WorldWideScience

Sample records for compromise blue truckfighters

  1. Compromises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizer, Theodore R.

    1984-01-01

    Taking as examples the issues of improving students'"high order thinking skills" and arriving at more equitable teacher salaries and school budgets, the author discusses the need for compromise solutions to widespread problems. (JBM)

  2. Strained Compromises?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Christian Lyhne

    The Danish version of flexicurity is not only about a balance between labour market flexibility and social security. Arguably, it is also series of more or less stable underlying compromises between social partners about the main mechanisms and aims of labour market regulation which – supposedly...... – should be focused on employment rather than jobs and competition on quality rather than on labour costs. However, most studies on Danish flexicurity have been carried out under favourable economic conditions with social partners almost naturally agreeing to the merits of the model – at least in principle...

  3. Democratic Respect and Compromise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian F.

    2017-01-01

    Compromise has attained renewed interest among political theorists writing on pluralism and disagreement. It is controversial, however, whether compromise is a mere pragmatic necessity or if it has non-instrumental value. This article argues that the reasons for compromise are inherent in the dem......Compromise has attained renewed interest among political theorists writing on pluralism and disagreement. It is controversial, however, whether compromise is a mere pragmatic necessity or if it has non-instrumental value. This article argues that the reasons for compromise are inherent...

  4. Compromise and Toleration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian F.

    Political compromise is akin to toleration, since both consist of an "agreement to disagree." Compromise and toleration also share a predicament of being regarded as ambiguous virtues that require of us to accept something we actually regard as wrong. However, we misunderstand the nature, justifi...... in compromise are more stringent than those for being tolerated. Still, the limits of compromise cannot be drawn to narrowly if it is to remain its value as a form of agreement that respects and embodies the differences of opinion in society.......Political compromise is akin to toleration, since both consist of an "agreement to disagree." Compromise and toleration also share a predicament of being regarded as ambiguous virtues that require of us to accept something we actually regard as wrong. However, we misunderstand the nature......, justification, and limits of compromise if we see it merely as a matter of toleration. While toleration is mainly a matter of accepting citizens' equal right to co-existence as subjects to law, political compromise includes the parties in making law – it makes them co-authors of law. Toleration entails...

  5. [Tuberculosis in compromised hosts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-11-01

    Recent development of tuberculosis in Japan tends to converge on a specific high risk group. The proportion of tuberculosis developing particularly from the compromised hosts in the high risk group is especially high. At this symposium, therefore, we took up diabetes mellitus, gastrectomy, dialysis, AIDS and the elderly for discussion. Many new findings and useful reports for practical medical treatment are submitted; why these compromised hosts are predisposed to tuberculosis, tuberculosis diagnostic and remedial notes of those compromised hosts etc. It is an important question for the future to study how to prevent tuberculosis from these compromised hosts. 1. Tuberculosis in diabetes mellitus: aggravation and its immunological mechanism: Kazuyoshi KAWAKAMI (Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Graduate School and Faculty of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus). It has been well documented that diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major aggravating factor in tuberculosis. The onset of this disease is more frequent in DM patients than in individuals with any underlying diseases. However, the precise mechanism of this finding remains to be fully understood. Earlier studies reported that the migration, phagocytosis and bactericidal activity of neutrophils are all impaired in DM patients, which is related to their reduced host defense to infection with extracellular bacteria, such as S. aureus and E. colli. Host defense to mycobacterial infection is largely mediated by cellular immunity, and Th1-related cytokines, such as IFN-gamma and IL-12, play a central role in this response. It is reported that serum level of these cytokines and their production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) are reduced in tuberculosis patients with DM, and this is supposed to be involved in the high incidence of tuberculosis in DM. Our study observed similar findings and furthermore indicated that IFN-gamma and IL-12 production by BCG-stimulated PBMC was lower

  6. Energy policy - compromise or change?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewitz, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    Is there a contrast between compromise and change? In the author's opinion, there is not. Society changes. Sometimes, change is brought about more easily on the basis of a compromise. A pluralistic society needs compromises in order to participate in change with convictions of its own. To reach a compromise including a large part of one's conviction, the public must be convinced. This is achieved most easily by somebody who is well informed, educated, and trained. In this respect, not only specialized knowledge counts, but also the ability to handle the language and to know how to speak, and the behavior in public. Expert knowledge is acquired at the university, in the execution of one's profession, and in advanced training. Knowledge may be enhanced, for instance, by dealing with the arguments used by the other side. This will help in arguing one's own point more effectively. Individual talks, and events at which information and knowledge are disseminated, enable persons to assume an opinion based on their comprehension. Many uniform opinions create a majority opinion. (orig.) [de

  7. Flow-based Compromise Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, R.J.

    2016-01-01

    Brute-force attacks are omnipresent and manyfold on the Internet, and aim at compromising user accounts by issuing large numbers of authentication attempts on applications and daemons. Widespread targets of such attacks are Secure SHell (SSH) and Web applications, for example. The impact of

  8. Compromise and Disagreement in Comtemporary Political Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian F.; Scavenius, Theresa

    Compromise and Disagreement in Contemporary Political Theory provides a critical discussion of when and to what extent compromise is the best response to pluralism and disagreement in democratic decision-making and beyond. Organized into four parts, the book begins by discussing the justification...... and limits of compromise. Part II discusses the practice of compromise and considers the ethics required for compromise as well as the institutions that facilitate compromise. Part III focuses on pluralism and connects the topic of compromise to current discussions in political theory on public reason...

  9. Blue gods, blue oil, and blue people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbanks, V F

    1994-09-01

    Studies of the composition of coal tar, which began in Prussia in 1834, profoundly affected the economies of Germany, Great Britain, India, and the rest of the world, as well as medicine and surgery. Such effects include the collapse of the profits of the British indigo monopoly, the growth in economic power of Germany based on coal tar chemistry, and an economic crisis in India that led to more humane tax laws and, ultimately, the independence of India and the end of the British Empire. Additional consequences were the development of antiseptic surgery and the synthesis of a wide variety of useful drugs that have eradicated infections and alleviated pain. Many of these drugs, particularly the commonly used analgesics, sulfonamides, sulfones, and local anesthetics, are derivatives of aniline, originally called "blue oil" or "kyanol." Some of these aniline derivatives, however, have also caused aplastic anemia, agranulocytosis, and methemoglobinemia (that is, "blue people"). Exposure to aniline drugs, particularly when two or three aniline drugs are taken concurrently, seems to be the commonest cause of methemoglobinemia today.

  10. COMPROMISE EFFECT ON CONSUMERS’ BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Surkamta Eric Santosa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The way consumers think about the products they will buy determines their buying behavior. The decision to buy a particular product is obviously in accordance with the buyer’s attitude. The buyers will also feel more comfortable if their behavior meets with the approval and expectations of the people close to them. While the development of a certain attitude has no effect on subjective judgment, the effect of compromise is likely to make a contribution to its development. Since it is still unclear, this study’s main purposed is to clarify this. In addition, while an attitude is theorized as being a predictor of behavior, through behavioral intention, the study’s secondary purpose is to boost the earlier findings. Likewise, in accordance with the theory of planned behavior, the study will also examine the other predictors of behavioral intention, in relation to the behavioral intention itself. A sample consisting of a 100 respondents was compiled by using the convenience and judgment technique. The data were analyzed using Amos 16.0 and SPSS 16.0. As expected, the compromise effect had a significant influence on whether the customers’ attitude or the subjective norm was the main determinant. Likewise, the customers’ attitude, the subjective norm and perceived behavioral control were confirmed as good predictors of customers’ behavioral intentions.

  11. Posthuman blues

    CERN Document Server

    Tonnies, Mac

    2013-01-01

    Posthuman Blues, Vol. I is first volume of the edited version of the popular weblog maintained by author Mac Tonnies from 2003 until his tragic death in 2009. Tonnies' blog was a pastiche of his original fiction, reflections on his day-to-day life, trenchant observations of current events, and thoughts on an eclectic range of material he culled from the Internet. What resulted was a remarkably broad portrait of a thoughtful man and the complex times in which he lived, rendered with intellige...

  12. Career Compromises: Framings and Their Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gati, Itamar; Houminer, Daphna; Aviram, Tamar

    1998-01-01

    Career compromise was investigated in three framings (alternatives, aspect importance, within-aspect preference). Young adults and school counselors rated hypothetical stories. Results of four studies with different designs (Average N=106) supported the hypothesis. The alternatives framing was associated with greater compromise and decision…

  13. Impending Airway Compromise due to Cystic Hygroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itai Shavit

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We report on a 3-month-old infant, who arrived in the pediatric emergency department (ED with a cervical cystic hygroma causing an impending compromise of the airway. We recognize that such a lesion can rapidly progress, and the judicious use of imaging in the ED may help to avoid airway compromise and possibly fatal complications. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(4:368–369.

  14. Dental management of medically compromised patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherly Horax

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available These days, treatment in dentistry is no longer for patient without complication, but also for patient with bad medical record. With correct treatment management in handling medical condition of patient, not only for dental treatment but also their systematic disease, all the dental staff also can improve for the better quality of life of the patient. Patient with medical compromised start to realize that  keeping good oral hygiene is so important for their lives, therefore dental staff need to improve their science and technology and also for facing patient with medical compromised. This article will discuss and suggest various treatment consideration and protocol for the patient of with medical compromised.

  15. Blue-Green Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that taking a specific blue-green algae product (Super Blue-Green Algae, Cell Tech, Klamath Falls, OR) ... system. Premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Depression. Digestion. Heart disease. Memory. Wound healing. Other conditions. More evidence is needed ...

  16. Strained Compromises? Danish Flexicurity During Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Christian Lyhne

    2011-01-01

    The Danish concept of flexicurity in a ‘Golden Triangle’ of low job protection, high income security and high employment security is not only about a balance between labor market flexibility and social security. Arguably, it is also a series of more or less stable underlying compromises between...

  17. Objections to the Libertarian Stem Cell Compromise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter E. Block

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In Block (2010 I offered a compromise between the pro choice position that fervently supports stem cell research, and the pro life philosophy which bitterly opposes it. The compromise was a contest: allow would be researchers to create as many fertilized eggs as they wished. But, also, these should be offered up to would be parents to adopt all of these “children” as they wanted. If and only if there were any unadopted fetuses remaining in the laboratories of the nation would it be licit, on libertarian grounds, for research on them to take place. In the present paper I respond to several objections to this “modest proposal.”

  18. When data representation compromise data security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Eivind Ortind; Dahl, Mads Ronald

    WHEN DATA REPRESENTATION COMPROMISE DATA SECURITY The workflow of transforming data into informative representations makes extensive usage of computers and software. Scientists have a conventional tradition for producing publications that include tables and graphs as data representations....... These representations can be used for multiple purposes such as publications in journals, teaching and conference material. But when created, stored and distributed in a digital form there is a risk of compromising data security. Data beyond the once used specifically to create the representation can be included...... on the internet over many years? A new legislation proposed in 2012 by the European Commission on protection of personal data will be implemented from 2015. The new law will impose sanction options ranging from a warning to a fine up to 100.000.000 EUR. We argue that this new law will lead to especially...

  19. Blue Emission in Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, Sohini; Sengupta, Abhigyan; Hazra, Partha; Mandal, Pankaj

    2014-01-01

    Recent literatures reported blue-green emission from amyloid fibril as exclusive signature of fibril formation. This unusual visible luminescence is regularly used to monitor fibril growth. Blue-green emission has also been observed in crystalline protein and in solution. However, the origin of this emission is not known exactly. Our spectroscopic study of serum proteins reveals that the blue-green emission is a property of protein monomer. Evidences suggest that semiconductor-like band struc...

  20. Strained Compromises? Danish Flexicurity During Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Lyhne Ibsen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Danish concept of flexicurity in a `Golden Triangle´ of low job protection, high income security and high employment security is not only about a balance between labor market flexibility and social security. Arguably, it is also a series of more or less stable underlying compromises between social partners about the main mechanisms and aims of labor market regulation which - supposedly - should be focused on employment rather than jobs, and competition on quality rather than on labor costs. However, the `Golden Triangle´ - this article argues - seems in need of complementary concepts. The article therefore introduces, `centralized decentralization´ - a concept that directs our attention to forms of flexibility and security primarily for people in work. Most studies on Danish flexicurity have been carried out under favorable economic conditions. In light of the economic slump hitting Denmark in 2008, this article investigates if and how the recession challenged these compromises by comparing two rounds of case-based interviews in three metalworking companies in 2007 and 2009. It is shown that practice has indeed changed - albeit modestly - due to worsened economic circumstances. For example the case studies show that the hypothesized preference for external numerical flexibility is perhaps too crude as employers use different ways to restructure employment. Especially the examples of de facto concessionary bargaining to save jobs are important here - although the extent of concessions is modest. The evidence thus suggests that the `Golden Triangle´ flexicurity compromises are indeed strained by the economic cycle and that responses to impetus for restructuring are far more nuanced than sometimes portrayed. It is argues that more company studies across national labor markets and industrial relations institutions will enhance our understanding of the dynamics during times of restructuring.

  1. How moral disagreement may ground principled moral compromise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kappel, Klemens

    2018-01-01

    In an influential article, Simon C. May forcefully argued that, properly understood, there can never be principled reasons for moral compromise (May, 2005). While there may be pragmatic reasons for compromising that involve, for instance, concern for political expediency or for stability, there a......In an influential article, Simon C. May forcefully argued that, properly understood, there can never be principled reasons for moral compromise (May, 2005). While there may be pragmatic reasons for compromising that involve, for instance, concern for political expediency or for stability......, there are properly speaking no principled reasons to compromise. My aim in the article is to show how principled moral compromise in the context of moral disagreements over policy options is possible. I argue that when we disagree, principled reasons favoring compromises or compromising can assume a more significant...... part of what makes a position all things considered best, and in this way disagreement can ground moral compromise....

  2. Dermatoscopy of blue vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrashekar, L

    2009-07-01

    Blue vitiligo is a distinct variant of vitiligo characterized by a blue-grey appearance of the skin, which corresponds histologically with absence of epidermal melanocytes and presence of numerous dermal melanophages. A 23-year-old woman of Indian origin with Fitzpatrick skin type V presented with a 1-month history of normoaesthetic depigmented macules over the right forearm, dorsa of the hands and right areola. The macule over the right forearm had a bluish tinge. A clinical diagnosis of vitiligo vulgaris with blue vitiligo was made. Dermatoscopy of the interface between the blue macule and the hypopigmented macule revealed a linear depigmented macule in the centre with multiple blue dots and absence of epidermal melanin on the side of the blue macule, and reticular pigmentation with a few depigmented macules and scattered blue dots over the side of the hypopigmented macule. Blue vitiligo was described previously in a patient seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus, and believed to represent postinflammatory hyperpigmentation in areas bordering the vitiliginous patches as a result of psoralen ultraviolet A treatment. This case is unusual because of its rarity and the description of the associated dermatoscopical findings.

  3. Blue Ocean Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orem, Donna

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a concept called the "blue ocean thinking strategy," developed by W. Chan Kim and Renée Mauborgne, professors at INSEAD, an international graduate school of business in France. The "blue ocean" thinking strategy considers opportunities to create new markets for services, rather than focusing solely on…

  4. Identifying genetic relatives without compromising privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dan; Furlotte, Nicholas A; Hormozdiari, Farhad; Joo, Jong Wha J; Wadia, Akshay; Ostrovsky, Rafail; Sahai, Amit; Eskin, Eleazar

    2014-04-01

    The development of high-throughput genomic technologies has impacted many areas of genetic research. While many applications of these technologies focus on the discovery of genes involved in disease from population samples, applications of genomic technologies to an individual's genome or personal genomics have recently gained much interest. One such application is the identification of relatives from genetic data. In this application, genetic information from a set of individuals is collected in a database, and each pair of individuals is compared in order to identify genetic relatives. An inherent issue that arises in the identification of relatives is privacy. In this article, we propose a method for identifying genetic relatives without compromising privacy by taking advantage of novel cryptographic techniques customized for secure and private comparison of genetic information. We demonstrate the utility of these techniques by allowing a pair of individuals to discover whether or not they are related without compromising their genetic information or revealing it to a third party. The idea is that individuals only share enough special-purpose cryptographically protected information with each other to identify whether or not they are relatives, but not enough to expose any information about their genomes. We show in HapMap and 1000 Genomes data that our method can recover first- and second-order genetic relationships and, through simulations, show that our method can identify relationships as distant as third cousins while preserving privacy.

  5. Blue ocean strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2004-10-01

    Despite a long-term decline in the circus industry, Cirque du Soleil profitably increased revenue 22-fold over the last ten years by reinventing the circus. Rather than competing within the confines of the existing industry or trying to steal customers from rivals, Cirque developed uncontested market space that made the competition irrelevant. Cirque created what the authors call a blue ocean, a previously unknown market space. In blue oceans, demand is created rather than fought over. There is ample opportunity for growth that is both profitable and rapid. In red oceans--that is, in all the industries already existing--companies compete by grabbing for a greater share of limited demand. As the market space gets more crowded, prospects for profits and growth decline. Products turn into commodities, and increasing competition turns the water bloody. There are two ways to create blue oceans. One is to launch completely new industries, as eBay did with online auctions. But it's much more common for a blue ocean to be created from within a red ocean when a company expands the boundaries of an existing industry. In studying more than 150 blue ocean creations in over 30 industries, the authors observed that the traditional units of strategic analysis--company and industry--are of limited use in explaining how and why blue oceans are created. The most appropriate unit of analysis is the strategic move, the set of managerial actions and decisions involved in making a major market-creating business offering. Creating blue oceans builds brands. So powerful is blue ocean strategy, in fact, that a blue ocean strategic move can create brand equity that lasts for decades.

  6. No-compromise reptation quantum Monte Carlo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuen, W K; Farrar, Thomas J; Rothstein, Stuart M

    2007-01-01

    Since its publication, the reptation quantum Monte Carlo algorithm of Baroni and Moroni (1999 Phys. Rev. Lett. 82 4745) has been applied to several important problems in physics, but its mathematical foundations are not well understood. We show that their algorithm is not of typical Metropolis-Hastings type, and we specify conditions required for the generated Markov chain to be stationary and to converge to the intended distribution. The time-step bias may add up, and in many applications it is only the middle of a reptile that is the most important. Therefore, we propose an alternative, 'no-compromise reptation quantum Monte Carlo' to stabilize the middle of the reptile. (fast track communication)

  7. Morgellons: contested illness, diagnostic compromise and medicalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fair, Brian

    2010-05-01

    The case of Morgellons illustrates how the emergence of a new medically contested illness intersected with and impacted on the diagnostic processes of an existing uncontested psychiatric condition, Delusional Parasitosis (DP). More specifically, the sociopolitical processes at play in the contested illness, Morgellons, dubiously reflect patient empowerment, as well the resilience and power of medical jurisdiction. This research offers insights into the contested illness and medicalisation literatures, and aims to bridge these two approaches towards the relationship between patient empowerment and medical authority, which I do through the notion of doctor-patient compromise. The data for this research come from a comprehensive qualitative analysis of Morgellons discourse through four key sources: the pro-Morgellons website Morgellons.org; the anti-Morgellons website Morgellonswatch.com; the popular media's portrayal of Morgellons; and the DP and Morgellons articles published in peer-reviewed medical journals, as made available on PubMed.

  8. Iran. Nuclear crisis: the continuous compromise?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherief, Hamza

    2016-01-01

    The author comments and discusses the content and implications of the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action which has been adopted in July 2015 by the Republic of Iran and the members of the E3/EU+3 group. According to this text, a flexible normative and institutional framework is defined, according to which negotiation must prevail on the reinstatement of economic sanctions. While significantly lowering objectives related to non proliferation, this plan aims (through various arrangements which are discussed by the author) at maintaining Iran under the threshold of nuclear power. The author also comments various aspects related to the implementation of this Plan of Action, and outlines that they rely on the search for a continuous compromise: negotiations and involvement of international bodies are foreseen before application of sanctions

  9. 6 CFR 13.46 - Compromise or settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compromise or settlement. 13.46 Section 13.46 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 13.46 Compromise or settlement. (a) Parties may Make offers of compromise or settlement at any time...

  10. Blue Ribbon Panel Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    An NCI Cancer Currents blog by the NCI acting director thanking the cancer community for contributing to the Cancer Moonshot Blue Ribbon Panel report, which was presented to the National Cancer Advisory Board on September 7.

  11. Northeast Atlantic blue whiting

    OpenAIRE

    Heino, Mikko

    2010-01-01

    Heino, M. 2010. Northeast Atlantic blue whiting. In Life cycle spatial patterns of small pelagic fish in the Northeast Atlantic, pp. 59-64. Ed by P. Petitgas. ICES Cooperative Research Report 306. ICES, Copenhagen.

  12. New York Blue

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — New York Blue is used cooperatively by the Laboratory and Stony Brook University as part of the New York Center for Computation Sciences. Ranked as the 28th fastest...

  13. Conflicting perspectives compromising discussions on cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Groarke, J

    2010-09-01

    Healthcare professionals, patients and their relatives are expected to discuss resuscitation together. This study aims to identify the differences in the knowledge base and understanding of these parties. Questionnaires examining knowledge and opinion on resuscitation matters were completed during interviews of randomly selected doctors, nurses and the general public. 70% doctors, 24% nurses and 0% of a public group correctly estimated survival to discharge following in-hospital resuscitation attempts. Deficiencies were identified in doctor and nurse knowledge of ethics governing resuscitation decisions. Public opinion often conflicts with ethical guidelines. Public understanding of the nature of cardiopulmonary arrests and resuscitation attempts; and of the implications of a \\'Do Not Attempt Resuscitation (DNAR)\\' order is poor. Television medical dramas are the primary source of resuscitation knowledge. Deficiencies in healthcare professionals\\' knowledge of resuscitation ethics and outcomes may compromise resuscitation decisions. Educational initiatives to address deficiencies are necessary. Parties involved in discussion on resuscitation do not share the same knowledge base reducing the likelihood of meaningful discussion. Public misapprehensions surrounding resuscitation must be identified and corrected during discussion.

  14. Orthodontic management of a periodontally compromised dentition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant K Zaveri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malocclusion superimposed with severe periodontitis may present a great challenge to clinicians while providing orthodontic treatment due the episodic and site-specific nature of the disease with risk of rapid tissue breakdown. However, orthodontic treatment in such situation may contribute significantly to the overall rehabilitation both functionally and esthetically. In this article, a case report outlines a combined periodontic-orthodontic management of compromised dentition. A 37-year-old female patient with significant medical history was treated for Class II Division 1 type of malocclusion associated with spaced upper and lower anterior teeth, deep overbite, and increased overjet, superimposed with chronic generalized periodontitis and bone loss. Treatment was completed using temporary anchorage devices assisted strategically applied force and modified tandem retraction biomechanics amidst management of acute inflammatory episodes during and mucogingival complication after treatment. Affected areas healed very well after post-orthodontic periodontal treatment with minimal pocket depth, and bleeding on probing, and a healthy zone of attached gingiva at the follow up visits. The orthodontic results lead to improvement in patient's facial profile, lip posture, and correction of protrusion which addressed her main concern. One year follow-up shows good orthodontic and periodontic stability. The report highlights the importance of identifying “at risk” individuals and continuous monitoring of disease status during treatment. Despite all precautionary measures, a flare-up during the treatment can be anticipated.

  15. Natural Blue Food Colour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roda-Serrat, Maria Cinta

    In recent years, there has been a growing tendency to avoid the use of artificial colorants and additives in food products, especially after some studies linked their consumption with behavioural changes in children. However, the incorporation of colorants from natural origin remains a challenge...... for food technologists, as these are typically less vivid and less stable than their synthetic alternatives. Regarding blue colorants, phycocyanins from cyanobacteria are currently in the spotlight as promising new natural blue colorants. Phycocyanins are proteins which blue colour results from...... the presence of the chromophore phycocyanobilin (PCB), a covalently attached linear tetrapyrrole. The applications of phycocyanins as food colorants are however limited, as they show poor stability in certain conditions of pH, light and temperature. Cleavage of PCB from the protein followed by careful product...

  16. A Blue Lagoon Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvorsen, Steen

    2007-01-01

    We consider a specific function of two variables whose graph surface resembles a blue lagoon. The function has a saddle point $p$, but when the function is restricted to any given straight line through $p$ it has a {\\em{strict local minimum}} along that line at $p$.......We consider a specific function of two variables whose graph surface resembles a blue lagoon. The function has a saddle point $p$, but when the function is restricted to any given straight line through $p$ it has a {\\em{strict local minimum}} along that line at $p$....

  17. Compromise in cooperative game and the VIKOR method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opricović Serafim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Five approaches in conflict resolution are distinguished, based on cooperativeness and aggressiveness in resolving conflict. Compromise based on cooperativeness is emphasized here as a solution in conflict resolution. Cooperative game theory oriented towards aiding the conflict resolution is considered and the compromise value for TU(transferable utility-game is presented. The method VIKOR could be applied to determine compromise solution of a multicriteria decision making problem with noncommensurable and conflicting criteria. Compromise is considered as an intermediate state between conflicting objectives or criteria reached by mutual concession. The applicability of the cooperative game theory and the VIKOR method for conflict resolution is illustrated.

  18. The "Blue Banana" Revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faludi, A.K.F.

    2015-01-01

    This essay is about the “Blue Banana”. Banana is the name given subsequently by others to a Dorsale européenne (European backbone) identified empirically by Roger Brunet. In a background study to the Communication of the European Commission ‘Europe 2000’, Klaus Kunzmann and Michael Wegener put

  19. 41 CFR 105-55.019 - Compromise of claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and a recommendation for the acceptance of the compromise offer. Justice Department approval is not... exercise the authorities in this section. (b) Unless otherwise provided by law, when the principal balance... Department of Justice. GSA will evaluate the compromise offer, using the factors set forth in § 105-55.020...

  20. 22 CFR 213.25 - Standards for compromise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... proceedings. In evaluating the acceptability of the offer, the CFO may consider, among other factors, the... applicable exemptions available to the debtor under State and Federal law in determining the Government's ability to enforce collection. (b) USAID may compromise a claim, or recommend acceptance of a compromise...

  1. 20 CFR 255.18 - Compromise of overpayments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Compromise of overpayments. 255.18 Section 255.18 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT... standards which the Board applies in exercising its authority under 31 U.S.C. 3711 to compromise an...

  2. 32 CFR 310.50 - Lost, stolen, or compromised information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Official for Privacy within 24 hours of discovering that a breach of personally identifiable information... Privacy Office of the breach within 48 hours upon being notified that a loss, theft, or compromise has... (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DOD PRIVACY PROGRAM Privacy Act Violations § 310.50 Lost, stolen, or compromised...

  3. 16 CFR 1.96 - Compromise of penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compromise of penalty. 1.96 Section 1.96 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE GENERAL... may compromise any penalty or proposed penalty at any time, with leave of court when necessary, taking...

  4. THE TRANSATLANTIC BLUE DIPLOMACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana GUTU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The international diplomatic environment has reached to an unprecedented development, involving one of the newly specialized diplomatic types, namely the economic diplomacy. At the core of the fast movements in the diplomatic spheres across the Globe are the international agreements like the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP that determined diplomacy to dissolve into new subtypes, evolving from ground to the ocean and implementing new ways of achieving economic and climate sustainability. One of the newly created diplomatic spheres, is the blue ocean diplomacy that acts mainly in accordance with the rules and regulations that are being applied to the transatlantic economy. Even though TTIP encourages the increase of trade flows across the Atlantic, it will also ease the foreign investment procedures that, under the approach of keeping a sustainable environment, will represent one of the most important initiatives in implementing the blue economy concept within the framework of the transatlantic diplomacy.

  5. Compromised data from social media to big data

    CERN Document Server

    Redden, Joanna; Langlois, Ganaele

    2015-01-01

    There has been a data rush in the past decade brought about by online communication and, in particular, social media (Facebook, Twitter, Youtube, among others), which promises a new age of digital enlightenment. But social data is compromised: it is being seized by specific economic interests, it leads to a fundamental shift in the relationship between research and the public good, and it fosters new forms of control and surveillance. Compromised Data: From Social Media to Big Data explores how we perform critical research within a compromised social data framework. The expert, international l

  6. The Blue Marble

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This spectacular Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 'blue marble' image is based on the most detailed collection of true-color imagery of the entire Earth to date. Using a collection of satellite-based observations, scientists and visualizers stitched together months of observations of the land surface, oceans, sea ice, and clouds into a seamless, true-color mosaic of every square kilometer (.386 square mile) of our planet. Most of the information contained in this image came from MODIS, illustrating MODIS' outstanding capacity to act as an integrated tool for observing a variety of terrestrial, oceanic, and atmospheric features of the Earth. The land and coastal ocean portions of this image is based on surface observations collected from June through September 2001 and combined, or composited, every eight days to compensate for clouds that might block the satellite's view on any single day. Global ocean color (or chlorophyll) data was used to simulate the ocean surface. MODIS doesn't measure 3-D features of the Earth, so the surface observations were draped over topographic data provided by the U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center. MODIS observations of polar sea ice were combined with observations of Antarctica made by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's AVHRR sensor-the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer. The cloud image is a composite of two days of MODIS imagery collected in visible light wavelengths and a third day of thermal infra-red imagery over the poles. A large collection of imagery based on the blue marble in a variety of sizes and formats, including animations and the full (1 km) resolution imagery, is available at the Blue Marble page. Image by Reto Stockli, Render by Robert Simmon. Based on data from the MODIS Science Team

  7. The role of postoperative hematoma on free flap compromise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Faisal I; Gerecci, Deniz; Gonzalez, Javier D; Peck, Jessica J; Wax, Mark K

    2015-08-01

    Hematomas may develop in the postoperative setting after free tissue transfer. When hematomas occur, they can exert pressure on surrounding tissues. Their effect on the vascular pedicle of a free flap is unknown. We describe our incidence of hematoma in free flaps and outcomes when the flap is compromised. Retrospective chart review of 1,883 free flaps performed between July 1998 and June 2014 at a tertiary referral center. Patients with free flap compromise due to hematoma were identified. Etiology, demographic data, and outcomes were evaluated. Eighty-eight (4.7%) patients developed hematomas. Twenty (22.7%) of those had flap compromise. Twelve compromises (60%) showed evidence of pedicle thrombosis. The salvage rate was 75% versus 54% in 79 flaps with compromise from other causes (P = .12). Mean time to detection of the hematoma was 35.3 hours in salvaged flaps compared to 91.6 hours in unsalvageable flaps (P = .057). Time to operating room (OR) from detection was 2.8 hours in salvageable flaps compared to 12.4 hours in nonsalvageable flaps (P = .053). The salvage rate for flaps that returned to the OR in hematomas developed rarely. When they did, 23% went on to develop flap compromise. Prompt recognition and re-exploration allowed for a high salvage rate. Vessel thrombosis predicted inability to salvage the flap. 4 © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  8. Kyphoplasty for osteoporotic fractures with spinal canal compromise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan Minfeng; Yang Huilin; Zou Jun; Wang Genlin; Mei Xin; Zhou Feng; Chen Liang; Jiang Weimin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the feasibility and clinical outcome of kyphoplasty in the treatment of osteoporotic fractures with canal compromise. Methods: A total of 16 patients with osteoporotic fractures with canal compromise without neurological deficit were attempted to be treated by kyphoplasty. During kyphoplasty, modified techniques including staged bone cement injection and dynamic fluoroscopic monitoring were used. Pain was measured using the self-reporting Visual Analogue pain Scale (VAS) preoperatively, postoperatively and in the final follow-up. Disability was measured using the Oswestry Disability questionnaire (ODI) preoperatively, postoperatively and in the final follow-up. The height of the compromised vertebral body, the kyphotic angle and the spinal canal compromise were measured preoperatively, postoperatively and in the final follow-up. Results: Operations were completed smoothly, with the exception of one patient with less cement leakage but without clinical symptom occurred. Relief of pain was achieved after kyphoplasty. The mean VAS score of these patients decreased from 8.1 ± 1.2 pre-operatively to 2.7 ± 0.6 post-operatively (P 0.05). In the final follow-up, the spinal canal compromise was (14.4 ± 3.1)%. Conclusion: Kyphoplasty is a relatively safe and effective method for the treatment of osteoporotic fractures with canal compromise without neurological deficit. (authors)

  9. Blue ocean leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2014-05-01

    Ten years ago, two INSEAD professors broke ground by introducing "blue ocean strategy," a new model for discovering uncontested markets that are ripe for growth. In this article, they apply their concepts and tools to what is perhaps the greatest challenge of leadership: closing the gulf between the potential and the realized talent and energy of employees. Research indicates that this gulf is vast: According to Gallup, 70% of workers are disengaged from their jobs. If companies could find a way to convert them into engaged employees, the results could be transformative. The trouble is, managers lack a clear understanding of what changes they could make to bring out the best in everyone. Here, Kim and Mauborgne offer a solution to that problem: a systematic approach to uncovering, at each level of the organization, which leadership acts and activities will inspire employees to give their all, and a process for getting managers throughout the company to start doing them. Blue ocean leadership works because the managers' "customers"-that is, the people managers oversee and report to-are involved in identifying what's effective and what isn't. Moreover, the approach doesn't require leaders to alter who they are, just to undertake a different set of tasks. And that kind of change is much easier to implement and track than changes to values and mind-sets.

  10. Instant BlueStacks

    CERN Document Server

    Judge, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A fast-paced, example-based approach guide for learning BlueStacks.This book is for anyone with a Mac or PC who wants to run Android apps on their computer. Whether you want to play games that are freely available for Android but not your computer, or you want to try apps before you install them on a physical device or use it as a development tool, this book will show you how. No previous experience is needed as this is written in plain English

  11. Alchemy or Science? Compromising Archaeology in the Deep Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jonathan

    2007-06-01

    In the torrid debate between archaeology and treasure hunting, compromise is often suggested as the pragmatic solution, especially for archaeology carried out either in deep water or beyond the constraints that commonly regulate such activities in territorial seas. Both the wisdom and the need for such compromise have even been advocated by some archaeologists, particularly in forums such as the internet and conferences. This paper argues that such a compromise is impossible, not in order to fuel confrontation but simply because of the nature of any academic discipline. We can define what archaeology is in terms of its aims, theories, methods and ethics, so combining it with an activity founded on opposing principles must transform it into something else. The way forward for archaeology in the deep sea does not lie in a contradictory realignment of archaeology’s goals but in collaborative research designed to mesh with emerging national and regional research and management plans.

  12. Compromise decision support problems for hierarchical design involving uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadde, S.; Allen, J. K.; Mistree, F.

    1994-08-01

    In this paper an extension to the traditional compromise Decision Support Problem (DSP) formulation is presented. Bayesian statistics is used in the formulation to model uncertainties associated with the information being used. In an earlier paper a compromise DSP that accounts for uncertainty using fuzzy set theory was introduced. The Bayesian Decision Support Problem is described in this paper. The method for hierarchical design is demonstrated by using this formulation to design a portal frame. The results are discussed and comparisons are made with those obtained using the fuzzy DSP. Finally, the efficacy of incorporating Bayesian statistics into the traditional compromise DSP formulation is discussed and some pending research issues are described. Our emphasis in this paper is on the method rather than the results per se.

  13. Physically Compromised and Physically Talented Children in Northeastern Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Planinšec Jurij

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our research was to determine the share of physically compromised and physically talented children in northeastern Slovenia. The sample comprised 621 children aged nine to eleven years, among which there were 316 girls (M=10; SD=0.8 and 305 boys (M=10; SD=0.81. In order to assess their motor skills, seven different tests were used, mostly from Eurofit test battery, which covered explosive power, repetitive power balance, eye–hand coordination, speed of simple movements, whole body coordination, and endurance. The assessment was made for each physical fitness test separately. The cut-off points for determination of physically compromised and physically talented children were set at -1SD and +1SD, respectively. The results of all physical fitness tests showed that the share of physically compromised children exceeded ten percent for both genders. The largest number of boys and girls were physically compromised with regard to endurance and balance, respectively. On the other hand, boys proved to be most physically talented with regard to endurance, and girls with regard to explosive power. Gender differences were most obvious with regard to general endurance, as 21 per cent of the boys were physically compromised as opposed to 13 per cent of the girls. As for physical talent, we observed less gender-related differences. The results indicate increasing differences in physical fitness among children from northeastern Slovenia. The implementation of curricular and extracurricular sports activities should aim at reducing the number of physically compromised children. On the other hand, it would make sense to encourage physically talented children to get involved in organized forms of exercise.

  14. Roles of Melatonin in Fetal Programming in Compromised Pregnancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Chieh; Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Tiao, Miao-Meng; Tain, You-Lin; Huang, Li-Tung

    2013-01-01

    Compromised pregnancies such as those associated with gestational diabetes mellitus, intrauterine growth retardation, preeclampsia, maternal undernutrition, and maternal stress may negatively affect fetal development. Such pregnancies may induce oxidative stress to the fetus and alter fetal development through the epigenetic process that may affect development at a later stage. Melatonin is an oxidant scavenger that reverses oxidative stress during the prenatal period. Moreover, the role of melatonin in epigenetic modifications in the field of developmental programming has been studied extensively. Here, we describe the physiological function of melatonin in pregnancy and discuss the roles of melatonin in fetal programming in compromised pregnancies, focusing on its involvement in redox and epigenetic mechanisms. PMID:23466884

  15. Fuzzy compromise: An effective way to solve hierarchical design problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J. K.; Krishnamachari, R. S.; Masetta, J.; Pearce, D.; Rigby, D.; Mistree, F.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method for modeling design problems using a compromise decision support problem (DSP) incorporating the principles embodied in fuzzy set theory. Specifically, the fuzzy compromise decision support problem is used to study hierarchical design problems. This approach has the advantage that although the system modeled has an element of uncertainty associated with it, the solution obtained is crisp and precise. The efficacy of incorporating fuzzy sets into the solution process is discussed in the context of results obtained for a portal frame.

  16. MUTUAL CONCESSIONS - SPECIFIC ELEMENT OF THE COMPROMISE/TRANSACTION CONTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta-Bianca Spîrchez

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Given the usefulness and practical importance of the compromise contract conclusion and of the amicably dispute resolution, within the business world, we aim to analyze, in what follows, the concrete means by which these kind of settlement are achieved. Two questions become legitimate in the context of concerns about mutual concessions which the parties make in a compromise contract. These questions are the following: “What are the mutual concessions? Do mutual concessions mean equivalent concessions?” and “How mutual concessions are required to complete a valid settlement? Is the requirement of mutual concessions grounded?”

  17. Tax Administration: IRS Should Evaluate the Changes to Its Offer in Compromise Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    ...) Offer in Compromise (OIC) Program. An offer in compromise is an agreement between a taxpayer and the IRS to settle or compromise the taxpayer's tax liability for less than the full amount owed...

  18. 47 CFR 1.1915 - Exploration of compromise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... justification of the offer and addressing the bases for compromise at 31 CFR 902.2. Debtors will provide full.... Unless otherwise provided by law, when the principal balance of a debt, exclusive of interest, penalties... evaluate an offer, using the factors set forth in 31 CFR 902.2 and, as appropriate, refer the offer with...

  19. Pulmonary, neurological and hepatic compromise in paragonimiasis: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uriza Carrasco, Alfonso Jose; Cuervo Valencia, Catalina; Valencia M, Andres Mauricio; Echeverri Toro, Lina Maria

    2011-01-01

    Paragonimiasis is a parasitic infectious disease, frequently with pulmonary abnormalities, although erratic parasite migration can compromise other organs. this disease is endemic in areas of southeast Asia, but it has been described in other tropical and subtropical regions. In this article, we report a case of indigenous patient with pulmonary abnormalities by Paragonimiasis, neurologic and hepatic abnormalities too.

  20. Adolescent Health-Compromising Behaviors: Motivating School Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Liza; Scherer, David G.; Lee, William

    2000-01-01

    Investigated middle and high school counselors' perceptions of adolescent health-compromising behaviors and motivations to intervene. Data from a survey based on protection motivation theory showed differences in counselors' perceptions of the severity of risk-taking behaviors. Perceptions were highly correlated with intentions to seek out…

  1. Secretion of salivary statherin is compromised in uncontrolled diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Izumi

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions and general significance: The results show that synthesis and secretion of statherin is reduced in diabetics and this reduction is salivary gland specific. As compromised salivary statherin secretion leads to increased oral health risk, this study indicates that routine oral health assessment of these patients is warranted.

  2. Whatever It Takes: Health Compromising Behaviors in Female Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Jennifer J.; Krane, Vikki

    2005-01-01

    The power and performance model of sport stresses a sport ethic of doing "whatever it takes" to win (Coakley, 2004). Uncritical acceptance of this model may lead to various health-compromising behaviors. Employing achievement goal theory, we examine why female athletes may adopt the power and performance approach. An ego motivational climate and a…

  3. 14 CFR 1261.414 - Compromise of claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... potential income; (3) Inheritance prospects; (4) The possibility that assets have been concealed or... compromised. The practical benefits of vigorous collection of a small claim may include a demonstration to... requiring a waiver of the tax-loss-carry-back rights of the debtor. (i) Joint and several liability. When...

  4. The medically compromised patient: Are dental implants a feasible option?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissink, A; Spijkervet, Fkl; Raghoebar, G M

    2018-03-01

    In healthy subjects, dental implants have evolved to be a common therapy to solve problems related to stability and retention of dentures as well as to replace failing teeth. Although dental implants are applied in medically compromised patients, it is often not well known whether this therapy is also feasible in these patients, whether the risk of implant failure and developing peri-implantitis is increased, and what specific preventive measures, if any, have to be taken when applying dental implants in these patients. Generally speaking, as was the conclusion by the leading review of Diz, Scully, and Sanz on placement of dental implants in medically compromised patients (J Dent, 41, 2013, 195), in a few disorders implant survival may be lower, and the risk of a compromised peri-implant health and its related complications be greater, but the degree of systemic disease control outweighs the nature of the disorder rather than the risk accompanying dental implant treatment. So, as dental implant treatment is accompanied by significant functional benefits and improved oral health-related quality of life, dental implant therapy is a feasible treatment in almost any medically compromised patient when the required preventive measures are taken and follow-up care is at a high level. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 45 CFR 1177.12 - Compromise, suspension and termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compromise, suspension and termination. 1177.12 Section 1177.12 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON...) debts arising from GAO audit exceptions. ...

  6. The compromised gut in the neonate : Diagnostic and clinical aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schurink, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating gastrointestinal disease predominantly occurring in preterm infants, causing significant patient morbidity and mortality. It is characterized by loss of bowel wall integrity due to ischemia (lack of oxygen due to a compromised blood flow) and

  7. Integer goal programming approach for finding a compromise ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In second model the cost and time spent on repairing the components are considered as two different objectives. Selective maintenance operation is used to select the repairable components and a multi-objective goal programming algorithm is proposed to obtain compromise selection of repairable components for the two ...

  8. 31 CFR 902.2 - Bases for compromise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bases for compromise. 902.2 Section 902.2 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FEDERAL CLAIMS... necessary to further an enforcement principle, such as the Government's willingness to pursue aggressively...

  9. Vatican is lone opponent of world conference's compromises on abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-07

    Three years in the making, the draft program of action of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development sets nonbinding policy guidelines to contain the world's population at 7.27 billion in 2015. Although the Vatican was pleased to see Pakistan put forward a compromise formula developed to appease Catholic and Muslim objectors of abortion, the Church was unprepared to accept the compromise immediately and requested further discussion. The Vatican's rejection drew a strong chorus of vocal disapproval from other conference delegates. Even Iran accepted the draft as a "perfect text," while Sweden grudgingly accepted it as a "rock-bottom compromise." With no Catholic countries objecting to the compromise, the Vatican stood alone in its refusal to compromise with the rest of the world's leaders and peoples. Germany, speaking for the European Union, warned that enough concessions had already been made. The rationale for Vatican opposition was unclear since the section explicitly rejects abortion as a means of family planning and urges countries to minimize both the incidence of unsafe abortion and abortion overall by improving family planning. Prevention of unwanted pregnancies must be given highest priority and women should have ready access to compassionate counselling, with abortion never promoted as a means of family planning. Moreover, there is no longer a reference to sexual health education, a plea to governments to review their laws and policies on abortion, and a call to consider women's health rather than relying upon criminal codes and punitive measures. Participants said the Vatican objected to a phrase stating that abortions, where legal, should be safe, while the Church representative argued that any suggestion that abortion is safe contradicts church doctrine on the sanctity of life.

  10. Photometry of faint blue stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilkenny, D.; Hill, P.W.; Brown, A.

    1977-01-01

    Photometry on the uvby system is given for 61 faint blue stars. The stars are classified by means of the Stromgren indices, using criteria described in a previous paper (Kilkenny and Hill (1975)). (author)

  11. Ecology of blue straggler stars

    CERN Document Server

    Carraro, Giovanni; Beccari, Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    The existence of blue straggler stars, which appear younger, hotter, and more massive than their siblings, is at odds with a simple picture of stellar evolution. Such stars should have exhausted their nuclear fuel and evolved long ago to become cooling white dwarfs. They are found to exist in globular clusters, open clusters, dwarf spheroidal galaxies of the Local Group, OB associations and as field stars. This book summarises the many advances in observational and theoretical work dedicated to blue straggler stars. Carefully edited extended contributions by well-known experts in the field cover all the relevant aspects of blue straggler stars research: Observations of blue straggler stars in their various environments; Binary stars and formation channels; Dynamics of globular clusters; Interpretation of observational data and comparison with models. The book also offers an introductory chapter on stellar evolution written by the editors of the book.

  12. China Mobile: Expanding "Blue Ocean"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Driving force is crucial for realizing high-speed growth. The strong driving force from "Blue Ocean Strategy" is an important advantage for China Mobile to realize harmonious and leap-forward development.

  13. Securing Single Points of Compromise (SPoC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belangia, David Warren [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-06-25

    Securing the Single Points of Compromise that provide central services to the institution’s environment is paramount to success when trying to protect the business. (Fisk, 2014) Time Based Security mandates protection (erecting and ensuring effective controls) that last longer than the time to detect and react to a compromise. When enterprise protections fail, providing additional layered controls for these central services provides more time to detect and react. While guidance is readily available for securing the individual critical asset, protecting these assets as a group is not often discussed. Using best business practices to protect these resources as individual assets while leveraging holistic defenses for the group increases the opportunity to maximize protection time, allowing detection and reaction time for the SPoCs that is commensurate with the inherent risk of these centralized services.

  14. Roles of Melatonin in Fetal Programming in Compromised Pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chieh Chen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Compromised pregnancies such as those associated with gestational diabetes mellitus, intrauterine growth retardation, preeclampsia, maternal undernutrition, and maternal stress may negatively affect fetal development. Such pregnancies may induce oxidative stress to the fetus and alter fetal development through the epigenetic process that may affect development at a later stage. Melatonin is an oxidant scavenger that reverses oxidative stress during the prenatal period. Moreover, the role of melatonin in epigenetic modifications in the field of developmental programming has been studied extensively. Here, we describe the physiological function of melatonin in pregnancy and discuss the roles of melatonin in fetal programming in compromised pregnancies, focusing on its involvement in redox and epigenetic mechanisms.

  15. Creating clones, kids & chimera: liberal democratic compromise at the crossroads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Nathan A

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this article is to find middle ground between the supporters and opponents of biotechnology by perpetuating the existing legal compromise pertaining to the complete range of health and welfare doctrines relevant to the biotechnological industry. The author aspires neither to add to nor detract from this liberal democratic consensus, but to preserve its constitutive balance between positivism and natural law and over-regulation and under-regulation in the hopes of stabilizing new political fault lines developing around the few biotechnological innovations already grabbing headlines. The most feasible solution is to extend the existing liberal democratic compromise with respect to equal protection, reproductive rights, the First Amendment, human subject experimentation, patent law, and parental rights. This includes banning or monopolizing certain biotechnologies and extending substantive special respect to the ex vivo living human embryo. Biotechnology must not be left to regulate itself.

  16. A Compromise Programming Model for Highway Maintenance Resources Allocation Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Xiong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper formulates a bilevel compromise programming model for allocating resources between pavement and bridge deck maintenances. The first level of the model aims to solve the resource allocation problems for pavement management and bridge deck maintenance, without considering resource sharing between them. At the second level, the model uses the results from the first step as an input and generates the final solution to the resource-sharing problem. To solve the model, the paper applies genetic algorithms to search for the optimal solution. We use a combination of two digits to represent different maintenance types. Results of numerical examples show that the conditions of both pavements and bridge decks are improved significantly by applying compromise programming, rather than conventional methods. Resources are also utilized more efficiently when the proposed method is applied.

  17. Would Enforcing Competition Law Compromise Industry Policy Objectives?

    OpenAIRE

    Evenett, Simon J.

    2005-01-01

    One recurring concern in the debate over the efficacy of enacting competition laws in developing countries is that its enforcement may compromise important industrial policy goals. This concern has been raised in regional fora and in multilateral organizations such as the World Trade Organization, where officials have considered the pros and cons of including competition provisions in international trade agreements. However, the concern is broader and often national debates over the merits of...

  18. [Acute blue urticaria following subcutaneous injection of patent blue dye].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamelin, A; Vial-Dupuy, A; Lebrun-Vignes, B; Francès, C; Soria, A; Barete, S

    2015-11-01

    Patent blue (PB) is a lymphatic vessel dye commonly used in France for sentinel lymph node detection in breast cancer, and less frequently in melanoma, and which may induce hypersensitivity reactions. We report a case of acute blue urticaria occurring within minutes of PB injection. Ten minutes after PB injection for sentinel lymph node detection during breast cancer surgery, a 49-year-old woman developed generalised acute blue urticaria and eyelid angioedema without bronchospasm or haemodynamic disturbance, but requiring discontinuation of surgery. Skin testing using PB and the anaesthetics given were run 6 weeks after the episode and confirmed PB allergy. PB was formally contra-indicated. Immediate hypersensitivity reactions to PB have been reported for between 0.24 and 2.2% of procedures. Such reactions are on occasion severe, chiefly involving anaphylactic shock. Two mechanisms are probably associated: non-specific histamine release and/or an IgE-mediated mechanism. Skin tests are helpful in confirming the diagnosis of PB allergy. Blue acute urticaria is one of the clinical manifestations of immediate hypersensitivity reactions to patent blue dye. Skin tests must be performed 6 weeks after the reaction in order to confirm the diagnosis and formally contra-indicate this substance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Compromised Agency: The Case of BabyLegs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Liboiron

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The concept of agency is ubiquitous in STS, particularly regarding cases of alternative ways of knowing and doing science such as civic, citizen, and feminist sciences, among others. Yet the focus on agency often glosses over the constraints placed on agents, particularly within asymmetrical power relations. This article follows the case of BabyLegs, a do-it-yourself monitoring tool for marine microplastic pollution, and the attempt to keep the technology open source within an intellectual property (IP system set up to privatize it. The tactics used to design BabyLegs as a feminine, silly, doll-tool to discredit the device in the eyes of an IP system that valued traditional gender roles lead to the eventual success of keeping the device open source. Yet, those same tactics also reinforced and reproduced the structures of power and essentialism they were designed to resist. I characterize this technological ambivalence as compromise, and argue that all agency exercised within asymmetrical power relations is compromised. This is not to say resistance is futile, but that agency is never pure, and this recognition lets us be more intentional in how we might compromise as practitioners of diverse scientific knowledges.

  20. Crystalline liquids: the blue phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, David C.; Mermin, N. David

    1989-04-01

    The blue phases of cholesteric liquid crystals are liquids that exhibit orientational order characterized by crystallographic space-group symmetries. We present here a pedagogical introduction to the current understanding of the equilibrium structure of these phases accompanied by a general overview of major experimental results. Using the Ginzburg-Landau free energy appropriate to the system, we first discuss in detail the character and stability of the usual helical phase of cholesterics, showing that for certain parameter ranges the helical phase is unstable to the appearance of one or more blue phases. The two principal models for the blue phases are two limiting cases of the Ginzburg-Landau theory. We explore each limit and conclude with some general considerations of defects in both models and an exact minimization of the free energy in a curved three-dimensional space.

  1. Origin of faint blue stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tutukov, A.; Iungelson, L.

    1987-01-01

    The origin of field faint blue stars that are placed in the HR diagram to the left of the main sequence is discussed. These include degenerate dwarfs and O and B subdwarfs. Degenerate dwarfs belong to two main populations with helium and carbon-oxygen cores. The majority of the hot subdwarfs most possibly are helium nondegenerate stars that are produced by mass exchange close binaries of moderate mass cores (3-15 solar masses). The theoretical estimates of the numbers of faint blue stars of different types brighter than certain stellar magnitudes agree with star counts based on the Palomar Green Survey. 28 references

  2. Diagnosis of hemodynamic compromise in patients with chronic cerebral ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, Satoshi; Sakuragi, Mitsugi; Motomiya, Mineo; Nakagawa, Tango; Mitsumori, Kenji; Tsuru, Mitsuo; Takigawa, Shugo; Kamiyama, Hiroyasu; Abe, Hiroshi.

    1990-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of tests for selecting patients with hemodynamic compromise, measurement of cerebral blood volume (CBV) with 99m Tc-RBC single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was performed in thirteen patients with occlusive cerebrovascular disease, and was compared with results obtained by 133 Xe SPECT and acetazolamide (Diamox) test. All patients in our study suffered TIA, RIND, or minor completed stroke. Cerebral angiography demonstrated severe stenosis or occlusion in the ipsilateral internal carotid artery or middle cerebral artery, although plain CT scan or MRI revealed no or, if any, only localized infarcted lesions. Regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) was measured with 99m Tc-RBC SPECT and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured with 133 Xe SPECT before and after intravenous injection of 10 - 12 mg/kg acetazolamide (Diamox). Our results suggest that the ipsilateral rCBV/rCBF (mean transit time) is a more sensitive index of the cerebral perfusion reserve than the use of only rCBV or rCBF of the ipsilateral hemisphere. Also, the ipsilateral rCBV/rCBF is significantly correlated (r= -0.72) with the Diamox reactivity of rCBF, which is considered to represent the cerebral vasodilatory capacity in patients with chronic cerebral ischemia. Postoperative SPECT study revealed remarkable improvement of ipsilateral rCBV/rCBF and Diamox reactivity in four patients who underwent EC/IC bypass surgery to improve the hemodynamic compromise. In conclusion, our results suggest that the measurement of rCBV/rCBF with 133 Xe SPECT and 99m Tc-RBC SPECT is useful for detecting the hemodynamic compromise in patients with occlusive cerebrovascular disease. (author)

  3. Osseous pseudo-myelomatose compromise, in leukemia chronic lymphoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Betancur, Octavio; Lopez de Goenaga, Maria Ines

    2000-01-01

    It was described a case of chronic lymphocytic leukemia in a 75 year old man, with pseudomyelomatosis osteolytic lesions in the skull, excluding other potential causes of osteolytic lesions in the clinical context of malignant lymphoproliferative neoplasm. The real frequency of osseous compromise in chronic lymphocytic leukemia is 10%. Lesions are defined as generalized osteoporosis and osteolysis with lacunar aspect, similar to myeloma lesions. Because histopathology in lymphoproliferative neoplasms may be similar, it might be difficult to diagnose chronic lymphocytic leukemia certainly, if the clinical manifestations are not considered. Differential diagnosis with other lymphoproliferative neoplasm is based basically in absolute lymphocytosis greater than 10 X 109/L, with lymphocytes with mature appearance

  4. The Swiss approach to finding compromises in nuclear waste governance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuppler, Sophie; Grunwald, Armin [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany). Inst. for Technology Assessment and Systems Analysis

    2015-07-01

    In Switzerland, a new site selection procedure is being implemented since 2008. This procedure, which is laid down in a 'sectoral plan', shows strong elements of public participation and transparency and can be considered a step away from the classical 'decide-announce-defend' approach in decision-making. This procedure tends towards a more governance-oriented approach based on ideas of 'civility' of decision-making. Despite this renewal, the Swiss case clearly shows that any kind of selection process has to be considered as a 'working compromise', which needs to be adapted when new challenges emerge.

  5. The Swiss approach to finding compromises in nuclear waste governance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuppler, Sophie; Grunwald, Armin

    2015-01-01

    In Switzerland, a new site selection procedure is being implemented since 2008. This procedure, which is laid down in a 'sectoral plan', shows strong elements of public participation and transparency and can be considered a step away from the classical 'decide-announce-defend' approach in decision-making. This procedure tends towards a more governance-oriented approach based on ideas of 'civility' of decision-making. Despite this renewal, the Swiss case clearly shows that any kind of selection process has to be considered as a 'working compromise', which needs to be adapted when new challenges emerge.

  6. Blue Ocean vs. Five Forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.E. Burke (Andrew); A.J. van Stel (André); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe article reports on the authors' research in the Netherlands which focused on a profit model in Dutch retail stores and a so-called blue-ocean approach which requires a new market that attracts consumers and increases profits. Topics include the competitive strategy approach to

  7. A novel lung slice system with compromised antioxidant defenses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardwick, S.J.; Adam, A.; Cohen, G.M. (Univ. of London (England)); Smith, L.L. (Imperial Chemical Industries PLC, Cheshire (England))

    1990-04-01

    In order to facilitate the study of oxidative stress in lung tissue, rat lung slices with impaired antioxidant defenses were prepared and used. Incubation of lung slices with the antineoplastic agent 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU) (100 {mu}M) in an amino acid-rich medium for 45 min produced a near-maximal (approximately 85%), irreversible inhibition of glutathione reductase, accompanied by only a modest (approximately 15%) decrease in pulmonary nonprotein sulfhydryls (NPSH) and no alteration in intracellular ATP, NADP{sup +}, and NADPH levels. The amounts of NADP(H), ATP, and NPSH were stable over a 4-hr incubation period following the removal from BCNU. The viability of the system was further evaluated by measuring the rate of evolution of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} from D-({sup 14}C(U))-glucose. The rates of evolution were almost identical in the compromised system when compared with control slices over a 4-hr time period. By using slices with compromised oxidative defenses, preliminary results have been obtained with paraquat, nitrofurantoin, and 2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone.

  8. Anthropogenic noise compromises antipredator behaviour in European eels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Stephen D; Purser, Julia; Radford, Andrew N

    2015-02-01

    Increases in noise-generating human activities since the Industrial Revolution have changed the acoustic landscape of many terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Anthropogenic noise is now recognized as a major pollutant of international concern, and recent studies have demonstrated impacts on, for instance, hearing thresholds, communication, movement and foraging in a range of species. However, consequences for survival and reproductive success are difficult to ascertain. Using a series of laboratory-based experiments and an open-water test with the same methodology, we show that acoustic disturbance can compromise antipredator behaviour--which directly affects survival likelihood--and explore potential underlying mechanisms. Juvenile European eels (Anguilla anguilla) exposed to additional noise (playback of recordings of ships passing through harbours), rather than control conditions (playback of recordings from the same harbours without ships), performed less well in two simulated predation paradigms. Eels were 50% less likely and 25% slower to startle to an 'ambush predator' and were caught more than twice as quickly by a 'pursuit predator'. Furthermore, eels experiencing additional noise had diminished spatial performance and elevated ventilation and metabolic rates (indicators of stress) compared with control individuals. Our results suggest that acoustic disturbance could have important physiological and behavioural impacts on animals, compromising life-or-death responses. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. A novel lung slice system with compromised antioxidant defenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardwick, S.J.; Adam, A.; Cohen, G.M.; Smith, L.L.

    1990-01-01

    In order to facilitate the study of oxidative stress in lung tissue, rat lung slices with impaired antioxidant defenses were prepared and used. Incubation of lung slices with the antineoplastic agent 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU) (100 μM) in an amino acid-rich medium for 45 min produced a near-maximal (approximately 85%), irreversible inhibition of glutathione reductase, accompanied by only a modest (approximately 15%) decrease in pulmonary nonprotein sulfhydryls (NPSH) and no alteration in intracellular ATP, NADP + , and NADPH levels. The amounts of NADP(H), ATP, and NPSH were stable over a 4-hr incubation period following the removal from BCNU. The viability of the system was further evaluated by measuring the rate of evolution of 14 CO 2 from D-[ 14 C(U)]-glucose. The rates of evolution were almost identical in the compromised system when compared with control slices over a 4-hr time period. By using slices with compromised oxidative defenses, preliminary results have been obtained with paraquat, nitrofurantoin, and 2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone

  10. Differential diagnosis of the signal-compromised lunate in MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, R.; Christopoulos, G.; Coblenz, G.; Froehner, S.; Brunner, H.; Kalb, K.; Krimmer, H.; Lanz, U.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To define both the underlying pathology and diagnostic criteria in lunates presenting with conspicuous signal pattern in MRI. Materials and Methods: The retrospective evaluation of 2940 MRI examinations revealed 203 patients with signal alterations of the lunate. All MRI examinations were performed on 1.5-Tesla platforms using dedicated surface coils and an intravenous contrast agent. To establish a definitive diagnosis, a total of 252 MRI examinations (49 follow-ups), 22 CT examinations and 4 arthroscopic studies were obtained in addition to the obligatory conventional radiographs. Results: Incorporating all clinical data, radiographs and MRI examinations succeeded in assigning a diagnosis in 136 signal-compromised lunates (67.0%), whereas additional diagnostic procedures or follow-up examinations were required for the definitive diagnosis in 57 cases (33.0%). The most frequent entities were 51 cases of Kienboeck's disease (25.1%), 47 cases of ulnolunate-(triquetral) impaction syndromes (23.2%) and 44 cases of intra-osseous ganglion cysts (21.7%). Other pathologies included 23 degenerative, 19 traumatic and 10 inflammatory changes as well as 9 congenital conditions. For MRI assessment of the altered lunate, the most important parameters were location and morphology as well as involvement of the articular and osseous structures of the carpus. Conclusion: The lunate may be affected by different pathological states of the wrist. In total, only one quarter of the signal-compromised lunate represented Kienboeck's disease. (orig.)

  11. Parental care compromises feeding in the pumpkinseed ( Lepomis gibbosus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zięba, G.; Dukowska, M.; Przybylski, M.; Fox, M. G.; Smith, C.

    2018-04-01

    Providing parental care is potentially costly. Costs can arise through elevated energy expenditure or from an increased risk of mortality. A cost of parental care can also occur because a parent is compromised in their ability to forage. We used pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus, a fish with an alternative male mating strategy, to test whether parental males differed in their feeding in comparison with females and cuckolder males. To address this question, we examined the stomach contents of female, cuckolder male, and parental male pumpkinseed during the breeding season over an entire diel cycle. We showed that parental males had a lower total weight of food in their stomachs in comparison with females, while cuckolder males did not. Parental males also had a lower weight and number of chironomids in their stomachs. The temporal pattern of feeding of parental males diverged from that of females, and they had a lower probability of pupal chironomids in their stomachs, which implies spatial segregation in foraging. Parental males had a greater probability of conspecific eggs in their stomachs than females, while the probability of egg cannibalism did not differ between cuckolder males and females. Overall, these finding meet predictions in accordance with an assumption that parental care and territoriality can compromise feeding.

  12. Sarcoidosis with Major Airway, Vascular and Nerve Compromise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Sekiguchi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present report describes a 60-year-old Caucasian woman who presented with progressive dyspnea, cough and wheeze. A computed tomography scan of the chest showed innumerable bilateral inflammatory pulmonary nodules with bronchovascular distribution and a mediastinal and hilar infiltrative process with calcified lymphadenopathy leading to narrowing of lobar bronchi and pulmonary arteries. An echocardiogram revealed pulmonary hypertension. Bronchoscopy showed left vocal cord paralysis and significant narrowing of the bilateral bronchi with mucosal thickening and multiple nodules. Transbronchial biopsy was compatible with sarcoidosis. Despite balloon angioplasty of the left lower lobe and pulmonary artery, and medical therapy with oral corticosteroids, her symptoms did not significantly improve. To the authors’ knowledge, the present report describes the first case of pulmonary sarcoidosis resulting in major airway, vascular and nerve compromise due to compressive lymphadenopathy and suspected concurrent granulomatous infiltration. Its presentation mimicked idiopathic mediastinal fibrosis.

  13. The European directive on renewable electricity: conflicts and compromises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowlands, I.H.

    2005-01-01

    As part of its efforts to increase the use of renewable energy in Europe, a Directive regarding renewable electricity was agreed by the European Union in 2001. The purpose of this article is to examine this Directive, examining how the discussions surrounding its content unfolded. The investigation focuses upon three contentious issues that were debated during the Directive's development: the definition of 'renewable', the national targets for renewable electricity (their levels, as well as whether they should be 'binding' or 'indicative') and the questions associated with harmonisation (whether one Union-wide 'support scheme' for renewable electricity should be in place, and, if so, what it should be). During the 5 years that the Directive was negotiated, many intra-Union conflicts were eventually resolved, at least temporarily, by compromises. Nevertheless, some difficult decisions regarding the promotion of renewable electricity in the European Union still have to be taken

  14. Protecting Privacy of Shared Epidemiologic Data without Compromising Analysis Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cologne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Ensuring privacy of research subjects when epidemiologic data are shared with outside collaborators involves masking (modifying the data, but overmasking can compromise utility (analysis potential. Methods of statistical disclosure control for protecting privacy may be impractical for individual researchers involved in small-scale collaborations. Methods. We investigated a simple approach based on measures of disclosure risk and analytical utility that are straightforward for epidemiologic researchers to derive. The method is illustrated using data from the Japanese Atomic-bomb Survivor population. Results. Masking by modest rounding did not adequately enhance security but rounding to remove several digits of relative accuracy effectively reduced the risk of identification without substantially reducing utility. Grouping or adding random noise led to noticeable bias. Conclusions. When sharing epidemiologic data, it is recommended that masking be performed using rounding. Specific treatment should be determined separately in individual situations after consideration of the disclosure risks and analysis needs.

  15. Managing Campus Energy: Compromising between Rapid Needs and Environmental Requirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambariyanto, Ambariyanto; Utama, Yos J.; Purwanto

    2018-02-01

    The utilization of energy, especially electricity at Diponegoro University campus continues to increase in line with the development of the university. This increase has a direct impact on the increased costs to be paid by the university. Some of the causes of increased utilization of electrical energy is the construction of new buildings to meet the needs, increased learning activities and education, research activities in the laboratory, and various other activities. On the other hand, the increase of energy utilization is considered not good from the environment point of view, especially the utilization of electrical energy coming from non sustainable resources. Efforts to compromise on both are to develop policies in developing environmentally friendly buildings, efficiency in utilization of electrical energy, and development of sustainable energy sources.

  16. Thiamine absorption is not compromised in folate-deficient rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walzem, R.L.; Clifford, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    Thiamine absorption and excretion were assessed in rats with severe folate deficiency (FD) by determining the fate of oral 3 H-labeled and intravenous 14 C-labeled thiamine over a 6-h test period. Thiamine status was evaluated in these same rats by measuring transketolase activity levels of blood before (TKA) and after (TPPE) addition of thiamine pyrophosphate to the incubation mixture of the assay procedure. Two additional experiments assessed active transport of thiamine and the effect of dietary succinylsulfathiazole (SST) on TKA and TPPE in rats with moderate FD. Intestinal absorption in general and thiamine absorption in particular and thiamine status were unaltered in rats with severe FD. Inanition associated with severe FD may impair thiamine status. Thiamine absorption by active transport was not compromised in FD, and dietary succinylsulfathiazole did not affect thiamine status

  17. Neglecting legumes has compromised human health and sustainable food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyer, Christine H; Lam, Hon-Ming; Nguyen, Henry T; Siddique, Kadambot H M; Varshney, Rajeev K; Colmer, Timothy D; Cowling, Wallace; Bramley, Helen; Mori, Trevor A; Hodgson, Jonathan M; Cooper, James W; Miller, Anthony J; Kunert, Karl; Vorster, Juan; Cullis, Christopher; Ozga, Jocelyn A; Wahlqvist, Mark L; Liang, Yan; Shou, Huixia; Shi, Kai; Yu, Jingquan; Fodor, Nandor; Kaiser, Brent N; Wong, Fuk-Ling; Valliyodan, Babu; Considine, Michael J

    2016-08-02

    The United Nations declared 2016 as the International Year of Pulses (grain legumes) under the banner 'nutritious seeds for a sustainable future'. A second green revolution is required to ensure food and nutritional security in the face of global climate change. Grain legumes provide an unparalleled solution to this problem because of their inherent capacity for symbiotic atmospheric nitrogen fixation, which provides economically sustainable advantages for farming. In addition, a legume-rich diet has health benefits for humans and livestock alike. However, grain legumes form only a minor part of most current human diets, and legume crops are greatly under-used. Food security and soil fertility could be significantly improved by greater grain legume usage and increased improvement of a range of grain legumes. The current lack of coordinated focus on grain legumes has compromised human health, nutritional security and sustainable food production.

  18. Addressing diversity in schools through dialogue and compromise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tore Vincents

    2018-01-01

    This article evaluates a decentralized Danish model for dealing with cultural and religious diversity at individual schools. This evaluation is based upon normative theories of toleration, recognition and domination and examines whether the model implies compromise with the (liberal) educational...... values stipulated in the national legislation. The model, reconstructed from government publications, is based on reaching accommodation through dialogue between school staff and parents/students, with the pragmatic aim of facilitating the participation of students in everyday school activities....... The model is noteworthy because it appears to break with the widespread ‘retreat from multiculturalism’ predicated on the defence of liberal values, and because properly dealing with diversity at schools is important for ensuring students’ well-being and academic success....

  19. Enhanced susceptibility to predation in corals of compromised condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan J. Bright

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The marine gastropod, Coralliophila abbreviata, is an obligate corallivore that causes substantial mortality in Caribbean Acropora spp. Considering the imperiled status of Acropora cervicornis and A. palmata, a better understanding of ecological interactions resulting in tissue loss may enable more effective conservation strategies. We examined differences in susceptibility of A. cervicornis to C. abbreviata predation based on coral tissue condition. Coral tissue condition was a strong determinant of snail prey choice, with snails preferring A. cervicornis fragments that were diseased or mechanically damaged over healthy fragments. In addition, snails always chose fragments undergoing active predation by another snail, while showing no preference for a non-feeding snail when compared with an undisturbed prey fragment. These results indicate that the condition of A. cervicornis prey influenced foraging behavior of C. abbreviata, creating a potential feedback that may exacerbate damage from predation in coral populations compromised by other types of disturbance.

  20. Enhanced susceptibility to predation in corals of compromised condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Allan J; Cameron, Caitlin M; Miller, Margaret W

    2015-01-01

    The marine gastropod, Coralliophila abbreviata, is an obligate corallivore that causes substantial mortality in Caribbean Acropora spp. Considering the imperiled status of Acropora cervicornis and A. palmata, a better understanding of ecological interactions resulting in tissue loss may enable more effective conservation strategies. We examined differences in susceptibility of A. cervicornis to C. abbreviata predation based on coral tissue condition. Coral tissue condition was a strong determinant of snail prey choice, with snails preferring A. cervicornis fragments that were diseased or mechanically damaged over healthy fragments. In addition, snails always chose fragments undergoing active predation by another snail, while showing no preference for a non-feeding snail when compared with an undisturbed prey fragment. These results indicate that the condition of A. cervicornis prey influenced foraging behavior of C. abbreviata, creating a potential feedback that may exacerbate damage from predation in coral populations compromised by other types of disturbance.

  1. Protecting Privacy of Shared Epidemiologic Data without Compromising Analysis Potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cologne, J.; Nakashima, E.; Funamoto, S.; Grant, E.J.; Chen, Y.; Hiroaki Katayama, H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Ensuring privacy of research subjects when epidemiologic data are shared with outside collaborators involves masking (modifying) the data, but over masking can compromise utility (analysis potential). Methods of statistical disclosure control for protecting privacy may be impractical for individual researchers involved in small-scale collaborations. Methods. We investigated a simple approach based on measures of disclosure risk and analytical utility that are straightforward for epidemiologic researchers to derive. The method is illustrated using data from the Japanese Atomic-bomb Survivor population. Results. Masking by modest rounding did not adequately enhance security but rounding to remove several digits of relative accuracy effectively reduced the risk of identification without substantially reducing utility. Grouping or adding random noise led to noticeable bias. Conclusions. When sharing epidemiologic data, it is recommended that masking be performed using rounding. Specific treatment should be determined separately in individual situations after consideration of the disclosure risks and analysis needs

  2. 75 FR 65525 - Anthem Blue Cross Blue Shield, Claim Management Services, Inc. Operations, a Division of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-74,327] Anthem Blue Cross Blue Shield, Claim Management Services, Inc. Operations, a Division of Wellpoint, Inc., Green Bay, WI; Notice... former workers of Anthem Blue Cross Blue Shield, Claim Management Services, Inc. Operations, a Division...

  3. Mitigating Reptile Road Mortality: Fence Failures Compromise Ecopassage Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter-Gilbert, James H.; Riley, Julia L.; Lesbarrères, David; Litzgus, Jacqueline D.

    2015-01-01

    Roadways pose serious threats to animal populations. The installation of roadway mitigation measures is becoming increasingly common, yet studies that rigorously evaluate the effectiveness of these conservation tools remain rare. A highway expansion project in Ontario, Canada included exclusion fencing and ecopassages as mitigation measures designed to offset detrimental effects to one of the most imperial groups of vertebrates, reptiles. Taking a multispecies approach, we used a Before-After-Control-Impact study design to compare reptile abundance on the highway before and after mitigation at an Impact site and a Control site from 1 May to 31 August in 2012 and 2013. During this time, radio telemetry, wildlife cameras, and an automated PIT-tag reading system were used to monitor reptile movements and use of ecopassages. Additionally, a willingness to utilize experiment was conducted to quantify turtle behavioral responses to ecopassages. We found no difference in abundance of turtles on the road between the un-mitigated and mitigated highways, and an increase in the percentage of both snakes and turtles detected dead on the road post-mitigation, suggesting that the fencing was not effective. Although ecopassages were used by reptiles, the number of crossings through ecopassages was lower than road-surface crossings. Furthermore, turtle willingness to use ecopassages was lower than that reported in previous arena studies, suggesting that effectiveness of ecopassages may be compromised when alternative crossing options are available (e.g., through holes in exclusion structures). Our rigorous evaluation of reptile roadway mitigation demonstrated that when exclusion structures fail, the effectiveness of population connectivity structures is compromised. Our project emphasizes the need to design mitigation measures with the biology and behavior of the target species in mind, to implement mitigation designs in a rigorous fashion, and quantitatively evaluate road

  4. Methamphetamine compromises gap junctional communication in astrocytes and neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Paul; Nwagbo, Chisom; Martinez, Luis R; Eugenin, Eliseo A

    2016-05-01

    Methamphetamine (meth) is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that results in psychological and physical dependency. The long-term effects of meth within the CNS include neuronal plasticity changes, blood-brain barrier compromise, inflammation, electrical dysfunction, neuronal/glial toxicity, and an increased risk to infectious diseases including HIV. Most of the reported meth effects in the CNS are related to dysregulation of chemical synapses by altering the release and uptake of neurotransmitters, especially dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine. However, little is known about the effects of meth on connexin (Cx) containing channels, such as gap junctions (GJ) and hemichannels (HC). We examined the effects of meth on Cx expression, function, and its role in NeuroAIDS. We found that meth altered Cx expression and localization, decreased GJ communication between neurons and astrocytes, and induced the opening of Cx43/Cx36 HC. Furthermore, we found that these changes in GJ and HC induced by meth treatment were mediated by activation of dopamine receptors, suggesting that dysregulation of dopamine signaling induced by meth is essential for GJ and HC compromise. Meth-induced changes in GJ and HC contributed to amplified CNS toxicity by dysregulating glutamate metabolism and increasing the susceptibility of neurons and astrocytes to bystander apoptosis induced by HIV. Together, our results indicate that connexin containing channels, GJ and HC, are essential in the pathogenesis of meth and increase the sensitivity of the CNS to HIV CNS disease. Methamphetamine (meth) is an extremely addictive central nervous system stimulant. Meth reduced gap junctional (GJ) communication by inducing internalization of connexin-43 (Cx43) in astrocytes and reducing expression of Cx36 in neurons by a mechanism involving activation of dopamine receptors (see cartoon). Meth-induced changes in Cx containing channels increased extracellular levels of glutamate and resulted in higher

  5. Mitigating reptile road mortality: fence failures compromise ecopassage effectiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H Baxter-Gilbert

    Full Text Available Roadways pose serious threats to animal populations. The installation of roadway mitigation measures is becoming increasingly common, yet studies that rigorously evaluate the effectiveness of these conservation tools remain rare. A highway expansion project in Ontario, Canada included exclusion fencing and ecopassages as mitigation measures designed to offset detrimental effects to one of the most imperial groups of vertebrates, reptiles. Taking a multispecies approach, we used a Before-After-Control-Impact study design to compare reptile abundance on the highway before and after mitigation at an Impact site and a Control site from 1 May to 31 August in 2012 and 2013. During this time, radio telemetry, wildlife cameras, and an automated PIT-tag reading system were used to monitor reptile movements and use of ecopassages. Additionally, a willingness to utilize experiment was conducted to quantify turtle behavioral responses to ecopassages. We found no difference in abundance of turtles on the road between the un-mitigated and mitigated highways, and an increase in the percentage of both snakes and turtles detected dead on the road post-mitigation, suggesting that the fencing was not effective. Although ecopassages were used by reptiles, the number of crossings through ecopassages was lower than road-surface crossings. Furthermore, turtle willingness to use ecopassages was lower than that reported in previous arena studies, suggesting that effectiveness of ecopassages may be compromised when alternative crossing options are available (e.g., through holes in exclusion structures. Our rigorous evaluation of reptile roadway mitigation demonstrated that when exclusion structures fail, the effectiveness of population connectivity structures is compromised. Our project emphasizes the need to design mitigation measures with the biology and behavior of the target species in mind, to implement mitigation designs in a rigorous fashion, and quantitatively

  6. The Physics of the Blues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, J. Murray

    2009-03-01

    In looking at the commonalities between music and science, one sees that the musician's palette is based on the principles of physics. The pitch of a musical note is determined by the frequency of the sound wave. The scales that musicians use to create and play music can be viewed as a set of rules. What makes music interesting is how musicians develop those rules and create ambiguity with them. I will discuss the evolution of western musical scales in this context. As a particular example, ``Blue'' notes are very harmonic notes that are missing from the equal temperament scale. The techniques of piano blues and jazz represent the melding of African and Western music into something totally new and exciting. Live keyboard demonstrations will be used. Beyond any redeeming entertainment value the talk will emphasize the serious connections between science and art in music. Nevertheless tips will be accepted.

  7. Blue breath holding is benign.

    OpenAIRE

    Stephenson, J B

    1991-01-01

    In their recent publication in this journal, Southall et al described typical cyanotic breath holding spells, both in otherwise healthy children and in those with brainstem lesions and other malformations. Their suggestions regarding possible autonomic disturbances may require further study, but they have adduced no scientific evidence to contradict the accepted view that in the intact child blue breath holding spells are benign. Those families in which an infant suffers an 'apparently life t...

  8. Sustainable Development Compromise[d] in the Planning of Metro Vancouver’s Agricultural Lands—the Jackson Farm Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meg Holden

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This research provides analysis of the case of the Jackson Farm development application, embedded within the particular dynamics of the municipal, regional, and provincial sustainability land use policy culture of the Metro Vancouver region, in Canada. Within a culture of appreciation of the increasing need for sustainability in land use policy, including the protection of agricultural lands at the provincial level through the Agricultural Land Reserve (ALR, to urban intensification and protection of the green zone at the regional scale, lies a political conflict that comes into focus in individual land use decisions, within municipalities struggling for autonomy. This case is neither driven strictly by “the politics of the highest bidder” nor by policy failure; the case of the Jackson Farm is instead a case of the challenges of implementing inter-governmental coordination and collaborative governance in a context of both significant sustainability policy and urban growth. The process can be seen to follow an ecological modernization agenda, seeking “win–win” alternatives rather than recognizing that typical compromises, over time, may tip the direction of development away from sustainability policy goals. Understanding the twists, turns, and eventual compromise reached in the case of the Jackson Farm brings to light the implications of the shift in the regional planning culture which may necessitate a less flexible, more structured prioritization of competing goals within plans and policies in order to meet sustainability goals. We highlight this, and present an alternative implementation process within the existing policy regime with potential to aid the specific goal of agricultural land protection.

  9. Taking a Bad Turn: Compromised DNA Damage Response in Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Nilles

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Genomic integrity is of outmost importance for the survival at the cellular and the organismal level and key to human health. To ensure the integrity of their DNA, cells have evolved maintenance programs collectively known as the DNA damage response. Particularly challenging for genome integrity are DNA double-strand breaks (DSB and defects in their repair are often associated with human disease, including leukemia. Defective DSB repair may not only be disease-causing, but further contribute to poor treatment outcome and poor prognosis in leukemia. Here, we review current insight into altered DSB repair mechanisms identified in leukemia. While DSB repair is somewhat compromised in all leukemic subtypes, certain key players of DSB repair are particularly targeted: DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK and Ku70/80 in the non-homologous end-joining pathway, as well as Rad51 and breast cancer 1/2 (BRCA1/2, key players in homologous recombination. Defects in leukemia-related DSB repair may not only arise from dysfunctional repair components, but also indirectly from mutations in key regulators of gene expression and/or chromatin structure, such as p53, the Kirsten ras oncogene (K-RAS, and isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1/2. A detailed understanding of the basis for defective DNA damage response (DDR mechanisms for each leukemia subtype may allow to further develop new treatment methods to improve treatment outcome and prognosis for patients.

  10. Tracheostomy in neurologically compromised paediatric patients: role of starplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, A; Stokken, J; Krakovitz, P; Malhotra, P; Anne, S

    2015-10-01

    Starplasty tracheostomy is an alternative to traditional tracheostomy. This paper reviews neurologically compromised paediatric patients with tracheostomies and discusses the role of starplasty tracheostomy. A retrospective review was conducted of paediatric patients with a neurological disorder who underwent tracheostomy between 1997 and 2011. Forty-eight patients, with an average age of 7.3 years, were identified. The most common indications for tracheostomy were: ventilator dependence (39.6 per cent), an inability to tolerate secretions or recurrent aspiration pneumonia (33.3 per cent), and upper respiratory obstruction or hypotonia (12.5 per cent). The most common underlying neurological diagnosis was cerebral palsy. There were no early complications. Eighteen (43 per cent) of 42 patients with follow up experienced at least 1 delayed complication. Only 12 patients (28.6 per cent) were decannulated. Patients with primary neurological diagnoses have low rates of decannulation; starplasty tracheostomy should be considered for these patients. Patients with seizure disorder or acute neurological injury tended to have a higher short-term decannulation rate; traditional tracheostomy is recommended in these patients.

  11. Compromised careers: the occupational transition of immigration and resettlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suto, Melinda

    2009-01-01

    Work is a significant occupational transition that occurs with immigration and resettlement. Problems finding work and regaining economic capital are multi-factorial, differentiated by gender and mediated by specific contexts. Surprisingly, past education and work experience are unreliable predictors of successful employment outcomes. Critical theory and ethnographic concepts informed the methodological approach. Data were generated primarily through in-depth interviews, conducted in English, with 14 well-educated women who immigrated to Canada as adults and sought employment in their professions. The thematic findings were analyzed using Bourdieu's [7] concepts of capital, field and habitus. The theme Compromised Careers describes the downward occupational (work) mobility that occurs despite expectations that education, credentials and work experience are transferable to desirable employment. A devaluation of foreign qualifications and no relevant Canadian work experience function with gendered responsibilities, less social support, and time spent in resettlement activities to create negative work trajectories. The role that federal policies and professional organizations play is examined to reveal the tension between individuals' efforts to find employment and institutional barriers that impede these actions. A critical inquiry approach examined the ruling relations to show how power and privilege function in relation to migrants' occupational transitions.

  12. Towards mesoscience the principle of compromise in competition

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jinghai

    2014-01-01

    This brief is devoted to providing a complete outline of meso-science by briefing the relevant contents from the published book and by updating evidences and concepts of meso-science. The importance of meso-science in solving various problems in energy, resource, and the environment is introduced.  The whole evolutionary development of the EMMS principle is reviewed to show how a simple idea on the customized modeling of particle clustering in gas-solid systems was developed, verified, extended, and finally generalized into the common principle of compromise in competition between dominant mechanisms for all mesoscale phenomena in science and engineering, leading to the proposition of meso-science. More importantly, updates on the concept of meso-science and perspectives are presented, along with new insights and findings from after the publication of the original book. In this way, we hope to help readers more easily familiarize themselves with meso-science, and to trigger interest and attention to this int...

  13. Auditing Litigation and Claims: Conflicts and the Compromise of Privilege

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harleen Kaur

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Auditing standards require an auditor to make various enquiries about liabilities in general this may entail consideration of potential litigations and claims that the audited entity may be facing. To perform this part of audit, the auditors will generally seek representation letters from lawyers of the company detailing an estimate prepared by management, confirmed by their lawyers through a representation letter, and then sent directly to the auditors. This paper reviews the implications for the auditing profession of a case that involved auditors seeking such representation letters. The case involves litigation between theWestpac Banking Corporation and 789TEN Pty Ltd. While theWestpac case confirmed the legal position of the auditor in their task of collecting evidence in order to form an opinion in Australia, it highlights a significant anomaly under the law and should place the issue of solicitor’s representation letters as audit evidence firmly on the agenda of policymakers. This issue of the compromise of legal privilege during the conduct of an audit is also not confined to Australia: other common law jurisdictions, such as the UK and the US, have also sought to clarify the position of auditors when issues of the integrity of legal privacy privilege arise.

  14. Evaluation of Code Blue Implementation Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengü Özütürk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In this study, we aimed to emphasize the importance of Code Blue implementation and to determine deficiencies in this regard. Methods: After obtaining the ethics committee approval, 225 patient’s code blue call data between 2012 and 2014 January were retrospectively analyzed. Age and gender of the patients, date and time of the call and the clinics giving Code Blue, the time needed for the Code Blue team to arrive, the rates of false Code Blue calls, reasons for Code Blue calls and patient outcomes were investigated. Results: A total of 225 patients (149 male, 76 female were evaluated in the study. The mean age of the patients was 54.1 years. 142 (67.2% Code Blue calls occurred after hours and by emergency unit. The mean time for the Code Blue team to arrive was 1.10 minutes. Spontaneous circulation was provided in 137 patients (60.8%; 88 (39.1% died. The most commonly identified possible causes were of cardiac origin. Conclusion: This study showed that Code Blue implementation with a professional team within an efficient and targeted time increase the survival rate. Therefore, we conclude that the application of Code Blue carried out by a trained team is an essential standard in hospitals. (The Medical Bulletin of Haseki 2015; 53:204-8

  15. Liquid biofuels from blue biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kádár, Zsófia; Jensen, Annette Eva; Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Marine (blue) biomasses, such as macroalgaes, represent a huge unexploited amount of biomass. With their various chemical compositions, macroalgaes can be a potential substrate for food, feed, biomaterials, pharmaceuticals, health care products and also for bioenergy. Algae use seawater as a growth...... medium, light as energy source and they capture CO2 for the synthesis of new organic material, thus can grow on non-agricultural land, without increasing food prices, or using fresh water. Due to all these advantages in addition to very high biomass yield with high carbohydrate content, macroalgaes can...

  16. Markkinointisuunnitelma Case: Ringetteseura Blue Rings

    OpenAIRE

    Seppälä, Minna

    2012-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena on markkinointisuunnitelman laatiminen ringetteseura Blue Ringsin edustusjoukkueelle. Lähtökohtana on pidetty suunnitelman toteutuskelpoisuutta käytännössä sekä suunnitelman reaalisuutta. Opinnäytetyö on toteutettu projektityönä, jossa on käytetty benchmarkkauksen lisäksi sekä kvalitatiivisia että empiirisiä tutkimusmenetelmiä. Opinnäytetyö koostuu kahdesta osiosta; teoreettinen viitekehys sekä empiirinen osio. Teoriana opinnäytetyössä on käytetty markkinoinn...

  17. Capacity for Preferences: Respecting Patients with Compromised Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Jason Adam; Navin, Mark Christopher

    2018-05-01

    When a patient lacks decision-making capacity, then according to standard clinical ethics practice in the United States, the health care team should seek guidance from a surrogate decision-maker, either previously selected by the patient or appointed by the courts. If there are no surrogates willing or able to exercise substituted judgment, then the team is to choose interventions that promote a patient's best interests. We argue that, even when there is input from a surrogate, patient preferences should be an additional source of guidance for decisions about patients who lack decision-making capacity. Our proposal builds on other efforts to help patients who lack decision-making capacity provide input into decisions about their care. For example, "supported," "assisted," or "guided" decision-making models reflect a commitment to humanistic patient engagement and create a more supportive process for patients, families, and health care teams. But often, they are supportive processes for guiding a patient toward a decision that the surrogate or team believes to be in the patient's medical best interests. Another approach holds that taking seriously the preferences of such a patient can help surrogates develop a better account of what the patient's treatment choices would have been if the patient had retained decision-making capacity; the surrogate then must try to integrate features of the patient's formerly rational self with the preferences of the patient's currently compromised self. Patients who lack decision-making capacity are well served by these efforts to solicit and use their preferences to promote best interests or to craft would-be autonomous patient images for use by surrogates. However, we go further: the moral reasons for valuing the preferences of patients without decision-making capacity are not reducible to either best-interests or (surrogate) autonomy considerations but can be grounded in the values of liberty and respect for persons. This has

  18. Electronic properties of blue phosphorene/graphene and blue phosphorene/graphene-like gallium nitride heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Minglei; Chou, Jyh-Pin; Yu, Jin; Tang, Wencheng

    2017-07-05

    Blue phosphorene (BlueP) is a graphene-like phosphorus nanosheet which was synthesized very recently for the first time [Nano Lett., 2016, 16, 4903-4908]. The combination of electronic properties of two different two-dimensional materials in an ultrathin van der Waals (vdW) vertical heterostructure has been proved to be an effective approach to the design of novel electronic and optoelectronic devices. Therefore, we used density functional theory to investigate the structural and electronic properties of two BlueP-based heterostructures - BlueP/graphene (BlueP/G) and BlueP/graphene-like gallium nitride (BlueP/g-GaN). Our results showed that the semiconducting nature of BlueP and the Dirac cone of G are well preserved in the BlueP/G vdW heterostructure. Moreover, by applying a perpendicular electric field, it is possible to tune the position of the Dirac cone of G with respect to the band edge of BlueP, resulting in the ability to control the Schottky barrier height. For the BlueP/g-GaN vdW heterostructure, BlueP forms an interface with g-GaN with a type-II band alignment, which is a promising feature for unipolar electronic device applications. Furthermore, we discovered that both G and g-GaN can be used as an active layer for BlueP to facilitate charge injection and enhance the device performance.

  19. Starbursts in Blue compact dwarf galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thuan, T.X.

    1987-01-01

    We summarize all the arguments for a bursting mode of star formation in blue compact dwarf galaxies. We show in particular how spectral synthesis of far ultraviolet spectra of Blue compact dwarf galaxy constitutes a powerful way for studying the star formation history in these galaxies. Blue compact dwarf galaxy luminosity functions show jumps and discontinuities. These jumps act like fossil records of the star-forming bursts, helping us to count and date the bursts

  20. Geothermal Technologies Program Blue Ribbon Panel Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-06-17

    The Geothermal Technologies Program assembled a geothermal Blue Ribbon Panel on March 22-23, 2011 in Albuquerque, New Mexico for a guided discussion on the future of geothermal energy in the United States and the role of the DOE Program. The Geothermal Blue Ribbon Panel Report captures the discussions and recommendations of the experts. An addendum is available here: http://www.eere.energy.gov/geothermal/pdfs/gtp_blue_ribbon_panel_report_addendum10-2011.pdf

  1. Variable blue straggler stars in NGC 5466

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, H.C.; Mateo, M.; Olszewski, E.W.; Nemec, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Nine variable blue stragglers have been found in the globular cluster NGC 5466. The six dwarf Cepheids in this cluster coexist in the instability strip with other nonvariable stars. The three eclipsing binaries are among the hottest of the blue stragglers. The hypothesis is discussed that all blue stragglers in this cluster have undergone mass transfer in close binaries. Under this hypothesis, rotation and spin-down play important roles in controlling the evolution of blue stragglers in old clusters and in affecting some of their observational properties. 14 refs

  2. Why Blue-Collar Blacks Help Less

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Sandra Susan; Young, Kara Alexis

    2013-01-01

    Why are blue-collar blacks less likely to help jobseekers than jobholders from other ethnoracial groups or even than more affluent blacks? Drawing from in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 97 black and Latino workers at one large, public sector employer, we find that blue-collar black workers both helped less proactively and rejected more requests for assistance than did blue-collar Latino and white-collar black workers. We attribute blue-collar blacks’ more passive engagement to their...

  3. Methylene blue improves mitochondrial respiration and decreases oxidative stress in a substrate-dependent manner in diabetic rat hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duicu, Oana M; Privistirescu, Andreea; Wolf, Adrian; Petruş, Alexandra; Dănilă, Maria D; Raţiu, Corina D; Muntean, Danina M; Sturza, Adrian

    2017-11-01

    Diabetic cardiomyopathy has been systematically associated with compromised mitochondrial energetics and increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that underlie its progression to heart failure. Methylene blue is a redox drug with reported protective effects mainly on brain mitochondria. The purpose of the present study was to characterize the effects of acute administration of methylene blue on mitochondrial respiration, H 2 O 2 production, and calcium sensitivity in rat heart mitochondria isolated from healthy and 2 months (streptozotocin-induced) diabetic rats. Mitochondrial respiratory function was assessed by high-resolution respirometry. H 2 O 2 production and calcium retention capacity were measured spectrofluorimetrically. The addition of methylene blue (0.1 μmol·L -1 ) elicited an increase in oxygen consumption of mitochondria energized with complex I and II substrates in both normal and diseased mitochondria. Interestingly, methylene blue elicited a significant increase in H 2 O 2 release in the presence of complex I substrates (glutamate and malate), but had an opposite effect in mitochondria energized with complex II substrate (succinate). No changes in the calcium retention capacity of healthy or diabetic mitochondria were found in the presence of methylene blue. In conclusion, in cardiac mitochondria isolated from diabetic and nondiabetic rat hearts, methylene blue improved respiratory function and elicited a dichotomic, substrate-dependent effect on ROS production.

  4. The Fictional Black Blues Figure: Blues Music and the Art of Narrative Self-Invention

    OpenAIRE

    Mack, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    The Fictional Black Blues Figure: Blues Music and the Art of Narrative Self-Invention, Kimberly MackMy dissertation examines representations of black American blues musicians in contemporary American fiction, drama, and popular music, and it argues that blues music can be examined as a narrative art rooted in the tradition of fictionalized autobiographical self-fashioning. I contend that the contemporary, multi-racial, literary and musical characters in my project who participate in so-called...

  5. Evidence of compromised blood-spinal cord barrier in early and late symptomatic SOD1 mice modeling ALS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Garbuzova-Davis

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The blood-brain barrier (BBB, blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB, and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB control cerebral/spinal cord homeostasis by selective transport of molecules and cells from the systemic compartment. In the spinal cord and brain of both ALS patients and animal models, infiltration of T-cell lymphocytes, monocyte-derived macrophages and dendritic cells, and IgG deposits have been observed that may have a critical role in motor neuron damage. Additionally, increased levels of albumin and IgG have been found in the cerebrospinal fluid in ALS patients. These findings suggest altered barrier permeability in ALS. Recently, we showed disruption of the BBB and BSCB in areas of motor neuron degeneration in the brain and spinal cord in G93A SOD1 mice modeling ALS at both early and late stages of disease using electron microscopy. Examination of capillary ultrastructure revealed endothelial cell degeneration, which, along with astrocyte alteration, compromised the BBB and BSCB. However, the effect of these alterations upon barrier function in ALS is still unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the functional competence of the BSCB in G93A mice at different stages of disease.Evans Blue (EB dye was intravenously injected into ALS mice at early or late stage disease. Vascular leakage and the condition of basement membranes, endothelial cells, and astrocytes were investigated in cervical and lumbar spinal cords using immunohistochemistry. Results showed EB leakage in spinal cord microvessels from all G93A mice, indicating dysfunction in endothelia and basement membranes and confirming our previous ultrastructural findings on BSCB disruption. Additionally, downregulation of Glut-1 and CD146 expressions in the endothelial cells of the BSCB were found which may relate to vascular leakage.Results suggest that the BSCB is compromised in areas of motor neuron degeneration in ALS mice at both early and late stages of the disease.

  6. Reduction of blue tungsten oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilken, T.; Wert, C.; Woodhouse, J.; Morcom, W.

    1975-01-01

    A significant portion of commercial tungsten is produced by hydrogen reduction of oxides. Although several modes of reduction are possible, hydrogen reduction is used where high purity tungsten is required and where the addition of other elements or compounds is desired for modification of the metal, as is done for filaments in the lamp industry. Although several investigations of the reduction of oxides have been reported (1 to 5), few principles have been developed which can aid in assessment of current commercial practice. The reduction process was examined under conditions approximating commercial practice. The specific objectives were to determine the effects of dopants, of water vapor in the reducing atmosphere, and of reduction temperature upon: (1) the rate of the reaction by which blue tungsten oxide is reduced to tungsten metal, (2) the intermediate oxides associated with reduction, and (3) the morphology of the resulting tungsten powder

  7. Quirks of dye nomenclature. 1. Evans blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooksey, C J

    2014-02-01

    The history, origin, identity, chemistry and use of Evans blue dye are described along with the first application to staining by Herbert McLean Evans in 1914. In the 1930s, the dye was marketed under the name, Evans blue dye, which was profoundly more acceptable than the ponderous chemical name.

  8. Blue jay attacks and consumes cedar waxwing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Saenz; Joshua B. Pierce

    2009-01-01

    Blue Jays (Cyanocitta cristata) are known to be common predators on bird nests (Wilcove 1985, Picman and Schriml 1994). In addition to predation on eggs and nestlings, Blue Jays occasionally prey on fledgling and adult birds (Johnson and Johnson 1976, Dubowy 1985). A majority of reports involve predation on House Sparrows (Passer domesticus) and other small birds (...

  9. The secret of the blue fog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrich, Oliver; Marenduzzo, Davide

    2017-04-01

    Why certain liquids turn blue when cooled was a mystery that stumped scientists for more than a century. As Oliver Henrich and Davide Marenduzzo explain, solving the secret of the “blue fog” proved to be an intellectual tour de force - and one that could lead to new types of display devices

  10. 10 CFR 15.41 - When a claim may be compromised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... it has not been referred to DOJ for litigation. (b) Unless otherwise provided by law, when the... with the DOJ. The NRC will evaluate the compromise offer, using the factors set forth in this part. If an offer to compromise any debt in excess of $100,000 is acceptable to the NRC, the NRC shall refer...

  11. 32 CFR 842.99 - Compromise, termination, and suspension of collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compromise, termination, and suspension of collection. 842.99 Section 842.99 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR... States (31 U.S.C. 3701, 3711-3719) § 842.99 Compromise, termination, and suspension of collection. This...

  12. Near-infrared spectroscopy for detection of vascular compromise in paediatric supracondylar fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skowno, Justin J; De Lima, Jonathan; Quick, Tom J; Carpenter, Eleanor C; Gibbons, Paul J; Little, David G

    2014-01-01

    Children suffering supracondylar fractures of the humerus are at risk of vascular compromise, which is currently assessed clinically, although other modalities such as angiography, pulse oximetry, Doppler ultrasound and magnetic resonance angiography have been used. We sought to ascertain whether tissue haemoglobin oxygenation (StO 2 ) measurement could distinguish between patients with and without clinical vascular compromise following supracondylar fractures of the humerus. We prospectively observed StO 2  using near-infrared spectroscopy in 29 paediatric patients with supracondylar fractures requiring operative manipulation. The injured and uninjured volar forearm compartments were monitored immediately before and after fracture reduction. The relationship between StO 2  in the injured and uninjured limb, and the presence of pre-operative vascular compromise was assessed. Seven out of 29 children presented with vascular compromise. Patients with clinical vascular compromise had significantly lower pre-reduction StO 2  (63.5% ± 15%, mean ± standard deviation), compared to those without compromise (80.9% ± 10%). StO 2  normalized following surgery in all children with vascular compromise. These improvements in muscle StO 2  were associated, in all patients, with the clinical return of pulses and resolution of neurological symptoms if present. StO 2  monitoring can identify patients with clinical vascular compromise, can identify the return of adequate perfusion following operative correction of supracondylar fractures, and may be a useful adjunct to clinical assessment. (paper)

  13. 7 CFR 1956.68 - Compromise or adjustment without debtor's signature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Compromise or adjustment without debtor's signature... Loan Programs and Multi-Family Housing § 1956.68 Compromise or adjustment without debtor's signature... made to obtain the debtor's signature and the date(s) of such effort. (c) The specific reasons why it...

  14. 36 CFR 1011.7 - When will the Presidio Trust compromise a debt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When will the Presidio Trust... Procedures To Collect Presidio Trust Debts § 1011.7 When will the Presidio Trust compromise a debt? (a... debt owed to the Presidio Trust that is not recovered as the result of a compromise will be reported to...

  15. 26 CFR 301.6331-3 - Restrictions on levy while offers to compromise are pending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... are pending. 301.6331-3 Section 301.6331-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... for Collection of Taxes § 301.6331-3 Restrictions on levy while offers to compromise are pending. Cross-reference. For provisions relating to the making of levies while an offer to compromise is pending...

  16. 15 CFR 19.7 - When will Commerce entities compromise a Commerce debt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false When will Commerce entities compromise a Commerce debt? 19.7 Section 19.7 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce COMMERCE DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect Commerce Debts § 19.7 When will Commerce entities compromise...

  17. Tapered photonic crystal fibers for blue-enhanced supercontinuum generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Uffe; Sørensen, Simon Toft; Larsen, Casper

    2012-01-01

    Tapering of photonic crystal fibers is an effective way of shifting the blue edge of a supercontinuum spectrum down in the deep-blue. We discuss the optimum taper profile for enhancing the power in the blue edge....

  18. Can greening of aquaculture sequester blue carbon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nesar; Bunting, Stuart W; Glaser, Marion; Flaherty, Mark S; Diana, James S

    2017-05-01

    Globally, blue carbon (i.e., carbon in coastal and marine ecosystems) emissions have been seriously augmented due to the devastating effects of anthropogenic pressures on coastal ecosystems including mangrove swamps, salt marshes, and seagrass meadows. The greening of aquaculture, however, including an ecosystem approach to Integrated Aquaculture-Agriculture (IAA) and Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA) could play a significant role in reversing this trend, enhancing coastal ecosystems, and sequestering blue carbon. Ponds within IAA farming systems sequester more carbon per unit area than conventional fish ponds, natural lakes, and inland seas. The translocation of shrimp culture from mangrove swamps to offshore IMTA could reduce mangrove loss, reverse blue carbon emissions, and in turn increase storage of blue carbon through restoration of mangroves. Moreover, offshore IMTA may create a barrier to trawl fishing which in turn could help restore seagrasses and further enhance blue carbon sequestration. Seaweed and shellfish culture within IMTA could also help to sequester more blue carbon. The greening of aquaculture could face several challenges that need to be addressed in order to realize substantial benefits from enhanced blue carbon sequestration and eventually contribute to global climate change mitigation.

  19. Infiltrating giant cellular blue naevus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, A L; Monteiro, D A; De Pretto, O J

    2007-01-01

    Cellular blue naevi (CBN) measure 1-2 cm in diameter and affect the dermis, occasionally extending into the subcutaneous fat. The case of a 14-year-old boy with a giant CBN (GCBN) involving the right half of the face, the jugal mucosa and the lower eyelid with a tumour that had infiltrated the bone and the maxillary and ethmoidal sinuses is reported. Biopsies were taken from the skin, jugal mucosa and maxillary sinus. The following markers were used in the immunohistochemical evaluation: CD34, CD56, HMB-45, anti-S100, A-103, Melan A and MIB-1. The biopsy specimens showed a biphasic pattern affecting the lower dermis, subcutaneous fat, skeletal muscle, bone, jugal mucosa and maxillary sinus, but there was no histological evidence of malignancy. The tumour cells were CD34-, CD56-, HMB45+, anti-S100+ and A-103+. Melan A was focally expressed. No positive MIB-1 cells were identified. The present case shows that GCBN may infiltrate deeply, with no evidence of malignancy.

  20. Corneal edema and permanent blue discoloration of a silicone intraocular lens by methylene blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Scott; Werner, Liliana; Mamalis, Nick

    2007-01-01

    To report a silicone intraocular lens (IOL) stained blue by inadvertent intraoperative use of methylene blue instead of trypan blue and the results of experimental staining of various lens materials with different concentrations of the same dye. A "blue dye" was used to enhance visualization during capsulorhexis in a patient undergoing phacoemulsification with implantation of a three-piece silicone lens. Postoperatively, the patient presented with corneal edema and a discolored IOL. Various IOL materials were experimentally stained using methylene blue. Sixteen lenses (4 silicone, 4 hydrophobic acrylic, 4 hydrophilic acrylic, and 4 polymethylmethacrylate) were immersed in 0.5 mL of methylene blue at concentrations of 1%, 0.1%, 0.01%, and 0.001%. These lenses were grossly and microscopically evaluated for discoloration 6 and 24 hours after immersion. The corneal edema resolved within 1 month after the initial surgical procedure. After explantation, gross and microscopic analyses of the explanted silicone lens revealed that its surface and internal substance had been permanently stained blue. In the experimental study, all of the lenses except the polymethylmethacrylate lenses were permanently stained by methylene blue. The hydrophilic acrylic lenses showed the most intense blue staining in all dye concentrations. This is the first clinicopathological report of IOL discoloration due to intraocular use of methylene blue. This and other tissue dyes may be commonly found among surgical supplies in the operating room and due diligence is necessary to avoid mistaking these dyes for those commonly used during ocular surgery.

  1. Substantial Research Secures the Blue Future for our Blue Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa Abdel Maksoud

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Earth, the blue planet, is our home, and seas and oceans cover more than 70% of its surface. As the earth’s population rapidly increases and available resources decrease, seas and oceans can play a key role in assuring the long-term survival of humankind. Renewable maritime energy has huge potential to provide a considerable part of the earth’s population with decarbonised electricity generation systems. Renewable maritime energy is very flexible and can be harvested above the water’s free surface by using offshore wind turbines, on the water’s surface by using wave energy converters or below the water’s surface by using current or tidal turbines. The supposed conflict between environmental protection measures and economic interests is neither viable nor reasonable. Renewable maritime energy can be the motor for considerable substantial economic growth for many maritime regions and therefore for society at large. The fastest growing sector of renewable maritime energy is offshore wind. The annual report of the European Wind Energy Association from the year 2015 confirms the growing relevance of the offshore wind industry. In 2015, the total installed and grid-connected capacity of wind power was 12,800 MW in the EU and 6,013.4 MW in Germany. 38% of the 2015 annual installation in Germany was offshore, accounting for a capacity of 2,282.4 MW. However, there are a limited number of available installation sites in shallow water, meaning that there is an urgent need to develop new offshore structures for water depths greater than 50m. The persistent trend towards deeper waters has encouraged the offshore wind industry to look for floating wind turbine structures and larger turbines. Floating wind turbine technologies are at an early stage of development and many technical and economic challenges will still need to be faced. Nonetheless, intensive research activities and the employment of advanced technologies are the key factors in

  2. High-luminosity blue and blue-green gallium nitride light-emitting diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morkoç, H; Mohammad, S N

    1995-01-06

    Compact and efficient sources of blue light for full color display applications and lighting eluded and tantalized researchers for many years. Semiconductor light sources are attractive owing to their reliability and amenability to mass manufacture. However, large band gaps are required to achieve blue color. A class of compound semiconductors formed by metal nitrides, GaN and its allied compounds AIGaN and InGaN, exhibits properties well suited for not only blue and blue-green emitters, but also for ultraviolet emitters and detectors. What thwarted engineers and scientists from fabricating useful devices from these materials in the past was the poor quality of material and lack of p-type doping. Both of these obstacles have recently been overcome to the point where highluminosity blue and blue-green light-emitting diodes are now available in the marketplace.

  3. The Biology of blue-green algae

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carr, Nicholas G; Whitton, B. A

    1973-01-01

    .... Their important environmental roles, their part in nitrogen fixation and the biochemistry of phototrophic metabolism are some of the attractions of blue-geen algae to an increasing number of biologists...

  4. BLUES function method in computational physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indekeu, Joseph O.; Müller-Nedebock, Kristian K.

    2018-04-01

    We introduce a computational method in physics that goes ‘beyond linear use of equation superposition’ (BLUES). A BLUES function is defined as a solution of a nonlinear differential equation (DE) with a delta source that is at the same time a Green’s function for a related linear DE. For an arbitrary source, the BLUES function can be used to construct an exact solution to the nonlinear DE with a different, but related source. Alternatively, the BLUES function can be used to construct an approximate piecewise analytical solution to the nonlinear DE with an arbitrary source. For this alternative use the related linear DE need not be known. The method is illustrated in a few examples using analytical calculations and numerical computations. Areas for further applications are suggested.

  5. Nanotubes based on monolayer blue phosphorus

    KAUST Repository

    Montes Muñ oz, Enrique; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate structural stability of monolayer zigzag and armchair blue phosphorus nanotubes by means of molecular dynamics simulations. The vibrational spectrum and electronic band structure are determined and analyzed as functions of the tube

  6. Blue space geographies: Enabling health in place.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Ronan; Kistemann, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Drawing from research on therapeutic landscapes and relationships between environment, health and wellbeing, we propose the idea of 'healthy blue space' as an important new development Complementing research on healthy green space, blue space is defined as; 'health-enabling places and spaces, where water is at the centre of a range of environments with identifiable potential for the promotion of human wellbeing'. Using theoretical ideas from emotional and relational geographies and critical understandings of salutogenesis, the value of blue space to health and wellbeing is recognised and evaluated. Six individual papers from five different countries consider how health can be enabled in mixed blue space settings. Four sub-themes; embodiment, inter-subjectivity, activity and meaning, document multiple experiences within a range of healthy blue spaces. Finally, we suggest a considerable research agenda - theoretical, methodological and applied - for future work within different forms of blue space. All are suggested as having public health policy relevance in social and public space. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Resale Price Maintenance Under the Hong Kong Competition Ordinance—An Uneasy Compromise

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Jephcott; Adelaide Luke; Lisa Geary; Molly Herron

    2015-01-01

    However, the compromise position reached in the Guideline provides relatively little in terms of legal certainty as to the circumstances in which RPM may be acceptable. Mark Jephcott, Adelaide Luke, Lisa Geary, & Molly Herron (Herbert Smith Freehills)

  8. 48 CFR 239.7102-2 - Compromising emanations-TEMPEST or other standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Security and Privacy for Computer Systems 239.7102-2 Compromising emanations—TEMPEST or... requiring activity is responsible for providing to the contracting officer— (a) The required protections, i...

  9. Small intestine epithelial barrier function is compromised in pigs with low feed intake at weaning.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spreeuwenberg, M.A.; Verdonk, J.M.; Gaskins, H.R.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2001-01-01

    Compromising alterations in gastrointestinal architecture are common during the weaning transition of pigs. The relation between villous atrophy and epithelial barrier function at weaning is not well understood. This study evaluated in vitro transepithelial transport by Ussing metabolic chambers,

  10. Knowledge is power: averting safety-compromising events in the OR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Kathleen

    2008-12-01

    Surgical procedures can be unpredictable, and safety-compromising events can jeopardize patient safety. Perioperative nurses should be watchful for factors that can contribute to safety-compromising events, as well as the errors that can follow, and know how to avert them if possible. Knowledge is power and increased awareness of patient safety issues and the resources that are available to both health care practitioners and consumers can help perioperative nurses ward off patient safety problems before they occur.

  11. Cyber indicators of compromise: a domain ontology for security information and event management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    heuristics, mapping, and detection. CybOX is aimed at supporting a broad range of important cyber security domains to include [31]: • Digital...REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CYBER INDICATORS OF COMPROMISE: A DOMAIN ONTOLOGY FOR SECURITY INFORMATION AND...Distribution is unlimited. CYBER INDICATORS OF COMPROMISE: A DOMAIN ONTOLOGY FOR SECURITY INFORMATION AND EVENT MANAGEMENT Marsha D. Rowell

  12. Combating QR-Code-Based Compromised Accounts in Mobile Social Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Dong; Cao, Jian; Wang, Xiaoqi; Fu, Qiang; Li, Qiang

    2016-09-20

    Cyber Physical Social Sensing makes mobile social networks (MSNs) popular with users. However, such attacks are rampant as malicious URLs are spread covertly through quick response (QR) codes to control compromised accounts in MSNs to propagate malicious messages. Currently, there are generally two types of methods to identify compromised accounts in MSNs: one type is to analyze the potential threats on wireless access points and the potential threats on handheld devices' operation systems so as to stop compromised accounts from spreading malicious messages; the other type is to apply the method of detecting compromised accounts in online social networks to MSNs. The above types of methods above focus neither on the problems of MSNs themselves nor on the interaction of sensors' messages, which leads to the restrictiveness of platforms and the simplification of methods. In order to stop the spreading of compromised accounts in MSNs effectively, the attacks have to be traced to their sources first. Through sensors, users exchange information in MSNs and acquire information by scanning QR codes. Therefore, analyzing the traces of sensor-related information helps to identify the compromised accounts in MSNs. This paper analyzes the diversity of information sending modes of compromised accounts and normal accounts, analyzes the regularity of GPS (Global Positioning System)-based location information, and introduces the concepts of entropy and conditional entropy so as to construct an entropy-based model based on machine learning strategies. To achieve the goal, about 500,000 accounts of Sina Weibo and about 100 million corresponding messages are collected. Through the validation, the accuracy rate of the model is proved to be as high as 87.6%, and the false positive rate is only 3.7%. Meanwhile, the comparative experiments of the feature sets prove that sensor-based location information can be applied to detect the compromised accounts in MSNs.

  13. Combating QR-Code-Based Compromised Accounts in Mobile Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Guo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cyber Physical Social Sensing makes mobile social networks (MSNs popular with users. However, such attacks are rampant as malicious URLs are spread covertly through quick response (QR codes to control compromised accounts in MSNs to propagate malicious messages. Currently, there are generally two types of methods to identify compromised accounts in MSNs: one type is to analyze the potential threats on wireless access points and the potential threats on handheld devices’ operation systems so as to stop compromised accounts from spreading malicious messages; the other type is to apply the method of detecting compromised accounts in online social networks to MSNs. The above types of methods above focus neither on the problems of MSNs themselves nor on the interaction of sensors’ messages, which leads to the restrictiveness of platforms and the simplification of methods. In order to stop the spreading of compromised accounts in MSNs effectively, the attacks have to be traced to their sources first. Through sensors, users exchange information in MSNs and acquire information by scanning QR codes. Therefore, analyzing the traces of sensor-related information helps to identify the compromised accounts in MSNs. This paper analyzes the diversity of information sending modes of compromised accounts and normal accounts, analyzes the regularity of GPS (Global Positioning System-based location information, and introduces the concepts of entropy and conditional entropy so as to construct an entropy-based model based on machine learning strategies. To achieve the goal, about 500,000 accounts of Sina Weibo and about 100 million corresponding messages are collected. Through the validation, the accuracy rate of the model is proved to be as high as 87.6%, and the false positive rate is only 3.7%. Meanwhile, the comparative experiments of the feature sets prove that sensor-based location information can be applied to detect the compromised accounts in MSNs.

  14. "Blue-Collar Blues" uurib töösuhteid uutes oludes / Janar Ala

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ala, Janar, 1979-

    2009-01-01

    Tööproblemaatikat käsitlev näitus "Blue-Collar Blues" Tallinna Kunstihoones ja Tallinna Kunstihoone galeriis 31. jaanuarini 2010, kuraator Anders Härm. Lähemalt belgia-mehhiko kunstniku Francis Alys'e videost, austria kunstniku Oliver Ressleri ning venetsueela-saksa politoloogi Dario Azzelini videost "Viis tehast. Tööliste kontroll Venezuelas"

  15. The Structure of the Blue Whirl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariharan, Sriram Bharath; Hu, Yu; Xiao, Huahua; Gollner, Michael; Oran, Elaine

    2017-11-01

    Recent experiments have led to the discovery of the blue whirl, a small, stable regime of the fire whirl that burns typically sooty liquid hydrocarbons without producing soot. The physical structure consists of three regions - the blue cone, the vortex rim and the purple haze. The physical nature of the flame was further investigated through digital imaging techniques, which suggest that the transition (from the fire whirl to the blue whirl) and shape of the flame may be influenced by vortex breakdown. The flame was found to develop over a variety of surfaces, which indicates that the formation of the blue whirl is strongly influenced by the flow structure over the incoming boundary layer. The thermal structure was investigated using micro-thermocouples, thin-filament pyrometry and OH* spectroscopy. These revealed a peak temperature around 2000 K, and that most of the combustion occurs in the relatively small, visibly bright vortex rim. The results of these investigations provide a platform to develop a theory on the structure of the blue whirl, a deeper understanding of which may affirm potential for applications in the energy industry. This work was supported by an NSF EAGER award and Minta Martin Endowment Funds in the Department of Aerospace Engineering at the University of Maryland.

  16. Dyes adsorption blue vegetable and blue watercolor by natural zeolites modified with surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardon S, C. C.; Olguin G, M. T.; Diaz N, M. C.

    2009-01-01

    In this work was carried out the dyes removal blue vegetable and blue watercolor of aqueous solutions, to 20 C, at different times and using a zeolite mineral of Parral (Chihuahua, Mexico) modified with hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide or dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide. The zeolite was characterized before and after of its adaptation with NaCl and later with HDTMABr and DTMABr. For the materials characterization were used the scanning electron microscopy of high vacuum; elementary microanalysis by X-ray spectroscopy of dispersed energy and X-ray diffraction techniques. It was found that the surfactant type absorbed in the zeolite material influences on the adsorption process of the blue dye. Likewise, the chemical structure between the vegetable blue dye and the blue watercolor, determines the efficiency of the color removal of the water, by the zeolites modified with the surfactants. (Author)

  17. Origin of colour stability in blue/orange/blue stacked phosphorescent white organic light-emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Hyun; Jang, Jyongsik; Yook, Kyoung Soo; Lee, Jun Yeob

    2009-01-01

    The origin of colour stability in phosphorescent white organic light-emitting diodes (PHWOLEDs) with a blue/orange/blue stacked emitting structure was studied by monitoring the change in a recombination zone. A balanced recombination zone shift between the blue and the orange light-emitting layers was found to be responsible for the colour stability in the blue/orange/blue stacked PHWOLEDs.

  18. Intraoral blue (Jadassohn-Tieche) nevus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasse, C D; Zoutendam, G L; Gombas, O F

    1978-05-01

    Blue nevus of the oral mucosa is a distinctly uncommon clincial entity. Careful review of the literature yielded thirty-one previously reported cases. The present article reports the occurrence of a blue nevus of the hard palate in a 58-year-old man. It is of interest since it is the smallest (1 by 1 mm.) intraoral blue nevus to be reported. A clinicopathologic study of the previous thirty-one cases and of our case suggests that this lesion has no age or sex predilection. The most common site of occurrence was the hard palate. There appears to be no tendency toward recurrence. A brief review of the historical background, clinical features, theories of possible origin, and differential diagnosis is presented. Excisional biopsy of localized areas of oral pibmentation, together with histopathologic study, is indicated to rule out melanoma.

  19. The spectrum of dermatoscopic patterns in blue nevi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cesare, Antonella; Sera, Francesco; Gulia, Andrea; Coletti, Gino; Micantonio, Tamara; Fargnoli, Maria Concetta; Peris, Ketty

    2012-08-01

    Blue nevi are congenital or acquired, dermal dendritic melanocytic proliferations that can simulate melanocytic and nonmelanocytic lesions including melanoma, cutaneous metastasis of melanoma, Spitz/Reed nevi, and basal cell carcinoma. We sought to investigate global and local dermatoscopic patterns of blue nevi compared with melanomas and basal cell carcinomas. We retrospectively analyzed global and local features in 95 dermatoscopic images of blue nevi and in 190 melanomas and basal cell carcinomas that were selected as control lesions on the basis of similar pigmentation. Lesion pigmentation was classified as monochromatic, dichromatic, or multichromatic. A global pattern characterized by homogeneous pigmentation was observed in all of 95 (100%) blue nevi. Eighty of 95 (84.2%) blue nevi presented a homogeneous pattern consisting of one color (blue, black, or brown) or two colors (blue-brown, blue-gray, or blue-black). Fifteen of 95 (15.8%) blue nevi had a multichromatic (blue, gray, black, brown, and/or red) pigmentation. In all, 47 of 95 (49.5%) blue nevi were characterized by pigmentation in the absence of pigment network or any other local dermatoscopic features. And 48 of 95 (50.5%) blue nevi showed local dermatoscopic patterns including whitish scarlike depigmentation, dots/globules, vascular pattern, streaks, and networklike pattern. The study was retrospective and involved only Caucasian people of Italian origin. The characteristic feature of blue nevi is a homogeneous pigmentation that is blue, blue-gray, blue-brown, or blue-black. We showed that a wide spectrum of local dermatoscopic features (whitish scarlike depigmentation, dots/globules, peripheral streaks or vessels) may also be present. In such cases, clinical and dermatoscopic distinction from melanoma or nonmelanocytic lesions may be difficult or impossible, and surgical excision is necessary. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The impact of purchase quantity on the compromise effect: The balance heuristic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-Hui Cheng

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Most prior research on the compromise effect has focused on single rather than multiple choices. This research investigates the potential effects of purchase quantity on the compromise effect. We propose that the share of the middle option in a trinary choice set decreases as the purchase quantity increases, because people tend to employ a balance heuristic to distribute their multiple choices among the available options to achieve a balanced state and to satisfy their variety-seeking tendency. Furthermore, we propose that the need for justification and an optimal stimulation level moderate the relationship between the number of purchase items and the compromise effect. These proposed hypotheses are supported by results from three experiments.

  1. Robust Public Key Cryptography — A New Cryptosystem Surviving Private Key Compromise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaik, Cheman

    A weakness of the present-day public key cryptosystems is that these cryptosystems do not survive private-key compromise attacks resulting from an internal breach of trust. In a competitive business environment, private key compromise is a common incident that voids the strength of public key cryptosystems such as RSA and ECC. Bribing corporate employees to disclose their secret keys and inadvertently disclosing secret information are among a plethora of practical attacks that occur at the implementation level. Once a breach of trust takes place and subsequently the private key is revealed, any public key cryptosystem fails to secure electronic data in Internet communications. The revealed key may be used by an attacker to decipher the intercepted data at an intermediary router. This weakness of public key cryptography calls for an additional security measure that enables encryptions to survive private key compromise attacks.

  2. Orthodontic space closure using simple mechanics in compromised first molar extraction spaces: Case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant M Dhole

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Orthodontic treatments involving missing or compromised first permanent molars are often challenging cases to treat considering the loss of potential anchor tooth. The case series presents orthodontic treatment in three patients with mutilated/absent first permanent molars. The treatment goals were to be accomplished by extraction of compromised teeth and retention of healthy dentition. The diagnosis and problem list needed extractions to accomplish the treatment goals. The possibility of extracting compromised first permanent molars instead of other healthy teeth was considered. A setup was done to determine the final occlusion in asymmetric extraction cases. Fixed appliances were used with simple mechanics without any additional anchorage devices. Case-based retention protocols were followed. All the three patients achieved the predetermined treatment objectives of improved esthetics and healthy and stable functional occlusion. The simple and efficient mechanics and finishing techniques for comprehensive orthodontic treatment with first molar extractions presented in the report should help clinicians when treating similar patients.

  3. Does low self-esteem predict health compromising behaviours among adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgee, R; Williams, S

    2000-10-01

    It is often believed that low self-esteem is associated with such health-compromising behaviours in adolescence as substance use, early sexual activity, eating problems and suicidal ideation. Surprisingly, there is little longitudinal research addressing this issue. This longitudinal study examines the predictive association between both global and academic self-esteem from ages 9 to 13 years, and a variety of health compromising behaviours at age 15, in a large sample of young New Zealanders. Levels of global self-esteem significantly predicted adolescent report of problem eating, suicidal ideation, and multiple health compromising behaviours. Earlier levels of self-esteem were unrelated to later substance use and early sexual activity. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for efforts to raise self-esteem among young people. Copyright 2000 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents.

  4. Coomassie Brilliant Blue G is a more potent antagonist of P2 purinergic responses than Reactive Blue 2 (Cibacron Blue 3GA) in rat parotid acinar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soltoff, S.P.; McMillian, M.K.; Talamo, B.R.

    1989-01-01

    The ability of Brilliant Blue G (Coomassie Brilliant Blue G) and Reactive Blue 2 (Cibacron Blue 3GA) to block the effects of extracellular ATP on rat parotid acinar cells was examined by evaluating their effects on ATP-stimulated 45Ca 2+ entry and the elevation of [Ca 2+ ]i (Fura 2 fluorescence). ATP (300 microM) increased the rate of Ca 2+ entry to more than 25-times the basal rate and elevated [Ca 2+ ]i to levels more than three times the basal value. Brilliant Blue G and Reactive Blue 2 greatly reduced the entry of 45 Ca 2+ into parotid cells, but the potency of Brilliant Blue G (IC50 approximately 0.4 microM) was about 100-times that of Reactive Blue 2. Fura 2 studies demonstrated that inhibitory concentrations of these compounds did not block the cholinergic response of these cells, thus demonstrating the selectivity of the dye compounds for purinergic receptors. Unlike Reactive Blue 2, effective concentrations of Brilliant Blue G did not substantially quench Fura 2 fluorescence. The greater potency of Brilliant Blue G suggests that it may be very useful in identifying P2-type purinergic receptors, especially in studies which utilize fluorescent probes

  5. Spectra and ages of blue stragglers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abt, H.A.

    1985-01-01

    A mechanism similar to Wheeler's quasi-homogeneous evolution and Finzi and Wolf's proposal for blue stragglers is proposed as the origin of the blue stragglers in intermediate-age clusters. Blue stragglers are stars whose positions in color-magnitude diagrams of open and globular clusters are significantly above the turn-off points and in the region of the (former) main sequence; they seem to represent a conflict with the general conclusion that all stars in a cluster originated at about the same time. It is concluded that there are at least two kinds of blue stragglers: (1) those stars of types about B3-A2 are primarily Ap stars and slow rotators, occur in the intermediate age clusters and remain in the main sequence region probably through magnetic mixing; and (2) the stars of type O6-B2 frequently have emission lines, are rapid rotators, occur in the young cluster, and remain in the main sequence region probably by rotational mixing. 30 references

  6. Prussian Blue Analogues of Reduced Dimensionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gengler, Regis Y. N.; Toma, Luminita M.; Pardo, Emilio; Lloret, Francesc; Ke, Xiaoxing; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Gournis, Dimitrios; Rudolf, Petra

    2012-01-01

    Mixed-valence polycyanides (Prussian Blue analogues) possess a rich palette of properties spanning from room-temperature ferromagnetism to zero thermal expansion, which can be tuned by chemical modifications or the application of external stimuli (temperature, pressure, light irradiation). While

  7. Blue whales respond to anthropogenic noise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana L Melcón

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic noise may significantly impact exposed marine mammals. This work studied the vocalization response of endangered blue whales to anthropogenic noise sources in the mid-frequency range using passive acoustic monitoring in the Southern California Bight. Blue whales were less likely to produce calls when mid-frequency active sonar was present. This reduction was more pronounced when the sonar source was closer to the animal, at higher sound levels. The animals were equally likely to stop calling at any time of day, showing no diel pattern in their sensitivity to sonar. Conversely, the likelihood of whales emitting calls increased when ship sounds were nearby. Whales did not show a differential response to ship noise as a function of the time of the day either. These results demonstrate that anthropogenic noise, even at frequencies well above the blue whales' sound production range, has a strong probability of eliciting changes in vocal behavior. The long-term implications of disruption in call production to blue whale foraging and other behaviors are currently not well understood.

  8. African Retentions in Blues and Jazz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Eddie S.

    1979-01-01

    The perseverance of African musical characteristics among American Blacks is an historic reality. African retentions have been recorded in Black music of the antebellum period. Various African scales and rhythms permeate Black American music today as evidenced in the retentions found in blues and jazz. (RLV)

  9. Nanotubes based on monolayer blue phosphorus

    KAUST Repository

    Montes Muñoz, Enrique

    2016-07-08

    We demonstrate structural stability of monolayer zigzag and armchair blue phosphorus nanotubes by means of molecular dynamics simulations. The vibrational spectrum and electronic band structure are determined and analyzed as functions of the tube diameter and axial strain. The nanotubes are found to be semiconductors with a sensitive indirect band gap that allows flexible tuning.

  10. Statistical thermodynamics of supercapacitors and blue engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Roij, R.H.H.G.

    2013-01-01

    We study the thermodynamics of electrode-electrolyte systems, for instance supercapacitors filled with an ionic liquid or blue-energy devices filled with river- or sea water. By a suitable mapping of thermodynamic variables, we identify a strong analogy with classical heat engines. We introduce

  11. Improper, Blue-Shifting Hydrogen Bond

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hobza, Pavel; Havlas, Zdeněk

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 108, - (2002), s. 325-334 ISSN 1432-881X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905; CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : improper, blue-shifting hydrogen bond * properties * nature Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.421, year: 2002

  12. Blue laser phase change recording system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, Holger; Dambach, S.Soeren; Richter, Hartmut

    2002-01-01

    The migration paths from DVD phase change recording with red laser to the next generation optical disk formats with blue laser and high NA optics are discussed with respect to optical aberration margins and disc capacities. A test system for the evaluation of phase change disks with more than 20 GB capacity is presented and first results of the recording performance are shown

  13. The Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxy IZw18

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musella, I.; Marconi, M.; Fiorentino, G.; Clementini, G.; Aloisi, A.; Annibali, F.; Contreras, R.; Saha, A.; Tosi, M.; van der Marel, R. P.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results obtained for the Blue compact galaxy IZw18 on the basis of ACS HST data obtained from our group. In particular, we discuss the stellar population and the variable stars content of this galaxy to get information about its star formation history and distance.

  14. Biodecolorization and biodegradation of Reactive Blue by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-06-18

    Jun 18, 2007 ... Aspergillus sp. effectively decolorized Reactive Blue and other structurally different synthetic dyes. Agitation was found to be an important ... Few chemically different dyes such as Reactive Black (75%), Reactive Yellow (70%),. Reactive Red (33%) and ..... Degradation of azo dyes by the lignin degrading ...

  15. T's and Blues. Specialized Information Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do It Now Foundation, Phoenix, AZ.

    This compilation of journal articles provides basic information on abuse of Talwin, a mild prescription painkiller (T's), and Pyribenzamine, a nonprescription antihistimine (Blues). These two drugs, taken in combination, produce an effect similar to that produced by heroin. Stories from "Drug Survival News,""Emergency…

  16. [The dangers of blue light: True story!].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, G; Leid, J

    2016-05-01

    The dangers of the blue light are the object of numerous publications, for both the scientific community and the general public. The new prolific development of light sources emitting potentially toxic blue light (415-455nm) ranges from LED (Light Emitting Diodes) lamps for interior lighting to television screens, computers, digital tablets and smartphones using OLED (Organic Light Emitting Diode) or AMOLED (Active-Matrix Organic Light Emitting Diode) technology. First we will review some technical terms and the main characteristics of light perceived by the human eye. Then we will discuss scientific proof of the toxicity of blue light to the eye, which may cause cataract or macular degeneration. Analysis of the light spectra of several light sources, from natural light to LED lamps, will allow us to specify even better the dangers related to each light source. LED lamps, whether used as components for interior lighting or screens, are of concern if they are used for extended viewing times and at short distance. While we can protect ourselves from natural blue light by wearing colored glasses which filter out, on both front and back surfaces, the toxic wavelengths, it is more difficult to protect oneself from LED lamps in internal lighting, the use of which should be restricted to "white warmth" lamps (2700K). As far as OLED or AMOLED screens are concerned, the only effective protection consists of using them occasionally and only for a short period of time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Blue LED irradiation to hydration of skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Priscila F. C.; Requena, Michelle B.; Lizarelli, Rosane F., Z.; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.

    2015-06-01

    Blue LED system irradiation shows many important properties on skin as: bacterial decontamination, degradation of endogenous skin chromophores and biostimulation. In this clinical study we prove that the blue light improves the skin hydration. In the literature none authors reports this biological property on skin. Then this study aims to discuss the role of blue light in the skin hydration. Twenty patients were selected to this study with age between 25-35 years old and phototype I, II and III. A defined area from forearm was pre determined (A = 4.0 cm2). The study was randomized in two treatment groups using one blue light device (power of 5.3mW and irradiance of 10.8mW/cm2). The first treatment group was irradiated with 3J/cm2 (277seconds) and the second with 6J/cm2 (555 seconds). The skin hydration evaluations were done using a corneometer. The measurements were collected in 7, 14, 21 and 30 days, during the treatment. Statistical test of ANOVA, Tukey and T-Student were applied considering 5% of significance. In conclusion, both doses were able to improve the skin hydration; however, 6J/cm2 has kept this hydration for 30 days.

  18. Biodecolorization and biodegradation of Reactive Blue by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aspergillus sp. effectively decolorized Reactive Blue and other structurally different synthetic dyes. Agitation was found to be an important parameter, while glucose (99%), sucrose (97%) and mannitol (98%) were the best carbon sources for the decolorization. Decolorization was effective in an acidic environment (pH 3).

  19. Coordinating and Negotiating Blue Nile Water Resource Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geressu, R. T.; Harou, J. J.

    2016-12-01

    Many countries are proposing new reservoirs in transboundary river basins world-wide that impact downstream regions. Failure to consider and incorporate multiple stakeholder interests in system design and decision making could contribute to regional disputes. Negotiated introduction of new assets and associated coordination strategies (e.g. cost and power sharing arrangements) could reduce conflict and help achieve consensus. In multi-stakeholders problems, parties are likely to prioritize performance targets differently and hence will often prefer different water system designs, stalling negotiations. An ideal solution is where individual and group benefits are maximized by allocating (exchanging) resources according to the relative preferences of stakeholders. Hence, a negotiation support mechanism should be able to incorporate stakeholder preference information. In this paper, we propose a three-step search & deliberate, elicit preferences, and search & negotiate approach for supporting negotiations in complex infrastructure-environmental systems. The approach seeks to find designs and coordination mechanisms that are more beneficial than non-cooperative actions. The proposed approach is applied to a stylized Blue Nile reservoir design problem in Ethiopia seeking to set reservoir capacity and operating rules. We consider cost and energy performance metrics for Ethiopia and energy and irrigation water supply in Sudan. We use example stakeholder (i.e., Ethiopian and Sudanese) priorities for demonstration purpose. The result is an agreed system design and coordination schemes (co-financing and power trade). The application results demonstrate that incorporating coordination strategies, such as energy trade, cost sharing, and financing in assessing transboundary reservoir development options could help find compromise designs that different parties can support.

  20. The lithium abundance of M67 blue stragglers - A constraint on the blue straggler phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pritchet, C.J.; Glaspey, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    Upper limits have been placed on the line strength of the 6707 A Li I resonance doublet in seven blue stragglers in M67. The corresponding upper limits on abundances range from log N(Li) less than about 1.3 to less than about 2.3. This result is significantly below the level of log N(Li) about 3.1 + or - 0.1 found in field main-sequence stars of comparable temperature. It is concluded that some form of mixing has affected the outer envelopes of blue stragglers. (Such mixing has been proposed as the mechanism needed to prolong the lifetimes of blue stragglers relative to normal main-sequence stars at the same luminosity). Virtually all mechanisms for the production of blue stragglers other than mixing, binary mass transfer, or binary coalescence appear to be ruled out by the present observations. 45 refs

  1. Hubble's View of Little Blue Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-02-01

    The recent discovery of a new type of tiny, star-forming galaxy is the latest in a zoo of detections shedding light on our early universe. What can we learn from the unique little blue dots found in archival Hubble data?Peas, Berries, and DotsGreen pea galaxies identified by citizen scientists with Galaxy Zoo. [Richard Nowell Carolin Cardamone]As telescope capabilities improve and we develop increasingly deeper large-scale surveys of our universe, we continue to learn more about small, faraway galaxies. In recent years, increasing sensitivity first enabled the detection of green peas luminous, compact, low-mass (10 billion solar masses; compare this to the Milky Ways 1 trillion solar masses!) galaxies with high rates of star formation.Not long thereafter, we discovered galaxies that form stars similarly rapidly, but are even smaller only 330 million solar masses, spanning less than 3,000 light-years in size. These tiny powerhouses were termed blueberries for their distinctive color.Now, scientists Debra and Bruce Elmegreen (of Vassar College and IBM Research Division, respectively) report the discovery of galaxies that have even higher star formation rates and even lower masses: little blue dots.Exploring Tiny Star FactoriesThe Elmegreens discovered these unique galaxies by exploring archival Hubble data. The Hubble Frontier Fields data consist of deep images of six distant galaxy clusters and the parallel fields next to them. It was in the archival data for two Frontier Field Parallels, those for clusters Abell 2744 and MAS J0416.1-2403, that the authors noticed several galaxies that stand out as tiny, bright, blue objects that are nearly point sources.Top: a few examples of the little blue dots recently identified in two Hubble Frontier Field Parallels. Bottom: stacked images for three different groups of little blue dots. [Elmegreen Elmegreen 2017]The authors performed a search through the two Frontier Field Parallels, discovering a total of 55 little blue dots

  2. Blue-light emitting triazolopyridinium and triazoloquinolinium salts

    KAUST Repository

    Carboni, Valentina; Su, Xin; Qian, Hai; Aprahamian, Ivan; Credi, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Compounds that emit blue light are of interest for applications that include optoelectronic devices and chemo/biosensing and imaging. The design and synthesis of small organic molecules that can act as high-efficiency deep-blue-light emitters

  3. Unraveling the Mystery of the Blue Fog: Structure, Properties, and Applications of Amorphous Blue Phase III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Sahil Sandesh; Chien, Liang-Chy

    2017-12-01

    The amorphous blue phase III of cholesteric liquid crystals, also known as the "blue fog," are among the rising stars in materials science that can potentially be used to develop next-generation displays with the ability to compete toe-to-toe with disruptive technologies like organic light-emitting diodes. The structure and properties of the practically unobservable blue phase III have eluded scientists for more than a century since it was discovered. This progress report reviews the developments in this field from both fundamental and applied research perspectives. The first part of this progress report gives an overview of the 130-years-long scientific tour-de-force that very recently resulted in the revelation of the mysterious structure of blue phase III. The second part reviews progress made in the past decade in developing electrooptical, optical, and photonic devices based on blue phase III. The strong and weak aspects of the development of these devices are underlined and criticized, respectively. The third- and-final part proposes ideas for further improvement in blue phase III technology to make it feasible for commercialization and widespread use. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. The Blue Coma: The Role of Methylene Blue in Unexplained Coma After Cardiac Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Enrico Antonio; Winterton, Dario; Nardelli, Pasquale; Pasin, Laura; Calabrò, Maria Grazia; Bove, Tiziana; Fanelli, Giovanna; Zangrillo, Alberto; Landoni, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    Methylene blue commonly is used as a dye or an antidote, but also can be used off label as a vasopressor. Serotonin toxicity is a potentially lethal and often misdiagnosed condition that can result from drug interaction. Mild serotonin toxicity previously was reported in settings in which methylene blue was used as a dye. The authors report 3 cases of life-threatening serotonin toxicity in patients undergoing chronic selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) therapy who also underwent cardiac surgery and received methylene blue to treat vasoplegic syndrome. An observational study. A cardiothoracic intensive care unit (ICU) in a teaching hospital. Three patients who received methylene blue after cardiac surgery, later discovered to be undergoing chronic SSRI therapy. None. All 3 patients received high doses of fentanyl during general anesthesia. They all developed vasoplegic syndrome and consequently were given methylene blue in the ICU. All 3 patients developed serotonin toxicity, including coma, after this administration and diagnostic tests were negative for acute intracranial pathology. Coma lasted between 1 and 5 days. Two patients were discharged from the ICU shortly after awakening, whereas the third patient experienced a complicated postoperative course for concomitant refractory low-cardiac-output syndrome. Patients undergoing chronic SSRI therapy should not be administered methylene blue to treat vasoplegic syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. 76 FR 17843 - Intent To Compromise Claim Against the District of Columbia Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... District of Columbia Public Schools (DCPS) now pending before the Office of Administrative Law Judges (OALJ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Intent To Compromise Claim Against the District of Columbia Public Schools... Application for Review of this PDL with the Office of Administrative Law Judges (OALJ) on September 10, 2007...

  6. Safety and Efficacy of Alginate Adhesion Barrier Gel in Compromised Intestinal Anastomosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaturvedi, A.; Yauw, S.T.K.; Lomme, R.M.L.M.; Hendriks, T.; Goor, H. van

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For any anti-adhesive barrier developed for abdominal surgery, the use under conditions in which anastomotic healing is compromised needs to be investigated. The current study evaluates the effect of a new ultrapure alginate gel on early healing of high-risk anastomoses in the ileum and

  7. 32 CFR 310.14 - Notification when information is lost, stolen, or compromised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DOD PRIVACY PROGRAM Systems of Records § 310.14... the individual of any loss, theft, or compromise (See also, § 310.50 for reporting of the breach to Senior Component Official for Privacy and the Defense Privacy Office). (1) The notification shall be made...

  8. Towards a legitimate compromise?: An exploration of Integrated Reporting in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bommel, K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the multiplicity of views on integrated reporting and to consider the possibility of, and impediments to, reconciling these multiple rationales (“orders of worth”) and thus gain legitimacy through a compromise. This sheds light on the understanding

  9. Using Emergence Theory-Based Curriculum to Teach Compromise Skills to Students with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fein, Lance; Jones, Don

    2015-01-01

    This study addresses the compromise skills that are taught to students diagnosed with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and related social and communication deficits. A private school in the southeastern United States implemented an emergence theory-based curriculum to address these skills, yet no formal analysis was conducted to determine its…

  10. A method for identifying compromised clients based on DNS traffic analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevanovic, Matija; Pedersen, Jens Myrup; D’Alconzo, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    DNS is widely abused by Internet criminals in order to provide reliable communication within malicious network infrastructure as well as flexible and resilient hosting of malicious content. This paper presents a novel detection method that can be used for identifying potentially compromised clien...

  11. Understanding Youth's Health-Compromising Behaviors in Germany: An Application of the Risk-Behavior Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazard, Barbara P.; Lee, Che-Fu

    1999-01-01

    Analyzed the health-compromising behaviors of German youth using responses of 2,330 seventh, eighth, and ninth graders from the German Youth Study. Smoking and drinking are not seen by these students as health-threatening behaviors, but as socially appealing behaviors. Discusses implications for health education. (SLD)

  12. Clustering of health-compromising behavior and delinquency in adolescents and adults in the Dutch population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, Maroesjka; Junger, Marianne; Klein Velderman, Mariska; Wiefferink, Karin H.; Paulussen, Theo W. G. M.; Hox, Joop; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    Objective. This study investigates the clustering of a broad range of health-compromising and delinquent behaviors. We examine whether these behaviors belong to a single but broad cluster. 'risk-taking behavior', and whether the nature and degree of clustering in adolescents differs from that in

  13. Predicting intrapartum fetal compromise using the fetal cerebro-umbilical ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabdia, S; Greer, R M; Prior, T; Kumar, S

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the association between the cerebro-umbilical ratio measured at 35-37 weeks and intrapartum fetal compromise. This retrospective cross sectional study was conducted at the Mater Mothers' Hospital in Brisbane, Australia. Maternal demographics and fetal Doppler indices at 35-37 weeks gestation for 1381 women were correlated with intrapartum and neonatal outcomes. Babies born by caesarean section or instrumental delivery for fetal compromise had the lowest median cerebro-umbilical ratio 1.60 (IQR 1.22-2.08) compared to all other delivery groups (vaginal delivery, emergency delivery for failure to progress, emergency caesarean section for other reasons or elective caesarean section). The percentage of infants with a cerebro-umbilical ratio cerebro-umbilical ratio between the 10th-90th centile and 9.6% of infants with a cerebro-umbilical ratio > 90th centile required delivery for the same indication (p cerebro-umbilical ratio was associated with an increased risk of emergency delivery for fetal compromise, OR 2.03 (95% CI 1.41-2.92), p cerebro-umbilical ratio measured at 35-37 weeks is associated with a greater risk of intrapartum compromise. This is a relatively simple technique which could be used to risk stratify women in diverse healthcare settings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Is patient confidentiality compromised with the electronic health record?: a position paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Ilse M

    2015-02-01

    In order for electronic health records to fulfill their expected benefits, protection of privacy of patient information is key. Lack of trust in confidentiality can lead to reluctance in disclosing all relevant information, which could have grave consequences. This position paper contemplates whether patient confidentiality is compromised by electronic health records. The position that confidentiality is compromised was supported by the four bioethical principles and argued that despite laws and various safeguards to protect patients' confidentiality, numerous data breaches have occurred. The position that confidentiality is not compromised was supported by virtue ethics and a utilitarian viewpoint and argued that safeguards keep information confidential and the public feels relatively safe with the electronic health record. The article concludes with an ethically superior position that confidentiality is compromised with the electronic health record. Although organizational and governmental ways of enhancing the confidentiality of patient information within the electronic health record facilitate confidentiality, the ultimate responsibility of maintaining confidentiality rests with the individual end-users and their ethical code of conduct. The American Nurses Association Code of Ethics for nurses calls for nurses to be watchful with data security in electronic communications.

  15. Advanced medical life support procedures in vitally compromised children by a helicopter emergency medical service.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritse, B.M.; Schalkwijk, A.; Pelzer, B.J.; Scheffer, G.J.; Draaisma, J.M.T.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To determine the advanced life support procedures provided by an Emergency Medical Service (EMS) and a Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS) for vitally compromised children. Incidence and success rate of several procedures were studied, with a distinction made between procedures

  16. Principles of treatment planning for compromised first permanent molars in mixed dentition period: A review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrad Tanbakuchi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: The first permanent molar is susceptible to caries, endodontic complications and developmental anomalies. Compromised teeth with poor prognosis could cause the clinician to face dilemmas. The aim of this review article was to assess recent guidelines on the treatment planning of compromised first permanent molars in mixed dentition period. Materials and Methods: The design of the study was based on review of literature by searching the MEDLINE, Web of science and Google scholar. Key words (permanent first molar, extraction, treatment plan were used. This search was limited to the English articles published after the year 2000. Conclusion: A number of factors influenced decision-making process regarding compromised first permanent molars including the restorative status of the tooth, dental age of the patient, degree of crowding and occlusal relationships were assessed. The ideal time for removal of these teeth was 8-9 years of age. However, the current evidence for managing compromised first permanent molars demands clinical trials.

  17. Comment on "Compromised birth outcomes and infant mortality among racial and ethnic groups"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Veen, WJ

    Frisbie, Forbes, and Pullum (1996) show that it is meaningful to account for low birth weight, preterm delivery, and intrauterine growth-retardation when analyzing differences in compromised birth outcomes and infant mortality among racial and ethnic groups. I compare their findings for the 1987

  18. 7 CFR 4290.1710 - Secretary's authority to collect or compromise claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANY (âRBICâ) PROGRAM Financial Assistance for RBICs (Leverage) Miscellaneous § 4290.1710... consideration as he or she deems reasonable, collect or compromise all claims relating to obligations he or she...

  19. Aspen biology, community classification, and management in the Blue Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    David K. Swanson; Craig L. Schmitt; Diane M. Shirley; Vicky Erickson; Kenneth J. Schuetz; Michael L. Tatum; David C. Powell

    2010-01-01

    Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) is a valuable species that is declining in the Blue Mountains of northeastern Oregon. This publication is a compilation of over 20 years of aspen management experience by USDA Forest Service workers in the Blue Mountains. It includes a summary of aspen biology and occurrence in the Blue Mountains, and a...

  20. Alcian blue-stained particles in a eutrophic lake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, J.; Søndergaard, Morten

    1998-01-01

    We used a neutral solution of Alcian Blue to stain transparent particles in eutrophic Lake Frederiksborg Slotss0, Denmark. Alcian Blue-stained particles (ABSP) appeared to be similar to the so-called transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) identified with an acidic solution of Alcian Blue. Our...

  1. Blue whales Balaenoptera musculus off Angola: recent sightings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Further survey work is required to better clarify the status of blue whales in Angolan waters, particularly with regard to population structure and potential calving grounds. Keywords: Antarctic blue whale, calving, catch data, pygmy blue whale, South-East Atlantic, stomach contents. African Journal of Marine Science 2014, ...

  2. Blue light phototherapy for Psoriasis from a systems biology perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Félix Garza, Z.C.; Liebmann, J.; Hilbers, P.A.J.; Riel, van N.A.W.

    2014-01-01

    This work analyses the effect of UV-free blue light (BL) irradiation of the skin using mathematical modelling. Prior research has shown that blue light reduces the proliferation of keratinocytes by inducing their differentiation, and causes apoptosis of lymphocytes. The effects of blue light on

  3. FIXED-BED COLUMN ADSORPTION OF METHYL BLUE USING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    Axle Wood Carbon (AWC) was used to study the removal of Methyl Blue (MB) from ... height, initial methyl blue (MB) concentration, .... colour from blue to dark purple- .... Environ. Earth Sci. 13; 1–13. Yagub, M. T., Sen, T. K., Afroze, S., and Ang,.

  4. Factors influencing treatment decision-making for maintaining or extracting compromised teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang-Hua, Bich Hue; McGrath, Colman P J; Lo, Edward C M; Lang, Niklaus P

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate treatment decision-making with respect to maintaining periodontally compromised teeth among dentists with or without postgraduate qualifications in implant dentistry. A series of patient scenarios with varying degrees of periodontal disease levels was presented to dental practitioners. Practitioners' decision-making outcome was determined, and intention to retain the compromised teeth was analyzed in bivariate and regression analyses (accounting for postgraduate implant training, gender, years in dental practice, and implant placement experience). This study involved 30 dental practitioners with postgraduate implant qualifications (GDPP), 33 dental practitioners without postgraduate implant qualifications (GDP), and 27 practitioners undergoing training for postgraduate implant qualifications (GDPT). Variations in treatment decision-making were evident between the three groups. Differences in treatment approaches to retaining compromised teeth were apparent. Furthermore, variations in rehabilitation of extracted scenarios existed in terms of use of implant and number of implants need for rehabilitation. Accounting for dentist and practice factors in regression analyses, GDPP/GDPT were three times as likely to retain periodontally compromised upper molar, with or without pain, compared to GDP (without pain OR 3.10, 95%CI 1.04, 10.62 P = 0.04; with pain OR 3.08, 95%CI 1.09, 8.14 P = 0.03). Variations in treatment decision-making with respect to retaining periodontally compromised teeth exist between dental practitioners with and those without postgraduate training in implant dentistry. Furthermore differences in management approaches in how they would retain the teeth or rehabilitate the dental arch were apparent. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Influence of political opposition and compromise on conservation outcomes in the Tongass National Forest, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Colin M

    2008-12-01

    To understand how a highly contentious policy process influenced a major conservation effort, I examined the origins, compromises, and outcomes of the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act of 1980 (ANILCA) for the Tongass National Forest. Tongass wilderness designation was among the most controversial issues in the ANILCA debate, and it faced strong opposition from influential lawmakers, land managers, and Alaska residents. To investigate the influence of this opposition on Tongass conservation outcomes, I conducted a gap analysis of Tongass reserves and a policy analysis of the ANILCA debate and traced the influence of specific interests through the amendments, negotiations, and resulting compromises needed to enact ANILCA. Overall, I found that Tongass reserves comprise a broadly representative cross-section of ecosystems and species habitats in southeastern Alaska. Redrawn reserve boundaries, industry subsidies, and special access regulations reflected compromises to minimize the impact of wilderness conservation on mining, timber, and local stakeholder interests, respectively. Fragmentation of the Admiralty Island National Monument-the most ecologically valuable and politically controversial reserve-resulted from compromises with Alaskan Native (indigenous peoples of Alaska) corporations and timber interests. Despite language to accommodate "reasonable access" to wilderness reserves, ongoing access limitations highlight the concerns of Alaska residents that opposed ANILCA several decades ago. More broadly, the Tongass case suggests that early and ambitious conservation action may offset strong political opposition; compromises needed to establish key reserves often exacerbate development impacts in unprotected areas; and efforts to minimize social conflicts are needed to safeguard the long-term viability of conservation measures.

  6. Poporodní blues – česká adaptace dotazníku „Maternity blues questionnaire“

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Takács, L.; Smolík, Filip; Mlíková Seidlerová, J.; Čepický, P.; Hoskovcová, S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 81, č. 5 (2016), s. 355-368 ISSN 1210-7832 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : EPDS postpartum mood * Maternity Blues Questionnaire * postnatal depression * postpartum blues * postpartum depression Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  7. Blue green component and integrated urban design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Srđan M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to demonstrate the hidden potential of blue green components, in a synergetic network, not as separate systems, like used in past. The innovative methodology of the project Blue Green Dream is presented through examples of good practice. A new approach in the project initiate thoughtful planning and remodeling of the settlement for the modern man. Professional and scientific public is looking for way to create more healthy and stimulating place for living. However, offered integrative solutions still remain out of urban and architectural practice. Tested technologies in current projects confirmed measurability of innovative approaches and lessons learned. Scientific and professional contributions are summarized in master's and doctoral theses that have been completed or are in process of writing.

  8. BD+43° 3654 - a blue straggler?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.; Bomans, D. J.

    2008-07-01

    The astrometric data on the runaway star BD+43° 3654 are consistent with the origin of this O4If star in the center of the Cyg OB2 association, while BD+43° 3654 is younger than the association. To reconcile this discrepancy, we suggest that BD+43° 3654 is a blue straggler formed via a close encounter between two tight massive binaries in the core of Cyg OB2. A possible implication of this suggestion is that the very massive (and therefore apparently very young) stars in Cyg OB2 could be blue stragglers as well. We also suggest that the binary-binary encounter producing BD+43° 3654 might be responsible for ejection of two high-velocity stars (the stripped helium cores of massive stars) - the progenitors of the pulsars B2020+28 and B2021+51.

  9. Measuring Blue Space Visibility and 'Blue Recreation' in the Everyday Lives of Children in a Capital City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Amber L; Bottomley, Ross; Chambers, Tim; Thornton, Lukar; Stanley, James; Smith, Moira; Barr, Michelle; Signal, Louise

    2017-05-26

    Blue spaces (water bodies) may promote positive mental and physical health through opportunities for relaxation, recreation, and social connections. However, we know little about the nature and extent of everyday exposure to blue spaces, particularly in settings outside the home or among children, nor whether exposure varies by individual or household characteristics. Wearable cameras offer a novel, reliable method for blue space exposure measurement. In this study, we used images from cameras worn over two days by 166 children in Wellington, New Zealand, and conducted content and blue space quantification analysis on each image ( n = 749,389). Blue space was identified in 24,721 images (3.6%), with a total of 23 blue recreation events. Visual exposure and participation in blue recreation did not differ by ethnicity, weight status, household deprivation, or residential proximity to the coastline. Significant differences in both visual exposure to blue space and participation in blue recreation were observed, whereby children from the most deprived schools had significantly higher rates of blue space exposure than children from low deprivation schools. Schools may be important settings to promote equitable blue space exposures. Childhood exposures to blue space may not follow the expected income inequality trends observed among adults.

  10. 76 FR 22923 - Wellpoint, Inc. D/B/A/Anthem Blue Cross & Blue Shield Enterprise Provider Data Management Team...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    .../B/A/Anthem Blue Cross & Blue Shield Enterprise Provider Data Management Team Including On-Site... & Blue Shield, Enterprise Provider Data Management Team, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Kelly... Of Kentucky, Enterprise Provider Data Management Team, Louisville, Kentucky TA-W-74,895B Wellpoint...

  11. Statistical thermodynamics of supercapacitors and blue engines

    OpenAIRE

    van Roij, René

    2012-01-01

    We study the thermodynamics of electrode-electrolyte systems, for instance supercapacitors filled with an ionic liquid or blue-energy devices filled with river- or sea water. By a suitable mapping of thermodynamic variables, we identify a strong analogy with classical heat engines. We introduce several Legendre transformations and Maxwell relations. We argue that one should distinguish between the differential capacity at constant ion number and at constant ion chemical potential, and derive ...

  12. Radiolysis of methylene blue studied by ESR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contineau, M.; Iliescu, C.; Ciureanu, M.

    1983-01-01

    Electron spin resonance spectra have been used to gain information on the mechanism of radiolysis of aqueous solutions of methylene blue. The identity and behaviour of the semiquinone radicals formed as intermediate reduction products were discussed for strongly acid and for alcaline solutions. In order to obtain information on the radiolytic mechanism in strongly acidic media, irradiation was performed in the presence of various types of scavengers: sodium formate, glucose, succinic acid, hydroquinone and D,L-α alanine. (author)

  13. FROM CIRCULAR ECONOMY TO BLUE ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iustin-Emanuel, ALEXANDRU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Addressing the subject of this essay is based on the background ideas generated by a new branch of science - Biomimicry. According to European Commissioner for the Environment, "Nature is the perfect model of circular economy". Therefore, by imitating nature, we are witnessing a process of cycle redesign: production-consumption-recycling. The authors present some reflections on the European Commission's decision to adopt after July 1, 2014 new measures concerning the development of more circular economies. Starting from the principles of Ecolonomy, which is based on the whole living paradigm, this paper argues for the development within each economy of entrepreneurial policies related to the Blue economy. In its turn, Blue economy is based on scientific analyses that identify the best solutions in a business. Thus, formation of social capital will lead to healthier and cheaper products, which will stimulate entrepreneurship. Blue economy is another way of thinking economic practice and is a new model of business design. It is a healthy, sustainable business, designed for people. In fact, it is the core of the whole living paradigm through which, towards 2020, circular economy will grow more and more.

  14. 'Blue Whale Challenge': A Game or Crime?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhra, Richa; Baryah, Neha; Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj

    2017-11-11

    A bewildering range of games are emerging every other day with newer elements of fun and entertainment to woo youngsters. Games are meant to reduce stress and enhance the cognitive development of children as well as adults. Teenagers are always curious to indulge in newer games; and e-gaming is one such platform providing an easy access and quicker means of entertainment. The particular game challenge which has taken the world by storm is the dangerous "Blue Whale Challenge" often involving vulnerable teenagers. The Blue Whale Challenge is neither an application nor internet based game but the users get a link through social media chat groups to enter this "deadly" challenge game. This probably is the only game where the participant has to end his/her life to complete the game. The innocent teenagers are being targeted based on their depressed psychology and are coercively isolated from their social milieux on the pretext of keeping the challenges confidential. To add to the woes, no option is offered to quit the challenge even if the contender is unable to complete the challenge. Blue Whale Challenge in its sheer form could be seen as an illegal, unethical and inhumane endeavor in our present society. The present communication discusses the severe effects of the game on teenagers, the ethical concerns involved and the preventive measures necessary to curb it.

  15. Synchrotron powder diffraction on Aztec blue pigments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez del Rio, M. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, B.P. 220, Grenoble Cedex (France); Gutierrez-Leon, A.; Castro, G.R.; Rubio-Zuazo, J. [Spanish CRG Beamline at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, SpLine, B.P. 220, Grenoble Cedex (France); Solis, C. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Fisica, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Sanchez-Hernandez, R. [INAH Subdireccion de Laboratorios y Apoyo Academico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Robles-Camacho, J. [INAH Centro Regional Michoacan, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Rojas-Gaytan, J. [INAH Direccion de Salvamento Arqueologico, Naucalpan de Juarez (Mexico)

    2008-01-15

    Some samples of raw blue pigments coming from an archaeological rescue mission in downtown Mexico City have been characterized using different techniques. The samples, some recovered as a part of a ritual offering, could be assigned to the late Aztec period (XVth century). The striking characteristic of these samples is that they seem to be raw pigments prior to any use in artworks, and it was possible to collect a few {mu}g of pigment after manual grain selection under a microscopy monitoring. All pigments are made of indigo, an organic colorant locally known as anil or xiuhquilitl. The colorant is always found in combination with an inorganic matrix, studied by powder diffraction. In one case the mineral base is palygorskite, a rare clay mineral featuring micro-channels in its structure, well known as the main ingredient of the Maya blue pigment. However, other samples present the minerals sepiolite (a clay mineral of the palygorskite family) and calcite. Another sample contains barite, a mineral never reported in prehispanic paints. We present the results of characterization using high resolution powder diffraction recorded at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BM25A, SpLine beamline) complemented with other techniques. All of them gave consistent results on the composition. A chemical test on resistance to acids was done, showing a high resistance for the palygorskite and eventually sepiolite compounds, in good agreement with the excellent resistance of the Maya blue. (orig.)

  16. Synchrotron powder diffraction on Aztec blue pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Del Río, M.; Gutiérrez-León, A.; Castro, G. R.; Rubio-Zuazo, J.; Solís, C.; Sánchez-Hernández, R.; Robles-Camacho, J.; Rojas-Gaytán, J.

    2008-01-01

    Some samples of raw blue pigments coming from an archaeological rescue mission in downtown Mexico City have been characterized using different techniques. The samples, some recovered as a part of a ritual offering, could be assigned to the late Aztec period (XVth century). The striking characteristic of these samples is that they seem to be raw pigments prior to any use in artworks, and it was possible to collect a few μg of pigment after manual grain selection under a microscopy monitoring. All pigments are made of indigo, an organic colorant locally known as añil or xiuhquilitl. The colorant is always found in combination with an inorganic matrix, studied by powder diffraction. In one case the mineral base is palygorskite, a rare clay mineral featuring micro-channels in its structure, well known as the main ingredient of the Maya blue pigment. However, other samples present the minerals sepiolite (a clay mineral of the palygorskite family) and calcite. Another sample contains barite, a mineral never reported in prehispanic paints. We present the results of characterization using high resolution powder diffraction recorded at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BM25A, SpLine beamline) complemented with other techniques. All of them gave consistent results on the composition. A chemical test on resistance to acids was done, showing a high resistance for the palygorskite and eventually sepiolite compounds, in good agreement with the excellent resistance of the Maya blue.

  17. Nature's palette: the search for natural blue colorants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsome, Andrew G; Culver, Catherine A; van Breemen, Richard B

    2014-07-16

    The food and beverage industry is seeking to broaden the palette of naturally derived colorants. Although considerable effort has been devoted to the search for new blue colorants in fruits and vegetables, less attention has been directed toward blue compounds from other sources such as bacteria and fungi. The current work reviews known organic blue compounds from natural plant, animal, fungal, and microbial sources. The scarcity of blue-colored metabolites in the natural world relative to metabolites of other colors is discussed, and structural trends common among natural blue compounds are identified. These compounds are grouped into seven structural classes and evaluated for their potential as new color additives.

  18. Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250 Dye: An Application for Forensic Fingerprint Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelle, Erica; Le, Anh Minh; Huynh, Crystal; Wingfield, Kelly; Halámková, Lenka; Agudelo, Juliana; Halámek, Jan

    2017-04-04

    The Bradford reagent, comprised of the Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250 dye, methanol, and phosphoric acid, has been traditionally used for quantifying proteins. Use of this reagent in the Bradford assay relies on the binding of the Coomassie Blue G-250 dye to proteins. However, the ability of the dye to react with a small group of amino acids (arginine, histidine, lysine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan) makes it a viable chemical assay for fingerprint analysis in order to identify the biological sex of the fingerprint originator. It is recognized that the identification of biological sex has been readily accomplished using two other methods; however, both of those systems are reliant upon a large group of amino acids, 23 to be precise. The Bradford assay, described here, was developed specifically to aid in the transition from targeting large groups of amino acids, as demonstrated in the previous studies, to targeting only a single amino acid without compromising the intensity of the response and/or the ability to differentiate between two attributes. In this work, we aim to differentiate between female fingerprints and male fingerprints.

  19. Formation of highly toxic hydrogen cyanide upon ruby laser irradiation of the tattoo pigment phthalocyanine blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiver, Ines; Hutzler, Christoph; Laux, Peter; Berlien, Hans-Peter; Luch, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    Since laser treatment of tattoos is the favored method for the removing of no longer wanted permanent skin paintings, analytical, biokinetics and toxicological data on the fragmentation pattern of commonly used pigments are urgently required for health safety reasons. Applying dynamic headspace—gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (DHS—GC/MS) and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC—ToF-MS), we identified 1,2-benzene dicarbonitrile, benzonitrile, benzene, and the poisonous gas hydrogen cyanide (HCN) as main fragmentation products emerging dose-dependently upon ruby laser irradiation of the popular blue pigment copper phthalocyanine in suspension. Skin cell viability was found to be significantly compromised at cyanide levels of ≥1 mM liberated during ruby laser irradiation of >1.5 mg/ml phthalocyanine blue. Further, for the first time we introduce pyrolysis-GC/MS as method suitable to simulate pigment fragmentation that may occur spontaneously or during laser removal of organic pigments in the living skin of tattooed people. According to the literature such regular tattoos hold up to 9 mg pigment/cm2 skin.

  20. Sand Floor for Farmed Blue Foxes: Effects on Claws, Adrenal Cortex Function, Growth and Fur Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Ahola

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Farmed blue foxes (Vulpes lagopus are traditionally housed on mesh floors where they are unable to perform certain species-specific behaviours, such as digging, which may compromise the animals' welfare. This study describes how a possibility to use in-cage sand floor affects welfare-related variables like growth of the claws, adrenal cortex function, and fur properties in juvenile blue foxes. The foxes (N=32 were housed in male-female sibling pairs in an outdoor fur animal shed in cage systems consisting of two traditional fox cages. For the eight male-female sibling pairs of the Control group, there was a mesh floor in both cages of each cage system, whereas for the eight pairs of the Sand group there was a mesh floor in one cage and a 30–40 cm deep earth floor in the other cage. The results show that sand floor is beneficial for the wearing of the claws of foxes. Furthermore, an early experience of sand floor may have positive effects on the foxes' fur development. The results, however, also suggest that there might appear welfare problems observed as disturbed claw growth and increased adrenal cortex activation if foxes that are once provided with clean and unfrozen sand floor are not allowed to enjoy this floor all the time.

  1. Jagua blue derived from Genipa americana L. fruit: A natural alternative to commonly used blue food colorants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauch, J E; Zapata-Porras, S P; Buchweitz, M; Aschoff, J K; Carle, R

    2016-11-01

    Due to consumers' increasing health awareness, food industry aims at replacing synthetic dyes by natural counterparts. The substitution of blue synthetic dyes is particularly challenging since current natural alternatives such as phycocyanin (Spirulina) suffer from poor stability. Jagua blue (produced from Genipa americana L. fruit) might represent a potential novel blue pigment source. However, only little is known about its color properties, and application in food systems. Therefore, the blue color and the stability of Jagua blue were assessed for the first time and compared to commonly used colorants, namely, Spirulina, brilliant blue FCF (Blue no. 1), and indigo carmine (Blue no. 2). The reaction rate of Jagua blue was independent of its concentration, confirming thermal degradation to follow first-order kinetics. Between pH 3.6 and 5.0, the color hue of Jagua blue solutions was similar to that of Blue no. 2. However, Jagua blue revealed markedly higher storage stabilities (t 1/2 =86-105days) than Blue no. 2 (t 1 /2 ≤9days) and was less susceptible to acidic pH of 3.6 (t 1 /2 =86days) than Spirulina (t 1 /2 =70days). High negative b* values (blueness) of colored gelatin gels were only obtained for Jagua blue and Spirulina, and the former exhibited higher light stabilities (t 1 /2 =15days) than Spirulina gels (t 1 /2 =4days). Our findings indicate Jagua blue to be a most promising alternative to synthetic dyes, providing relevant information regarding potential food applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Blue-Green Solutions in Urban Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Caroline; Kalantari, Zahra

    2017-04-01

    With the ongoing urbanisation and increasing pressure for new housing and infrastructure, the nexus of developing compact, energy-efficient and yet liveable and sustainable cities is urgent to address. In this context, blue-green spaces and related ecosystem services (ES) are critical resources that need to be integrated in policy and planning of urban. Among the ES provided by blue-green spaces, regulating ES such as water retention and purification are particularly important in urban areas, affecting water supply and quality, related cultural ES and biodiversity, as well as cities potential to adapt to climate change. Blue-green infrastructure management is considered a sustainable way to reducing negative effects of urbanisation, such as decreasing flood risks, as well as adapting to climate change for example by controlling increasing flood and drought risks. Blue-green infrastructure management can for example create multifunctional surfaces with valuable environmental and social functions and generally handle greenways and ecological networks as important ecosystem service components, for example for stormwater regulation in a sustainable urban drainage system. The Norrström drainage basin (22,000 km2) is a large demonstrator for Blue-green infrastructure management. Both urbanisation and agriculture are extensive within this basin, which includes the Swedish capital Stockholm and is part of the fertile Swedish belt. Together, the relatively high population density combined with agricultural and industrial activities in this region imply large eutrophication and pollution pressures, not least transferred through storm runoff to both inland surface waters and the coastal waters of the Baltic Sea. The ecosystems of this basin provide highly valued but also threatened services. For example, Lake Mälaren is the single main freshwater supply for the Swedish capital Stockholm, as well as a key nutrient retention system that strongly mitigates waterborne nutrient

  3. Cholesteric liquid crystals: the blue phase and the analogy with 3He-A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, D.C.

    1983-01-01

    Part I of this thesis presents a unified view of some of the theoretical progress on the blue phase of cholesteric liquid crystals. The elastic and bulk cholesteric energies are found to be separately minimized by different forms of the order parameter, and the problem of minimizing the full free energy can be viewed as a competition between these incompatible forms. Near the transition to the high temperature disordered phase, the bulk and elastic contributions may be comparable, and complicated, non-uniform structures can appear as compromise solutions to the minimization problem. These structures are interpreted as the blue phases. The two predominant models for the blue phase, which use either a director or second rank tensor order parameter, are seen in this picture as forms applicable in two limits, when the transition from the disordered phase is strongly and weakly first order, respectively. Both methods of constructing the order parameters, and the relation between them, is presented. Part II of this thesis concerns the problem of describing long wavelength distortions in cholesterics. A proposed analogy between cholesterics and superfluid 3 He-A, with the uniform twist in cholesterics corresponding to stable superflow in helium is considered. The difficulty with such a description lies in attempting to define variables which are well-defined in the distorted system and which vary slowly enough to justify a gradient expansion of the distortion energy. By requiring the variables in such a theory to be slowly varying, as in the superfluid case, only director configurations which are not stationary points of the free energy can be described. A solution is proposed which includes rapid variations of the director and corrects this description in such a way to satisfy the stationary conditions

  4. A libertarian perspective on the stem cell debate: compromising the uncompromisible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Walter

    2010-08-01

    The present paper attempts to forge a compromise between those who maintain that stem cell research is out-and-out murder of young helpless human beings and those who favor this practice. The compromise is predicated upon the libertarian theory of private property rights. Starting out with the premise that not only the fetus but even the fertilized egg is a human being, with all rights thereto, it offers a competition between those who fertilize eggs for research and those who wish to adopt them. If and only if the former win this competition will they be allowed to use these very young human beings for the purposes they have constructed them. This is justified on grounds of avoiding child abuse.

  5. Orientation of handle for successful prosthetic treatment in patients with an anatomic compromise after a maxillectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumita, Yuka I; Hattori, Mariko; Elbashti, Mahmoud E; Taniguchi, Hisashi

    2017-05-01

    This clinical technique provides a key procedure for successful prosthetic treatment in patients with an anatomical compromise after a maxillectomy. When making a preliminary impression, the clinician must keep the handle of the stock tray parallel to the patient's interpupillary line extraorally to maintain the correct position of the tray and to make a record of the inclination of the occlusal plane. This simple consideration during this first step of making a preliminary impression can be an important guide for both dentists and dental technicians. Information about the correct positioning of the tray and the inclination of the occlusal plane obtained by using a stock tray handle will greatly reduce the stress experienced by dentists, dental technicians, and patients during the fabrication of the prosthesis and will ultimately lead to successful prosthetic treatment in patients with anatomic compromise resulting from a maxillectomy. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Happenstance and compromise: a gendered analysis of students' computing degree course selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Catherine

    2010-12-01

    The number of students choosing to study computing at university continues to decline this century, with an even sharper decline in female students. This article presents the results of a series of interviews with university students studying computing courses in Australia that uncovered the influence of happenstance and compromise on course choice. This investigation provides an insight into the contributing factors into the continued downturn of student diversity in computing bachelor degree courses. Many females interviewed made decisions based on happenstance, many males interviewed had chosen computing as a compromise course, and family helped in the decision-making to a large degree in both genders. The major implication from this investigation is the finding that students of both genders appear to be socialised away from this discipline, which is perceived as a support or insurance skill, not a career in itself, in all but the most technical-oriented (usually male) student.

  7. CLINICAL CASE OF TREATMENT WITH RIBOSOMAL COMPLEX IN CHILD WITH COMPROMISED IMMUNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Alekseeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The leading pathology in children is acute respiratory infections (ARI according to the expert data of WHO. The incidence of prolonged and recurrent types of ARI increases during recent years. Patients with these diseases subsequently form the group of children with compromised immunity. Immunogens and immunomodulators are the drugs of nonspecific prophylaxis which are used for the prevention of ARI. The group of bacterial immunomodulators is big but most well-studied systemic drug from this group is Ribomunyl. Ribosomal complex is effective and safe in pediatric practice. The article presents the clinical case of treatment with ribosomal complex in immunocompronised child with allergic pathology.Key words: children with compromised immunity, allergy, acute respiratory infections, treatment.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2011; 10 (2: 211–215

  8. Autobiographical memory compromise in Alzheimer's disease: a cognitive and clinical overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Haj, Mohamad; Roche, Jean; Gallouj, Karim; Gandolphe, Marie-Charlotte

    2017-12-01

    Autobiographical memory refers to memory for personal information. The compromise of autobiographical memory in Alzheimer's disease (AD) results in a loss of knowledge about events and facts that defined the patients' life, and consequently, degradation of their self-knowledge and sense of identity. The compromise of autobiographical memory in AD can be attributed to a diminished subjective experience of memory and a diminished sense of the self. Our review provides a comprehensive overview of cognitive and clinical processes that may be involved in difficulties to retrieve autobiographical memories in Alzheimer's disease. Our review also proposes a theoretical model according to which, the diminished ability to retrieve contextual information and the overgenerality of recall result in a diminished subjective experience of past and future thinking. Besides its theoretical contribution, our review proposes clinical applicability for evaluation and rehabilitation of autobiographical memory in AD.

  9. Sterile diets for the immuno-compromised: Is there a need?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterweck, Joseph S.

    1995-02-01

    There is a general misunderstanding in the radiation processing industry about the use of sterile diets in the medical profession. Sterile diets are used on a limited basis in hospitals that specialize in cancer treatment and organ transplants. These patients are severely immuno-compromised. There are many other patients that are immuno-compromised that do not require sterile diets. These patients may require a diet that is pathogen-free and are aslo "low-microbial diets". Nosocomial infections have become a major issue in US hospitals. The "infection control committee" is the focus group responsible to assure nosocomial infections incidence are below the hospital goals. Application of ionizing radiation to sterilize diets has not been chosen because the product is not available at a reasonable total cost. This paper will discuss the hospitals views.

  10. Esthetic management of compromised ridge in the anterior maxilla, a modified prosthetic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Lambodharan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Replacing a missing tooth with an implant, especially in the esthetic zone has been increasing demand for the patient. Placing dental implants in the esthetic zone, especially in the compromised ridge with thin gingival thin biotype is considered to be the ultimate challenge for many dentists. This case report illustrates the implant placement in the traumatic anterior maxilla with thin gingival biotype (Class IV and a modified approach in prosthetic placement.

  11. Salivary changes in medically compromised patients: A clinical and biochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehoshuva R Tummuru

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Medically compromised patients require special attention when dental procedures are performed on them. These individuals may require modified or slightly altered techniques. Aims and Objectives: The present study was taken up with two main objectives. The first one being examining and recording various oral manifestations in medically compromised patients, and the second objective was to collect samples of saliva from such patients and to analyze and establish any salivary changes in such medically compromised patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 patients were selected for the study. These patients were divided into four groups of 25 patients each: diabetes mellitus group, chronic renal failure group, liver cirrhosis group and control group. All the selected patients were subjected to a detailed general and intra oral examinations and the relevant data was recorded on a specially designed proforma; salivary analysis was done to know the flow rate, pH, total salivary proteins, sodium, potassium, and LDH levels. Results: From the findings, it can be inferred that salivary changes namely changes in salivary pH, salivary flow rates, salivary sodium, salivary potassium, salivary total proteins, and salivary lactate dehydrogenase are significant in medically compromised patients namely uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, chronic renal failure, cirrhosis of liver compared to the control group. Conclusion: pH of saliva was elevated in chronic renal failure patients. Salivary flow rates and sodium were decreased in diabetes mellitus, chronic renal failure, and cirrhosis of liver patients. There was a significant elevation of salivary potassium in chronic renal failure patients. LDH elevation was significant in uncontrolled diabetes mellitus.

  12. Striking a Balance between Program Requirements and GT Principles: Writing a compromised GT proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherry L. Xie, Ph.D. Candidate

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Glaser’s term “compromised GT proposal” (2001, p.114 refers to the type of Grounded Theory (GT proposal that is written in order to conform to the requirements of a standardized qualitative research proposal. A GT proposal needs only to supply information on the area of interest, the data source and a statement of method to the effect that the researcher begin to collect, code and analyse the data and let the theory emerge. Thus, the proposal may only occupy “a page or two” (Glaser, 2001, p. 111. Whilst being consistent with the methodology, a GT proposal sometimes has to give way to the format specified by a PhD program or committee even though the format was not defined for a GT proposal and in some areas, conflicts with GT principles; for example, the format may require a literature review. This short paper reports on my experience of writing a compromised GT proposal as a first-time GT researcher. It describes how both Glaser’s advice on writing compromised GT research proposals and the characteristics of the substantive area of the proposed research were used to satisfy program requirements while still maintaining GT fundamentals.

  13. Live attenuated S. Typhimurium vaccine with improved safety in immuno-compromised mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balamurugan Periaswamy

    Full Text Available Live attenuated vaccines are of great value for preventing infectious diseases. They represent a delicate compromise between sufficient colonization-mediated adaptive immunity and minimizing the risk for infection by the vaccine strain itself. Immune defects can predispose to vaccine strain infections. It has remained unclear whether vaccine safety could be improved via mutations attenuating a vaccine in immune-deficient individuals without compromising the vaccine's performance in the normal host. We have addressed this hypothesis using a mouse model for Salmonella diarrhea and a live attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium strain (ssaV. Vaccination with this strain elicited protective immunity in wild type mice, but a fatal systemic infection in immune-deficient cybb(-/-nos2(-/- animals lacking NADPH oxidase and inducible NO synthase. In cybb(-/-nos2(-/- mice, we analyzed the attenuation of 35 ssaV strains carrying one additional mutation each. One strain, Z234 (ssaV SL1344_3093, was >1000-fold attenuated in cybb(-/-nos2(-/- mice and ≈100 fold attenuated in tnfr1(-/- animals. However, in wt mice, Z234 was as efficient as ssaV with respect to host colonization and the elicitation of a protective, O-antigen specific mucosal secretory IgA (sIgA response. These data suggest that it is possible to engineer live attenuated vaccines which are specifically attenuated in immuno-compromised hosts. This might help to improve vaccine safety.

  14. Is ridge preservation/augmentation at periodontally compromised extraction sockets safe? A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Ju; Ben Amara, Heithem; Schwarz, Frank; Kim, Hae-Young; Lee, Jung-Won; Wikesjö, Ulf M E; Koo, Ki-Tae

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the safety of ridge preservation/augmentation procedures when performed at compromised extraction sockets. Patients subject to ridge preservation/augmentation at periodontally compromised sockets at Seoul National University Dental Hospital (SNUDH) were evaluated in a chart review. Tooth extractions due to acute infection were not included in our study as chronically formed lesions are the only lesions that can be detected from radiographic images. If inflammatory symptoms persisted following ridge preservation/augmentation and antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory therapy, the patient was categorized as a re-infection case and implanted biomaterial removed. Of 10,060 patients subject to tooth extractions at SNUDH, 2011 through 2015, 297 cases meeting inclusion criteria were reviewed. The severity and type of lesions were not specific because extracting data was only done by radiographic images and chart records. The review identified eight patients exhibiting inflammatory symptoms that required additional antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory therapy. Within this group, re-infection occurred in two patients requiring biomaterials removal. The final safety rate for the ridge preservation/augmentation was 99.3%. None of the demographic factors, systemic conditions or choice of biomaterial affected the safety of ridge preservation/augmentation. Alveolar ridge preservation/augmentation at periodontally compromised sockets appears safe following thorough removal of infectious source. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Outcomes of Soft Tissue Reconstruction for Traumatic Lower Extremity Fractures with Compromised Vascularity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badash, Ido; Burtt, Karen E; Leland, Hyuma A; Gould, Daniel J; Rounds, Alexis D; Azadgoli, Beina; Patel, Ketan M; Carey, Joseph N

    2017-10-01

    Traumatic lower extremity fractures with compromised arterial flow are limb-threatening injuries. A retrospective review of 158 lower extremities with traumatic fractures, including 26 extremities with arterial injuries, was performed to determine the effects of vascular compromise on flap survival, successful limb salvage and complication rates. Patients with arterial injuries had a larger average flap surface area (255.1 vs 144.6 cm2, P = 0.02) and a greater number of operations (4.7 vs 3.8, P = 0.01) than patients without vascular compromise. Patients presenting with vascular injury were also more likely to require fasciotomy [odds ratio (OR): 6.5, confidence interval (CI): 2.3-18.2] and to have a nerve deficit (OR: 16.6, CI: 3.9-70.0), fracture of the distal third of the leg (OR: 2.9, CI: 1.15-7.1) and intracranial hemorrhage (OR: 3.84, CI: 1.1-12.9). After soft tissue reconstruction, patients with arterial injuries had a higher rate of amputation (OR: 8.5, CI: 1.3-53.6) and flap failure requiring a return to the operating room (OR: 4.5, CI: 1.5-13.2). Arterial injury did not correlate with infection or overall complication rate. In conclusion, arterial injuries resulted in significant complications for patients with lower extremity fractures requiring flap coverage, although limb salvage was still effective in most cases.

  16. Acute gastrointestinal compromise in neonates with congenital diaphragmatic hernia prior to repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Catherine; Stewart, Michael; King, Sebastian K; Patel, Neil

    2016-12-01

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) affects 1 in 3000 live births. Modern management strategies include delayed repair of the diaphragm to permit pre-operative optimization of cardiorespiratory status. We describe a cohort of neonates in whom early emergency operative intervention was required for potentially fatal intestinal compromise. A retrospective review was performed of all neonatal CDH patients managed at a tertiary center in an 8-year period (2005-2012). A total of 126 CDH patients were managed during the 8-year period. Five neonates (male - 1; gestation 37+4-39+7; birth weight 2.9-3.7kg; left CDH - 5) required emergency operative intervention for presumed gastrointestinal compromise. All five neonates demonstrated systemic hypotension despite inotropic support, raised serum lactate (>2mmol/L), and abnormal radiographic findings. Operative intervention occurred within 3days of birth (1-3days). Findings included gastric volvulus, jejunal volvulus, and perforated caecum. All patients underwent primary diaphragmatic repair without a patch. Temporary ileostomy was required in 1 patient. All patients remain alive. Gastrointestinal compromise is a rare, but potentially catastrophic, complication of CDH. Emergency operative intervention may be required in a select cohort of patients. Early deterioration following birth should alert clinicians to the possibility of significant intestinal pathology. Level IV case series with no comparison group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The role of dentists on medically compromised children’s oral and dental prophylaxis in Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roosje Rosita Oewen

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of dentist’s main roles is to coordinate the management of medically compromised children. The term of medically compromised refers to those children who have medical conditions which affect the dental treatment or manifest as a specific oral and dental problem. Patient’s visit to Special Care for Dentistry Clinic Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital Bandung showed a remarkable increase. From under 10 new visit in 2003, now July–December 2008 showed 81 new visit. Purpose: This paper discusses several medical problems (cardiovascular, hematology, respiratory system, and genetic disorder in children and the role of dentist in the treatment of those patients in the hospital. Review: The increase of attention by all level to these medically compromised children in the hospital also increases the dentist’s role in supporting the prognosis of the disease and patient’s quality of life. The most important effort is oral and dental prophylaxis to prevent oral pathology which is caused by the manifestation of disease as well as the side effects of treatment. Conclusion: It is, concluded that role of the dentist in managing these patients is giving preventive efforts and dental treatment that may be improve patient’s quality of life. The preventive effort and dental treatment is customize according to the patients condition. Nevertheless, cooperation from the dentist and other professional is needed in treating these patients.

  18. Raman analysis of cobalt blue pigment in blue and white porcelain: A reassessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaochenyang; Ma, Yanying; Chen, Yue; Li, Yuanqiu; Ma, Qinglin; Zhang, Zhaoxia; Wang, Changsui; Yang, Yimin

    2018-02-01

    Cobalt blue is a famous pigment in human history. In the past decade it is widely reported that the cobalt aluminate has been detected in ancient ceramics as blue colorant in glaze, yet the acquired Raman spectra are incredibly different from that of synthesised references, necessitating a reassessment of such contradictory scenario with more accurate analytic strategies. In this study, micro-Raman spectroscopy (MRS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in association with energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) were performed on under-glaze cobalt pigments from one submerged blue and white porcelain shard dated from Wanli reign (1573-1620 CE) of Ming dynasty (1365-1644 CE) excavated at Nan'ao I shipwreck off the southern coast of China. The micro-structural inspection reveals that the pigment particles have characteristics of small account, tiny size, heterogeneously distribution, and more importantly, been completely enwrapped by well-developed anorthite crystals in the glaze, indicating that the signals recorded in previous publications are probably not from cobalt pigments themselves but from outside thickset anorthite shell. The further spectromicroscopic analyses confirm this presumption when the accurate spectra of cobalt aluminate pigment and surrounding anorthite were obtained separately with precise optical positioning. Accordingly, we reassess and clarify the previous Raman studies dedicated to cobalt blue pigment in ancient ceramics, e.g. cobalt blue in celadon glaze, and in turn demonstrate the superiority and necessity of coupling spectroscopic analysis with corresponding structure observation, especially in the characterization of pigments from complicated physico-chemical environment like antiquities. Thus, this study promotes a better understanding of Raman spectroscopy study of cobalt blue pigments in art and archaeology field.

  19. 17D yellow fever vaccine elicits comparable long-term immune responses in healthy individuals and immune-compromised patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieten, R. W.; Goorhuis, A.; Jonker, E. F. F.; de Bree, G. J.; de Visser, A. W.; van Genderen, P. J. J.; Remmerswaal, E. B. M.; ten Berge, I. J. M.; Visser, L. G.; Grobusch, M. P.; van Leeuwen, E. M. M.

    2016-01-01

    The 17D live attenuated yellow fever (YF) vaccine is contra-indicated in immune-compromised individuals and may elicit a suboptimal immunologic response. The aim of this study is to assess whether long-term immune responses against the YF vaccine are impaired in immune-compromised patients. Fifteen

  20. MOCK OBSERVATIONS OF BLUE STRAGGLERS IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER MODELS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sills, Alison; Glebbeek, Evert; Chatterjee, Sourav; Rasio, Frederic A.

    2013-01-01

    We created artificial color-magnitude diagrams of Monte Carlo dynamical models of globular clusters and then used observational methods to determine the number of blue stragglers in those clusters. We compared these blue stragglers to various cluster properties, mimicking work that has been done for blue stragglers in Milky Way globular clusters to determine the dominant formation mechanism(s) of this unusual stellar population. We find that a mass-based prescription for selecting blue stragglers will select approximately twice as many blue stragglers than a selection criterion that was developed for observations of real clusters. However, the two numbers of blue stragglers are well-correlated, so either selection criterion can be used to characterize the blue straggler population of a cluster. We confirm previous results that the simplified prescription for the evolution of a collision or merger product in the BSE code overestimates their lifetimes. We show that our model blue stragglers follow similar trends with cluster properties (core mass, binary fraction, total mass, collision rate) as the true Milky Way blue stragglers as long as we restrict ourselves to model clusters with an initial binary fraction higher than 5%. We also show that, in contrast to earlier work, the number of blue stragglers in the cluster core does have a weak dependence on the collisional parameter Γ in both our models and in Milky Way globular clusters

  1. Blue Marble Space Institute essay contest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, JoAnna

    2014-04-01

    The Blue Marble Space Institute of Science, based in Seattle, Wash., is inviting college students to participate in its essay contest. Essays need to address the question, "In the next 100 years, how can human civilization prepare for the long-term changes to the Earth system that will occur over the coming millennium?" According to the institute, the purpose of the contest is "to stimulate creative thinking relating to space exploration and global issues by exploring how changes in the Earth system will affect humanity's future."

  2. Anomalous Cepheids and population II blue stragglers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, James M.

    Recent studies of anomalous Cepheids (ACs) and population II blue stragglers (BSs), including photometrically variable BSs (VBSs), are reviewed. The VBSs represent about 25 percent of the BSs, the majority of which are SX Phe short-period variables in the Cepheid instability strip. Mass estimates derived using various techniques suggest that both ACs and BSs are relatively massive (about 1.0-1.6 solar mass). The recent discovery that two BSs in the globular cluster NGC 5466 are contact binaries, and the earlier discovery that one of the BSs in Omega Cen is an eclipsing binary, provide direct evidence that at least some BSs are binary systems.

  3. Global monthly water scarcity: Blue water footprints versus blue water availability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Mekonnen, Mesfin; Chapagain, Ashok; Mathews, R.E.; Richter, B.D.

    2012-01-01

    Freshwater scarcity is a growing concern, placing considerable importance on the accuracy of indicators used to characterize and map water scarcity worldwide. We improve upon past efforts by using estimates of blue water footprints (consumptive use of ground- and surface water flows) rather than

  4. Grassy Silica Nanoribbons and Strong Blue Luminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shengping; Xie, Shuang; Huang, Guowei; Guo, Hongxuan; Cho, Yujin; Chen, Jun; Fujita, Daisuke; Xu, Mingsheng

    2016-09-01

    Silicon dioxide (SiO2) is one of the key materials in many modern technological applications such as in metal oxide semiconductor transistors, photovoltaic solar cells, pollution removal, and biomedicine. We report the accidental discovery of free-standing grassy silica nanoribbons directly grown on SiO2/Si platform which is commonly used for field-effect transistors fabrication without other precursor. We investigate the formation mechanism of this novel silica nanostructure that has not been previously documented. The silica nanoribbons are flexible and can be manipulated by electron-beam. The silica nanoribbons exhibit strong blue emission at about 467 nm, together with UV and red emissions as investigated by cathodoluminescence technique. The origins of the luminescence are attributed to various defects in the silica nanoribbons; and the intensity change of the blue emission and green emission at about 550 nm is discussed in the frame of the defect density. Our study may lead to rational design of the new silica-based materials for a wide range of applications.

  5. High-power pure blue laser diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohta, M.; Ohizumi, Y.; Hoshina, Y.; Tanaka, T.; Yabuki, Y.; Goto, S.; Ikeda, M. [Development Center, Sony Shiroishi Semiconductor Inc., Miyagi (Japan); Funato, K. [Materials Laboratories, Sony Corporation, Kanagawa (Japan); Tomiya, S. [Materials Analysis Laboratory, Sony Corporation, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2007-06-15

    We successfully developed high-power and long-lived pure blue laser diodes (LDs) having an emission wavelength of 440-450 nm. The pure-blue LDs were grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on GaN substrates. The dislocation density was successfully reduced to {proportional_to}10{sup 6} cm{sup -2} by optimizing the MOCVD growth conditions and the active layer structure. The vertical layer structure was designed to have an absorption loss of 4.9 cm{sup -1} and an internal quantum efficiency of 91%. We also reduced the operating current density to 6 kA/cm{sup 2} under 750 mW continuous-wave operation at 35 C by optimizing the stripe width to 12 {mu}m and the cavity length to 2000 {mu}m. The half lifetimes in constant current mode are estimated to be longer than 10000 h. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. Blue emitting organic semiconductors under high pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knaapila, Matti; Guha, Suchismita

    2016-01-01

    This review describes essential optical and emerging structural experiments that use high GPa range hydrostatic pressure to probe physical phenomena in blue-emitting organic semiconductors including π-conjugated polyfluorene and related compounds. The work emphasizes molecular structure and inter......This review describes essential optical and emerging structural experiments that use high GPa range hydrostatic pressure to probe physical phenomena in blue-emitting organic semiconductors including π-conjugated polyfluorene and related compounds. The work emphasizes molecular structure...... and intermolecular self-organization that typically determine transport and optical emission in π-conjugated oligomers and polymers. In this context, hydrostatic pressure through diamond anvil cells has proven to be an elegant tool to control structure and interactions without chemical intervention. This has been...... and intermolecular interactions on optical excitations, electron–phonon interaction, and changes in backbone conformations. This picture is connected to the optical high pressure studies of other π-conjugated systems and emerging x-ray scattering experiments from polyfluorenes which provides a structure-property map...

  7. Kinetics and mechanism of Prussian blue formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Adhikamsetty

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of reaction between ferrocyanide and ferric ions under acidic conditions was studied at fixed ionic strength (0.1 M and (25 plus or minus 0.1 oC by using the stopped flow technique, under limiting conditions of [ferrocyanide] and with other reactants in excess. The reaction had first-order dependence on ferrocyanide, Fe(III and H+ ion concentrations and had negative salt effect. On the basis of the experimental findings, a plausible mechanism for the formation of soluble form of Prussian blue (KFe{Fe(CN6}x H2O and rate law are proposed. The activation parameters for the title reaction are estimated. A relatively low energy of activation (23 kJ mol-1 and high negative entropy of activation (-231 J K-1 mol-1 agree well with the proposed mechanism and configuration of complex ion leading to the formation of insoluble Prussian blue, Fe4{Fe(CN6}3 y H2O.

  8. Physical properties of natural blue Brazilian sodalite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pizani, P.S.

    1983-01-01

    The aim of this work is the study of some physical properties of natural blue Brazilian sodalite (Itabuna, BA), whose ideal formula is Na 8 Al6Si 6 O 24 Cl 2 . For this purpose, we made use of electron paramagnetic resonance, nuclear magnetic resonance, ionic thermocurrent, optical absorption and electrical conductivity technics in natural, bleached and irradiated samples. We have detected three paramagnetic centers: a) an isotropic line with g = 2.011, related to the blue color of natural samples, that is, with the optical absorption bands at 600 nm and 645 nm; b) a set of thirteen lines of hyperfine interaction with g = 2.001 and A = 3.5 gauss, related to an electric dipole center responsible for two bands of dielectric relaxation at 19.9 0 K and 49.3 0 K, with activation energy of 30 MeV and 121 MeV, respectively; c) we have also detected an F center with a EPR spectrum composed of thirteen isotropic lines of hyperfine interaction with g = 2.001 and A= 32.5 gauss, related to the pink color. (Author) [pt

  9. DNA Electrochemistry with Tethered Methylene Blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pheeney, Catrina G.

    2012-01-01

    Methylene blue (MB′), covalently attached to DNA through a flexible C12 alkyl linker, provides a sensitive redox reporter in DNA electrochemistry measurements. Tethered, intercalated MB′ is reduced through DNA-mediated charge transport; the incorporation of a single base mismatch at position 3, 10, or 14 of a 17-mer causes an attenuation of the signal to 62 ± 3% of the well-matched DNA, irrespective of position in the duplex. The redox signal intensity for MB′–DNA is found to be least 3-fold larger than that of Nile blue (NB)–DNA, indicating that MB′ is even more strongly coupled to the π-stack. The signal attenuation due to an intervening mismatch does, however, depend on DNA film density and the backfilling agent used to passivate the surface. These results highlight two mechanisms for reduction of MB′ on the DNA-modified electrode: reduction mediated by the DNA base pair stack and direct surface reduction of MB′ at the electrode. These two mechanisms are distinguished by their rates of electron transfer that differ by 20-fold. The extent of direct reduction at the surface can be controlled by assembly and buffer conditions. PMID:22512327

  10. A Survey of Blue-Noise Sampling and Its Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Yan, Dongming

    2015-05-05

    In this paper, we survey recent approaches to blue-noise sampling and discuss their beneficial applications. We discuss the sampling algorithms that use points as sampling primitives and classify the sampling algorithms based on various aspects, e.g., the sampling domain and the type of algorithm. We demonstrate several well-known applications that can be improved by recent blue-noise sampling techniques, as well as some new applications such as dynamic sampling and blue-noise remeshing.

  11. Blue Pseudoazulene-Skeleton Pigments of Natural Origin

    OpenAIRE

    井上, 謙一郎; イノウエ, ケンイチロウ; KENICHIRO, INOUE

    1993-01-01

    Genipin, an iridoid constituent of Genipa americana, readily reacts with amino acids in the presence of oxygen to give a mixture of polymeric blue pigments whose structures are not determined. In the basic studies to elucidate the structure and formation mechnism of blue pigments, the reaction of genipin with methylamine in the absence of oxygen yielded 9 red compounds leading to blue pigments. In this article, the structures and spectroscopic properties of these red compounds were described....

  12. A Survey of Blue-Noise Sampling and Its Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Yan, Dongming; Guo, Jian-Wei; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Xiao-Peng; Wonka, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we survey recent approaches to blue-noise sampling and discuss their beneficial applications. We discuss the sampling algorithms that use points as sampling primitives and classify the sampling algorithms based on various aspects, e.g., the sampling domain and the type of algorithm. We demonstrate several well-known applications that can be improved by recent blue-noise sampling techniques, as well as some new applications such as dynamic sampling and blue-noise remeshing.

  13. Service design as an approach for recognizing blue ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Koskelo, Minna

    2013-01-01

    This thesis aims to show that service design as an approach can be utilized for discovering new market space, referred as blue ocean and new business opportunities, and thus to show that service design can be seen as an approach for bringing the new logic for value creation into strategic level. From the field of strategic management the theory of blue ocean strategy was chosen for presenting the strategic outcome and further since there are similarities be-tween blue ocean strategy approach ...

  14. Liquid crystal blue phases: stability, field effects and alignment

    OpenAIRE

    Gleeson, HF; Miller, RJ; Tian, L; Görtz, V; Goodby, JW

    2015-01-01

    The blue phases are fascinating structures in liquid crystals, fluids that exhibit cubic structures that have true crystalline order. The blue phases were discovered in the 1970s and were the subject of extensive research in the 1980s, when a deep understanding of many of their properties was established. The discovery that the blue phases could be stabilised to exist over wide temperature ranges meant that they became more than scientific curiosities and led to a recent resurgence in researc...

  15. Manajemen Strategi Pengembangan Pariwisata dengan Pendekatan Blue Ocean Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Muzha, Vianda Kushardianti

    2015-01-01

    Persaingan industri pariwisata di Indonesia saat ini sangatlah ketat, setiap daerah berlomba untuk menonjolkan keunikannya tersendiri. Dengan adanya persaingan yang sangat ketat tersebut, Kota Batu berusaha keluar dari persaingan (red ocean) dengan menciptkan inovasi baru melalui konsep Blue Ocean Strategy. Blue Ocean Strategy adalah istilah dalam ilmu manajemen strategi yang merujuk pada siasat untuk menciptakan pasar baru yang belum dipenuhi persaingan yang ketat. Blue Ocean Strategy pada d...

  16. Twisted bilayer blue phosphorene: A direct band gap semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ospina, D. A.; Duque, C. A.; Correa, J. D.; Suárez Morell, Eric

    2016-09-01

    We report that two rotated layers of blue phosphorene behave as a direct band gap semiconductor. The optical spectrum shows absorption peaks in the visible region of the spectrum and in addition the energy of these peaks can be tuned with the rotational angle. These findings makes twisted bilayer blue phosphorene a strong candidate as a solar cell or photodetection device. Our results are based on ab initio calculations of several rotated blue phosphorene layers.

  17. The Return of the Blue Butterfly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Anabela

    2014-05-01

    The Return of the Blue Butterfly The English writer Charles Dickens once wrote: "I only ask to be free. The butterflies are free". But are they really? The work that I performed with a group of students from 8th grade, had a starting point of climate change and the implications it has on ecosystems. Joining the passion I have for butterflies, I realized that they are also in danger of extinction due to these climatic effects. Thus, it was easy to seduce my students wanting to know more. Luckily I found Dr. Paula Seixas Arnaldo, a researcher at the University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, who has worked on butterflies and precisely investigated this issue. Portugal is the southern limit of butterfly-blue (Phengaris alcon), and has been many years in the red book of endangered species. Butterfly-blue is very demanding of their habitat, and disappears very easily if ideal conditions are not satisfied. Increased fragmentation of landscapes and degradation of suitable habitats, are considered the greatest challenges of the conservation of Phengaris butterfly in Portugal. In recent decades, climate change has also changed butterfly-blue spatial distribution with a movement of the species northward to colder locations, and dispersion in latitude. Butterflies of Europe must escape to the North because of the heat. Dr. Paula Seixas Arnaldo and her research team began a project, completed in December 2013, wanted to preserve and restore priority habitats recognized by the European Union to help species in danger of disappearing with increasing temperature. The blue butterfly is extremely important because it is a key indicator of the quality of these habitats. In the field, the butterflies are monitored to collect all possible data in order to identify the key species. Butterflies start flying in early July and cease in late August. Mating takes about an hour and occurs in the first days of life. The gentian-peat (Gentiana pneumonanthe) serves as the host plant for

  18. Phototherapy with blue and green mixed-light is as effective against unconjugated jaundice as blue light and reduces oxidative stress in the Gunn rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Yumiko; Morimoto, Yukihiro; Uchiike, Takao; Kamamoto, Tomoyuki; Hayashi, Tamaki; Arai, Ikuyo; Nishikubo, Toshiya; Takahashi, Yukihiro

    2015-07-01

    Phototherapy using blue light-emitting diodes (LED) is effective against neonatal jaundice. However, green light phototherapy also reduces unconjugated jaundice. We aimed to determine whether mixed blue and green light can relieve jaundice with minimal oxidative stress as effectively as either blue or green light alone in a rat model. Gunn rats were exposed to phototherapy with blue (420-520 nm), filtered blue (FB; 440-520 nm without 1.00), respectively. Blue plus green phototherapy is as effective as blue phototherapy and it attenuates irradiation-induced oxidative stress. Combined blue and green spectra might be effective against neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Compact and efficient blue laser sheet for measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yan; Wang, Yu; Wu, Bin; Wang, Yanwei; Yan, Boxia

    2017-10-01

    Compact and efficient blue laser sheet has important applications in the field of measurement, with laser diode end pumped Nd:YAG directly and LBO intracavity frequency doubling, a compact and efficient CW 473nm blue laser sheet composed of dual path liner blue laser is realized. At an incident pump power of 12.4W, up to 1.4W output power of the compound blue laser is achieved, the optical-to-optical conversion efficiency is as high as 11.3%.

  20. Blue Light Protects Against Temporal Frequency Sensitive Refractive Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, Frances; Britton, Stephanie; Spatcher, Molly; Hanowsky, Stephan

    2015-09-01

    Time spent outdoors is protective against myopia. The outdoors allows exposure to short-wavelength (blue light) rich sunlight, while indoor illuminants can be deficient at short-wavelengths. In the current experiment, we investigate the role of blue light, and temporal sensitivity, in the emmetropization response. Five-day-old chicks were exposed to sinusoidal luminance modulation of white light (with blue; N = 82) or yellow light (without blue; N = 83) at 80% contrast, at one of six temporal frequencies: 0, 0.2, 1, 2, 5, 10 Hz daily for 3 days. Mean illumination was 680 lux. Changes in ocular components and corneal curvature were measured. Refraction, eye length, and choroidal changes were dependent on the presence of blue light (P light, refraction did not change across frequencies (mean change -0.24 [diopters] D), while in the absence of blue light, we observed a hyperopic shift (>1 D) at high frequencies, and a myopic shift (>-0.6 D) at low frequencies. With blue light there was little difference in eye growth across frequencies (77 μm), while in the absence of blue light, eyes grew more at low temporal frequencies and less at high temporal frequencies (10 vs. 0.2 Hz: 145 μm; P light. Illuminants rich in blue light can protect against myopic eye growth when the eye is exposed to slow changes in luminance contrast as might occur with near work.

  1. Arsenic promotes centrosome abnormalities and cell colony formation in p53 compromised human lung cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Weiting; Lin Pinpin; Cheng, T.-S.; Yu, H.-S.; Chang, Louis W.

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence indicated that residents, especially cigarette smokers, in arseniasis areas had significantly higher lung cancer risk than those living in non-arseniasis areas. Thus, an interaction between arsenic and cigarette smoking in lung carcinogenesis was suspected. p53 dysfunction or mutation in lung epithelial cells was frequently observed in cigarette smokers. Our present study was to explore the differential effects by arsenic on H1355 cells (human lung adenocarcinoma cell line with mutation in p53), BEAS-2B (immortalized lung epithelial cell with functional p53) and pifithrin-α-treated BEAS-2B cells (p53-inhibited cells). These cells were treated with different doses of sodium arsenite (0, 0.1, 1, 5 and 10 μM) for 48 h. A greater reduction in cell viability was observed in the BEAS-2B cells vs. p53 compromised cells (H1355 or p53-inhibited BEAS-2B). Similar observation was also made on 7-day cell survival (growth) study. TUNEL analysis confirmed that there was indeed a significantly reduced arsenite-induced apoptosis found in p53-compromised cells. Centrosomal abnormality has been attributed to eventual chromosomal missegregation, aneuploidy and tumorigenesis. In our present study, reduced p21 and Gadd45a expressions and increased centrosomal abnormality (atopic and multiple centrosomes) were observed in both arsenite-treated H1355 and p53-inhibited BEAS-2B cells as compared with similarly treated BEAS-2B cells. Increased anchorage-independent growth (colony formation) of BEAS-2B cells co-treated with pifithrin-α and 5 μM sodium arsenite was also observed in soft agar. Our present investigation demonstrated that arsenic would act specifically on p53 compromised cells (either with p53 dysfunction or inhibited) to induce centrosomal abnormality and colony formation. These findings provided strong evidence on the carcinogenic promotional role of arsenic, especially under the condition of p53 dysfunction

  2. Results of endoscopic surgery and intralesional steroid therapy for airway compromise due to tracheobronchial Wegener's granulomatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. R. Nouraei

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Upper airway compromise due to tracheobronchial stenosis commonly occurs in patients with Wegener's Granulomatosis (WG. There is at present no consensus on the optimal management of this life-threatening condition. Objective: To assess the results of laryngo-tracheo-bronchoscopy, intralesional steroid therapy, laser surgery, and dilatation in managing obstructive tracheobronchial WG. Methods: Records of eighteen previously-untreated stridulous patients with obstructive tracheobronchial WG, treated between 2004 and 2006 were prospectively recorded on an airway database and retrospectively reviewed. Information about patient and lesion characteristics and treatment details were recorded. Treatment progress was illustrated using a timeline plot, and intervention-free intervals were calculated with actuarial analysis. Results: There were nine males and the average age at presentation was 40 (16 years [range 13–74]. There were thirteen patients with tracheal, and five patients with tracheal and bronchial lesions. The average tracheal lesion height was 8 (3 mm, located 23 (9 mm below the glottis. There were 1, 10 and 7 Myer-Cotton grade I, II and III lesions respectively. Mean intervention-free interval following minimally-invasive treatment was 26 (2.8 months. Following endobronchial therapy the median intervention-free interval was 22 months (p>0.8 vs. tracheal lesions. No patient required a tracheostomy or endoluminal stenting. Conclusions: Intralesional steroid therapy and conservative endoluminal surgery is an effective strategy for treating airway compromise due to active tracheal and bronchial WG, obviating the need for airway bypass or stenting. We recommend the combination of endotracheal dilatation, conservative laser surgery and steroid therapy as the standard of care for treating airway compromise due to obstructive tracheobronchial WG.

  3. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia as an Unusual Cause of Rapid Airway Compromise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian R. Bersabe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL is the most prevalent form of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL in Western countries predominantly affecting adults over the age of 65. CLL is commonly indolent in nature but can present locally and aggressively at extranodal sites. Although CLL may commonly present with cervical lymphadenopathy, manifestation in nonlymphoid regions of the head and neck is not well described. CLL causing upper airway obstruction is even more uncommon. We describe a case of a patient with known history of CLL and stable lymphocytosis that developed an enlarging lymphoid base of tongue (BOT mass resulting in rapid airway compromise.

  4. Testing the effect of time pressure on asymmetric dominance and compromise decoys in choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Pettibone

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic, connectionist models of decision making, such as decision field theory (Roe, Busemeyer, and Townsend, 2001, propose that the effect of context on choice arises from a series of pairwise comparisons between attributes of alternatives across time. As such, they predict that limiting the amount of time to make a decision should decrease rather than increase the size of contextual effects. This prediction was tested across four levels of time pressure on both the asymmetric dominance (Huber, Payne, and Puto, 1982 and compromise (Simonson, 1989 decoy effects in choice. Overall, results supported this prediction, with both types of decoy effects found to be larger as time pressure decreased.

  5. Identifying compromised systems through correlation of suspicious traffic from malware behavioral analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilo, Ana E. F.; Grégio, André; Santos, Rafael D. C.

    2016-05-01

    Malware detection may be accomplished through the analysis of their infection behavior. To do so, dynamic analysis systems run malware samples and extract their operating system activities and network traffic. This traffic may represent malware accessing external systems, either to steal sensitive data from victims or to fetch other malicious artifacts (configuration files, additional modules, commands). In this work, we propose the use of visualization as a tool to identify compromised systems based on correlating malware communications in the form of graphs and finding isomorphisms between them. We produced graphs from over 6 thousand distinct network traffic files captured during malware execution and analyzed the existing relationships among malware samples and IP addresses.

  6. Management of periodontally compromised patient by orthodontic treatment: Does it help esthetically and biologically?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhash C Rao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adults are always keen to know whether they can still opt for orthodontic treatment and they often ask the same question to the orthodontist and the orthodontist replies, it primarily depends on the health of the bone supporting the teeth. Yes, it is the bone health which is of prime importance to undergo orthodontic treatment. Here is a case report of a patient who underwent orthodontic treatment because of lower midline spacing and protrusion of the upper anteriors. The bone health of the upper and lower anteriors was compromised. At the end of the treatment, there was marked improvement in the bone level and the profile of the patient.

  7. Compromises produced by the dialectic between self-verification and self-enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morling, B; Epstein, S

    1997-12-01

    Three studies of people's reactions to evaluative feedback demonstrated that the dialectic between self-enhancement and self-verification results in compromises between these 2 motives, as hypothesized in cognitive-experiential self-theory. The demonstration was facilitated by 2 procedural improvements: Enhancement and verification were established by calibrating evaluative feedback against self appraisals, and degree of enhancement and of verification were varied along a continuum, rather than categorically. There was also support for the hypotheses that processing in an intuitive-experiential mode favors enhancement and processing in an analytical-rational mode favors verification in the kinds of situations investigated.

  8. Macronutrient manipulations of cheese resulted in lower energy content without compromising its satiating capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thea Toft; Sjödin, Anders Mikael; Ritz, Christian

    2018-01-01

    Manipulation of food’s macronutrient composition in order to reduce energy content without compromising satiating capacity may be helpful in body weight control. For cheeses, substituting fat with protein may provide such opportunity. We aimed at examining the acute effect of cheeses with different...... macronutrient compositions on accumulated energy intake and subjective appetite sensation. A total of thirty-nine normal-weight (average BMI 24·4 kg/m2) men and women completed the partly double-blind, randomised crossover study with high-protein/low-fat (HP/LF, 696 kJ), high-protein/high-fat (HP/HF, 976 k...

  9. Management of compromised anterior maxillary edentulous arch with symphyseal bone graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Mishra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Achieving optimal aesthetics, function and phonetics with implant-supported restorations depends largely on the amount of bone present at the site where implant has to be placed. Sometimes, patient reports with compromised conditions which makes the implant placement difficult. Today, reconstruction procedures such as autogenous bone graft and guided bone regeneration make the implant placement possible in different ridge deficient cases. This case report describes step-by-step procedure of restoring the missing maxillary right central incisor with implant-supported prostheses. In missing left central incisor region, the alveolar bony defect was corrected by autogenous bone graft obtained from symphysis region, for restoration with implant prostheses.

  10. Compromised epidermal barrier stimulates Harderian gland activity and hypertrophy in ACBP-/- mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Signe Bek; Neess, Ditte; Dixen, Karen

    2015-01-01

    of the eye lid. We show that disruption of the Acbp gene leads to a significant enlargement of this gland with hypertrophy of the acinar cells and increased de novo synthesis of monoalkyl diacylglycerol, the main lipid species produced by the gland. Mice with conditional targeting of the Acbp gene......Acyl-CoA binding protein (ACBP) is a small, ubiquitously expressed intracellular protein that binds C14-C22 acyl-CoA esters with very high affinity and specificity. We have recently shown that targeted disruption of the Acbp gene leads to a compromised epidermal barrier and that this causes delayed...

  11. Evaluation of instant cup noodle, irradiated for immuno-compromised patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ji-Hye; Kim, Jae-Kyung; Park, Jae-Nam; Yoon, Young-Min; Sung, Nak-Yun; Kim, Jae-Hun; Song, Beom-Seok; Yook, Hong-Sun; Kim, Byeong-Keun; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, initial microbial load of instant cup noodle (ICN) was investigated and gamma irradiation applied to develop immuno-compromised patients food for their safe consumption. The initial microbial population of dried vegetable and meat, and noodle was below the detection limit (1 log CFU/g); however, that of seasoning powder was just above 4 log CFU/g. Moreover, rehydrated-ICN with water at 100 °C still show above 3 log CFU/g of microbial load, which indicates the need for an additional process to control microbial safety of the seasoning powder. The total aerobic bacteria in seasoning powder and rehydrated-ICN could be controlled with 17 kGy gamma irradiation. This result referred 17 kGy gamma irradiation could reach ‘practical sterility’ of ICN. The overall difference in sensory properties between the non-irradiated and irradiated ICN was insignificant. Thus, gamma irradiation could improve the microbial quality of ICN, and reduce the risk of infection posed by the seasoning powder, without any adverse effects on their sensory quality. These results suggest that gamma-irradiated ICN can be used as a snack food for immuno-compromised patients.

  12. 2-Sulfonylpyrimidines: Mild alkylating agents with anticancer activity toward p53-compromised cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Matthias R; Joerger, Andreas C; Fersht, Alan R

    2016-09-06

    The tumor suppressor p53 has the most frequently mutated gene in human cancers. Many of p53's oncogenic mutants are just destabilized and rapidly aggregate, and are targets for stabilization by drugs. We found certain 2-sulfonylpyrimidines, including one named PK11007, to be mild thiol alkylators with anticancer activity in several cell lines, especially those with mutationally compromised p53. PK11007 acted by two routes: p53 dependent and p53 independent. PK11007 stabilized p53 in vitro via selective alkylation of two surface-exposed cysteines without compromising its DNA binding activity. Unstable p53 was reactivated by PK11007 in some cancer cell lines, leading to up-regulation of p53 target genes such as p21 and PUMA. More generally, there was cell death that was independent of p53 but dependent on glutathione depletion and associated with highly elevated levels of reactive oxygen species and induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, as also found for the anticancer agent PRIMA-1(MET)(APR-246). PK11007 may be a lead for anticancer drugs that target cells with nonfunctional p53 or impaired reactive oxygen species (ROS) detoxification in a wide variety of mutant p53 cells.

  13. Study of flood defense structural measures priorities using Compromise Programming technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, D.; Jeong, S.

    2017-12-01

    Recent climate change of global warming has led to the frequent occurrence of heavy regional rainfalls. As such, inundation vulnerability increases in urban areas with high population density due to the low runoff carrying capacity. This study selects a sample area (Janghang-eup, the Republic of Korea), which is one of the most vulnerable areas to flooding, analyzing the urban flood runoff model (XP-SWMM) and using the MCDM (Multi-Criteria Decision Making) technique to establish flood protection structural measures. To this end, we compare the alternatives and choose the optimal flood defense measure: our model is utilized with three flood prevention structural measures; (i) drainage pipe construction; (ii) water detention; and (iii) flood pumping station. Dividing the target area into three small basins, we propose flood evaluations for an inundation decrease by studying the flooded area, the maximum inundation depth, the damaged residential area, and the construction cost. In addition, Compromise Programming determines the priority of the alternatives. As a consequent, this study suggests flood pumping station for Zone 1 and drainage pipe construction for Zone 2 and Zone 3, respectively, as the optimal flood defense alternative. Keywords : MCDM; Compromise Programming; Urban Flood Prevention; This research was supported by a grant [MPSS-DP-2013-62] through the Disaster and Safety Management Institute funded by Ministry of Public Safety and Security of Korean government.

  14. Effect of reinforcement with resin composite on fracture strength of structurally compromised roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Yuji; Komada, Wataru; Yoshida, Keiichi; Otake, Shiho; Okada, Daizo; Miura, Hiroyuki

    2009-09-01

    This study was aimed at evaluating the fracture resistance of structurally compromised roots restored with four different post and core systems. Thirty-two bovine roots were uniformly shaped to simulate human mandibular premolar roots. The roots were divided into four groups based on the type of restoration: cemented cast post and core (Group MC), resin composite build-up (Group CR), resin composite and prefabricated glass fiber post build-up (Group FRC), and thick-layer dual-cured resin composite-reinforced small-diameter tapered cast post and core (Group CRM). After a static loading test, the failure mode and fracture resistance were recorded. Group CRM (719.38+/-196.73 N) exhibited a significantly high fracture resistance compared with the other groups (Group MC: 429.56+/-82.43 N; Group CR: 349.56+/-66.21 N; Group FRC: 398.94+/-112.71 N; pCRM exhibited better mechanical properties for structurally compromised roots with no ferrules, although all types of restorations showed non-restorable fracture modes.

  15. Corporate corruption of the environment: sustainability as a process of compromise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, Daniel; Wright, Christopher

    2013-09-01

    A key response to environmental degradation, climate change and declining biodiversity has been the growing adoption of market principles in an effort to better value the social good of nature. Through concepts such as 'natural capitalism' and 'corporate environmentalism', nature is increasingly viewed as a domain of capitalist endeavour. In this article, we use convention theory and a pluralist understanding of social goods to investigate how the social good of the environment is usurped by the alternate social good of the market. Through analysis of interviews with sustainability managers and corporate documentation, we highlight how organizational actors employ compromise to temporally settle disputes between competing claims about environmental activities. Our findings contribute to an understanding of the processes of empirically grounded critique and the under-theorized concept of compromise between social goods. Rather than protecting the environment, the corporate promotion of sustainability facilitates the corruption of the social good of the environment and its conversion into a market commodity. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2013.

  16. Natural Tooth Pontic: An Instant Esthetic Option for Periodontally Compromised Teeth—A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishi Raj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sudden tooth loss in the esthetic zone of the maxillary or mandibular anterior region can be due to trauma, periodontal disease, or endodontic failure. The treatment options for replacing the missing tooth can vary between removable prosthesis, tooth-supported prosthesis, and implant-supported prosthesis. Irrespective of the final treatment, the first line of management would be to provisionally restore the patient’s esthetic appearance at the earliest, while functionally stabilizing the compromised arch. Using the patient’s own natural tooth as a pontic offers the benefits of being the right size, shape, and color and provides exact repositioning in its original intraoral three-dimensional position. Additionally, using the patient’s platelet concentrate (platelet rich fibrin facilitates early wound healing and preservation of alveolar ridge shape following tooth extraction. The abutment teeth can also be preserved with minimal or no preparation, thus keeping the technique reversible, and can be completed at the chair side thereby avoiding laboratory costs. This helps the patient better tolerate the effect of tooth loss psychologically. The article describes a successful, immediate, and viable technique for rehabilitation of three different patients requiring replacement of a single periodontally compromised tooth in an esthetic region.

  17. Commonly Employed African Neonatal Skin Care Products Compromise Epidermal Function in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Mao-Qiang; Sun, Richard; Man, George; Lee, Dale; Hill, Zelee; Elias, Peter M

    2016-09-01

    Neonatal mortality is much higher in the developing world than in developed countries. Infections are a major cause of neonatal death, particularly in preterm infants, in whom defective epidermal permeability barrier function facilitates transcutaneous pathogen invasion. The objective was to determine whether neonatal skin care products commonly used in Africa benefit or compromise epidermal functions in murine skin. After twice-daily treatment of 6- to 8-week-old hairless mice with each skin care product for 3 days, epidermal permeability barrier function, skin surface pH, stratum corneum hydration, and barrier recovery were measured using a multiprobe adapter system physiology monitor. For products showing some benefits in these initial tests, the epidermal permeability barrier homeostasis was assessed 1 and 5 hours after a single application to acutely disrupted skin. All of the skin care products compromised basal permeability barrier function and barrier repair kinetics. Moreover, after 3 days of treatment, most of the products also reduced stratum corneum hydration while elevating skin surface pH to abnormal levels. Some neonatal skin care products that are widely used in Africa perturb important epidermal functions, including permeability barrier homeostasis in mice. Should these products have similar effects on newborn human skin, they could cause a defective epidermal permeability barrier, which can increase body fluid loss, impair thermoregulation, and contribute to the high rates of neonatal morbidity and mortality seen in Africa. Accordingly, alternative products that enhance permeability barrier function should be identified, particularly for use in preterm infants. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Relationship between Lower Tendency to Deceive in Aging and Inhibitory Compromise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Haj, Mohamad; Antoine, Pascal

    2018-01-01

    Deception can be associated with a heterogeneous network of concepts such as exaggeration, misleading, white lies, and faking. This paper assesses the tendency to deceive in aging. Our main aim was to assess whether older adults would demonstrate a low tendency to deceive. A total of 42 older adults (mean age 67.64 years, SD 7.87) and 45 younger adults (mean age 21.71 years, SD 2.66) were administered a deception scale including items such as "I sometimes tell lies if I have to" or "I never take things that don't belong to me." Participants were also administered an inhibition task. The results demonstrated a low tendency to deceive and low inhibition in older adults compared with younger ones. The low tendency to deceive in the older adults was significantly correlated with their diminished inhibitory ability. The low tendency to deceive in aging seems to be related to a difficulty in inhibiting an honest response. Since inhibitory compromise has been considered mainly to trigger negative consequences for cognition, the present paper illustrates how this age-related compromise can be associated with positive social outcomes, i.e., a low tendency to deceive. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Constraining the brachial plexus does not compromise regional control in oropharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert, Mutter W; Wolden, Suzanne L; Lee, Nancy Y; Lok, Benjamin H; Dutta, Pinaki R; Riaz, Nadeem; Setton, Jeremy; Berry, Sean L; Goenka, Anuj; Zhang, Zhigang; Rao, Shyam S

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that brachial plexopathy following head and neck cancer radiotherapy may be underreported and that this toxicity is associated with a dose–response. Our purpose was to determine whether the dose to the brachial plexus (BP) can be constrained, without compromising regional control. The radiation plans of 324 patients with oropharyngeal carcinoma (OPC) treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) were reviewed. We identified 42 patients (13%) with gross nodal disease <1 cm from the BP. Normal tissue constraints included a maximum dose of 66 Gy and a D 05 of 60 Gy for the BP. These criteria took precedence over planning target volume (PTV) coverage of nodal disease near the BP. There was only one regional failure in the vicinity of the BP, salvaged with neck dissection (ND) and regional re-irradiation. There have been no reported episodes of brachial plexopathy to date. In combined-modality therapy, including ND as salvage, regional control did not appear to be compromised by constraining the dose to the BP. This approach may improve the therapeutic ratio by reducing the long-term risk of brachial plexopathy

  20. Can Neglected Tropical Diseases Compromise Human Wellbeing in Sex-, Age-, and Trait-Specific Ways?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Geary

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Traits that facilitate competition for reproductive resources or that influence mate choice have evolved to signal resilience to infectious disease and other stressors. As a result, the dynamics of competition and choice can, in theory, be used to generate predictions about sex-, age-, and trait-specific vulnerabilities for any sexually reproducing species, including humans. These dynamics and associated vulnerabilities are reviewed for nonhuman species, focusing on traits that are compromised by exposure to parasites. Using the same approach, sex-, age-, and trait-specific vulnerabilities to parasitic disease are illustrated for children's and adolescent's physical growth and fitness. Suggestions are then provided for widening the assessment of human vulnerabilities to include age-appropriate measures of behavioral (e.g., children's play and cognitive (e.g., language fluency traits. These are traits that are likely to be compromised by infection in age- and sex-specific ways. Inclusion of these types of measures in studies of neglected tropic diseases has the potential to provide a more nuanced understanding of how these diseases undermine human wellbeing and may provide a useful means to study the efficacy of associated treatments.

  1. Hydro-environmental management of groundwater resources: A fuzzy-based multi-objective compromise approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Nikoo, Mohammad Reza; Rakhshandehroo, Gholam Reza

    2017-08-01

    Sustainable management of water resources necessitates close attention to social, economic and environmental aspects such as water quality and quantity concerns and potential conflicts. This study presents a new fuzzy-based multi-objective compromise methodology to determine the socio-optimal and sustainable policies for hydro-environmental management of groundwater resources, which simultaneously considers the conflicts and negotiation of involved stakeholders, uncertainties in decision makers' preferences, existing uncertainties in the groundwater parameters and groundwater quality and quantity issues. The fuzzy multi-objective simulation-optimization model is developed based on qualitative and quantitative groundwater simulation model (MODFLOW and MT3D), multi-objective optimization model (NSGA-II), Monte Carlo analysis and Fuzzy Transformation Method (FTM). Best compromise solutions (best management policies) on trade-off curves are determined using four different Fuzzy Social Choice (FSC) methods. Finally, a unanimity fallback bargaining method is utilized to suggest the most preferred FSC method. Kavar-Maharloo aquifer system in Fars, Iran, as a typical multi-stakeholder multi-objective real-world problem is considered to verify the proposed methodology. Results showed an effective performance of the framework for determining the most sustainable allocation policy in groundwater resource management.

  2. Sterilization of freeze dried manila clam (Ruditapea philippinarum) porridge for immuno-compromised patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Beom Seok; Park, Jae Nam

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of gamma irradiation and different conditions (vacuum packaging, antioxidant and freezing) on the microbiological and sensory characteristics of freeze dried Manila clam porridge (MCP) for immuno-compromised patient food. McP can be sterilized at 1 kGy to 10 kGy. the initial counts of total aerobic bacteria and yeast molds in the non-irradiated MCP were 2.4±0.5 and 1.2±0.3 log CFU g"-'1, respectively, but gamma irradiation significantly decreased the total aerobic bacteria to below the detection limit (1 log CFU g"-"1) (5 kGy). Moreover, gamma irradiation effectively eliminated yeasts/molds at dose below than 1 kGy. However, gamma irradiation accelerated the increase of lipid oxidation and therefore, decreased the sensory characteristics of MCP as irradiation dose increased. to improve the sensory qualities of gamma irradiated MCP, combination treatment (vacuum packaging, 0.1% vitamin c) were applied. there was no significant difference in the overall acceptance scores between the combined-treatment sample (5.6 points) and the non-irradiated samples (6.0). the results indicate that combination treatment (vacuum packaging, 0.1% vitamin c) may help to maintain the quality of MCP. therefore, it considered that irradiation of MCP with combined treatment and this is an effective method for the consumption as a special purpose food such as for space travel or immuno-compromised patients

  3. Cerebral hematocrit decreases with hemodynamic compromise in carotid artery occlusion: a PET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, H; Fukuyama, H; Nagahama, Y; Katsumi, Y; Okazawa, H

    1998-01-01

    This study investigated whether in patients with internal carotid artery occlusion the regional cerebral hematocrit correlates with cerebral hemodynamics or metabolic state and, if so, how the regional cerebral hematocrit changes in the hemodynamically compromised region. We used positron emission tomography to study seven patients with unilateral internal carotid artery occlusion and no cortical infarction in the chronic stage. The distributions of red blood cell and plasma volumes were assessed using oxygen-15-labeled carbon monoxide and copper-62-labeled human serum albumin-dithiosemicarbazone tracers, respectively. The calculated hematocrit value was compared with the hemodynamic and metabolic parameters measured with the oxygen-15 steady-state technique. In the cerebral cortex, the value of the cerebral hematocrit varied but was correlated with the hemodynamic and metabolic status. Stepwise regression analysis revealed that the large vessel hematocrit, the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen, and the cerebral blood flow or the oxygen extraction fraction accounted for a significant proportion of variance of the cerebral hematocrit. The oxygen extraction fraction and the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen negatively correlated with the cerebral hematocrit, whereas the cerebral blood flow correlated positively: patients with reduced blood supply relative to metabolic demand (decreased blood flow with increased oxygen extraction fraction) showed low hematocrit values. In carotid artery occlusion in the chronic stage, regional cerebral hematocrit may vary according to cerebral hemodynamics and metabolic status. Regional cerebral hematocrit may decrease with hemodynamic compromise unless oxygen metabolism concomitantly decreases.

  4. Evaluation of instant cup noodle, irradiated for immuno-compromised patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Hye; Kim, Jae-Kyung; Park, Jae-Nam; Yoon, Young-Min; Sung, Nak-Yun; Kim, Jae-Hun; Song, Beom-Seok; Yook, Hong-Sun; Kim, Byeong-Keun; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2012-08-01

    In the present study, initial microbial load of instant cup noodle (ICN) was investigated and gamma irradiation applied to develop immuno-compromised patients food for their safe consumption. The initial microbial population of dried vegetable and meat, and noodle was below the detection limit (1 log CFU/g); however, that of seasoning powder was just above 4 log CFU/g. Moreover, rehydrated-ICN with water at 100 °C still show above 3 log CFU/g of microbial load, which indicates the need for an additional process to control microbial safety of the seasoning powder. The total aerobic bacteria in seasoning powder and rehydrated-ICN could be controlled with 17 kGy gamma irradiation. This result referred 17 kGy gamma irradiation could reach 'practical sterility' of ICN. The overall difference in sensory properties between the non-irradiated and irradiated ICN was insignificant. Thus, gamma irradiation could improve the microbial quality of ICN, and reduce the risk of infection posed by the seasoning powder, without any adverse effects on their sensory quality. These results suggest that gamma-irradiated ICN can be used as a snack food for immuno-compromised patients.

  5. Fibre reinforcement in a structurally compromised endodontically treated molar: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renita Soares

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The reconstruction of structurally compromised posterior teeth is a rather challenging procedure. The tendency of endodontically treated teeth (ETT to fracture is considerably higher than vital teeth. Although posts and core build-ups followed by conventional crowns have been generally employed for the purpose of reconstruction, this procedure entails sacrificing a considerable amount of residual sound enamel and dentin. This has drawn the attention of researchers to fibre reinforcement. Fibre-reinforced composite (FRC, designed to replace dentin, enables the biomimetic restoration of teeth. Besides improving the strength of the restoration, the incorporation of glass fibres into composite resins leads to favorable fracture patterns because the fibre layer acts as a stress breaker and stops crack propagation. The following case report presents a technique for reinforcing a badly broken-down ETT with biomimetic materials and FRC. The proper utilization of FRC in structurally compromised teeth can be considered to be an economical and practical measure that may obviate the use of extensive prosthetic treatment.

  6. A new interpretation of luminous blue stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stothers, R.

    1976-01-01

    A major revision of current theoretical ideas about the brightest blue stars must be made if Carson's new radiative opacities are adopted in stellar models. Unlike earlier opacities, the new opacities exhibit a large ''bump'' due to CNO ionization, which leads to very strong central condensation, convective instability, and pulsational instability in hot, diffuse stellar envelopes (typically those in which L/M>10 3 solar units). Despite a number of theoretical uncertainties, the new picture of the structure of very luminous stars is reasonably successful in accounting for a variety of previously unexplained observations. Thus, the new stellar models for the phase of core hydrogen burning predict large radii and rather cool effective temperatures (which are yet to be observationally confirmed) for O stars, and a spreading out of the main-sequence band in the H-R diagram toward luminous cool supergiants for masses higher than approx.20 M/sub sun/, beginning at M/sub v/=-4.5 and Sp=B1. They also predict slower surface rotations for O stars compared with B stars; and, in binary systems, slower apsidal motions, closer rotational-revolutional synchronism, and smaller orbital eccentricities. In massive X-ray binary systems, circular orbits and supergiant-like visual companions are expected to be quite common. Radial pulsations of the models have been calculated by employing linearized nonadiabatic pulsation theory. Long-period variability is predicted to exist for massive blue supergiants of luminosity class Ia. The new models for helium stars predict large radii and rather cool effective temperatures for Wolf-Rayet stars, as well as multimodal pulsational instability and, possibly, surface turbulence for these stars. Ultrashort-period variability, observed in many classes of hot luminous stars, may be due, in part, to high radial overtone pulsations (or, possibly, to nonradial pulsation or convective modes)

  7. Blue Marble: Remote Characterization of Habitable Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolf, Neville; Lewis, Brian; Chartres, James; Genova, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    The study of the nature and distribution of habitable environments beyond the Solar System is a key area for Astrobiology research. At the present time, our Earth is the only habitable planet that can be characterized in the same way that we might characterize planets beyond the Solar System. Due to limitations in our current and near-future technology, it is likely that extra-solar planets will be observed as single-pixel objects. To understand this data, we must develop skills in analyzing and interpreting the radiation obtained from a single pixel. These skills must include the study of the time variation of the radiation, and the range of its photometric, spectroscopic and polarimetric properties. In addition, to understand whether we are properly analyzing the single pixel data, we need to compare it with a ground truth of modest resolution images in key spectral bands. This paper discusses the concept for a mission called Blue Marble that would obtain data of the Earth using a combination of spectropolarimetry, spectrophotometry, and selected band imaging. To obtain imagery of the proper resolution, it is desirable to place the Blue Marble spacecraft no closer than the outer region of cis-lunar space. This paper explores a conceptual mission design that takes advantage of low-cost launchers, bus designs and mission elements to provide a cost effective observing platform located at one of the stable Earth-moon Lagrangian points (L4, L5). The mission design allows for the development and use of novel technologies, such as a spinning moon sensor for attitude control, and leverages lessons-learned from previous low-cost spacecraft such as Lunar Prospector to yield a low-risk mission concept.

  8. Life-threatening systemic toxicity and airway compromise from a common European adder bite to the tongue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoegberg, L C G; Jessen, C L; Lambertsen, K

    2009-01-01

    , pharyngeal and facial oedema compromised the airway, leading to respiratory failure, concomitant with circulatory failure related to hypoxaemia and systemic toxic effects. Acute tracheotomy secured the airway, and two doses of antivenom successfully treated the systemic, toxic effects. The reaction...

  9. 28 CFR 0.163 - Approval by Solicitor General of action on compromise offers in certain cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... advice from the Solicitor General that the principles of law involved do not require appellate review in... JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Authority To Compromise and Close Civil Claims and...

  10. Designing green and blue infrastructure to support healthy urban living

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gehrels, H.; Meulen, van der Suzanne; Schasfoort, F.; Bosch, Peter; Brolsma, R.; Dinther, van D.; Geerling, G.J.; Goossens, M.; Jacobs, C.M.J.; jong, de Merijn; Kok, Sien; Massop, H.T.L.

    2016-01-01

    This report focuses on developing concepts and design principles for blue and green infrastructure that not only support climate resilience but also contribute to a healthy and liveable urban environment. We will first assess the effectiveness of blue and green infrastructure on the basis of

  11. Microscopic origin of the optical processes in blue sapphire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, Jessica K; Parker, Stephen C; Catlow, C Richard A; Woodley, Scott M; Walsh, Aron

    2013-06-11

    Al2O3 changes from transparent to a range of intense colours depending on the chemical impurities present. In blue sapphire, Fe and Ti are incorporated; however, the chemical process that gives rise to the colour has long been debated. Atomistic modelling identifies charge transfer from Ti(III) to Fe(III) as being responsible for the characteristic blue appearance.

  12. Microscopic origin of the optical processes in blue sapphire

    OpenAIRE

    Bristow, JK; Parker, SC; Catlow, CRA; Woodley, SM; Walsh, A

    2013-01-01

    Al2O3 changes from transparent to a range of intense colours depending on the chemical impurities present. In blue sapphire, Fe and Ti are incorporated; however, the chemical process that gives rise to the colour has long been debated. Atomistic modelling identifies charge transfer from Ti(III) to Fe(III) as being responsible for the characteristic blue appearance.

  13. Fluctuating and Directional Asymmetry of the Blue Mussel (

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lajus, D.; Katolikova, M.; Strelkov, P.; Hummel, H.

    2015-01-01

    In this work we examined morphological variation at different levels to study performance and population structuring of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis. Our objectives were: (i) to develop an integrated technique for analyzing morphological variation in blue mussels and, based on this technique; (ii)

  14. QCD on the BlueGene/L Supercomputer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhanot, G.; Chen, D.; Gara, A.; Sexton, J.; Vranas, P.

    2005-01-01

    In June 2004 QCD was simulated for the first time at sustained speed exceeding 1 TeraFlops in the BlueGene/L supercomputer at the IBM T.J. Watson Research Lab. The implementation and performance of QCD in the BlueGene/L is presented

  15. QCD on the BlueGene/L Supercomputer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanot, G.; Chen, D.; Gara, A.; Sexton, J.; Vranas, P.

    2005-03-01

    In June 2004 QCD was simulated for the first time at sustained speed exceeding 1 TeraFlops in the BlueGene/L supercomputer at the IBM T.J. Watson Research Lab. The implementation and performance of QCD in the BlueGene/L is presented.

  16. Clinical and histological effects of blue light on normal skin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinpenning, M.M.; Smits, T.; Frunt, M.H.A.; Erp, P.E.J. van; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Gerritsen, R.M.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Phototherapy with visible light is gaining interest in dermatological practice. Theoretically, blue light could induce biological effects comparable to ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation. OBJECTIVES: To study the effects of blue light on normal skin in terms of photodamage, skin ageing and

  17. Isolation and Characterization of Blue Green Algae from Egyptian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    meldemellawy

    2014-02-20

    Feb 20, 2014 ... aminotransferase (AMT) domains of the mycE and ndaF genes (Jungblut et al., 2006) allowing detection of microcystin and nodularin-producing cyanobacteria. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Isolation and cultivation of blue green algae. Blue green algae had been isolated from soil of Rice field in river.

  18. Effects of fire and browsing on regeneration of blue oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    James W. Bartolome; Mitchel P. McClaran; Barbara H. Allen-Diaz; Jim Dunne; Lawrence D. Ford; Richard B. Standiford; Neil K. McDougald; Larry C. Forero

    2002-01-01

    Blue oaks (Quercus douglasii) are not regenerating well over much of California. The roles of fire and browsing in regeneration are probably significant, but poorly understood. We burned two foothill blue oak woodland sites which contained significant numbers of small trees between 40 and 70 cm tall, then compared height growth over 14 years among 48...

  19. Blue-shifted photoluminescence of Alq3 dispersed in PMMA

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. Alq3 is known to emit bright green light under UV excitation. Blue shift of the emission was reported in recent literature. This was ascribed to the presence of various isomers/crystallographic modifica- tions obtained through train sublimation. Here a blue shift was reported for Alq3 dispersed in PMMA. No iso-.

  20. Current distribution and population size of the Blue Swallow Hirundo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , the crops, natural pastures, livestock and their dung possibly provide the food source for the aerial arthropods on which the Blue Swallows feed. In total, 151 Blue Swallows were recorded consisting of 62 males, 68 females and 21 unsexed ...

  1. No effect of blue on winning contests in judo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Peter D.; Preenen, Paul T. Y.

    2008-01-01

    A study by Rowe et al. reported a winning bias for judo athletes wearing a blue outfit relative to those wearing a white one during the 2004 Olympics. It was suggested that blue is associated with a higher likelihood of winning through differential effects of colour on opponent visibility and/or an

  2. Blue Oak Canopy Effect on Seasonal Forage Production and Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    William E. Frost; Neil K. McDougald; Montague W. Demment

    1991-01-01

    Forage production and forage quality were measured seasonally beneath the canopy of blue oak (Quercus douglasii) and in open grassland at the San Joaquin Experimental Range. At the March and peak standing crop sampling dates forage production was significantly greater (p=.05) beneath blue oak compared to open grassland. At most sampling dates, the...

  3. How does the blue-ringed octopus (Hapalochlaena lunulata) flash its blue rings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäthger, Lydia M; Bell, George R R; Kuzirian, Alan M; Allen, Justine J; Hanlon, Roger T

    2012-11-01

    The blue-ringed octopus (Hapalochlaena lunulata), one of the world's most venomous animals, has long captivated and endangered a large audience: children playing at the beach, divers turning over rocks, and biologists researching neurotoxins. These small animals spend much of their time in hiding, showing effective camouflage patterns. When disturbed, the octopus will flash around 60 iridescent blue rings and, when strongly harassed, bite and deliver a neurotoxin that can kill a human. Here, we describe the flashing mechanism and optical properties of these rings. The rings contain physiologically inert multilayer reflectors, arranged to reflect blue-green light in a broad viewing direction. Dark pigmented chromatophores are found beneath and around each ring to enhance contrast. No chromatophores are above the ring; this is unusual for cephalopods, which typically use chromatophores to cover or spectrally modify iridescence. The fast flashes are achieved using muscles under direct neural control. The ring is hidden by contraction of muscles above the iridophores; relaxation of these muscles and contraction of muscles outside the ring expose the iridescence. This mechanism of producing iridescent signals has not previously been reported in cephalopods and we suggest that it is an exceptionally effective way to create a fast and conspicuous warning display.

  4. BLUE OCEAN STRATEGY (BOS SEBAGAI PARADIGMA BARU MANAJEMEN PENDIDIKAN ISLAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikhwan Fuad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this article is to describe the Blue Ocean Strategy as a new paradigm of Islamic education management. the author seeks to elaborate on how the adoption of the Blue Ocean strategy of the business world to the world of education and answered the principles of what is accepted and rejected away from the theory. Adoption of blue ocean strategy is done by applying the universal principles are : among others reconstruct market boundaries, focus on the big picture rather than numbers, reach beyond existing demand, perform a series of strategies with appropriate, efforts to overcome organizational constraints and integrate execution into strategy. The principles of Blue Ocean Strategy Indicators that can be absorbed is an indicator that focuses gave excellent service and were not absorbed is a strong indicator of economic motivation. Generally, Blue Ocean Strategy quite well applied as a management paradigm of Islamic education.

  5. A Rare Case of Multifocal Prostatic Blue Nevus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias J. Farran

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostatic blue nevus is a rare benign pathologic diagnosis most commonly diagnosed incidentally on many different types of prostate specimens. Blue nevus is the deposition of stromal melanin characterized by spindle cells within the fibromuscular stroma which stains positive for melanin-specific stains Fontana-Masson and S100 and stains negative for CD68, HMB45, and iron stains. We report the case of a multifocal and bilateral blue nevus in a 52-year-old Hispanic male who presented with an elevated prostate-specific antigen of 4.3 and mild obstructive lower urinary tract symptoms, found by transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate needle biopsy. The biopsy also revealed benign prostatic tissue with postatrophic hyperplasia and chronic inflammation. This is the 35th reported case of prostatic blue nevus and the third to show multifocal blue nevus.

  6. Degradation of phosphorescent blue organic light-emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, Chien-Shu [Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Technical University of Braunschweig (Germany); Siemens AG, CT MM 1, Erlangen (Germany); Steinbacher, Frank [Department of Materials Science VI, University of Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany); Siemens AG, CT MM 1, Erlangen (Germany); Krause, Ralf; Hunze, Arvid [Siemens AG, CT MM 1, Erlangen (Germany); Kowalsky, Wolfgang [Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Technical University of Braunschweig (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Development of phosphorescent materials has significantly improved the efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). By using efficient red, green and blue phosphorescent emitter materials high efficient white OLEDs can be achieved. However, due to low stability of blue phosphorescent materials the lifetime of phosphorescent white OLEDs remains an issue. As a result, degradation of blue phosphorescent materials needs to be further investigated and improved. In this work, blue OLED devices based on the phosphorescent emitter FIrpic were investigated. Single-carrier hole-only as well as electron-only devices were fabricated. For investigation of degradation process the devices were stressed with electrical current and UV-light to study the impact of charge carriers as well as excitons and exciton-polaron quenching on the stability of the blue dye.

  7. Molecular evidence for the subspecific differentiation of blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur) and polyphyletic origin of dwarf blue sheep (Pseudois schaeferi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shuai; Zou, Dandan; Tang, Lei; Wang, Gaochao; Peng, Quekun; Zeng, Bo; Zhang, Chen; Zou, Fangdong

    2012-06-01

    Blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur), a Central Asian ungulate with restricted geographic distribution, exhibits unclear variation in morphology and phylogeographic structure. The composition of species and subspecies in the genus Pseudois is controversial, particularly with respect to the taxonomic designation of geographically restricted populations. Here, 26 specimens including 5 dwarf blue sheep (Pseudois schaeferi), which were collected from a broad geographic region in China, were analyzed for 2 mitochondrial DNA fragments (cytochrome b and control region sequences). In a pattern consistent with geographically defined subspecies, we found three deeply divergent mitochondrial lineages restricted to different geographic regions. The currently designated two subspecies of blue sheep, Pseudois nayaur nayaur and Pseudois nayaur szechuanensis, were recognized in the phylogenetic trees. In addition, the Helan Mountain population showed distinct genetic characteristics from other geographic populations, and thus should be classified as a new subspecies. In contrast, dwarf blue sheep clustered closely with some blue sheep from Sichuan Province in the phylogenetic trees. Therefore, dwarf blue sheep appear to be a subset of Pseudois nayaur szechuanensis. After considering both population genetic information and molecular clock analysis, we obtained some relevant molecular phylogeographic information concerning the historical biogeography of blue sheep. These results also indicate that western Sichuan was a potential refugium for blue sheep during the Quaternary period.

  8. "Blue-Collar Blues" : kõigi maade töötud, ühinege! / Ants Juske

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juske, Ants, 1956-2016

    2009-01-01

    Rahvusvaheline näitus "Blue-Collar Blues" Tallinna Kunstihoones ja Kunstihoone galeriis 31. jaanuarini 2010. Kuraator Anders Härm. Näituse ajendiks on 1. juulist 2009 Eestis kehtima hakanud töölepinguseadus, näituse fookus on töösuhetel

  9. Natural physical and biological processes compromise the long-term performance of compacted soil caps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.D.

    1995-01-01

    Compacted soil barriers are components of essentially all caps placed on closed waste disposal sites. The intended functions of soil barriers in waste facility caps include restricting infiltration of water and release of gases and vapors, either independently or in combination with synthetic membrane barriers, and protecting other manmade or natural barrier components. Review of the performance of installed soil barriers and of natural processes affecting their performance indicates that compacted soil caps may function effectively for relatively short periods (years to decades), but natural physical and biological processes can be expected to cause them to fail in the long term (decades to centuries). This paper addresses natural physical and biological processes that compromise the performance of compacted soil caps and suggests measures that may reduce the adverse consequences of these natural failure mechanisms

  10. Signal Timing Optimization Based on Fuzzy Compromise Programming for Isolated Signalized Intersection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dexin Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to optimize the signal timing for isolated intersection, a new method based on fuzzy programming approach is proposed in this paper. Considering the whole operation efficiency of the intersection comprehensively, traffic capacity, vehicle cycle delay, cycle stops, and exhaust emission are chosen as optimization goals to establish a multiobjective function first. Then fuzzy compromise programming approach is employed to give different weight coefficients to various optimization objectives for different traffic flow ratios states. And then the multiobjective function is converted to a single objective function. By using genetic algorithm, the optimized signal cycle and effective green time can be obtained. Finally, the performance of the traditional method and new method proposed in this paper is compared and analyzed through VISSIM software. It can be concluded that the signal timing optimized in this paper can effectively reduce vehicle delays and stops, which can improve traffic capacity of the intersection as well.

  11. Controlling the fluoride dosage in a patient with compromised salivary function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichmiller, Frederick C; Eidelman, Naomi; Carey, Clifton M

    2005-01-01

    High-concentration topical fluorides are used commonly to with compromised salivary function due to irradiation and chemotherapy. The authors describe a 50-year-old man with previously treated cancer who was using tray-applied topical fluoride gel. He complained of gastric symptoms, difficulty in swallowing, leg muscle soreness and knee joint soreness. A computed tomographic scan revealed thickening of the esophageal walls. An upper endoscopy revealed abnormal motility. The motility test indicated high-amplitude peristalsis and hypertensive lower esophageal sphincter, and urine testing indicated high levels of systemic fluoride. The patient's fluoride regimen was altered, and within a short period his urinary fluoride levels returned to normal and his symptoms resolved. Clinicians prescribing home-applied high-concentration fluorides need to be cognizant of the symptoms of fluoride toxicity, carefully monitor the patient's compliance with the treatment regimen, and adjust the dosage or mode of application to control the total ingested dose of fluoride.

  12. Subliminal food images compromise superior working memory performance in women with restricting anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Samantha J; O'Daly, Owen G; Uher, Rudolf; Schiöth, Helgi B; Treasure, Janet; Campbell, Iain C

    2012-06-01

    Prefrontal cortex (PFC) is dysregulated in women with restricting anorexia nervosa (RAN). It is not known whether appetitive non-conscious stimuli bias cognitive responses in those with RAN. Thirteen women with RAN and 20 healthy controls (HC) completed a dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC) working memory task and an anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) conflict task, while masked subliminal food, aversive and neutral images were presented. During the DLPFC task, accuracy was higher in the RAN compared to the HC group, but superior performance was compromised when subliminal food stimuli were presented: errors positively correlated with self-reported trait anxiety in the RAN group. These effects were not observed in the ACC task. Appetitive activation is intact and anxiogenic in women with RAN, and non-consciously interacts with working memory processes associated with the DLPFC. This interaction mechanism may underlie cognitive inhibition of appetitive processes that are anxiety inducing, in people with AN. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Navigating safety necessary compromises and trade-offs : theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Amalberti, René

    2013-01-01

    Managing safety in a professional environment requires constant negotiation with other competitive dimensions of risk management (finances, market and political drivers, manpower and social crisis). This is obvious, although generally not said in safety manuals. The book provides a unique vision of how to best find these compromises, starting with lessons learnt from natural risk management by individuals, then applying them to the craftsman industry, complex industrial systems (civil aviation, nuclear energy) and public services (like transportation and medicine). It offers a unique, illustrated, easy to read and scientifically based set of original concepts and pragmatic methods to revisit safety management and adopt a successful system vision. As such, and with illustrations coming from many various fields (aviation, fishing, nuclear, oil, medicine), it potentially covers a broad readership.

  14. A combination of additives can synergically decrease acrylamide content in gingerbread without compromising sensory quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komprda, Tomáš; Pridal, Antonin; Mikulíková, Renata; Svoboda, Zdeněk; Cwiková, Olga; Nedomová, Šárka; Sýkora, Vladimír

    2017-02-01

    The present study tested whether replacement of the leavening agent ammonium carbonate by sodium hydrogen carbonate in combination with calcium cation and acidifying agent will synergically decrease acrylamide (AA) content in gingerbread. The type of leavening agent and the presence of Ca 2+ and citric acid accounted for 33.6%, 13.2% and 53.2% of the explained variability of the AA content, respectively (P sensory analysis did not indicate any significant deterioration (P > 0.05) in the organoleptic quality of gingerbread produced using calcium cation and citric acid. The present study demonstrates that the combination of additives NaHCO 3 /Ca 2+ /citric acid synergically decreases AA content in gingerbread without compromising the sensory quality. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Risk-Controlled Multiobjective Portfolio Selection Problem Using a Principle of Compromise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Hasuike

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a multiobjective portfolio selection problem with most probable random distribution derived from current market data and other random distributions of boom and recession under the risk-controlled parameters determined by an investor. The current market data and information include not only historical data but also interpretations of economists’ oral and linguistic information, and hence, the boom and recession are often caused by these nonnumeric data. Therefore, investors need to consider several situations from most probable condition to boom and recession and to avoid the risk less than the target return in each situation. Furthermore, it is generally difficult to set random distributions of these cases exactly. Therefore, a robust-based approach for portfolio selection problems using the only mean values and variances of securities is proposed as a multiobjective programming problem. In addition, an exact algorithm is developed to obtain an explicit optimal portfolio using a principle of compromise.

  16. An extension of compromise ranking method with interval numbers for the evaluation of renewable energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mousavi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating and prioritizing appropriate renewable energy sources is inevitably a complex decision process. Various information and conflicting attributes should be taken into account. For this purpose, multi-attribute decision making (MADM methods can assist managers or decision makers in formulating renewable energy sources priorities by considering important objective and attributes. In this paper, a new extension of compromise ranking method with interval numbers is presented for the prioritization of renewable energy sources that is based on the performance similarity of alternatives to ideal solutions. To demonstrate the applicability of the proposed decision method, an application example is provided and the computational results are analyzed. Results illustrate that the presented method is viable in solving the evaluation and prioritization problem of renewable energy sources.

  17. ACCOUNTING – THE REZULT OF A COMPROMISE BETWEEN EXPECTATIONS AND EXIGENCIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela TULVINSCHI

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Current concerns in the field of accounting are circumscribed to the need to perfect a unanimously accepted accounting language to be included in the application, as uniformly as possible, of the principles and accounting treatments as a basis in making financial statements. This approach is complicated and implies an extraordinary dynamics. The objective of the article is to investigate whether, in the current economic environment, accounting is able to issue an objective message to meet the expectations and exigencies of all users of financial information. Accounting can provide only a single representation of reality, and the information produced by accounting can only be a compromise between the respect for accounting principles and the care for reflecting economic reality. Accounting is an information system that quantifies, processes and transmits financial information about an economic entity. It establishes the link between economic activities and decision-makers.

  18. On-farm conditions that compromise animal welfare that can be monitored at the slaughter plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandin, Temple

    2017-10-01

    Handling and stunning at slaughter plants has greatly improved through the use of numerical scoring. The purpose of this paper is to encourage the use of numerical scoring systems at the slaughter plants to assess conditions that compromise welfare that occurred either during transport or on the farm. Some of the transport problems that can be assessed are bruises, death losses, and injured animals. Welfare issues that occurred on the farm that can be assessed at the abattoir are body condition, lameness, lesions, injuries, animal cleanliness and internal pathology. There are important welfare issues that cannot be assessed at slaughter. They are on-farm euthanasia methods, use of analgesics during surgeries, and the type of animal housing systems. Welfare evaluations at slaughter have the potential to greatly improve welfare. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. The Hopelessly Compromised: Independent Games as a Movement against Mainstream AAA Video Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    The last 10-15 years have seen the rise of a loosely defined independent games movement, often promoted as a more authentic type of video game than mainstream big budget video games (Juul 2014). For example, developer Dan Cook claims that “Indie games let me be a fan who is cheering on someone...... of the design and values of mainstream video games. As such, mainstream video games play the role of the morally and aesthetically compromised other, an other from which video games must be saved; an other that independent games are assumed to be rebelling against. In this paper I will analyze independent games...... as a number of specific (and sometimes contradictory) rejections of particular aspects of mainstream video game design. I am examining the game design of selected high-profile independent games, as well as game reviews and developer statement about their games. Here I am presenting general results...

  20. CT-morphological characterization of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) pneumonia in immune-compromised adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, J.L.; Kauczor, H.U.; Lehners, N.; Egerer, G.; Heussel, C.P.

    2014-01-01

    Characterization and follow-up evaluation of chest CT of RSV pneumonia in immune-compromised adults during a seasonal epidemic. Retrospective analysis of 132 chest CT examinations of 51 adult immune-compromised patients (29 m/22f, diameter 58 years) with clinical signs of pneumonia and positive RSV test in winter 2011/2012. Two experienced chest radiologists evaluated the morphology (bronchial wall thickening, tree-in-bud, nodules, halo, ground-glass opacities, consolidations, pleural fluid) of the CT scans by consensus. Pathological findings were in 86 % of the chest CT scans: Areas of ground-glass attenuation in 64 %, consolidations in 56 %, nodules in 55 % (diameter 8 mm in maximal diameter, with halo in 71 %), pleural fluid in 44 % (diameter 2 cm), tree-in-bud in 36 %, bronchial wall thickening in 27 % and more than one morphological finding in 72 %. There were no pathological CT findings in 14 % of patients with clinical symptoms of pneumonia because these patients did not undergo follow-up. Radiological progression was found in 45 % of patients and regression in 33 % in follow-up examinations. In 37 % an additional examination of the paranasal sinuses was performed and showed sinusitis in 63 % of cases. 90 % of the patients had sinusitis as well as pneumonia. In addition to RSV, a further pathogenic agent was found in bronchoalveolar lavage of five patients (Aspergillus spec., herpes simplex virus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The most characteristic signs in chest CT scans were at the beginning of pneumonia with nodules and tree-in-bud often combined with bronchial wall thickening. The following CT scans showed characteristic but not pathognomonic chest CT findings of RSV pneumonia. These morphological findings should be recognized seasonally (winter) especially at the beginning of the case of pneumonia. RSV-associated additional sinusitis is probably common and should be noticed.

  1. Autophagy Deficiency Compromises Alternative Pathways of Respiration following Energy Deprivation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Jessica A S; Cavalcanti, João Henrique F; Medeiros, David B; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Avin-Wittenberg, Tamar; Fernie, Alisdair R; Araújo, Wagner L

    2017-09-01

    Under heterotrophic conditions, carbohydrate oxidation inside the mitochondrion is the primary energy source for cellular metabolism. However, during energy-limited conditions, alternative substrates are required to support respiration. Amino acid oxidation in plant cells plays a key role in this by generating electrons that can be transferred to the mitochondrial electron transport chain via the electron transfer flavoprotein/ubiquinone oxidoreductase system. Autophagy, a catabolic mechanism for macromolecule and protein recycling, allows the maintenance of amino acid pools and nutrient remobilization. Although the association between autophagy and alternative respiratory substrates has been suggested, the extent to which autophagy and primary metabolism interact to support plant respiration remains unclear. To investigate the metabolic importance of autophagy during development and under extended darkness, Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) mutants with disruption of autophagy ( atg mutants) were used. Under normal growth conditions, atg mutants showed lower growth and seed production with no impact on photosynthesis. Following extended darkness, atg mutants were characterized by signatures of early senescence, including decreased chlorophyll content and maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem II coupled with increases in dark respiration. Transcript levels of genes involved in alternative pathways of respiration and amino acid catabolism were up-regulated in atg mutants. The metabolite profiles of dark-treated leaves revealed an extensive metabolic reprogramming in which increases in amino acid levels were partially compromised in atg mutants. Although an enhanced respiration in atg mutants was observed during extended darkness, autophagy deficiency compromises protein degradation and the generation of amino acids used as alternative substrates to the respiration. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  2. β-Cell Ca(2+) dynamics and function are compromised in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Christopher J; Li, Luosheng; Köhler, Martin; Berggren, Per-Olof

    2015-01-01

    Defects in pancreatic β-cell function and survival are key components in type 2 diabetes (T2D). An age-dependent deterioration in β-cell function has also been observed, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms behind this phenomenon. Our previous studies indicate that the regulation of cytoplasmic free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) may be critical and that this is dependent on the proper function of the mitochondria. The [Ca(2+)]i dynamics of the pancreatic β-cell are driven by an interplay between glucose-induced influx of extracellular Ca(2+) via voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels and the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (Ins(1,4,5)P3)-mediated liberation of Ca(2+) from intracellular stores. Our previous work has indicated a direct relationship between disruption of Ins(1,4,5)P3-mediated Ca(2+) regulation and loss of β-cell function, including disturbed [Ca(2+)]i dynamics and compromised insulin secretion. To investigate these processes in aging we used three mouse models, a premature aging mitochondrial mutator mouse, a mature aging phenotype (C57BL/6) and an aging-resistant phenotype (129). Our data suggest that age-dependent impairment in mitochondrial function leads to modest changes in [Ca(2+)]i dynamics in mouse β-cells, particularly in the pattern of [Ca(2+)]i oscillations. These changes are driven by modifications in both PLC/Ins(1,4,5)P3-mediated Ca(2+) mobilization from intracellular stores and decreased β-cell Ca(2+) influx over the plasma membrane. Our findings underscore an important concept, namely that even relatively small, time-dependent changes in β-cell signal-transduction result in compromised insulin release and in a diabetic phenotype. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. CO2-driven compromises to marine life along the Chilean coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayol, E.; Ruiz-Halpern, S.; Duarte, C. M.; Castilla, J. C.; Pelegrí, J. L.

    2010-12-01

    CO2-driven compromises to marine life were examined along the Chilean sector of the Humboldt Current System, a particularly vulnerable hypoxic and upwelling area, applying the Respiration index (RI = log10 pO2) and the pH-dependent aragonite saturation (Ω) to delineate the water masses where aerobic and calcifying organisms are stressed. There was a remarkable negative relationship between oxygen concentration and pH or pCO2 in the studied area, with the subsurface hypoxic Equatorial Subsurface Waters extending from 100 m to about 300 m depth and supporting elevated pCO2 values. The RI reached a minimum at about 200 m depth and decreased towards the Equator. Increased pCO2 in the hypoxic water layer reduced the RI values by as much as 0.59 RI units, with the upper water layer that presents conditions suitable for aerobic life (RI>0.7) declining by half between 42° S and 28° S. The intermediate waters hardly reached those stations closer to the equator so that the increased pCO2 lowered pH and the saturation of aragonite. A significant fraction of the water column along the Chilean sector of the Humboldt Current System suffers from CO2-driven compromises to biota, including waters corrosive to calcifying organisms, stress to aerobic organisms or both. The habitat free of CO2-driven stresses was restricted to the upper mixed layer and to small water parcels at about 1000 m depth. pCO2 acts as a hinge connecting respiratory and calcification challenges expected to increase in the future, resulting in a spread of the challenges to aerobic organisms.

  4. Compromised Global and Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Congestive Heart Failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. S.; Kim, J. J.; Im, K. C.; Moon, D. H. [College of Medicine, Univ. of Ulsan, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    It has been known that cerebral perfusion is maintained in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) by a complex series of compensatory mechanisms. However cognitive impairment is a common problem experienced by patients with CHF and may result from deranged cerebral perfusion. We prospectively investigated the global and regional CBF of patients with CHF and compared the results with that of normal controls. Thirty two patients (M/F: 22/10, 4211 yr) with CHF (LVEF=218.1%) and 10 healthy controls (M/F: 6/4, 398 yr) were prospectively studied. No patients had cerebrovascular disease or other disease affecting cognitive function. All patients and normal controls underwent radionuclide angiography including cerebral hemispheres and aortic arch, and brain perfusion SPECT using Tc-99m ECD. Global CBF was measured non-invasively by the application of Patlak plot graphical analysis. Quantitative rCBF images were obtained from SPECT image using global CBF values, regional/global count ratios, and Lassen's linearization correction algorithm. Difference of regional CBF between CHF and normal control were assessed using a SPM99 without global count normalization (uncorrected p<0.0001, extent threshold>100 voxels). Global CBF (41.54.7 ml/min/100g) of the patients with CHF were significantly lower than those (49.15.7 ml/min/100g) of controls (p<0.001). Regional CBF was significantly decreased in frontal, temporal and parietal neocortex of both cerebral hemispheres compared to normal controls. Regional rCBF of basal ganglia, thalamus, and brain stem were preserved, even though global CBF was variably compromised. Our study show that global CBF is significantly decreased in CHF and regional CBF of frontal, parietal and temporal neocortex is compromised preferentially. Further studies would be needed to investigate the relationship of rCBF change and cognitive impairment in patients with CHF.

  5. Sterilization of freeze dried manila clam (Ruditapea philippinarum) porridge for immuno-compromised patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Beom Seok; Park, Jae Nam [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    This study was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of gamma irradiation and different conditions (vacuum packaging, antioxidant and freezing) on the microbiological and sensory characteristics of freeze dried Manila clam porridge (MCP) for immuno-compromised patient food. McP can be sterilized at 1 kGy to 10 kGy. the initial counts of total aerobic bacteria and yeast molds in the non-irradiated MCP were 2.4±0.5 and 1.2±0.3 log CFU g{sup -}'1, respectively, but gamma irradiation significantly decreased the total aerobic bacteria to below the detection limit (1 log CFU g{sup -1}) (5 kGy). Moreover, gamma irradiation effectively eliminated yeasts/molds at dose below than 1 kGy. However, gamma irradiation accelerated the increase of lipid oxidation and therefore, decreased the sensory characteristics of MCP as irradiation dose increased. to improve the sensory qualities of gamma irradiated MCP, combination treatment (vacuum packaging, 0.1% vitamin c) were applied. there was no significant difference in the overall acceptance scores between the combined-treatment sample (5.6 points) and the non-irradiated samples (6.0). the results indicate that combination treatment (vacuum packaging, 0.1% vitamin c) may help to maintain the quality of MCP. therefore, it considered that irradiation of MCP with combined treatment and this is an effective method for the consumption as a special purpose food such as for space travel or immuno-compromised patients.

  6. Protein catabolism in pregnant snakes (Epicrates cenchria maurus Boidae) compromises musculature and performance after reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourdais, O; Brischoux, F; DeNardo, D; Shine, R

    2004-07-01

    In many species the high energetic demands of reproduction induce a negative energy balance, and thus females must rely on tissue catabolism to complete the reproductive process. Previous works have shown that both fat and protein are energy resources during prolonged fasting in vertebrates. While many ecological studies on energy costs of reproduction have focused on variations in fat stores, the impact of protein investment on the female has not been thoroughly investigated. Notably, as there is no specialized storage form for proteins, intense catabolism is likely to entail structural (musculature) loss that may compromise maternal physical performance after reproduction. Measurements on captive rainbow boas ( Epicrates cenchria maurus) confirm that reproducing females undergo significant protein catabolism (as indicated by elevated plasma uric acid levels) and show considerable musculature loss during gestation (as detected by reduced width of the epaxial muscles). Protein mobilization entailed a significant functional loss that was illustrated by decrements in tests of strength and constriction after parturition. In wild situations, such effects are likely to decrease the snakes' ability to forage and apprehend prey. Hence, the time period needed to recover from reproduction can be extended not only because the female must compensate losses of both fat stores and functional muscle, but also because the ability to do so may be compromised. Performance alteration is likely to be of equal or greater importance than reduced energy stores in the physiological mediation of elevated post-reproduction mortality rates and infrequent reproductive bouts (e.g. biannual or triannual), two common ecological traits of female snakes.

  7. Consequences of early extraction of compromised first permanent molar: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saber, Afnan M; Altoukhi, Doua H; Horaib, Mariam F; El-Housseiny, Azza A; Alamoudi, Najlaa M; Sabbagh, Heba J

    2018-04-05

    The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature to determine the sequelae of early extraction of compromised first permanent molars (FPMs) with regard to the skeletal and dental development of 5- to 15-year-old children. Meta-analysis was conducted when applicable. Our research protocol included a search strategy, inclusion/exclusion criteria, and a data extraction plan. The search engines used were PubMed, Scopus, and Science Direct. Study selection was performed independently by three reviewers. Articles published from 1960 to 2017 were reviewed based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Meta-analysis was performed to compare space closure between upper and lower arches. Eleven studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The consequences were decrease in post extraction space, accelerated development and eruption of second permanents molars (SPMs) and third molars, a decrease in caries and/or fillings on the proximal surfaces of adjacent teeth, lingual tipping and retrusion of incisors, and counter clockwise rotation of the occlusal plane. There were several consequences of early extraction of FPMs, which were related to skeletal and dental development. Our systematic review suggests that comprehensive evaluation of the compromised FPMs should be performed before planning an extraction. The ideal time for FPM extraction is when the SPM is at the early bifurcation stage in order to achieve complete closure of the extraction space by the SPM. Benefits should be weighed over the risks to decrease the risk of unfavorable outcomes as much as possible. However, due to the limited evidence on the outcomes and variables that influence them, high-quality prospective studies are needed.

  8. Staurosporine induces necroptotic cell death under caspase-compromised conditions in U937 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsuzsanna A Dunai

    Full Text Available For a long time necrosis was thought to be an uncontrolled process but evidences recently have revealed that necrosis can also occur in a regulated manner. Necroptosis, a type of programmed necrosis is defined as a death receptor-initiated process under caspase-compromised conditions. The process requires the kinase activity of receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 and 3 (RIPK1 and RIPK3 and mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL, as a substrate of RIPK3. The further downstream events remain elusive. We applied known inhibitors to characterize the contributing enzymes in necroptosis and their effect on cell viability and different cellular functions were detected mainly by flow cytometry. Here we report that staurosporine, the classical inducer of intrinsic apoptotic pathway can induce necroptosis under caspase-compromised conditions in U937 cell line. This process could be hampered at least partially by the RIPK1 inhibitor necrotstin-1 and by the heat shock protein 90 kDa inhibitor geldanamycin. Moreover both the staurosporine-triggered and the classical death ligand-induced necroptotic pathway can be effectively arrested by a lysosomal enzyme inhibitor CA-074-OMe and the recently discovered MLKL inhibitor necrosulfonamide. We also confirmed that the enzymatic role of poly(ADP-ribosepolymerase (PARP is dispensable in necroptosis but it contributes to membrane disruption in secondary necrosis. In conclusion, we identified a novel way of necroptosis induction that can facilitate our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of necroptosis. Our results shed light on alternative application of staurosporine, as a possible anticancer therapeutic agent. Furthermore, we showed that the CA-074-OMe has a target in the signaling pathway leading to necroptosis. Finally, we could differentiate necroptotic and secondary necrotic processes based on participation of PARP enzyme.

  9. Conjoined lumbosacral nerve roots compromised by disk herniation: sagittal shoulder sign for the preoperative diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Chang Ho [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Seoul (Korea); Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Anam Hospital, Seoul (Korea); Shin, Myung Jin; Kim, Sung Moon; Lee, Sang Hoon; Kim, Hee Kyung; Ryu, Jeong Ah [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Seoul (Korea); Lee, Choon-Sung [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Sam Soo [Kangwon National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Kangwon (Korea)

    2008-03-15

    The objective was to determine the importance of the ''sagittal shoulder sign'' on magnetic resonance (MR) images for the diagnosis of conjoined lumbosacral nerve roots (CLNR) that are compromised by herniated disks. Magnetic resonance images of 11 patients (6 men and 5 women; age range, 25-71 years; average age, 48.7 years) with surgically proven CLNR, which was compromised by herniated disks, were retrospectively evaluated by two musculoskeletal radiologists. MR images were evaluated for the presence or absence of the sagittal shoulder sign - a vertical structure connecting two consecutive nerve roots and overlying disk on the sagittal MR images. The radiologists noted the type of accompanying disk herniation and bony spinal canal changes, as well as other characteristic MR features of CLNR, the common passage of two consecutive nerve roots through the neural foramen on axial MR images. The sagittal shoulder sign was identified with a mean frequency of 90.9% by the two observers (in 10 of 11 patients). The common passage of two consecutive nerve roots through the neural foramen on axial MR images was identified with a mean frequency of 59.1% (in 7 and 6 out of 11 patients, by observers 1 and 2, respectively). Good interobserver agreement for the sagittal shoulder sign was present (k = 0.621, p < 0.05). Observation of the sagittal shoulder sign may prove helpful for diagnosing CLNR in patients with disk herniation. In particular, this sign appears to be useful when there is no evidence of CLNR on axial MR images. (orig.)

  10. The diagnostic role of abdominal CT imaging findings in adults intussusception: Focused on the vascular compromise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sung Bin; Ha, Hyun Kwon; Kim, Ah Young; Lee, Seung Soo; Kim, Hye Jin; Park, Beom Jin; Jin, Yong Hyun; Park, Seong Ho; Kim, Kyoung Won

    2007-01-01

    Intussusception is defined as telescoping of one segment of the gastrointestinal tract into an adjacent one. Unlike that in children, adult intussusception is a relatively rare condition. More than 90% of patients with adult intussusception have been reported to have an organic cause, with benign or malignant tumors for accounting for approximately 65% of the cases. In general, the diagnosis is easily made by means of computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The imaging appearance of a bowel-within-bowel configuration with or without contained fat and mesenteric vessels, is pathognomonic. As the intussusceptum enters into the intussuscipiens, the mesentery is carried forward and trapped between the overlapping layers of bowel. The twisting or severe constriction of the mesenteric vessels may result in vascular compromise with subsequent edematous thickening of the involved bowel. In these circumstances, ischemic necrosis may develop if timely intervention is not undertaken. Therefore, determination of the presence or absence of intestinal necrosis in intussusception is important in patient management. On CT, the presence of well-known diagnostic CT criteria for strangulated obstruction (especially severe engorgement or twisting of the mesenteric vessels) as well as evidence of loss of the layered pattern, accumulation of extraluminal fluid collection, and bowel perforation, may suggest the diagnosis of intestinal necrosis. CT and MR imaging are limited in determining the primary disease causing intussusception. However, CT and MR provide excellent pre-operative evaluation, including the possible extension and/or dissemination of a malignant tumor. CT and MR imaging may also be useful in suggesting the presence of vascular compromise

  11. Safety and Efficacy of Alginate Adhesion Barrier Gel in Compromised Intestinal Anastomosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Ankit A; Yauw, Simon T K; Lomme, Roger M L M; Hendriks, Thijs; van Goor, Harry

    For any anti-adhesive barrier developed for abdominal surgery, the use under conditions in which anastomotic healing is compromised needs to be investigated. The current study evaluates the effect of a new ultrapure alginate gel on early healing of high-risk anastomoses in the ileum and compares this with the gold standard used in clinical practice. In 75 adult male Wistar rats, a 5 mm ileal segment was resected and continuity was restored by construction of an inverted anastomosis. Rats were divided randomly into a control group and groups receiving either alginate gel or a sodium hyaluronate carboxymethylcellulose (HA/CMC) film around the anastomosis (n = 25 each). Carprofen, given in a daily dose of 1.25 mg/kg, was used to compromise anastomotic healing. At day three, animals were killed and scored for signs of anastomotic leakage and the presence of adhesions. The incidence of adhesion formation was 95% in the HA/CMC film group, which was significantly higher than in the controls (64%, p = 0.010) and the alginate gel group (52%, p = 0.004). The adhesion score was nearly 40% lower in the alginate gel group compared with the HA/CMC film group. The incidence of ileal leakage in the HA/CMC film group (92%) was significantly higher than in the controls (68%, p = 0.016). Leakage rate did not differ between the alginate gel and control groups. There was no significant difference between groups in either incision bursting pressure or incision breaking strength. Ultrapure alginate gel does not interfere with repair of ileal anastomoses constructed under conditions in which chances of anastomotic dehiscence are high. The alginate gel performs better than the HA/CMC film.

  12. Tunable photonic crystals with partial bandgaps from blue phase colloidal crystals and dielectric-doped blue phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimulak, Mitja; Ravnik, Miha

    2014-09-07

    Blue phase colloidal crystals and dielectric nanoparticle/polymer doped blue phases are demonstrated to combine multiple components with different symmetries in one photonic material, creating a photonic crystal with variable and micro-controllable photonic band structure. In this composite photonic material, one contribution to the band structure is determined by the 3D periodic birefringent orientational profile of the blue phases, whereas the second contribution emerges from the regular array of the colloidal particles or from the dielectric/nanoparticle-doped defect network. Using the planewave expansion method, optical photonic bands of the blue phase I and II colloidal crystals and related nanoparticle/polymer doped blue phases are calculated, and then compared to blue phases with no particles and to face-centred-cubic and body-centred-cubic colloidal crystals in isotropic background. We find opening of local band gaps at particular points of Brillouin zone for blue phase colloidal crystals, where there were none in blue phases without particles or dopants. Particle size and filling fraction of the blue phase defect network are demonstrated as parameters that can directly tune the optical bands and local band gaps. In the blue phase I colloidal crystal with an additionally doped defect network, interestingly, we find an indirect total band gap (with the exception of one point) at the entire edge of SC irreducible zone. Finally, this work demonstrates the role of combining multiple - by symmetry - differently organised components in one photonic crystal material, which offers a novel approach towards tunable soft matter photonic materials.

  13. Ultrafast endothermic transfer of non-radiative exciplex state to radiative excitons in polyfluorene random copolymer for blue electroluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghe, Dhanashree A.; Dey, Amrita; Johnson, Kerr; Lu, L.-P.; Friend, Richard H.; Kabra, Dinesh

    2018-04-01

    We report a blue-emitting random copolymer (termed modified Aryl-F8) consisting of three repeat units of polydioctylfluorene (F8), Aryl-polydioctylfluorene (Aryl-F8), and an aromatic amine comonomer unit, poly(bis-N,Ν'-(4-butylphenyl)-bis-N,N'-phenyl-1,4 phenylenediamine) chemically linked to get an improved charge carrier balance without compromising on the photoluminescence (PL) quantum yield with respect to the Aryl-F8 homo-polymer. The measured photoluminescence quantum efficiency (˜70%) of the blue-emitting polymer is comparable to or greater than the individual monomer units. The time resolved PL spectra from the modified Aryl-F8 are similar to those of Arylated-poly(9,9'-dioctylfluorene-co-bis-N,N'-(4-butylphenyl)-bis-N,N'-phenyl-1,4 phenylenediamine) (PFB) even at a time scale of 100-250 ps, indicating an ultrafast energy transfer from the (Aryl-F8 or F8):Arylated-PFB interface to Arylated-PFB, i.e., endothermic transfer of non-radiative exciplex to a radiative molecular exciton. Furthermore, the presence of non-radiative exciplex is confirmed by the photoluminescence decay profile and temperature dependent PL spectra. The luminance efficiency achieved for the modified Aryl-F8 polymer light-emitting diodes is ˜11 cd A-1 with an external quantum efficiency (EQE) of ˜4.5%, whereas it is 0.05 cd/A with an EQE of ˜0.025% for Aryl-F8. Almost two orders of higher efficiency is achieved due to the improved charge carrier balance from the random copolymer without compromising on the photoluminescence yield.

  14. Effects of blue light and caffeine on mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekström, Johan G; Beaven, C Martyn

    2014-09-01

    Both short wavelength (blue) light and caffeine have been studied for their mood enhancing effects on humans. The ability of blue light to increase alertness, mood and cognitive function via non-image forming neuropathways has been suggested as a non-pharmacological countermeasure for depression across a range of occupational settings. This experimental study compared blue light and caffeine and aimed to test the effects of blue light/placebo (BLU), white light/240-mg caffeine (CAF), blue light/240-mg caffeine (BCAF) and white light/placebo (PLA), on mood. A randomised, controlled, crossover design study was used, in a convenience population of 20 healthy volunteers. The participants rated their mood on the Swedish Core Affect Scales (SCAS) prior to and after each experimental condition to assess the dimensions of valence and activation. There was a significant main effect of light (p = 0.009), and the combination of blue light and caffeine had clear positive effects on core effects (ES, ranging from 0.41 to 1.20) and global mood (ES, 0.61 ± 0.53). The benefits of the combination of blue light and caffeine should be further investigated across a range of applications due to the observed effects on the dimensions of arousal, valence and pleasant activation.

  15. Blue light-induced oxidative stress in live skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Yuya; Ohta, Shigeo; Wolf, Alexander M

    2017-07-01

    Skin damage from exposure to sunlight induces aging-like changes in appearance and is attributed to the ultraviolet (UV) component of light. Photosensitized production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by UVA light is widely accepted to contribute to skin damage and carcinogenesis, but visible light is thought not to do so. Using mice expressing redox-sensitive GFP to detect ROS, blue light could produce oxidative stress in live skin. Blue light induced oxidative stress preferentially in mitochondria, but green, red, far red or infrared light did not. Blue light-induced oxidative stress was also detected in cultured human keratinocytes, but the per photon efficacy was only 25% of UVA in human keratinocyte mitochondria, compared to 68% of UVA in mouse skin. Skin autofluorescence was reduced by blue light, suggesting flavins are the photosensitizer. Exposing human skin to the blue light contained in sunlight depressed flavin autofluorescence, demonstrating that the visible component of sunlight has a physiologically significant effect on human skin. The ROS produced by blue light is probably superoxide, but not singlet oxygen. These results suggest that blue light contributes to skin aging similar to UVA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Blue Sky Birds Come to the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bura Sabiha Kelek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The New Supply System comes to all fields for logistics.Drone is an unmanned vehicle for loading and unloading packages.Perhaps we can imagine it as a ‘’blue sky bird’’. This new trend has three important impacts that are determined by technoligical capabilities, ,regularity pressure, and public acceptance so that it will be dealed within current powers and circumstances. This kind of vehicles are used in different capacities, such as multicopter,drone or robot.Logistics’ issues are interested in short-term delivery systems for customer satisfaction but all developments go through GPS so it is based on 21st century technological developments, which have been tested on a short-term basis and will be expected to be of use in 2 years. The purpose of this research is to give lead to researchers information about risk and the advantages of using the technology in this manner.Some advantages and disadvantages ,schedules’ problems in the system will be identifed.

  17. Why aye-ayes see blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melin, Amanda D; Moritz, Gillian L; Fosbury, Robert A E; Kawamura, Shoji; Dominy, Nathaniel J

    2012-03-01

    The capacity for cone-mediated color vision varies among nocturnal primates. Some species are colorblind, having lost the functionality of their short-wavelength-sensitive-1 (SWS1) opsin pigment gene. In other species, such as the aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis), the SWS1 gene remains intact. Recent studies focused on aye-ayes indicate that this gene has been maintained by natural selection and that the pigment has a peak sensitivity (lambda(max)) of 406 nm, which is -20 nm closer to the ultraviolet region of the spectrum than in most primates. The functional significance behind the retention and unusual lambda(max) of this opsin pigment is unknown, and it is perplexing given that all mammals are presumed to be colorblind in the dark. Here we comment on this puzzle and discuss recent findings on the color vision intensity thresholds of terrestrial vertebrates with comparable optics to aye-ayes. We draw attention to the twilight activities of aye-ayes and report that twilight is enriched in short-wavelength (bluish) light. We also show that the intensity of twilight and full moonlight is probably sufficient to support cone-mediated color vision. We speculate that the intact SWS1 opsin pigment gene of aye-ayes is a crepuscular adaptation and we report on the blueness of potential visual targets, such as scent marks and the brilliant blue arils of Ravenala madagascariensis.

  18. Prussian Blue Mg-Li Hybrid Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoqi; Duffort, Victor; Nazar, Linda F

    2016-08-01

    The major advantage of Mg batteries relies on their promise of employing an Mg metal negative electrode, which offers much higher energy density compared to graphitic carbon. However, the strong coulombic interaction of Mg 2+ ions with anions leads to their sluggish diffusion in the solid state, which along with a high desolvation energy, hinders the development of positive electrode materials. To circumvent this limitation, Mg metal negative electrodes can be used in hybrid systems by coupling an Li + insertion cathode through a dual salt electrolyte. Two "high voltage" Prussian blue analogues (average 2.3 V vs Mg/Mg 2+ ; 3.0 V vs Li/Li + ) are investigated as cathode materials and the influence of structural water is shown. Their electrochemical profiles, presenting two voltage plateaus, are explained based on the two unique Fe bonding environments. Structural water has a beneficial impact on the cell voltage. Capacities of 125 mAh g -1 are obtained at a current density of 10 mA g -1 (≈C/10), while stable performance up to 300 cycles is demonstrated at 200 mA g -1 (≈2C). The hybrid cell design is a step toward building a safe and high density energy storage system.

  19. Modeling blue stragglers in young clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Pin; Deng Licai; Zhang Xiaobin

    2011-01-01

    A grid of binary evolution models are calculated for the study of a blue straggler (BS) population in intermediate age (log Age = 7.85–8.95) star clusters. The BS formation via mass transfer and merging is studied systematically using our models. Both Case A and B close binary evolutionary tracks are calculated for a large range of parameters. The results show that BSs formed via Case B are generally bluer and even more luminous than those produced by Case A. Furthermore, the larger range in orbital separations of Case B models provides a probability of producing more BSs than in Case A. Based on the grid of models, several Monte-Carlo simulations of BS populations in the clusters in the age range are carried out. The results show that BSs formed via different channels populate different areas in the color magnitude diagram (CMD). The locations of BSs in CMD for a number of clusters are compared to our simulations as well. In order to investigate the influence of mass transfer efficiency in the models and simulations, a set of models is also calculated by implementing a constant mass transfer efficiency, β = 0.5, during Roche lobe overflow (Case A binary evolution excluded). The result shows BSs can be formed via mass transfer at any given age in both cases. However, the distributions of the BS populations on CMD are different.

  20. The University of Montana's Blue Mountain Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, D. B.

    2004-12-01

    The University of Montana's Department of Physics and Astronomy runs the state of Montana's only professional astronomical observatory. The Observatory, located on nearby Blue Mountain, houses a 16 inch Boller and Chivens Cassegrain reflector (purchased in 1970), in an Ash dome. The Observatory sits just below the summit ridge, at an elevation of approximately 6300 feet. Our instrumentation includes an Op-Tec SSP-5A photoelectric photometer and an SBIG ST-9E CCD camera. We have the only undergraduate astronomy major in the state (technically a physics major with an astronomy option), so our Observatory is an important component of our students' education. Students have recently carried out observing projects on the photometry of variable stars and color photometry of open clusters and OB associations. In my poster I will show some of the data collected by students in their observing projects. The Observatory is also used for public open houses during the summer months, and these have become very popular: at times we have had 300 visitors in a single night.

  1. Age determination of blue-winged teal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, C.W.

    1968-01-01

    Primary feather length, markings on the greater secondary coverts, and the degree of bill spotting were evaluated as characters for use in the spring to distinguish first-year, blue-winged teal (Anas discors) females from older ones. The length of the 10th primary feather did not prove suitable to separate different aged females. Extreme primary lengths might be used to determine the age of some males. In females that have been through a postnuptial molt the greater secondary coverts have a more symmetrical, and more acutely angled, white, inverted 'V'-marking. Any female with a 'V' subjectively classified as good has gone through at least one postnuptial molt, and a female with no sign of a 'V' on the coverts is a juvenile or yearling before her first postnuptial molt. By measuring the longest bill spot on the upper mandible of each known-age female, it was possible to determine the age of some female teal. Because the spots fade during the breeding season, no lower size limit could be set to delineate first-year females at that time of year, but any nest-trapped hen with a spot longer than 10 mm was considered to be older than 1 year. Upper and lower limits were also established to distinguish some yearlings and 2-year-olds in the fall.

  2. [The effects of blue algae on health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Riel, A J H P; Schets, F M; Meulenbelt, J

    2007-08-04

    Cyanobacteria (blue algae) regularly cause recreational waters to become murky and smelly. Skin irritation and mild gastrointestinal disorders have regularly been reported following recreational activities in water suspected of being contaminated with cyanobacteria. The exact cause of these effects on health is not clear. Severe effects are not to be expected from recreational exposure to water contaminated with cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria can produce hepatotoxins, neurotoxins, cytotoxins and irritants. In Brazil lethal intoxications have occurred due to the occurrence of toxins in drinking water and in dialysis fluid. The Dutch policy is based on the Commissie Integraal Waterbeheer (Commission Integral Water Management) guidelines for recreational waters. It is not clear to what extent the other cyanotoxins occur in the Netherlands. However, several genera ofcyanobacteria capable of producing these other cyanotoxins have been found in the Netherlands. For a good risk assessment in the Netherlands, more information is needed on the effects on health of cyanobacteria. There is also a need for more data on the prevalence of different cyanobacteria and toxins in Dutch recreational waters.

  3. Screening of oral premalignant lesions in smokers using toluidine blue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanti Leosari

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: A smoker is associated with the risk of developing oral premalignant lesions due to the cacinogenic contents in cigarette. Toluidine blue is a basic chromatic dye used in screening the presence of premalignant lesions due to its ability to detect acidic components in cells and tissues. Purpose: This study was purposed to observe the outcomes of toluidine blue staining on oral mucosa of smokers and non smokers and to find out whether quantity and duration of smoking affect the final results of toluidine blue staining. Methods: Forty male subjects, aged 20-60 years old were involved in this study, consisted of 10 heavy smokers, 10 moderate smokers, 10 light smokers and 10 non smokers. Subjects were instructed to rinse their mouths with mineral water for 20 seconds followed by acetic acid 1% for another 20 seconds. Toluidine blue stain was applied in excess and left on site for 1 minute. Subjects were instructed to rinse with acetic acid 1% and sufficient water consecutively for 20 seconds each. The areas of oral mucosa that stained blue were captured with intraoral camera and transferred to the computer unit. The staining procedure was repeated after 14 days. Results: Chi-square test showed that toluidine blue positive staining dominates the smokers group. Regression and correlation test indicate that Toluidine blue staining is more obvious in subjects who consume more cigarettes. Conclusion: It was concluded that oral mucosa of smokers absorbed more toluidine blue than that of non smokers and retention of toluidine blue is affected by quantity and duration of smoking.

  4. The discrimination of (non-denim) blue cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Ray; Hutchinson, William; Fryer, Verity

    2009-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine the degree of discrimination obtained between non-denim blue cotton fibres using visible-UV range microspectrophotometry alone. To this end, samples of fibres were taken from 100, nondenim, blue cotton, outer garments, including t-shirts, trousers and jumpers and subjected to analysis by both visible and UV range microspectrophotometry. The results obtained from the samples of each garment were compared to determine if they 'matched' or not. From an initial visual comparison of the garments it was possible to subdivide the samples into two populations consisting of 73 'dark blue' garments and 27 'mid-blue' garments. It was found that of the 73 'dark blue' garments, 22 distinct sub-populations could be distinguished using visible range MSP, this figure being increased to 43 when the analysis was extended into the UVW range. In the case of the 27 'mid-blue' garments, 9 distinct sub-populations were discriminated using visible range MSP, this figure being increased to 17 when the analysis was extended into the UV range. The discriminating power (i.e., the number of discriminated pairs divided by the number of possible pairs) of visible range microspectrophotometry was calculated as 0.89 for 'mid-blue' garments and 0.87 for 'dark blue' garments. Extending microspectrophotometry into the UV range increased discrimination by 7%, giving a discriminating power of 0.96 for both mid and dark blue cotton fibres which was similar to that reported by a previous study where this method was combined with light and fluorescence microscopy. Intra-garment variation was found to be negligible. The implications of this study for casework are discussed and a revised analytical pathway for the comparison of this fibre type/colour combination using microspectrophotometry as a primary screening tool, is proposed.

  5. Temperature Dependence of the Moessbauer Effect on Prussian Blue Nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Pingheng; Xue Desheng; Luo Haiqing; Shi Huigang [Lanzhou University, Key Lab for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of MOE (China)

    2002-09-15

    Highly ordered Prussian blue nanowires with diameter of about 50 nm and length up to 4 {mu}m have been fabricated by an electrodepositing technology with two-step anodizing anodic aluminum oxide films. The Moessbauer spectra taken between 15 and 300 K indicate that the hyperfine parameters decrease as the temperature increases. The temperature dependence of the quadrupole splitting, the isomer shift and the spectra area are discussed. A decrease of Debye temperature for Prussian blue nanowires was found with respect to that of Prussian blue bulk.

  6. Blue-light emitting triazolopyridinium and triazoloquinolinium salts

    KAUST Repository

    Carboni, Valentina

    2017-01-27

    Compounds that emit blue light are of interest for applications that include optoelectronic devices and chemo/biosensing and imaging. The design and synthesis of small organic molecules that can act as high-efficiency deep-blue-light emitters in the solid state and can be easily processed from solutions represents a significant challenge. Herein we present the preparation and photophysical, photochemical and electrochemical properties of a series of triazolopyridinium and triazoloquinolinium compounds. The compounds are soluble in water or polar organic solvents and exhibit photoluminescence in the blue region of the spectrum in fluid solution, in the solid state and in a frozen matrix.

  7. Combatant eye protection: an introduction to the blue light hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattimore, Morris R.

    2016-05-01

    Emerging evidence of metabolic vulnerability to visible blue light is vitally important, as it is indicative of a scalable threshold effect. Added stressors (e.g., increased altitude or contact lens wear) could shift the wavelength effects toward a more damaging clinical picture. Recent reports have indicated rod photo-pigment damage resulting from solar blue-light exposures, adversely affecting unaided night vision, a militarily important performance decrement. The activation wavelength for the daily synchronous setting of the Circadian Clock, which regulates the synchronization of all hormonal and organ systems throughout the body, falls within this blue light perceptual range.

  8. Adsorption of methylene blue onto treated activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamin Yasin; Mohd Zobir Hussein; Faujan Ahmad

    2007-01-01

    The potential feasibility of treated and untreated activated carbon for removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution was investigated. The effects of various experimental parameters such as contact time, solution pH and adsorbent dosage were investigated. The extent of methylene blue removal increased with the increased in contact time, solution pH and amount of adsorbent used. Adsorption data was better fitted to the Langmuir isotherm. The results in this study indicated that the treated activated carbon was an attractive candidate for removing organic dye of methylene blue which shows great reduction of colour while reducing the time contact to achieve equilibrium. (author)

  9. White Arctic vs. Blue Arctic: Making Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfirman, S. L.; Newton, R.; Schlosser, P.; Pomerance, R.; Tremblay, B.; Murray, M. S.; Gerrard, M.

    2015-12-01

    As the Arctic warms and shifts from icy white to watery blue and resource-rich, tension is arising between the desire to restore and sustain an ice-covered Arctic and stakeholder communities that hope to benefit from an open Arctic Ocean. If emissions of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere continue on their present trend, most of the summer sea ice cover is projected to be gone by mid-century, i.e., by the time that few if any interventions could be in place to restore it. There are many local as well as global reasons for ice restoration, including for example, preserving the Arctic's reflectivity, sustaining critical habitat, and maintaining cultural traditions. However, due to challenges in implementing interventions, it may take decades before summer sea ice would begin to return. This means that future generations would be faced with bringing sea ice back into regions where they have not experienced it before. While there is likely to be interest in taking action to restore ice for the local, regional, and global services it provides, there is also interest in the economic advancement that open access brings. Dealing with these emerging issues and new combinations of stakeholders needs new approaches - yet environmental change in the Arctic is proceeding quickly and will force the issues sooner rather than later. In this contribution we examine challenges, opportunities, and responsibilities related to exploring options for restoring Arctic sea ice and potential pathways for their implementation. Negotiating responses involves international strategic considerations including security and governance, meaning that along with local communities, state decision-makers, and commercial interests, national governments will have to play central roles. While these issues are currently playing out in the Arctic, similar tensions are also emerging in other regions.

  10. Antimicrobial blue light inactivation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Gu, Ying; Dai, Tianhong

    2018-02-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a human-adapted, gram-negative diplococcus that infects human reproductive tracts and causes gonorrhea, a sexually transmitted disease, resulting in discharge and inflammation at the urethra, cervix, pharynx, or rectum. Over the years, N. gonorrhoeae has developed resistance to nearly every drug ever used to treat it, including sulfonamides, penicillin, tetracycline, and fluoroquinolones. Drug-resistant N. gonorrhoeae is now considered by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as an urgent threat. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of antimicrobial blue light (aBL) at 405 and 470 nm for inactivating N. gonorrhoeae and reveal the mechanism of action. Our results showed that an exposure of 45 J/cm2 aBL at 405 nm reduced the bacterial CFU by 7.16-log10. When the aBL exposure was increased to 54 J/cm2, eradication of bacterial CFU was achieved. When the bacteria were exposed to aBL at 470 nm, 3-log10 reduction of CFU was observed at an aBL exposure of higher than 126 J/cm2. Absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic analyses revealed the presence of endogenous porphyrins and flavins in N. gonorrhoeae cells. The present study indicated that aBL is a potential strategy to control N. gonorrhoeae infections. Endogenous porphyrins play a vital role in the killing effects of aBL. In vivo experiments are ongoing in our laboratory to treat genital tract infections in mice using aBL and explore the potential clinical applications.

  11. Methylene Blue for Vasoplegic Syndrome Postcardiac Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Aly Makram; Elsherbeny, Ahmed Galal; Almehizia, Rayd Abdelaziz

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) can be complicated by vasoplegia that is refractory to vasopressors. Methylene blue (MB) represents an alternative in such cases. Patients and Methods: Retrospective observational historical control-matched study. From 2010 to 2015, all patients who received MB for vasoplegia post-CPB were included in this study. Historical controls from the period of 2004 to 2009 were matched. End-points were the time till improvement of vasoplegia (Ti), 30-day mortality, cardiac surgical Intensive Care Unit (CSICU) morbidity, and length of stay (LOS). Results: Twenty-eight patients were matched in both groups. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in demographic, laboratory data on admission, or hemodynamic profile before use of MB. Ti and time to complete discontinuation of vasopressors were statistically significant less in MB group (8.2 ± 2.6 vs. 29.7 ± 6.4, P = 0.00 and 22.6 ± 5.2 vs. 55.3 ± 9.4, P = 0.00) respectively. Mortality at day 30 was significantly higher in controls compared to MB (1 patient [3.6%] vs. 6 patients [21.4%], long rank P = 0.04). CSICU, hospital LOS, and incidence of renal failure was significantly higher in control group (12.4 ± 3.7 vs. 7 ± 1.4, P = 0.03), (19.5 ± 2.4 vs. 10.9 ± 3.2, P = 0.05) and (9 patients [32.1%] vs. 2 patients [7.1%], P = 0.04), respectively. Duration of mechanical ventilation was less in MB patients; however, did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions: the use of MB for vasoplegia postcardiac surgery was associated with rapid recovery of hemodynamics, shorter need for vasopressors, less ICU mortality, less incidence of renal failure, and shorter LOS. PMID:29657374

  12. Blue photoluminescent carbon nanodots from limeade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suvarnaphaet, Phitsini [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); ThEP Center, Commission of Higher Education, 328 Si Ayuthaya Rd (Thailand); Tiwary, Chandra Sekhar [Department of Materials Science and Nano Engineering, Rice University, Houston, TX 7005 (United States); Wetcharungsri, Jutaphet; Porntheeraphat, Supanit [NECTEC, National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSTDA), Thailand Science Park, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Hoonsawat, Rassmidara [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); ThEP Center, Commission of Higher Education, 328 Si Ayuthaya Rd (Thailand); Ajayan, Pulickel Madhavapanicker [Department of Materials Science and Nano Engineering, Rice University, Houston, TX 7005 (United States); Tang, I-Ming [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Department of Material Science, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); ThEP Center, Commission of Higher Education, 328 Si Ayuthaya Rd (Thailand); Asanithi, Piyapong, E-mail: asanithi@hotmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); ThEP Center, Commission of Higher Education, 328 Si Ayuthaya Rd (Thailand)

    2016-12-01

    Carbon-based photoluminescent nanodot has currently been one of the promising materials for various applications. The remaining challenges are the carbon sources and the simple synthetic processes that enhance the quantum yield, photostability and biocompatibility of the nanodots. In this work, the synthesis of blue photoluminescent carbon nanodots from limeade via a single-step hydrothermal carbonization process is presented. Lime carbon nanodot (L-CnD), whose the quantum yield exceeding 50% for the 490 nm emission in gram-scale amounts, has the structure of graphene core functionalized with the oxygen functional groups. The micron-sized flake of the as-prepared L-CnD powder exhibits multicolor emission depending on an excitation wavelength. The L-CnDs are demonstrated for rapidly ferric-ion (Fe{sup 3+}) detection in water compared to Fe{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, Mn{sup 2+} and Ni{sup 2+} ions. The photoluminescence quenching of L-CnD solution under UV light is used to distinguish the Fe{sup 3+} ions from others by naked eyes as low concentration as 100 μM. Additionally, L-CnDs provide exceptional photostability and biocompatibility for imaging yeast cell morphology. Changes in morphology of living yeast cells, i.e. cell shape variation, and budding, can be observed in a minute-period until more than an hour without the photoluminescent intensity loss. - Highlights: • Photoluminescent carbon nanodots are synthesized from limeade. • The quantum yield of lime carbon nanodots is higher than 50%. • The lime carbon nanodots can be applied for detecting of Fe{sup 3+} ions and for imaging living yeast cells.

  13. Transient inhibition of cell proliferation does not compromise self-renewal of mouse embryonic stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ruoxing [Department of Biological Sciences, The University of Southern Mississippi, 118 College Drive 5018, Hattiesburg, MS 39406 (United States); Guo, Yan-Lin, E-mail: yanlin.guo@usm.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, The University of Southern Mississippi, 118 College Drive 5018, Hattiesburg, MS 39406 (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have unlimited capacity for self-renewal and can differentiate into various cell types when induced. They also have an unusual cell cycle control mechanism driven by constitutively active cyclin dependent kinases (Cdks). In mouse ESCs (mESCs). It is proposed that the rapid cell proliferation could be a necessary part of mechanisms that maintain mESC self-renewal and pluripotency, but this hypothesis is not in line with the finding in human ESCs (hESCs) that the length of the cell cycle is similar to differentiated cells. Therefore, whether rapid cell proliferation is essential for the maintenance of mESC state remains unclear. We provide insight into this uncertainty through chemical intervention of mESC cell cycle. We report here that inhibition of Cdks with olomoucine II can dramatically slow down cell proliferation of mESCs with concurrent down-regulation of cyclin A, B and E, and the activation of the Rb pathway. However, mESCs display can recover upon the removal of olomoucine II and are able to resume normal cell proliferation without losing self-renewal and pluripotency, as demonstrated by the expression of ESC markers, colony formation, embryoid body formation, and induced differentiation. We provide a mechanistic explanation for these observations by demonstrating that Oct4 and Nanog, two major transcription factors that play critical roles in the maintenance of ESC properties, are up-regulated via de novo protein synthesis when the cells are exposed to olomoucine II. Together, our data suggest that short-term inhibition of cell proliferation does not compromise the basic properties of mESCs. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of Cdks slows down mESCs proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer mESCs display remarkable recovery capacity from short-term cell cycle interruption. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Short-term cell cycle interruption does not compromise mESC self-renewal. Black

  14. Propagation of aortic dissection and visceral artery compromise. Three-dimensional analysis on CT angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minamiguchi, Hiroki

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the patterns of the propagation of aortic dissection with quantitative data from CT angiography and to verify the relationship between the propagation of aortic dissection and visceral artery compromise. The subjects were 67 cases (48 men, 19 women) with acute and subacute aortic dissection extending from the descending thoracic aorta to the aortic bifurcation. The mean age is 56.5±12.3 years old (range 34 to 80 years). Eight axial levels of the trunk of right pulmonary artery, left inferior pulmonary vein, coronary sinus, celiac axis, the orifice of superior mesenteric artery (SMA), the orifice of right real artery, the orifice of left renal artery and the orifice of inferior mesenteric artery were submitted to investigate the propagation of aortic dissection. The true lumen central angle was calculated in each level. The axial distance, branch angle difference and true distance between SMA and bilateral renal arteries were calculated. The trajectory of aortic dissection propagation from descending thoracic aorta to aortic bifurcation could be divided into two types of linear dissection type (n=41) and spiral dissection type (n=26). The latter were further subdivided into clockwise rotation type (n=14) and counter-clockwise rotation type (n=12). Younger age was significantly associated with the spiral dissection type as compared to older age (p=0.030). The spiral dissection type propagation pattern was found predominantly from the descending thoracic aorta to celiac axis, while at more distal levels linear type dissection was more common. The blood flow of SMA and celiac axis came from the true lumen or both lumens in all cases but single case from false lumen. The incidence (19.4%) of the right renal blood flow supplied from false lumen was lower than that (37.3%) of the left one supplied from false lumen. The shorter distance and the less angle difference between SMA and right renal artery than between SMA and left renal

  15. Transient inhibition of cell proliferation does not compromise self-renewal of mouse embryonic stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ruoxing; Guo, Yan-Lin

    2012-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have unlimited capacity for self-renewal and can differentiate into various cell types when induced. They also have an unusual cell cycle control mechanism driven by constitutively active cyclin dependent kinases (Cdks). In mouse ESCs (mESCs). It is proposed that the rapid cell proliferation could be a necessary part of mechanisms that maintain mESC self-renewal and pluripotency, but this hypothesis is not in line with the finding in human ESCs (hESCs) that the length of the cell cycle is similar to differentiated cells. Therefore, whether rapid cell proliferation is essential for the maintenance of mESC state remains unclear. We provide insight into this uncertainty through chemical intervention of mESC cell cycle. We report here that inhibition of Cdks with olomoucine II can dramatically slow down cell proliferation of mESCs with concurrent down-regulation of cyclin A, B and E, and the activation of the Rb pathway. However, mESCs display can recover upon the removal of olomoucine II and are able to resume normal cell proliferation without losing self-renewal and pluripotency, as demonstrated by the expression of ESC markers, colony formation, embryoid body formation, and induced differentiation. We provide a mechanistic explanation for these observations by demonstrating that Oct4 and Nanog, two major transcription factors that play critical roles in the maintenance of ESC properties, are up-regulated via de novo protein synthesis when the cells are exposed to olomoucine II. Together, our data suggest that short-term inhibition of cell proliferation does not compromise the basic properties of mESCs. -- Highlights: ► Inhibition of Cdks slows down mESCs proliferation. ► mESCs display remarkable recovery capacity from short-term cell cycle interruption. ► Short-term cell cycle interruption does not compromise mESC self-renewal. ► Oct4 and Nanog are up-regulated via de novo synthesis by cell cycle interruption.

  16. Ancient origin and maternal inheritance of blue cuckoo eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossøy, Frode; Sorenson, Michael D; Liang, Wei; Ekrem, Torbjørn; Moksnes, Arne; Møller, Anders P; Rutila, Jarkko; Røskaft, Eivin; Takasu, Fugo; Yang, Canchao; Stokke, Bård G

    2016-01-12

    Maternal inheritance via the female-specific W chromosome was long ago proposed as a potential solution to the evolutionary enigma of co-existing host-specific races (or 'gentes') in avian brood parasites. Here we report the first unambiguous evidence for maternal inheritance of egg colouration in the brood-parasitic common cuckoo Cuculus canorus. Females laying blue eggs belong to an ancient (∼2.6 Myr) maternal lineage, as evidenced by both mitochondrial and W-linked DNA, but are indistinguishable at nuclear DNA from other common cuckoos. Hence, cuckoo host races with blue eggs are distinguished only by maternally inherited components of the genome, which maintain host-specific adaptation despite interbreeding among males and females reared by different hosts. A mitochondrial phylogeny suggests that blue eggs originated in Asia and then expanded westwards as female cuckoos laying blue eggs interbred with the existing European population, introducing an adaptive trait that expanded the range of potential hosts.

  17. Batch Adsorption Study of Methylene Blue in Aqueous Solution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    of methylene blue (azo dye) from the synthetic industrial wastewater was investigated in a batch system. Rice husk and coconut shell were ... the textiles, rubber, paper, plastics, cosmetic, and .... wastewater by. Fenton's oxidation: Kinetic study.

  18. Blue Light for Enhancing Alertness in Space Missions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the final year of a directed research project that had reduced aims due to an unexpected funding reduction. The goal is to study the efficacy of blue or...

  19. THE PITFALLS OF THE BLUE OCEAN STRATEGY CANVAS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgren, Peter; Saghaug, Kristin Margrethe; Clemmensen, Suberia

    2009-01-01

    Numerous authors have developed a list of tactics and analyticaltechniques to discover new business or new business models (Markides2008)(Johnson 2008). The Blue Ocean strategy (Kim & Mauborgne 2005)have been one of these - probably one of the most important analyticaltechniques related to the area...... of innovation and new business model (BM)innovation since 2005. Today many consultancies and managersresponsible for innovation use the Blue Ocean framework as one of theirtop 5 innovation tools.Wanting to accentuate the importance of analyzing the strategy canvascarefully, when generating new business models...... - it is important tounderstand the very foundation and construction of the strategy canvas -namely value.This paper addresses the question on How is value defined, measured andfrom which viewed in the Blue Ocean theory and framework. How is valuedefined and used by companies using the Blue Ocean strategy...

  20. Photodynamic action of the methylene blue: mutagenesis and sinergism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capella, M.A.M.

    1988-01-01

    Two aspects of photodynamic therapy were studied: the associated mutagenesis and the interactions with physical agents, in order to increase its biological effects. The photodynamic action with methylene blue in the mutagenesis and sinergism is studied. (L.M.J.)

  1. The toxicology of Octopus maculosa: the blue-ringed octopus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, M S

    1999-10-01

    The biotoxicology of the Australian blue-ringed octopus is detailed with the view of introducing it as a remedy into the homoeopathic Materia Medica and stimulating the second step of proving this venom.

  2. Occupational contact dermatitis in blue-collar workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwensen, Jakob F; Menné, Torkil; Veien, Niels K

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Blue-collar workers have a high risk of occupational contact dermatitis, but epidemiological studies are scarce. OBJECTIVES: To investigate allergic contact dermatitis in blue-collar workers with dermatitis registered by the Danish Contact Dermatitis Group. METHODS: A retrospective...... analysis of patch test data from 1471 blue-collar workers and 1471 matched controls tested between 2003 and 2012 was performed. A logistic regression was used to test for associations. RESULTS: The blue-collar workers often had occupational hand dermatitis (p dermatitis was less commonly......, and methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI)/methylisothiazolinone (MI). The following occupations were additionally identified as risk factors for contact sensitization to MCI/MI and MI, epoxy resins, and potassium dichromate, respectively: painting, construction work, and tile setting/terrazzo work. CONCLUSION: Contact allergy...

  3. Tudo Pela Patria: The Brazilian Navy's Drive to Blue Water

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Conners, Michael E

    2005-01-01

    The Brazilian Navy is unique among most world navies today. Since the end of the Cold War, most nations have reduced their naval power, yet Brazil has maintained a determination to possess a blue-water fleet...

  4. INTERACTION MODE BETWEEN METHYLENE BLUE-Sm(III ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    between methylene blue (MB)-Sm(III) complex and herring sperm DNA by using acridine orange .... the complex was recorded as KBr pellets on Spectrum One FTIR system (PE Company, USA), ..... mechanism of drugs and drug design.

  5. Capacity constrained blue-noise sampling on surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Sen; Guo, Jianwei; Zhang, Hui; Jia, Xiaohong; Yan, Dongming; Yong, Junhai; Wonka, Peter

    2015-01-01

    regularizer of the Centroidal Voronoi Tessellation (CVT) energy, our approach enforces an exact capacity constraint using the restricted power tessellation on surfaces. Our approach is a generalization of the previous 2D blue noise sampling technique using

  6. How bees distinguish patterns by green and blue modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horridge, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    In the 1920s, Mathilde Hertz found that trained bees discriminated between shapes or patterns of similar size by something related to total length of contrasting contours. This input is now interpreted as modulation in green and blue receptor channels as flying bees scan in the horizontal plane. Modulation is defined as total contrast irrespective of sign multiplied by length of edge displaying that contrast, projected to vertical, therefore, combining structure and contrast in a single input. Contrast is outside the eye; modulation is a phasic response in receptor pathways inside. In recent experiments, bees trained to distinguish color detected, located, and measured three independent inputs and the angles between them. They are the tonic response of the blue receptor pathway and modulation of small-field green or (less preferred) blue receptor pathways. Green and blue channels interacted intimately at a peripheral level. This study explores in more detail how various patterns are discriminated by these cues. The direction of contrast at a boundary was not detected. Instead, bees located and measured total modulation generated by horizontal scanning of contrasts, irrespective of pattern. They also located the positions of isolated vertical edges relative to other landmarks and distinguished the angular widths between vertical edges by green or blue modulation alone. The preferred inputs were the strongest green modulation signal and angular width between outside edges, irrespective of color. In the absence of green modulation, the remaining cue was a measure and location of blue modulation at edges. In the presence of green modulation, blue modulation was inhibited. Black/white patterns were distinguished by the same inputs in blue and green receptor channels. Left-right polarity and mirror images could be discriminated by retinotopic green modulation alone. Colors in areas bounded by strong green contrast were distinguished as more or less blue than the

  7. Golf Blue-e-Motion. The electric Volkswagen; Golf Blue-e-Motion. Der elektrische Volkswagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadler, Jens; Neusser, Heinz-Jakob; Jelden, Hanno; Lueck, Peter; Tousen, Jonas [Volkswagen AG, Wolfsburg (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    The particular challenges of our time require a consistent focus on the development activities of powertrain technologies with continuously reduced fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. The past years have seen many technological milestones by Volkswagen's Powertrain Development as illustrated by the exceptional success of the TSI and TDI engines as well as the double clutch transmissions. As a part of this comprehensive list of powertrain strategy, the development of drivetrains for alternative fuels, such as CNG, has also been included. With particular emphasis Volkswagen is pressing forward the electrification of the drivetrain with the goal of appealing to more customers through these new technologies. A milestone of the electrification activity is the Golf Blue-e-Motion, in which the comfort and especially the city driving performance are improved compared with the conventional vehicle. This driving performance is achieved by an electric drivetrain which consists of a permanent magnet synchronous electric motor together with associated power electronics and a Li-Ion battery. This presentation will pay particular attention to the characteristics of the drivetrain system and its components. The efficient powertrain including the recovering of braking energy (recuperation) as well as the attention paid on optimising all system components, has increased the driving range of the vehicle. Environmental awareness and driving pleasure - the electric drivetrain of the Golf Blue-e-Motion shows that these both requirements are possible to be realised by an electric drivetrain. (orig.)

  8. Compete or Leapfrog: Creating Blue Ocean through Entrepreneurial Orientation

    OpenAIRE

    Arslan Ayub; Muhammad Salman Aslam; Hanan Iftekhar; Adeel Razzaq; Sabiha Hafeez

    2013-01-01

    The study analyzes the role of entrepreneurial orientation with mediating effect of knowledge creation process to creating Blue Ocean in corporate sector in Pakistan There is an increasing competition among companies due to globalization and technological advancements. Thus, it requires a study to measure the multifaceted influence of entrepreneurial orientation on knowledge creation process and Blue Ocean besides the actual paradigm of this terminology. This concept has been well discussed i...

  9. A resolution to the blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) population paradox?

    OpenAIRE

    Pointin, Fabien; Payne, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    We provide the strongest evidence to date supporting the existence of two independent blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou (Risso, 1827)) populations in the North Atlantic. In spite of extensive data collected in conjunction with the fishery, the population structure of blue whiting is poorly understood. On one hand, genetic, morphometric, otolith and drift modelling studies point towards the existence of two populations, but, on the other hand, observations of adult distributions point tow...

  10. Determinants of Colour Constancy and the Blue Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gegenfurtner, Karl

    2017-01-01

    We investigated several sensory and cognitive determinants of colour constancy across 40 illumination hues. In the first experiment, we measured colour naming for the illumination and for the colour induced by the illumination on the colorimetric grey. Results confirmed that the induced colours are approximately complementary to the colour of the illumination. In the second experiment, we measured colour constancy using achromatic adjustments. Average colour constancy was perfect under the blue daylight illumination and decreased in colour directions away from the blue daylight illumination due to undershooting and a strong blue bias. Apart from this blue bias, colour constancy was not related to illumination discrimination and to chromatic detection measured previously with the same setup and stimuli. We also observed a strong negative relationship between the degree of colour constancy and the consensus of naming the illumination colour. Constancy coincided with a low naming consensus, in particular because bluish illumination colours were sometimes seen as achromatic. Blue bias and category consensus alone explained >68%, and all determinants together explained >94% of the variance of achromatic adjustments. These findings suggest that colour constancy is optimised for blue daylight. PMID:29348910

  11. A binary origin for 'blue stragglers' in globular clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knigge, Christian; Leigh, Nathan; Sills, Alison

    2009-01-15

    Blue stragglers in globular clusters are abnormally massive stars that should have evolved off the stellar main sequence long ago. There are two known processes that can create these objects: direct stellar collisions and binary evolution. However, the relative importance of these processes has remained unclear. In particular, the total number of blue stragglers found in a given cluster does not seem to correlate with the predicted collision rate, providing indirect support for the binary-evolution model. Yet the radial distributions of blue stragglers in many clusters are bimodal, with a dominant central peak: this has been interpreted as an indication that collisions do dominate blue straggler production, at least in the high-density cluster cores. Here we report that there is a clear, but sublinear, correlation between the number of blue stragglers found in a cluster core and the total stellar mass contained within it. From this we conclude that most blue stragglers, even those found in cluster cores, come from binary systems. The parent binaries, however, may themselves have been affected by dynamical encounters. This may be the key to reconciling all of the seemingly conflicting results found to date.

  12. Hypnosis-associated blue-tinted vision: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savedoff Aaron D

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-hypnosis has been taught routinely at the SUNY Upstate Medical University for treatment of pulmonary symptoms thought to be amenable to psychological therapy. While using hypnosis for relaxation, four individuals, including a patient with cystic fibrosis, reported development of blue-tinted vision. Based on a search of the literature, we believe this is the first published report of hypnosis-associated blue-tinted vision. Case presentation The patient reported blue-tinted vision when he used hypnosis on an almost daily basis for seven years. The visual change typically occurred when he was relaxed. Moreover, a concurrent erection in the absence of sexual thoughts usually was present. The other three individuals reported blue-tinted vision after learning how to use hypnosis for relaxation as part of a group hypnosis instruction. Conclusion The blue-tinted vision experienced by the individuals in this report may be the result of an hypnosis-induced primary change in cognitive processing. Additionally, as the relaxing effect of hypnosis can be associated with a reduction in blood pressure and increased blood flow, hypnosis-associated blue-tinted vision also may be related to retinal vasodilation.

  13. Code Blue Emergencies: A Team Task Analysis and Educational Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, James W; Applegarth, Oliver; Vu, Mark; Price, John R

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify factors that have a positive or negative influence on resuscitation team performance during emergencies in the operating room (OR) and post-operative recovery unit (PAR) at a major Canadian teaching hospital. This information was then used to implement a team training program for code blue emergencies. In 2009/10, all OR and PAR nurses and 19 anesthesiologists at Vancouver General Hospital (VGH) were invited to complete an anonymous, 10 minute written questionnaire regarding their code blue experience. Survey questions were devised by 10 recovery room and operation room nurses as well as 5 anesthesiologists representing 4 different hospitals in British Columbia. Three iterations of the survey were reviewed by a pilot group of nurses and anesthesiologists and their feedback was integrated into the final version of the survey. Both nursing staff (n = 49) and anesthesiologists (n = 19) supported code blue training and believed that team training would improve patient outcome. Nurses noted that it was often difficult to identify the leader of the resuscitation team. Both nursing staff and anesthesiologists strongly agreed that too many people attending the code blue with no assigned role hindered team performance. Identifiable leadership and clear communication of roles were identified as keys to resuscitation team functioning. Decreasing the number of people attending code blue emergencies with no specific role, increased access to mock code blue training, and debriefing after crises were all identified as areas requiring improvement. Initial team training exercises have been well received by staff.

  14. The fading of irradiated blue-colored pearls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Shinichi

    1982-01-01

    The fading of irradiated and natural blue-colored pearls was investigated in this experiment. Thirty natural blue-colored pearls and sixty irradiated blue-colored pearls were used. Some of them were placed at a light position of RT. Another pearls were placed at a dark position of 50 0 C. The irradiated pearls placed at a light position of RT didn't show remarkable fading in their color in 294 days. But the natural blue-colored pearls showed a little recovery from 4% to 8% in reflection factors in 223 days at RT. The irradiated pearls placed at a dark position of 50 0 C showed the recovery from 9% to 14% in 264 days independently of irradiation times. The natural blue-colored pearls also showed the bleaching from 5% to 10% in reflection factor in 86 days at 50 0 C. Both irradiated and natural blue-colored pearls hardly showed their remarkable changes in their chromaticities independently of temperatures. (author)

  15. Blue light-mediated inactivation of Enterococcus faecalis in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pileggi, Giorgio; Wataha, John C; Girard, Myriam; Grad, Iwona; Schrenzel, Jacques; Lange, Norbert; Bouillaguet, Serge

    2013-05-01

    In dentistry, residual infection remains a major cause of failure after endodontic treatment; many of these infections involve Enterococcus faecalis. In the current study, we explored the possibility that blue light activated photosensitizers could be used, in principle, to inactivate this microbe as an adjunct disinfection strategy for endodontic therapy. Three blue light absorbing photosensitizers, eosin-Y, rose bengal, and curcumin, were tested on E. faecalis grown in planktonic suspensions or biofilms. Photosensitizers were incubated for 30 min with bacteria then exposed to blue light (450-500 nm) for 240 s. Sodium hypochlorite (3%) was used as a control. After 48 h, the viability of E. faecalis was estimated by measuring colony-forming units post-exposure vs. untreated controls (CFU/mL). Blue light irradiation alone did not alter E. faecalis viability. For planktonic cultures, blue light activated eosin-Y (5 μM), rose bengal (1 μM), or curcumin (5 μM) significantly (pcurcumin of 100, 10, and 10 μM respectively, completely suppressed E. faecalis viability (p<0.05). Although the current results are limited to an in vitro model, they support further exploration of blue light activated antimicrobials as an adjunct therapy in endodontic treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Political crisіs and compromise as the casual determinants in the process of political decisions making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shkuro Anton Sergiyovich

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a risk of certain ineffective results in the system of political decisions making. That’s why we should pay a special attention to the criteria of political crisis evaluation. Today the problem of national politics lies only in an adequate raising of questions about the way out of the political crisis using the mechanism of compromise achieving. The article is about the fundamental role of the crisis and the compromise and about their influence on the formation of the strategic development of policy.

  17. Abnormal splicing switch of DMD's penultimate exon compromises muscle fibre maintenance in myotonic dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Frédérique; Lainé, Jeanne; Ramanoudjame, Laetitita; Ferry, Arnaud; Arandel, Ludovic; Delalande, Olivier; Jollet, Arnaud; Dingli, Florent; Lee, Kuang-Yung; Peccate, Cécile; Lorain, Stéphanie; Kabashi, Edor; Athanasopoulos, Takis; Koo, Taeyoung; Loew, Damarys; Swanson, Maurice S; Le Rumeur, Elisabeth; Dickson, George; Allamand, Valérie; Marie, Joëlle; Furling, Denis

    2015-05-28

    Myotonic Dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is a dominant neuromuscular disease caused by nuclear-retained RNAs containing expanded CUG repeats. These toxic RNAs alter the activities of RNA splicing factors resulting in alternative splicing misregulation and muscular dysfunction. Here we show that the abnormal splicing of DMD exon 78 found in dystrophic muscles of DM1 patients is due to the functional loss of MBNL1 and leads to the re-expression of an embryonic dystrophin in place of the adult isoform. Forced expression of embryonic dystrophin in zebrafish using an exon-skipping approach severely impairs the mobility and muscle architecture. Moreover, reproducing Dmd exon 78 missplicing switch in mice induces muscle fibre remodelling and ultrastructural abnormalities including ringed fibres, sarcoplasmic masses or Z-band disorganization, which are characteristic features of dystrophic DM1 skeletal muscles. Thus, we propose that splicing misregulation of DMD exon 78 compromises muscle fibre maintenance and contributes to the progressive dystrophic process in DM1.

  18. Supplier evaluation in manufacturing environment using compromise ranking method with grey interval numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasenjit Chatterjee

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of proper supplier for manufacturing organizations is one of the most challenging problems in real time manufacturing environment due to a wide variety of customer demands. It has become more and more complicated to meet the challenges of international competitiveness and as the decision makers need to assess a wide range of alternative suppliers based on a set of conflicting criteria. Thus, the main objective of supplier selection is to select highly potential supplier through which all the set goals regarding the purchasing and manufacturing activity can be achieved. Because of these reasons, supplier selection has got considerable attention by the academicians and researchers. This paper presents a combined multi-criteria decision making methodology for supplier evaluation for given industrial applications. The proposed methodology is based on a compromise ranking method combined with Grey Interval Numbers considering different cardinal and ordinal criteria and their relative importance. A ‘supplier selection index’ is also proposed to help evaluation and ranking the alternative suppliers. Two examples are illustrated to demonstrate the potentiality and applicability of the proposed method.

  19. 3-bromopyruvate inhibits glycolysis, depletes cellular glutathione, and compromises the viability of cultured primary rat astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrke, Eric; Arend, Christian; Dringen, Ralf

    2015-07-01

    The pyruvate analogue 3-bromopyruvate (3-BP) is an electrophilic alkylator that is considered a promising anticancer drug because it has been shown to kill cancer cells efficiently while having little toxic effect on nontumor cells. To test for potential adverse effects of 3-BP on brain cells, we exposed cultured primary rat astrocytes to 3-BP and investigated the effects of this compound on cell viability, glucose metabolism, and glutathione (GSH) content. The presence of 3-BP severely compromised cell viability and slowed cellular glucose consumption and lactate production in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, with half-maximal effects observed at about 100 µM 3-BP after 4 hr of incubation. The cellular hexokinase activity was not affected in 3-BP-treated astrocytes, whereas within 30 min after application of 3-BP the activity of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) was inhibited, and cellular GSH content was depleted in a concentration-dependent manner, with half-maximal effects observed at about 30 µM 3-BP. The depletion of cellular GSH after exposure to 100 µM 3-BP was not prevented by the presence of 10 mM of the monocarboxylates lactate or pyruvate, suggesting that 3-BP is not taken up into astrocytes predominantly by monocarboxylate transporters. The data suggest that inhibition of glycolysis by inactivation of GAPDH and GSH depletion contributes to the toxicity that was observed for 3-BP-treated cultured astrocytes. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Dealing with surplus emissions in the climate negotiations after Copenhagen: What are the options for compromise?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elzen, Michel den; Roelfsema, Mark; Slingerland, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the environmental and financial consequences of various strategies of dealing with surplus emission allowances in the aftermath of the Copenhagen Accord. This topic remains relevant, in particular, with respect to the Russian negotiation position, as this country is the largest holder of surplus emissions. It is concluded that not addressing the surplus problem is not a feasible negotiation option, as the sheer size of the surpluses would jeopardise the environmental integrity of any future agreement. Cancelling surpluses against Russia's will, though viable, is not desirable, as it might well lead to this country opting out of this climate treaty. Three options for compromise have been selected and analysed here: (1) stricter targets for Annex I countries; (2) strategic reserve for Russia; (3) institutionalising optimal banking. It is concluded that, whereas option 1 is environmentally the best, in the present political context it is probably less feasible. The other two options, although environmentally suboptimal, seem politically more favourable. Our analysis suggests that maximal revenues for surplus-holding countries arise by releasing only a limited amount of surplus credits to the market. The institutionalisation of this effect could be a key lever to a politically feasible agreement on surplus emissions.

  1. Developing an aquaponics system to learn sustainability and social compromise skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel José Duarte

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this project, one of the proposals of the EPS@ISEP Spring 2014, was to develop an Aquaponics System. Over recent years Aquaponics systems have received increased attention since they contribute to reduce the strain on resources within 1st and 3rd world countries. Aquaponics is the combination of Hydroponics and Aquaculture and mimics a natural environment in order to successfully apply and enhance the understanding of natural cycles within an indoor process. Using this knowledge of natural cycles, it was possible to create a system with capabilities similar to that of a natural environment with the support of electronics, enhancing the overall efficiency of the system. The multinational team involved in the development of this system was composed of five students from five countries and fields of study. This paper describes their solution, involving the overall design, the technology involved and the benefits it can bring to the current market. The team was able to design and render the Computer Aided Design (CAD drawings of the prototype, assemble all components, successfully test the electronics and comply with the budget. Furthermore, the designed solution was supported by a product sustainability study and included a specific marketing plan. Last but not least, the students involved in this project obtained new multidisciplinary knowledge and improved their sustainable development, social compromise, team work and cross-cultural communication skills.

  2. Umami Increases Consumer Acceptability, and Perception of Sensory and Emotional Benefits without Compromising Health Benefit Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaki, Takashi; Retiveau-Krogmann, Annlyse; Byrnes, Erin; Takehana, Shunji

    2016-02-01

    This study was undertaken to understand how consumers in the United States perceive umami-rich products, specifically low sodium chicken noodle soup. Results suggest that the addition of monosodium l-glutamate (MSG) at a concentration of 0.1% to 0.5%, alone or in synergy with 5'-ribonucleotides of inosine monophosphate (IMP) at 0.1% not only increases consumer acceptance but also positively impacts other aspects of consumer perception. Regardless of concentration of MSG and IMP, samples enhanced in umami compounds were perceived as more savory, flavorful, and less bland while providing a more homemade, fresh, and healthy wholesome taste than a control sample. From a functional and emotional benefit standpoint, when consuming umami-rich samples, consumers reported feeling significantly higher general satisfaction (they felt more content, relaxed, satisfied, less disappointed, dissatisfied…) and heightened positive emotions (happy, excited, indulgent…) than under the control condition. The feeling of being healthy while consuming the dish was not compromised. Last, when asked how they would feel if serving the soup sample to their family or friends, consumers projected feeling more positively under the umami-rich conditions (more happy, competent, loving, less dissatisfied or disappointed) compared to the control condition. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. A fuzzy compromise programming approach for the Black-Litterman portfolio selection model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Gharakhani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we examine advanced optimization approach for portfolio problem introduced by Black and Litterman to consider the shortcomings of Markowitz standard Mean-Variance optimization. Black and Litterman propose a new approach to estimate asset return. They present a way to incorporate the investor’s views into asset pricing process. Since the investor’s view about future asset return is always subjective and imprecise, we can represent it by using fuzzy numbers and the resulting model is multi-objective linear programming. Therefore, the proposed model is analyzed through fuzzy compromise programming approach using appropriate membership function. For this purpose, we introduce the fuzzy ideal solution concept based on investor preference and indifference relationships using canonical representation of proposed fuzzy numbers by means of their correspondingα-cuts. A real world numerical example is presented in which MSCI (Morgan Stanley Capital International Index is chosen as the target index. The results are reported for a portfolio consisting of the six national indices. The performance of the proposed models is compared using several financial criteria.

  4. Surgical manipulation compromises leukocyte mobilisation responses and inflammation after experimental cerebral ischaemia in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam eDenes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute brain injury results in peripheral inflammatory changes, although the impact of these processes on neuronal death and neuroinflammation is currently unclear. To facilitate the translation of experimental studies to clinical benefit, it is vital to characterize the mechanisms by which acute brain injury induces peripheral inflammatory changes, and how these are affected by surgical manipulation in experimental models. Here we show that in mice, even mild surgical manipulation of extracranial tissues induced marked granulocyte mobilisation (300% and systemic induction of cytokines. However, intracranial changes induced by craniotomy, or subsequent induction of focal cerebral ischaemia were required to induce egress of CXCR2-positive granulocytes from the bone marrow. CXCR2 blockade resulted in reduced mobilisation of granulocytes from the bone marrow, caused an unexpected increase in circulating granulocytes, but failed to effect brain injury induced by cerebral ischaemia. We also demonstrate that isoflurane anaesthesia interferes with circulating leukocyte responses, which could contribute to the reported vascular and neuroprotective effects of isoflurane. In addition, no immunosuppression develops in the bone marrow after experimental stroke. Thus, experimental models of cerebral ischaemia are compromised by surgery and anaesthesia in proportion to the severity of surgical stress and overall tissue injury. Understanding the inherent confounding effects of surgical manipulation and development of new models of cerebral ischaemia with minimal surgical intervention could facilitate better understanding of interactions between inflammation and brain injury.

  5. Contralateral Abdominal Pocketing in Salvation of Replanted Fingertips with Compromised Circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung-Sup Shim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal pocketing is one of the most useful methods in salvation of compromised replanted fingertips. Abdominal pocketing has generally been performed in the ipsilateral lower abdominal quadrant, but we have also performed contralateral pocketing at our institute. To determine which approach is more beneficial, a total of 40 patients underwent an abdominal pocketing procedure in either the ipsilateral or contralateral lower abdominal quadrant after fingertip replantation. Dates of abdominal pocketing after initial replantation, detachment after abdominal pocketing, range of motion (ROM before abdominal pocketing, and sequential ROM after the detachment operation and date of full ROM recovery and Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire (DASH score were recorded through medical chart review. Mean detachment date, mean abduction of shoulder after the detachment operation, and mean days to return to full ROM were not significantly different between the ipsilateral and contralateral pocketing groups. However, the mean DASH score was significantly lower in the contralateral group than the ipsilateral group. There were also fewer postoperative wound complications in the contralateral group than in the ipsilateral group. We, therefore, recommend contralateral abdominal pocketing rather than ipsilateral abdominal pocketing to increase patient comfort and reduce pain and complications.

  6. Contralateral Abdominal Pocketing in Salvation of Replanted Fingertips with Compromised Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Hyung-Sup; Kim, Dong-Hwi; Kwon, Ho; Jung, Sung-No

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal pocketing is one of the most useful methods in salvation of compromised replanted fingertips. Abdominal pocketing has generally been performed in the ipsilateral lower abdominal quadrant, but we have also performed contralateral pocketing at our institute. To determine which approach is more beneficial, a total of 40 patients underwent an abdominal pocketing procedure in either the ipsilateral or contralateral lower abdominal quadrant after fingertip replantation. Dates of abdominal pocketing after initial replantation, detachment after abdominal pocketing, range of motion (ROM) before abdominal pocketing, and sequential ROM after the detachment operation and date of full ROM recovery and Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire (DASH) score were recorded through medical chart review. Mean detachment date, mean abduction of shoulder after the detachment operation, and mean days to return to full ROM were not significantly different between the ipsilateral and contralateral pocketing groups. However, the mean DASH score was significantly lower in the contralateral group than the ipsilateral group. There were also fewer postoperative wound complications in the contralateral group than in the ipsilateral group. We, therefore, recommend contralateral abdominal pocketing rather than ipsilateral abdominal pocketing to increase patient comfort and reduce pain and complications. PMID:25379539

  7. Compromised Rivers: Understanding Historical Human Impacts on Rivers in the Context of Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Wohl

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A river that preserves a simplified and attractive form may nevertheless have lost function. Loss of function in these rivers can occur because hydrologic and geomorphic processes no longer create and maintain the habitat and natural disturbance regimes necessary for ecosystem integrity. Recognition of compromised river function is particularly important in the context of river restoration, in which the public perception of a river's condition often drives the decision to undertake restoration as well as the decision about what type of restoration should be attempted. Determining the degree to which a river has been altered from its reference condition requires a knowledge of historical land use and the associated effects on rivers. Rivers of the Front Range of the Colorado Rocky Mountains in the United States are used to illustrate how historical land uses such as beaver trapping, placer mining, tie drives, flow regulation, and the construction of transportation corridors continue to affect contemporary river characteristics. Ignorance of regional land use and river history can lead to restoration that sets unrealistic goals because it is based on incorrect assumptions about a river's reference condition or about the influence of persistent land-use effects.

  8. Obesity and stress urinary incontinence in women: compromised continence mechanism or excess bladder pressure during cough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Carolyn W; Kolenic, Giselle E; Trowbridge, Elisa R; Berger, Mitchell B; Lewicky-Gaupp, Christina; Margulies, Rebecca U; Morgan, Daniel M; Fenner, Dee E; DeLancey, John O

    2017-09-01

    We compared two hypotheses as to why obesity is associated with stress urinary incontinence (SUI): (1) obesity increases demand on the continence system (e.g. higher cough pressure) and (2) obesity compromises urethral function and urethrovaginal support. A secondary analysis was performed using data from a case-control study of SUI in women. Measurements of urethrovaginal support (POP-Q point Aa, urethral axis), urethral function (maximal urethral closure pressure, MUCP), and measures of continence system demand (intravesical pressures at rest and during maximal cough) were analyzed. Cases and controls were divided into three body mass index (BMI) groups: normal (18.5-24.9 kg/m 2 ); overweight (25.0-29.9 kg/m 2 ); and obese (≥30 kg/m 2 ). Logistic regression models where created to investigate variables related to SUI for each BMI group. Structural equation modeling was used to test the direct and indirect relationships among BMI, SUI, maximal cough pressure, MUCP, and POP-Q point Aa. The study included 108 continent controls and 103 women with SUI. MUCP was the factor most strongly associated with SUI in all BMI groups. Maximal cough pressure was significantly associated with SUI in obese women (OR 3.191, 95% CI 1.326, 7.683; p continence mechanism.

  9. Just-in-Time Compound Pooling Increases Primary Screening Capacity without Compromising Screening Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkin, L L; Harden, D G; Saldanha, S; Ferguson, H; Cheney, D L; Pieniazek, S N; Maloney, D P; Zewinski, J; O'Connell, J; Banks, M

    2015-06-01

    Compound pooling, or multiplexing more than one compound per well during primary high-throughput screening (HTS), is a controversial approach with a long history of limited success. Many issues with this approach likely arise from long-term storage of library plates containing complex mixtures of compounds at high concentrations. Due to the historical difficulties with using multiplexed library plates, primary HTS often uses a one-compound-one-well approach. However, as compound collections grow, innovative strategies are required to increase the capacity of primary screening campaigns. Toward this goal, we have developed a novel compound pooling method that increases screening capacity without compromising data quality. This method circumvents issues related to the long-term storage of complex compound mixtures by using acoustic dispensing to enable "just-in-time" compound pooling directly in the assay well immediately prior to assay. Using this method, we can pool two compounds per well, effectively doubling the capacity of a primary screen. Here, we present data from pilot studies using just-in-time pooling, as well as data from a large >2-million-compound screen using this approach. These data suggest that, for many targets, this method can be used to vastly increase screening capacity without significant reduction in the ability to detect screening hits. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  10. Optimizing Maxillary Aesthetics of a Severe Compromised Tooth through Orthodontic Movement and Dental Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Scaf de Molon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of severe compromised tooth in the maxillary anterior area still poses great challenge to the clinicians. Several treatment modalities have been proposed to restore the function and aesthetics in teeth with advanced periodontal disease. The present study aims to report a case of traumatic injury of a left-maxillary central incisor with ridge preservation, orthodontic movement, and implant therapy. A 45-year-old woman underwent the proposed treatment for her left central incisor: basic periodontal therapy, xenogenous bone graft, and guided bone regeneration (GBR. Six months after the graft procedure, orthodontic movement by means of alignment and leveling was made and a coronal displacement of the gingival margin and vertical bone apposition could be observed after 13 months of active movement. Afterwards, a dental implant was placed followed by a connective tissue graft and immediate provisionalization of the crown. In conclusion, orthodontic movement was effective to improve the gingival tissue and alveolar bone prior to implant placement favoring the aesthetic results. Six years postoperatively, the results revealed height and width alveolar bone gain indicating that the treatment proposed was able to restore all the functional and aesthetic parameters.

  11. Gamma processing of Arabic bread for immune system-compromised cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grecz, N.; Brannon, R.; Jaw, R.; Al-Harithy, R.; Hahn, E.W.

    1985-01-01

    Arabic bread prepared from local Saudi flour contained a total of up to 105 4 organisms per g. Most of these were bacterial spores that survived the baking process (1.3 x 10 2 to 3.5 x 10 3 ) and a small number of yeasts and molds (10 to 40 cells per g). The organisms in Arabic bread appear to be harmless to healthy individuals. However, for immune system-compromised cancer patients and bone marrow transplant recipients, it is prudent to irradiate the bread to reduce microbial contamination. The decimal reduction doses (10% survival) for the most radiation-resistant organisms (spore formers) in bread were 0.11 to 0.15 Mrad. Accordingly, 0.6 Mrad was sufficient to reduce the number of spores in Arabic bread by a factor of 10,000, i.e., to <1/g. This treatment constitutes radiation pasteurization (radicidation), and to this extent, provides a margin of microbiological safety. Sensory evaluation by the nine-point hedonic scale showed no detectable loss of organoleptic quality of bread up to 0.6 Mrad, while irradiation to 2.5 Mrad induced unacceptable organoleptic changes

  12. The Munsell Color System: a scientific compromise from the world of art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Sally

    2014-09-01

    Color systems make accurate color specification and matching possible in science, art, and industry by defining a coordinate system for all possible color perceptions. The Munsell Color System, developed by the artist Albert Henry Munsell in the early twentieth century, has influenced color science to this day. I trace the development of the Munsell Color System from its origins in the art world to its acceptance in the scientific community. Munsell's system was the first to accurately and quantitatively describe the psychological experience of color. By considering the problems that color posed for Munsell's art community and examining his diaries and published material, I conclude that Munsell arrived at his results by remaining agnostic as to the scientific definition of color, while retaining faith that color perceptions could be objectively quantified. I argue that Munsell was able to interest the scientific community in his work because color had become a controversial topic between physicists and psychologists. Parts of Munsell's system appealed to each field, making it a workable compromise. For contrast, I suggest that three contemporary scientists with whom Munsell had contact--Wilhelm Ostwald, Ogden Rood, and Edward Titchener--did not reach the same conclusions in their color systems because they started from scientific assumptions about the nature of color.

  13. Respect in forensic psychiatric nurse-patient relationships: a practical compromise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Donald N; Peter, Elizabeth; Gallop, Ruth; Angus, Jan E; Liaschenko, Joan

    2011-03-01

    The context of forensic psychiatric nursing is distinct from other psychiatric settings as, it involves placement of patients in secure environments with restrictions determined by the courts. Previous literature has identified that nurses morally struggle with respecting patients who have committed heinous offences, which can lead to the patient being depersonalized and dehumanized. Although respect is fundamental to ethical nursing practice, it has not been adequately explored conceptually or empirically. As a result, little knowledge exists that identifies how nurses develop, maintain, and express respect for patients. The purpose of this study is to analyze the concept of respect systematically, from a forensic psychiatric nurse's perspective using the qualitative methodology of focused ethnography. Forensic psychiatric nurses were recruited from two medium secure forensic rehabilitation units. In the first interview, 13 registered nurses (RNs) and two registered practical nurses (RPNs) participated, and although all informants were invited to the second interview, six RNs were lost to follow-up. Despite this loss, saturation was achieved and the data were interpreted through a feminist philosophical lens. Respect was influenced by factors categorized into four themes: (1) emotive-cognitive reactions, (2) nonjudgmental approach, (3) social identity and power, and (4) context. The data from the themes indicate that forensic psychiatric nurses strike a practical compromise, in their understanding and enactment of respect in therapeutic relationships with forensic psychiatric patients. © 2011 International Association of Forensic Nurses.

  14. Heavy Cigarette Smokers in a Chinese Population Display a Compromised Permeability Barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Shujun; Ye, Li; Lv, Chengzhi; Elias, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with various cutaneous disorders with defective permeability. Yet, whether cigarette smoking influences epidermal permeability barrier function is largely unknown. Here, we measured skin biophysical properties, including permeability barrier homeostasis, stratum corneum (SC) integrity, SC hydration, skin surface pH, and skin melanin/erythema index, in cigarette smokers. A total of 99 male volunteers were enrolled in this study. Smokers were categorized as light-to-moderate (hydration and skin melanin/erythema index on the dorsal hand, forehead, and cheek. Basal transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and barrier recovery rates were assessed on the forearm. A Skin-pH-Meter pH900 was used to measure skin surface pH. Our results showed that heavy cigarette smokers exhibited delayed barrier recovery after acute abrogation (1.02% ± 13.06 versus 16.48% ± 6.07), and barrier recovery rates correlated negatively with the number of daily cigarettes consumption (p = 0.0087). Changes in biophysical parameters in cigarette smokers varied with body sites. In conclusion, heavy cigarette smokers display compromised permeability barrier homeostasis, which could contribute, in part, to the increased prevalence of certain cutaneous disorders characterized by defective permeability. Thus, improving epidermal permeability barrier should be considered for heavy cigarette smokers. PMID:27437403

  15. Protozoan predation in soil slurries compromises determination of contaminant mineralization potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badawi, Nora; Johnsen, Anders R.; Brandt, Kristian K.; Sørensen, Jan; Aamand, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Soil suspensions (slurries) are commonly used to estimate the potential of soil microbial communities to mineralize organic contaminants. The preparation of soil slurries disrupts soil structure, however, potentially affecting both the bacterial populations and their protozoan predators. We studied the importance of this “slurry effect” on mineralization of the herbicide 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA, 14 C-labelled), focussing on the effects of protozoan predation. Mineralization of MCPA was studied in “intact” soil and soil slurries differing in soil:water ratio, both in the presence and absence of the protozoan activity inhibitor cycloheximide. Protozoan predation inhibited mineralization in dense slurry of subsoil (soil:water ratio 1:3), but only in the most dilute slurry of topsoil (soil:water ratio 1:100). Our results demonstrate that protozoan predation in soil slurries may compromise quantification of contaminant mineralization potential, especially when the initial density of degrader bacteria is low and their growth is controlled by predation during the incubation period. - Highlights: ► We studied the protozoan impact on MCPA mineralization in soil slurries. ► Cycloheximide was used as protozoan inhibitor. ► Protozoa inhibited MCPA mineralization in dilute topsoil slurry and subsoil slurry. ► Mineralization potentials may be underestimated when using soil slurries. - Protozoan predation may strongly bias the quantification of mineralization potential when performed in soil slurries, especially when the initial density of degrader bacteria is low such as in subsoil or very dilute topsoil slurries.

  16. Compromised mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis in transgenic mice results in defective protein lipoylation and energy disequilibrium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Smith

    Full Text Available A mouse model with compromised mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis has been engineered in order to assess the role of this pathway in mitochondrial function and overall health. Reduction in the expression of mitochondrial malonyl CoA-acyl carrier protein transacylase, a key enzyme in the pathway encoded by the nuclear Mcat gene, was achieved to varying extents in all examined tissues employing tamoxifen-inducible Cre-lox technology. Although affected mice consumed more food than control animals, they failed to gain weight, were less physically active, suffered from loss of white adipose tissue, reduced muscle strength, kyphosis, alopecia, hypothermia and shortened lifespan. The Mcat-deficient phenotype is attributed primarily to reduced synthesis, in several tissues, of the octanoyl precursors required for the posttranslational lipoylation of pyruvate and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complexes, resulting in diminished capacity of the citric acid cycle and disruption of energy metabolism. The presence of an alternative lipoylation pathway that utilizes exogenous free lipoate appears restricted to liver and alone is insufficient for preservation of normal energy metabolism. Thus, de novo synthesis of precursors for the protein lipoylation pathway plays a vital role in maintenance of mitochondrial function and overall vigor.

  17. Compromises in energy policy-Using fuzzy optimization in an energy systems model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinsen, Dag; Krey, Volker

    2008-01-01

    Over the last year in Germany a great many political discussions have centered around the future direction of energy and climate policy. Due to a number of events related to energy prices, security of supply and climate change, it has been necessary to develop cornerstones for a new integrated energy and climate policy. To supplement this decision process, model-based scenarios were used. In this paper we introduce fuzzy constraints to obtain a better representation of political decision processes, in particular, to find compromises between often contradictory targets (e.g. economic, environmentally friendly and secure energy supply). A number of policy aims derived from a review of the ongoing political discussions were formulated as fuzzy constraints to explicitly include trade-offs between various targets. The result is an overall satisfaction level of about 60% contingent upon the following restrictions: share of energy imports, share of biofuels, share of CHP electricity, CO 2 reduction target and use of domestic hard coal. The restrictions for the share of renewable electricity, share of renewable heat, energy efficiency and postponement of nuclear phase out have higher membership function values, i.e. they are not binding and therefore get done on the side

  18. 2016 Rio Olympic Games: Can the schedule of events compromise athletes' performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, João Paulo P; Rodrigues, Dayane F; Silva, Andressa; de Moura Simim, Mário Antônio; Costa, Varley T; Noce, Franco; de Mello, Marco Túlio

    2016-01-01

    The organizing committee of the 2016 Rio Olympic Games recently announced that some of the preliminary and final competitions will be held at night. The present article discusses the potential harmful effects of these late-night competitions on sleep, circadian rhythms and athletic performance during the Olympic Games. Specifically, night-time competition could lead to injury and may compromise an athlete's decision-making, attentional, physiological and other processes. Consequently, these impacts could negatively affect the performance of athletes and their teams. Thus, it is suggested that technical commissions take special care when creating strategies to minimize harm to the athletes by considering factors such as light exposure, melatonin intake, sleep hygiene and scheduled naps, and training at local competition time. Furthermore, it is necessary for specialists in chronobiology and sleep to engage with members of the national teams to develop an activity schedule for physical, technical, tactical and psychological preparation that accounts for circadian rhythms, thereby creating the best possible environment for the athletes to achieve their ideal performance.

  19. Fast Blue RR—Siloxane Derivatized Materials Indicate Wound Infection Due to a Deep Blue Color Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Schiffer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a strong need for simple and fast methods for wound infection determination. Myeloperoxidase, an immune system-derived enzyme was found to be a suitable biomarker for wound infection. Hence, alkoxysilane-derivatized Fast Blue RR was immobilized via simple hydrolytic polymerization. The resulting enzyme-responsive siloxane layers were incubated with myeloperoxidase, wound fluid or hemoglobin. The reaction was monitored via HPLC measurements and the color development quantified spectrophotometrically. Myeloperoxidase was indeed able to oxidize immobilized Fast Blue RR leading to a blue colored product. No conversion was detected in non-infected wound fluids. The visible color changes of these novel materials towards blue enable an easy distinction between infected and non-infected wound fluids.

  20. EVOLUTION {sup registered} BLUE. Designed for the needs of tomorrow; EVOLUTION {sup registered} BLUE. Entwickelt fuer die Anforderungen von morgen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blessing, Carsten [ThyssenKrupp Aufzugswerke GmbH, Neuhausen (Germany). Product Service; Dangerfield, Nicola [ThyssenKrupp Aufzuege GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany). Sales Support/Marketing Communication

    2013-11-01

    The future needs innovation. The new elevator design concept EVOLUTION {sup registered} BLUE sets new standards for flexibility, shaft efficiency, energy saving and design. It uses materials of the highest quality. (orig.)

  1. Global monthly water scarcity: blue water footprints versus blue water availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Y; Mekonnen, Mesfin M; Chapagain, Ashok K; Mathews, Ruth E; Richter, Brian D

    2012-01-01

    Freshwater scarcity is a growing concern, placing considerable importance on the accuracy of indicators used to characterize and map water scarcity worldwide. We improve upon past efforts by using estimates of blue water footprints (consumptive use of ground- and surface water flows) rather than water withdrawals, accounting for the flows needed to sustain critical ecological functions and by considering monthly rather than annual values. We analyzed 405 river basins for the period 1996-2005. In 201 basins with 2.67 billion inhabitants there was severe water scarcity during at least one month of the year. The ecological and economic consequences of increasing degrees of water scarcity--as evidenced by the Rio Grande (Rio Bravo), Indus, and Murray-Darling River Basins--can include complete desiccation during dry seasons, decimation of aquatic biodiversity, and substantial economic disruption.

  2. Blue and grey water footprint of textile industry in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Laili; Ding, Xuemei; Wu, Xiongying

    2013-01-01

    Water footprint (WF) is a newly developed idea that indicates impacts of freshwater appropriation and wastewater discharge. The textile industry is one of the oldest, longest and most complicated industrial chains in the world's manufacturing industries. However, the textile industry is also water intensive. In this paper, we applied a bottom-up approach to estimate the direct blue water footprint (WFdir,blue) and direct grey water footprint (WFdir,grey) of China's textile industry at sector level based on WF methodology. The results showed that WFdir,blue of China's textile industry had an increasing trend from 2001 to 2010. The annual WFdir,blue surpassed 0.92 Gm(3)/yr (giga cubic meter a year) since 2004 and rose to peak value of 1.09 Gm(3)/yr in 2007. The original and residuary WFdir,grey (both were calculated based on the concentration of chemical oxygen demand (CODCr)) of China's textile industry had a similar variation trend with that of WFdir,blue. Among the three sub-sectors of China's textile industry, the manufacture of textiles sector's annual WFdir,blue and WFdir,grey were much larger than those of the manufacture of textile wearing apparel, footware and caps sector and the manufacture of chemical fibers sector. The intensities of WFdir,blue and WF(res)dir,grey of China's textile industry were year by year decreasing through the efforts of issuing restriction policies on freshwater use and wastewater generation and discharge, and popularization of water saving and wastewater treatment technologies.

  3. Blue Guardian: open architecture intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirey, Russell G.; Borntrager, Luke A.; Soine, Andrew T.; Green, David M.

    2017-04-01

    The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) - Sensors Directorate has developed the Blue Guardian program to demonstrate advanced sensing technology utilizing open architectures in operationally relevant environments. Blue Guardian has adopted the core concepts and principles of the Air Force Rapid Capabilities Office (AFRCO) Open Mission Systems (OMS) initiative to implement an open Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) platform architecture. Using this new OMS standard provides a business case to reduce cost and program schedules for industry and the Department of Defense (DoD). Blue Guardian is an early adopting program of OMS and provides much needed science and technology improvements, development, testing, and implementation of OMS for ISR purposes. This paper presents results and lessons learned under the Blue Guardian Project Shepherd program which conducted Multi-INT operational demonstrations in the Joint Interagency Task Force - South (JIATF-S) and USSOUTHCOM area of operations in early 2016. Further, on-going research is discussed to enhance Blue Guardian Multi-INT ISR capabilities to support additional mission sets and platforms, including unmanned operations over line of sight (LOS) and beyond line of sight (BLOS) datalinks. An implementation of additional OMS message sets and services to support off-platform sensor command and control using OMS/UCI data structures and dissemination of sensor product data/metadata is explored. Lastly, the Blue Guardian team is working with the AgilePod program to use OMS in a full Government Data Rights Pod to rapidly swap these sensors to different aircraft. The union of the AgilePod (which uses SOSA compliant standards) and OMS technologies under Blue Guardian programs is discussed.

  4. Accomplishments and Compromises in Prediction Research for World Records and Best Performances in Track and Field and Swimming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuanlong; Paul, Stanley; Fu, Frank H.

    2012-01-01

    The conductors of this study reviewed prediction research and studied the accomplishments and compromises in predicting world records and best performances in track and field and swimming. The results of the study showed that prediction research only promises to describe the historical trends in track and field and swimming performances, to study…

  5. Phenotypic compromises in a long-distance migrant during the transition from migration to reproduction in the High Arctic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vezina, Francois; Williams, Tony D.; Piersma, Theunis; Morrison, R. I. Guy; Dawson, Alistair

    1. Seasonal carry-over effects may be important structuring components of avian life-history cycles. However, little is known on physiological transitions between stages and on phenotypic compromises that may be made at such time to improve fitness. 2. We studied postmigratory body remodelling in

  6. Phenotypic compromises in a long-distance migrant during the transition from migration to reproduction in the High Arctic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vézina, F.; Williams, T.D.; Piersma, T.; Morrison, R.I.G.

    2012-01-01

    1. Seasonal carry-over effects may be important structuring components of avian life-history cycles. However, little is known on physiological transitions between stages and on phenotypic compromises that may be made at such time to improve fitness.
    2. We studied postmigratory body remodelling in

  7. Tract-Specific Analyses of Diffusion Tensor Imaging Show Widespread White Matter Compromise in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Dinesh K.; Keehn, Brandon; Muller, Ralph-Axel

    2011-01-01

    Background: Previous diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies have shown white matter compromise in children and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), which may relate to reduced connectivity and impaired function of distributed networks. However, tract-specific evidence remains limited in ASD. We applied tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS)…

  8. Left Ventricular Gene Expression Profile of Healthy and Cardiovascular Compromised Rat Models Used in Air Pollution Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The link between pollutant exposure and cardiovascular disease (CVD) has prompted mechanistic research with animal models of CVD. We hypothesized that the cardiac gene expression patterns of healthy and genetically compromised, CVD-prone rat models, with or without metabolic impa...

  9. 20 CFR 408.950 - Will we accept a compromise settlement of an overpayment debt or suspend or terminate collection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Underpayments... (31 CFR 900.3 and parts 902 and 903). (c) Effect of compromise, suspension or termination. When we... accordance with provisions of the Social Security Act, other laws, and the standards set forth in 31 CFR...

  10. Managing forest and marginal agricultural land for multiple tradeoffs : compromising on economic, carbon and structural biodiversity objectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krcmar, E.; Kooten, van G.C.; Vertinsky, I.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we use compromise programming to solve a multiple-objective land use and forest management planning model. Long- and short- (`fast¿) term carbon uptake, maintenance of structural diversity, and economic (net returns to forestry and agriculture) objectives are simultaneously achieved

  11. Establishment of normal gut microbiota is compromised under excessive hygiene conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Schmidt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Early gut colonization events are purported to have a major impact on the incidence of infectious, inflammatory and autoimmune diseases in later life. Hence, factors which influence this process may have important implications for both human and animal health. Previously, we demonstrated strong influences of early-life environment on gut microbiota composition in adult pigs. Here, we sought to further investigate the impact of limiting microbial exposure during early life on the development of the pig gut microbiota. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Outdoor- and indoor-reared animals, exposed to the microbiota in their natural rearing environment for the first two days of life, were transferred to an isolator facility and adult gut microbial diversity was analyzed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. From a total of 2,196 high-quality 16S rRNA gene sequences, 440 phylotypes were identified in the outdoor group and 431 phylotypes in the indoor group. The majority of clones were assigned to the four phyla Firmicutes (67.5% of all sequences, Proteobacteria (17.7%, Bacteroidetes (13.5% and to a lesser extent, Actinobacteria (0.1%. Although the initial maternal and environmental microbial inoculum of isolator-reared animals was identical to that of their naturally-reared littermates, the microbial succession and stabilization events reported previously in naturally-reared outdoor animals did not occur. In contrast, the gut microbiota of isolator-reared animals remained highly diverse containing a large number of distinct phylotypes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results documented here indicate that establishment and development of the normal gut microbiota requires continuous microbial exposure during the early stages of life and this process is compromised under conditions of excessive hygiene.

  12. Does a Consumer-Targeted Deprescribing Intervention Compromise Patient-Healthcare Provider Trust?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi Zhi; Turner, Justin P; Martin, Philippe; Tannenbaum, Cara

    2018-04-16

    One in four community-dwelling older adults is prescribed an inappropriate medication. Educational interventions aimed at patients to reduce inappropriate medications may cause patients to question their prescriber’s judgment. The objective of this study was to determine whether a patient-focused deprescribing intervention compromised trust between older adults and their healthcare providers. An educational brochure was distributed to community-dwelling older adults by community pharmacists in order to trigger deprescribing conversations. At baseline and 6-months post-intervention, participants completed the Primary Care Assessment Survey, which measures patient trust in doctors and pharmacists. Changes in trust were ascertained post-intervention. Proportions with 95% confidence intervals (CI), and logistic regression were used to determine a shift in trust and associated predictors. 352 participants responded to the questionnaire at both time points. The majority of participants had no change or gained trust in their doctors for items related to the choice of medical care (78.5%, 95% CI = 74.2–82.8), communication transparency (75.4%, 95% CI = 70.7–79.8), and overall trust (81.9%, 95% CI = 77.9–86.0). Similar results were obtained for participants’ perceptions of their pharmacists, with trust remaining intact for items related to the choice of medical care (79.4%, 95% CI = 75.3–83.9), transparency in communicating (82.0%, 95% CI = 78.0–86.1), and overall trust (81.6%, 95% CI = 77.5–85.7). Neither age, sex nor the medication class targeted for deprescribing was associated with a loss of trust. Overall, the results indicate that patient-focused deprescribing interventions do not shift patients’ trust in their healthcare providers in a negative direction.

  13. Compromised JMJD6 histone demethylase activity impacts on VHL gene repression in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alahari, Sruthi; Post, Martin; Rolfo, Alessandro; Weksberg, Rosanna; Caniggia, Isabella

    2018-01-24

    The von Hippel Lindau (VHL) protein is a key executor of the cellular hypoxic response that is compromised in preeclampsia, a serious disorder complicating 5-7% of pregnancies. To date, the mechanisms controlling VHL gene expression in the human placenta remain elusive. We examined VHL epigenetic regulation in normal pregnancy and in preeclampsia, a pathology characterized by placental hypoxia. Placentae were obtained from early-onset (E-PE: n=56; <34 weeks of gestation) and late onset preeclampsia (L-PE: n=19; ≥ 34 weeks of gestation). Placentae from healthy normotensive age-matched preterm and term pregnancies (PTC: n=43; TC: n=23) were included as controls. We measured the activity of Jumonji domain containing protein 6 (JMJD6), a Fe2+ and oxygen-dependent histone demethylase, and examined its function in the epigenetic control of VHL. JMJD6 regulates VHL gene expression in the human placenta. VHL downregulation in preeclampsia is dependent on decreased JMJD6 demethylase activity due to hypoxia and reduced Fe2+ bioavailability. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed decreased association of JMJD6 and its histone targets with the VHL promoter. Findings in preeclampsia were corroborated in a murine model of pharmacological hypoxia using FG-4592. Placentae from FG-4592 treated mice exhibited reduced VHL levels, accompanied by placental morphological alterations and reduced pup weights. Notably, Fe2+ supplementation rescued JMJD6 histone demethylase activity in histone from E-PE and FG-4592-treated mice. Our study uncovers novel epigenetic regulation of VHL and its functional consequences for altered oxygen and iron homeostasis in preeclampsia. Copyright © 2018 Endocrine Society

  14. Does a Consumer-Targeted Deprescribing Intervention Compromise Patient-Healthcare Provider Trust?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhi Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available One in four community-dwelling older adults is prescribed an inappropriate medication. Educational interventions aimed at patients to reduce inappropriate medications may cause patients to question their prescriber’s judgment. The objective of this study was to determine whether a patient-focused deprescribing intervention compromised trust between older adults and their healthcare providers. An educational brochure was distributed to community-dwelling older adults by community pharmacists in order to trigger deprescribing conversations. At baseline and 6-months post-intervention, participants completed the Primary Care Assessment Survey, which measures patient trust in doctors and pharmacists. Changes in trust were ascertained post-intervention. Proportions with 95% confidence intervals (CI, and logistic regression were used to determine a shift in trust and associated predictors. 352 participants responded to the questionnaire at both time points. The majority of participants had no change or gained trust in their doctors for items related to the choice of medical care (78.5%, 95% CI = 74.2–82.8, communication transparency (75.4%, 95% CI = 70.7–79.8, and overall trust (81.9%, 95% CI = 77.9–86.0. Similar results were obtained for participants’ perceptions of their pharmacists, with trust remaining intact for items related to the choice of medical care (79.4%, 95% CI = 75.3–83.9, transparency in communicating (82.0%, 95% CI = 78.0–86.1, and overall trust (81.6%, 95% CI = 77.5–85.7. Neither age, sex nor the medication class targeted for deprescribing was associated with a loss of trust. Overall, the results indicate that patient-focused deprescribing interventions do not shift patients’ trust in their healthcare providers in a negative direction.

  15. Single-Isocenter Multiple-Target Stereotactic Radiosurgery: Risk of Compromised Coverage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roper, Justin; Chanyavanich, Vorakarn; Betzel, Gregory; Switchenko, Jeffrey; Dhabaan, Anees

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the dosimetric effects of rotational errors on target coverage using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for multitarget stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Methods and Materials: This retrospective study included 50 SRS cases, each with 2 intracranial planning target volumes (PTVs). Both PTVs were planned for simultaneous treatment to 21 Gy using a single-isocenter, noncoplanar VMAT SRS technique. Rotational errors of 0.5°, 1.0°, and 2.0° were simulated about all axes. The dose to 95% of the PTV (D95) and the volume covered by 95% of the prescribed dose (V95) were evaluated using multivariate analysis to determine how PTV coverage was related to PTV volume, PTV separation, and rotational error. Results: At 0.5° rotational error, D95 values and V95 coverage rates were ≥95% in all cases. For rotational errors of 1.0°, 7% of targets had D95 and V95 values 95% for only 63% of the targets. Multivariate analysis showed that PTV volume and distance to isocenter were strong predictors of target coverage. Conclusions: The effects of rotational errors on target coverage were studied across a broad range of SRS cases. In general, the risk of compromised coverage increased with decreasing target volume, increasing rotational error and increasing distance between targets. Multivariate regression models from this study may be used to quantify the dosimetric effects of rotational errors on target coverage given patient-specific input parameters of PTV volume and distance to isocenter.

  16. Biofouling of inlet pipes affects water quality in running seawater aquaria and compromises sponge cell proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany E. Alexander

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Marine organism are often kept, cultured, and experimented on in running seawater aquaria. However, surprisingly little attention is given to the nutrient composition of the water flowing through these systems, which is generally assumed to equal in situ conditions, but may change due to the presence of biofouling organisms. Significantly lower bacterial abundances and higher inorganic nitrogen species (nitrate, nitrite, and ammonium were measured in aquarium water when biofouling organisms were present within a 7-year old inlet pipe feeding a tropical reef running seawater aquaria system, compared with aquarium water fed by a new, biofouling-free inlet pipe. These water quality changes are indicative of the feeding activity and waste production of the suspension- and filter-feeding communities found in the old pipe, which included sponges, bivalves, barnacles, and ascidians. To illustrate the physiological consequences of these water quality changes on a model organism kept in the aquaria system, we investigated the influence of the presence and absence of the biofouling community on the functioning of the filter-feeding sponge Halisarca caerulea, by determining its choanocyte (filter cell proliferation rates. We found a 34% increase in choanocyte proliferation rates following the replacement of the inlet pipe (i.e., removal of the biofouling community. This indicates that the physiological functioning of the sponge was compromised due to suboptimal food conditions within the aquarium resulting from the presence of the biofouling organisms in the inlet pipe. This study has implications for the husbandry and performance of experiments with marine organisms in running seawater aquaria systems. Inlet pipes should be checked regularly, and replaced if necessary, in order to avoid excessive biofouling and to approach in situ water quality.

  17. Single blastocyst transfer: The key to reduce multiple pregnancy rates without compromising the live birth rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma M Sundhararaj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Historically, to achieve higher pregnancy rates, multiple embryos were transferred after an in-vitro fertilisation (IVF. However, this practice is being reassessed, because it leads to multiple pregnancies that is known to cause adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Aim: To compare the pregnancy outcomes in fresh IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI cycles among women undergoing elective single blastocyst transfer (eSBT vs. those undergoing double blastocyst transfer (DBT. Settings and Design: It is a retrospective data analysis of 582 patients undergoing fresh IVF/ICSI cycles performed from January 2012 to June 2015. Materials and Methods: Patients, who underwent IVF/ICSI and developed more than one blastocyst, were included in the study. Donor cycles were excluded from the study. All the embryos were cultured to blastocyst stage in sequential media followed by transfer of two blastocysts (DBT or eSBT and cryopreservation of the remaining. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was performed using chi square test. Results: Out of 582 patients, in 149 patients one blastocyst was transferred and in 433 patients two blastocysts were transferred. There was no statistical difference in the biochemical pregnancy rate, clinical pregnancy rate and live birth rate in both the groups. Statistics demonstrated a significant drop in miscarriage rate in eSBT group. There was no incidence of twins in eSBT group, whereas twin birth rate per clinical pregnancy was 29.02% in DBT group. Conclusion: Single blastocyst transfer is an effective method to reduce the risk of multiple births without compromising the pregnancy outcomes. Given the promising potential of vitrification; the remaining blastocyst can be cryopreserved.

  18. Intraoperative costs of video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy can be dramatically reduced without compromising outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Michael T; Backhus, Leah M; Berry, Mark F; Vail, Daniel G; Ayers, Kelsey C; Benson, Jalen A; Bhandari, Prasha; Teymourtash, Mehran; Shrager, Joseph B

    2018-03-01

    To determine whether surgeon selection of instrumentation and other supplies during video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy (VATSL) can safely reduce intraoperative costs. In this retrospective, cost-focused review of all video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery anatomic lung resections performed by 2 surgeons at a single institution between 2010 and 2014, we compared VATSL hospital costs and perioperative outcomes between the surgeons, as well as costs of VATSL compared with thoracotomy lobectomy (THORL). A total of 100 VATSLs were performed by surgeon A, and 70 were performed by surgeon B. The preoperative risk factors did not differ significantly between the 2 groups of surgeries. Mean VATSL total hospital costs per case were 24% percent greater for surgeon A compared with surgeon B (P = .0026). Intraoperative supply costs accounted for most of this cost difference and were 85% greater for surgeon A compared with surgeon B (P costs, accounting for 55% of the difference in intraoperative supply costs between the surgeons. Operative time was 25% longer for surgeon A compared with surgeon B (P accounted for only 11% of the difference in total cost. Surgeon A's overall VATSL costs per case were similar to those of THORLs (n = 100) performed over the same time period, whereas surgeon B's VATSL costs per case were 24% less than those of THORLs. On adjusted analysis, there was no difference in VATSL perioperative outcomes between the 2 surgeons. The costs of VATSL differ substantially among surgeons and are heavily influenced by the use of disposable equipment/devices. Surgeons can substantially reduce the costs of VATSL to far lower than those of THORL without compromising surgical outcomes through prudent use of costly instruments and technologies. Copyright © 2017 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  19. Ocean acidification compromises recruitment success of the threatened Caribbean coral Acropora palmata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Rebecca; Mason, Benjamin; Miller, Margaret; Langdon, Chris

    2010-11-23

    Ocean acidification (OA) refers to the ongoing decline in oceanic pH resulting from the uptake of atmospheric CO(2). Mounting experimental evidence suggests that OA will have negative consequences for a variety of marine organisms. Whereas the effect of OA on the calcification of adult reef corals is increasingly well documented, effects on early life history stages are largely unknown. Coral recruitment, which necessitates successful fertilization, larval settlement, and postsettlement growth and survivorship, is critical to the persistence and resilience of coral reefs. To determine whether OA threatens successful sexual recruitment of reef-building corals, we tested fertilization, settlement, and postsettlement growth of Acropora palmata at pCO(2) levels that represent average ambient conditions during coral spawning (∼400 μatm) and the range of pCO(2) increases that are expected to occur in this century [∼560 μatm (mid-CO(2)) and ∼800 μatm (high-CO(2))]. Fertilization, settlement, and growth were all negatively impacted by increasing pCO(2), and impairment of fertilization was exacerbated at lower sperm concentrations. The cumulative impact of OA on fertilization and settlement success is an estimated 52% and 73% reduction in the number of larval settlers on the reef under pCO(2) conditions projected for the middle and the end of this century, respectively. Additional declines of 39% (mid-CO(2)) and 50% (high-CO(2)) were observed in postsettlement linear extension rates relative to controls. These results suggest that OA has the potential to impact multiple, sequential early life history stages, thereby severely compromising sexual recruitment and the ability of coral reefs to recover from disturbance.

  20. Biofouling of inlet pipes affects water quality in running seawater aquaria and compromises sponge cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Brittany E; Mueller, Benjamin; Vermeij, Mark J A; van der Geest, Harm H G; de Goeij, Jasper M

    2015-01-01

    Marine organism are often kept, cultured, and experimented on in running seawater aquaria. However, surprisingly little attention is given to the nutrient composition of the water flowing through these systems, which is generally assumed to equal in situ conditions, but may change due to the presence of biofouling organisms. Significantly lower bacterial abundances and higher inorganic nitrogen species (nitrate, nitrite, and ammonium) were measured in aquarium water when biofouling organisms were present within a 7-year old inlet pipe feeding a tropical reef running seawater aquaria system, compared with aquarium water fed by a new, biofouling-free inlet pipe. These water quality changes are indicative of the feeding activity and waste production of the suspension- and filter-feeding communities found in the old pipe, which included sponges, bivalves, barnacles, and ascidians. To illustrate the physiological consequences of these water quality changes on a model organism kept in the aquaria system, we investigated the influence of the presence and absence of the biofouling community on the functioning of the filter-feeding sponge Halisarca caerulea, by determining its choanocyte (filter cell) proliferation rates. We found a 34% increase in choanocyte proliferation rates following the replacement of the inlet pipe (i.e., removal of the biofouling community). This indicates that the physiological functioning of the sponge was compromised due to suboptimal food conditions within the aquarium resulting from the presence of the biofouling organisms in the inlet pipe. This study has implications for the husbandry and performance of experiments with marine organisms in running seawater aquaria systems. Inlet pipes should be checked regularly, and replaced if necessary, in order to avoid excessive biofouling and to approach in situ water quality.

  1. Advanced medical life support procedures in vitally compromised children by a helicopter emergency medical service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheffer Gert J

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the advanced life support procedures provided by an Emergency Medical Service (EMS and a Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS for vitally compromised children. Incidence and success rate of several procedures were studied, with a distinction made between procedures restricted to the HEMS-physician and procedures for which the HEMS is more experienced than the EMS. Methods Prospective study of a consecutive group of children examined and treated by the HEMS of the eastern region of the Netherlands. Data regarding type of emergency, physiological parameters, NACA scores, treatment, and 24-hour survival were collected and subsequently analysed. Results Of the 558 children examined and treated by the HEMS on scene, 79% had a NACA score of IV-VII. 65% of the children had one or more advanced life support procedures restricted to the HEMS and 78% of the children had one or more procedures for which the HEMS is more experienced than the EMS. The HEMS intubated 38% of all children, and 23% of the children intubated and ventilated by the EMS needed emergency correction because of potentially lethal complications. The HEMS provided the greater part of intraosseous access, as the EMS paramedics almost exclusively reserved this procedure for children in cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The EMS provided pain management only to children older than four years of age, but a larger group was in need of analgesia upon arrival of the HEMS, and was subsequently treated by the HEMS. Conclusions The Helicopter Emergency Medical Service of the eastern region of the Netherlands brings essential medical expertise in the field not provided by the emergency medical service. The Emergency Medical Service does not provide a significant quantity of procedures obviously needed by the paediatric patient.

  2. Compromised quality of life in patients with both Type 1 diabetes mellitus and coeliac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, S F; Pouwer, F; Tushuizen, M E; Hoogma, R P; Mulder, C J; Simsek, S

    2013-07-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus and coeliac disease are two chronic illnesses associated with each other. Both diseases and their treatments can seriously impair quality of life. The objective of the present study was to investigate health-related quality of life in adult patients diagnosed with both Type 1 diabetes and coeliac disease and compare this with healthy control subjects and control subjects who have Type 1 diabetes only. A generic measure of health-related quality of life (RAND-36) and a measure of diabetes-specific quality of life (DQOL) questionnaires were sent to patients diagnosed with both Type 1 diabetes and coeliac disease. The control group consisted of patients with Type 1 diabetes without coeliac disease matched for age, gender and socio-economic status. Generic quality of life scores were compared with data from healthy Dutch control subjects. Fifty-seven patients with Type 1 diabetes and coeliac disease were included and no associations between clinical characteristics and quality of life were observed. Women reported a lower quality of life in social functioning, vitality and mental health than men (all P coeliac disease compared with patients with Type 1 diabetes. Compared with healthy control subjects, quality of life in patients with Type 1 diabetes and coeliac disease was significantly lower, particularly social functioning (Cohen's d = 0.76) and general health perception (Cohen's d = 0.86). The additional diagnosis of coeliac disease and treatment by gluten-free diet in adult patients with Type 1 diabetes has a considerable, negative impact on quality of life and diabetes-specific quality of life. Women are particularly affected and social functioning and general health perception is compromised. © 2013 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2013 Diabetes UK.

  3. Aquatic therapies in patients with compromised left ventricular function and heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Katharina; Leblanc, Marie-Claude

    2008-01-01

    With water immersion, gravity is partly eliminated, and the water exerts a pressure on the body surface. Consequently there is a blood volume shift from the periphery to the central circulation, resulting in marked volume loading of the thorax and heart. This paper presents a selection of published literature on water immersion, balneotherapy, aqua exercises, and swimming, in patients with left ventricular dysfunction (LVD) and/or stable chronic heart failure (CHF). Based on exploratory studies, central hemodynamic and neurohumoral responses of aquatic therapies will be illustrated. Major findings are: 1. In LVD and CHF, a positive effect of therapeutic warm-water tub bathing has been observed, which is assumed to be from afterload reduction due to peripheral vasodilatation caused by the warm water. 2. In coronary patients with LVD, at low-level water cycling the heart is working more efficiently than at lowlevel cycling outside of water. 3. In patients with previous extensive myocardial infarction, upright immersion to the neck resulted in temporary pathological increases in mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) and mean pulmonary capillary pressures (mPCP). 4. Additionally, during slow swimming (20-25m/min) the mPAP and/or PCP were higher than during supine cycling outside water at a 100W load. 5. In CHF patients, neck- deep immersion resulted in a decrease or no change in stroke volume. 6. Although patients are hemodynamically compromised, they usually maintain a feeling of well-being during aquatic therapy. Based on these findings, clinical indications for aquatic therapies are proposed and ideas are presented to provoke further research.

  4. Transient inhibition of cell proliferation does not compromise self-renewal of mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruoxing; Guo, Yan-Lin

    2012-10-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have unlimited capacity for self-renewal and can differentiate into various cell types when induced. They also have an unusual cell cycle control mechanism driven by constitutively active cyclin dependent kinases (Cdks). In mouse ESCs (mESCs). It is proposed that the rapid cell proliferation could be a necessary part of mechanisms that maintain mESC self-renewal and pluripotency, but this hypothesis is not in line with the finding in human ESCs (hESCs) that the length of the cell cycle is similar to differentiated cells. Therefore, whether rapid cell proliferation is essential for the maintenance of mESC state remains unclear. We provide insight into this uncertainty through chemical intervention of mESC cell cycle. We report here that inhibition of Cdks with olomoucine II can dramatically slow down cell proliferation of mESCs with concurrent down-regulation of cyclin A, B and E, and the activation of the Rb pathway. However, mESCs display can recover upon the removal of olomoucine II and are able to resume normal cell proliferation without losing self-renewal and pluripotency, as demonstrated by the expression of ESC markers, colony formation, embryoid body formation, and induced differentiation. We provide a mechanistic explanation for these observations by demonstrating that Oct4 and Nanog, two major transcription factors that play critical roles in the maintenance of ESC properties, are up-regulated via de novo protein synthesis when the cells are exposed to olomoucine II. Together, our data suggest that short-term inhibition of cell proliferation does not compromise the basic properties of mESCs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Immunomodulation and hormonal disruption without compromised disease resistance in perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) exposed Japanese quail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smits, Judit E.G.; Nain, Sukhbir

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of oral perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) on Japanese quail at concentrations found in American and Belgian workers at PFOA manufacturing facilities. Three arms of the immune system were tested; T cell, B cell, and innate immunity. After 6 weeks exposure, quail were challenged with E. coli infection to test the ultimate measure of immunotoxicity, disease resistance. The T cell response was lower in the high exposure groups. Antibody mediated, and innate immune responses were not different. Growth rate was higher, whereas thyroid hormone levels were lower in PFOA-exposed birds. Morbidity/mortality from disease challenge was not different among the control and PFOA-exposed groups, and no overt PFOA toxicity was observed pre-disease challenge. Although PFOA at ‘worst case scenario’ levels caused T cell immunosuppression, this did not translate into increased disease susceptibility, demonstrating that immunotoxicity testing must be interpreted with caution since disease resistance is the ultimate concern. -- Highlights: •Birds orally exposed to high levels of PFOA for 8 wks showed no signs of toxicity. •PFOA exposure caused immunotoxicity by suppressing the T cell mediated response. •PFOA exposure did not affect antibody mediated, or innate immunity. •PFOA exposure did not cause increased morbidity/mortality after E. coli infection. •PFOA exposed birds showed endocrinological changes that may warrant further study. -- Oral exposure of quail to the pollutant, PFOA, resulted in hormonal and immunological changes, but did not compromise disease resistance after challenge by a common avian pathogen

  6. Host lung immunity is severely compromised during tropical pulmonary eosinophilia: role of lung eosinophils and macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pankaj; Sharma, Aditi; Vishwakarma, Achchhe Lal; Agnihotri, Promod Kumar; Sharma, Sharad; Srivastava, Mrigank

    2016-04-01

    Eosinophils play a central role in the pathogenesis of tropical pulmonary eosinophilia, a rare, but fatal, manifestation of filariasis. However, no exhaustive study has been done to identify the genes and proteins of eosinophils involved in the pathogenesis of tropical pulmonary eosinophilia. In the present study, we established a mouse model of tropical pulmonary eosinophilia that mimicked filarial manifestations of human tropical pulmonary eosinophilia pathogenesis and used flow cytometry-assisted cell sorting and real-time RT-PCR to study the gene expression profile of flow-sorted, lung eosinophils and lung macrophages during tropical pulmonary eosinophilia pathogenesis. Our results show that tropical pulmonary eosinophilia mice exhibited increased levels of IL-4, IL-5, CCL5, and CCL11 in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung parenchyma along with elevated titers of IgE and IgG subtypes in the serum. Alveolar macrophages from tropical pulmonary eosinophilia mice displayed decreased phagocytosis, attenuated nitric oxide production, and reduced T-cell proliferation capacity, and FACS-sorted lung eosinophils from tropical pulmonary eosinophilia mice upregulated transcript levels of ficolin A and anti-apoptotic gene Bcl2,but proapoptotic genes Bim and Bax were downregulated. Similarly, flow-sorted lung macrophages upregulated transcript levels of TLR-2, TLR-6, arginase-1, Ym-1, and FIZZ-1 but downregulated nitric oxide synthase-2 levels, signifying their alternative activation. Taken together, we show that the pathogenesis of tropical pulmonary eosinophilia is marked by functional impairment of alveolar macrophages, alternative activation of lung macrophages, and upregulation of anti-apoptotic genes by eosinophils. These events combine together to cause severe lung inflammation and compromised lung immunity. Therapeutic interventions that can boost host immune response in the lungs might thus provide relief to patients with tropical pulmonary eosinophilia.

  7. Genomic copy number analysis of a spectrum of blue nevi identifies recurrent aberrations of entire chromosomal arms in melanoma ex blue nevus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, May P; Andea, Aleodor A; Harms, Paul W; Durham, Alison B; Patel, Rajiv M; Wang, Min; Robichaud, Patrick; Fisher, Gary J; Johnson, Timothy M; Fullen, Douglas R

    2016-03-01

    Blue nevi may display significant atypia or undergo malignant transformation. Morphologic diagnosis of this spectrum of lesions is notoriously difficult, and molecular tools are increasingly used to improve diagnostic accuracy. We studied copy number aberrations in a cohort of cellular blue nevi, atypical cellular blue nevi, and melanomas ex blue nevi using Affymetrix's OncoScan platform. Cases with sufficient DNA were analyzed for GNAQ, GNA11, and HRAS mutations. Copy number aberrations were detected in 0 of 5 (0%) cellular blue nevi, 3 of 12 (25%) atypical cellular blue nevi, and 6 of 9 (67%) melanomas ex blue nevi. None of the atypical cellular blue nevi displayed more than one aberration, whereas complex aberrations involving four or more regions were seen exclusively in melanomas ex blue nevi. Gains and losses of entire chromosomal arms were identified in four of five melanomas ex blue nevi with copy number aberrations. In particular, gains of 1q, 4p, 6p, and 8q, and losses of 1p and 4q were each found in at least two melanomas. Whole chromosome aberrations were also common, and represented the sole finding in one atypical cellular blue nevus. When seen in melanomas, however, whole chromosome aberrations were invariably accompanied by partial aberrations of other chromosomes. Three melanomas ex blue nevi harbored aberrations, which were absent or negligible in their precursor components, suggesting progression in tumor biology. Gene mutations involving GNAQ and GNA11 were each detected in two of eight melanomas ex blue nevi. In conclusion, copy number aberrations are more common and often complex in melanomas ex blue nevi compared with cellular and atypical cellular blue nevi. Identification of recurrent gains and losses of entire chromosomal arms in melanomas ex blue nevi suggests that development of new probes targeting these regions may improve detection and risk stratification of these lesions.

  8. Sustainable Life on the Blue Frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helvarg, D.

    2002-05-01

    the 1950s suggest we now have the technological capacity for a new energy transition to non-carbon systems including photovoltaics, wind-turbines, biofuels and hydrogen fuel-cells. A (largely) hydrogen based economy could also lead to a decentralized power grid less vulnerable to terrorism and the increased natural disasters we can expect in the coming greenhouse century. Sustainable development of limited resources and the shift to renewable forms of agriculture, water-planning, energy and other technologies will ultimately depend not simply on earth science, but on a highly political process which will (hopefully) combine the best-available science, and society's values to determine public policy that benefits the long-term interests of our blue planet's varied residents, recognizing that our economy is a fully owned subsidiary of our environment.

  9. The BlueSky Smoke Modeling Framework: Recent Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, D. C.; Larkin, N.; Raffuse, S. M.; Strand, T.; ONeill, S. M.; Leung, F. T.; Qu, J. J.; Hao, X.

    2012-12-01

    BlueSky systems—a set of decision support tools including SmartFire and the BlueSky Framework—aid public policy decision makers and scientific researchers in evaluating the air quality impacts of fires. Smoke and fire managers use BlueSky systems in decisions about prescribed burns and wildland firefighting. Air quality agencies use BlueSky systems to support decisions related to air quality regulations. We will discuss a range of recent improvements to the BlueSky systems, as well as examples of applications and future plans. BlueSky systems have the flexibility to accept basic fire information from virtually any source and can reconcile multiple information sources so that duplication of fire records is eliminated. BlueSky systems currently apply information from (1) the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Hazard Mapping System (HMS), which represents remotely sensed data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES); (2) the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS) interagency project, which derives fire perimeters from Landsat 30-meter burn scars; (3) the Geospatial Multi-Agency Coordination Group (GeoMAC), which produces helicopter-flown burn perimeters; and (4) ground-based fire reports, such as the ICS-209 reports managed by the National Wildfire Coordinating Group. Efforts are currently underway to streamline the use of additional ground-based systems, such as states' prescribed burn databases. BlueSky systems were recently modified to address known uncertainties in smoke modeling associated with (1) estimates of biomass consumption derived from sparse fuel moisture data, and (2) models of plume injection heights. Additional sources of remotely sensed data are being applied to address these issues as follows: - The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission

  10. Compete or Leapfrog: Creating Blue Ocean through Entrepreneurial Orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arslan Ayub

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzes the role of entrepreneurial orientation with mediating effect of knowledge creation process to creating Blue Ocean in corporate sector in Pakistan There is an increasing competition among companies due to globalization and technological advancements. Thus, it requires a study to measure the multifaceted influence of entrepreneurial orientation on knowledge creation process and Blue Ocean besides the actual paradigm of this terminology. This concept has been well discussed in this research arena since its inception in 2005. Numerous such initiatives have already been taken, however this concept invites a lot more addition, related companies are still in pursuit to materialize the research concepts. We highlight the contingencies in the shift from a red ocean to Blue Ocean. The study uses exploratory approach; primary data is collected from 391 professionals working in different sectors of Pakistan. The study uses structural equation model (SEM technique to test the hypotheses. The study found a positive relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and Blue Ocean, entrepreneurial orientation, knowledge creation process, and Blue Ocean. The study throws light on the importance of entrepreneurial orientation and knowledge creation process to head on this fast-paced competition.

  11. Proteomics meets blue biotechnology: a wealth of novelties and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Erica M; Durighello, Emie; Pible, Olivier; Nogales, Balbina; Beltrametti, Fabrizio; Bosch, Rafael; Christie-Oleza, Joseph A; Armengaud, Jean

    2014-10-01

    Blue biotechnology, in which aquatic environments provide the inspiration for various products such as food additives, aquaculture, biosensors, green chemistry, bioenergy, and pharmaceuticals, holds enormous promise. Large-scale efforts to sequence aquatic genomes and metagenomes, as well as campaigns to isolate new organisms and culture-based screenings, are helping to push the boundaries of known organisms. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics can complement 16S gene sequencing in the effort to discover new organisms of potential relevance to blue biotechnology by facilitating the rapid screening of microbial isolates and by providing in depth profiles of the proteomes and metaproteomes of marine organisms, both model cultivable isolates and, more recently, exotic non-cultivable species and communities. Proteomics has already contributed to blue biotechnology by identifying aquatic proteins with potential applications to food fermentation, the textile industry, and biomedical drug development. In this review, we discuss historical developments in blue biotechnology, the current limitations to the known marine biosphere, and the ways in which mass spectrometry can expand that knowledge. We further speculate about directions that research in blue biotechnology will take given current and near-future technological advancements in mass spectrometry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Fe K-edge XANES of Maya blue pigment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Río, M. Sánchez del; Sodo, A.; Eeckhout, S. G.; Neisius, T.; Martinetto, P.; Dooryhée, E.; Reyes-Valerio, C.

    2005-08-01

    The utilization of techniques used in Materials Science for the characterization of artefacts of interest for cultural heritage is getting more and more attention nowadays. One of the products of the ancient Maya chemistry is the "Maya blue" pigment, made with natural indigo and palygorskite. This pigment is different from any other pigment used in other parts of the world. It is durable and acid-resistant, and still keeps many secrets to scientists even though it has been studied for more than 50 years. Although the pigment is basically made of palygorskite Si8(Mg2Al2)O20(OH)2(OH2)4.4H2O and an organic colourant (indigo: C16H10N2O2), a number of other compounds have been found in previous studies on archaeological samples, like other clays and minerals, iron nanoparticles, iron oxides, impurities of transition metals (Cr, Mn, Ti, V), etc. We measured at the ESRF ID26 beamline the Fe K-edge XANES spectra of the blue pigment in ancient samples. They are compared to XANES spectra of Maya blue samples synthesized under controlled conditions, and iron oxides usually employed as pigments (hematite and goethite). Our results show that the iron found in ancient Maya blue pigment is related to the Fe exchanged in the palygorskite clay. We did not find iron in metallic form or goethite in archaeological Maya blue.

  13. Fe K-edge XANES of Maya blue pigment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rio, M. Sanchez del; Sodo, A.; Eeckhout, S.G.; Neisius, T.; Martinetto, P.; Dooryhee, E.; Reyes-Valerio, C.

    2005-01-01

    The utilization of techniques used in Materials Science for the characterization of artefacts of interest for cultural heritage is getting more and more attention nowadays. One of the products of the ancient Maya chemistry is the 'Maya blue' pigment, made with natural indigo and palygorskite. This pigment is different from any other pigment used in other parts of the world. It is durable and acid-resistant, and still keeps many secrets to scientists even though it has been studied for more than 50 years. Although the pigment is basically made of palygorskite Si 8 (Mg 2 Al 2 )O 20 (OH) 2 (OH 2 ) 4 .4H 2 O and an organic colourant (indigo: C 16 H 10 N 2 O 2 ), a number of other compounds have been found in previous studies on archaeological samples, like other clays and minerals, iron nanoparticles, iron oxides, impurities of transition metals (Cr, Mn, Ti, V), etc. We measured at the ESRF ID26 beamline the Fe K-edge XANES spectra of the blue pigment in ancient samples. They are compared to XANES spectra of Maya blue samples synthesized under controlled conditions, and iron oxides usually employed as pigments (hematite and goethite). Our results show that the iron found in ancient Maya blue pigment is related to the Fe exchanged in the palygorskite clay. We did not find iron in metallic form or goethite in archaeological Maya blue

  14. Implementation of EAM and FS potentials in HOOMD-blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lin; Zhang, Feng; Travesset, Alex; Wang, Caizhuang; Ho, Kaiming

    HOOMD-blue is a general-purpose software to perform classical molecular dynamics simulations entirely on GPUs. We provide full support for EAM and FS type potentials in HOOMD-blue, and report accuracy and efficiency benchmarks, including comparisons with the LAMMPS GPU package. Two problems were selected to test the accuracy: the determination of the glass transition temperature of Cu64.5Zr35.5 alloy using an FS potential and the calculation of pair distribution functions of Ni3Al using an EAM potential. In both cases, the results using HOOMD-blue are indistinguishable from those obtained by the GPU package in LAMMPS within statistical uncertainties. As tests for time efficiency, we benchmark time-steps per second using LAMMPS GPU and HOOMD-blue on one NVIDIA Tesla GPU. Compared to our typical LAMMPS simulations on one CPU cluster node which has 16 CPUs, LAMMPS GPU can be 3-3.5 times faster, and HOOMD-blue can be 4-5.5 times faster. We acknowledge the support from Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) of Ames Laboratory.

  15. Does Blue Uniform Color Enhance Winning Probability in Judo Contests?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter D. Dijkstra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The color of an athlete's uniform may have an effect on psychological functioning and consequently bias the chances of winning contests in sport competition. Several studies reported a winning bias for judo athletes wearing a blue outfit relative to those wearing a white outfit. However, we argue there is no winning bias and that previous studies were confounded and based on small and specific data sets. We tested whether blue biases winning in judo using a very extensive judo data set (45,874 contests from all international judo tournaments between 2008 and 2014. In judo, the first called athlete for the fight used to wear the blue judogi but this was changed to the white judogi in 2011. This switch enabled us to compare the win bias before and after this change to isolate the effect of the color of the judogi. We found a significant win bias for the first called athlete, but this effect was not significantly related to the color of the judogi. The lack of a significant win effect of judogi color suggests that blue does not bias winning in judo, and that the blue-white pairing ensures an equal level of play. Our study shows the importance of thoroughly considering alternative explanations and using extensive datasets in color research in sports and psychology.

  16. Does Blue Uniform Color Enhance Winning Probability in Judo Contests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Peter D; Preenen, Paul T Y; van Essen, Hans

    2018-01-01

    The color of an athlete's uniform may have an effect on psychological functioning and consequently bias the chances of winning contests in sport competition. Several studies reported a winning bias for judo athletes wearing a blue outfit relative to those wearing a white outfit. However, we argue there is no winning bias and that previous studies were confounded and based on small and specific data sets. We tested whether blue biases winning in judo using a very extensive judo data set (45,874 contests from all international judo tournaments between 2008 and 2014). In judo, the first called athlete for the fight used to wear the blue judogi but this was changed to the white judogi in 2011. This switch enabled us to compare the win bias before and after this change to isolate the effect of the color of the judogi . We found a significant win bias for the first called athlete, but this effect was not significantly related to the color of the judogi . The lack of a significant win effect of judogi color suggests that blue does not bias winning in judo, and that the blue-white pairing ensures an equal level of play. Our study shows the importance of thoroughly considering alternative explanations and using extensive datasets in color research in sports and psychology.

  17. Environmental blue light prevents stress in the fish Nile tilapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volpato G.L.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to test the effects of blue, green or white light on the stress response of the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.. Each color was tested on two groups of isolated adult Nile tilapia (8 replicates each: one being subjected to confinement stress, and the other not (control. A different environmental color was imposed on each compartment by covering the light source with cellophane of the respective color (green or blue; no cellophane was used for white light. The intensity of green, white and blue lights was 250, 590 and 250 lux, respectively. Basal plasma cortisol levels were determined for each fish prior to the experimental procedures. The fish were confined by being displaced toward one side of the aquarium using an opaque partition for 1 h both in the morning and the afternoon of the two consecutive days of the test. At the end of this 48-h period, plasma cortisol levels were measured again. Basal cortisol levels (ng/ml were similar for each group (ANOVA, F(2;42 = 0.77, P = 0.47. Thus, plasma cortisol levels were analyzed in terms of variation from their respective basal level. After confinement, plasma cortisol levels were not increased in fish submitted to a blue light environment. Thus, blue light prevents the confinement-induced cortisol response, an effect not necessarily related to light intensity.

  18. Borax methylene blue: a spectroscopic and staining study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, P T; Russo, A; Reynolds, C; Lillie, R D

    1978-07-01

    Borax methylene blue is quite stable at room temperatures of 22-25 C. At 30 C polychroming is slow; during 50 days in a water bath at this temperature the absorption peak moves from 665 to 656 nm. At 35 C, the absorption peak reaches 660 nm in 7 days, 654 nm in 14. At 60 C polychroming is rapid, the absorption peak reaching 640-620 nm in 3 days. When the pH of the borax methylene blue solutions, normally about 9.0, is adjusted to pH 6.5, the absorption peak remains at 665 nm even when incubated at 60 C for extended periods. When used as a blood stain 0.4 ml borax methylene blue (1% methylene blue in 1% borax), 4 ml acetone, 2 ml borax-acid phosphate buffer to bring the solution to pH 6.5, and distilled water to make 40 ml, with 0.2 ml 1% eosin added just before using, an excellent Nocht-Giemsa type stain is achieved after 30 minutes staining. The material plasmodia P. falciparum, P. vivax, and P. berghei stain moderate blue with dark red chromatin and green to black pigment granules. The study confirms Malachowski's 1891 results and explains Gautier's 1896-98 failure to duplicate it.

  19. Using Longitudinal Assessment on Extensively Managed Ewes to Quantify Welfare Compromise and Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Stuart; Hemsworth, Paul; Doyle, Rebecca

    2018-01-01

    Simple Summary Sheep managed extensively can be exposed to several welfare challenges during the year, and the risk of some diseases can increase in warmer and wetter seasons. In this study, the welfare of Merino ewes was examined over a calendar year. The welfare of these animals, kept on a single farm with consistent management, varied substantially. Overall, the largest number of ewes experienced compromise and risk to welfare at weaning, indicating that this was the most vulnerable time. The main welfare issues identified were under and over feeding, ewe mortality, lameness, ecto-parasites (flystrike) and mastitis, all of which could be improved by modifying management practices, such as improved nutritional management and monitoring and better tail docking procedures. Future research must consider that significant variation in the on-farm welfare of ewes occurs during a calendar year, which needs to be accounted for when conducting on-farm assessments. Abstract This study examined variation in the welfare of extensively managed ewes and potential welfare risks. A total of 100 Merino ewes (aged 2–4 years) were individually identified and examined at three key stages: pregnancy, lactation and weaning. Eight animal-based welfare measures were used to assess welfare: flight distance, body condition score (BCS), fleece condition, skin lesions, tail length, dag score, lameness and mastitis. Data were analysed by ANOVA and McNemar’s statistics. Overall, the average BCS of the group was in agreement with industry recommendations. However, a number of animals were classified with inadequate condition (either too thin or too fat) across the three observation periods. The presence of heavy dags was greatest at mid-lactation (87%, P welfare issues identified were under and over feeding, ewe mortality, lameness, ecto-parasites (flystrike) and mastitis, all of which have the potential to be reduced with improved management practices. Future welfare assessment programs

  20. Extrathyroidal Extension Is Associated with Compromised Survival in Patients with Thyroid Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngwirth, Linda M; Adam, Mohamed A; Scheri, Randall P; Roman, Sanziana A; Sosa, Julie A

    2017-05-01

    Patients with thyroid cancer who have extrathyroidal extension (ETE) are considered to have more advanced tumors. However, data on the impact of ETE on patient outcomes remain limited. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between ETE and survival in patients with thyroid cancer. The National Cancer Database (1998-2012) was queried for all adult patients with differentiated thyroid cancer and medullary thyroid cancer. Patients were divided into three groups: no ETE (T1 and T2 tumors), minimal ETE (T3 tumors thyroid cancer met the inclusion criteria; 86.9% had no ETE, 9.1% minimal ETE, and 4.0% extensive ETE. Compared with patients with no ETE, patients with minimal and extensive ETE were more likely to have larger tumors (1.4 cm vs. 1.8 cm and 2.0 cm, respectively), lymphovascular invasion (8.6% vs. 28.0% and 35.1%, respectively), positive margins after thyroidectomy (6.1% vs. 35.2% and 45.9%, respectively), and regional lymph node metastases (32.5% vs. 67.0% and 74.6%, respectively; all p thyroid cancer. In total, 3415 patients with medullary thyroid cancer met the inclusion criteria; 87.9% had no ETE, 7.1% minimal ETE, and 5.0% extensive ETE. Compared with patients with no ETE, patients with minimal and extensive ETE were more likely to have larger tumors (1.7 cm vs. 2.2 cm and 2.2 cm, respectively), lymphovascular invasion (19.2% vs. 68.9% and 79.3%, respectively), positive margins after thyroidectomy (5.8% vs. 44.1% and 51.9%, respectively), and regional lymph node metastases (39.0% vs. 90.5% and 94.4%, respectively; all p thyroid cancer. In patients with differentiated and medullary thyroid cancers, ETE is associated with compromised survival. Given these findings, ETE should be included in the thyroid cancer treatment guidelines.

  1. Blue-noise remeshing with farthest point optimization

    KAUST Repository

    Yan, Dongming; Guo, Jianwei; Jia, Xiaohong; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Wonka, Peter

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel method for surface sampling and remeshing with good blue-noise properties. Our approach is based on the farthest point optimization (FPO), a relaxation technique that generates high quality blue-noise point sets in 2D. We propose two important generalizations of the original FPO framework: adaptive sampling and sampling on surfaces. A simple and efficient algorithm for accelerating the FPO framework is also proposed. Experimental results show that the generalized FPO generates point sets with excellent blue-noise properties for adaptive and surface sampling. Furthermore, we demonstrate that our remeshing quality is superior to the current state-of-the art approaches. © 2014 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Blue-green photoluminescence in MCM-41 mesoporous nanotubes

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, J L; Lui, Y L; Cheng, P W; Cheng, C F

    2003-01-01

    Different photoluminescence (PL) techniques have been used to study the blue-green emission from siliceous MCM-41 nanotubes. It was found that the intensity of the blue-green PL is enhanced by rapid thermal annealing (RTA). This enhancement is explained by the generation of twofold-coordinated Si centres and non-bridging oxygen hole centres, in line with the surface properties of MCM-41. On the basis of the analysis of the PL following RTA, polarized PL, and PL excitation, we suggest that the triplet-to-singlet transition of twofold-coordinated silicon centres is responsible for the blue-green PL in MCM-41 nanotubes. (letter to the editor)

  3. Better to be red than blue in virtual competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilie, Andrei; Ioan, Silvia; Zagrean, Leon

    2008-01-01

    In the 2004 Olympic Games, opponents wearing red athletic uniforms were more likely to win against opponents wearing blue uniforms. To investigate whether this color bias extends to the world of virtual competition, we compared the performance of red and blue teams in a popular multiplayer first......-person-shooter (FPS) computer game. For 3 consecutive months, we collected data from a publicly available global statistics server. Outcomes from 1,347 matches played by the top 10 players on the same virtual arena were included. Red teams won 54.9% of matches, and this effect was highly significant. Our data suggest...... that joining the red team may offer a slight advantage over the blue team in virtual competition, and this should be accounted for when designing FPS games. It is likely that "seeing red" may trigger a powerful psychological distractor signal in human aggressive competition that can affect the outcome...

  4. Blue-noise remeshing with farthest point optimization

    KAUST Repository

    Yan, Dongming

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we present a novel method for surface sampling and remeshing with good blue-noise properties. Our approach is based on the farthest point optimization (FPO), a relaxation technique that generates high quality blue-noise point sets in 2D. We propose two important generalizations of the original FPO framework: adaptive sampling and sampling on surfaces. A simple and efficient algorithm for accelerating the FPO framework is also proposed. Experimental results show that the generalized FPO generates point sets with excellent blue-noise properties for adaptive and surface sampling. Furthermore, we demonstrate that our remeshing quality is superior to the current state-of-the art approaches. © 2014 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Microanalysis study of archaeological mural samples containing Maya blue pigment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez del Rio, M.; Martinetto, P.; Somogyi, A.; Reyes-Valerio, C.; Dooryhee, E.; Peltier, N.; Alianelli, L.; Moignard, B.; Pichon, L.; Calligaro, T.; Dran, J.-C.

    2004-01-01

    Elemental analysis by X-ray fluorescence and particle induced X-ray emission is applied to the study of several Mesoamerican mural samples containing blue pigments. The most characteristic blue pigment is Maya blue, a very stable organo-clay complex original from Maya culture and widely used in murals, pottery and sculptures in a vast region of Mesoamerica during the pre-hispanic time (from VIII century) and during the colonization until 1580. The mural samples come from six different archaeological sites (four pre-hispanic and two from XVI century colonial convents). The correlation between the presence of some elements and the pigment colour is discussed. From the comparative study of the elemental concentration, some conclusions are drawn on the nature of the pigments and the technology used

  6. Blue laser diode (450 nm) systems for welding copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Sa, M.; Finuf, M.; Fritz, R.; Tucker, J.; Pelaprat, J.-M.; Zediker, M. S.

    2018-02-01

    This paper will discuss the development of high power blue laser systems for industrial applications. The key development enabling high power blue laser systems is the emergence of high power, high brightness laser diodes at 450 nm. These devices have a high individual brightness rivaling their IR counterparts and they have the potential to exceed their performance and price barriers. They also have a very high To resulting in a 0.04 nm/°C wavelength shift. They have a very stable lateral far-field profile which can be combined with other diodes to achieve a superior brightness. This paper will report on the characteristics of the blue laser diodes, their integration into a modular laser system suitable for scaling the output power to the 1 kW level and beyond. Test results will be presented for welding of copper with power levels ranging from 150 Watts to 600 Watts

  7. Bedazzled: A Blue and Black Ship, Dressed to Deceive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim S. Meese

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The blue and black dress that “melted the Internet” is thought to have done so because its perceived color depended on people using different prior assumptions about discounting the illuminant. However, this is not the first monochromatic object to have confused the public. For a brief period during WWI, RMS Mauretania was dressed in (dazzle camouflage shades of blue and black/grey, yet she is sometimes depicted by artists, modelers, and historians in a much showier dress of red, blue, yellow, green, and black. I raise the possibility that this originates from a case of public deception deriving from the momentary misperception of a playful artist who neglected to discount the illuminant, propagating the most (perhaps only successful application of dazzle camouflage known.

  8. Microanalysis study of archaeological mural samples containing Maya blue pigment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez del Río, M.; Martinetto, P.; Somogyi, A.; Reyes-Valerio, C.; Dooryhée, E.; Peltier, N.; Alianelli, L.; Moignard, B.; Pichon, L.; Calligaro, T.; Dran, J.-C.

    2004-10-01

    Elemental analysis by X-ray fluorescence and particle induced X-ray emission is applied to the study of several Mesoamerican mural samples containing blue pigments. The most characteristic blue pigment is Maya blue, a very stable organo-clay complex original from Maya culture and widely used in murals, pottery and sculptures in a vast region of Mesoamerica during the pre-hispanic time (from VIII century) and during the colonization until 1580. The mural samples come from six different archaeological sites (four pre-hispanic and two from XVI century colonial convents). The correlation between the presence of some elements and the pigment colour is discussed. From the comparative study of the elemental concentration, some conclusions are drawn on the nature of the pigments and the technology used.

  9. Microanalysis study of archaeological mural samples containing Maya blue pigment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez del Rio, M. [ESRF, BP220, F-38043 Grenoble (France)]. E-mail: srio@esrf.fr; Martinetto, P. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, BP166 F-30842 Grenoble (France); Somogyi, A. [ESRF, BP220, F-38043 Grenoble (France); Reyes-Valerio, C. [INAH, Mexico DF (Mexico); Dooryhee, E. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, BP166 F-30842 Grenoble (France); Peltier, N. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, BP166 F-30842 Grenoble (France); Alianelli, L. [INFM-OGG c/o ESRF, BP220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Moignard, B. [C2RMF, 6 Rue des Pyramides, F-75041 Paris Cedex 01 (France); Pichon, L. [C2RMF, 6 Rue des Pyramides, F-75041 Paris Cedex 01 (France); Calligaro, T. [C2RMF, 6 Rue des Pyramides, F-75041 Paris Cedex 01 (France); Dran, J.-C. [C2RMF, 6 Rue des Pyramides, F-75041 Paris Cedex 01 (France)

    2004-10-08

    Elemental analysis by X-ray fluorescence and particle induced X-ray emission is applied to the study of several Mesoamerican mural samples containing blue pigments. The most characteristic blue pigment is Maya blue, a very stable organo-clay complex original from Maya culture and widely used in murals, pottery and sculptures in a vast region of Mesoamerica during the pre-hispanic time (from VIII century) and during the colonization until 1580. The mural samples come from six different archaeological sites (four pre-hispanic and two from XVI century colonial convents). The correlation between the presence of some elements and the pigment colour is discussed. From the comparative study of the elemental concentration, some conclusions are drawn on the nature of the pigments and the technology used.

  10. On the physical origin of blue-shifted hydrogen bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaosong; Liu, Lei; Schlegel, H Bernhard

    2002-08-14

    For blue-shifted hydrogen-bonded systems, the hydrogen stretching frequency increases rather than decreases on complexation. In computations at various levels of theory, the blue-shift in the archetypical system, F(3)C-H.FH, is reproduced at the Hartree-Fock level, indicating that electron correlation is not the primary cause. Calculations also demonstrate that a blue-shift does not require either a carbon center or the absence of a lone pair on the proton donor, because F(3)Si-H.OH(2), F(2)NH.FH, F(2)PH.NH(3), and F(2)PH.OH(2) have substantial blue-shifts. Orbital interactions are shown to lengthen the X-H bond and lower its vibrational frequency, and thus cannot be the source of the blue-shift. In the F(3)CH.FH system, the charge redistribution in F(3)CH can be reproduced very well by replacing the FH with a simple dipole, which suggests that the interactions are predominantly electrostatic. When modeled with a point charge for the proton acceptor, attractive electrostatic interactions elongate the F(3)C-H, while repulsive interactions shorten it. At the equilibrium geometry of a hydrogen-bonded complex, the electrostatic attraction between the dipole moments of the proton donor and proton acceptor must be balanced by the Pauli repulsion between the two fragments. In the absence of orbital interactions that cause bond elongation, this repulsive interaction leads to compression of the X-H bond and a blue-shift in its vibrational frequency.

  11. Code Blue Emergencies: A Team Task Analysis and Educational Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W. Price

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The objective of this study was to identify factors that have a positive or negative influence on resuscitation team performance during emergencies in the operating room (OR and post-operative recovery unit (PAR at a major Canadian teaching hospital. This information was then used to implement a team training program for code blue emergencies. Methods: In 2009/10, all OR and PAR nurses and 19 anesthesiologists at Vancouver General Hospital (VGH were invited to complete an anonymous, 10 minute written questionnaire regarding their code blue experience. Survey questions were devised by 10 recovery room and operation room nurses as well as 5 anesthesiologists representing 4 different hospitals in British Columbia. Three iterations of the survey were reviewed by a pilot group of nurses and anesthesiologists and their feedback was integrated into the final version of the survey. Results: Both nursing staff (n = 49 and anesthesiologists (n = 19 supported code blue training and believed that team training would improve patient outcome. Nurses noted that it was often difficult to identify the leader of the resuscitation team. Both nursing staff and anesthesiologists strongly agreed that too many people attending the code blue with no assigned role hindered team performance. Conclusion: Identifiable leadership and clear communication of roles were identified as keys to resuscitation team functioning. Decreasing the number of people attending code blue emergencies with no specific role, increased access to mock code blue training, and debriefing after crises were all identified as areas requiring improvement. Initial team training exercises have been well received by staff.

  12. A complex approach to the blue-loop problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, Jakub; Daszynska-Daszkiewicz, Jadwiga

    2015-08-01

    The problem of the blue loops during the core helium burning, outstanding for almost fifty years, is one of the most difficult and poorly understood problems in stellar astrophysics. Most of the work focused on the blue loops done so far has been performed with old stellar evolution codes and with limited computational resources. In the end the obtained conclusions were based on a small sample of models and could not have taken into account more advanced effects and interactions between them.The emergence of the blue loops depends on many details of the evolution calculations, in particular on chemical composition, opacity, mixing processes etc. The non-linear interactions between these factors contribute to the statement that in most cases it is hard to predict without a precise stellar modeling whether a loop will emerge or not. The high sensitivity of the blue loops to even small changes of the internal structure of a star yields one more issue: a sensitivity to numerical problems, which are common in calculations of stellar models on advanced stages of the evolution.To tackle this problem we used a modern stellar evolution code MESA. We calculated a large grid of evolutionary tracks (about 8000 models) with masses in the range of 3.0 - 25.0 solar masses from the zero age main sequence to the depletion of helium in the core. In order to make a comparative analysis, we varied metallicity, helium abundance and different mixing parameters resulting from convective overshooting, rotation etc.The better understanding of the properties of the blue loops is crucial for our knowledge of the population of blue supergiants or pulsating variables such as Cepheids, α-Cygni or Slowly Pulsating B-type supergiants. In case of more massive models it is also of great importance for studies of the progenitors of supernovae.

  13. Biological behaviour of buccal cells exposed to blue light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gritsch, Kerstin; Ponsonnet, Laurence; Schembri, Catherine; Farge, Pierre; Pourreyron, Laurence; Grosgogeat, Brigitte

    2008-01-01

    Blue light is used in dental practise to cure resin-based materials, but the path of the light often includes oral tissues such as gingival tissues. While adverse effects of blue light exposure on cells - such as retina cells - are well known, few studies have investigated the impact of blue light exposure on oral cells. The aim of the present in vitro study was to assess the biological effects of blue light emitted by two dental curing devices (a plasma-arc and a light-emitting diode curing unit) on human gingival fibroblasts. Light intensities and light-induced temperature rise were respectively measured with a radiometer and a thermocouple. Cellular response to blue light exposure was assessed by the observation of cell morphology (scanning electron microscopy) and the estimation of cell mitochondrial activity (MTT assay). Light intensities measured at the clinical distance were 488 ± 42 mW/cm 2 for the plasma-arc unit and ranged from 61 ± 5 to 140 ± 16 mW/cm 2 for the light-emitting diodes unit, according to the curing program used. The highest temperature rise was 0.5 and 3.5 deg. C for exposure to the plasma-arc light and to the light-emitting diodes light, respectively. Results showed no differences between exposed- and non-exposed cells in regards to cell morphology. However, cells exposed to blue light presented an increased mitochondrial activity compared to control cells (non-exposed), and mostly those exposed to plasma-arc light

  14. Temporal dynamics of blue and green virtual water trade networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konar, M.; Dalin, C.; Hanasaki, N.; Rinaldo, A.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.

    2012-12-01

    Global food security increasingly relies on the trade of food commodities. Freshwater resources are essential to agricultural production and are thus embodied in the trade of food commodities, referred to as "virtual water trade." Agricultural production predominantly relies on rainwater (i.e., "green water"), though irrigation (i.e., "blue water") does play an important role. These different sources of water have distinctly different opportunity costs, which may be reflected in the way these resources are traded. Thus, the temporal dynamics of the virtual water trade networks from these distinct water sources require characterization. We find that 42 × 109 m3 blue and 310 × 109 m3 green water was traded in 1986, growing to 78 × 109 m3 blue and 594 × 109 m3 green water traded in 2008. Three nations dominate the export of green water resources: the USA, Argentina, and Brazil. As a country increases its export trade partners it tends to export relatively more blue water. However, as a country increases its import trade partners it does not preferentially import water from a specific source. The amount of virtual water that a country imports by increasing its import trade partners has been decreasing over time, with the exception of the soy trade. Both blue and green virtual water networks are efficient: 119 × 109 m3 blue and 105 × 109 m3 green water were saved in 2008. Importantly, trade has been increasingly saving water over time, due to the intensification of crop trade on more water-efficient links.

  15. Spectrophotometric Determination of Lamotrigine in Pharmaceutical Preparations and Urine Samples Using Bromothymol Blue and Bromophenol Blue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najib, F.M.; Aziz, K.H.H.

    2013-01-01

    Two simple and sensitive spectrophotometric methods have been developed for the determination of the antiepileptic drug lamotrigine (LMT) in pharmaceutical preparations and urine samples. The methods are based on the interaction of LMT with two sulphonphthalein dyes, namely, bromothymol blue (BTB) and bromophenol blue (BPB) in dichloromethane (DCM) medium to form stable and yellow-colored ion-pairs with λ max 410 and 413 nm respectively. The ion-pair LMT-BPB has been extracted from aqueous solutions at pH 3.25±0.25 using DCM; while LMT-BTB ion-pair was directly prepared in DCM. Interferences from the compounds of the urine samples, in case of LMT-BPB were removed using a suppressing solution (S.S.) prepared from the salts of the interfering ions. In LMT-BTB method, the urine of normal person not taking LMT, was used as a blank to remove the effect of interferences. Under optimum conditions, the calibration curve of LMT-BTB was linear over the range of 1-12 μg.ml -1 , ε=1.97x10 4 L.mole -1 .cm -1 , r 2 = 0.9983, and D.L of 0.13 μg.ml -1 . The corresponding values for (LMT-BPB) ion-pair were 0.5-12 μg.ml -1 linear range, ε=1.92x10 4 , r 2 = 0.9980, and D.L= 0.24 μg.ml -1 . The stoichiometry of the ion-pairs were found to be 1:1, based on Jobs, mole ratio and slope ratio methods. The recoveries (%R) for both methods were in the range of 97-101.8 % and 95-97.1 % with RSD≤1.68 and 3.1 % respectively. For LMT- spiked urine samples, the recoveries were 98.5-106.6 % with RSD≤1.66 %. Interferences from phenobarbital and carbamazepine were in the range of 25-40 folds. Statistical comparison of the results with a published method using F and t-tests showed no significant differences between each of the two methods and the reported one at 95 % confidence level. A standard addition method, gave high accuracy with LMT-BPB method. The proposed methods were successfully applied for the determination of LMT in pharmaceutical preparation and urine samples. (author)

  16. The role of a blue ocean strategy on performance evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Tabari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a balanced scorecard (BSC in order to prepare a comprehensive tool for performance evaluation. In this way, an experimental test is conducted in the Resorts of Ramsar Green City located in the north of Iran, in which the factors of a blue ocean strategy influence on the dimensions of the BSC. The sample number of this study consists of 90 managers and experts of the employees who work for Resorts of Ramsar Green City. The acquired data are analyzed with using the t-test. The obtained results show that the blue ocean strategy changes in the objects and the scales of the BSC.

  17. The Blue Hook Populations of Massive Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Thomas

    2006-07-01

    Blue hook stars are a class of hot { 35,000 K} subluminous horizontal branch stars that have been recently discovered using HST ultraviolet images of the globular clusters omega Cen and NGC 2808. These stars occupy a region of the HR diagram that is unexplained by canonical stellar evolution theory. Using new theoretical evolutionary and atmospheric models, we have shown that the blue hook stars are very likely the progeny of stars that undergo extensive internal mixing during a late helium core flash on the white dwarf cooling curve. This "flash mixing" produces an enormous enhancement of the surface helium and carbon abundances, which suppresses the flux in the far ultraviolet. Although flash mixing is more likely to occur in stars that are born with high helium abundances, a high helium abundance, by itself, does not explain the presence of a blue hook population - flash mixing of the envelope is required. We propose ACS ultraviolet {SBC/F150LP and HRC/F250W} observations of the five additional globular clusters for which the presence of blue hook stars is suspected from longer wavelength observations. Like omega Cen and NGC 2808, these five targets are also among the most massive globular clusters, because less massive clusters show no evidence for blue hook stars. Because our targets span 1.5 dex in metallicity, we will be able to test our prediction that flash-mixing should be less drastic in metal-rich blue hook stars. In addition, our observations will test the hypothesis that blue hook stars only form in globular clusters massive enough to retain the helium-enriched ejecta from the first stellar generation. If this hypothesis is correct, then our observations will yield important constraints on the chemical evolution and early formation history in globular clusters, as well as the role of helium self-enrichment in producing blue horizontal branch morphologies and multiple main sequence turnoffs. Finally, our observations will provide new insight into the

  18. Does Blue Uniform Color Enhance Winning Probability in Judo Contests?

    OpenAIRE

    Dijkstra, Peter D.; Preenen, Paul T. Y.; van Essen, Hans

    2018-01-01

    The color of an athlete's uniform may have an effect on psychological functioning and consequently bias the chances of winning contests in sport competition. Several studies reported a winning bias for judo athletes wearing a blue outfit relative to those wearing a white outfit. However, we argue there is no winning bias and that previous studies were confounded and based on small and specific data sets. We tested whether blue biases winning in judo using a very extensive judo data set (45,87...

  19. Allergic contact dermatitis to acrylates in disposable blue diathermy pads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, S. K.; Shaw, S.

    1999-01-01

    We report 2 cases of elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis to acrylates from disposable blue diathermy pads used on patients who underwent routine surgery. Their reactions were severe, and took approximately 5 weeks to resolve. Both patients gave a prior history of finger tip dermatitis following the use of artificial sculptured acrylic nails, which is a common, but poorly reported, cause of acrylate allergy. Patch testing subsequently confirmed allergies to multiple acrylates present in both the conducting gel of disposable blue diathermy pads, and artificial sculptured acrylic nails. We advocate careful history taking prior to surgery to avoid unnecessary exposure to acrylates in patients already sensitized. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10364952

  20. Dinitrogen fixation by blue-green algae from paddy fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Joseph

    1977-01-01

    Recent work using radioactive nitrogen on the blue-green algae of paddy fields has been reviewed. These algae fix dinitrogen and photoassimilate carbon evolving oxygen, thereby augmenting nitrogen and carbon status of the soil and also providing oxygen to the water-logged rice paddies. Further studies using radioactive isotopes 13 N, 24 Na and 22 Na on their nitrogen fixation, nitrogen assimilation pathways; regulation of nitrogenase, heterocysts production and sporulation and sodium transport and metabolism have been carried out and reported. The field application of blue green algae for N 2 fixation was found to increase the status of soil nitrogen and yield of paddy. (M.G.B.)

  1. Osteoma in a blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, João Felipe Rito; Levy, Marcelo Guilherme Bezerra; Liparisi, Flavia; Romão, Mario Antonio Pinto

    2013-09-01

    Osteoma is an uncommon bone formation documented in avian species and other animals. A blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva) with clinical respiratory symptoms was examined because of a hard mass present on the left nostril. Radiographs suggested a bone tumor, and the mass was surgically excised. Histopathologic examination revealed features of an osteoma. To our knowledge, this is the first description of an osteoma in a blue-fronted Amazon parrot. Osteoma should be considered as a differential diagnosis in birds with respiratory distress and swelling of the nostril.

  2. Investigation of phosphorescent blue organic light emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, Chien-Shu [Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Technical University of Braunschweig (Germany); Siemens AG, CT MM 1, Erlangen (Germany); Krause, Ralf [Department of Materials Science VI, University of Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany); Siemens AG, CT MM 1, Erlangen (Germany); Kozlowski, Fryderyk; Hunze, Arvid [Siemens AG, CT MM 1, Erlangen (Germany); Kowalsky, Wolfgang [Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Technical University of Braunschweig (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Recently, rapid development of phosphorescent materials has significantly improved the efficiency of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). By using efficient phosphorescent emitter materials white OLEDs with high power efficiency values could be demonstrated. But especially blue phosphorescent devices, due to stability issues, need to be further investigated und optimized. In this work, blue OLED devices based on the phosphorescent emitter FIrpic were investigated. Single-carrier hole-only as well as electron-only devices were fabricated and characterized to study the impact of charge carriers on device performance.

  3. Geology along the Blue Ridge Parkway in Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Mark W.; Southworth, C. Scott; Tollo, Richard P.; Merschat, Arthur J.; Wagner, Sara; Lazor, Ava; Aleinikoff, John N.

    2017-01-01

    Detailed geologic mapping and new SHRIMP (sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe) U-Pb zircon, Ar/Ar, Lu-Hf, 14C, luminescence (optically stimulated), thermochronology (fission-track), and palynology reveal the complex Mesoproterozoic to Quaternary geology along the ~350 km length of the Blue Ridge Parkway in Virginia. Traversing the boundary of the central and southern Appalachians, rocks along the parkway showcase the transition from the para-autochthonous Blue Ridge anticlinorium of northern and central Virginia to the allochthonous eastern Blue Ridge in southern Virginia. From mile post (MP) 0 near Waynesboro, Virginia, to ~MP 124 at Roanoke, the parkway crosses the unconformable to faulted boundary between Mesoproterozoic basement in the core of the Blue Ridge anticlinorium and Neoproterozoic to Cambrian metasedimentary and metavolcanic cover rocks on the western limb of the structure. Mesoproterozoic basement rocks comprise two groups based on SHRIMP U-Pb zircon geochronology: Group I rocks (1.2-1.14 Ga) are strongly foliated orthogneisses, and Group II rocks (1.08-1.00 Ga) are granitoids that mostly lack obvious Mesoproterozoic deformational features.Neoproterozoic to Cambrian cover rocks on the west limb of the anticlinorium include the Swift Run and Catoctin Formations, and constituent formations of the Chilhowee Group. These rocks unconformably overlie basement, or abut basement along steep reverse faults. Rocks of the Chilhowee Group are juxtaposed against Cambrian rocks of the Valley and Ridge province along southeast- and northwest-dipping, high-angle reverse faults. South of the James River (MP 64), Chilhowee Group and basement rocks occupy the hanging wall of the nearly flat-lying Blue Ridge thrust fault and associated splays.South of the Red Valley high-strain zone (MP 144.5), the parkway crosses into the wholly allochthonous eastern Blue Ridge, comprising metasedimentary and meta-igneous rocks assigned to the Wills Ridge, Ashe, and Alligator

  4. Spinning like a blue straggler: the population of fast rotating blue straggler stars in ω Centauri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mucciarelli, A.; Lovisi, L.; Ferraro, F. R.; Dalessandro, E.; Lanzoni, B. [Dipartimento di Fisica and Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Monaco, L. [European Southern Observatory, Casilla 19001, Santiago (Chile)

    2014-12-10

    By using high-resolution spectra acquired with FLAMES-GIRAFFE at the ESO/VLT, we measured the radial and rotational velocities for 110 blue straggler stars (BSSs) in ω Centauri, the globular cluster-like stellar system harboring the largest known BSS population. According to their radial velocities, 109 BSSs are members of the system. The rotational velocity distribution is very broad, with the bulk of BSSs spinning at less than ∼40 km s{sup –1} (in agreement with the majority of such stars observed in other globular clusters) and a long tail reaching ∼200 km s{sup –1}. About 40% of the sample has v{sub e} sin i > 40 km s{sup –1} and about 20% has v{sub e} sin i > 70 km s{sup –1}. Such a large fraction is very similar to the percentage of fast rotating BSSs observed in M4. Thus, ω Centauri is the second stellar cluster, beyond M4, with a surprisingly high population of fast spinning BSSs. We found a hint of radial behavior for a fraction of fast rotating BSSs, with a mild peak within one core radius, and a possible rise in the external regions (beyond four core radii). This may suggest that recent formation episodes of mass transfer BSSs occurred preferentially in the outskirts of ω Centauri, or that braking mechanisms able to slow down these stars are least efficient in the lowest density environments.

  5. X-ray structure of a blue complex pigment from the blue flowers of Centaurea cyanus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiono, M.; Matsugaki, N.; Takeda, K.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The blue pigment of the cornflower, named protocyanin, has long been investigated, but its precise structure has remained unclear. Our recent research demonstrated the components of protocyanin to be anthocyanin (AN), flavone glycoside (FL), Fe 3+ , Mg 2+ and Ca 2+ ions and we succeeded in the reconstruction of protocyanin. In this study, we revealed the X-ray structure of protocyanin. The crystal structure of the reconstructed protocyanin was determined at a resolution of 1.05 A. The refined molecule has pseudo threefold symmetry and four metal ions, Fe 3+ , Mg 2+ and two Ca 2+ , align along the pseudo three-fold axis. The four metals are coordinated to six AN molecules and six FL molecules. The inner Fe 3+ and Mg 2+ ions are each coordinated to three AN molecules respectively, while the outer two Ca 2+ ions are each coordinated to three FL molecules . Both AN and FL molecules are self-associated with each other as AN-AN and FL-FL in pair and this hydrophobic association also exists between AN and FL molecules. Protocyanin is a tetra-metal (Fe 3+ , Mg 2+ , 2Ca 2+ ) nuclear complex of twelve molecules of anthocyanin and flavone glycoside, a new type of supramolecular pigment. (author)

  6. National Report presented by the Mexican United States to satisfy the compromises of the Nuclear Safety Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    In order to satisfy to the compromises derived of the ratification by part of the Mexican Government for the Nuclear Safety Convention it is presented this National Report which is based on the directives proposed as a result of the preparatory meetings held in the IAEA Headquarters in the city of Vienna, Austria. This National Report represents a document summary and activities realized at present in relation with the only nuclear facility in Mexico: the Nuclear Power Plant in Laguna Verde, Veracruz. This report consists of two parts: In the first one it is described how have been satisfied each one of the compromises. The second one talks about the Laws and Regulations on nuclear activities in the country. (Author)

  7. Which Statistic Should Be Used to Detect Item Preknowledge When the Set of Compromised Items Is Known?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinharay, Sandip

    2017-09-01

    Benefiting from item preknowledge is a major type of fraudulent behavior during educational assessments. Belov suggested the posterior shift statistic for detection of item preknowledge and showed its performance to be better on average than that of seven other statistics for detection of item preknowledge for a known set of compromised items. Sinharay suggested a statistic based on the likelihood ratio test for detection of item preknowledge; the advantage of the statistic is that its null distribution is known. Results from simulated and real data and adaptive and nonadaptive tests are used to demonstrate that the Type I error rate and power of the statistic based on the likelihood ratio test are very similar to those of the posterior shift statistic. Thus, the statistic based on the likelihood ratio test appears promising in detecting item preknowledge when the set of compromised items is known.

  8. Identifying and Embedding Common Indicators of Compromise in Virtual Machines for Lab-Based Incident Response Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    as an ever more popular method of exploiting hosts. Because the Internet is used for things like ecommerce , trading, voting, government, services...HTTP hypertext transfer protocol IE Internet Explorer IMAP Internet message access protocol IOC indicators of compromise IP Internet protocol MD5...notification of detection. These questions not only deal with how an incident is detected, but with the detection system itself. Things like whether

  9. Reduction of Cone-Beam CT scan time without compromising the accuracy of the image registration in IGRT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westberg, Jonas; Jensen, Henrik R; Bertelsen, Anders

    2010-01-01

    In modern radiotherapy accelerators are equipped with 3D cone-beam CT (CBCT) which is used to verify patient position before treatment. The verification is based on an image registration between the CBCT acquired just before treatment and the CT scan made for the treatment planning. The purpose...... of this study is to minimise the scan time of the CBCT without compromising the accuracy of the image registration in IGRT....

  10. Dopamine D2 receptor function is compromised in the brain of the methionine sulfoxide reductase A knockout mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Oien, Derek B.; Ortiz, Andrea N.; Rittel, Alexander G.; Dobrowsky, Rick T.; Johnson, Michael A.; Levant, Beth; Fowler, Stephen C.; Moskovitz, Jackob

    2010-01-01

    Previous research suggests that brain oxidative stress and altered rodent locomotor behavior are linked. We observed bio-behavioral changes in methionine sulfoxide reductase A knockout mice associated with abnormal dopamine signaling. Compromised ability of these knockout mice to reduce methionine sulfoxide enhances accumulation of sulfoxides in proteins. We examined the dopamine D2-receptor function and expression, which has an atypical arrangement and quantity of methionine residues. Indeed...

  11. A Pirate too Needs to be Heard: Procedural Compromises in Online Copyright Infringement Cases in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poorna Mysoor

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Online copyright infringement is one of the toughest challenges the content industry has faced in the twenty first century. Article 8(3 of the Information Society Directive, implemented under section 97A of the UK Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, provides an injunctive remedy in response to such online infringement. Given the elusive nature of the website operators and the sheer number of their users, rights owners have turned to the Internet Service Providers (ISPs to implement the injunctions granted under section 97A to block websites with infringing content. In their battle to keep pace with online infringers, the UK courts have permitted significant compromises to the procedures while granting these injunctive blocking orders. One of the pioneers in this line of cases in the UK is the Pirate Bay case (TPB case, which ruled as a matter of law that the procedure under Section 97A does not require the alleged infringers to be made parties to those proceedings. TPB case also marks the trend of the ISPs consenting to an order of injunction, and not defending the proceedings. This has resulted in the absence of any adverse party in the proceedings under section 97A. This threatens the basic tenets of procedural fairness and propriety, having adverse consequences on both the substantive and procedural aspects, evident in the cases that followed TPB case. This article examines the aspects of the judgment in TPB case that led to these procedural compromises, whether it had any basis in the pre-existing case law, what the nature of an injunction under section 97A is and how the subsequent line of cases have followed TPB case as a precedent. It further explores the adverse consequences of the procedural compromises and whether any safeguards are available against such compromises.

  12. ASSESSMENT OF FOETAL COMPROMISE BY DOPPLER ULTRASOUND INVESTIGATION OF THE FOETAL CIRCULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu Philip

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The condition in which the foetus does not reach its growth potential is called Intrauterine Growth Restricted (IUGR. The mothers who are generally healthy and well nourished, the incidence of IUGR is 3-5%. The incidence of IUGR is 15-20% or higher in a women population with hypertension or previous growth restricted foetus. The aim of the study is to assess foetal compromise by Doppler ultrasound investigation of the foetal circulation. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study is a prospective study conducted between November 2013 to November 2016 in the Department of Radiodiagnosis and imaging of Mount Zion Medical College, Kerala. A total of 50 singleton pregnancies with suspected IUGR pregnancy attending the outpatient ward of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Inclusion Criteria- Pregnancies from 29 weeks to 42 weeks of gestation complicated by intrauterine growth restriction and who are ultrasound confirmed. In the first trimester, gestational age determination was estimated by history of menstruation or biometry of foetus. Exclusion Criteria- Patients who had multiple gestations, congenital anomalies and history of membranes rupture. All the patients in the study were subjected to clinical history in detail to assess the risk factors of IUGR pregnancy, biometry of ultrasound and amniotic fluid assessment followed by Doppler ultrasound evaluation of uterine arteries, umbilical artery, middle cerebral artery, descending foetal thoracic aorta, ductus venous and umbilical vein. RESULTS Majority of the patients were in the age group of 21-24 years. All the patients were in the age group of 19-30 years. 45% of antenatal mothers examined were between 28-31 weeks of gestational age, 35% were between 32-36 weeks of gestation, 20% were between 37-42 weeks of gestation age. 15 antenatal mothers had elevated uterine artery resistance index (30%, 12 antenatal mothers had persistent early diagnostic notch (24%, 11 antenatal mothers had elevated systolic

  13. Management and design of hospital pens relative to behavior of the compromised dairy cow: A questionnaire survey of Iowa dairy farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogsgaard, Katrine Kop; Herskin, Mette S.; Gorden, Patrick J.

    2016-01-01

    on best prac-tices for housing and management of compromised cows. The purpose of this study was to providedescriptive information about management and husbandry practices of compromised cows on dairyfarms in Iowa. A questionnaire-based survey was designed to examine demographic information, designand...

  14. Power-Scalable Blue-Green Bessel Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-23

    building system to achieve emission at the desired blue colours , was, however, abandoned due to lack of funds relative to the original anticipated award...Chen, P. Steinvurzel, K. Rottwitt, S. Ramachandran, “High-energy Fiber Lasers at Non-traditional Colours , via Intermodal Nonlinearities,” CTu3M.6

  15. 76 FR 35909 - Temporary Concession Contract for Blue Ridge Parkway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ... accommodations, food and beverage, retail sales, boat rentals, and other services at Crabtree Falls, Price Lake... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [NPS-WASO-CONC-0511-7182; 2410-OYC] Temporary Concession Contract for Blue Ridge Parkway AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of...

  16. Removal of basic dye methylene blue by using bioabsorbents Ulva ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, the removal of textile dye methylene blue was studied by adsorption technique using adsorbents such as, alumina, Ulva lactuca and Sargassum (Maine algae). The batch technique was adopted under the optimize condition of amount of adsorbent, stay time, concentration, temperature and pH. By using ...

  17. Integrated mangrove-shrimp cultivation: Potential for blue carbon sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nesar; Thompson, Shirley; Glaser, Marion

    2018-05-01

    Globally, shrimp farming has had devastating effects on mangrove forests. However, mangroves are the most carbon-rich forests, with blue carbon (i.e., carbon in coastal and marine ecosystems) emissions seriously augmented due to devastating effects on mangrove forests. Nevertheless, integrated mangrove-shrimp cultivation has emerged as a part of the potential solution to blue carbon emissions. Integrated mangrove-shrimp farming is also known as organic aquaculture if deforested mangrove area does not exceed 50% of the total farm area. Mangrove destruction is not permitted in organic aquaculture and the former mangrove area in parts of the shrimp farm shall be reforested to at least 50% during a period of maximum 5 years according to Naturland organic aquaculture standards. This article reviews integrated mangrove-shrimp cultivation that can help to sequester blue carbon through mangrove restoration, which can be an option for climate change mitigation. However, the adoption of integrated mangrove-shrimp cultivation could face several challenges that need to be addressed in order to realize substantial benefits from blue carbon sequestration.

  18. Designing green and blue infrastructure to support healthy urban living

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gehrels, H.; Meulen, S. vsn der; Schasfoort, F.; Bosch, P.R.; Brolsma, R.; Dinter, D. van; Geerling, G.J.; Goossen, M.; Jacobs, C.; Jong, M. de; Kok, S.; Massop, H.; Oste, L.; Perez-Soba, M.; Rovers, V.; Smit, A.; Verweij, P.; Vries, B. de; Weijers, E.

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing awareness in cities throughout the world that green and blue infrastructure can offer a wide range of ecosystem services to support a healthy urban environment. For example, landscape architects explore possibilities in their design of the urban landscape to use the potential of

  19. Supporting Information Blue and White light electroluminescence in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Blue and White light electroluminescence in a multilayer OLED using a new Aluminium complex. Pabitra K. Nayak a. , Neeraj Agarwal a. , Farman Ali a. , Meghan P. Patankar b. , K. L.. Narasimhan b. *, N. Periasamy a. *. 1. Department of Chemical Sciences,. 2. Department of Condensed Matter Physics and. Materials ...

  20. Conservation Reasoning Ability and Performance on BSCS Blue Version Examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Anton E.; Nordland, Floyd H.

    Twenty-three high school biology students were individually administered three conservation tasks (weight, volume, volume displacement). During one semester, they were examined over the course material using published Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS) Blue Version examination questions which were previously classified as requiring either…

  1. Crab Hole Mosquito Blues—The Story

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast reports on a humorous song that takes a look at a very serious human and equine disease. Written and performed by the MARU Health Angels Band, Bill Dietz, director of the Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity at CDC, talks about the song, "Crab Hole Mosquito Blues", and the history behind it.

  2. Active substance from some blue green algal species used as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-05-10

    May 10, 2010 ... pathogens, has recently received considerable attention as a new source of novel .... mass spectra with the profiles from the Wiley GC-MS 275 libraries. Khairy and ..... Selective isolation of blue-green algae from water and soil ...

  3. Blue laser diode (LD) and light emitting diode (LED) applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergh, Arpad A.

    2004-01-01

    The family of blue LEDs, edge emitting and surface emitting lasers, enable a number of applications. Blue lasers are used in digital applications such as optical storage in high density DVDs. The resolution of the spot size and hence the storage density is diffraction limited and is inversely proportional to the square of the wavelength of the laser. Other applications include printing, optical scanners, and high-resolution photo-lithography. As light emitters, blue LEDs are used for signaling and in direct view large area emissive displays. They are also making inroads into signage and LCD back-lighting, mobile platforms, and decorative accent lighting in curtains, furniture, etc. Blue LEDs produce white light either with phosphor wavelength converters or in combination with red and green LEDs. The full potential of LED light sources will require three devices to enable complete control over color and intensity. Sensing and medical/bio applications have a major impact on home security, on monitoring the environment, and on health care. New emerging diagnostic and therapeutic applications will improve the quality and reduce the cost of health care. (copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. Blue laser diode (LD) and light emitting diode (LED) applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergh, Arpad A [Optoelectronics Industry Development Association (OIDA), 1133 Connecticut Avenue, NW, Suite 600, Washington, DC 20036-4329 (United States)

    2004-09-01

    The family of blue LEDs, edge emitting and surface emitting lasers, enable a number of applications. Blue lasers are used in digital applications such as optical storage in high density DVDs. The resolution of the spot size and hence the storage density is diffraction limited and is inversely proportional to the square of the wavelength of the laser. Other applications include printing, optical scanners, and high-resolution photo-lithography. As light emitters, blue LEDs are used for signaling and in direct view large area emissive displays. They are also making inroads into signage and LCD back-lighting, mobile platforms, and decorative accent lighting in curtains, furniture, etc. Blue LEDs produce white light either with phosphor wavelength converters or in combination with red and green LEDs. The full potential of LED light sources will require three devices to enable complete control over color and intensity. Sensing and medical/bio applications have a major impact on home security, on monitoring the environment, and on health care. New emerging diagnostic and therapeutic applications will improve the quality and reduce the cost of health care. (copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  5. Work Identity and Marital Adjustment in Blue-Collar Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaesser, David L.; Whitbourne, Susan Krauss

    1985-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between work-identity and satisfaction and marital adjustment in 40 married male blue-collar workers, ages 25 to 41 years. Satisfaction with extrinsic work factors related to marital adjustment, while satisfaction with intrinsic work factors negatively related to secondary role salience. Age negatively related to…

  6. Methylene blue adsorption from glycerol solution onto the acicular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mechanism of methylene blue adsorption onto the surface of synthetic acicular habit of α-goethite from glycerol solution has been studied through batch experiment at 25, 30 and 35 0C in a glass cell of minimal dead volume. To describe the adsorption results, an attempt was made to fit the data to the Langmuir, ...

  7. Morphometric Analysis of Didessa River Catchment in Blue Nile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Morphometric Analysis of Didessa River Catchment in Blue Nile Basin, Western Ethiopia. ... In the present paper an attempt has been made to study the morphometric characteristics of Didessa ... Stream networks and watersheds were delineated in ArcGIS 10.1 software environment by utilizing ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  8. Greater food availability reduces tarsus assymmetry in nestling Blue Tits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grieco, F.

    2003-01-01

    Previous work has shown that the quantity or quality of food affects the degree of asymmetry in bilateral body traits in adult birds, but so far there is no evidence that this is the case in early phases of growth too. I studied asymmetry of tarsus length of nestling Blue Tits (Parus caeruleus) in

  9. Current conservation status of the Blue Swallow Hirundo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The overall probability of extinction of the species in the wild is 3%. Minimum viable population size analysis suggests that a goal for the long-term conservation of the Blue Swallow should be to mitigate current threats that are driving declines such that the population increases to a minimum of 3 600 individuals. This should ...

  10. Interaction mode between methylene blue-Sm(III) complex and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spectroscopic and viscosity methods were applied to investigate the interaction between methylene blue (MB)-Sm(III) complex and herring sperm DNA by using acridine orange as a spectral probe in Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.40). By means of molar ratio method, the binding ratios between MB-Sm(III)and DNA were determined ...

  11. EFFECT OF BLUE GREEN ALGAE ON SOIL NITROGEN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yagya Prasad Paudel

    2012-07-31

    Jul 31, 2012 ... associated with soil dessication at the end of the cultivation cycle and algal growth ... blue-green algae (BGA) on soil nitrogen was carried out from June to December 2005. .... Nitrogen fixation by free living Micro-organisms.

  12. Lodgepole pine in the Blue Mountains of northeastern Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Trappe; Robert W. Harris

    1958-01-01

    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) is a major species in northeastern Oregon. The lodgepole type covers nearly 400,000 acres in the Blue and Wallowa Mountains, and individual trees are scattered over many of the remaining six million forested acres in this area (2). The type blankets large areas in watersheds in a region where spring floods and summer...

  13. A resolution to the blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou population paradox?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Pointin

    Full Text Available We provide the strongest evidence to date supporting the existence of two independent blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou (Risso, 1827 populations in the North Atlantic. In spite of extensive data collected in conjunction with the fishery, the population structure of blue whiting is poorly understood. On one hand, genetic, morphometric, otolith and drift modelling studies point towards the existence of two populations, but, on the other hand, observations of adult distributions point towards a single population. A paradox therefore arises in attempting to reconcile these two sets of information. Here we analyse 1100 observations of blue whiting larvae from the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR from 1948-2005 using modern statistical techniques. We show a clear spatial separation between a northern spawning area, in the Rockall Trough, and a southern one, off the Porcupine Seabight. We further show a difference in the timing of spawning between these sites of at least a month, and meaningful differences in interannual variability. The results therefore support the two-population hypothesis. Furthermore, we resolve the paradox by showing that the acoustic observations cited in support of the single-population model are not capable of resolving both populations, as they occur too late in the year and do not extend sufficiently far south to cover the southern population: the confusion is the result of a simple observational artefact. We conclude that blue whiting in the North Atlantic comprises two populations.

  14. Methylene blue (cationic dye) adsorption into Salvadora persica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methylene blue (MB) is the most commonly used substance for dyeing cotton, wood and silk. On inhalation, it can cause difficulty in breathing, while on direct contact, it may cause permanent injury of the eyes of human and animals, burning sensations, nausea, worming, profuse sweating, mental confusion and ...

  15. Adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solution on the surface ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adsorption of dye methylene blue from aqueous solution on the surface of sheep wool and cotton fibers was accomplished under the optimize conditions of temperature, concentration, pH, stay time duration and quantity of adsorbent. Spectrometric technique was used for the measurements of concentration of dye before ...

  16. Blue light inhibits the growth of B16 melanoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, Masayuki; Katoh, Osamu; Watanabe, Hiromitsu

    2002-01-01

    Although a number of studies have been carried out to examine the biological effects of radiation and ultraviolet radiation (UV), little is known concerning the effects of visible light. In the present study, exposure of B16 melanoma cells to blue light (wavelength 470 nm, irradiance 5.7 mW/cm 2 ) from a light-emitting diode (LED) inhibited cell growth in proportion to the period of exposure, with no increase observed in the number of dead cells. The number of B16 melanoma colonies that formed after exposure to blue light for 20 min was only slightly less than that in non-exposed controls, but the colony size as assessed by the area covered by colonies and cell counts per colony were markedly decreased. The percentages of G0/G1 and G2/M phase cells were markedly increased, with a reduction in S phase cells as determined by flow cytometry after exposure to blue light. Furthermore, analysis of the incorporation of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) into DNA also showed a reduction in the percentage of S phase cells after exposure. These results indicate that blue light exerts cytostatic effects, but not a cytocidal action, on B16 melanoma cells. (author)

  17. Removal of indigo blue using clinoptilolite-Fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez S, E. E.; Colin C, A.; Solache R, M. J.

    2008-01-01

    The removal of indigo blue from aqueous solutions was evaluated using modified clinoptilolite with Fe (Z-Fe) which was characterized by SEM, EDS analysis and specific area (BET). The process followed the kinetics of pseudo-second order and Langmuir isotherm. Sorption capacity obtained was 18 mg g -1 and a solid-liquid ratio 10 g L -1 . (Author)

  18. The Blue Baby Syndrome - Nitrate Poisoning in Humans

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 10. The Blue Baby Syndrome - Nitrate Poisoning in Humans. Deepanjan Majumdar. General Article Volume 8 Issue 10 October 2003 pp 20-30. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  19. Viability of the Fricke dosemeter doped with methylene blue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, V.L.B.; Santos, C.D.A.; Rodrigues, K.R.G.; Cunha, M.S.; Figueiredo, M.D.C.; Melo, R.T.

    2009-01-01

    This work aims to find the possible utilization of the Fricke dosemeter doped with methylene blue (FMB) for the dosimetry of photodynamic therapy. The FMB was irradiated wit X rays and light emitted diodes demonstrating positive answers to the stimulus, being probably to be used for dosimetric objectives

  20. Sequential serotonin and noradrenalin associated processes involved in postpartum blues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doornbos, B.; Fekkes, D.; Tanke, M.A.; de Jonge, P.; Korf, J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: We investigated whether postpartum blues was related to changes in parameters of noradrenergic and serotonergic functioning. Methods: From 26 healthy pregnant women blood was collected at the End of pregnancy and 5 days and 6 weeks postpartum. Serotonergic parameters were: platelet