014-01-01

    We present multi-wavelength observations of a typical long duration GRB 120326A at z = 1.798, including rapid observations using a Submillimeter Array (SMA) and a comprehensive monitoring in the X-ray and optical. The SMA observation provided the fastest detection to date among seven submillimeter afterglows at 230 GHz. The prompt spectral analysis, using Swift and Suzaku, yielded a spectral peak energy of E peak src =107.8 −15.3 +15.3 keV and an equivalent isotropic energy of E iso as 3.18 −0.32 +0.40 ×10 52 erg. The temporal evolution and spectral properties in the optical were consistent with the standard forward shock synchrotron with jet collimation (6.°69 ± 0.°16). The forward shock modeling, using a two-dimensional relativistic hydrodynamic jet simulation, was also determined by the reasonable burst explosion and the synchrotron radiation parameters for the optical afterglow. The X-ray light curve showed no apparent jet break and the temporal decay index relation between the X-ray and optical (αo – α X = –1.45 ± 0.10) indicated different radiation processes in each of them. Introducing synchrotron self-inverse Compton radiation from reverse shock is a possible solution, and the detection and slow decay of the afterglow in submillimeter supports that this is a plausible idea. The observed temporal evolution and spectral properties, as well as forward shock modeling parameters, enabled us to determine reasonable functions to describe the afterglow properties. Because half of the events share similar properties in the X-ray and optical as the current event, GRB 120326A will be a benchmark with further rapid follow-ups, using submillimeter instruments such as an SMA and the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array.

  16. Wavelength dependence of interstellar polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mavko, G.E.

    1974-01-01

    The wavelength dependence of interstellar polarization was measured for twelve stars in three regions of the Milky Way. A 120A bandpass was used to measure the polarization at a maximum of sixteen wavelengths evenly spaced between 2.78μ -1 (3600A) and 1.28μ -1 (7800A). For such a wide wavelength range, the wavelength resolution is superior to that of any previously reported polarization measurements. The new scanning polarimeter built by W. A. Hiltner of the University of Michigan was used for the observations. Very broad structure was found in the wavelength dependence of the polarization. Extensive investigations were carried out to show that the structure was not caused by instrumental effects. The broad structure observed is shown to be in agreement with concurrent extinction measurements for the same stars. Also, the observed structure is of the type predicted when a homogeneous silicate grain model is fitted to the observed extinction. The results are in agreement with the hypothesis that the very broad band structure seen in the extinction is produced by the grains. (Diss. Abstr. Int., B)

  17. Describing Compton scattering and two-quanta positron annihilation based on Compton profiles: Two models suited for the Monte Carlo method

    CERN Document Server

    Bohlen, TT; Patera, V; Sala, P R

    2012-01-01

    An accurate description of the basic physics processes of Compton scattering and positron annihilation in matter requires the consideration of atomic shell structure effects and, in specific, the momentum distributions of the atomic electrons. Two algorithms which model Compton scattering and two-quanta positron annihilation at rest accounting for shell structure effects are proposed. Two-quanta positron annihilation is a physics process which is of particular importance for applications such as positron emission tomography (PET). Both models use a detailed description of the processes which incorporate consistently Doppler broadening and binding effects. This together with the relatively low level of complexity of the models makes them particularly suited to be employed by fast sampling methods for Monte Carlo particle transport. Momentum distributions of shell electrons are obtained from parametrized one-electron Compton profiles. For conduction electrons, momentum distributions are derived in the framework...

  18. Development of TOF-PET using Compton scattering by plastic scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuramoto, M.; Nakamori, T.; Kimura, S.; Gunji, S.; Takakura, M.; Kataoka, J.

    2017-01-01

    We propose a time-of-flight (TOF) technique using plastic scintillators which have fast decay time of a few ns for positron emission tomography (PET). While the photoelectric absorption probability of the plastic for 511 keV gamma rays are extremely low due to its small density and effective atomic number, the cross section of Compton scattering is comparable to that of absorption by conventional inorganic scintillators. We thus propose TOF-PET using Compton scattering with plastic scintillators (Compton-PET), and performed fundamental experiments towards exploration of the Compton-PET capability. We demonstrated that the plastic scintillators achieved the better time resolution in comparison to LYSO(Ce) and GAGG(Ce) scintillators. In addition we evaluated the depth-of-interaction resolving capability with the plastic scintillators.

  19. Development of TOF-PET using Compton scattering by plastic scintillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuramoto, M., E-mail: kuramoto@maxwell.kj.yamagata-u.ac.jp [Yamagata University, Kojirakawa 1-4-12, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan); Nakamori, T., E-mail: nakamori@maxwell.kj.yamagata-u.ac.jp [Yamagata University, Kojirakawa 1-4-12, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan); Kimura, S.; Gunji, S.; Takakura, M. [Yamagata University, Kojirakawa 1-4-12, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan); Kataoka, J. [Waseda University, Okubo 3-4-1, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)

    2017-02-11

    We propose a time-of-flight (TOF) technique using plastic scintillators which have fast decay time of a few ns for positron emission tomography (PET). While the photoelectric absorption probability of the plastic for 511 keV gamma rays are extremely low due to its small density and effective atomic number, the cross section of Compton scattering is comparable to that of absorption by conventional inorganic scintillators. We thus propose TOF-PET using Compton scattering with plastic scintillators (Compton-PET), and performed fundamental experiments towards exploration of the Compton-PET capability. We demonstrated that the plastic scintillators achieved the better time resolution in comparison to LYSO(Ce) and GAGG(Ce) scintillators. In addition we evaluated the depth-of-interaction resolving capability with the plastic scintillators.

  20. Development of TOF-PET using Compton scattering by plastic scintillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramoto, M.; Nakamori, T.; Kimura, S.; Gunji, S.; Takakura, M.; Kataoka, J.

    2017-02-01

    We propose a time-of-flight (TOF) technique using plastic scintillators which have fast decay time of a few ns for positron emission tomography (PET). While the photoelectric absorption probability of the plastic for 511 keV gamma rays are extremely low due to its small density and effective atomic number, the cross section of Compton scattering is comparable to that of absorption by conventional inorganic scintillators. We thus propose TOF-PET using Compton scattering with plastic scintillators (Compton-PET), and performed fundamental experiments towards exploration of the Compton-PET capability. We demonstrated that the plastic scintillators achieved the better time resolution in comparison to LYSO(Ce) and GAGG(Ce) scintillators. In addition we evaluated the depth-of-interaction resolving capability with the plastic scintillators.

  1. Spin and orbital magnetisation densities determined by Compton scattering of photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, S.P.; Laundy, D.; Cooper, M.J.; Lovesey, S.W.; Uppsala Univ.

    1990-03-01

    Compton scattering of a circularly polarized photon beam is shown to provide direct information on orbital and spin magnetisation densities. Experiments are reported which demonstrate the feasibility of the method by correctly predicting the ratio of spin and orbital magnetisation components in iron and cobalt. A partially polarised beam of 45 keV photons from the Daresbury Synchrotron Radiation Source produces charge-magnetic interference scattering which is measured by a field-difference method. Theory shows that the interference cross section contains the Compton profile of polarised electrons modulated by a structure factor which is a weighted sum of spin and orbital magnetisations. In particular, the scattering geometry for which the structure factor vanishes yields a unique value for the ratio of the magnetisation densities. Compton scattering, being an incoherent process, provides data on total unit cell magnetisations which can be directly compared with bulk data. In this respect, Compton scattering complements magnetic neutron and photon Bragg diffraction. (author)

  2. A possible role for silicon microstrip detectors in nuclear medicine Compton imaging of positron emitters

    CERN Document Server

    Scannavini, M G; Royle, G J; Cullum, I; Raymond, M; Hall, G; Iles, G

    2002-01-01

    Collimation of gamma-rays based on Compton scatter could provide in principle high resolution and high sensitivity, thus becoming an advantageous method for the imaging of radioisotopes of clinical interest. A small laboratory prototype of a Compton camera is being constructed in order to initiate studies aimed at assessing the feasibility of Compton imaging of positron emitters. The design of the camera is based on the use of a silicon collimator consisting of a stack of double-sided, AC-coupled microstrip detectors (area 6x6 cm sup 2 , 500 mu m thickness, 128 channels/side). Two APV6 chips are employed for signal readout on opposite planes of each detector. This work presents the first results on the noise performance of the silicon strip detectors. Measurements of the electrical characteristics of the detector are also reported. On the basis of the measured noise, an angular resolution of approximately 5 deg. is predicted for the Compton collimator.

  3. Wavelength conversion techniques and devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Søren Lykke; Mikkelsen, Benny; Hansen, Peter Bukhave

    1997-01-01

    Taking into account the requirements to the converters e.g., bit rate transparency (at least up to 10 Gbit/s), polarisation independence, wavelength independence, moderate input power levels, high signal-to-noise ratio and high extinction ratio interferometric wavelength convertors are very...... interesting for use in WDM optical fibre networks. However, the perfect converter has probably not yet been fabricated and new techniques such as conversion relying on cross-absorption modulation in electro-absorption modulators might also be considered in pursue of effective conversion devices...

  4. Sub-wavelength plasmon laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Mihail; Bond, Tiziana C.

    2016-04-19

    A plasmonic laser device has resonant nanocavities filled with a gain medium containing an organic dye. The resonant plasmon frequencies of the nanocavities are tuned to align with both the absorption and emission spectra of the dye. Variables in the system include the nature of the dye and the wavelength of its absorption and emission, the wavelength of the pumping radiation, and the resonance frequencies of the nanocavities. In addition the pumping frequency of the dye is selected to be close to the absorption maximum.

  5. Wavelength standards in the infrared

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, KN

    2012-01-01

    Wavelength Standards in the Infrared is a compilation of wavelength standards suitable for use with high-resolution infrared spectrographs, including both emission and absorption standards. The book presents atomic line emission standards of argon, krypton, neon, and xenon. These atomic line emission standards are from the deliberations of Commission 14 of the International Astronomical Union, which is the recognized authority for such standards. The text also explains the techniques employed in determining spectral positions in the infrared. One of the techniques used includes the grating con

  6. Increase in compton scattering of gamma rays passing along metal surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigor'ev, A.N.; Bilyk, Z.V.; Sakun, A.V.; Marushchenko, V.V.; Chernyavskij, O.Yu.; Litvinov, Yu.V.

    2014-01-01

    The paper considers experimental study of changes in energy of 137 Cs gamma source as gamma rays pass along metal surface. Decrease in gamma energy was examined by reducing the number of gamma rays in the complete absorption peak to the Compton length level and increasing the Compton effect. The number of gamma rays in the complete absorption peak decreases by 3.5 times in the angle range under study

  7. Electron momentum density measurements by means of positron annihilation and Compton spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, W.; Dlubek, G.; Marx, U.; Bruemmer, O.; Prautzsch, J.

    1982-01-01

    The electron momentum density is measured applying positron annihilation and Compton spectroscopy in order to get information about electron wave functions. Compton spectroscopic measurements of Pd-Ag and Cu-Zn alloy systems are carried out taking into account crystal structure, mixability, and order state. Three-dimensional momentum densities of silicon are determined in order to get better information about its electronic structure. The momentum density and the spin density of ferromagnetic nickel are investigated using angular correlation curves

  8. Comparative Compton scattering studies in Cu2O and Ag2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandyopadhyay, S.; Chatterjee, A.K.; Saha, S.K.; Chatterjee, A.

    1994-01-01

    Compton scattering studies in polycrystalline Cu 2 O and Ag 2 O with 59.54 keV γ radiation are reported. A comparison has been made between the valance Compton profiles of these two components scaled to lattice momentum by normalizing them to equal electron density for outer valence electrons, and this comparison shows some differences between the bonding characters of Cu 2 O and Ag 2 O. (author)

  9. On the timing properties of germanium detectors: The centroid diagrams of prompt photopeaks and Compton events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penev, I.; Andrejtscheff, W.; Protochristov, Ch.; Zhelev, Zh.

    1987-01-01

    In the applications of the generalized centroid shift method with germanium detectors, the energy dependence of the time centroids of prompt photopeaks (zero-time line) and of Compton background events reveal a peculiar behavior crossing each other at about 100 keV. The effect is plausibly explained as associated with the ratio of γ-quanta causing the photoeffect and Compton scattering, respectively, at the boundaries of the detector. (orig.)

  10. Recent results from a Si/CdTe semiconductor Compton telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Takaaki; Watanabe, Shin; Takeda, Shin'ichiro; Oonuki, Kousuke; Mitani, Takefumi; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Takashima, Takeshi; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Tajima, Hiroyasu; Sawamoto, Naoyuki; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Nomachi, Masaharu

    2006-01-01

    We are developing a Compton telescope based on high-resolution Si and CdTe detectors for astrophysical observations in sub-MeV/MeV gamma-ray region. Recently, we constructed a prototype Compton telescope which consists of six layers of double-sided Si strip detectors (DSSDs) and CdTe pixel detectors to demonstrate the basic performance of this new technology. By irradiating the detector with gamma rays from radio isotope sources, we have succeeded in Compton reconstruction of images and spectra. The obtained angular resolution is 3.9 o (FWHM) at 511keV, and the energy resolution is 14keV (FWHM) at the same energy. In addition to the conventional Compton reconstruction, i.e., drawing cones in the sky, we also demonstrated a full reconstruction by tracking Compton recoil electrons using the signals detected in successive Si layers. By irradiating 137 Cs source, we successfully obtained an image and a spectrum of 662keV line emission with this method. As a next step, development of larger DSSDs with a size of 4cmx4cm is under way to improve the effective area of the Compton telescope. We are also developing a new low-noise analog ASIC to handle the increasing number of channels. Initial results from these two new technologies are presented in this paper as well

  11. Analysis of the factors that affect photon counts in Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Guang; Xiao, Guangyu

    2015-01-01

    Compton scattering has been applied in a variety of fields. The factors that affect Compton scattering have been studied extensively in the literature. However, the factors that affect the measured photon counts in Compton scattering are rarely considered. In this paper, we make a detailed discussion on those factors. First, Compton scattering experiments of some alloy series and powder mixture series are explored. Second, the electron density is researched in terms of atom and lattice constants. Third, the factor of attenuation coefficient is discussed. And then, the active degree of electrons is discussed based on the DFT theory. Lastly, the conclusions are made, that the factors affecting Compton scattering photon counts include mainly electron number density, attenuation coefficient and active degree of electrons. - Highlights: • Compton scattering experiments of some alloy series and powder mixture series are explored. • The influence of electron density is researched in terms of atom and lattice constants. • The influence of attenuation coefficient is discussed. • The active degree of electrons is discussed detailedly based on DFT theory

  12. Deeply virtual Compton scattering off longitudinally polarised protons at HERMES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahon, David Francis

    2010-03-01

    This thesis details the simultaneous extraction of three polarisation-dependent asymmetries in the distribution of real photons from the ep→epγ interaction and its indistinguishable deeply virtual Compton scattering and Bethe-Heitler processes at the HERMES fixed-target experiment at Desy. The data analysed were taken using a longitudinally polarised 27.57 GeV positron beam incident on a longitudinally polarised hydrogen gas target. The extracted asymmetries include two single-spin asymmetries A UL and A LU which depend on the polarisation of the target and beam respectively, averaged over all other polarisation states. The double-spin asymmetry A LL dependent on the product of the beam and target polarisations is extracted for the first time. The asymmetry amplitudes extracted relate to combinations of Generalised Parton Distributions (GPDs), predominantly H and H. The extracted amplitudes are presented across the HERMES kinematic range alongside theoretical predictions from a GPD model based on double distributions. Large sin φ and cos(0φ) amplitudes are observed for A UL and A LL respectively, with an unexpectedly large sin(2φ) amplitude for A UL . The results for the A UL and A LL asymmetries are broadly compatible with theory predictions, and the extracted A LU amplitudes are compatible with HERMES results extracted from a significantly larger data set. It is foreseen that these results will form input to future global data-based GPD models which aim to provide a better understanding of GPDs. (orig.)

  13. Deeply virtual Compton scattering off unpolarised deuterium at HERMES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Gordon D.

    2008-10-15

    The HERMES experiment was a forward angle spectrometer on the HERA storage ring at DESY, Hamburg, Germany. HERMES successfully increased understanding of the ''spin puzzle'', the spin structure of the nucleon, by providing high precision measurements of {delta}{sigma} in the Quark Parton Model, the fraction of the spin carried by the current quarks. Following the link of another piece of the puzzle, the orbital angular momentum of quarks and gluons, to the Generalised Parton Distribution (GPD) theoretical framework, HERMES focused on measurements of the Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) process. These measurements are sensitive to GPDs, allowing further experimental constraints to be made on the components of nucleon spin. In the Winter shutdown period 2005-2006 HERMES was upgraded with a Recoil Detector in the target region. This allowed the experiment to make exclusive measurements of the DVCS process for the rst time, reducing background and increasing the resolution of various kinematic variables. The method for reconstructing particle tracks in the inhomogeneous magnetic eld is investigated here. DVCS o a deuterium target is measured with all available data prior to the installation of the Recoil Detector. A comparison is made to currently available models of spin-(1)/(2) GPDs. This analysis has been approved for publication by the HERMES collaboration. The data is further employed in an investigation of a model dependent constraint of the total angular momentum of up and down quarks in the nucleon. (orig.)

  14. A flexible geometry Compton camera for industrial gamma ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royle, G.J.; Speller, R.D.

    1996-01-01

    A design for a Compton scatter camera is proposed which is applicable to gamma ray imaging within limited access industrial sites. The camera consists of a number of single element detectors arranged in a small cluster. Coincidence circuitry enables the detectors to act as a scatter camera. Positioning the detector cluster at various locations within the site, and subsequent reconstruction of the recorded data, allows an image to be obtained. The camera design allows flexibility to cater for limited space or access simply by positioning the detectors in the optimum geometric arrangement within the space allowed. The quality of the image will be limited but imaging could still be achieved in regions which are otherwise inaccessible. Computer simulation algorithms have been written to optimize the various parameters involved, such as geometrical arrangement of the detector cluster and the positioning of the cluster within the site, and to estimate the performance of such a device. Both scintillator and semiconductor detectors have been studied. A prototype camera has been constructed which operates three small single element detectors in coincidence. It has been tested in a laboratory simulation of an industrial site. This consisted of a small room (2 m wide x 1 m deep x 2 m high) into which the only access points were two 6 cm diameter holes in a side wall. Simple images of Cs-137 sources have been produced. The work described has been done on behalf of BNFL for applications at their Sellafield reprocessing plant in the UK

  15. Production of X-rays by inverse Compton effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainardi, R.T.

    2005-01-01

    X-rays and gamma rays of high energy values can be produced by the scattering of low energy photons with high energy electrons, being this a process controlled by the Compton scattering. If a laser beam is used, the x-ray beam inherits the properties of intensity, monochromaticity and collimation from the laser. In this work we analyze the generation of intense x-ray beams of energies between 10 and 100 KeV to be used in a wide range of applications where a high intensity and high degrees of monochromaticity and polarization are important properties to improve image reduce doses and improve radiation treatments. To this purpose we evaluated, using relativistic kinematics the scattered beam properties in terms of the scattering angle. This arrangement is being considered in several worldwide laboratories as an alternative to synchrotron radiation and is referred to as 'table top synchrotron radiation', since it cost of installation is orders of magnitude smaller than a 'synchrotron radiation source'. The radiation beam might exhibit non-linear properties in its interaction with matter, in a similar way as a laser beam and we will investigate how to calibrate and evaluate TLD dosemeters properties, both in low and high intensity fields either mono or polyenergetic in wide spectral energy ranges. (Author)

  16. Deeply virtual Compton scattering off unpolarised deuterium at HERMES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, Gordon D.

    2008-08-01

    The HERMES experiment was a forward angle spectrometer on the HERA storage ring at DESY, Hamburg, Germany. HERMES successfully increased understanding of the ''spin puzzle'', the spin structure of the nucleon, by providing high precision measurements of ΔΣ in the Quark Parton Model, the fraction of the spin carried by the current quarks. Following the link of another piece of the puzzle, the orbital angular momentum of quarks and gluons, to the Generalised Parton Distribution (GPD) theoretical framework, HERMES focused on measurements of the Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) process. These measurements are sensitive to GPDs, allowing further experimental constraints to be made on the components of nucleon spin. In the Winter shutdown period 2005-2006 HERMES was upgraded with a Recoil Detector in the target region. This allowed the experiment to make exclusive measurements of the DVCS process for the rst time, reducing background and increasing the resolution of various kinematic variables. The method for reconstructing particle tracks in the inhomogeneous magnetic eld is investigated here. DVCS o a deuterium target is measured with all available data prior to the installation of the Recoil Detector. A comparison is made to currently available models of spin-(1)/(2) GPDs. This analysis has been approved for publication by the HERMES collaboration. The data is further employed in an investigation of a model dependent constraint of the total angular momentum of up and down quarks in the nucleon. (orig.)

  17. Wide angle Compton scattering within the SCET factorization framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kivel, N.

    2016-01-01

    Existing data for the electromagnetic proton form factors and for the cross section of the wide angle Compton scattering (WACS) show that the hard two-gluon exchange mechanism (collinear factorization) is still not applicable in the kinematical region where Mandelstam variables s ∼ -t ∼ -u are about a few GeV 2 . On the other hand these observables can be described in phenomenological models where spectator quarks are soft which assumes a large contribution due to the soft-overlap mechanism. It turns out that the simple QCD factorization picture is not complete and must also include the soft-overlap contribution which can be described as a certain matrix element in the soft collinear effective theory (SCET). Then the leading power contribution to WACS amplitude is described as a sum of the hard- and soft-spectator contributions. The existing experimental data allows one to check certain conclusions based on the assumption about dominant role of the soft-spectator mechanism. (author)

  18. Novel design of a parallax free Compton enhanced PET scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braem, A.; Chamizo, M.; Chesi, E.; Colonna, N.; Cusanno, F.; De Leo, R.; Garibaldi, F.; Joram, C.; Marrone, S.; Mathot, S.; Nappi, E.; Schoenahl, F.; Seguinot, J.; Weilhammer, P.; Zaidi, H.

    2004-01-01

    Molecular imaging by PET is a powerful tool in modern clinical practice for cancer diagnosis. Nevertheless, improvements are needed with respect to the spatial resolution and sensitivity of the technique for its application to specific human organs (breast, prostate, brain, etc.), and to small animals. Presently, commercial PET scanners do not detect the depth of interaction of photons in scintillators, which results in a not negligible parallax error. We describe here a novel concept of PET scanner design that provides full three-dimensional (3D) gamma reconstruction with high spatial resolution over the total detector volume, free of parallax errors. It uses matrices of long scintillators read at both ends by hybrid photon detectors. This so-called 3D axial concept also enhances the gamma detection efficiency since it allows one to reconstruct a significant fraction of Compton scattered events. In this note, we describe the concept, a possible design and the expected performance of this new PET device. We also report about first characterization measurements of 10 cm long YAP:Ce scintillation crystals

  19. Beam Diagnostics for Laser Undulator Based on Compton Backward Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Kuroda, R

    2005-01-01

    A compact soft X-ray source is required in various research fields such as material and biological science. The laser undulator based on Compton backward scattering has been developed as a compact soft X-ray source for the biological observation at Waseda University. It is performed in a water window region (250eV - 500 eV) using the interaction between 1047 nm Nd:YLF laser (10ps FWHM) and about 5 MeV high quality electron beam (10ps FWHM) generated from rf gun system. The range of X-ray energy in the water window region has K-shell absorption edges of Oxygen, Carbon and Nitrogen, which mainly constitute of living body. Since the absorption coefficient of water is much smaller than the protein's coefficient in this range, a dehydration of the specimens is not necessary. To generate the soft X-ray pulse stably, the electron beam diagnostics have been developed such as the emittance measurement using double slit scan technique, the bunch length measurement using two frequency analysis technique. In this confere...

  20. Double Compton effect: a new method of detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cafagne, A.

    1978-01-01

    In this paper, a new method of observation of the double Compton effect is described. The proposed method is based on the use of a sum-coincidence circuit, whose resulting pulse is in a fast coincidence (ζ=1,7x10 -8 sec) with pulses (∼=10- 9 sec) from both scintillation detectors used to measure the energy of the coincident scattered gamma-rays. By means of this procedure, the contribution of the pulses from the sum-coincidence circuit due to random gamma-rays is eliminated. The spectra were registered in an Ortec model 6240 Multi-channel analyser using a further coincidence circuit, eliminate non-coincident pulses. The gate is open by a rectangulasr pulse which lasts for 10n sec and an adjustable delayed pulse generator adjusts its time-position in order to be coincident with the top of the sum-coincidence pulses. The adjustable delayed pulse generator compensates also for the finite time of propagation of the pulses in the circuits. Through this experimental technique it was possible to measure simultaneously the energy of each coincident photon which allowed an excellent comparison due the agreement found between the obtained results and the theory of Mandl and Skyrme. (Author) [pt

  1. Image reconstruction from limited angle Compton camera data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomitani, T.; Hirasawa, M.

    2002-01-01

    The Compton camera is used for imaging the distributions of γ ray direction in a γ ray telescope for astrophysics and for imaging radioisotope distributions in nuclear medicine without the need for collimators. The integration of γ rays on a cone is measured with the camera, so that some sort of inversion method is needed. Parra found an analytical inversion algorithm based on spherical harmonics expansion of projection data. His algorithm is applicable to the full set of projection data. In this paper, six possible reconstruction algorithms that allow image reconstruction from projections with a finite range of scattering angles are investigated. Four algorithms have instability problems and two others are practical. However, the variance of the reconstructed image diverges in these two cases, so that window functions are introduced with which the variance becomes finite at a cost of spatial resolution. These two algorithms are compared in terms of variance. The algorithm based on the inversion of the summed back-projection is superior to the algorithm based on the inversion of the summed projection. (author)

  2. Compton Scattering from the Deuteron at Low Energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundin, Magnus [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Physics

    2002-05-01

    A series of three Compton scattering experiments on deuterium have been performed at the high-resolution tagged-photon facility MAX-lab located in Lund, Sweden. The 50 < E{sub g} < 70 MeV tagged photons were scattered from a liquid deuterium target and detected simultaneously in three (10{sup x}10{sup )} NaI detectors. The average laboratory angles investigated were 45, 125 and 135 deg. The influence of the inelastic contribution was minimized by implementing a narrow elastic fit-region in the missing energy spectra. Absolute cross sections were extracted for average photon energies of 55 and 66 MeV at each angle and for each experiment. The extracted cross sections are in good agreement with those measured at Illinois by Lucas et al. The difference between the electric and magnetic isospin-averaged polarizabilities of the nucleon inside the deuteron, was varied within the calculations of Levchuk and L'vov to best reproduce the data, holding the sum fixed at 14.6 (10{sup -4} fm{sup 3}). The result implies that the electric polarizability of the neutron is the same as that of the proton within the experimental uncertainties. The result also indicates that the magnetic polarizability of the neutron is larger than that of the proton.

  3. Compton Scattering from the Deuteron at Low Energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundin, Magnus

    2002-05-01

    A series of three Compton scattering experiments on deuterium have been performed at the high-resolution tagged-photon facility MAX-lab located in Lund, Sweden. The 50 g x 10 ) NaI detectors. The average laboratory angles investigated were 45, 125 and 135 deg. The influence of the inelastic contribution was minimized by implementing a narrow elastic fit-region in the missing energy spectra. Absolute cross sections were extracted for average photon energies of 55 and 66 MeV at each angle and for each experiment. The extracted cross sections are in good agreement with those measured at Illinois by Lucas et al. The difference between the electric and magnetic isospin-averaged polarizabilities of the nucleon inside the deuteron, was varied within the calculations of Levchuk and L'vov to best reproduce the data, holding the sum fixed at 14.6 (10 -4 fm 3 ). The result implies that the electric polarizability of the neutron is the same as that of the proton within the experimental uncertainties. The result also indicates that the magnetic polarizability of the neutron is larger than that of the proton

  4. Deeply virtual Compton scattering off unpolarised deuterium at HERMES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Gordon D

    2008-10-15

    The HERMES experiment was a forward angle spectrometer on the HERA storage ring at DESY, Hamburg, Germany. HERMES successfully increased understanding of the ''spin puzzle'', the spin structure of the nucleon, by providing high precision measurements of {delta}{sigma} in the Quark Parton Model, the fraction of the spin carried by the current quarks. Following the link of another piece of the puzzle, the orbital angular momentum of quarks and gluons, to the Generalised Parton Distribution (GPD) theoretical framework, HERMES focused on measurements of the Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) process. These measurements are sensitive to GPDs, allowing further experimental constraints to be made on the components of nucleon spin. In the Winter shutdown period 2005-2006 HERMES was upgraded with a Recoil Detector in the target region. This allowed the experiment to make exclusive measurements of the DVCS process for the rst time, reducing background and increasing the resolution of various kinematic variables. The method for reconstructing particle tracks in the inhomogeneous magnetic eld is investigated here. DVCS o a deuterium target is measured with all available data prior to the installation of the Recoil Detector. A comparison is made to currently available models of spin-(1)/(2) GPDs. This analysis has been approved for publication by the HERMES collaboration. The data is further employed in an investigation of a model dependent constraint of the total angular momentum of up and down quarks in the nucleon. (orig.)

  5. FRONT-END ASIC FOR A SILICON COMPTON TELESCOPE.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DE GERONIMO,G.; FRIED, J.; FROST, E.; PHLIPS, B.; VERNON, E.; WULF, E.A.

    2007-10-27

    We describe a front-end application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) developed for a silicon Compton telescope. Composed of 32 channels, it reads out signals in both polarities from each side of a Silicon strip sensor, 2 mm thick 27 cm long, characterized by a strip capacitance of 30 pF. Each front-end channel provides low-noise charge amplification, shaping with a stabilized baseline, discrimination, and peak detection with an analog memory. The channels can process events simultaneously, and the read out is sparsified. The charge amplifier makes uses a dual-cascode configuration and dual-polarity adaptive reset, The low-hysteresis discriminator and the multi-phase peak detector process signals with a dynamic range in excess of four hundred. An equivalent noise charge (ENC) below 200 electrons was measured at 30 pF, with a slope of about 4.5 electrons/pF at a peaking time of 4 {micro}s. With a total dissipated power of 5 mW the channel covers an energy range up to 3.2 MeV.

  6. Compton scattering study of electron momentum distribution in lithium fluoride using 662 keV gamma radiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, R.; Shivaramu; Ramamurthy, N.; Ford, M. J.

    2008-12-01

    Here we report the first ever 137Cs Compton spectroscopy study of lithium fluoride. The spherical average Compton profiles of lithium fluoride are deduced from Compton scattering measurements on poly crystalline sample at gamma ray energy of 662 keV. To compare the experimental data, we have computed the spherical average Compton profiles using self-consistent Hartree-Fock wave functions employed on linear combination of atomic orbital (HF-LCAO) approximation. The directional Compton profiles and their anisotropic effects are also calculated using the same HF-LCAO approximation. The experimental spherical average profiles are found to be in good agreement with the corresponding HF-LCAO calculations and in qualitative agreement with Hartree-Fock free atom values. The present experimental isotropic and calculated directional profiles are also compared with the available experimental isotropic and directional Compton profiles using 59.54 and 159 keV γ-rays.

  7. Review of short wavelength lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagelstein, P.L.

    1985-01-01

    There has recently been a substantial amount of research devoted to the development of short wavelength amplifiers and lasers. A number of experimental results have been published wherein the observation of significant gain has been claimed on transitions in the EUV and soft x-ray regimes. The present review is intended to discuss the main approaches to the creation of population inversions and laser media in the short wavelength regime, and hopefully aid workers in the field by helping to provide access to a growing literature. The approaches to pumping EUV and soft x-ray lasers are discussed according to inversion mechanism. The approaches may be divided into roughly seven categories, including collisional excitation pumping, recombination pumping, direct photoionization and photoexcitation pumping, metastable state storage plus optical pumping, charge exchange pumping, and finally, the extension of free electron laser techniques into the EUV and soft x-ray regimes. 250 references

  8. Review of short wavelength lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagelstein, P.L.

    1985-03-18

    There has recently been a substantial amount of research devoted to the development of short wavelength amplifiers and lasers. A number of experimental results have been published wherein the observation of significant gain has been claimed on transitions in the EUV and soft x-ray regimes. The present review is intended to discuss the main approaches to the creation of population inversions and laser media in the short wavelength regime, and hopefully aid workers in the field by helping to provide access to a growing literature. The approaches to pumping EUV and soft x-ray lasers are discussed according to inversion mechanism. The approaches may be divided into roughly seven categories, including collisional excitation pumping, recombination pumping, direct photoionization and photoexcitation pumping, metastable state storage plus optical pumping, charge exchange pumping, and finally, the extension of free electron laser techniques into the EUV and soft x-ray regimes. 250 references.

  9. Contribution of inner shell Compton ionization to the X-ray fluorescence line intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Jorge E.; Scot, Viviana; Di Giulio, Eugenio

    2016-10-01

    The Compton effect is a potential ionization mechanism of atoms. It produces vacancies in inner shells that are filled with the same mechanism of atomic relaxation as the one following photo-absorption. This contribution to X-ray fluorescence emission is frequently neglected because the total Compton cross-section is apparently much lower than the photoelectric one at useful X-ray energies. However, a more careful analysis suggests that is necessary to consider single shell cross sections (instead of total cross sections) as a function of energy. In this article these Compton cross sections are computed for the shells K, L1-L3 and M1-M5 in the framework of the impulse approximation. By comparing the Compton and the photoelectric cross-section for each shell it is then possible to determine the extent of the Compton correction to the intensity of the corresponding characteristic lines. It is shown that for the K shell the correction becomes relevant for excitation energies which are too high to be influent in X-ray spectrometry. In contrast, for L and M shells the Compton contribution is relevant for medium-Z elements and medium energies. To illustrate the different grades of relevance of the correction, for each ionized shell, the energies for which the Compton contribution reaches the extent levels of 1, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100% of the photoelectric one are determined for all the elements with Z = 11-92. For practical applications it is provided a simple formula and fitting coefficients to compute average correction levels for the shells considered.

  10. Compton camera study for high efficiency SPECT and benchmark with Anger system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, M.; Dauvergne, D.; Létang, J. M.; Ley, J.-L.; Testa, É.

    2017-12-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is at present one of the major techniques for non-invasive diagnostics in nuclear medicine. The clinical routine is mostly based on collimated cameras, originally proposed by Hal Anger. Due to the presence of mechanical collimation, detection efficiency and energy acceptance are limited and fixed by the system’s geometrical features. In order to overcome these limitations, the application of Compton cameras for SPECT has been investigated for several years. In this study we compare a commercial SPECT-Anger device, the General Electric HealthCare Infinia system with a High Energy General Purpose (HEGP) collimator, and the Compton camera prototype under development by the French collaboration CLaRyS, through Monte Carlo simulations (GATE—GEANT4 Application for Tomographic Emission—version 7.1 and GEANT4 version 9.6, respectively). Given the possible introduction of new radio-emitters at higher energies intrinsically allowed by the Compton camera detection principle, the two detectors are exposed to point-like sources at increasing primary gamma energies, from actual isotopes already suggested for nuclear medicine applications. The Compton camera prototype is first characterized for SPECT application by studying the main parameters affecting its imaging performance: detector energy resolution and random coincidence rate. The two detector performances are then compared in terms of radial event distribution, detection efficiency and final image, obtained by gamma transmission analysis for the Anger system, and with an iterative List Mode-Maximum Likelihood Expectation Maximization (LM-MLEM) algorithm for the Compton reconstruction. The results show for the Compton camera a detection efficiency increased by a factor larger than an order of magnitude with respect to the Anger camera, associated with an enhanced spatial resolution for energies beyond 500 keV. We discuss the advantages of Compton camera application

  11. Production of X-rays by inverse Compton effect; Produccion de rayos X por efecto Compton inverso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mainardi, R.T. [Facultad de Matematica, Astronomia y Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina)

    2005-07-01

    X-rays and gamma rays of high energy values can be produced by the scattering of low energy photons with high energy electrons, being this a process controlled by the Compton scattering. If a laser beam is used, the x-ray beam inherits the properties of intensity, monochromaticity and collimation from the laser. In this work we analyze the generation of intense x-ray beams of energies between 10 and 100 KeV to be used in a wide range of applications where a high intensity and high degrees of monochromaticity and polarization are important properties to improve image reduce doses and improve radiation treatments. To this purpose we evaluated, using relativistic kinematics the scattered beam properties in terms of the scattering angle. This arrangement is being considered in several worldwide laboratories as an alternative to synchrotron radiation and is referred to as 'table top synchrotron radiation', since it cost of installation is orders of magnitude smaller than a 'synchrotron radiation source'. The radiation beam might exhibit non-linear properties in its interaction with matter, in a similar way as a laser beam and we will investigate how to calibrate and evaluate TLD dosemeters properties, both in low and high intensity fields either mono or polyenergetic in wide spectral energy ranges. (Author)

  12. Characterization of CT beams using Compton spectrometry; Caracterização de feixes de TC utilizando Espectrometria Compton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terini, Ricardo A.; Nerssissian, Denise Y.; Campelo, Maria Carolina S.; Yoshimura, Elisabeth M., E-mail: rterini@if.usp.br [Universidade de São Paulo (LDRFM/USP), SP (Brazil). Lab. de Dosimetria das Radiações e Física Médica

    2017-07-01

    Obtaining the energy spectra of computed tomography (CT) X-ray beams is essential, helping to obtain parameters that characterize beam quality and equipment performance. However, CT photon fluxes are too high to have the spectra measured directly with common photon counting detectors. In this work, a Compton spectrometer was designed, with Al-Pb-Al collimators and shields, as well as a cadmium telluride (CdTe) detector to get the spectrum of CT beams, from the measurement of the spectrum of a beam scattered at 90 deg by a polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA) rod. A MatLab® computer code was developed, using the Waller-Hartree formalism, to reconstruct the spectrum of the incident beam, from the measured scattered beam spectrum. Tests at IF-USP Laboratory of Radiation Dosimetry and Medical Physics with standard CT beams showed that the reconstructed spectrum is alike the directly measured beam. Shielding influence and scatterer thickness were investigated. The system was tested in measurements on a GE 690 CT scanner, showing practical positioning on the exam table, and alignment with CT lasers refined by scan projection radiography. Spectra obtained with the properly shielded system presented values of half-value layer (HVL) compatible with those measured in QC tests and kVp values with accuracy to evaluate the scanner voltage calibration. (author)

  13. Dual-wavelength phase-shifting digital holography selectively extracting wavelength information from wavelength-multiplexed holograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahara, Tatsuki; Mori, Ryota; Kikunaga, Shuhei; Arai, Yasuhiko; Takaki, Yasuhiro

    2015-06-15

    Dual-wavelength phase-shifting digital holography that selectively extracts wavelength information from five wavelength-multiplexed holograms is presented. Specific phase shifts for respective wavelengths are introduced to remove the crosstalk components and extract only the object wave at the desired wavelength from the holograms. Object waves in multiple wavelengths are selectively extracted by utilizing 2π ambiguity and the subtraction procedures based on phase-shifting interferometry. Numerical results show the validity of the proposed technique. The proposed technique is also experimentally demonstrated.

  14. A new Compton densitometer for measuring pulmonary edema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loo, B.W.; Goulding, F.S.; Simon, S.

    1986-01-01

    Pulmonary edema (PE) is the pathological increase of extravascular lung water found most often in patients with congestive heart failure and other critically ill patients who suffer from intravenous fluid overload. The chest x-ray, the standard method for validating the presence of PE, is neither quantitative nor sensitive. A non-invasive lung density monitor that is accurate, easily portable, safe and inexpensive is needed for clinical use. To deal with the problem of attenuation along the beam paths, previous gamma-ray techniques require simultaneous measurement of transmitted and scattered beams. Since multiple scattering is a strong function of the density of the scattering medium and the mass distribution within the detection geometry, there will be inherent uncertainties in the system calibration unless it is performed on a body structure closely matched to that of each individual patient. Other researchers who have employed Compton scattering techniques generally used systems of extended size and detectors with poor energy resolution. This has resulted in significant systematic biases from multiply-scattered photons and larger errors in counting statistics at a given radiation dose to the patient. We are proposing a patented approach in which only backscattered photons are measured with a high-resolution HPGe detector in a compact system geometry. By proper design and a unique data extraction scheme, effects of the variable chest wall on lung density measurements are minimized. Preliminary test results indicate that with a radioactive source of under 30 GBq, it should be possible to make an accurate lung density, measurement in one minute, with a risk of radiation exposure to the patient a thousand times smaller than that from a typical chest x-ray

  15. Deeply virtual Compton scattering off longitudinally polarised protons at HERMES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahon, David Francis

    2010-06-15

    This thesis details the simultaneous extraction of three polarisation-dependent asymmetries in the distribution of real photons from the ep{yields}ep{gamma} interaction and its indistinguishable deeply virtual Compton scattering and Bethe-Heitler processes at the HERMES fixed-target experiment at Desy. The data analysed were taken using a longitudinally polarised 27.57 GeV positron beam incident on a longitudinally polarised hydrogen gas target. The extracted asymmetries include two single-spin asymmetries A{sub UL} and A{sub LU} which depend on the polarisation of the target and beam respectively, averaged over all other polarisation states. The double-spin asymmetry A{sub LL} dependent on the product of the beam and target polarisations is extracted for the first time. The asymmetry amplitudes extracted relate to combinations of Generalised Parton Distributions (GPDs), predominantly H and H. The extracted amplitudes are presented across the HERMES kinematic range alongside theoretical predictions from a GPD model based on double distributions. Large sin {phi} and cos(0{phi}) amplitudes are observed for A{sub UL} and A{sub LL} respectively, with an unexpectedly large sin(2{phi}) amplitude for A{sub UL}. The results for the A{sub UL} and A{sub LL} asymmetries are broadly compatible with theory predictions, and the extracted A{sub LU} amplitudes are compatible with HERMES results extracted from a significantly larger data set. It is foreseen that these results will form input to future global data-based GPD models which aim to provide a better understanding of GPDs. (orig.)

  16. Resolution recovery for Compton camera using origin ensemble algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreyev, A; Celler, A; Ozsahin, I; Sitek, A

    2016-08-01

    Compton cameras (CCs) use electronic collimation to reconstruct the images of activity distribution. Although this approach can greatly improve imaging efficiency, due to complex geometry of the CC principle, image reconstruction with the standard iterative algorithms, such as ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM), can be very time-consuming, even more so if resolution recovery (RR) is implemented. We have previously shown that the origin ensemble (OE) algorithm can be used for the reconstruction of the CC data. Here we propose a method of extending our OE algorithm to include RR. To validate the proposed algorithm we used Monte Carlo simulations of a CC composed of multiple layers of pixelated CZT detectors and designed for imaging small animals. A series of CC acquisitions of small hot spheres and the Derenzo phantom placed in air were simulated. Images obtained from (a) the exact data, (b) blurred data but reconstructed without resolution recovery, and (c) blurred and reconstructed with resolution recovery were compared. Furthermore, the reconstructed contrast-to-background ratios were investigated using the phantom with nine spheres placed in a hot background. Our simulations demonstrate that the proposed method allows for the recovery of the resolution loss that is due to imperfect accuracy of event detection. Additionally, tests of camera sensitivity corresponding to different detector configurations demonstrate that the proposed CC design has sensitivity comparable to PET. When the same number of events were considered, the computation time per iteration increased only by a factor of 2 when OE reconstruction with the resolution recovery correction was performed relative to the original OE algorithm. We estimate that the addition of resolution recovery to the OSEM would increase reconstruction times by 2-3 orders of magnitude per iteration. The results of our tests demonstrate the improvement of image resolution provided by the OE reconstructions

  17. Fast image reconstruction for Compton camera using stochastic origin ensemble approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreyev, Andriy; Sitek, Arkadiusz; Celler, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Compton camera has been proposed as a potential imaging tool in astronomy, industry, homeland security, and medical diagnostics. Due to the inherent geometrical complexity of Compton camera data, image reconstruction of distributed sources can be ineffective and/or time-consuming when using standard techniques such as filtered backprojection or maximum likelihood-expectation maximization (ML-EM). In this article, the authors demonstrate a fast reconstruction of Compton camera data using a novel stochastic origin ensembles (SOE) approach based on Markov chains. During image reconstruction, the origins of the measured events are randomly assigned to locations on conical surfaces, which are the Compton camera analogs of lines-of-responses in PET. Therefore, the image is defined as an ensemble of origin locations of all possible event origins. During the course of reconstruction, the origins of events are stochastically moved and the acceptance of the new event origin is determined by the predefined acceptance probability, which is proportional to the change in event density. For example, if the event density at the new location is higher than in the previous location, the new position is always accepted. After several iterations, the reconstructed distribution of origins converges to a quasistationary state which can be voxelized and displayed. Comparison with the list-mode ML-EM reveals that the postfiltered SOE algorithm has similar performance in terms of image quality while clearly outperforming ML-EM in relation to reconstruction time. In this study, the authors have implemented and tested a new image reconstruction algorithm for the Compton camera based on the stochastic origin ensembles with Markov chains. The algorithm uses list-mode data, is parallelizable, and can be used for any Compton camera geometry. SOE algorithm clearly outperforms list-mode ML-EM for simple Compton camera geometry in terms of reconstruction time. The difference in computational time

  18. Development of compact Compton camera for 3D image reconstruction of radioactive contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Y.; Terasaka, Y.; Ozawa, S.; Nakamura Miyamura, H.; Kaburagi, M.; Tanifuji, Y.; Kawabata, K.; Torii, T.

    2017-11-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS), operated by Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc., went into meltdown after the large tsunami caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 11, 2011. Very large amounts of radionuclides were released from the damaged plant. Radiation distribution measurements inside FDNPS buildings are indispensable to execute decommissioning tasks in the reactor buildings. We have developed a compact Compton camera to measure the distribution of radioactive contamination inside the FDNPS buildings three-dimensionally (3D). The total weight of the Compton camera is lower than 1.0 kg. The gamma-ray sensor of the Compton camera employs Ce-doped GAGG (Gd3Al2Ga3O12) scintillators coupled with a multi-pixel photon counter. Angular correction of the detection efficiency of the Compton camera was conducted. Moreover, we developed a 3D back-projection method using the multi-angle data measured with the Compton camera. We successfully observed 3D radiation images resulting from the two 137Cs radioactive sources, and the image of the 9.2 MBq source appeared stronger than that of the 2.7 MBq source.

  19. On the possibility of using X-ray Compton scattering to study magnetoelectrical properties of crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, S. P., E-mail: steve.collins@diamond.ac.uk; Laundy, D.; Connolley, T.; Laan, G. van der; Fabrizi, F. [Diamond Light Source Ltd, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Janssen, O. [Department of Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Cooper, M. J. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Ebert, H.; Mankovsky, S. [Universität München, Department Chemie, Haus E2.033, Butenandtstrasse 5-13, D-81377 München (Germany)

    2016-02-16

    The possibility of using X-ray Compton scattering to reveal antisymmetric components of the electron momentum density, as a fingerprint of magnetoelectric sample properties, is investigated experimentally and theoretically by studying the polar ferromagnet GaFeO{sub 3}. This paper discusses the possibility of using Compton scattering – an inelastic X-ray scattering process that yields a projection of the electron momentum density – to probe magnetoelectrical properties. It is shown that an antisymmetric component of the momentum density is a unique fingerprint of such time- and parity-odd physics. It is argued that polar ferromagnets are ideal candidates to demonstrate this phenomenon and the first experimental results are shown, on a single-domain crystal of GaFeO{sub 3}. The measured antisymmetric Compton profile is very small (≃ 10{sup −5} of the symmetric part) and of the same order of magnitude as the statistical errors. Relativistic first-principles simulations of the antisymmetric Compton profile are presented and it is shown that, while the effect is indeed predicted by theory, and scales with the size of the valence spin–orbit interaction, its magnitude is significantly overestimated. The paper outlines some important constraints on the properties of the antisymmetric Compton profile arising from the underlying crystallographic symmetry of the sample.

  20. An energy-subtraction Compton scatter camera design for in vivo medical imaging of radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohe, R.C.; Valentine, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    A Compton scatter camera (CSC) design is proposed for imaging radioisotopes used as biotracers. A clinical version may increase sensitivity by a factor of over 100, while maintaining or improving spatial resolution, as compared with existing Anger cameras that use lead collimators. This novel approach is based on using energy subtraction (ΔE = E 0 - E SC , where E 0 , ΔE, and E SC are the energy of the emitted gamma ray, the energy deposited by the initial Compton scatter, and the energy of the Compton scattered photon) to determine the amount of energy deposited in the primary system. The energy subtraction approach allows the requirement of high energy resolution to be placed on a secondary detector system instead of the primary detector system. Requiring primary system high energy resolution has significantly limited previous CSC designs for medical imaging applications. Furthermore, this approach is dependent on optimizing the camera design for data acquisition of gamma rays that undergo only one Compton scatter in a low-Z primary detector system followed by a total absorption of the Compton scattered photon in a high-Z secondary detector system. The proposed approach allows for a more compact primary detector system, a more simplified pulse processing interface, and a much less complicated detector cooling scheme as compared with previous CSC designs. Analytical calculations and Monte Carlo simulation results for some specific detector materials and geometries are presented

  1. Optimisation of a dual head semiconductor Compton camera using Geant4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harkness, L.J. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Liverpool L697ZE (United Kingdom)], E-mail: ljh@ns.ph.liv.ac.uk; Boston, A.J.; Boston, H.C.; Cooper, R.J.; Cresswell, J.R.; Grint, A.N.; Nolan, P.J.; Oxley, D.C.; Scraggs, D.P. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Liverpool L697ZE (United Kingdom); Beveridge, T.; Gillam, J. [School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Monash University, Melbourne (Australia); Lazarus, I. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington, Cheshire (United Kingdom)

    2009-06-01

    Conventional medical gamma-ray camera systems utilise mechanical collimation to provide information on the position of an incident gamma-ray photon. Systems that use electronic collimation utilising Compton image reconstruction techniques have the potential to offer huge improvements in sensitivity. Position sensitive high purity germanium (HPGe) detector systems are being evaluated as part of a single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) Compton camera system. Data have been acquired from the orthogonally segmented planar SmartPET detectors, operated in Compton camera mode. The minimum gamma-ray energy which can be imaged by the current system in Compton camera configuration is 244 keV due to the 20 mm thickness of the first scatter detector which causes large gamma-ray absorption. A simulation package for the optimisation of a new semiconductor Compton camera has been developed using the Geant4 toolkit. This paper will show results of preliminary analysis of the validated Geant4 simulation for gamma-ray energies of SPECT, 141 keV.

  2. Development of a compact scintillator-based high-resolution Compton camera for molecular imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishimoto, A., E-mail: daphne3h-aya@ruri.waseda.jp [Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Ohkubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo (Japan); Kataoka, J.; Koide, A.; Sueoka, K.; Iwamoto, Y.; Taya, T. [Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Ohkubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo (Japan); Ohsuka, S. [Central Research Laboratory, Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 5000 Hirakuchi, Hamakita-ku, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka (Japan)

    2017-02-11

    The Compton camera, which shows gamma-ray distribution utilizing the kinematics of Compton scattering, is a promising detector capable of imaging across a wide range of energy. In this study, we aim to construct a small-animal molecular imaging system in a wide energy range by using the Compton camera. We developed a compact medical Compton camera based on a Ce-doped Gd{sub 3}Al{sub 2}Ga{sub 3}O{sub 12} (Ce:GAGG) scintillator and multi-pixel photon counter (MPPC). A basic performance confirmed that for 662 keV, the typical energy resolution was 7.4 % (FWHM) and the angular resolution was 4.5° (FWHM). We then used the medical Compton camera to conduct imaging experiments based on a 3-D imaging reconstruction algorithm using the multi-angle data acquisition method. The result confirmed that for a {sup 137}Cs point source at a distance of 4 cm, the image had a spatial resolution of 3.1 mm (FWHM). Furthermore, we succeeded in producing 3-D multi-color image of different simultaneous energy sources ({sup 22}Na [511 keV], {sup 137}Cs [662 keV], and {sup 54}Mn [834 keV]).

  3. On the line-shape analysis of Compton profiles and its application to neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanelli, G.; Krzystyniak, M.

    2016-01-01

    Analytical properties of Compton profiles are used in order to simplify the analysis of neutron Compton scattering experiments. In particular, the possibility to fit the difference of Compton profiles is discussed as a way to greatly decrease the level of complexity of the data treatment, making the analysis easier, faster and more robust. In the context of the novel method proposed, two mathematical models describing the shapes of differenced Compton profiles are discussed: the simple Gaussian approximation for harmonic and isotropic local potential, and an analytical Gauss–Hermite expansion for an anharmonic or anisotropic potential. The method is applied to data collected by VESUVIO spectrometer at ISIS neutron and muon pulsed source (UK) on Copper and Aluminium samples at ambient and low temperatures. - Highlights: • A new method to analyse neutron Compton scattering data is presented. • The method allows many corrections on the experimental data to be avoided. • The number of needed fitting parameters is drastically reduced using the new method. • Mass-selective analysis is facilitated with parametric studies benefiting the most. • Observables linked to anisotropic momentum distribution are obtained analytically.

  4. Monitoring of laser-accelerated particle beams for hadron therapy via Compton tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, C.; Thirolf, P.G. [LMU, Muenchen (Germany); Habs, D.; Tajima, T. [LMU, Muenchen (Germany); MPQ, Garching (Germany); Zoglauer, A. [SSL, Berkeley (United States); Kanbach, G.; Diehl, R. [MPE, Muenchen (Germany); Schreiber, J. [MPQ, Garching (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Presently large efforts have been achieved towards the development of hadron cancer therapy based on laser-accelerated ion (p, C) beams, particularly aiming at the treatment of small tumors (few mm size). Thus precise monitoring of the ion track is mandatory. Conventional PET technology suffers from limited signal strength and precision of locating the source position. We envisage to use Compton tracking, i.e. determining energy and momentum of Compton photons and electrons, emitted along the ion track in the irradiated soft tissue. Confining the Compton cone by tracking the scattered electron will allow to significantly improve on the position resolution. Monte Carlo simulations have been performed to characterize the achievable position resolution and efficiency of a Compton camera. We estimate a resolution of 2 mm (1 mm; 5 mm) FWHM at 2 MeV (5 MeV; 0.5 MeV). An efficiency of 1.4*10{sup -3} (4.6*10{sup -6}) at 0.5 MeV (2 MeV) is envisaged. Optimized for an energy range between 0.5 MeV and 5 MeV, we plan for a system of 5 layers of double-sided Si strip detectors (for Compton electron tracking) and an additional LaBr{sub 3}:Ce calorimeter, read out by a segmented photomultiplier tube.

  5. Technical Note: Influence of Compton currents on profile measurements in small-volume ion chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanny, Sean; Sperling, Nicholas; Parsai, E. Ishmael, E-mail: e.parsai@utoledo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toledo Medical Center, 1325 Conference Drive, Toledo, Ohio 43614 (United States); Holmes, Shannon [Standard Imaging, 3120 Deming Way, Middleton, Wisconsin 53562 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: This work is to evaluate the effects of Compton current generation in three small-volume ionization chambers on measured beam characteristics for electron fields. Methods: Beam scans were performed using Exradin A16, A26, and PTW 31014 microchambers. Scans with varying chamber components shielded were performed. Static point measurements, output factors, and cable only irradiations were performed to determine the contribution of Compton currents to various components of the chamber. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to evaluate why one microchamber showed a significant reduction in Compton current generation. Results: Beam profiles demonstrated significant distortion for two of the three chambers when scanned parallel to the chamber axis, produced by electron deposition within the wire. Measurements of ionization produced within the cable identified Compton current generation as the cause of these distortions. The size of the central collecting wire was found to have the greatest influence on the magnitude of Compton current generation. Conclusions: Microchambers can demonstrate significant (>5%) deviations from properties as measured with larger volume chambers (0.125 cm{sup 3} and above). These deviations can be substantially reduced by averaging measurements conducted at opposite polarities.

  6. Investigation of Compton effect on π-meson and charged pion polarizability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antipov, Yu.M.; Batarin, V.A.; Bezzubov, V.A.

    1986-01-01

    The results of an experiment aimed at the study of the 40 GeV/c pion radiative scattering on nuclei at small momentum transfers are presented. Compton effect on the pion was investigated and the charged pion polarizability was measured. The pion Compton-effect cross section dependence on the incident photon energy ω' 1 (rest pion frame) was measured in the 100 - 600 MeV range. The polarizability of charged pion from the analysis of Compton-effect events has been found to be β π =-α π =(-6.9 ± 1.4 stat. ± 1.2 syst. )x10 -43 cm 3 and the sun of pion electrical α π and magnetic β π polarizability has been estimated to be in agreement with theoretical predictions: α π +β π ≅ 0

  7. A quartz Cherenkov detector for Compton-polarimetry at future e+e- colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    List, Jenny; Vauth, Annika; Vormwald, Benedikt; Hamburg Univ.

    2015-02-01

    Precision polarimetry is essential for future e + e - colliders and requires Compton polarimeters designed for negligible statistical uncertainties. In this paper, we discuss the design and construction of a quartz Cherenkov detector for such Compton polarimeters. The detector concept has been developed with regard to the main systematic uncertainties of the polarisation measurements, namely the linearity of the detector response and detector alignment. Simulation studies presented here imply that the light yield reachable by using quartz as Cherenkov medium allows to resolve in the Cherenkov photon spectra individual peaks corresponding to different numbers of Compton electrons. The benefits of the application of a detector with such single-peak resolution to the polarisation measurement are shown for the example of the upstream polarimeters foreseen at the International Linear Collider. Results of a first testbeam campaign with a four-channel prototype confirming simulation predictions for single electrons are presented.

  8. Reconstruction of the electron momentum distribution from a set of directional Compton profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, N.K.

    1980-12-01

    A method is described in which the 3-dimensional one-electron momentum density distribution is obtained from a series of directional Compton profiles measured on single crystals; a directional Compton profile being the projection of the momentum density onto a line through the origin. The procedure consists of 1-dimensional Fourier transformations of the individual profiles. The Fourier transformed Compton profiles are fitted by a finite expansion in lattice harmonic functions, and the momentum density is finally obtained by a 3-dimensional Fourier transform. The effect of statistical errors are derived both for the momentum density and its Fourier transform. The problem of how to carry out the measurements in an optimal way has been approached and suggestions made. A computer program for calculation of momentum density and error distributions have been listed in an appendix. (orig.)

  9. Optimization of Compton-suppression and summing schemes for the TIGRESS HPGe detector array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumaker, M. A.; Svensson, C. E.; Andreoiu, C.; Andreyev, A.; Austin, R. A. E.; Ball, G. C.; Bandyopadhyay, D.; Boston, A. J.; Chakrawarthy, R. S.; Churchman, R.; Drake, T. E.; Finlay, P.; Garrett, P. E.; Grinyer, G. F.; Hackman, G.; Hyland, B.; Jones, B.; Maharaj, R.; Morton, A. C.; Pearson, C. J.; Phillips, A. A.; Sarazin, F.; Scraggs, H. C.; Smith, M. B.; Valiente-Dobón, J. J.; Waddington, J. C.; Watters, L. M.

    2007-04-01

    Methods of optimizing the performance of an array of Compton-suppressed, segmented HPGe clover detectors have been developed which rely on the physical position sensitivity of both the HPGe crystals and the Compton-suppression shields. These relatively simple analysis procedures promise to improve the precision of experiments with the TRIUMF-ISAC Gamma-Ray Escape-Suppressed Spectrometer (TIGRESS). Suppression schemes will improve the efficiency and peak-to-total ratio of TIGRESS for high γ-ray multiplicity events by taking advantage of the 20-fold segmentation of the Compton-suppression shields, while the use of different summing schemes will improve results for a wide range of experimental conditions. The benefits of these methods are compared for many γ-ray energies and multiplicities using a GEANT4 simulation, and the optimal physical configuration of the TIGRESS array under each set of conditions is determined.

  10. Virtual Compton Scattering off a Spinless Target in the AdS/QCD correspondence

    CERN Document Server

    Marquet, C.; Wallon, S.

    2010-01-01

    We perform a study of the doubly virtual Compton scattering off a spinless target gamma* P -> gamma* P' within the Anti-de Sitter(AdS)/QCD formalism. We find that the general structure allowed by the Lorentz invariance and gauge invariance of the Compton amplitude is not easily reproduced with the standard recipes of the AdS/QCD correspondence. In the soft-photon regime, where the semi-classical approximation is supposed to apply best, we show that the measurements of the electric and magnetic polarizabilities of a target like the charged pion in real Compton scattering, can already serve as stringent tests, and presumably exclude results based on the AdS/QCD correspondence in its minimal version.

  11. A simple algorithm for estimation of source-to-detector distance in Compton imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawool-Sullivan, Mohini W.; Sullivan, John P.; Tornga, Shawn R.; Brumby, Steven P.

    2008-01-01

    Compton imaging is used to predict the location of gamma-emitting radiation sources. The X and Y coordinates of the source can be obtained using a back-projected image and a two-dimensional peak-finding algorithm. The emphasis of this work is to estimate the source-to-detector distance (Z). The algorithm presented uses the solid angle subtended by the reconstructed image at various source-to-detector distances. This algorithm was validated using both measured data from the prototype Compton imager (PCI) constructed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and simulated data of the same imager. Results show this method can be applied successfully to estimate Z, and it provides a way of determining Z without prior knowledge of the source location. This method is faster than the methods that employ maximum likelihood method because it is based on simple back projections of Compton scatter data

  12. A method for determination mass absorption coefficient of gamma rays by Compton scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Abd, A

    2014-12-01

    A method was proposed for determination mass absorption coefficient of gamma rays for compounds, alloys and mixtures. It is based on simulating interaction processes of gamma rays with target elements having atomic numbers from Z=1 to Z=92 using the MCSHAPE software. Intensities of Compton scattered gamma rays at saturation thicknesses and at a scattering angle of 90° were calculated for incident gamma rays of different energies. The obtained results showed that the intensity of Compton scattered gamma rays at saturations and mass absorption coefficients can be described by mathematical formulas. These were used to determine mass absorption coefficients for compound, alloys and mixtures with the knowledge of their Compton scattered intensities. The method was tested by calculating mass absorption coefficients for some compounds, alloys and mixtures. There is a good agreement between obtained results and calculated ones using WinXom software. The advantages and limitations of the method were discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The experimental challenge of virtual compton scattering above 8 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierre Bertin; Yves Roblin; Charles Hyde-Wright

    1999-01-01

    We discuss the experimental issues confronting measurements of the Virtual Compton Scattering (VCS) reaction ep->ep gamma with electron beam energies 6-30 GeV. We specifically address the kinematics of Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (Deep Inelastic Scattering, with coincident detection of the exclusive real photon nearly parallel to the virtual photon direction) and large transverse momentum VCS (High energy VCS of arbitrary Q 2 , and the recoil proton emitted with high momentum transverse to the virtual photon direction). We discuss the experimental equipment necessary for these measurements. For the DVCS, we emphasize the importance of the Bethe-Heitler-Compton interference terms that can be measured with the electron-positron (beam charge) asymmetry, and the electron beam helicity asymmetry

  14. A Compton scattering technique to determine wood density and locating defects in it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tondon, Akash; Sandhu, B. S.; Singh, Bhajan; Singh, Mohinder

    2015-01-01

    A Compton scattering technique is presented to determine density and void location in the given wooden samples. The technique uses a well collimated gamma ray beam from 137 Cs along with the NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. First, a linear relationship is established between Compton scattered intensity and known density of chemical compounds, and then density of the wood is determined from this linear relation. In another experiment, the ability of penetration of gamma rays is explored to detect voids in wooden (low Z) sample. The sudden reduction in the Compton scattered intensities agrees well with the position and size of voids in the wooden sample. It is concluded that wood density and the voids of size ∼ 4 mm and more can be detected easily by this method

  15. Making Displaced Holograms At Two Wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherow, William K.; Ecker, Andreas

    1989-01-01

    Two-wavelength holographic system augmented with pair of prisms to introduce small separation between holograms formed simultaneously at two wavelengths on holographic plate. Principal use in study of flows. Gradients in index of refraction of fluid caused by variations in temperature, concentration, or both. Holography at one wavelength cannot be used to distinguish between two types of variations. Difference between spacings of fringes in photographs reconstructed from holograms taken simultaneously at two different wavelengths manipulated mathematically to determine type of variation.

  16. Studies of coherent/Compton scattering method for bone mineral content measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Kiyoko; Iwanami, Shigeru; Nakazawa, Keiji; Matsubayashi, Takashi; Imamura, Keiko.

    1980-01-01

    A measurement of bone mineral content by a coherent/Compton scattering method was described. A bone sample was irradiated by a collimated narrow beam of 59.6 keV gamma-rays emitted from a 300 mCi 241 Am source, and the scattered radiations were detected using a collimated pure germanium detector placed at 90 0 to the incident beam. The ratio of coherent to Compton peaks in a spectrum of the scattered radiations depends on the bone mineral content of the bone sample. The advantage of this method is that bone mineral content of a small region in a bone can be accurately measured. Assuming that bone consists of two components, protein and bone mineral, and that the mass absorption coefficient for Compton scattering is independent of material, the coherent to Compton scattering ratio is linearly related to the percentage in weight of bone mineral. A calibration curve was obtained by measuring standard samples which were mixed with Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 and H 2 O. The error due to the assumption about the mass absorption coefficient for Compton scattering and to the difference between true bone and standard samples was estimated to be less than 3% within the range from 10 to 60% in weight of bone mineral. The fat in bone affects an estimated value by only 1.5% when it is 20% in weight. For the clinical application of this method, the location to be analyzed should be selected before the measurement with two X-ray images viewed from the source and the detector. These views would be also used to correct the difference in absorption between coherent and Compton scattered radiations whose energies are slightly different from each other. The absorbed dose to the analyzed region was approximately 150 mrad. The time required for one measurement in this study was about 10 minutes. (author)

  17. Luminosity optimization schemes in Compton experiments based on Fabry-Perot optical resonators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Variola

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The luminosity of Compton x-ray and γ sources depends on the average current in electron bunches, the energy of the laser pulses, and the geometry of the particle bunch to laser pulse collisions. To obtain high power photon pulses, these can be stacked in a passive optical resonator (Fabry-Perot cavity especially when a high average flux is required. But, in this case, owing to the presence of the optical cavity mirrors, the electron bunches have to collide at an angle with the laser pulses with a consequent luminosity decrease. In this article a crab-crossing scheme is proposed for Compton sources, based on a laser amplified in a Fabry-Perot resonator, to eliminate the luminosity losses given by the crossing angle, taking into account that in laser-electron collisions only the electron bunches can be tilted at the collision point. We report the analytical study on the crab-crossing scheme for Compton gamma sources. The analytical expression for the total yield of photons generated in Compton sources with the crab-crossing scheme of collision is derived. The optimal collision angle of the bunch was found to be equal to half of the collision angle. At this crabbing angle, the maximal yield of scattered off laser photons is attained thanks to the maximization, in the collision process, of the time spent by the laser pulse in the electron bunch. Estimations for some Compton source projects are presented. Furthermore, some schemes of the optical cavities configuration are analyzed and the luminosity calculated. As illustrated, the four-mirror two- or three-dimensional scheme is the most appropriate for Compton sources.

  18. Final state effects in neutron Compton scattering measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fielding, A.L.

    1997-10-01

    The single atom momentum distributions of condensed matter systems can be derived using the technique of neutron Compton scattering (NCS). The electron Volt spectrometer (eVS) which is situated at the world's most intense pulsed neutron spallation source, ISIS, has been configured to perform NCS measurements. Interpretation of NCS data requires the use of the impulse approximation, however even at the high energy and momentum transfers obtainable on the eVS deviations from the impulse approximation occur. These deviations are generally known as final state effects (FSE) which manifest themselves as an asymmetry in the measured momentum distribution. The aim of the work reported in this thesis is to demonstrate how final state effects can be accounted for in a simple way using the expansion method described by Sears. An advantage of the Sears method is that the first asymmetric term in the expansion is proportional to the mean Laplacian of the potential, 2 V>, thus giving access to further information on the single atom potential. The Sears expansion has been incorporated into data analysis routines and applied to measured data on three systems that were chosen to represent the systems that are regularly investigated using the eVS. Measurements have been carried out on the deuteron in ZrD 2 , a light atom in a heavy lattice, beryllium, a polycrystalline solid and pyrolytic graphite, an aligned crystalline sample with an anisotropic momentum distribution. The study shows how the new analysis method gives more reliable values for the mean kinetic energy k >, which can be derived from the measured momentum distribution. A comparison of measured data with simulated data calculated within the harmonic approximation reveals how 2 V> can be a sensitive probe of anharmonicity of the interatomic potential. An anisotropy in the derived k > and 2 V> of pyrolytic graphite has been measured indicating the dependence of final state effects on bonding strength. The derived 2 V

  19. Inverse compton light source: a compact design proposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deitrick, Kirsten Elizabeth [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2017-05-01

    In the last decade, there has been an increasing demand for a compact Inverse Compton Light Source (ICLS) which is capable of producing high-quality X-rays by colliding an electron beam and a high-quality laser. It is only in recent years when both SRF and laser technology have advanced enough that compact sources can approach the quality found at large installations such as the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. Previously, X-ray sources were either high flux and brilliance at a large facility or many orders of magnitude lesser when produced by a bremsstrahlung source. A recent compact source was constructed by Lyncean Technologies using a storage ring to produce the electron beam used to scatter the incident laser beam. By instead using a linear accelerator system for the electron beam, a significant increase in X-ray beam quality is possible, though even subsequent designs also featuring a storage ring offer improvement. Preceding the linear accelerator with an SRF reentrant gun allows for an extremely small transverse emittance, increasing the brilliance of the resulting X-ray source. In order to achieve sufficiently small emittances, optimization was done regarding both the geometry of the gun and the initial electron bunch distribution produced off the cathode. Using double-spoke SRF cavities to comprise the linear accelerator allows for an electron beam of reasonable size to be focused at the interaction point, while preserving the low emittance that was generated by the gun. An aggressive final focusing section following the electron beam's exit from the accelerator produces the small spot size at the interaction point which results in an X-ray beam of high flux and brilliance. Taking all of these advancements together, a world class compact X-ray source has been designed. It is anticipated that this source would far outperform the conventional bremsstrahlung and many other compact ICLSs, while coming closer to performing at the

  20. Resolution recovery for Compton camera using origin ensemble algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreyev, A. [Philips Healthcare, Highland Heights, Ohio 44143 (United States); Celler, A. [Medical Imaging Research Group, University of British Columbia and Vancouver Coastal Health Research Institute, Vancouver, BC V5Z 1M9 (Canada); Ozsahin, I.; Sitek, A., E-mail: sarkadiu@gmail.com [Gordon Center for Medical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 and Department of Radiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: Compton cameras (CCs) use electronic collimation to reconstruct the images of activity distribution. Although this approach can greatly improve imaging efficiency, due to complex geometry of the CC principle, image reconstruction with the standard iterative algorithms, such as ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM), can be very time-consuming, even more so if resolution recovery (RR) is implemented. We have previously shown that the origin ensemble (OE) algorithm can be used for the reconstruction of the CC data. Here we propose a method of extending our OE algorithm to include RR. Methods: To validate the proposed algorithm we used Monte Carlo simulations of a CC composed of multiple layers of pixelated CZT detectors and designed for imaging small animals. A series of CC acquisitions of small hot spheres and the Derenzo phantom placed in air were simulated. Images obtained from (a) the exact data, (b) blurred data but reconstructed without resolution recovery, and (c) blurred and reconstructed with resolution recovery were compared. Furthermore, the reconstructed contrast-to-background ratios were investigated using the phantom with nine spheres placed in a hot background. Results: Our simulations demonstrate that the proposed method allows for the recovery of the resolution loss that is due to imperfect accuracy of event detection. Additionally, tests of camera sensitivity corresponding to different detector configurations demonstrate that the proposed CC design has sensitivity comparable to PET. When the same number of events were considered, the computation time per iteration increased only by a factor of 2 when OE reconstruction with the resolution recovery correction was performed relative to the original OE algorithm. We estimate that the addition of resolution recovery to the OSEM would increase reconstruction times by 2–3 orders of magnitude per iteration. Conclusions: The results of our tests demonstrate the improvement of image

  1. Resolution recovery for Compton camera using origin ensemble algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreyev, A.; Celler, A.; Ozsahin, I.; Sitek, A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Compton cameras (CCs) use electronic collimation to reconstruct the images of activity distribution. Although this approach can greatly improve imaging efficiency, due to complex geometry of the CC principle, image reconstruction with the standard iterative algorithms, such as ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM), can be very time-consuming, even more so if resolution recovery (RR) is implemented. We have previously shown that the origin ensemble (OE) algorithm can be used for the reconstruction of the CC data. Here we propose a method of extending our OE algorithm to include RR. Methods: To validate the proposed algorithm we used Monte Carlo simulations of a CC composed of multiple layers of pixelated CZT detectors and designed for imaging small animals. A series of CC acquisitions of small hot spheres and the Derenzo phantom placed in air were simulated. Images obtained from (a) the exact data, (b) blurred data but reconstructed without resolution recovery, and (c) blurred and reconstructed with resolution recovery were compared. Furthermore, the reconstructed contrast-to-background ratios were investigated using the phantom with nine spheres placed in a hot background. Results: Our simulations demonstrate that the proposed method allows for the recovery of the resolution loss that is due to imperfect accuracy of event detection. Additionally, tests of camera sensitivity corresponding to different detector configurations demonstrate that the proposed CC design has sensitivity comparable to PET. When the same number of events were considered, the computation time per iteration increased only by a factor of 2 when OE reconstruction with the resolution recovery correction was performed relative to the original OE algorithm. We estimate that the addition of resolution recovery to the OSEM would increase reconstruction times by 2–3 orders of magnitude per iteration. Conclusions: The results of our tests demonstrate the improvement of image

  2. Parity assignments in 140Ce up to 7 MeV using Compton polarimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buessing, M. A.; Elvers, M.; Endres, J.; Hasper, J.; Zilges, A.; Fritzsche, M.; Lindenberg, K.; Mueller, S.; Savran, D.; Sonnabend, K.

    2008-01-01

    Parity quantum numbers of J=1 states up to 7 MeV in the region of the Pygmy Dipole Resonance in 140 Ce were determined model independently by combining the methods of Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence and Compton polarimetry. For the first time the well-established method of Compton polarimetry was applied at such high energies. The experiment was performed using a fourfold segmented HPGe clover detector for the detection of the scattered photons. For all investigated dipole transitions asymmetries are found which correspond to negative parity of the excited states

  3. A Compton camera for spectroscopic imaging from 100 keV to 1 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earnhart, J.R.D.

    1998-01-01

    A review of spectroscopic imaging issues, applications, and technology is presented. Compton cameras based on solid state semiconductor detectors stands out as the best system for the nondestructive assay of special nuclear materials. A camera for this application has been designed based on an efficient specific purpose Monte Carlo code developed for this project. Preliminary experiments have been performed which demonstrate the validity of the Compton camera concept and the accuracy of the code. Based on these results, a portable prototype system is in development. Proposed future work is addressed

  4. Soliton Compton Mass from Auto-Parametric Wave-Soliton Coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Binder, B

    2002-01-01

    In this paper a self-excited Rayleigh-type system models the auto-parametric wave-soliton coupling via phase fluctuations. The parameter of dissipative terms determine not only the most likely quantum coupling between solitons and linear waves but also the most likely mass of the solitons. Phase fluctuations are mediated by virtual photons coupling at light-velocity in a permanent Compton scattering process. With a reference to the SI-units and proper scaling relations in length and velocity, the final result shows a highly interesting sequence: the likely soliton Compton mass is about 1.00138 times the neutron and 1.00276 times the proton mass.

  5. Conceptual design report of a compton polarimeter for CEBAF hall A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardin, G.; Cavata, C.; Neyret, D.; Frois, B.; Jorda, J.P.; Legoff, J.M.; Platchkov, S.; Steinmetz, L.; Juillard, M.; Authier, M.; Mangeot, P.; Rebourgeard, P.; Colombel, N.; Girardot, P.; Martinot, J.; Sellier, J.C.; Veyssiere, C. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. d`Astrophysique, de la Physique des Particules, de la Physique Nucleaire et de l`Instrumentation Associee; Berthot, J.; Bertin, P.Y.; Breton, V.; Fonvieille, H.; Roblin, Y. [Institut National de Physique Nucleaire et de Physique des Particules (IN2P3), 75 - Paris (France); Chen, J.P. [Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This report describes the design of the Compton polarimeter for the Cebaf electron beam in End Station A. The method of Compton polarimeter is first introduced. It is shown that at CEBAF beam intensities, the use of standard visible LASER light gives too low counting rates. An amplification scheme of the LASER beam based on a high finesse optical cavity is proposed. Expected luminosities with and without such a cavity are given. The polarimeter setup, including a 4 dipole magnet chicane, a photon and an electron detector, is detailed. The various sources of systematic error on the electron beam polarization measurement are discussed. (author). 82 refs.

  6. Experimental study on the CsI (Tl) crystal anti-compton detector in CDEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shukui; Yue Qian; Tang Changjian

    2012-01-01

    CDEX (China Dark matter Experiment) Collaboration will carry out direct search for dark matter with Ultra-Low Energy Threshold High Purity germanium (ULE-HPGe) detector at CJPL (China Jinping deep underground Laboratory). Before underground research, some experiments of the CsI (Tl) crystal Anti-Compton detector have been done on the ground, including light guide choice, wrapping material choice, height uniformity of CsI (Tl) crystal, side uniformity of CsI (Tl) crystal and the test results of all the crystals. Through the preliminary work on the ground, we have got some knowledge of the anti-compton detector and prepared for the underground experiment. (authors)

  7. Study and development of a spectrometer with Compton suppression and gamma coincidence counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masse, D.

    1990-10-01

    This paper presents the characteristics of a spectrometer consisting of a Ge detector surrounded by a NaI(T1) detector that can operate in Compton-suppression and gamma-gamma coincidence modes. The criteria that led to this measurement configuration are discussed and the spectrometer performances are shown for 60 Co and 137 Cs gamma-ray sources. The results for the measurement of 189 Ir (Compton suppression) and for the measurement of 101 Rh (gamma-gamma coincidence) in the presence of other radioisotopes are given. 83 Rb and 105 Ag isotopes are also measured with this spectrometer [fr

  8. ITEM-QM solutions for EM problems in image reconstruction exemplary for the Compton Camera

    CERN Document Server

    Pauli, Josef; Anton, G

    2002-01-01

    Imaginary time expectation maximation (ITEM), a new algorithm for expectation maximization problems based on the quantum mechanics energy minimalization via imaginary (euclidian) time evolution is presented. Both (the algorithm as well as the implementation (http://www.johannes-pauli.de/item/index.html) are published under the terms of General GNU public License (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/gpl.html). Due to its generality ITEM is applicable to various image reconstruction problems like CT, PET, SPECT, NMR, Compton Camera, tomosynthesis as well as any other energy minimization problem. The choice of the optimal ITEM Hamiltonian is discussed and numerical results are presented for the Compton Camera.

  9. Accurate measurement of the electron beam polarization in JLab Hall A using Compton polarimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escoffier, S.; Bertin, P.Y.; Brossard, M.; Burtin, E.; Cavata, C.; Colombel, N.; Jager, C.W. de; Delbart, A.; Lhuillier, D.; Marie, F.; Mitchell, J.; Neyret, D.; Pussieux, T.

    2005-01-01

    A major advance in accurate electron beam polarization measurement has been achieved at Jlab Hall A with a Compton polarimeter based on a Fabry-Perot cavity photon beam amplifier. At an electron energy of 4.6GeV and a beam current of 40μA, a total relative uncertainty of 1.5% is typically achieved within 40min of data taking. Under the same conditions monitoring of the polarization is accurate at a level of 1%. These unprecedented results make Compton polarimetry an essential tool for modern parity-violation experiments, which require very accurate electron beam polarization measurements

  10. Gravitation and Special Relativity from Compton Wave Interactions at the Planck Scale: An Algorithmic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, William C., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper space is modeled as a lattice of Compton wave oscillators (CWOs) of near- Planck size. It is shown that gravitation and special relativity emerge from the interaction between particles Compton waves. To develop this CWO model an algorithmic approach was taken, incorporating simple rules of interaction at the Planck-scale developed using well known physical laws. This technique naturally leads to Newton s law of gravitation and a new form of doubly special relativity. The model is in apparent agreement with the holographic principle, and it predicts a cutoff energy for ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays that is consistent with observational data.

  11. Double electron ionization in Compton scattering of high energy photons by helium atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M.Y.; Mikhailov, A.I.

    1995-01-01

    The cross section for double-electron ionization of two-electron atoms and ions in Compton scattering of high energy photons is calculated. It is demonstrated that its dependence on the incoming photon frequency is the same as that for single-electron ionization. The ratio of open-quotes double-to-singleclose quotes ionization in Compton scattering was found to be energy independent and almost identical with the corresponding value for photoionization. For the He atom it is 1.68%. This surprising result deserves experimental verification

  12. Research building gamma Compton scattering measurement system and related exercises for training nuclear human resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mai Xuan Phong; Nguyen Van Hung; Pham Xuan Hai; Le Van Ngoc; Nguyen Xuan Hai; Dang Lanh; Tran Quoc Duong

    2013-01-01

    In this subject we have designed and manufactured Compton scattering gamma measurement system based on the calculated optimal configuration as well as the conditions of protect radiation by using Monte-Carlo simulation program and fabrication with the optimal conditions were selected. Monte-Carlo simulation calculation of Compton scattering gamma follow different angles on copper, surveying gamma radiation attenuation characteristics of materials: lead, iron, aluminum, and compared with the experimental results performed on the same measurement system has been built and given for evaluation, comments. (author)

  13. Electronic structure of Ni{sub 2}TiAl: Theoretical aspects and Compton scattering measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahariya, Jagrati [Department of Physics, University College of Science, M.L. Sukhadia University, Durga Nursery Road, Udaipur 313001, Rajasthan (India); Ahuja, B.L., E-mail: blahuja@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, University College of Science, M.L. Sukhadia University, Durga Nursery Road, Udaipur 313001, Rajasthan (India)

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, we report electron momentum density of Ni{sub 2}TiAl alloy using an in-house 20 Ci {sup 137}Cs (661.65 keV) Compton spectrometer. The experimental data have been analyzed in terms of energy bands and density of states computed using linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO) method. In the LCAO computations, we have considered local density approximation, generalized gradient approximation and recently developed second order generalized gradient approximation within the frame work of density functional theory. Anisotropies in theoretical Compton profiles along [1 0 0], [1 1 0] and [1 1 1] directions are also explained in terms of energy bands.

  14. Double electron ionization in Compton scattering of high energy photons by helium atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amusia, M.Y.; Mikhailov, A.I. [St. Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina (Russian Federation)

    1995-08-01

    The cross section for double-electron ionization of two-electron atoms and ions in Compton scattering of high energy photons is calculated. It is demonstrated that its dependence on the incoming photon frequency is the same as that for single-electron ionization. The ratio of {open_quotes}double-to-single{close_quotes} ionization in Compton scattering was found to be energy independent and almost identical with the corresponding value for photoionization. For the He atom it is 1.68%. This surprising result deserves experimental verification.

  15. Study of electron densities of normal and neoplastic human breast tissues by Compton scattering using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniassi, M.; Conceição, A.L.C.; Poletti, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Electron densities of 33 samples of normal (adipose and fibroglangular) and neoplastic (benign and malignant) human breast tissues were determined through Compton scattering data using a monochromatic synchrotron radiation source and an energy dispersive detector. The area of Compton peaks was used to determine the electron densities of the samples. Adipose tissue exhibits the lowest values of electron density whereas malignant tissue the highest. The relationship with their histology was discussed. Comparison with previous results showed differences smaller than 4%. - Highlights: ► Electron density of normal and neoplastic breast tissues was measured using Compton scattering. ► Monochromatic synchrotron radiation was used to obtain the Compton scattering data. ► The area of Compton peaks was used to determine the electron densities of samples. ► Adipose tissue shows the lowest electron density values whereas the malignant tissue the highest. ► Comparison with previous results showed differences smaller than 4%.

  16. Wavelength modulation spectroscopy of semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohn, S.E.

    1977-10-01

    The use of modulation spectroscopy to study the electronic properties of solids has been very productive. The construction of a wide range Wavelength Modulation Spectrometer to study the optical properties of solids is described in detail. Extensions of the working range of the spectrometer into the vacuum ultraviolet are discussed. Measurements of the reflectivity and derivative reflectivity spectra of the lead chalcogenides, the chalcopyrite ZnGeP/sub 2/, the layer compounds GaSe and GaS and their alloys, the ferroelectric SbSI, layer compounds SnS/sub 2/ and SnSe/sub 2/, and HfS/sub 2/ were made. The results of these measurements are presented along with their interpretation in terms of band structure calculations.

  17. A Green Fabry-Perot Cavity for Jefferson Lab Hall A Compton Polarimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakhman, Abdurahim; Souder, Paul; Nanda, Sirish

    2009-01-01

    A green laser (CW, 532 nm) based Fabry-Perot cavity for high precision Compton Polarimetry is under development in Hall A of the Jefferson Laboratory. In this paper, we present the principle and the preliminary studies for our test cavity.

  18. Connections between Compton scattering and pion photoproduction in the delta region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhopadhyay, N.C.; Benmerrouche, M.

    1992-01-01

    Using textbook tools like analyticity, unitarity and optical theorem, the authors discuss the relationship between pion-nucleon scattering, pion photoproduction and Compton scattering in the Δ(1232) resonance region. They review the relevant data and draw conclusions pertinent to the QCD-inspired models. 27 refs

  19. Experimental test of Bell`s inequalities using angular correlation of compton-scattered annihilation photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osuch, S.; Popkiewicz, M.; Szeflinski, Z.; Wilhelmi, Z. [Warsaw Univ., Inst. of Experimental Physics, Warsaw (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    The Bell`s inequality has been experimentally tested using angular correlation of Compton-scattered photons from annihilation of positrons emitted from {sup 22}Na source. The result shows a better agreement with the quantum mechanics predictions rather than with the Bell`s inequality. 7 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab.

  20. The clinical determination of absolute density in bone utilizing single and dual energy compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huddleston, A.L.; Weaver, J.

    1980-01-01

    Several methods important in the clinical diagnosis of skeletal diseases have been proposed for the determination of bone mass, such as photon absorptiometry, computed tomography, and neutron activation. None of these present methods provides for the determination of the physical density of bone. In the Radiological Physics Research Laboratory at the University of Virginia, the principles of Compton scattering are being investigated with the intent of determining the electron density and the physical density of human bone. A Compton-scatter densitometer has been constructed for the in vivo density determination of the femoral head. This technique utilizes of collimated low energy gamma source and detector system. The method has been tested in cadavers and in known density samples and has an accuracy of 2 %. A second densitometer has been designed for the in vivo determination of electron density of the vertebrae based upon a new technique which employs dual energy Compton scattering in the spinal column. These systems will be discussed; and the principles of dual energy Compton scatter densitometry will be presented. The importance of these isotope techniques and the feasibility of in vivo density determination in the vertebrae and femoral head will be discussed as they relate to clinical diagnosis and research. (author)

  1. Designing scheme of a γ-ray ICT system using compton back-scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Jianmin

    1998-01-01

    The designing scheme of a γ ray ICT system by using Compton back-scattering is put forward. The technical norms, detector system, γ radioactive source, mechanical scanning equipment, and data acquisition and image reconstruction principle of this ICT are described

  2. Experimental test of Bell's inequalities using angular correlation of compton-scattered annihilation photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osuch, S.; Popkiewicz, M.; Szeflinski, Z.; Wilhelmi, Z.

    1995-01-01

    The Bell's inequality has been experimentally tested using angular correlation of Compton-scattered photons from annihilation of positrons emitted from 22 Na source. The result shows a better agreement with the quantum mechanics predictions rather than with the Bell's inequality

  3. Room temperature Compton profiles of conduction electrons in α-Ga ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Room temperature Compton profiles of momentum distribution of conduction electrons in -Ga metal are calculated in band model. For this purpose, the conduction electron wave functions are determined in a temperature-dependent non-local model potential. The profiles calculated along the crystallographic directions, ...

  4. A compact Compton backscatter X-ray source for mammography and coronary angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, D.C.; Kinross-Wright, J.M.; Weber, M.E.; Volz, S.K.; Gierman, S.M.; Hayes, K.; Vernon, W.; Goldstein, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project objective is to generate a large flux of tunable, monochromatic x-rays for use in mammography and coronary angiography. The approach is based on Compton backscattering of an ultraviolet solid-state laser beam against the high-brightness 20-MeV electron beams from a compact linear accelerator. The direct Compton backscatter approach failed to produce a large flux of x-rays due to the low photon flux of the scattering solid-state laser. The authors have modified the design of a compact x-ray source to the new Compton backscattering geometry with use of a regenerative amplifier free-electron laser. They have successfully demonstrated the production of a large flux of infrared photons and a high-brightness electron beam focused in both dimensions for performing Compton backscattering in a regenerative amplifier geometry

  5. Estimation of Compton Imager Using Single 3D Position-Sensitive LYSO Scintillator: Monte Carlo Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Taewoong; Lee, Hyounggun; Kim, Younghak; Lee, Wonho [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    The performance of a Compton imager using a single three-dimensional position-sensitive LYSO scintillator detector was estimated using a Monte Carlo simulation. The Compton imager consisted of a single LYSO scintillator with a pixelized structure. The size of the scintillator and each pixel were 1.3 × 1.3 × 1.3 cm{sup 3} and 0.3 × 0.3 × 0.3 cm{sup 3}, respectively. The order of γ-ray interactions was determined based on the deposited energies in each detector. After the determination of the interaction sequence, various types of reconstruction algorithms such as simple back-projection, filtered back-projection, and list-mode maximum-likelihood expectation maximization (LM-MLEM) were applied and compared with each other in terms of their angular resolution and signal-tonoise ratio (SNR) for several γ-ray energies. The LM-MLEM reconstruction algorithm exhibited the best performance for Compton imaging in maintaining high angular resolution and SNR. The two sources of {sup 137}Cs (662 keV) could be distinguishable if they were more than 17 ◦ apart. The reconstructed Compton images showed the precise position and distribution of various radiation isotopes, which demonstrated the feasibility of the monitoring of nuclear materials in homeland security and radioactive waste management applications.

  6. Status of Kharkov X-ray Generator based on Compton Scattering NESTOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zelinsky, A.; Androsov, V.P.; Bulyak, E.V.; Drebot, I.; Gladkikh, P.I.; Grevtsev, V.; Botman, J.I.M.; Ivashchenko, V.; Karnaukhov, I.M.; Lapshin, V.I.; Markov, V.; Mocheshnikov, N.; Mytsykov, A.; Peev, F.A.; Rezaev, A.; Shcherbakov, A.; Skomorkohov, V.; Skyrda, V.; Telegin, Y.; Trotsenko, V.; Tatchyn, R.; Lebedev, B.; Agafonov, A.V.

    2004-01-01

    Nowadays the sources of the X-rays based on a storage ring with low beam energy and Compton scattering of intense laser beam are under development in several laboratories. In the paper the state-of-art in development and construction of cooperative project of a Kharkov advanced X-ray source NESTOR

  7. Three-dimensional imaging of flat natural and cultural heritage objects by a Compton scattering modality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero Prado, Patricio; Nguyen, Mai K.; Dumas, Laurent; Cohen, Serge X.

    2017-01-01

    Characterization and interpretation of flat ancient material objects, such as those found in archaeology, paleoenvironments, paleontology, and cultural heritage, have remained a challenging task to perform by means of conventional x-ray tomography methods due to their anisotropic morphology and flattened geometry. To overcome the limitations of the mentioned methodologies for such samples, an imaging modality based on Compton scattering is proposed in this work. Classical x-ray tomography treats Compton scattering data as noise in the image formation process, while in Compton scattering tomography the conditions are set such that Compton data become the principal image contrasting agent. Under these conditions, we are able, first, to avoid relative rotations between the sample and the imaging setup, and second, to obtain three-dimensional data even when the object is supported by a dense material by exploiting backscattered photons. Mathematically this problem is addressed by means of a conical Radon transform and its inversion. The image formation process and object reconstruction model are presented. The feasibility of this methodology is supported by numerical simulations.

  8. Compton suppression tests on Ge and BGO prototype detectors for GAMMASPHERE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, A M [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia); Khoo, T L; Bleich, M E; Carpenter, M P; Ahmad, I; Janssens, R V.F.; Moore, E F [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Bearden, I G [Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States); Beene, J R; Lee, I Y [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1992-08-01

    In this paper, we report on measurements of the Compton suppression and overall P/T ratio of two Ge detectors in a BGO shield of the honeycomb pattern. These were the first prototype CSG detector assemblies for GAMMASPHERE. A more detailed description of these results will be published later. (author). 4 refs., 3 figs.

  9. A method for determination mass absorption coefficient of gamma rays by Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Abd, A.

    2014-01-01

    A method was proposed for determination mass absorption coefficient of gamma rays for compounds, alloys and mixtures. It is based on simulating interaction processes of gamma rays with target elements having atomic numbers from Z=1 to Z=92 using the MCSHAPE software. Intensities of Compton scattered gamma rays at saturation thicknesses and at a scattering angle of 90° were calculated for incident gamma rays of different energies. The obtained results showed that the intensity of Compton scattered gamma rays at saturations and mass absorption coefficients can be described by mathematical formulas. These were used to determine mass absorption coefficients for compound, alloys and mixtures with the knowledge of their Compton scattered intensities. The method was tested by calculating mass absorption coefficients for some compounds, alloys and mixtures. There is a good agreement between obtained results and calculated ones using WinXom software. The advantages and limitations of the method were discussed. - Highlights: • Compton scattering of γ−rays was used for determining mass absorption coefficient. • Scattered intensities were determined by the MCSHAPE software. • Mass absorption coefficients were determined for some compounds, mixtures and alloys. • Mass absorption coefficients were calculated by Winxcom software. • Good agreements were found between determined and calculated results

  10. A stacked CdTe pixel detector for a compton camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oonuki, Kousuke; Tanaka, Takaaki; Watanabe, Shin; Takeda, Shin'ichiro; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Ushio, Masayoshi; Mitani, Takefumi; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Tajima, Hiroyasu

    2007-01-01

    We are developing a semiconductor Compton telescope to explore the universe in the energy band from several tens of keV to a few MeV. A detector material of combined Si strip and CdTe pixel is used to cover the energy range around 60keV. For energies above several hundred keV, in contrast, the higher detection efficiency of CdTe semiconductor in comparison with Si is expected to play an important role as both an absorber and a scatterer. In order to demonstrate the spectral and imaging capability of a CdTe-based Compton camera, we developed a Compton telescope consisting of a stack of CdTe pixel detectors as a small scale prototype. With this prototype, we succeeded in reconstructing images and spectra by solving the Compton kinematics within the energy band from 122 to 662keV. The energy resolution (FWHM) of reconstructed spectra is 7.3keV at 511keV. The angular resolution obtained at 511keV is measured to be 12.2 deg. (FWHM)

  11. Energy distribution of 0. 279 MeV gamma rays Compton scattered from bound electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, B; Singh, P; Singh, G; Ghumman, B S

    1984-11-01

    Energy and intensity distribution of 0.279 MeV gamma rays Compton scattered from K-shell electrons of tantalum is measured at scattering angle of 70deg. The experimental results are compared with the available theoretical data. Spectral distribution is also obtained as a function of scatterer thickness to account for the contribution of false events. 13 refs.

  12. Room temperature Compton profiles of conduction electrons in α-Ga ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B P PANDA and N C MOHAPATRA*. Department of Physics, Chikiti Mahavidyalaya, Chikiti 761 010, India. £Department of Physics, Berhampur University, Berhampur 760 007, India. Email: ncmphy123@hotmail.com. MS received 18 January 2003; accepted 21 June 2003. Abstract. Room temperature Compton profiles of ...

  13. Compton suppression system at Penn State Radiation Science and Engineering Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetiner, N.Oe.; Uenlue, K.; Brenizer, J.S.

    2008-01-01

    A Compton suppression system is used to reduce the contribution of scattered gamma-rays that originate within the HPGe detector to the gamma ray spectrum. The HPGe detector is surrounded by an assembly of guard detectors, usually NaI(Tl). The HPGe and NaI(Tl) detectors are operated in anti-coincidence mode. The NaI(Tl) guard detector detects the photons that Compton scatter within, and subsequently escape from the HPGe detector. Since these photons are correlated with the partial energy deposition within the detector, much of the resulting Compton continuum can be subtracted from the spectrum reducing the unwanted background in gamma-ray spectra. A commercially available Compton suppression spectrometer (CSS) was purchased from Canberra Industries and tested at the Radiation Science and Engineering Center at Penn State University. The PSU-CSS includes a reverse bias HPGe detector, four annulus NaI(Tl) detectors, a NaI(Tl) plug detector, detector shields, data acquisition electronics, and a data processing computer. The HPGe detector is n-type with 54% relative efficiency. The guard detectors form an annulus with 9-inch diameter and 9-inch height, and have a plug detector that goes into/out of the annulus with the help of a special lift apparatus to raise/lower. The detector assembly is placed in a shielding cave. State-of-the-art electronics and software are used. The system was tested using standard sources, neutron activated NIST SRM sample and Dendrochronologically Dated Tree Ring samples. The PSU-CSS dramatically improved the peak-to-Compton ratio, up to 1000 : 1 for the 137 Cs source. (author)

  14. Sensitivity booster for DOI-PET scanner by utilizing Compton scattering events between detector blocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Eiji, E-mail: rush@nirs.go.jp; Tashima, Hideaki; Yamaya, Taiga

    2014-11-01

    In a conventional PET scanner, coincidence events are measured with a limited energy window for detection of photoelectric events in order to reject Compton scatter events that occur in a patient, but Compton scatter events caused in detector crystals are also rejected. Scatter events within the patient causes scatter coincidences, but inter crystal scattering (ICS) events have useful information for determining an activity distribution. Some researchers have reported the feasibility of PET scanners based on a Compton camera for tracing ICS into the detector. However, these scanners require expensive semiconductor detectors for high-energy resolution. In the Anger-type block detector, single photons interacting with multiple detectors can be obtained for each interacting position and complete information can be gotten just as for photoelectric events in the single detector. ICS events in the single detector have been used to get coincidence, but single photons interacting with multiple detectors have not been used to get coincidence. In this work, we evaluated effect of sensitivity improvement using Compton kinetics in several types of DOI-PET scanners. The proposed method promises to improve the sensitivity using coincidence events of single photons interacting with multiple detectors, which are identified as the first interaction (FI). FI estimation accuracy can be improved to determine FI validity from the correlation between Compton scatter angles calculated on the coincidence line-of-response. We simulated an animal PET scanner consisting of 42 detectors. Each detector block consists of three types of scintillator crystals (LSO, GSO and GAGG). After the simulation, coincidence events are added as information for several depth-of-interaction (DOI) resolutions. From the simulation results, we concluded the proposed method promises to improve the sensitivity considerably when effective atomic number of a scintillator is low. Also, we showed that FI estimate

  15. Solar Observations at Submillimeter Wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, P.

    We review earlier to recent observational evidences and theoretical motivations leading to a renewed interest to observe flares in the submillimeter (submm) - infrared (IR) range of wavelengths. We describe the new solar dedicated submillimeter wave telescope which began operations at El Leoncito in the Argentina Andes: the SST project. It consists of focal plane arrays of two 405 GHz and four 212 GHz radiometers placed in a 1.5-m radome-enclosed Cassegrain antenna, operating simultaneously with one millisecond time resolution. The first solar events analyzed exhibited the onset of rapid submm-wave spikes (100-300 ms), well associated to other flare manifestations, especially at X-rays. The spikes positions were found scattered over the flaring source by tens of arcseconds. For one event an excellent association was found between the gamma-ray emission time profile and the rate of occurrence of submm-wave rapid spikes. The preliminary results favour the idea that bulk burst emissions are a response to numerous fast energetic injections, discrete in time, produced at different spatial positions over the flaring region. Coronal mass ejections were associated to the events studied. Their trajectories extrapolated to the solar surface appear to correspond to the onset time of the submm-wave spikes, which might represent an early signature of the CME's initial acceleration process.

  16. Effective wavelength calibration for moire fringe projection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purcell, Daryl; Davies, Angela; Farahi, Faramarz

    2006-01-01

    The fringe patterns seen when using moire instruments are similar to the patterns seen in traditional interferometry but differ in the spacing between consecutive fringes. In traditional interferometry, the spacing is constant and related to the wavelength of the source. In moire fringe projection, the spacing (the effective wavelength) may not be constant over the field of view and the spacing depends on the system geometry. In these cases, using a constant effective wavelength over the field of view causes inaccurate surface height measurements. We examine the calibration process of the moirefringe projection measurement, which takes this varying wavelength into account to produce a pixel-by-pixel wavelength map. The wavelength calibration procedure is to move the object in the out-of-plane direction a known distance until every pixel intensity value goes through at least one cycle. A sinusoidal function is then fit to the data to extract the effective wavelength pixel by pixel, yielding an effective wavelength map. A calibrated step height was used to validate the effective wavelength map with results within 1% of the nominal value of the step height. The error sources that contributed to the uncertainty in determining the height of the artifact are also investigated

  17. Numerical simulation of L.E.L. in Compton regime. Part II, GONDOLE, a three-dimensional code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deck, D.

    1992-07-01

    In the first part of this report, the BIWI two-dimensional numerical simulation code of L.E.L. in Compton regime has been described; the question was to simulate L.E.L. experiments in 'optical mode', that is to say for wavelengths of the order of one micron. The axisymmetric cylindrical geometry (r,z) of the BIWI code is adapted to these experiments. However, the increasingly frequent use of L.E.L. in the regime of microwaves requires the presence of a waveguide within the inverter, which breaks the cylindrical symmetry and forces us to adopt another geometry. On the other hand, the desire to take into account fields of inverters having a gradient in the direction transverse to the direction of propagation of the beam, and thus allowing various focalizations (quadrupole, parabolic, etc.), leads to work in Cartesian geometry. For these reasons (and for others that will appear later), the GONDOLE code has been written and is described in this note. The Gondole code is three-dimensional (x, y, z) and allows to simulate a large variety of L.E.L experiences. Then, all the inverter fields that the GONDOLE code takes into account are introduced. These fields are responsible for the existence of a current J(vector) perpendicular to the Z axis of propagation, and source of radiation. The dynamics of the electrons is then deduced, which derives directly from these fields, and it is shown to which equations of propagation of the laser wave each different J(vector) is coupling [fr

  18. Development of a Compton suppression whole body counting for small animals; Desenvolvimento de um detetor de corpo inteiro com supressao Compton para pequenos animais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martini, Elaine

    1996-12-31

    The basic operation, design and construction of the plastic scintillator detector is described. In order to increase the sensitivity of this detector, two blocks of plastic scintillator have been assembled to act as a anticompton system. The detectors were produced by polymerisation of styrene monomer with PPO (2,5 diphenyl-oxazole) and POPOP (1,4 bis (-5 phenyl-2- oxazoly)benzene) in proportions of 0.5 and 0.05 respectively. The transparency of this detector was evaluated by excitation of the {sup 241} Am source located directly in the back surface plastic coupled to a photomultiplier. The light attenuation according to the detector thickness has fitted to a two-exponential function: relative height pulse = 0,519 e{sup -0.0016} + 0.481 e{sup -0.02112.x}. Four radioactive sources{sup {sup 2}2} Na, {sup 54} Mn, {sup 137} Cs and {sup 131} I were used to evaluate the performance of this system. The Compton reduction factor, determined by the ratio of the energy peak values of suppressed and unsuppressed spectra was 1.16. The Compton suppression factor determined by the ratio of the net photopeak area to the area of an equal spectra width in the Compton continuum, was approximately 1.208 {+-} 0.109. The sensitivity of the system, defined as the least amount of a radioactivity that can be quantified in the photopeak region, was 9.44 cps. First, the detector was assembled to be applied in biological studies of whole body counter measurements of small animals. Using a phantom, (small animal simulator) and a punctual {sup 137} Cs source, located in the central region of the well counter the geometrical efficiency detector was about 5%. (author) 40 refs., 28 fifs., 2 tabs.

  19. Development of a Compton suppression whole body counting for small animals; Desenvolvimento de um detetor de corpo inteiro com supressao Compton para pequenos animais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martini, Elaine

    1995-12-31

    The basic operation, design and construction of the plastic scintillator detector is described. In order to increase the sensitivity of this detector, two blocks of plastic scintillator have been assembled to act as a anticompton system. The detectors were produced by polymerisation of styrene monomer with PPO (2,5 diphenyl-oxazole) and POPOP (1,4 bis (-5 phenyl-2- oxazoly)benzene) in proportions of 0.5 and 0.05 respectively. The transparency of this detector was evaluated by excitation of the {sup 241} Am source located directly in the back surface plastic coupled to a photomultiplier. The light attenuation according to the detector thickness has fitted to a two-exponential function: relative height pulse = 0,519 e{sup -0.0016} + 0.481 e{sup -0.02112.x}. Four radioactive sources{sup {sup 2}2} Na, {sup 54} Mn, {sup 137} Cs and {sup 131} I were used to evaluate the performance of this system. The Compton reduction factor, determined by the ratio of the energy peak values of suppressed and unsuppressed spectra was 1.16. The Compton suppression factor determined by the ratio of the net photopeak area to the area of an equal spectra width in the Compton continuum, was approximately 1.208 {+-} 0.109. The sensitivity of the system, defined as the least amount of a radioactivity that can be quantified in the photopeak region, was 9.44 cps. First, the detector was assembled to be applied in biological studies of whole body counter measurements of small animals. Using a phantom, (small animal simulator) and a punctual {sup 137} Cs source, located in the central region of the well counter the geometrical efficiency detector was about 5%. (author) 40 refs., 28 fifs., 2 tabs.

  20. Analytical description of photon beam phase spaces in inverse Compton scattering sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Curatolo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We revisit the description of inverse Compton scattering sources and the photon beams generated therein, emphasizing the behavior of their phase space density distributions and how they depend upon those of the two colliding beams of electrons and photons. The main objective is to provide practical formulas for bandwidth, spectral density, brilliance, which are valid in general for any value of the recoil factor, i.e. both in the Thomson regime of negligible electron recoil, and in the deep Compton recoil dominated region, which is of interest for gamma-gamma colliders and Compton sources for the production of multi-GeV photon beams. We adopt a description based on the center of mass reference system of the electron-photon collision, in order to underline the role of the electron recoil and how it controls the relativistic Doppler/boost effect in various regimes. Using the center of mass reference frame greatly simplifies the treatment, allowing us to derive simple formulas expressed in terms of rms momenta of the two colliding beams (emittance, energy spread, etc. and the collimation angle in the laboratory system. Comparisons with Monte Carlo simulations of inverse Compton scattering in various scenarios are presented, showing very good agreement with the analytical formulas: in particular we find that the bandwidth dependence on the electron beam emittance, of paramount importance in Thomson regime, as it limits the amount of focusing imparted to the electron beam, becomes much less sensitive in deep Compton regime, allowing a stronger focusing of the electron beam to enhance luminosity without loss of mono-chromaticity. A similar effect occurs concerning the bandwidth dependence on the frequency spread of the incident photons: in deep recoil regime the bandwidth comes out to be much less dependent on the frequency spread. The set of formulas here derived are very helpful in designing inverse Compton sources in diverse regimes, giving a

  1. Wavelength scaling of laser plasma coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruer, W.L.

    1983-01-01

    The use of shorter wavelength laser light both enhances collisional absorption and reduces deleterious collective plasma effects. Coupling processes which can be important in reactor-size targets are briefly reviewed. Simple estimates are presented for the intensity-wavelength regime in which collisional absorption is high and collective effects are minimized

  2. Spatial resolution measurements of the advanced radiographic capability x-ray imaging system at energies relevant to Compton radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, G. N., E-mail: hall98@llnl.gov; Izumi, N.; Landen, O. L.; Tommasini, R.; Holder, J. P.; Hargrove, D.; Bradley, D. K.; Lumbard, A.; Cruz, J. G.; Piston, K.; Bell, P. M.; Carpenter, A. C.; Palmer, N. E.; Felker, B.; Rekow, V.; Allen, F. V. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Lee, J. J.; Romano, E. [National Security Technologies LLC, 161 S Vasco Rd., Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Compton radiography provides a means to measure the integrity, ρR and symmetry of the DT fuel in an inertial confinement fusion implosion near peak compression. Upcoming experiments at the National Ignition Facility will use the ARC (Advanced Radiography Capability) laser to drive backlighter sources for Compton radiography experiments and will use the newly commissioned AXIS (ARC X-ray Imaging System) instrument as the detector. AXIS uses a dual-MCP (micro-channel plate) to provide gating and high DQE at the 40–200 keV x-ray range required for Compton radiography, but introduces many effects that contribute to the spatial resolution. Experiments were performed at energies relevant to Compton radiography to begin characterization of the spatial resolution of the AXIS diagnostic.

  3. Landmine Detection: on the Role of Soil Composition in the Imaging Capabilities of Gamma-ray Compton Backscattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes, M.L.; Merchan, E.; Blanco, W.J.; Cristancho, F.; Gerl, J.; Ameil, F.

    2010-01-01

    Two issues related with the use of γ-ray Compton backscattering as an imaging technique are addressed: γ-soil interaction, and image processing. Promising methodologies are described in both topics. (author)

  4. Design of a Compton-suppression spectrometer and its application to the study of high-spin yrast states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarts, H.J.M.

    1981-01-01

    Detailed γ-ray spectroscopy of high-spin states is hampered by transitions with low intensity on a high γ-ray background. An approach to enhance weak peaks in a spectrum in the reduction of the Compton background by means of a Compton-suppression spectrometer (CSS). Optimization of a CSS by means of Monte Carlo calculations is described. The investigation of high-spin states in the sd-shell nucleus 38 Ar with a Compton-suppression spectrometer is reported. With previously described techniques, in combination with p-γ coincidence measurements to establish an unambiguous level scheme, states up to Jsup(π) = 11 - could be identified and investigated. A gamma-gamma coincidence experiment on the nuclei 167 168 Hf is described with two Compton-suppression spectrometers. Yrast bands are followed, beyond the region of the first backbending, up to spin J = 37/2 and J = 28 for 167 Hf and 168 Hf, respectively. (Auth.)

  5. Impact of measuring electron tracks in high-resolution scientific charge-coupled devices within Compton imaging systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chivers, D.H.; Coffer, A.; Plimley, B.; Vetter, K.

    2011-01-01

    We have implemented benchmarked models to determine the gain in sensitivity of electron-tracking based Compton imaging relative to conventional Compton imaging by the use of high-resolution scientific charge-coupled devices (CCD). These models are based on the recently demonstrated ability of electron-tracking based Compton imaging by using fully depleted scientific CCDs. Here we evaluate the gain in sensitivity by employing Monte Carlo simulations in combination with advanced charge transport models to calculate two-dimensional charge distributions corresponding to experimentally obtained tracks. In order to reconstruct the angle of the incident γ-ray, a trajectory determination algorithm was used on each track and integrated into a back-projection routine utilizing a geodesic-vertex ray tracing technique. Analysis was performed for incident γ-ray energies of 662 keV and results show an increase in sensitivity consistent with tracking of the Compton electron to approximately ±30 o .

  6. A portable Si/CdTe Compton camera and its applications to the visualization of radioactive substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Shin' ichiro, E-mail: takeda@astro.isas.jaxa.jp [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS)/JAXA, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Harayama, Atsushi [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS)/JAXA, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Ichinohe, Yuto [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS)/JAXA, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Odaka, Hirokazu [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS)/JAXA, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Watanabe, Shin; Takahashi, Tadayuki [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS)/JAXA, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Tajima, Hiroyasu [Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan); Genba, Kei; Matsuura, Daisuke; Ikebuchi, Hiroshi; Kuroda, Yoshikatsu [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, 1200 Higashi-Tanaka, Komaki, Aichi 485-8561 (Japan); Tomonaka, Tetsuya [Mitsubishi Heavy Industry, 2-1-1 Shinhama, Arai-cho, Takasago, Hyogo 676-8686 (Japan)

    2015-07-01

    Gamma-ray imagers with the potential for visualizing the distribution of radioactive materials are required in the fields of astrophysics, medicine, nuclear applications, and homeland security. Based on the technology of the Si/CdTe Compton camera, we have manufactured the first commercial Compton camera for practical use. Through field tests in Fukushima, we demonstrated that the camera is capable of hot spot detection and the evaluation of radioactive decontamination.

  7. A portable Si/CdTe Compton camera and its applications to the visualization of radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Shin'ichiro; Harayama, Atsushi; Ichinohe, Yuto; Odaka, Hirokazu; Watanabe, Shin; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Tajima, Hiroyasu; Genba, Kei; Matsuura, Daisuke; Ikebuchi, Hiroshi; Kuroda, Yoshikatsu; Tomonaka, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-ray imagers with the potential for visualizing the distribution of radioactive materials are required in the fields of astrophysics, medicine, nuclear applications, and homeland security. Based on the technology of the Si/CdTe Compton camera, we have manufactured the first commercial Compton camera for practical use. Through field tests in Fukushima, we demonstrated that the camera is capable of hot spot detection and the evaluation of radioactive decontamination

  8. A novel comparison of Møller and Compton electron-beam polarimeters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Magee

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We have performed a novel comparison between electron-beam polarimeters based on Møller and Compton scattering. A sequence of electron-beam polarization measurements were performed at low beam currents (<5 μA during the Qweak experiment in Hall-C at Jefferson Lab. These low current measurements were bracketed by the regular high current (180 μA operation of the Compton polarimeter. All measurements were found to be consistent within experimental uncertainties of 1% or less, demonstrating that electron polarization does not depend significantly on the beam current. This result lends confidence to the common practice of applying Møller measurements made at low beam currents to physics experiments performed at higher beam currents. The agreement between two polarimetry techniques based on independent physical processes sets an important benchmark for future precision asymmetry measurements that require sub-1% precision in polarimetry.

  9. A Compton suppressed detector multiplicity trigger based digital DAQ for gamma-ray spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, S.; Samanta, S.; Banik, R.; Bhattacharjee, R.; Basu, K.; Raut, R.; Ghugre, S. S.; Sinha, A. K.; Bhattacharya, S.; Imran, S.; Mukherjee, G.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Goswami, A.; Palit, R.; Tan, H.

    2018-06-01

    The development of a digitizer based pulse processing and data acquisition system for γ-ray spectroscopy with large detector arrays is presented. The system is based on 250 MHz 12-bit digitizers, and is triggered by a user chosen multiplicity of Compton suppressed detectors. The logic for trigger generation is similar to the one practised for analog (NIM/CAMAC) pulse processing electronics, while retaining the fast processing merits of the digitizer system. Codes for reduction of data acquired from the system have also been developed. The system has been tested with offline studies using radioactive sources as well as in the in-beam experiments with an array of Compton suppressed Clover detectors. The results obtained therefrom validate its use in spectroscopic efforts for nuclear structure investigations.

  10. The GPD H and spin correlations in wide-angle Compton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroll, P. [Universitaet Wuppertal, Fachbereich Physik, Wuppertal (Germany)

    2017-06-15

    Wide-angle Compton scattering (WACS) is discussed within the handbag approach in which the amplitudes are given by products of hard subprocess amplitudes and form factors, specific to Compton scattering, which represent 1/x-moments of generalized parton distributions (GPDs). The quality of our present knowledge of these form factors and of the underlying GPDs is examined. As will be discussed in some detail the form factor R{sub A} and the underlying GPD H are poorly known. It is argued that future data on the spin correlations A{sub LL} and/or K{sub LL} will allow for an extraction of R{sub A} which can be used to constrain the large -t behavior of H. (orig.)

  11. Directional gamma sensing from covariance processing of inter-detector Compton crosstalk energy asymmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trainham, R., E-mail: trainhcp@nv.doe.gov; Tinsley, J. [Special Technologies Laboratory of National Security Technologies, LLC, 5520 Ekwill Street, Santa Barbara, California 93111 (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Energy asymmetry of inter-detector crosstalk from Compton scattering can be exploited to infer the direction to a gamma source. A covariance approach extracts the correlated crosstalk from data streams to estimate matched signals from Compton gammas split over two detectors. On a covariance map the signal appears as an asymmetric cross diagonal band with axes intercepts at the full photo-peak energy of the original gamma. The asymmetry of the crosstalk band can be processed to determine the direction to the radiation source. The technique does not require detector shadowing, masking, or coded apertures, thus sensitivity is not sacrificed to obtain the directional information. An angular precision of better than 1° of arc is possible, and processing of data streams can be done in real time with very modest computing hardware.

  12. Stability analysis and time-step limits for a Monte Carlo Compton-scattering method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Densmore, Jeffery D.; Warsa, James S.; Lowrie, Robert B.

    2010-01-01

    A Monte Carlo method for simulating Compton scattering in high energy density applications has been presented that models the photon-electron collision kinematics exactly [E. Canfield, W.M. Howard, E.P. Liang, Inverse Comptonization by one-dimensional relativistic electrons, Astrophys. J. 323 (1987) 565]. However, implementing this technique typically requires an explicit evaluation of the material temperature, which can lead to unstable and oscillatory solutions. In this paper, we perform a stability analysis of this Monte Carlo method and develop two time-step limits that avoid undesirable behavior. The first time-step limit prevents instabilities, while the second, more restrictive time-step limit avoids both instabilities and nonphysical oscillations. With a set of numerical examples, we demonstrate the efficacy of these time-step limits.

  13. First experimental observation of double-photon Compton scattering using single gamma detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandhu, B.S.; Saddi, M.B.; Singh, B.; Ghumman, B.S.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The phenomenon of double-photon Compton scattering has been successfully observed using single gamma detector, a technique avoiding the use of complicated slow-fast coincidence set-up used till now for observing this higher order process. Here doubly differentiated collision cross-section integrated over direction of one of the two final photons, the direction of other one being kept fixed, has been measured experimentally for 0.662 MeV incident gamma photons. The energy spectra of the detected photons are observed as a long tail to the single-photon Compton line on the lower side of the full energy peak in the recorded scattered energy spectrum. The present results are in agreement with theory of this process

  14. Compton scatter correction in case of multiple crosstalks in SPECT imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sychra, J J; Blend, M J; Jobe, T H

    1996-02-01

    A strategy for Compton scatter correction in brain SPECT images was proposed recently. It assumes that two radioisotopes are used and that a significant portion of photons of one radioisotope (for example, Tc99m) spills over into the low energy acquisition window of the other radioisotope (for example, Tl201). We are extending this approach to cases of several radioisotopes with mutual, multiple and significant photon spillover. In the example above, one may correct not only the Tl201 image but also the Tc99m image corrupted by the Compton scatter originating from the small component of high energy Tl201 photons. The proposed extension is applicable to other anatomical domains (cardiac imaging).

  15. Polarized γ source based on Compton backscattering in a laser cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Yakimenko

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel gamma source suitable for generating a polarized positron beam for the next generation of electron-positron colliders, such as the International Linear Collider (ILC, and the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC. This 30-MeV polarized gamma source is based on Compton scattering inside a picosecond CO_{2} laser cavity generated from electron bunches produced by a 4-GeV linac. We identified and experimentally verified the optimum conditions for obtaining at least one gamma photon per electron. After multiplication at several consecutive interaction points, the circularly polarized gamma rays are stopped on a target, thereby creating copious numbers of polarized positrons. We address the practicality of having an intracavity Compton-polarized positron source as the injector for these new colliders.

  16. Electron momentum density and Compton profile by a semi-empirical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Julio C.; Mitnik, Darío; Di Rocco, Héctor O.

    2015-08-01

    Here we propose a semi-empirical approach to describe with good accuracy the electron momentum densities and Compton profiles for a wide range of pure crystalline metals. In the present approach, we use an experimental Compton profile to fit an analytical expression for the momentum densities of the valence electrons. This expression is similar to a Fermi-Dirac distribution function with two parameters, one of which coincides with the ground state kinetic energy of the free-electron gas and the other resembles the electron-electron interaction energy. In the proposed scheme conduction electrons are neither completely free nor completely bound to the atomic nucleus. This procedure allows us to include correlation effects. We tested the approach for all metals with Z=3-50 and showed the results for three representative elements: Li, Be and Al from high-resolution experiments.

  17. Advanced Laser-Compton Gamma-Ray Sources for Nuclear Materials Detection, Assay and Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barty, C. P. J.

    2015-10-01

    Highly-collimated, polarized, mono-energetic beams of tunable gamma-rays may be created via the optimized Compton scattering of pulsed lasers off of ultra-bright, relativistic electron beams. Above 2 MeV, the peak brilliance of such sources can exceed that of the world's largest synchrotrons by more than 15 orders of magnitude and can enable for the first time the efficient pursuit of nuclear science and applications with photon beams, i.e. Nuclear Photonics. Potential applications are numerous and include isotope-specific nuclear materials management, element-specific medical radiography and radiology, non-destructive, isotope-specific, material assay and imaging, precision spectroscopy of nuclear resonances and photon-induced fission. This review covers activities at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory related to the design and optimization of mono-energetic, laser-Compton gamma-ray systems and introduces isotope-specific nuclear materials detection and assay applications enabled by them.

  18. Development of silicon pad detectors and readout electronics for a Compton camera

    CERN Document Server

    Studen, A; Clinthorne, N H; Czermak, A; Dulinski, W; Fuster, J A; Han, L; Jalocha, P; Kowal, M; Kragh, T; Lacasta, C; Llosa, G; Meier, D; Mikuz, M; Nygård, E; Park, S J; Roe, S; Rogers, W L; Sowicki, B; Weilhammer, P; Wilderman, S J; Yoshioka, K; Zhang, L

    2003-01-01

    Applications in nuclear medicine and bio-medical engineering may profit using a Compton camera for imaging distributions of radio-isotope labelled tracers in organs and tissues. These applications require detection of photons using thick position-sensitive silicon sensors with the highest possible energy and good spatial resolution. In this paper, research and development on silicon pad sensors and associated readout electronics for a Compton camera are presented. First results with low-noise, self-triggering VATAGP ASIC's are reported. The measured energy resolution was 1.1 keV FWHM at room temperature for the sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am photo-peak at 59.5 keV.

  19. Development of an integrated response generator for Si/CdTe semiconductor Compton cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odaka, Hirokazu; Sugimoto, Soichiro; Ishikawa, Shin-nosuke; Katsuta, Junichiro; Koseki, Yuu; Fukuyama, Taro; Saito, Shinya; Sato, Rie; Sato, Goro; Watanabe, Shin

    2010-01-01

    We have developed an integrated response generator based on Monte Carlo simulation for Compton cameras composed of silicon (Si) and cadmium telluride (CdTe) semiconductor detectors. In order to construct an accurate detector response function, the simulation is required to include a comprehensive treatment of the semiconductor detector devices and the data processing system in addition to simulating particle tracking. Although CdTe is an excellent semiconductor material for detection of soft gamma rays, its ineffective charge transport property distorts its spectral response. We investigated the response of CdTe pad detectors in the simulation and present our initial results here. We also performed the full simulation of prototypes of Si/CdTe semiconductor Compton cameras and report on the reproducibility of detection efficiencies and angular resolutions of the cameras, both of which are essential performance parameters of astrophysical instruments.

  20. Precise tests of x-ray scattering theories in the Compton regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunford, R. W.; Gemmell, D. S.; Kanter, E. P.; Kraessig, B.; Southworth, S. H.; Young, L.

    1999-01-01

    The authors report two experiments intended to test the accuracy of state-of-the-art theoretical predictions for x-ray scattering from low-Z atoms. The first one deals with the differential x-ray scattering cross sections in Ne and He from 11-22 keV and the Ne Compton-to-Rayleigh scattering ratio in this energy range. It was found that, in order to be consistent with the experimental results, an accurate description at low Z must include nonlocal exchange, electron correlation, and dynamic effects. The second experiment concerns the ratio of helium double-to-single ionization for Compton scattering in the 8-28 keV energy range where published experimental and theoretical results so far fail to give a consistent picture. The progress of the experiment and the data analysis is reported

  1. Development of a Compton camera for online ion beam range verification via prompt γ detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldawood, S. [LMU Munich, Garching (Germany); King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Liprandi, S.; Marinsek, T.; Bortfeldt, J.; Lang, C.; Lutter, R.; Dedes, G.; Parodi, K.; Thirolf, P.G. [LMU Munich, Garching (Germany); Maier, L.; Gernhaeuser, R. [TU Munich, Garching (Germany); Kolff, H. van der [LMU Munich, Garching (Germany); TU Delft (Netherlands); Castelhano, I. [LMU Munich, Garching (Germany); University of Lisbon, Lisbon (Portugal); Schaart, D.R. [TU Delft (Netherlands)

    2015-07-01

    Precise and preferably online ion beam range verification is a mandatory prerequisite to fully exploit the advantages of hadron therapy in cancer treatment. An imaging system is being developed in Garching aiming to detect promptγ rays induced by nuclear reactions between the ion beam and biological tissue. The Compton camera prototype consists of a stack of six customized double-sided Si-strip detectors (DSSSD, 50 x 50 mm{sup 2}, 0.5 mm thick, 128 strips/side) acting as scatterer, while the absorber is formed by a monolithic LaBr{sub 3}:Ce scintillator crystal (50 x 50 x 30 mm{sup 3}) read out by a position-sensitive multi-anode photomultiplier (Hamamatsu H9500). The on going characterization of the Compton camera properties and its individual components both offline in the laboratory as well as online using proton beam are presented.

  2. Optimization of a Compton-suppression system by escape-peak ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, H.; Chao, J.H.; Wu, S.-C.

    1996-01-01

    A Compton-suppression system consisting of an HPGe central detector surrounded by eight BGO scintillators in an annular geometry was assembled. This system is dedicated to in-beam γ-ray measurements. The ratios of full-energy to single-escape peak and full-energy of double-escape peak, at γ-rays of 2754, 4443 and 6130 keV, were used to derive associated suppression factors in order to optimize detection conditions of the system. The suppression factors derived both from the escape peak ratios and the corresponding peak-to-Compton ratios of the γ-ray spectra are compared and discussed. This optimization technique may be of great significance for analyzing complicated spectra, where high-energy γ-rays are considered for analytical use. (Author)

  3. X-ray Compton scattering experiments for fluid alkali metals at high temperatures and pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, K., E-mail: kazuhiro-matsuda@scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Fukumaru, T.; Kimura, K.; Yao, M. [Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Tamura, K. [Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Katoh, M. [A.L.M.T. Corp., Iwasekoshi-Machi 2, Toyama 931-8543 (Japan); Kajihara, Y.; Inui, M. [Graduate School of Integrated Arts and Sciences, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8521 (Japan); Itou, M.; Sakurai, Y. [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)

    2015-08-17

    We have developed a high-pressure vessel and a cell for x-ray Compton scattering measurements of fluid alkali metals. Measurements have been successfully carried out for alkali metal rubidium at elevated temperatures and pressures using synchrotron radiation at SPring-8. The width of Compton profiles (CPs) of fluid rubidium becomes narrow with decreasing fluid density, which indicates that the CPs sensitively detect the effect of reduction in the valence electron density. At the request of all authors of the paper, and with the agreement of the Proceedings Editor, an updated version of this article was published on 10 September 2015. The original article supplied to AIP Publishing was not the final version and contained PDF conversion errors in Formulas (1) and (2). The errors have been corrected in the updated and re-published article.

  4. Evaluation of geometrical contributions to the spread of the Compton-scatter energy distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, A.L.; Gigante, G.E.; Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Roma I, ''La Sapienza,'' Corso Vittorio Emanuele II, 244, 00186 Roma, Italy)

    1989-01-01

    The spectrum from Compton-scattered x rays is an inherently broad distribution. This distribution is the sum of several Gaussian-like distributions, which gives the sum its unique shape. The Gaussian-like distributions are the result of convoluting the so-called Compton profile, the spread in the scattered-x-ray energies due to the momentum distributions of the target electrons, with the detector response and the geometrical effects. The distribution is then further modified by the absorption within the sample. A formulation for both qualitatively and quantitatively determining the magnitude of the geometrical contributions is presented. This formulation is based on a recently devised approach to the scattering geometry [Hanson, Gigante, Meron, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 135 (1988)]. A methodology for determining the geometrical spread in the energy of the scattered x rays is presented. The results can be conveniently used to optimize scattering geometries for the reduction of the geometry-caused spread

  5. Multi-wavelength emission from 3C 66A: clues to its redshift and gamma-ray emission location

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Da-Hai; Fan Zhong-Hui; Zhou Yao; Dai Ben-Zhong

    2013-01-01

    The quasi-simultaneous multi-wavelength emission of TeV blazar 3C 66A is studied by using a one-zone multi-component leptonic jet model. It is found that the quasi-simultaneous spectral energy distribution of 3C 66A can be well reproduced; in particular, the first three months of its average Fermi-LAT spectrum can be well reproduced by the synchrotron self-Compton component plus external Compton component of the broad line region (BLR). Clues to its redshift and gamma-ray emission location are obtained. The results indicate the following. (i) On the redshift: The theoretical intrinsic TeV spectra can be predicted by extrapolating the reproduced GeV spectra. Through comparing these extrapolated TeV spectra with the corrected observed TeV spectra from extragalactic background light, it is suggested that the redshift of 3C 66A could be between 0.1 and 0.3, with the most likely value being ∼ 0.2. (ii) On the gamma-ray emission location: To well reproduce the GeV emission of 3C 66A under different assumptions on the BLR, the gamma-ray emission region is always required to be beyond the inner zone of the BLR. The BLR absorption effect on gamma-ray emission confirms this point.

  6. Representation of the virtual Compton amplitude for polarized scattering in the generalized Bjorken region

    OpenAIRE

    Blümlein, J.; Gezer, B.; Robaschik, D.

    1999-01-01

    The Compton amplitude is calculated in terms of expectation values of light-ray quark operators. As a technical tool we apply the nonlocal light-cone expansion. Thereby we express the expectation value of the vector light-ray operator with the help of the expectation value of the corresponding scalar operator of twist 2. This allows important simplifications. In the limit of forward scattering the integral relations between the twist-2 contributions of the structure functions are implied dire...

  7. Analysis of tin-ore samples by the ratio of Rayleigh to Compton backscattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ao Qi; Cao Liguo; Ding Yimin

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between the ratio of gamma-ray Rayleigh to Compton backscattering intensities (R/C) and the weight fraction of heavy element in light matrixes were investigated. An improved (R/C) eff analytical technique for tin-ore samples was described. The technique can be regarded as a substitute for the XRF method in which the self-absorption process worsens the analytical accuracy of heavy elements

  8. Determination of the integrated luminosity at HERA using elastic QED Compton events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaron, F.D.; Andreev, V.

    2012-04-01

    A measurement of the integrated luminosity at the ep collider HERA is presented, exploiting the elastic QED Compton process ep→eγp. The electron and the photon are detected in the backward calorimeter of the H1 experiment. The integrated luminosity of the data recorded in 2003 to 2007 is determined with a precision of 2.3%. The measurement is found to be compatible with the corresponding result obtained using the Bethe-Heitler process.

  9. Image combination enhancement method for X-ray compton back-scattering security inspection body scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Huaiying; Zhang Yujin; Yang Lirui; Li Dong

    2011-01-01

    As for X-ray Compton Back-Scattering (CBS) body scanner, image clearness is very important for the performance of detecting the contraband hidden on the body. A new image combination enhancement method is provided based on characteristics of CBS body images and points of human vision. After processed by this method, the CBS image will be obviously improved with clear levels, distinct outline and uniform background. (authors)

  10. Determination of the Integrated Luminosity at HERA using Elastic QED Compton Events

    CERN Document Server

    Aaron, F.D.; Andreev, V.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baghdasaryan, S.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Begzsuren, K.; Belousov, A.; Belov, P.; Bizot, J.C.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Britzger, D.; Bruncko, D.; Bunyatyan, A.; Bylinkin, A.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Cantun Avila, K.B.; Ceccopieri, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Contreras, J.G.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Daum, K.; Delcourt, B.; Delvax, J.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dobre, M.; Dodonov, V.; Dossanov, A.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Egli, S.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Fischer, D.J.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Gabathuler, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Glazov, A.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Grebenyuk, A.; Greenshaw, T.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hennekemper, E.; Henschel, H.; Herbst, M.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hreus, T.; Huber, F.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, X.; Jonsson, L.; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, T.; Kogler, R.; Kostka, P.; Kramer, M.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kruger, K.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lipka, K.; List, B.; List, J.; Lobodzinski, B.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Malinovski, E.; Martyn, H.U.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Muller, K.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P.R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikitin, D.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Olsson, J.E.; Ozerov, D.; Pahl, P.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, Th.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Perez, E.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Pirumov, H.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Pokorny, B.; Polifka, R.; Povh, B.; Radescu, V.; Raicevic, N.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rotaru, M.; Ruiz Tabasco, J.E.; Rusakov, S.; Salek, D.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmitt, S.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Sefkow, F.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Shushkevich, S.; Sloan, T.; Soloviev, Y.; Sopicki, P.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stoicea, G.; Straumann, U.; Sykora, T.; Thompson, P.D.; Tran, T.H.; Traynor, D.; Truol, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Turnau, J.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vazdik, Y.; Wegener, D.; Wunsch, E.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zlebcik, R.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.

    2012-10-10

    A measurement of the integrated luminosity at the ep collider HERA is presented, exploiting the elastic QED Compton process ep \\rightarrow ep. The electron and the photon are detected in the backward calorimeter of the H1 experiment. The integrated luminosity of the data recorded in 2003 to 2007 is determined with a precision of 2.3%. The measurement is found to be compatible with the corresponding result obtained using the Bethe-Heitler process.

  11. Determination of the integrated luminosity at HERA using elastic QED Compton events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaron, F.D.; Alexa, C.; Rotaru, M.; Stoicea, G.; Andreev, V.; Belousov, A.; Eliseev, A.; Fomenko, A.; Gogitidze, N.; Lebedev, A.; Malinovski, E.; Rusakov, S.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Vazdik, Y.; Backovic, S.; Dubak, A.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Picuric, I.; Raicevic, N.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baghdasaryan, S.; Zohrabyan, H.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Belov, P.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Britzger, D.; Campbell, A.J.; Eckerlin, G.; Elsen, E.; Felst, R.; Fischer, D.J.; Fleischer, M.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Glazov, A.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grebenyuk, A.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Kleinwort, C.; Kraemer, M.; Levonian, S.; Lipka, K.; List, B.; List, J.; Lobodzinski, B.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, J.; Niebuhr, C.; Olsson, J.E.; Ozerov, D.; Pahl, P.; Panagoulias, I.; Papadopoulou, T.; Petrukhin, A.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Radescu, V.; Schmitt, S.; Sefkow, F.; Shushkevich, S.; South, D.; Steder, M.; Wuensch, E.; Begzsuren, K.; Ravdandorj, T.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Bizot, J.C.; Brisson, V.; Delcourt, B.; Jacquet, M.; Pascaud, C.; Tran, T.H.; Zhang, Z.; Zomer, F.; Boudry, V.; Moreau, F.; Specka, A.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Bracinik, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Newman, P.R.; Thompson, P.D.; Bruncko, D.; Cerny, V.; Ferencei, J.; Bunyatyan, A.; Bylinkin, A.; Bystritskaya, L.; Fedotov, A.; Lubimov, V.; Rostovtsev, A.; Zhokin, A.; Cantun Avila, K.B.; Contreras, J.G.; Ruiz Tabasco, J.E.; Ceccopieri, F.; Delvax, J.; Wolf, E.A. de; Favart, L.; Hreus, T.; Janssen, X.; Roosen, R.; Staykova, Z.; Mechelen, P. van; Cerny, K.; Pokorny, B.; Polifka, R.; Salek, D.; Valkarova, A.; Zacek, J.; Zlebcik, R.; Chekelian, V.; Grindhammer, G.; Kiesling, C.; Coughlan, J.A.; Morris, J.V.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Cvach, J.; Reimer, P.; Zalesak, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Gabathuler, E.; Greenshaw, T.; Klein, M.; Kluge, T.; Kretzschmar, J.; Laycock, P.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Patel, G.D.; Daum, K.; Meyer, H.; Diaconu, C.; Hoffmann, D.; Sauvan, E.; Vallee, C.; Dobre, M.; Kogler, R.; Nowak, K.; Dodonov, V.; Povh, B.; Dossanov, A.; Egli, S.; Hildebrandt, M.; Horisberger, R.; Feltesse, J.; Perez, E.; Schoeffel, L.; Goerlich, L.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Nowak, G.; Sopicki, P.; Turnau, J.; Grab, C.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Sloan, T.; Hennekemper, E.; Herbst, M.; Krueger, K.; Lendermann, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Henschel, H.; Hiller, K.H.; Kostka, P.; Lange, W.; Naumann, T.; Herrera, G.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Huber, F.; Pirumov, H.; Sauter, M.; Schoening, A.; Joensson, L.; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Morozov, A.; Nikitin, D.; Palichik, V.; Spaskov, V.; Landon, M.P.J.; Rizvi, E.; Traynor, D.; Martyn, H.U.; Mueller, K.; Robmann, P.; Straumann, U.; Truoel, P.; Soloviev, Y.; Stella, B.; Sykora, T.; Tsakov, I.; Wegener, D.

    2012-01-01

    A measurement of the integrated luminosity at the ep collider HERA is presented, exploiting the elastic QED Compton process ep→eγp. The electron and the photon are detected in the backward calorimeter of the H1 experiment. The integrated luminosity of the data recorded in 2003 to 2007 is determined with a precision of 2.3 %. The measurement is found to be compatible with the corresponding result obtained using the Bethe-Heitler process. (orig.)

  12. HEROIC: 3D general relativistic radiative post-processor with comptonization for black hole accretion discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Ramesh; Zhu, Yucong; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Saḑowski, Aleksander

    2016-03-01

    We describe Hybrid Evaluator for Radiative Objects Including Comptonization (HEROIC), an upgraded version of the relativistic radiative post-processor code HERO described in a previous paper, but which now Includes Comptonization. HEROIC models Comptonization via the Kompaneets equation, using a quadratic approximation for the source function in a short characteristics radiation solver. It employs a simple form of accelerated lambda iteration to handle regions of high scattering opacity. In addition to solving for the radiation field, HEROIC also solves for the gas temperature by applying the condition of radiative equilibrium. We present benchmarks and tests of the Comptonization module in HEROIC with simple 1D and 3D scattering problems. We also test the ability of the code to handle various relativistic effects using model atmospheres and accretion flows in a black hole space-time. We present two applications of HEROIC to general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics simulations of accretion discs. One application is to a thin accretion disc around a black hole. We find that the gas below the photosphere in the multidimensional HEROIC solution is nearly isothermal, quite different from previous solutions based on 1D plane parallel atmospheres. The second application is to a geometrically thick radiation-dominated accretion disc accreting at 11 times the Eddington rate. Here, the multidimensional HEROIC solution shows that, for observers who are on axis and look down the polar funnel, the isotropic equivalent luminosity could be more than 10 times the Eddington limit, even though the spectrum might still look thermal and show no signs of relativistic beaming.

  13. Determination of the integrated luminosity at HERA using elastic QED Compton events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron, F.D. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (Romania); Bucharest Univ. (Romania). Faculty of Physics; Alexa, C. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (Romania); Andreev, V. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (RU)] (and others)

    2012-04-15

    A measurement of the integrated luminosity at the ep collider HERA is presented, exploiting the elastic QED Compton process ep{yields}e{gamma}p. The electron and the photon are detected in the backward calorimeter of the H1 experiment. The integrated luminosity of the data recorded in 2003 to 2007 is determined with a precision of 2.3%. The measurement is found to be compatible with the corresponding result obtained using the Bethe-Heitler process.

  14. An Imaging Camera for Biomedical Application Based on Compton Scattering of Gamma Rays

    OpenAIRE

    Fontana, Cristiano Lino

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we present the R&D of a Compton Camera (CC) for small object imaging. The CC concept requires two detectors to obtain the incoming direction of the gamma ray. This approach, sometimes named ``Electronic Collimation,'' differs from the usual technique that employs collimators for physically selecting gamma-rays of a given direction. This solution offers the advantage of much greater sensitivity and hence smaller doses. We propose a novel design, which uses two simila...

  15. Development of a Compton camera for prompt-gamma medical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldawood, S.; Thirolf, P. G.; Miani, A.; Böhmer, M.; Dedes, G.; Gernhäuser, R.; Lang, C.; Liprandi, S.; Maier, L.; Marinšek, T.; Mayerhofer, M.; Schaart, D. R.; Lozano, I. Valencia; Parodi, K.

    2017-11-01

    A Compton camera-based detector system for photon detection from nuclear reactions induced by proton (or heavier ion) beams is under development at LMU Munich, targeting the online range verification of the particle beam in hadron therapy via prompt-gamma imaging. The detector is designed to be capable to reconstruct the photon source origin not only from the Compton scattering kinematics of the primary photon, but also to allow for tracking of the secondary Compton-scattered electrons, thus enabling a γ-source reconstruction also from incompletely absorbed photon events. The Compton camera consists of a monolithic LaBr3:Ce scintillation crystal, read out by a multi-anode PMT acting as absorber, preceded by a stacked array of 6 double-sided silicon strip detectors as scatterers. The detector components have been characterized both under offline and online conditions. The LaBr3:Ce crystal exhibits an excellent time and energy resolution. Using intense collimated 137Cs and 60Co sources, the monolithic scintillator was scanned on a fine 2D grid to generate a reference library of light amplitude distributions that allows for reconstructing the photon interaction position using a k-Nearest Neighbour (k-NN) algorithm. Systematic studies were performed to investigate the performance of the reconstruction algorithm, revealing an improvement of the spatial resolution with increasing photon energy to an optimum value of 3.7(1)mm at 1.33 MeV, achieved with the Categorical Average Pattern (CAP) modification of the k-NN algorithm.

  16. EXTERNAL COMPTON SCATTERING IN BLAZAR JETS AND THE LOCATION OF THE GAMMA-RAY EMITTING REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finke, Justin D., E-mail: justin.finke@nrl.navy.mil [U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Code 7653, 4555 Overlook Ave. SW, Washington, DC, 20375-5352 (United States)

    2016-10-20

    I study the location of the γ -ray emission in blazar jets by creating a Compton-scattering approximation that is valid for all anisotropic radiation fields in the Thomson through Klein–Nishina regimes, is highly accurate, and can speed up numerical calculations by up to a factor of ∼10. I apply this approximation to synchrotron self-Compton, external Compton scattering of photons from the accretion disk, broad line region (BLR), and dust torus. I use a stratified BLR model and include detailed Compton-scattering calculations of a spherical and flattened BLR. I create two dust torus models, one where the torus is an annulus and one where it is an extended disk. I present detailed calculations of the photoabsorption optical depth using my detailed BLR and dust torus models, including the full angle dependence. I apply these calculations to the emission from a relativistically moving blob traveling through these radiation fields. The ratio of γ -ray to optical flux produces a predictable pattern that could help locate the γ -ray emission region. I show that the bright flare from 3C 454.3 in 2010 November detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope is unlikely to originate from a single blob inside the BLR. This is because it moves outside the BLR in a time shorter than the flare duration, although emission by multiple blobs inside the BLR is possible. Also, γ -rays are unlikely to originate from outside of the BLR, due to the scattering of photons from an extended dust torus, since the cooling timescale would be too long to explain the observed short variability.

  17. Design and construction of a Cherenkov detector for Compton polarimetry at the ILC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartels, Christoph

    2010-11-01

    This paper describes the design and construction of a Cherenkov detector conceived with regard to high energy Compton polarimeters for the International Linear Collider, where beam diagnostic systems of unprecedented precision must complement the interaction region detectors to pursue an ambitious physics programme. Besides the design of the Cherenkov detector, detailed simulation studies and first testbeam results are presented. Good agreement of beam data with expectations from Monte Carlo simulations is observed. (orig.)

  18. Design and construction of a Cherenkov detector for Compton polarimetry at the ILC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartels, Christoph [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik; Ebert, Joachim; Hartin, Anthony; Helebrant, Christian; Kaefer, Daniela; List, Jenny [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    This paper describes the design and construction of a Cherenkov detector conceived with regard to high energy Compton polarimeters for the International Linear Collider, where beam diagnostic systems of unprecedented precision must complement the interaction region detectors to pursue an ambitious physics programme. Besides the design of the Cherenkov detector, detailed simulation studies and first testbeam results are presented. Good agreement of beam data with expectations from Monte Carlo simulations is observed. (orig.)

  19. Gamma ray burst source locations with the Ulysses/Compton/PVO Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, T.L.; Hurley, K.C.; Boer, M.; Sommer, M.; Niel, M.; Fishman, G.J.; Kouveliotou, C.; Meegan, C.A.; Paciesas, W.S.; Wilson, R.B.; Laros, J.G.; Klebesadel, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    The new interplanetary gamma-ray burst network will determine source fields with unprecedented accuracy. The baseline of the Ulysses mission and the locations of Pioneer-Venus Orbiter and of Mars Observer will ensure precision to a few tens of arc seconds. Combined with the event phenomenologies of the Burst and Transient Source Experiment on Compton Observatory, the source locations to be achieved with this network may provide a basic new understanding of the puzzle of gamma ray bursts

  20. A Glimpse of Gluons through Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering on the Proton

    OpenAIRE

    Defurne, M.; Jiménez-Argüello, A. Martì; Ahmed, Z.; Albataineh, H.; Allada, K.; Aniol, K. A.; Bellini, V.; Benali, M.; Boeglin, W.; Bertin, P.; Brossard, M.; Camsonne, A.; Canan, M.; Chandavar, S.; Chen, C.

    2017-01-01

    The proton is composed of quarks and gluons, bound by the most elusive mechanism of strong interaction called confinement. In this work, the dynamics of quarks and gluons are investigated using deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS): produced by a multi-GeV electron, a highly virtual photon scatters off the proton which subsequently radiates a high energy photon. Similarly to holography, measuring not only the magnitude but also the phase of the DVCS amplitude allows to perform 3D images of...

  1. A Compton-suppressed spectrometer for studies of chaos in nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shriner, J.F. Jr. [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville (United States); Bilpuch, E.G. [Duke University Press, Durham, NC (United States); Bybee, C.R. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Mitchell, G.E. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Moore, E.F. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Shriner, J.D. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Westerfeldt, C.R. [Duke University Press, Durham, NC (United States)

    1995-05-01

    One approach to studying chaos in quantum systems utilizes the statistical behavior of eigenvalues. Such analyses require data of very high quality, since both completeness and purity are essential. The design of a Compton-suppressed {gamma}-ray spectrometer for the purpose of establishing a nearly complete level scheme in {sup 30}P via the {sup 29}Si(p, {gamma}) reaction is described. Design criteria and implementation are discussed, and early results from the system are presented. (orig.).

  2. Short wavelength FELs using the SLAC linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winick, H.; Bane, K.; Boyce, R.

    1993-08-01

    Recent technological developments have opened the possibility to construct a device which we call a Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS); a fourth generation light source, with brightness, coherence, and peak power far exceeding other sources. Operating on the principle of the free electron laser (FEL), the LCLS would extend the range of FEL operation to much aborter wavelength than the 240 mn that has so far been reached. We report the results of studies of the use of the SLAC linac to drive an LCLS at wavelengths from about 3-100 nm initially and possibly even shorter wavelengths in the future. Lasing would be achieved in a single pass of a low emittance, high peak current, high energy electron beam through a long undulator. Most present FELs use an optical cavity to build up the intensity of the light to achieve lasing action in a low gain oscillator configuration. By eliminating the optical cavity, which is difficult to make at short wavelengths, laser action can be extended to shorter wavelengths by Self-Amplified-Spontaneous-Emission (SASE), or by harmonic generation from a longer wavelength seed laser. Short wavelength, single pass lasers have been extensively studied at several laboratories and at recent workshops

  3. Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering off a deuterium target at the HERMES experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Movsisyan, Aram

    2011-05-01

    Deeply virtual Compton scattering is studied in this report, using all data collected at the HERMES experiment from 1996 to 2005. Azimuthal asymmetries with respect to beam-helicity, beam-charge and target polarization alone and also to their different combinations for hard exclusive electroproduction of real photons in deep-inelastic scattering from a both unpolarized and longitudinally polarized deuterium targets are measured. The asymmetries are attributed to the interference between the deeply virtual Compton scattering and Bethe-Heitler processes. The asymmetries are observed in the exclusive region -(1.5) 2 GeV 2 2 X 2 GeV 2 of the squared missing mass. The dependences of these asymmetries on -t, x N , or Q 2 are investigated. The results include the coherent process ed→edγ and the incoherent process ed→epnγ where in addition a nucleon may be excited to a resonance. For an unpolarized deuterium target, the leading Fourier amplitude of the beam-helicity asymmetry that is sensitive to the interference term is found to be substantial, but no significant t dependence is observed. The leading amplitude of the beam-charge asymmetry is substantial at large -t, but becomes small at small values of -t. The amplitudes of the beam-helicity asymmetry that are sensitive to the squared DVCS term are found to be consistent with zero. The deuteron Compton form factor H 1 appears to have a similar behavior as H of the proton. (orig.)

  4. Application of Compton suppression spectrometry in the improvement of nuclear analytical techniques for biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Y. A.; Ewa, I.O.B.; Funtua, I.I.; Jonah, S.A.; Landsberger, S.

    2007-01-01

    Compton Suppression Factors (SF) and Compton Reduction Factors (RF) of the UT Austin's Compton suppression spectrometer being parameters characterizing the system performance were measured using ''1''3''7Cs and ''6''0Co point sources. The system performance was evaluated as a function of energy and geometry. The (P/C), A(P/C), (P/T), Cp, and Ce were obtained for each of the parameters. The natural background reduction factor in the anticoincidence mode and that of normal mode was calculated and its effect on the detection limit of biological samples evaluated. Applicability of the spectrometer and the method for biological samples was tested in the measurement of twenty-four elements (Ba, Sr, I, Br, Cu, V, Mg, Na, Cl, Mn, Ca, Sn, In, K, Mo, Cd, Zn, As, Sb, Ni, Rb, Cs, Fe, and Co) commonly found in food, milk, tea and tobacco items. They were determined from seven National Institute for Standard and Technology (NIST) certified reference materials (rice flour, oyster tissue, non-fat powdered milk, peach leaves, tomato leaves, apple leaves, and citrus leaves). Our results shows good agreement with the NIST certified values, indicating that the method developed in the present study is suitable for the determination of aforementioned elements in biological samples without undue interference problems

  5. Performance studies towards a TOF-PET sensor using Compton scattering at plastic scintillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramoto, M.; Nakamori, T.; Gunji, S.; Kamada, K.; Shoji, Y.; Yoshikawa, A.; Aoki, T.

    2018-01-01

    We have developed a sensor head for a time-of-flight (TOF) PET scanner using plastic scintillators that have a very fast timing property. Given the very small cross section of photoelectric absorption in plastic scintillators at 511 keV, we use Compton scattering in order to compensate for detection efficiency. The detector will consist of two layers of scatterers and absorbers which are made of plastic and inorganic scintillators such as GAGG:Ce, respectively. Signals are read by monolithic Multi Pixel Photon Counters, and with energy deposits and interaction time stamps are being acquired. The scintillators are built to be capable of resolving interaction position in three dimensions, so that our system has also a function of depth-of-interaction (DOI) PET scanners. TOF resolution of ~ 200 ps (FWHM) is achieved in both cases of using the leading-edge discriminator and time-walk correction and using a configuration sensitive to DOI. Both the position resolution and spectroscopy are demonstrated using the prototype data acquisition system, with Compton scattering events subsequently being obtained. We also demonstrated that the background rejection technique using the Compton cone constraint could be valid with our system.

  6. Compton imaging with a highly-segmented, position-sensitive HPGe detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbach, T.; Hirsch, R.; Reiter, P.; Birkenbach, B.; Bruyneel, B.; Eberth, J.; Hess, H.; Lewandowski, L. [Universitaet zu Koeln, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Koeln (Germany); Gernhaeuser, R.; Maier, L.; Schlarb, M.; Weiler, B.; Winkel, M. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department, Garching (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    A Compton camera based on a highly-segmented high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector and a double-sided silicon-strip detector (DSSD) was developed, tested, and put into operation; the origin of γ radiation was determined successfully. The Compton camera is operated in two different modes. Coincidences from Compton-scattered γ-ray events between DSSD and HPGe detector allow for best angular resolution; while the high-efficiency mode takes advantage of the position sensitivity of the highly-segmented HPGe detector. In this mode the setup is sensitive to the whole 4π solid angle. The interaction-point positions in the 36-fold segmented large-volume HPGe detector are determined by pulse-shape analysis (PSA) of all HPGe detector signals. Imaging algorithms were developed for each mode and successfully implemented. The angular resolution sensitively depends on parameters such as geometry, selected multiplicity and interaction-point distances. Best results were obtained taking into account the crosstalk properties, the time alignment of the signals and the distance metric for the PSA for both operation modes. An angular resolution between 13.8 {sup circle} and 19.1 {sup circle}, depending on the minimal interaction-point distance for the high-efficiency mode at an energy of 1275 keV, was achieved. In the coincidence mode, an increased angular resolution of 4.6 {sup circle} was determined for the same γ-ray energy. (orig.)

  7. AXIS: An instrument for imaging Compton radiographs using the Advanced Radiography Capability on the NIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, G. N., E-mail: hall98@llnl.gov; Izumi, N.; Tommasini, R.; Carpenter, A. C.; Palmer, N. E.; Zacharias, R.; Felker, B.; Holder, J. P.; Allen, F. V.; Bell, P. M.; Bradley, D.; Montesanti, R.; Landen, O. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Compton radiography is an important diagnostic for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF), as it provides a means to measure the density and asymmetries of the DT fuel in an ICF capsule near the time of peak compression. The AXIS instrument (ARC (Advanced Radiography Capability) X-ray Imaging System) is a gated detector in development for the National Ignition Facility (NIF), and will initially be capable of recording two Compton radiographs during a single NIF shot. The principal reason for the development of AXIS is the requirement for significantly improved detection quantum efficiency (DQE) at high x-ray energies. AXIS will be the detector for Compton radiography driven by the ARC laser, which will be used to produce Bremsstrahlung X-ray backlighter sources over the range of 50 keV–200 keV for this purpose. It is expected that AXIS will be capable of recording these high-energy x-rays with a DQE several times greater than other X-ray cameras at NIF, as well as providing a much larger field of view of the imploded capsule. AXIS will therefore provide an image with larger signal-to-noise that will allow the density and distribution of the compressed DT fuel to be measured with significantly greater accuracy as ICF experiments are tuned for ignition.

  8. Development of a Compton camera for online monitoring and dosimetry of laser-accelerated proton beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thirolf, Peter G.; Lang, Christian; Aldawood, Saad; Parodi, Katia [LMU Muenchen (Germany); Habs, Dietrich [LMU Muenchen (Germany); MPI fuer Quantenoptik, Garching (Germany); Maier, Ludwig [TU Muenchen (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    A Compton camera is presently under construction in Garching, designed for monitoring and dosimetry of laser-accelerated protons for bio-medical applications via position-resolved prompt γ-ray detection. When ion beams suitable for hadron therapy (protons, carbon ions) interact with tissue (or tissue-equivalent plastic or water phantoms), nuclear reactions induce prompt γ rays that can be utilized, e.g., to verify the ion beam range (i.e. monitor the Bragg peak position) by exploiting the Compton scattering kinematics of these photons. Our Compton camera (formed by a combination of scatter and absorber detector) consists of a stack of six double-sided Si-strip detectors (50 x 50 mm{sup 2}, 0.5 mm thick, 128 strips/side, pitch 390 μm) acting as scatterers, while the absorber is formed by a LaBr{sub 3} scintillator crystal (50 x 50 x 30 mm{sup 3}), read out by a (8 x 8) pixelated multi-anode PMT. Simulation results for design specifications and expected values of resolution and efficiency are presented, as well as the status of the prototype presently under construction.

  9. An experimental method for the optimization of anti-Compton spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Badran, H M

    1999-01-01

    The reduction of the Compton continuum can be achieved using a Compton suppression shield. For the first time, an experimental method is purposed for estimating the optimum dimensions of such a shield. The method can also provide information on the effect of the air gap, source geometry, gamma-ray energy, etc., on the optimum dimension of the active shield. The method employs the measurements of the Compton suppression efficiency in two dimensions using small size scintillation detectors. Two types of scintillation materials; NaI(Tl) and NE-102A plastic scintillators, were examined. The effect of gamma-ray energy and source geometry were also investigated using sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs and sup 6 sup 0 Co sources with three geometries; point, cylindrical, and Marinelli shapes. The results indicate the importance of both NaI(Tl) and NE-102A guard detectors in surrounding the main detector rather than the distance above it. The ratio between the part of the guard detector above the surface of the main detector to th...

  10. Electronic properties of mixed molybdenum dichalcogenide MoTeSe: LCAO calculations and Compton spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahuja, Ushma [Department of Electrical Engineering, Veermata Jijabai Technological Institute, H. R. Mahajani Marg, Matunga (East), Mumbai 400019, Maharashtra (India); Kumar, Kishor; Joshi, Ritu [Department of Physics, University College of Science, M.L. Sukhadia University, Udaipur 313001, Rajasthan (India); Bhavsar, D.N. [Department of Physics, Bhavan' s Seth R.A. College of Science, Khanpur, Ahmedabad 380001, Gujarat (India); Heda, N.L., E-mail: nlheda@yahoo.co.in [Department of Pure and Applied Physics, University of Kota, Kota 324007, Rajasthan (India)

    2016-07-01

    We have employed linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO) method to compute the Mulliken’s population (MP), energy bands, density of states (DOS) and Compton profiles for hexagonal MoTeSe. The density functional theory (DFT) and hybridization of Hartree-Fock with DFT (B3LYP) have been used within the LCAO approximation. Performance of theoretical models has been tested by comparing the theoretical momentum densities with the experimental Compton profile of MoTeSe measured using {sup 137}Cs Compton spectrometer. It is seen that the B3LYP prescription gives a better agreement with the experimental data than other DFT based approximations. The energy bands and DOS depict an indirect band gap character in MoTeSe. In addition, a relative nature of bonding in MoTeSe and its isovalent MoTe{sub 2} is discussed in terms of equal-valence-electron-density (EVED) profiles. On the basis of EVED profiles it is seen that MoTeSe is more covalent than MoTe{sub 2}.

  11. Sum rules across the unpolarized Compton processes involving generalized polarizabilities and moments of nucleon structure functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lensky, Vadim; Hagelstein, Franziska; Pascalutsa, Vladimir; Vanderhaeghen, Marc

    2018-04-01

    We derive two new sum rules for the unpolarized doubly virtual Compton scattering process on a nucleon, which establish novel low-Q2 relations involving the nucleon's generalized polarizabilities and moments of the nucleon's unpolarized structure functions F1(x ,Q2) and F2(x ,Q2). These relations facilitate the determination of some structure constants which can only be accessed in off-forward doubly virtual Compton scattering, not experimentally accessible at present. We perform an empirical determination for the proton and compare our results with a next-to-leading-order chiral perturbation theory prediction. We also show how these relations may be useful for a model-independent determination of the low-Q2 subtraction function in the Compton amplitude, which enters the two-photon-exchange contribution to the Lamb shift of (muonic) hydrogen. An explicit calculation of the Δ (1232 )-resonance contribution to the muonic-hydrogen 2 P -2 S Lamb shift yields -1 ±1 μ eV , confirming the previously conjectured smallness of this effect.

  12. A didactic experiment showing the Compton scattering by means of a clinical gamma camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Ernesto; Auditore, Lucrezia; Campennì, Alfredo; Minutoli, Fabio; Cucinotta, Mariapaola; Sindoni, Alessandro; Baldari, Sergio

    2017-06-01

    We describe a didactic approach aimed to explain the effect of Compton scattering in nuclear medicine imaging, exploiting the comparison of a didactic experiment with a gamma camera with the outcomes from a Monte Carlo simulation of the same experimental apparatus. We employed a 99m Tc source emitting 140.5keV photons, collimated in the upper direction through two pinholes, shielded by 6mm of lead. An aluminium cylinder was placed on the source at 50mm of distance. The energy of the scattered photons was measured on the spectra acquired by the gamma camera. We observed that the gamma ray energy measured at each step of rotation gradually decreased from the characteristic energy of 140.5keV at 0° to 102.5keV at 120°. A comparison between the obtained data and the expected results from the Compton formula and from the Monte Carlo simulation revealed a full agreement within the experimental error (relative errors between -0.56% and 1.19%), given by the energy resolution of the gamma camera. Also the electron rest mass has been evaluated satisfactorily. The experiment was found useful in explaining nuclear medicine residents the phenomenology of the Compton scattering and its importance in the nuclear medicine imaging, and it can be profitably proposed during the training of medical physics residents as well. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. AXIS: an instrument for imaging Compton radiographs using the Advanced Radiography Capability on the NIF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, G N; Izumi, N; Tommasini, R; Carpenter, A C; Palmer, N E; Zacharias, R; Felker, B; Holder, J P; Allen, F V; Bell, P M; Bradley, D; Montesanti, R; Landen, O L

    2014-11-01

    Compton radiography is an important diagnostic for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF), as it provides a means to measure the density and asymmetries of the DT fuel in an ICF capsule near the time of peak compression. The AXIS instrument (ARC (Advanced Radiography Capability) X-ray Imaging System) is a gated detector in development for the National Ignition Facility (NIF), and will initially be capable of recording two Compton radiographs during a single NIF shot. The principal reason for the development of AXIS is the requirement for significantly improved detection quantum efficiency (DQE) at high x-ray energies. AXIS will be the detector for Compton radiography driven by the ARC laser, which will be used to produce Bremsstrahlung X-ray backlighter sources over the range of 50 keV-200 keV for this purpose. It is expected that AXIS will be capable of recording these high-energy x-rays with a DQE several times greater than other X-ray cameras at NIF, as well as providing a much larger field of view of the imploded capsule. AXIS will therefore provide an image with larger signal-to-noise that will allow the density and distribution of the compressed DT fuel to be measured with significantly greater accuracy as ICF experiments are tuned for ignition.

  14. A low-count reconstruction algorithm for Compton-based prompt gamma imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsuan-Ming; Liu, Chih-Chieh; Jan, Meei-Ling; Lee, Ming-Wei

    2018-04-01

    The Compton camera is an imaging device which has been proposed to detect prompt gammas (PGs) produced by proton–nuclear interactions within tissue during proton beam irradiation. Compton-based PG imaging has been developed to verify proton ranges because PG rays, particularly characteristic ones, have strong correlations with the distribution of the proton dose. However, accurate image reconstruction from characteristic PGs is challenging because the detector efficiency and resolution are generally low. Our previous study showed that point spread functions can be incorporated into the reconstruction process to improve image resolution. In this study, we proposed a low-count reconstruction algorithm to improve the image quality of a characteristic PG emission by pooling information from other characteristic PG emissions. PGs were simulated from a proton beam irradiated on a water phantom, and a two-stage Compton camera was used for PG detection. The results show that the image quality of the reconstructed characteristic PG emission is improved with our proposed method in contrast to the standard reconstruction method using events from only one characteristic PG emission. For the 4.44 MeV PG rays, both methods can be used to predict the positions of the peak and the distal falloff with a mean accuracy of 2 mm. Moreover, only the proposed method can improve the estimated positions of the peak and the distal falloff of 5.25 MeV PG rays, and a mean accuracy of 2 mm can be reached.

  15. Compton profiles and band structure calculations of CdS and CdTe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heda, N.L.; Mathur, S.; Ahuja, B.L.; Sharma, B.K.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present the isotropic Compton profiles of zinc-blende CdS and CdTe measured at an intermediate resolution of 0.39 a.u. using our 20 Ci 137 Cs Compton spectrometer. The electronic band structure calculations for both the zinc-blende structure compounds and also wurtzite CdS have been undertaken using various schemes of ab-initio linear combination of atomic orbitals calculations implemented in CRYSTAL03 code. The band structure and Mulliken's populations are reported using density functional scheme. In case of wurtzite CdS, our theoretical anisotropies in directional Compton profiles are compared with available experimental data. In case of both the zinc-blende compounds, the isotropic experimental profiles are found to be in better agreement with the present Hartree-Fock calculations. A study of the equal-valence-electron-density experimental profiles of zinc-blende CdS and CdTe shows that the CdS is more ionic than CdTe. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. Rayleigh to Compton ratio scatter tomography applied to breast cancer diagnosis: A preliminary computational study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniassi, M.; Conceição, A.L.C.; Poletti, M.E.

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, a tomographic technique based on Rayleigh to Compton scattering ratio (R/C) was studied using computational simulation in order to assess its application to breast cancer diagnosis. In this preliminary study, some parameters that affect the image quality were evaluated, such as: (i) energy beam, (ii) size and glandularity of the breast, and (iii) statistical count noise. The results showed that the R/C contrast increases with increasing photon energy and decreases with increasing glandularity of the sample. The statistical noise showed to be a significant parameter, although the quality of the obtained images was acceptable for a considerable range of noise level. The preliminary results suggest that the R/C tomographic technique has a potential of being applied as a complementary tool in the breast cancer diagnostic. - Highlights: ► A tomographic technique based on Rayleigh to Compton scattering ratio is proposed in order to study breast tissues. ► The Rayleigh to Compton scattering ratio technique is compared with conventional transmission technique. ► The influence of experimental parameters (energy, sample, detection system) is studied

  17. MULTI-WAVELENGTH OBSERVATIONS OF THE FLARING GAMMA-RAY BLAZAR 3C 66A IN 2008 OCTOBER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Buehler, R.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Buson, S.; Bonamente, E.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.

    2011-01-01

    The BL Lacertae object 3C 66A was detected in a flaring state by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) and VERITAS in 2008 October. In addition to these gamma-ray observations, F-GAMMA, GASP-WEBT, PAIRITEL, MDM, ATOM, Swift, and Chandra provided radio to X-ray coverage. The available light curves show variability and, in particular, correlated flares are observed in the optical and Fermi-LAT gamma-ray band. The resulting spectral energy distribution can be well fitted using standard leptonic models with and without an external radiation field for inverse Compton scattering. It is found, however, that only the model with an external radiation field can accommodate the intra-night variability observed at optical wavelengths.

  18. Multi-wavelength lasers using AWGs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besten, den J.H.

    2003-01-01

    Multiwavelength lasers using AWGs can be used as digitally tunable lasers with simple channel selection, and for generating multiple wavelengths simultanously. In this paper a number of different configurations is reviewed.

  19. Wavelength mismatch effect in electromagnetically induced absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharti, Vineet [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Wasan, Ajay [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee 247667 (India); Natarajan, Vasant [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2016-07-15

    We present a theoretical investigation of the phenomenon of electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA) in a 4-level system consisting of vee and ladder subsystems. The four levels are coupled using one weak probe field, and two strong control fields. We consider an experimental realization using energy levels of Rb. This necessitates dealing with different conditions of wavelength mismatch—near-perfect match where all three wavelengths are approximately equal; partial mismatch where the wavelength of one control field is less than the other fields; and complete mismatch where all three wavelengths are unequal. We present probe absorption profiles with Doppler averaging at room temperature to account for experiments in a room temperature Rb vapor cell. Our analysis shows that EIA resonances can be studied using Rydberg states excited with diode lasers. - Highlights: • Wavelength mismatch effect is investigated in electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA). • An experimental realization of 4-level vee + ladder system using energy levels of rubidium atom is presented. • EIA resonances are studied under different conditions of wavelength mismatch. • Possibility of observation of EIA using Rydberg states excited with diode lasers.

  20. Wavelength mismatch effect in electromagnetically induced absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bharti, Vineet; Wasan, Ajay; Natarajan, Vasant

    2016-01-01

    We present a theoretical investigation of the phenomenon of electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA) in a 4-level system consisting of vee and ladder subsystems. The four levels are coupled using one weak probe field, and two strong control fields. We consider an experimental realization using energy levels of Rb. This necessitates dealing with different conditions of wavelength mismatch—near-perfect match where all three wavelengths are approximately equal; partial mismatch where the wavelength of one control field is less than the other fields; and complete mismatch where all three wavelengths are unequal. We present probe absorption profiles with Doppler averaging at room temperature to account for experiments in a room temperature Rb vapor cell. Our analysis shows that EIA resonances can be studied using Rydberg states excited with diode lasers. - Highlights: • Wavelength mismatch effect is investigated in electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA). • An experimental realization of 4-level vee + ladder system using energy levels of rubidium atom is presented. • EIA resonances are studied under different conditions of wavelength mismatch. • Possibility of observation of EIA using Rydberg states excited with diode lasers.

  1. A 12 GHz wavelength spacing multi-wavelength laser source for wireless communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, P. C.; Shiu, R. K.; Bitew, M. A.; Chang, T. L.; Lai, C. H.; Junior, J. I.

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a multi-wavelength laser source with 12 GHz wavelength spacing based on a single distributed feedback laser. A light wave generated from the distributed feedback laser is fed into a frequency shifter loop consisting of 50:50 coupler, dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator, optical amplifier, optical filter, and polarization controller. The frequency of the input wavelength is shifted and then re-injected into the frequency shifter loop. By re-injecting the shifted wavelengths multiple times, we have generated 84 optical carriers with 12 GHz wavelength spacing and stable output power. For each channel, two wavelengths are modulated by a wireless data using the phase modulator and transmitted through a 25 km single mode fiber. In contrast to previously developed schemes, the proposed laser source does not incur DC bias drift problem. Moreover, it is a good candidate for radio-over-fiber systems to support multiple users using a single distributed feedback laser.

  2. Doppler Broadening Calculations of Compton Scattering for Molecules, Plastics, Tissues, and Few Biological Materials in the X-Ray Region: An Analysis in Terms of Compton Broadening and Geometrical Energy Broadening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, D. V.; Cesareo, R.; Brunetti, A.; Gigante, G. E.; Akatsuka, T.; Takeda, T.; Itai, Y.

    2004-09-01

    Relativistic and nonrelativistic Compton profile cross sections for H, C, N, O, P, and Ca and for a few important biological materials such as water, polyethylene, lucite, polystyrene, nylon, polycarbonate, bakelite, fat, bone and calcium hydroxyapatite are estimated for a number of Kα x-ray energies and for 59.54 keV (Am-241) γ photons. Energy broadening and geometrical broadening (ΔG) is estimated by assuming θmin and θmax are symmetrically situated around θ=90°. FWHM of J(PZ) and FWHM of Compton energy broadening are evaluated at various incident photon energies. These values are estimated around the centroid of the Compton profile with an energy interval of 0.1 and 1.0 keV for 59.54 keV photons. Total Compton, individual shell, and Compton energy-absorption scattering cross sections are evaluated in the energy region from 0.005 to 0.5 MeV. It is an attempt to know the effect of Doppler broadening for single atoms, many of which constitute the biological materials.

  3. Wavelength converter placement for different RWA algorithms in wavelength-routed all-optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Xiaowen; Li, Bo; Chlamtac, Imrich

    2002-07-01

    Sparse wavelength conversion and appropriate routing and wavelength assignment (RWA) algorithms are the two key factors in improving the blocking performance in wavelength-routed all-optical networks. It has been shown that the optimal placement of a limited number of wavelength converters in an arbitrary mesh network is an NP complete problem. There have been various heuristic algorithms proposed in the literature, in which most of them assume that a static routing and random wavelength assignment RWA algorithm is employed. However, the existing work shows that fixed-alternate routing and dynamic routing RWA algorithms can achieve much better blocking performance. Our study in this paper further demonstrates that the wavelength converter placement and RWA algorithms are closely related in the sense that a well designed wavelength converter placement mechanism for a particular RWA algorithm might not work well with a different RWA algorithm. Therefore, the wavelength converter placement and the RWA have to be considered jointly. The objective of this paper is to investigate the wavelength converter placement problem under fixed-alternate routing algorithm and least-loaded routing algorithm. Under the fixed-alternate routing algorithm, we propose a heuristic algorithm called Minimum Blocking Probability First (MBPF) algorithm for wavelength converter placement. Under the least-loaded routing algorithm, we propose a heuristic converter placement algorithm called Weighted Maximum Segment Length (WMSL) algorithm. The objective of the converter placement algorithm is to minimize the overall blocking probability. Extensive simulation studies have been carried out over three typical mesh networks, including the 14-node NSFNET, 19-node EON and 38-node CTNET. We observe that the proposed algorithms not only outperform existing wavelength converter placement algorithms by a large margin, but they also can achieve almost the same performance comparing with full wavelength

  4. Deeply virtual Compton scattering in the Hall A of Jefferson laboratory; Diffusion Compton profondement virtuelle dans le Hall A au Jefferson laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz Camacho, C

    2005-12-15

    Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs), introduced in the late 90's, provide a universal description of hadrons in terms of the underlying degrees of freedom of Quantum Chromodynamics: quarks and gluons. GPDs appear in a wide variety of hard exclusive reactions and the advent of high luminosity accelerator facilities has made the study of GPDs accessible to experiment. Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) is the golden process involving GPDs. The first dedicated DVCS experiment ran in the Hall A of Jefferson Lab in Fall 2004. An electromagnetic calorimeter and a plastic scintillator detector were constructed for this experiment, together with specific electronics and acquisition system. The experiment preparation, data taking and analysis are described in this document. Results on the absolute cross section difference for opposite beam helicities provide the first measurement of a linear combination of GPDs as a function of the momentum transfer to the nucleon. (author)

  5. Study of electron densities of normal and neoplastic human breast tissues by Compton scattering using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoniassi, M.; Conceicao, A.L.C. [Departamento de Fisica-Faculdade de Filosofia Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto-Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Poletti, M.E., E-mail: poletti@ffclrp.usp.br [Departamento de Fisica-Faculdade de Filosofia Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto-Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2012-07-15

    Electron densities of 33 samples of normal (adipose and fibroglangular) and neoplastic (benign and malignant) human breast tissues were determined through Compton scattering data using a monochromatic synchrotron radiation source and an energy dispersive detector. The area of Compton peaks was used to determine the electron densities of the samples. Adipose tissue exhibits the lowest values of electron density whereas malignant tissue the highest. The relationship with their histology was discussed. Comparison with previous results showed differences smaller than 4%. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electron density of normal and neoplastic breast tissues was measured using Compton scattering. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Monochromatic synchrotron radiation was used to obtain the Compton scattering data. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The area of Compton peaks was used to determine the electron densities of samples. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adipose tissue shows the lowest electron density values whereas the malignant tissue the highest. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison with previous results showed differences smaller than 4%.

  6. Gamma-ray detection and Compton camera image reconstruction with application to hadron therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frandes, M.

    2010-09-01

    A novel technique for radiotherapy - hadron therapy - irradiates tumors using a beam of protons or carbon ions. Hadron therapy is an effective technique for cancer treatment, since it enables accurate dose deposition due to the existence of a Bragg peak at the end of particles range. Precise knowledge of the fall-off position of the dose with millimeters accuracy is critical since hadron therapy proved its efficiency in case of tumors which are deep-seated, close to vital organs, or radio-resistant. A major challenge for hadron therapy is the quality assurance of dose delivery during irradiation. Current systems applying positron emission tomography (PET) technologies exploit gamma rays from the annihilation of positrons emitted during the beta decay of radioactive isotopes. However, the generated PET images allow only post-therapy information about the deposed dose. In addition, they are not in direct coincidence with the Bragg peak. A solution is to image the complete spectrum of the emitted gamma rays, including nuclear gamma rays emitted by inelastic interactions of hadrons to generated nuclei. This emission is isotropic, and has a spectrum ranging from 100 keV up to 20 MeV. However, the measurement of these energetic gamma rays from nuclear reactions exceeds the capability of all existing medical imaging systems. An advanced Compton scattering detection method with electron tracking capability is proposed, and modeled to reconstruct the high-energy gamma-ray events. This Compton detection technique was initially developed to observe gamma rays for astrophysical purposes. A device illustrating the method was designed and adapted to Hadron Therapy Imaging (HTI). It consists of two main sub-systems: a tracker where Compton recoiled electrons are measured, and a calorimeter where the scattered gamma rays are absorbed via the photoelectric effect. Considering a hadron therapy scenario, the analysis of generated data was performed, passing trough the complete

  7. Development of a Compton suppression whole body counting for small animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martini, Elaine

    1995-01-01

    The basic operation, design and construction of the plastic scintillator detector is described. In order to increase the sensitivity of this detector, two blocks of plastic scintillator have been assembled to act as a anticompton system. The detectors were produced by polymerisation of styrene monomer with PPO (2,5 diphenyl-oxazole) and POPOP (1,4 bis (-5 phenyl-2- oxazoly)benzene) in proportions of 0.5 and 0.05 respectively. The transparency of this detector was evaluated by excitation of the 241 Am source located directly in the back surface plastic coupled to a photomultiplier. The light attenuation according to the detector thickness has fitted to a two-exponential function: relative height pulse = 0,519 e -0.0016 + 0.481 e -0.02112.x . Four radioactive sources 2 2 Na, 54 Mn, 137 Cs and 131 I were used to evaluate the performance of this system. The Compton reduction factor, determined by the ratio of the energy peak values of suppressed and unsuppressed spectra was 1.16. The Compton suppression factor determined by the ratio of the net photopeak area to the area of an equal spectra width in the Compton continuum, was approximately 1.208 ± 0.109. The sensitivity of the system, defined as the least amount of a radioactivity that can be quantified in the photopeak region, was 9.44 cps. First, the detector was assembled to be applied in biological studies of whole body counter measurements of small animals. Using a phantom, (small animal simulator) and a punctual 137 Cs source, located in the central region of the well counter the geometrical efficiency detector was about 5%. (author)

  8. Does an atom interferometer test the gravitational redshift at the Compton frequency?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, Peter; Borde, Christian J; Blanchet, Luc; Reynaud, Serge; Salomon, Christophe; Cohen-Tannoudji, Claude

    2011-01-01

    Atom interferometers allow the measurement of the acceleration of freely falling atoms with respect to an experimental platform at rest on Earth's surface. Such experiments have been used to test the universality of free fall by comparing the acceleration of the atoms to that of a classical freely falling object. In a recent paper, Mueller et al (2010 Nature 463 926-9) argued that atom interferometers also provide a very accurate test of the gravitational redshift (or universality of clock rates). Considering the atom as a clock operating at the Compton frequency associated with the rest mass, they claimed that the interferometer measures the gravitational redshift between the atom-clocks in the two paths of the interferometer at different values of gravitational potentials. In this paper, we analyze this claim in the frame of general relativity and of different alternative theories. We show that the difference of 'Compton phases' between the two paths of the interferometer is actually zero in a large class of theories, including general relativity, all metric theories of gravity, most non-metric theories and most theoretical frameworks used to interpret the violations of the equivalence principle. Therefore, in most plausible theoretical frameworks, there is no redshift effect and atom interferometers only test the universality of free fall. We also show that frameworks in which atom interferometers would test the redshift pose serious problems, such as (i) violation of the Schiff conjecture, (ii) violation of the Feynman path integral formulation of quantum mechanics and of the principle of least action for matter waves, (iii) violation of energy conservation, and more generally (iv) violation of the particle-wave duality in quantum mechanics. Standard quantum mechanics is no longer valid in such frameworks, so that a consistent interpretation of the experiment would require an alternative formulation of quantum mechanics. As such an alternative has not been

  9. The integration of improved Monte Carlo compton scattering algorithms into the Integrated TIGER Series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quirk, Thomas J. IV

    2004-01-01

    The Integrated TIGER Series (ITS) is a software package that solves coupled electron-photon transport problems. ITS performs analog photon tracking for energies between 1 keV and 1 GeV. Unlike its deterministic counterpart, the Monte Carlo calculations of ITS do not require a memory-intensive meshing of phase space; however, its solutions carry statistical variations. Reducing these variations is heavily dependent on runtime. Monte Carlo simulations must therefore be both physically accurate and computationally efficient. Compton scattering is the dominant photon interaction above 100 keV and below 5-10 MeV, with higher cutoffs occurring in lighter atoms. In its current model of Compton scattering, ITS corrects the differential Klein-Nishina cross sections (which assumes a stationary, free electron) with the incoherent scattering function, a function dependent on both the momentum transfer and the atomic number of the scattering medium. While this technique accounts for binding effects on the scattering angle, it excludes the Doppler broadening the Compton line undergoes because of the momentum distribution in each bound state. To correct for these effects, Ribbefor's relativistic impulse approximation (IA) will be employed to create scattering cross section differential in both energy and angle for each element. Using the parameterizations suggested by Brusa et al., scattered photon energies and angle can be accurately sampled at a high efficiency with minimal physical data. Two-body kinematics then dictates the electron's scattered direction and energy. Finally, the atomic ionization is relaxed via Auger emission or fluorescence. Future work will extend these improvements in incoherent scattering to compounds and to adjoint calculations.

  10. Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering off a deuterium target at the HERMES experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Movsisyan, Aram

    2011-05-15

    Deeply virtual Compton scattering is studied in this report, using all data collected at the HERMES experiment from 1996 to 2005. Azimuthal asymmetries with respect to beam-helicity, beam-charge and target polarization alone and also to their different combinations for hard exclusive electroproduction of real photons in deep-inelastic scattering from a both unpolarized and longitudinally polarized deuterium targets are measured. The asymmetries are attributed to the interference between the deeply virtual Compton scattering and Bethe-Heitler processes. The asymmetries are observed in the exclusive region -(1.5){sup 2} GeV{sup 2}Compton form factor H{sub 1} appears to have a similar behavior as H of the proton. (orig.)

  11. Study on the Spatial Resolution of Single and Multiple Coincidences Compton Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreyev, Andriy; Sitek, Arkadiusz; Celler, Anna

    2012-10-01

    In this paper we study the image resolution that can be obtained from the Multiple Coincidences Compton Camera (MCCC). The principle of MCCC is based on a simultaneous acquisition of several gamma-rays emitted in cascade from a single nucleus. Contrary to a standard Compton camera, MCCC can theoretically provide the exact location of a radioactive source (based only on the identification of the intersection point of three cones created by a single decay), without complicated tomographic reconstruction. However, practical implementation of the MCCC approach encounters several problems, such as low detection sensitivities result in very low probability of coincident triple gamma-ray detection, which is necessary for the source localization. It is also important to evaluate how the detection uncertainties (finite energy and spatial resolution) influence identification of the intersection of three cones, thus the resulting image quality. In this study we investigate how the spatial resolution of the reconstructed images using the triple-cone reconstruction (TCR) approach compares to images reconstructed from the same data using standard iterative method based on single-cone. Results show, that FWHM for the point source reconstructed with TCR was 20-30% higher than the one obtained from the standard iterative reconstruction based on expectation maximization (EM) algorithm and conventional single-cone Compton imaging. Finite energy and spatial resolutions of the MCCC detectors lead to errors in conical surfaces definitions (“thick” conical surfaces) which only amplify in image reconstruction when intersection of three cones is being sought. Our investigations show that, in spite of being conceptually appealing, the identification of triple cone intersection constitutes yet another restriction of the multiple coincidence approach which limits the image resolution that can be obtained with MCCC and TCR algorithm.

  12. A double photomultiplier Compton camera and its readout system for mice imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontana, Cristiano Lino [Physics Department Galileo Galilei, University of Padua, Via Marzolo 8, Padova 35131 (Italy) and INFN Padova, Via Marzolo 8, Padova 35131 (Italy); Atroshchenko, Kostiantyn [Physics Department Galileo Galilei, University of Padua, Via Marzolo 8, Padova 35131 (Italy) and INFN Legnaro, Viale dell' Universita 2, Legnaro PD 35020 (Italy); Baldazzi, Giuseppe [Physics Department, University of Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, Bologna 40127, Italy and INFN Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, Bologna 40127 (Italy); Bello, Michele [INFN Legnaro, Viale dell' Universita 2, Legnaro PD 35020 (Italy); Uzunov, Nikolay [Department of Natural Sciences, Shumen University, 115 Universitetska str., Shumen 9712, Bulgaria and INFN Legnaro, Viale dell' Universita 2, Legnaro PD 35020 (Italy); Di Domenico, Giovanni [Physics Department, University of Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, Ferrara 44122 (Italy) and INFN Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, Ferrara 44122 (Italy)

    2013-04-19

    We have designed a Compton Camera (CC) to image the bio-distribution of gamma-emitting radiopharmaceuticals in mice. A CC employs the 'electronic collimation', i.e. a technique that traces the gamma-rays instead of selecting them with physical lead or tungsten collimators. To perform such a task, a CC measures the parameters of the Compton interaction that occurs in the device itself. At least two detectors are required: one (tracker), where the primary gamma undergoes a Compton interaction and a second one (calorimeter), in which the scattered gamma is completely absorbed. Eventually the polar angle and hence a 'cone' of possible incident directions are obtained (event with 'incomplete geometry'). Different solutions for the two detectors are proposed in the literature: our design foresees two similar Position Sensitive Photomultipliers (PMT, Hamamatsu H8500). Each PMT has 64 output channels that are reduced to 4 using a charge multiplexed readout system, i.e. a Series Charge Multiplexing net of resistors. Triggering of the system is provided by the coincidence of fast signals extracted at the last dynode of the PMTs. Assets are the low cost and the simplicity of design and operation, having just one type of device; among drawbacks there is a lower resolution with respect to more sophisticated trackers and full 64 channels Readout. This paper does compare our design of our two-Hamamatsu CC to other solutions and shows how the spatial and energy accuracy is suitable for the inspection of radioactivity in mice.

  13. HIGH-ENERGY EMISSION OF GRB 130427A: EVIDENCE FOR INVERSE COMPTON RADIATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Yi-Zhong; Zhang, Fu-Wen; He, Hao-Ning; Zhou, Bei; Yang, Rui-Zhi; Jin, Zhi-Ping; Wei, Da-Ming; Tam, P. H. T.; Liang, Yun-Feng

    2013-01-01

    A nearby superluminous burst GRB 130427A was simultaneously detected by six γ-ray space telescopes (Swift, the Fermi GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM)/Large Area Telescope, Konus-Wind, SPI-ACS/INTEGRAL, AGILE, and RHESSI) and by three RAPTOR full-sky persistent monitors. The isotropic γ-ray energy release is ∼10 54 erg, rendering it the most powerful explosion among gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with a redshift z ≤ 0.5. The emission above 100 MeV lasted about one day, and four photons are at energies greater than 40 GeV. We show that the count rate of 100 MeV-100 GeV emission may be mainly accounted for by the forward shock synchrotron radiation and the inverse Compton radiation likely dominates at GeV-TeV energies. In particular, an inverse Compton radiation origin is favored for the ∼(95.3, 47.3, 41.4, 38.5, 32) GeV photons arriving at t ∼ (243, 256.3, 610.6, 3409.8, 34366.2) s after the trigger of Fermi-GBM. Interestingly, the external inverse Compton scattering of the prompt emission (the second episode, i.e., t ∼ 120-260 s) by the forward-shock-accelerated electrons is expected to produce a few γ-rays at energies above 10 GeV, while five were detected in the same time interval. A possible unified model for the prompt soft γ-ray, optical, and GeV emission of GRB 130427A, GRB 080319B, and GRB 090902B is outlined. Implications of the null detection of >1 TeV neutrinos from GRB 130427A by IceCube are discussed

  14. The temperature dependence of the momentum distribution of beryllium measured by neutron Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fielding, A.L.; Timms, D.; Mayers, J.

    1999-01-01

    A new neutron Compton scattering (NCS) measurement of the temperature dependence of the kinetic energy in polycrystalline beryllium at momentum transfers in the range 27.91 to 104.21 A -1 is presented. The measurements have been made with the Electron Volt Spectrometer (eVS) at the ISIS facility and the measured kinetic energies are shown to be in good agreement with calculations made in the harmonic approximation. Numerical simulations are also presented based on the Sears expansion which predict that final state effects in NCS experiments become less significant at elevated temperatures. (author)

  15. Gamma-ray burst observations with the Compton/Ulysses/Pioneer-Venus network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, T.L.; Hurley, K.C.; Sommer, M.; Boer, M.; Niel, M.; Fishman, G.J.; Kouveliotou, C.; Meegan, C.A.; Paciesas, W.S.; Wilson, R.B.; Fenimore, E.E.; Laros, J.G.; Klebesadel, R.W.

    1993-01-01

    The third and latest interplanetary network for the precise directional analysis of gamma ray bursts consists of the Burst and Transient Source Experiment in Compton Gamma Ray Observatory and instruments on Pioneer-Venus Orbiter and the deep-space mission Ulysses. The unsurpassed resolution of the BATSE instrument, the use of refined analysis techniques, and Ulysses' distance of up to 6 AU all contribute to a potential for greater precision than had been achieved with former networks. Also, the departure of Ulysses from the ecliptic plane in 1992 avoids any positional alignment of the three instruments that would lessen the source directional accuracy

  16. High-temperature cuprate superconductors studied by x-ray Compton scattering and positron annihilation spectroscopies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbiellini, Bernardo

    2013-01-01

    The bulk Fermi surface in an overdoped (x = 0.3) single crystal of La 2−x Sr x CuO 4 has been observed by using x-ray Compton scattering. This momentum density technique also provides a powerful tool for directly seeing what the dopant Sr atoms are doing to the electronic structure of La 2 CuO 4 . Because of wave function effects, positron annihilation spectroscopy does not yield a strong signature of the Fermi surface in extended momentum space, but it can be used to explore the role of oxygen defects in the reservoir layers for promoting high temperature superconductivity.

  17. High-temperature cuprate superconductors studied by x-ray Compton scattering and positron annihilation spectroscopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbiellini, Bernardo

    2013-06-01

    The bulk Fermi surface in an overdoped (x = 0.3) single crystal of La2-xSrxCuO4 has been observed by using x-ray Compton scattering. This momentum density technique also provides a powerful tool for directly seeing what the dopant Sr atoms are doing to the electronic structure of La2CuO4. Because of wave function effects, positron annihilation spectroscopy does not yield a strong signature of the Fermi surface in extended momentum space, but it can be used to explore the role of oxygen defects in the reservoir layers for promoting high temperature superconductivity.

  18. Quality Control Of Compton Suppression System As An Environmental Sample Counting System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siswohartoyo, Sudarti; Soepardi, Dewita

    1996-01-01

    Quality control on Compton Suppression System has been done, i.e : 1) testing of HPGe as the main detector (FWHM, P/C d c level /n oise ) , 2) the Nal(Tl) detector shielding characteristic, 3) timing spectrum (FWHM), and 4) suppression factor. From the collected data, the characteristic of HPGe were found to be in the same range as shown in the manual. From the Nal(Tl) testing, it was found that the resolution was about 9%. From the time spectrum testing, the resolution was about 12-13 ns, while the suppression factor measurement was found to be about 4 - 4.6

  19. A detector for tomography by Compton scattering at 900 and tomography apparatus comprising such detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricodeau, Jean.

    1981-01-01

    The present invention concerns a detector for tomography by Compton scattering at 90 0 . The difference between this detector and those currently used previously lies in the fact that the collection aperture of the radiation at normal angle to the incident beam is large and can reach 180 0 and even more. This fact allows to collect an important part of the scattered radiation. A good image quality is obtained with low radiation doses delivered to the body as compared to previous techniques. This detector can be operated in analogical mode which presents the advantage to be faster and easier to realize [fr

  20. Measurement of deeply virtual Compton scattering using the ZEUS detector at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabowska-Bold, I.

    2004-08-01

    The cross sections for deeply virtual compton scattering in the reaction ep → e'γp' has been measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA using integrated luminosities of 95 pb -1 of e + p and 17 pb -1 of e - p collisions. Cross sections are presented as a function of the exchanged photon virtuality, Q 2 , and the centre-of-mass energy, W, of the γ * p system in the region 5 2 2 and 40 < W < 140 GeV. The obtained results are compared to QCD-based calculations. (orig.)

  1. Performance evaluation of Compton suppression gamma spectrometer for low level environmental measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baburajan, A.; Sudheendran, V.; Rao, D.D.; Ravi, P.M.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental Survey Laboratory (ESL), Tarapur has started its environmental monitoring programme way back in 1964. Over the last four decades there was considerable improvement in the monitoring methodology and nuclear instrumentation techniques used in the laboratory. When the discharges from the nuclear facilities have reduced considerably; and global fall out level have became negligibly low, there is a need to upgrade our instrumental technique, to detect incremental changes in the environmental radioactivity however small it may be. As part of fulfilling this objective a Compton Suppression Gamma spectrometry system has been commissioned and the salient features and performance evaluation are discussed in this paper

  2. Upgraded photon calorimeter with integrating readout for the Hall A Compton polarimeter at Jefferson Lab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friend, M.; Parno, D.; Benmokhtar, F.; Camsonne, A.; Dalton, M.M.; Franklin, G.B.; Mamyan, V.; Michaels, R.; Nanda, S.; Nelyubin, V.; Paschke, K.; Quinn, B.; Rakhman, A.; Souder, P.; Tobias, A.

    2012-01-01

    The photon arm of the Compton polarimeter in Hall A of Jefferson Lab has been upgraded to allow for electron beam polarization measurements with better than 1% accuracy. The data acquisition (DAQ) system now includes an integrating mode, which eliminates several systematic uncertainties inherent in the original counting-DAQ setup. The photon calorimeter has been replaced with a Ce-doped Gd 2 SiO 5 crystal, which has a bright output and fast response, and works well for measurements using the new integrating method at electron beam energies from 1 to 6 GeV.

  3. Photoabsorption and Compton scattering in ionization of helium at high photon energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, L.R.; Burgdoerfer, J.; Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN

    1993-01-01

    Production of singly and doubly charged helium ions by impact of keV photons is studied. The ratio R ph = σ ph ++ /σ ph + for photoabsorption is calculated in the photon-energy range 2--18 keV using correlated initial- and final- state wave functions. Extrapolation towards asymptotic photon energies yields R ph (ω → ∞) = 1.66% in agreement with previous predictions. Ionization due to Compton scattering, which becomes comparable to photoabsorption above ω ∼ 3 keV, is discussed

  4. A Compton Suppressed Gamma Ray Counter For Radio Assay of Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Benjamin

    2016-03-01

    Rare event searches, such as direct dark matter experiments, require materials with ultra-low levels of natural radioactivity. We present a neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique for assaying metals, specifically titanium used for cryostat construction. Earlier attempts at NAA encountered limitations due to bulk activation via (n, p) reactions, which contributed to large continuum backgrounds due to Compton tails. Our method involves a heavy water shielded exposure to minimize (n,p) reactions and a sodium iodide shielded high purity germanium counter for the gamma ray assay. Preliminary results on assays for U/Th/K contamination in titaniumwill be presented.

  5. Analysis of Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering data at Jefferson Lab and proton tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupre, R.; Guidal, M.; Niccolai, S. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire d' Orsay, CNRS-IN2P3, Universite Paris-Sud, Universite Paris-Saclay, Orsay (France); Vanderhaeghen, M. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Institut fuer Kernphysik und PRISMA Cluster of Excellence, Mainz (Germany)

    2017-08-15

    The CLAS and Hall A Collaborations at Jefferson Laboratory have recently released new results for the ep → epγ reaction. We analyze these new data within the Generalized Parton Distribution formalism. Employing a fitter algorithm introduced and used in earlier works, we are able to extract from these data new constraints on the kinematical dependence of three Compton Form Factors. Based on experimental data, we subsequently extract the dependence of the proton charge radius on the quarks' longitudinal momentum fraction. (orig.)

  6. X-Band Linac Beam-Line for Medical Compton Scattering X-Ray Source

    CERN Document Server

    Dobashi, Katsuhiro; Ebina, Futaro; Fukasawa, Atsushi; Hayano, Hitoshi; Higo, Toshiyasu; Kaneyasu, Tatsuo; Ogino, Haruyuki; Sakamoto, Fumito; Uesaka, Mitsuru; Urakawa, Junji; Yamamoto, Tomohiko

    2005-01-01

    Compton scattering hard X-ray source for 10~80 keV are under construction using the X-band (11.424 GHz) electron linear accelerator and YAG laser at Nuclear Engineering Research laboratory, University of Tokyo. This work is a part of the national project on the development of advanced compact medical accelerators in Japan. National Institute for Radiological Science is the host institute and U. Tokyo and KEK are working for the X-ray source. Main advantage is to produce tunable monochromatic hard ( 10-80

  7. K-factors in the deep inelastic Compton and Drell-Yan processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czechowski, A.; Krawczyk, M.

    1983-01-01

    The associated production of hadrons is used to answer the question about the nature of large QCD corrections for hard processes. The results of the order α s calculation of K-factors for the deep inelastic Compton process and some predictions for the large p perpendicular to Drell-Yan pair production in hadron-hadron collision are presented. In the soft gluon approximation a significant difference between K-factors corresponding to different inclusive distributions in each of these processes is found. (author)

  8. Fast and Precise Beam Energy Measurement using Compton Backscattering at e+e- Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Kaminskiy, V V; Muchnoi, N Yu; Zhilich, V N

    2017-01-01

    The report describes a method for a fast and precise beam energy measurement in the beam energy range 0.5-2 GeV and its application at various e+e- colliders. Low-energy laser photons interact head-on with the electron or positron beam and produce Compton backscattered photons whose energy is precisely measured by HPGe detector. The method allows measuring the beam energy with relative accuracy of ∼2-5.10-5. The method was successfully applied at VEPP-4M, VEPP-3, VEPP-2000 (BINP, Russia) and BEPC-II (IHEP, China).

  9. Electron-tracking Compton gamma-ray camera for small animal and phantom imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabuki, Shigeto, E-mail: kabuki@cr.scphys.kyoto-u.ac.j [Department of Physics, Gradulate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Kimura, Hiroyuki; Amano, Hiroo [Department of Patho-functional Bioanalysis, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Nakamoto, Yuji [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Kubo, Hidetoshi; Miuchi, Kentaro; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Takahashi, Michiaki [Department of Physics, Gradulate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Kawashima, Hidekazu [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Ueda, Masashi [Radioisotopes Research Labaoratory, Kyoto University Hospital, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Okada, Tomohisa [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Kubo, Atsushi; Kunieda, Etuso; Nakahara, Tadaki [Department of Radiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Kohara, Ryota; Miyazaki, Osamu; Nakazawa, Tetsuo; Shirahata, Takashi; Yamamoto, Etsuji [Application Development Office, Hitachi Medical Corporation, Chiba 277-0804 (Japan); Ogawa, Koichi [Department of Electronic Informatics, Faculty of Engineering, Hosei University, Tokyo 184-8584 (Japan)

    2010-11-01

    We have developed an electron-tracking Compton camera (ETCC) for medical use. Our ETCC has a wide energy dynamic range (200-1300 keV) and wide field of view (3 sr), and thus has potential for advanced medical use. To evaluate the ETCC, we imaged the head (brain) and bladder of mice that had been administered with F-18-FDG. We also imaged the head and thyroid gland of mice using double tracers of F-18-FDG and I-131 ions.

  10. Development of a Compton camera for medical applications based on silicon strip and scintillation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krimmer, J., E-mail: j.krimmer@ipnl.in2p3.fr [Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon, Université de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3 UMR 5822, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Ley, J.-L. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon, Université de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3 UMR 5822, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Abellan, C.; Cachemiche, J.-P. [Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS/IN2P3, CPPM UMR 7346, 13288 Marseille (France); Caponetto, L.; Chen, X.; Dahoumane, M.; Dauvergne, D. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon, Université de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3 UMR 5822, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Freud, N. [Université de Lyon, CREATIS, CNRS UMR5220, Inserm U1044, INSA - Lyon, Université Lyon 1, Centre Léon Bérard (France); Joly, B.; Lambert, D.; Lestand, L. [Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, CNRS/IN2P3, Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); Létang, J.M. [Université de Lyon, CREATIS, CNRS UMR5220, Inserm U1044, INSA - Lyon, Université Lyon 1, Centre Léon Bérard (France); Magne, M. [Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, CNRS/IN2P3, Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); and others

    2015-07-01

    A Compton camera is being developed for the purpose of ion-range monitoring during hadrontherapy via the detection of prompt-gamma rays. The system consists of a scintillating fiber beam tagging hodoscope, a stack of double sided silicon strip detectors (90×90×2 mm{sup 3}, 2×64 strips) as scatter detectors, as well as bismuth germanate (BGO) scintillation detectors (38×35×30 mm{sup 3}, 100 blocks) as absorbers. The individual components will be described, together with the status of their characterization.

  11. Time evolution analysis of the electron distribution in Thomson/Compton back-scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrillo, V.; Bacci, A.; Curatolo, C.; Maroli, C.; Serafini, L.; Rossi, A. R.

    2013-01-01

    We present the time evolution of the energy distribution of a relativistic electron beam after the Compton back-scattering with a counter-propagating laser field, performed in the framework of the Quantum Electrodynamics, by means of the code CAIN. As the correct angular distribution of the spontaneous emission is accounted, the main effect is the formation of few stripes, followed by the diffusion of the more energetic particles toward lower values in the longitudinal phase space. The Chapman-Kolmogorov master equation gives results in striking agreement with the numerical ones. An experiment on the Thomson source at SPARC-LAB is proposed

  12. High-energy electroweak neutrino-nucleon deeply virtual Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, Magno V. T.

    2007-01-01

    In this work we estimate the differential and total cross sections for the high-energy deeply virtual Compton scattering in the weak sector. In the weak neutral sector one considers neutrino scattering off an unpolarized proton target through the exchange of Z 0 . We numerically compute the process Z*p→γp within the QCD color dipole formalism, which successfully describes the current high-energy electromagnetic DVCS experimental data. We also discuss possible applications for the weak charged sector and perform predictions for scattering on nuclear targets

  13. Energy spectrum of Compton scattering of laser photons on relativistic electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Hiroaki; Yoneda, Yasuharu

    1976-01-01

    The high energy photons in gamma-ray region are obtainable by the Compton scattering of laser photons on relativistic electrons. But the motion of the electrons in the storage ring is not necessarily uniform. In the study of the uneven effect, the energy distribution of scattered photons is derived from the assumed momentum distribution of incident electrons. It is generally impossible to derive the momentum distribution of incident electrons from the energy spectrum of scattered photons. The additional conditions which make this possible in a special case are considered. A calculational method is examined for deriving the energy spectrum of scattered photons from the assumed momentum distribution of incident electrons. (Mori, K.)

  14. Collision, scattering and absorption differential cross-sections in double-photon Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewan, R.; Saddi, M.B.; Sandhu, B.S.; Singh, B.; Ghumman, B.S.

    2005-01-01

    The collision, scattering and absorption differential cross-sections of double-photon Compton scattering are measured experimentally for 0.662 MeV incident gamma photons. Two simultaneously emitted gamma quanta are investigated using a slow-fast coincidence technique having 25 ns resolving time. The coincidence spectra for different energy windows of one of the two final photons are recorded using HPGe detector. The experimental data do not suffer from inherent energy resolution of gamma detector and provide more faithful reproduction of the distribution under the full energy peak of recorded coincidence spectra. The present results are in agreement with the currently acceptable theory of this higher order process

  15. Angular distribution of 662keV multiply-Compton scattered gamma rays in copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Manpreet; Singh, Gurvinderjit; Sandhu, B.S.; Singh, Bhajan

    2007-01-01

    The angular distribution of multiple Compton scattering of 662keV gamma photons, obtained from six Curie 137 Cs source, incident on copper scatterer of varying thickness is studied experimentally in both the forward and backward hemispheres. The scattered photons are detected by a 51mmx51mm NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. The full-energy peak corresponding to singly scattered events is reconstructed analytically. We observe that the numbers of multiply scattered events, having same energy as in the singly scattered distribution, first increases with increase in target thickness and then saturate. The optimum thickness at which the multiply scattered events saturate is determined at different scattering angles

  16. Compton scattering of 145 keV photons from bound electrons of tin and molybdenum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghumman, B S; Acharya, V B; Singh, B [Punjabi Univ., Patiala (India). Dept. of Physics

    1981-10-28

    Differential cross sections for Compton scattering of 145 keV gamma rays from K-shell electrons of tin and molybdenum are measured at scattering angles in the range 30 to 150/sup 0/. Measurements are made employing NaI(Tl) detectors and a coincidence set up with resolving time approximately equal to 30 ns. The experimental results are compared with the available theoretical data. The total cross section is estimated to be about 0.43 sigmasub(F) for tin and 0.41 sigmasub(F) for molybdenum.

  17. Two-temperature accretion disks with electron-positron pairs - Effects of Comptonized external soft photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusunose, Masaaki; Takahara, Fumio

    1990-01-01

    The present account of the effects of soft photons from external sources on two-temperature accretion disks in electron-positron pair equilibrium solves the energy-balance equation for a given radial distribution of the input rate of soft photons, taking into account their bremsstrahlung and Comptonization. Critical rate behavior is investigated as a function of the ratio of the energy flux of incident soft photons and the energy-generation rate. As in a previous study, the existence of a critical accretion rate is established.

  18. Compton Scattering Cross Section on the Proton at High Momentum Transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A. Danagoulian; V.H. Mamyan; M. Roedelbronn; K.A. Aniol; J.R.M. Annand; P.Y. Bertin; L. Bimbot; P. Bosted; J.R. Calarco; A. Camsonne; C.C. Chang; T.-H. Chang; J.-P. Chen; Seonho Choi; E. Chudakov; P. Degtyarenko; C.W. de Jager; A. Deur; D. Dutta; K. Egiyan; H. Gao; F. Garibaldi; O. Gayou; R. Gilman; A. Glamazdin; C. Glashausser; J. Gomez; D.J. Hamilton; J.-O. Hansen; D. Hayes; D.W. Higinbotham; W. Hinton; T. Horn; C. Howell; T. Hunyady; C.E. Hyde-Wright; X. Jiang; M.K. Jones; M. Khandaker; A. Ketikyan; V. Koubarovski; K. Kramer; G. Kumbartzki; G. Laveissiere; J. LeRose; R.A. Lindgren; D.J. Margaziotis; P. Markowitz; K. McCormick; Z.-E. Meziani; R. Michaels; P. Moussiegt; S. Nanda; A.M. Nathan; D.M. Nikolenko; V. Nelyubin; B.E. Norum; K. Paschke; L. Pentchev; C.F. Perdrisat; E. Piasetzky; R. Pomatsalyuk; V.A. Punjabi; I. Rachek; A. Radyushkin; B. Reitz; R. Roche; G. Ron; F. Sabatie; A. Saha; N. Savvinov; A. Shahinyan; Y. Shestakov; S. Sirca; K. Slifer; P. Solvignon; P. Stoler; S. Tajima; V. Sulkosky; L. Todor; B. Vlahovic; L.B. Weinstein; K. Wang; B. Wojtsekhowski; H. Voskanyan; H. Xiang; X. Zheng; L. Zhu

    2007-01-01

    Cross-section values for Compton scattering on the proton were measured at 25 kinematic settings over the range s = 5-11 and -t = 2-7 GeV2 with statistical accuracy of a few percent. The scaling power for the s-dependence of the cross section at fixed center of mass angle was found to be 8.0 +/- 0.2, strongly inconsistent with the prediction of perturbative QCD. The observed cross section values are in fair agreement with the calculations using the handbag mechanism, in which the external photons couple to a single quark

  19. Reduction of Compton background from hydrogen in prompt gamma-ray analysis by multiple photon detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toh, Y.; Oshima, M.; Kimura, A.; Koizumi, M.; Furutaka, K.; Hatsukawa, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Low-energy photons produced by the Compton scattering from hydrogen increase the background in the lower-energy region of the gamma-ray spectrum. This results in an increase in the detection limit for trace elements. In multiple photon detection prompt gamma-ray analysis (MPGA), only those elements that simultaneously emit two or more prompt gamma-rays, which have cascade relation and are emitted within a short interval, can be measured. Therefore, the influence of hydrogen can be reduced. In this study, standard polymer and food samples are measured. The hydrogen background is reduced in MPGA. (author)

  20. Determination of silicon in biological and botanical reference materials by epithermal INAA and Compton suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landsberger, S.; Peshev, S.; Becker, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    Silicon determination in sixteen botanical and biological standard reference materials is described using the 29 Si(n, p) 29 Al reaction through instrumental epithermal neutron activation analysis and Compton suppression gamma-ray spectroscopy. By simultaneous utilization of both cadmium and boron epithermal filters along with anticoincidence gamma-counting, detection limits as low as 12 ppm were obtained for certain matrices, much lower than previously reported values for this type of analysis. The method is applicable to many botanical and biological matrices and is attractive with its interference free, purely instrumental nature, compared with methods using the 28 Si(n, p) 28 Al reaction or chemical separation techniques. ((orig.))

  1. Wavelength division multiplexing a practical engineering guide

    CERN Document Server

    Grobe, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    In this book, Optical Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) is approached from a strictly practical and application-oriented point of view. Based on the characteristics and constraints of modern fiber-optic components, transport systems and fibers, the text provides relevant rules of thumb and practical hints for technology selection, WDM system and link dimensioning, and also for network-related aspects such as wavelength assignment and resilience mechanisms. Actual 10/40 Gb/s WDM systems are considered, and a preview of the upcoming 100 Gb/s systems and technologies for even higher bit rate

  2. Wavelength dependence of superhumps in VW Hyi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amerongen, S. van; Bovenschen, H.; Paradijs, J. van

    1987-01-01

    Results are presented of five-colour photometric observations of the SU UMa system VW Hyi, made on six nights during the November 1984 superoutburst. The light curve is dominated by superhump variations, whose amplitude in all passbands decreases with time (in the V-band from 0.16 mag about 4.5 day after the superoutburst reached maximum brightness, to 0.10 mag about 5 day later). The superhump light curve depends strongly on wavelength. In particular it appears that the light curves in different passbands are mutually shifted: the larger the wavelength, the more the light curve is delayed. (author)

  3. Short wavelength sources and atoms and ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, E.T.

    2008-01-01

    The interaction of ionizing radiation with atoms and ions is a key fundamental process. Experimental progress has depended in particular on the development of short wavelength light sources. Laser-plasma and synchrotron sources have been exploited for several decades and most recently the development of short wavelength Free Electron Laser (FEL) sources is revolutionizing the field. This paper introduces laser plasma and synchrotron sources through examples of their use in studies of the interaction of ionizing radiation with atoms and ions, ranging from few-electron atomic and ionic systems to the many-electron high atomic number actinides. The new FEL source (FLASH) at DESY is introduced. (author)

  4. Compton profiles and electronic structure of HgBr{sub 2} and HgI{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, G.; Dashora, Alpa [Department of Physics, University College of Science, M.L. Sukhadia University, Udaipur, 313001 Rajasthan (India); Sharma, M. [Physics Division, State Forensic Science Laboratory, Jaipur, 302016 Rajasthan (India); Ahuja, B.L. [Department of Physics, University College of Science, M.L. Sukhadia University, Udaipur, 313001 Rajasthan (India)], E-mail: blahuja@yahoo.com

    2010-02-15

    In this paper, we present the first-ever experimental Compton line shapes of HgBr{sub 2} and HgI{sub 2} using {sup 137}Cs Compton spectrometer. To compare our experimental momentum densities, we have computed the Compton profiles using Hartree-Fock and density functional theory within linear combination of atomic orbitals. We have also computed the energy bands and density of states using the linear combination of atomic orbitals and full potential linearized augmented plane wave method. On the basis of equal-valence-electron-density profiles, it is seen that HgI{sub 2} is more covalent than HgBr{sub 2} which is in agreement with the valence charge densities. The experimental isotropic profiles are found to be relatively in better agreement with the Hartree-Fock data. We have also discussed the photoluminescence and detection properties of both the halides.

  5. BOW TIES IN THE SKY. I. THE ANGULAR STRUCTURE OF INVERSE COMPTON GAMMA-RAY HALOS IN THE FERMI SKY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broderick, Avery E.; Shalaby, Mohamad [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Tiede, Paul [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo, ON, N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Pfrommer, Christoph [Heidelberg Institute for Theoretical Studies, Schloss-Wolfsbrunnenweg 35, D-69118 Heidelberg (Germany); Puchwein, Ewald [Institute of Astronomy and Kavli Institute for Cosmology, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Chang, Philip [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 1900 E. Kenwood Boulevard, Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); Lamberts, Astrid [Theoretical Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Extended inverse Compton halos are generally anticipated around extragalactic sources of gamma rays with energies above 100 GeV. These result from inverse Compton scattered cosmic microwave background photons by a population of high-energy electron/positron pairs produced by the annihilation of the high-energy gamma rays on the infrared background. Despite the observed attenuation of the high-energy gamma rays, the halo emission has yet to be directly detected. Here, we demonstrate that in most cases these halos are expected to be highly anisotropic, distributing the upscattered gamma rays along axes defined either by the radio jets of the sources or oriented perpendicular to a global magnetic field. We present a pedagogical derivation of the angular structure in the inverse Compton halo and provide an analytic formalism that facilitates the generation of mock images. We discuss exploiting this fact for the purpose of detecting gamma-ray halos in a set of companion papers.

  6. Gamma-gamma density and lithology tools simulation based on GEANT4 advanced low energy Compton scattering (GALECS) package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esmaeili-sani, Vahid; Moussavi-zarandi, Ali; Boghrati, Behzad; Afarideh, Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Geophysical bore-hole data represent the physical properties of rocks, such as density and formation lithology, as a function of depth in a well. Properties of rocks are obtained from gamma ray transport logs. Transport of gamma rays, from a 137 Cs point gamma source situated in a bore-hole tool, through rock media to detectors, has been simulated using a GEANT4 radiation transport code. The advanced Compton scattering concepts were used to gain better analyses about well formation. The simulation and understanding of advanced Compton scattering highly depends on how accurately the effects of Doppler broadening and Rayleigh scattering are taken into account. A Monte Carlo package that simulates the gamma-gamma well logging tools based on GEANT4 advanced low energy Compton scattering (GALECS).

  7. Local Two-Photon Couplings and the J=0 Fixed Pole in Real and Virtual Compton Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; Llanes-Estrada, Felipe J.; Szczepaniak, Adam P.

    2008-12-05

    The local coupling of two photons to the fundamental quark currents of a hadron gives an energy-independent contribution to the Compton amplitude proportional to the charge squared of the struck quark, a contribution which has no analog in hadron scattering reactions. We show that this local contribution has a real phase and is universal, giving the same contribution for real or virtual Compton scattering for any photon virtuality and skewness at fixed momentum transfer squared t. The t-dependence of this J = 0 fixed Regge pole is parameterized by a yet unmeasured even charge-conjugation form factor of the target nucleon. The t = 0 limit gives an important constraint on the dependence of the nucleon mass on the quark mass through the Weisberger relation. We discuss how this 1=x form factor can be extracted from high energy deeply virtual Compton scattering and examine predictions given by models of the H generalized parton distribution.

  8. Accurate calculation of the differential cross section of compton scattering with electron mixed chain propagator in SM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xuewen; Fang Zhenyun; Shi Chengye

    2012-01-01

    By using the electroweak standard model (SM), we analyzed the framework of electron mixed chain propagator which composed of serious of different physical loops participating in electroweak interaction and completed the relevant analytical calculation. Then, we obtained the analytical result of electron mixed chain propagator. By applying our result to Compton scattering, the differential cross section of Compton scattering dσ SM (chain) /dcosθ is counted accurately. This result is compared with the lowest order differential cross section dσ (tree) /dcosθ and the electronic chain propagator Compton scattering differential cross section dσ QED (chain) /dcosθ in quantum electrodynamics (QED). It can be seen that dσ SM (chain ) /dcosθ can show the radiation correction more subtly than dσ QED (chain) /dcosθ. (authors)

  9. X-ray dosimetry in mammography for W/Mo and Mo/Mo combinations utilizing Compton spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida Junior, Jose N.; Terini, Ricardo A.; Herdade, Silvio B.; Furquim, Tania A.C.

    2009-01-01

    Mean Glandular Dose (MGD) cannot be measured directly in mammography equipment. Therefore, methods based on Compton spectrometry are alternatives to evaluate dose distributions in a standard breast phantom, as well as mean glandular dose. In this work, a CdTe detector was used for the spectrometry measurements of radiation scattered by compton effect, at nearly 90, by a PMMA cylinder. For this, the reconstruction of primary beam spectra from the scattered ones has been made using Klein-Nishina theory and Compton formalism, followed by a determination of incident air kerma, absorbed dose values in the breast phantom and, finally, MGD. Incident and attenuated X-ray spectra and depth-dose distributions in a BR-12 phantom have been determined and are presented for the mammography range (28 to 35kV), showing good agreement with previous literature data, obtained with TLD. (author)

  10. Compton suppression instrumental neutron activation analysis performance in determining trace- and minor-element contents in foodstuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, M.C.; Dionisio, I.; Pacheco, A.M.G.; Bacchi, M.A.; Fernandes, E.A.N.; Landsberger, S.; Braisted, J.

    2008-01-01

    In 2003-2004, several food items were purchased from large commercial outlets in Coimbra, Portugal. Such items included meats (chicken, pork, beef), eggs, rice, beans and vegetables (tomato, carrot, potato, cabbage, broccoli, lettuce). Elemental analysis was carried out through INAA at the Technological and Nuclear Institute (ITN, Portugal), the Nuclear Energy Centre for Agriculture (CENA, Brazil), and the Nuclear Engineering Teaching Lab of the University of Texas at Austin (NETL, USA). At the latter two, INAA was also associated to Compton suppression. It can be concluded that by applying Compton suppression (1) the detection limits for arsenic, copper and potassium improved; (2) the counting-statistics error for molybdenum diminished; and (3) the long-lived zinc had its 1115-keV photopeak better defined. In general, the improvement sought by introducing Compton suppression in foodstuff analysis was not significant. Lettuce, cabbage and chicken (liver, stomach, heart) are the richest diets in terms of human nutrients. (author)

  11. Gamma-gamma density and lithology tools simulation based on GEANT4 advanced low energy Compton scattering (GALECS) package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esmaeili-sani, Vahid, E-mail: vaheed_esmaeely80@yahoo.com [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 4155-4494, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moussavi-zarandi, Ali; Boghrati, Behzad; Afarideh, Hossein [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 4155-4494, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-02-01

    Geophysical bore-hole data represent the physical properties of rocks, such as density and formation lithology, as a function of depth in a well. Properties of rocks are obtained from gamma ray transport logs. Transport of gamma rays, from a {sup 137}Cs point gamma source situated in a bore-hole tool, through rock media to detectors, has been simulated using a GEANT4 radiation transport code. The advanced Compton scattering concepts were used to gain better analyses about well formation. The simulation and understanding of advanced Compton scattering highly depends on how accurately the effects of Doppler broadening and Rayleigh scattering are taken into account. A Monte Carlo package that simulates the gamma-gamma well logging tools based on GEANT4 advanced low energy Compton scattering (GALECS).

  12. CONSTRAINTS ON COMPTON-THICK WINDS FROM BLACK HOLE ACCRETION DISKS: CAN WE SEE THE INNER DISK?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, Christopher S.

    2012-01-01

    Strong evidence is emerging that winds can be driven from the central regions of accretion disks in both active galactic nuclei and Galactic black hole binaries. Direct evidence for highly ionized, Compton-thin inner-disk winds comes from observations of blueshifted (v ∼ 0.05-0.1c) iron-K X-ray absorption lines. However, it has been suggested that the inner regions of black hole accretion disks can also drive Compton-thick winds—such winds would enshroud the inner disk, preventing us from seeing direct signatures of the accretion disk (i.e., the photospheric thermal emission, or the Doppler/gravitationally broadened iron Kα line). Here, we show that, provided the source is sub-Eddington, the well-established wind-driving mechanisms fail to launch a Compton-thick wind from the inner disk. For the accelerated region of the wind to be Compton-thick, the momentum carried in the wind must exceed the available photon momentum by a factor of at least 2/λ, where λ is the Eddington ratio of the source, ruling out radiative acceleration unless the source is very close to the Eddington limit. Compton-thick winds also carry large mass fluxes, and a consideration of the connections between the wind and the disk shows this to be incompatible with magneto-centrifugal driving. Finally, thermal driving of the wind is ruled out on the basis of the large Compton radii that typify black hole systems. In the absence of some new acceleration mechanisms, we conclude that the inner regions of sub-Eddington accretion disks around black holes are indeed naked.

  13. Study on wavelength shortening and upgrading of the free electron laser (FEL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Tetsuo; Yamada, Kawakatsu; Sei, Norihiro; Ohgaki, Hideaki; Sugiyama, Suguru; Mikado, Tomohisa

    1997-01-01

    This study is a task of ''Comprehensive study'' in ''nuclear energy basic technology research'', which is promoted under cooperation of four research institutes. The Electrotechnical Laboratory conducted, in 1991 in the first period of colaboration, on successful oscillation at visible region (598 nm) as the first case in Japan, construction of small type accumulation ring NIJI-IV for FEL, successful oscillation of visible range from 595 to 488 nm by installing optical krystron with maximum frequency in the world, and successful emittance lowering of accumulation beam by wide improvement of the ring. In the optical resonator, studies on minute loss measuring technique and on recovery from mirror deterioration were promoted. In the second period started from fiscal year of 1994, studies on FEL oscillation technique in short wavelength and upgrading of FEL corresponding to a frontier area were started, to succeed an oscillation experiment at 350 nm in ultraviolet area on April, 1994. Then, studies on generation of high luminescence x-ray owing to laser Compton scattering using FEL as a future plan, on design of a new accumulation ring and on the others as well as studies on further quality improvement of electron beam and on optical resonator have been promoted. (G.K.)

  14. Topology Optimization of Sub-Wavelength Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erentok, Aycan; Sigmund, Ole

    2011-01-01

    We propose a topology optimization strategy for the systematic design of a three-dimensional (3D), conductor-based sub-wavelength antenna. The post-processed finite-element (FE) models of the optimized structure are shown to be self-resonant, efficient and exhibit distorted omnidirectional...

  15. Characterization of ethanol concentrations at ultraviolet wavelength ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the measurement of optical absorption spectrum for different concentrations of ethanol at ultraviolet wavelength. Ethanol absorption spectrum was measured using portable spectroscopy setup from Avantes. It consists of Balanced Deuterium Halogen light source and spectrometer. The light source can ...

  16. Smart wavelength meter for integrated photonics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benelajla, Meryem; Taballione, Caterina; Boller, Klaus J.

    2017-01-01

    Thermally tunable SiN waveguide microring resonators in connection with neural network readout algorithms appear promising for use as integrated optical wavelength meters. So far, we have observed long-term reliability and a temperature immunity of the readout across several degrees of ambient

  17. An automated wavelength selection for flame spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurteau, M.; Mislan, J.P.; Ashley, R.W.

    1976-01-01

    A simple electro-mechanical programming system is described for use with a flame spectrophotometer. Its application for automated sequential multi-element analysis is illustrated. Reproducibility of wavelength settings are within +-0.5 A. Precision and sensitivities are at least as good as those obtained for single element determinations. (author)

  18. Alien wavelength modeling tool and field trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sambo, N.; Sgambelluri, A.; Secondini, M.

    2015-01-01

    A modeling tool is presented for pre-FEC BER estimation of PM-QPSK alien wavelength signals. A field trial is demonstrated and used as validation of the tool's correctness. A very close correspondence between the performance of the field trial and the one predicted by the modeling tool has been...

  19. Two-wavelength spatial-heterodyne holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Gregory R.; Bingham, Philip R.; Simpson, John T.; Karnowski, Thomas P.; Voelkl, Edgar

    2007-12-25

    Systems and methods are described for obtaining two-wavelength differential-phase holograms. A method includes determining a difference between a filtered analyzed recorded first spatially heterodyne hologram phase and a filtered analyzed recorded second spatially-heterodyned hologram phase.

  20. Design of A HPGe-Plastic Scintillator Compton Suppression Spectrometer for Neutron Activation Analysis and Radio environmental Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharshar, T.; Badran, H.; Elnimr, T.

    1998-01-01

    The design of a compton suppression spectrometer consisting of a 10% p-type HPGe detector and an annular anti-Compton shield made of N E-102 A plastic scintillator is described. The height of the guard plastic- scintillation detector was optimized experimentally using a NaI(Ti) ring, consisting of five NaI(Ti) detectors. The annular guard detector is divided to four optically isolated quarters to enhance the light collection. Each quarter of the guard detector was tested and satisfying results are obtained

  1. On the distribution of electrons in the double ionization of helium-like ions by Compton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amusia, M Ya [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Drukarev, E G [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, St Petersburg 188300 (Russian Federation)

    2003-06-28

    The Compton scattering of a high energy photon by a helium-like ion, followed by the ionization of two electrons, is considered outside of the Bethe surface of Compton scattering with the knock-out of a single electron. The role of shake-off (SO), of final state interactions (FSI) and of the quasi-free mechanism (QFM) is analysed. The triple and double differential distributions are calculated. It is demonstrated for the first time that in certain kinematical regions the process is dominated by the FSI and by the QFM, while the SO contribution is much smaller.

  2. Measurement of the Proton Structure Function $F_{2}$ at low $Q^{2}$ in QED Compton Scattering at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aktas, A.; Anthonis, T.; Asmone, A.; Babaev, A.; Backovic, S.; Bahr, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baumgartner, S.; Becker, J.; Beckingham, M.; Behnke, O.; Behrendt, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, Ch.; Berger, N.; Berndt, T.; Bizot, J.C.; Bohme, J.; Boenig, M.-O.; Boudry, V.; Bracinik, J.; Brisson, V.; Broker, H.-B.; Brown, D.P.; Bruncko, D.; Busser, F.W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Caron, S.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Chekelian, V.; Collard, C.; Contreras, J.G.; Coppens, Y.R.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cox, B.E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Dau, W.D.; Daum, K.; Delcourt, B.; Demirchyan, R.; De Roeck, A.; Desch, K.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dingfelder, J.; Dodonov, V.; Dubak, A.; Duprel, C.; Eckerlin, Guenter; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Ellerbrock, M.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Erdmann, W.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Ferencei, J.; Fleischer, M.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleming, Y.H.; Flucke, G.; Flugge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Foresti, I.; Formanek, J.; Franke, G.; Frising, G.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Garutti, E.; Garvey, J.; Gayler, J.; Gerhards, R.; Gerlich, C.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Gorbounov, S.; Grab, C.; Grassler, H.; Greenshaw, T.; Gregori, M.; Grindhammer, Guenter; Gwilliam, C.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Haller, J.; Hansson, M.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Henschel, H.; Henshaw, O.; Heremans, R.; Herrera, G.; Herynek, I.; Heuer, R.-D.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hoting, P.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Ibbotson, M.; Ismail, M.; Jacquet, M.; Janauschek, L.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, D.P.; Jung, H.; Kant, D.; Kapichine, M.; Karlsson, M.; Katzy, J.; Keller, N.; Kennedy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, Christian M.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Klimkovich, T.; Kluge, T.; Knies, G.; Knutsson, A.; Koblitz, B.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Koutouev, R.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kroseberg, J.; Kuckens, J.; Kuhr, T.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka, T.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leiner, B.; Lemrani, R.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindfeld, L.; Lipka, K.; List, B.; Lobodzinska, E.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lueders, H.; Luke, D.; Lux, T.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malden, N.; Malinovski, E.; Mangano, S.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martisikova, M.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S.J.; Meer, D.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michine, S.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Milstead, D.; Mohamed, A.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morozov, I.; Morris, J.V.; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nagovizin, V.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, J.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, Paul R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nikitin, D.; Nowak, G.; Nozicka, M.; Oganezov, R.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J.E.; Ossoskov, G.; Ozerov, D.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Peez, M.; Perez, E.; Perieanu, A.; Petrukhin, A.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Poschl, R.; Portheault, B.; Povh, B.; Raicevic, N.; Ratiani, Z.; Reimer, P.; Reisert, B.; Rimmer, A.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauvan, E.; Schatzel, S.; Scheins, J.; Schilling, F.-P.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schneider, M.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schroder, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Schwanenberger, C.; Sedlak, K.; Sefkow, F.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Sirois, Y.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Spitzer, H.; Stamen, R.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Strauch, I.; Straumann, U.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, Graham; Thompson, P.D.; Tomasz, F.; Traynor, D.; Truoel, Peter; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Uraev, A.; Urban, Marcel; Usik, A.; Utkin, D.; Valkar, S.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Veelken, C.; Vest, A.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; Wacker, K.; Wagner, J.; Weber, G.; Weber, R.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Werner, N.; Wessels, M.; Wessling, B.; Winter, G.-G.; Wissing, Ch.; Woehrling, E.-E.; Wolf, R.; Wunsch, E.; Xella, S.; Yan, W.; Yeganov, V.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.

    2004-01-01

    The proton structure function F_2(x,Q^2) is measured in inelastic QED Compton scattering using data collected with the H1 detector at HERA. QED Compton events are used to access the kinematic range of very low virtualities of the exchanged photon, Q^2, down to 0.5 GeV^2, and Bjorken x up to \\sim 0.06, a region which has not been covered previously by inclusive measurements at HERA. The results are in agreement with the measurements from fixed target lepton-nucleon scattering experiments.

  3. A portable Compton spectrometer for clinical X-ray beams in the energy range 20-150 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, A.A.; Linke, A.; Yoshimura, E.M.; Terini, R.A.; Herdade, S.B.

    2011-01-01

    Primary beam spectra were obtained for an X-ray industrial equipment (40-150 kV), and for a clinical mammography apparatus (25-35 kV) from beams scattered at angles close to 90 o , measured with a CdTe Compton spectrometer. Actual scattering angles were determined from the Compton energy shift of characteristic X-rays or spectra end-point energy. Evaluated contribution of coherent scattering amounts to more than 15% of fluence in mammographic beams. This technique can be used in clinical environments.

  4. The description of compton lines in energy-dispersive x-ray Fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Gysel, Mon; Van Espen, P.J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (ED-XRF) is a non-destructive technique for the element analysis in a concentration range ppm - % making use of X rays up to 100 keV. Generally, two photon matter interactions occur, respectively absorption and scattering. The absorption of incident photons gives raise to characteristic lines. Scattering gives an incoherent and a coherent line. A Gaussian peak model is adequate to describe the characteristic and coherent scattered lines. Incoherent lines appear as non-Gaussian, broadened peaks. The profile of a Compton peak is complex. It depends on the geometry and the composition of the sample. Especially, when analyzing a low Z matrix; dominant scattering and multiple scattering may cause large interferences. The absence of an appropriate fitting model makes the Compton profile seen as a limiting factor in the evaluation of spectra. An accurate description of incoherent lines should improve quantitative analysis. Therefore, a suitable fitting model, making use of the expertise of non-linear least squares procedures and Monte-Carlo calculations was systematically investigated. The proposed model, containing a modified Gaussian, is tested on experimental data recorded with a HPGe detector

  5. A high-energy Compton polarimeter for the POET SMEX mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloser, Peter F.; McConnell, Mark L.; Legere, Jason S.; Ertley, Camden D.; Hill, Joanne E.; Kippen, Marc; Ryan, James M.

    2014-07-01

    The primary science goal of the Polarimeters for Energetic Transients (POET) mission is to measure the polarization of gamma-ray bursts over a wide energy range, from X rays to soft gamma rays. The higher-energy portion of this band (50 - 500 keV) will be covered by the High Energy Polarimeter (HEP) instrument, a non-imaging, wide field of view Compton polarimeter. Incident high-energy photons will Compton scatter in low-Z, plastic scintillator detector elements and be subsequently absorbed in high-Z, CsI(Tl) scintillator elements; polarization is detected by measuring an asymmetry in the azimuthal scatter angle distribution. The HEP design is based on our considerable experience with the development and flight of the Gamma-Ray Polarimeter Experiment (GRAPE) balloon payload. We present the design of the POET HEP instrument, which incorporates lessons learned from the GRAPE balloon design and previous work on Explorer proposal efforts, and its expected performance on a two-year SMEX mission.

  6. An Iwasawa-Taniguchi Effect for Compton-thick Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boorman, Peter G.; Gandhi, Poshak; Baloković, Mislav; Brightman, Murray; Harrison, Fiona; Ricci, Claudio; Stern, Daniel

    2018-04-01

    We present the first study of an Iwasawa-Taniguchi/`X-ray Baldwin' effect for Compton-thick active galactic nuclei (AGN). We report a statistically significant anti-correlation between the rest-frame equivalent width (EW) of the narrow core of the neutral Fe Kα fluorescence emission line, ubiquitously observed in the reflection spectra of obscured AGN, and the mid-infrared 12 μ m continuum luminosity (taken as a proxy for the bolometric AGN luminosity). Our sample consists of 72 Compton-thick AGN selected from pointed and deep-field observations covering a redshift range of z ˜ 0.0014 - 3.7. We employ a Monte Carlo-based fitting method, which returns a Spearman's Rank correlation coefficient of ρ = - 0.28 ± 0.12, significant to 98.7% confidence. The best fit found is log(EW_{Fe Kα }) ∝ -0.08± 0.04 log(L_{12 {μ } m}), which is consistent with multiple studies of the X-ray Baldwin effect for unobscured and mildly obscured AGN. This is an unexpected result, as the Fe Kα line is conventionally thought to originate from the same region as the underlying reflection continuum, which together constitute the reflection spectrum. We discuss the implications this could have if confirmed on larger samples, including a systematic underestimation of the line of sight X-ray obscuring column density and hence the intrinsic luminosities and growth rates for the most luminous AGN.

  7. A SUPER-EDDINGTON, COMPTON-THICK WIND IN GRO J1655–40?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neilsen, J.; Homan, J. [MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Rahoui, F. [European Southern Observatory, Karl Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei Munchen (Germany); Buxton, M., E-mail: jneilsen@space.mit.edu [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States)

    2016-05-01

    During its 2005 outburst, GRO J1655–40 was observed at high spectral resolution with the Chandra High-Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer, revealing a spectrum rich with blueshifted absorption lines indicative of an accretion disk wind—apparently too hot, too dense, and too close to the black hole to be driven by radiation pressure or thermal pressure (Miller et al.). However, this exotic wind represents just one piece of the puzzle in this outburst, as its presence coincides with an extremely soft and curved X-ray continuum spectrum, remarkable X-ray variability (Uttley and Klein-Wolt), and a bright, unexpected optical/infrared blackbody component that varies on the orbital period. Focusing on the X-ray continuum and the optical/infrared/UV spectral energy distribution, we argue that the unusual features of this “hypersoft state” are natural consequences of a super-Eddington Compton-thick wind from the disk: the optical/infrared blackbody represents the cool photosphere of a dense, extended outflow, while the X-ray emission is explained as Compton scattering by the relatively cool, optically thick wind. This wind obscures the intrinsic luminosity of the inner disk, which we suggest may have been at or above the Eddington limit.

  8. Compton imaging tomography for nondestructive evaluation of large multilayer aircraft components and structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanov, Volodymyr; Grubsky, Victor; Zahiri, Feraidoon

    2017-02-01

    We present a novel NDT/NDE tool for non-contact, single-sided 3D inspection of aerospace components, based on Compton Imaging Tomography (CIT) technique, which is applicable to large, non-uniform, and/or multilayer structures made of composites or lightweight metals. CIT is based on the registration of Compton-scattered X-rays, and permits the reconstruction of the full 3D (tomographic) image of the inspected objects. Unlike conventional computerized tomography (CT), CIT requires only single-sided access to objects, and therefore can be applied to large structures without their disassembly. The developed tool provides accurate detection, identification, and precise 3D localizations and measurements of any possible internal and surface defects (corrosions, cracks, voids, delaminations, porosity, and inclusions), and also disbonds, core and skin defects, and intrusion of foreign fluids (e.g., fresh and salt water, oil) inside of honeycomb sandwich structures. The NDE capabilities of the system were successfully demonstrated on various aerospace structure samples provided by several major aerospace companies. Such a CIT-based tool can detect and localize individual internal defects with dimensions about 1-2 mm3, and honeycomb disbond defects less than 6 mm by 6 mm area with the variations in the thickness of the adhesive by 100 m. Current maximum scanning speed of aircraft/spacecraft structures is about 5-8 min/ft2 (50-80 min/m2).

  9. Radio emission from quasars and BL Lac objects by coherent plasma oscillation and stimulated Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colgate, S.A.; Petschek, A.G.

    1978-01-01

    The full radiation spectrum of quasars and BL Lac objects is interpreted as due to a dependent combination of a soft plasma oscillation source at 2ν/sub P/ and bremsstrahlung. Previous work of the plasma oscillation radiation is extended into the radio part of the spectrum and it is shown how the high brightness temperature observations of BL Lac objects [kT/sub b/ (100 MHz) approximate = 3 x 10 5 mc 2 ] are a reasonable consequence of a lower external plasma density and ejection as required for the observed lack of emission lines. Two extreme cases are considered, the one where the plasma oscillations are suddenly extinguished and only stimulated Compton scattering remains and a second case of a constant source of plasma oscillations but a graded surface density. The first case gives 1/100 of the required brightness temperature and the second gives 100 times too large a brightness temperature and also a x 10 too large a radius. It is believed reasonable to invoke a combination of both processes to explain the observed radio spectrum. This model circumvents the self-Compton x-ray flux difficulty of incoherent synchrotron emission

  10. Bulk Comptonization: new hints from the luminous blazar 4C+25.05

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammoun, E. S.; Nardini, E.; Risaliti, G.; Ghisellini, G.; Behar, E.; Celotti, A.

    2018-01-01

    Blazars are often characterized by a spectral break at soft X-rays, whose origin is still debated. While most sources show a flattening, some exhibit a blackbody-like soft excess with temperatures of the order of ∼0.1 keV, similar to low-luminosity, non-jetted Seyferts. Here, we present the analysis of the simultaneous XMM-Newton and NuSTAR observations of the luminous flat-spectrum radio quasar 4C+25.05 (z = 2.368). The observed 0.3-30 keV spectrum is best described by the sum of a hard X-ray power law (Γ = 1.38_{-0.03}^{+0.05}) and a soft component, approximated by a blackbody with kT_BB = 0.66_{-0.04}^{+0.05} keV (rest frame). If the spectrum of 4C+25.05 is interpreted in the context of bulk Comptonization by cold electrons of broad-line region photons emitted in the direction of the jet, such an unusual temperature implies a bulk Lorentz factor of the jet of Γbulk ∼ 11.7. Bulk Comptonization is expected to be ubiquitous on physical grounds, yet no clear signature of it has been found so far, possibly due to its transient nature and the lack of high-quality, broad-band X-ray spectra.

  11. Thick silicon microstrip detectors simulation for PACT: Pair and Compton Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, M.; Laurent, P.; Lebrun, F.; Tatischeff, V.; Dolgorouky, Y.; Bertoli, W.; Breelle, E.

    2016-11-01

    PACT is a space borne Pair and Compton Telescope that aims to make a sensitive survey of the gamma-ray sky between 100 keV and 100 MeV. It is based upon two main components: a silicon-based gamma-ray tracker and a crystal-based calorimeter. In this paper we will explain the imaging technique of PACT as a Multi-layered Compton telescope (0.1-10 MeV) and its major improvements over its predecessor COMPTEL. Then we will present a simulation study to optimize the silicon tracker of PACT. This tracker is formed of thousands of identical silicon double sided strip detectors (DSSDs). We have developed a simulation model (using SILVACO) to simulate the DSSD performance while varying its thickness, impurity concentration of the bulk material, electrode pitch, and electrode width. We will present a comprehensive overview of the impact of each varied parameter on the DSSD performance, in view of the application to PACT. The considered DSSD parameters are its depletion voltage, capacitance, and leakage current. After the selection of the PACT DSSD, we will present a simulation of the performance of the PACT telescope in the 0.1-10 MeV range.

  12. Thick silicon microstrip detectors simulation for PACT: Pair and Compton Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, M.; Laurent, P.; Lebrun, F.; Tatischeff, V.; Dolgorouky, Y.; Bertoli, W.; Breelle, E.

    2016-01-01

    PACT is a space borne Pair and Compton Telescope that aims to make a sensitive survey of the gamma-ray sky between 100 keV and 100 MeV. It is based upon two main components: a silicon-based gamma-ray tracker and a crystal-based calorimeter. In this paper we will explain the imaging technique of PACT as a Multi-layered Compton telescope (0.1–10 MeV) and its major improvements over its predecessor COMPTEL. Then we will present a simulation study to optimize the silicon tracker of PACT. This tracker is formed of thousands of identical silicon double sided strip detectors (DSSDs). We have developed a simulation model (using SILVACO) to simulate the DSSD performance while varying its thickness, impurity concentration of the bulk material, electrode pitch, and electrode width. We will present a comprehensive overview of the impact of each varied parameter on the DSSD performance, in view of the application to PACT. The considered DSSD parameters are its depletion voltage, capacitance, and leakage current. After the selection of the PACT DSSD, we will present a simulation of the performance of the PACT telescope in the 0.1–10 MeV range.

  13. Thick silicon microstrip detectors simulation for PACT: Pair and Compton Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalil, M., E-mail: khalilmohammad@hotmail.com [APC Laboratory, 10rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Laurent, P.; Lebrun, F. [APC Laboratory, 10rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); CEA, Centre de Saclay, 91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Tatischeff, V. [CSNSM, IN2P3/CNRSand Paris-Sud University, 91405 Orsay Campus (France); Dolgorouky, Y.; Bertoli, W.; Breelle, E. [APC Laboratory, 10rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France)

    2016-11-01

    PACT is a space borne Pair and Compton Telescope that aims to make a sensitive survey of the gamma-ray sky between 100 keV and 100 MeV. It is based upon two main components: a silicon-based gamma-ray tracker and a crystal-based calorimeter. In this paper we will explain the imaging technique of PACT as a Multi-layered Compton telescope (0.1–10 MeV) and its major improvements over its predecessor COMPTEL. Then we will present a simulation study to optimize the silicon tracker of PACT. This tracker is formed of thousands of identical silicon double sided strip detectors (DSSDs). We have developed a simulation model (using SILVACO) to simulate the DSSD performance while varying its thickness, impurity concentration of the bulk material, electrode pitch, and electrode width. We will present a comprehensive overview of the impact of each varied parameter on the DSSD performance, in view of the application to PACT. The considered DSSD parameters are its depletion voltage, capacitance, and leakage current. After the selection of the PACT DSSD, we will present a simulation of the performance of the PACT telescope in the 0.1–10 MeV range.

  14. Non-Proportionality of Electron Response and Energy Resolution of Compton Electrons in Scintillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiderski, L.; Marcinkowski, R.; Szawlowski, M.; Moszynski, M.; Czarnacki, W.; Syntfeld-Kazuch, A.; Szczesniak, T.; Pausch, G.; Plettner, C.; Roemer, K.

    2012-02-01

    Non-proportionality of light yield and energy resolution of Compton electrons in three scintillators (LaBr3:Ce, LYSO:Ce and CsI:Tl) were studied in a wide energy range from 10 keV up to 1 MeV. The experimental setup was comprised of a High Purity Germanium detector and tested scintillators coupled to a photomultiplier. Probing the non-proportionality and energy resolution curves at different energies was obtained by changing the position of various radioactive sources with respect to both detectors. The distance between both detectors and source was kept small to make use of Wide Angle Compton Coincidence (WACC) technique, which allowed us to scan large range of scattering angles simultaneously and obtain relatively high coincidence rate of 100 cps using weak sources of about 10 μCi activity. The results are compared with those obtained by direct irradiation of the tested scintillators with gamma-ray sources and fitting the full-energy peaks.

  15. Inverse Compton gamma-rays from galactic dark matter annihilation. Anisotropy signatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Le; Sigl, Guenter; Miniati, Francesco

    2010-08-01

    High energy electrons and positrons from annihilating dark matter can imprint unique angular anisotropies on the diffuse gamma-ray flux by inverse Compton scattering off the interstellar radiation field. We develop a numerical tool to compute gamma-ray emission from such electrons and positrons diffusing in the smooth host halo and in substructure halos with masses down to 10 -6 M s un. We show that, unlike the total gamma-ray angular power spectrum observed by Fermi-LAT, the angular power spectrum from inverse Compton scattering is exponentially suppressed below an angular scale determined by the diffusion length of electrons and positrons. For TeV scale dark matter with a canonical thermal freeze-out cross section 3 x 10 -26 cm 3 /s, this feature may be detectable by Fermi-LAT in the energy range 100-300 GeV after more sophisticated foreground subtraction. We also find that the total flux and the shape of the angular power spectrum depends sensitively on the spatial distribution of subhalos in the Milky Way. Finally, the contribution from the smooth host halo component to the gamma-ray mean intensity is negligibly small compared to subhalos. (orig.)

  16. Nucleon polarizabilities from deuteron Compton scattering within a Green's function hybrid approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrandt, R.P.; Hemmert, T.R. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik (T39), Physik-Department, Garching (Germany); Griesshammer, H.W. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik (T39), Physik-Department, Garching (Germany); Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik III, Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultaet I, Erlangen (Germany); The George Washington University, Center for Nuclear Studies, Department of Physics, Washington DC (United States)

    2010-10-15

    We examine elastic Compton scattering from the deuteron for photon energies ranging from zero to 100MeV, using state-of-the-art deuteron wave functions and NN potentials. Nucleon-nucleon rescattering between emission and absorption of the two photons is treated by Green's functions in order to ensure gauge invariance and the correct Thomson limit. With this Green's function hybrid approach, we fulfill the low-energy theorem of deuteron Compton scattering and there is no significant dependence on the deuteron wave function used. Concerning the nucleon structure, we use the chiral effective field theory with explicit {delta} (1232) degrees of freedom within the small-scale expansion up to leading-one-loop order. Agreement with available data is good at all energies. Our 2-parameter fit to all elastic {gamma} d data leads to values for the static isoscalar dipole polarizabilities which are in excellent agreement with the isoscalar Baldin sum rule. Taking this value as additional input, we find {alpha}{sub E}{sup s} = (11.3{+-}0.7(stat){+-}0.6(Baldin){+-}1(theory)){sup .}10{sup -4} fm{sup 3} and {beta}{sub M}{sup s} = (3.2{+-}0.7(stat){+-}0.6(Baldin){+-}1(theory)){sup .}10{sup -4} fm{sup 3} and conclude by comparison to the proton numbers that neutron and proton polarizabilities are the same within rather small errors. (orig.)

  17. Experimental development of a liquid xenon Compton telescope for functional medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oger, Tugdual

    2012-01-01

    3γ imaging is a new nuclear medical imaging technique which has been suggested by Subatech laboratory. This technique involves locating three-dimensional position of the decay of an innovative radioisotope (β + ,γ) emitter, the 44 Sc. The principle consist in the detection of two photons of 511 keV gamma rays from the decay of the positron, provided by a PET ring detector, associated to the detection of the third photon by a Liquid xenon Compton telescope. The energy deposited in the interaction between the photon and xenon and its position are identified by measuring the ionization signal with a Micromegas chamber (Micro-Mesh Gaseous Structure), while the trigger and time measurement of the interaction are provided by the detection of the scintillation signal. The principle of the TPC is thus used to Compton imaging. In order to demonstrate experimentally the feasibility of imaging 3γ, a small prototype, XEMIS (Xenon Medical Imaging System) was developed. This thesis is an important step towards the proof of feasibility. In this work are exposed the characterization of the detector response for a beam of 511 keV gamma rays and the analysis of data derived from it. The measurement of energy and time resolutions will be presented, as well as the purity of the liquid xenon. (author) [fr

  18. First measurement of $Z/\\gamma^{*}$ production in Compton scattering of quasi-real photons

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G.; Alexander, G.; Allison, John; Altekamp, N.; Anderson, K.J.; Anderson, S.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Ashby, S.F.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Ball, A.H.; Barberio, E.; Barlow, Roger J.; Bartoldus, R.; Batley, J.R.; Baumann, S.; Bechtluft, J.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bella, G.; Bellerive, A.; Bentvelsen, S.; Bethke, S.; Betts, S.; Biebel, O.; Biguzzi, A.; Bird, S.D.; Blobel, V.; Bloodworth, I.J.; Bobinski, M.; Bock, P.; Bohme, J.; Bonacorsi, D.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Bright-Thomas, P.; Brigliadori, L.; Brown, Robert M.; Burckhart, H.J.; Burgard, C.; Burgin, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, David G.; Chrisman, D.; Ciocca, C.; Clarke, P.E.L.; Clay, E.; Cohen, I.; Conboy, J.E.; Cooke, O.C.; Couyoumtzelis, C.; Coxe, R.L.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallavalle, G.Marco; Davis, R.; De Jong, S.; del Pozo, L.A.; De Roeck, A.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Dixit, M.S.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Eatough, D.; Estabrooks, P.G.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H.G.; Fabbri, F.; Fanti, M.; Faust, A.A.; Fiedler, F.; Fierro, M.; Fleck, I.; Folman, R.; Furtjes, A.; Futyan, D.I.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, J.W.; Gascon, J.; Gascon-Shotkin, S.M.; Gaycken, G.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Gibson, V.; Gibson, W.R.; Gingrich, D.M.; Glenzinski, D.; Goldberg, J.; Gorn, W.; Grandi, C.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Hanson, G.G.; Hansroul, M.; Hapke, M.; Harder, K.; Hargrove, C.K.; Hartmann, C.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Herndon, M.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hildreth, M.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hillier, S.J.; Hobson, P.R.; Hocker, James Andrew; Homer, R.J.; Honma, A.K.; Horvath, D.; Hossain, K.R.; Howard, R.; Huntemeyer, P.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Imrie, D.C.; Ishii, K.; Jacob, F.R.; Jawahery, A.; Jeremie, H.; Jimack, M.; Jones, C.R.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Karlen, D.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kayal, P.I.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Klier, A.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Koetke, D.S.; Kokott, T.P.; Kolrep, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kowalewski, Robert V.; Kress, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kuhl, T.; Kyberd, P.; Lafferty, G.D.; Lanske, D.; Lauber, J.; Lautenschlager, S.R.; Lawson, I.; Layter, J.G.; Lazic, D.; Lee, A.M.; Lellouch, D.; Letts, J.; Levinson, L.; Liebisch, R.; List, B.; Littlewood, C.; Lloyd, A.W.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Long, G.D.; Losty, M.J.; Ludwig, J.; Lui, D.; Macchiolo, A.; Macpherson, A.; Mader, W.; Mannelli, M.; Marcellini, S.; Markopoulos, C.; Martin, A.J.; Martin, J.P.; Martinez, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McDonald, W.John; McKenna, J.; Mckigney, E.A.; McMahon, T.J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Menke, S.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Meyer, J.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Mir, R.; Mohr, W.; Montanari, A.; Mori, T.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Neal, H.A.; Nellen, B.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oakham, F.G.; Odorici, F.; Ogren, H.O.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Palinkas, J.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Patrick, G.N.; Patt, J.; Perez-Ochoa, R.; Petzold, S.; Pfeifenschneider, P.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Poffenberger, P.; Polok, J.; Przybycien, M.; Rembser, C.; Rick, H.; Robertson, S.; Robins, S.A.; Rodning, N.; Roney, J.M.; Roscoe, K.; Rossi, A.M.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Runolfsson, O.; Rust, D.R.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sahr, O.; Sang, W.M.; Sarkisian, E.K.G.; Sbarra, C.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharf, F.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schmitt, B.; Schmitt, S.; Schoning, A.; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Schwick, C.; Scott, W.G.; Seiler, T.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.H.; Sherwood, P.; Siroli, G.P.; Sittler, A.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Snow, G.A.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Sproston, M.; Stahl, A.; Stephens, K.; Steuerer, J.; Stoll, K.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Surrow, B.; Talbot, S.D.; Tanaka, S.; Taras, P.; Tarem, S.; Teuscher, R.; Thiergen, M.; Thomson, M.A.; von Torne, E.; Torrence, E.; Towers, S.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turcot, A.S.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Van Kooten, Rick J.; Vannerem, P.; Verzocchi, M.; Voss, H.; Wackerle, F.; Wagner, A.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wermes, N.; White, J.S.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Yekutieli, G.; Zacek, V.; Zer-Zion, D.

    1998-01-01

    We report the first observation of Z/gamma* production in Compton scattering of quasi-real photons. This is a subprocess of the reaction e+e- to e+e-Z/gamma*, where one of the final state electrons is undetected. Approximately 55 pb-1 of data collected in the year 1997 at an e+e- centre-of-mass energy of 183 GeV with the OPAL detector at LEP have been analysed. The Z/gamma* from Compton scattering has been detected in the hadronic decay channel. Within well defined kinematic bounds, we measure the product of cross-section and Z/gamma* branching ratio to hadrons to be (0.9+-0.3+-0.1) pb for events with a hadronic mass larger than 60 GeV, dominated by (e)eZ production. In the hadronic mass region between 5 GeV and 60 GeV, dominated by (e)egamma* production, this product is found to be (4.1+-1.6+-0.6) pb. Our results agree with the predictions of two Monte Carlo event generators, grc4f and PYTHIA.

  19. Stability analysis of implicit time discretizations for the Compton-scattering Fokker-Planck equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Densmore, Jeffery D.; Warsa, James S.; Lowrie, Robert B.; Morel, Jim E.

    2009-01-01

    The Fokker-Planck equation is a widely used approximation for modeling the Compton scattering of photons in high energy density applications. In this paper, we perform a stability analysis of three implicit time discretizations for the Compton-Scattering Fokker-Planck equation. Specifically, we examine (i) a Semi-Implicit (SI) scheme that employs backward-Euler differencing but evaluates temperature-dependent coefficients at their beginning-of-time-step values, (ii) a Fully Implicit (FI) discretization that instead evaluates temperature-dependent coefficients at their end-of-time-step values, and (iii) a Linearized Implicit (LI) scheme, which is developed by linearizing the temperature dependence of the FI discretization within each time step. Our stability analysis shows that the FI and LI schemes are unconditionally stable and cannot generate oscillatory solutions regardless of time-step size, whereas the SI discretization can suffer from instabilities and nonphysical oscillations for sufficiently large time steps. With the results of this analysis, we present time-step limits for the SI scheme that prevent undesirable behavior. We test the validity of our stability analysis and time-step limits with a set of numerical examples.

  20. Electron density values of various human tissues: in vitro Compton scatter measurements and calculated ranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrimpton, P.C.

    1981-01-01

    Accurate direct measurements of electron density have been performed on specimens from 10 different tissue types of the human body, representing the major organs, using a Compton scatter technique. As a supplement to these experimental values, calculations have been carried out to determine the electron densities expected for these tissue types. The densities observed are in good agreement with the broad ranges deduced from the basic data previously published. The results of both the in vitro sample measurements and the approximate calculations indicate that the electron density of most normal healthy soft tissue can be expected to fall within the fairly restricted range of +- 5% around 3.4 X 10 23 electrons per cm 3 . The obvious exception to this generalisation is the result for lung tissue, which falls considerably below this range owing to the high air content inherent in its construction. In view of such an overall limited variation with little difference between tissues, it would appear that electron density alone is likely to be a rather poor clinical parameter for tissue analysis, with high accuracy and precision being essential in any in vivo Compton measurements for imaging or diagnosis on specific organs. (author)