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Sample records for compression plate lcp

  1. Treatment of type 2 and 4 olecranon fractures with locking compression plate (LCP) osteosynthesis in horses: a prospective study (2002-2008)

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, M; Kummer, M; Auer, J; Hagen, R; Fürst, A

    2011-01-01

    This prospective study describes a series of 18 olecranon fractures in 16 horses that were treated with locking compression plates (LCP). Twelve of the 18 fractures were simple (type 2), whereas six were comminuted (type 4). Six fractures were open and 12 were closed. Each horse underwent LCP osteosynthesis consisting of open reduction and application of one or two LCP. Complete fracture healing was achieved in 13 horses. Three horses had to be euthanatized: two because of severe infection an...

  2. A CLINICAL STUDY OF PROXIMAL FEMUR LOCKING COMPRESSION PLATE (LCP - PF IN THE MANAGEMENT OF COMMUNITED INTERTROCHANTERIC AND SUBTROCHANTERIC FRACTURES OF THE FEMUR

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    Hari Babu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Fractures of proximal femur and hip are relatively common injuries in elderly individuals . The incidence of peritrochanteric and intertrochanteric fracture is also increasing among young population, who sustain high energy trauma Rigid Internal fixation and early mobilization has been the standard method of treatment. A combination of orthopaedic surgery and early postoperative physiotherapy and ambulation is the best approach. The overall goal in the treatment of hip fractures is to return the patient to pre - morbid level of function. AIMS & OBJECTIVE : To analyse the anatomical and f unctional outcome of the treatment with LCP - Proximal femur. METHODOLOGY : The present study consists of 12 adult patients of peritrochanteric factures of femur satisfying the inclusion criteria , treated with Proximal Femoral Locking Compression Plate at S. V. R. R . Govt . General Hospital, Tirupati during the period of nov 2013 to Oct 2015. INCLUSION CRITERIA : Age >18years , comminuted trochanteric and sub trochanteric fractures , Signed written informed consent . EXCLUSION CRITERIA: Inter trochanteric fractures involving piriformis fossa , Compound fractures . Pathological fractures . Any displacement of a femoral neck fracture . A ssociated malignancy. RESULTS : Average age incidence in the present study was 62.7 years. , Predominantly males (75% were affected. , Most cases occurred after a fall 10 (50% cases which was statistically significant , Right side involvement was more common. , Average post - operative stay was 13.5 days. , Out of the 12 cases, evaluated using Salvati - Wilson scoring : 3 cases (25% had good, 8 cases (66.67% fair, 1 case (8.33% had poor score , Average weight bearing time was14.5 weeks , Average union rate was 19.45 weeks.

  3. [Calcaneal fractures treated by open reduction and internal fixation with a locking compression plate (LCP). A prospective study. part I: basic analysis of the group].

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    Svatoš, F; Bartoška, R; Skála-Rosenbaum, J; Douša, P; Pacovský, V; Krbec, M

    2011-01-01

    In a prospective study of patients with calcaneal fractures treated by open reduction from an extensile lateral approach and LCP osteosynthesis, the authors evaluated the basic epidemiological data, mechanism of injury, type of fracture, essential data on surgery, days of hospital stay and the number of complications. In the period from September 1, 2006 to July 31, 2010, a total of 230 patients with 243 calcaneal fractures were treated. The fractures were classified as either open or closed and according to the Essex-Lopresti system. Of the total number of patients, 135 (55.6 % of all fractures) were indicated for conservative treatment and 108 (44.4% of all fractures) for surgical intervention. Indications for surgery based on the generally accepted criteria enabled us to select 77 patients with 82 fractures (33.7 % of all fractures) for treatment by the method of open reduction and LCP osteosynthesis. These patients constituted the group evaluated here. The other patients were treated using other techniques (21 fractures, i.e., 8.6 % of all fractures, by the Stehlík-Štulík transfixation method and further five [2.1 %] by screw osteosynthesis). Six surgeons were involved in the treatment of this group. For the diagnosis of fractures, plain radiographs in lateral and axial projection and axial and coronal CT images were used. All fractures were treated after subsidence of oedema by the method of open reduction and LCP fixation from an extensile lateral approach, with the use of a tourniquet. The follow-up period for the evaluation of functional outcome and bone union was 3 to 48 months. Fifty patients were followed up for over one year. The group evaluated comprised 58 men (75.3 %) with 63 fractures (76.8 %) and 19 women (24.7 %) with 19 fractures (23.2 %). The average age of the group was 42 years, with 41 years (range, 22-61 years) in men and 47 years (range, 30-70 years) in women. The most frequent cause of injury was a fall from a height below 1 metre and

  4. Comparison of the Resistance to Bending Forces of the 4.5 LCP Plate-rod Construct and of 4.5 LCP Alone Applied to Segmental Femoral Defects in Miniature Pigs

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    Lucie Urbanová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with the determination of mechanical properties, namely resistance to bending forces, of flexible buttress osteosynthesis using two different bone-implant constructs stabilizing experimental segmental femoral bone defects (segmental ostectomy in a miniature pig ex vivo model using 4.5 mm titanium LCP and a 3 mm intramedullary pin (“plate and rod” construct (PR-LCP, versus the 4.5 mm titanium LCP alone (A-LCP. The “plate and rod” fixation (PR-LCP of the segmental femoral defect is significantly more resistant (p in vivo experiments in the miniature pig to investigate bone defect healing after transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells in combination with biocompatible scaffolds.

  5. Poor relation between biomechanical and clinical studies for the proximal femoral locking compression plate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viberg, Bjarke; Voergård Rasmussen, Katrine Marie; Overgaard, Søren

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose — The proximal femur locking compression plate (PF-LCP) is a new concept in the treatment of hip fractures. When releasing new implants onto the market, biomechanical studies are conducted to evaluate performance of the implant. We investigated the relation between biomecha......Background and purpose — The proximal femur locking compression plate (PF-LCP) is a new concept in the treatment of hip fractures. When releasing new implants onto the market, biomechanical studies are conducted to evaluate performance of the implant. We investigated the relation between...

  6. VA-LCP anterior clavicle plate: the anatomically precontoured fixation system with angular stability for clavicle shaft.

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    van Olden, G D J

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the introduction of the VA-LCP anterior clavicle plate in the treatment of clavicle fractures. From March 2011 to March 2013, 42 clavicle fractures were treated; 40 were middle-third and 2 lateral-third, and 13/42 (31 %) patients were treated due to painful nonunion. Patient age ranged from 16 to 81 years. Complications were screw placement through the AC-joint, one superficial wound infection and one neuropraxia of the nervus radialis with dropping hand. We had some difficulties prebending both lateral to low and lateral to high but without clinical consequences. In all cases, the fracture healed with full functionality. After 1 year, 4 patients underwent a removal of the hardware. The VA-LCP anterior plate showed good reliability and sufficient stability with both middle-third, lateral and nonunion fractures of the clavicle.

  7. Application of Minimally Invasive Treatment of Locking Compression Plate in Schatzker Ⅰ-Ⅲ Tibial Plateau Fracture

    OpenAIRE

    Guohui Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical effect of minimally invasive treatment of locking compression plate (LCP) in Schatzker Ⅰ-Ⅲ tibial plateau fracture. Methods: Thirty-eight patients with Schatzker Ⅰ-Ⅲ tibial plateau fracture in our hospital were given minimally invasive treatment of LCP, and the artificial bone was transplanted to the depressed bone. Adverse responses, wound healing time and clinical efficacy were observed. Results: All patients were followed-up for 14- 20 months, and the...

  8. Biomechanical Property of a Newly Designed Assembly Locking Compression Plate: Three-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis

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    Jiang-Jun Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we developed and validated a refined three-dimensional finite element model of middle femoral comminuted fracture to compare the biomechanical stability after two kinds of plate fixation: a newly designed assembly locking compression plate (NALCP and a locking compression plate (LCP. CT data of a male volunteer was converted to middle femoral comminuted fracture finite element analysis model. The fracture was fixated by NALCP and LCP. Stress distributions were observed. Under slow walking load and torsion load, the stress distribution tendency of the two plates was roughly uniform. The anterolateral femur was the tension stress area, and the bone block shifted toward the anterolateral femur. Maximum stress was found on the lateral border of the number 5 countersink of the plate. Under a slow walking load, the NALCP maximum stress was 2.160e+03 MPa and the LCP was 8.561e+02 MPa. Under torsion load, the NALCP maximum stress was 2.260e+03 MPa and the LCP was 6.813e+02 MPa. Based on those results of finite element analysis, the NALCP can provide adequate mechanical stability for comminuted fractures, which would help fixate the bone block and promote bone healing.

  9. Midterm Follow-up of Treating Volar Marginal Rim Fractures with Variable Angle Lcp Volar Rim Distal Radius Plates.

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    Goorens, Chul Ki; Geeurickx, Stijn; Wernaers, Pascal; Staelens, Barbara; Scheerlinck, Thierry; Goubau, Jean

    2017-06-01

    Specific treatment of the volar marginal rim fragment of distal radius fractures avoids occurance of volar radiocarpal dislocation. Although several fixation systems are available to capture this fragment, adequately maintaining internal fixation is difficult. We present our experience of the first 10 cases using the 2.4 mm variable angle LCP volar rim distal radius plate (Depuy Synthes®, West Chester, US), a low-profile volar rim-contouring plate designed for distal plate positioning and stable buttressing of the volar marginal fragment. Follow-up patient satisfaction, range of motion, grips strength, functional scoring with the QuickDASH and residual pain with a numeric rating scale were assessed. Radiological evaluation consisted in evaluating fracture consolidation, ulnar variance, volar angulation and maintenance of the volar rim fixation. The female to male ratio was 5:5 and the mean age was 52.2 (range, 17-80) years. The mean follow-up period was 11 (range, 5-19) months postoperatively. Patient satisfaction was high. The mean total flexion/extension range was 144° (range, 100-180°) compared to the contralateral uninjured side 160° (range, 95-180°). The mean total pronation/supination range was 153° (range, 140-180°) compared to the contralateral uninjured side 170° (range, 155-180°). Mean grip strength was 14 kg (range, 9-22), compared to the contralateral uninjured side 20 kg (range, 12-25 kg). Mean pre-injury level activity QuickDASH was 23 (range, 0-34.1), while post-recovery QuickDASH was 25 (range 0-43.2). Residual pain was 1.5 on the visual numerical pain rating scale. Radiological evaluation revealed in all cases fracture consolidation, satisfactory reconstruction of ulnar variance, volar angulation and volar rim. We encountered no flexor tendon complications, although plate removal was systematically performed after fracture consolidation. The 2.4 mm variable angle LCP volar rim distal radius plates is a valid treatment option for treating

  10. Locking compression plate osteosynthesis of complicated mandibular fractures in six horses.

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    Kuemmerle, J M; Kummer, M; Auer, J A; Nitzl, D; Fürst, A E

    2009-01-01

    Complicated mandibular fractures were recognised in one foal, one pony and four horses. The foal was two months old while the adult animals ranged in age from 12 to 24 years. Three horses had a unilateral horizontal ramus fracture. Two fractures were open and one was closed. Comminution was present in one of these patients while the other two horses had marked displacement of the fragments. Two suffered from comminuted fractures of the horizontal and vertical ramus of the mandible. One of these patients had open and infected fractures. One foal had a bilateral horizontal ramus fracture with marked periosteal 'new bone' formation and malalignement which required corrective osteotomy. Each horse underwent locking compression plate (LCP) osteosynthesis consisting of open fracture reduction and application of one to three 4.5/5.0 mm LCP at the ventral, lateral or caudal aspect of the mandible under fluoroscopic control. Two 3.5 mm LCP were used in the foal. Plate fixation was supported by application of a cerclage wire construct between the incisor and premolar teeth in most patients. Complete fracture healing, with an excellent functional and cosmetic outcome, was achieved in all of the patients. Complications encountered included seroma formation, screw and wire breakage, as well as implant and apical tooth root infections. The LCP was removed after fracture healing had occurred in four patients.

  11. Treatment of type 2 and 4 olecranon fractures with locking compression plate osteosynthesis in horses: a prospective study (2002-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, M; Kummer, M; Auer, J; Hagen, R; Fuerst, A

    2011-01-01

    This prospective study describes a series of 18 olecranon fractures in 16 horses that were treated with locking compression plates (LCP). Twelve of the 18 fractures were simple (type 2), whereas six were comminuted (type 4). Six fractures were open and 12 were closed. Each horse underwent LCP osteosynthesis consisting of open reduction and application of one or two LCP. Complete fracture healing was achieved in 13 horses. Three horses had to be euthanatized: two because of severe infection and one because of a comminuted radial fracture 11 days after fixation of the olecranon fracture. Complications encountered after discharge of the horses from the Equine Hospital at the Vetsuisse Faculty (University of Zurich) included implant infection (n=2) and lameness (n=3), which were successfully treated with implant removal. Despite being easier to use, LCP osteosynthesis resulted in a clinical outcome similar to DCP osteosynthesis.

  12. [Case-control study on minimally invasive percutaneous locking compression plate internal fixation for the treatment of type II and III pilon fractures].

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    Zhang, Zhi-Da; Ye, Xiu-Yi; Shang, Li-Yong; Xu, Rong-Ming; Zhu, Yan-Zhao

    2011-12-01

    To explore the clinical efficacy of delayed open reduction and internal fixation with minimally invasive percutaneous locking compression plate for the treatment of type II and III Pilon fractures. From January 2007 to September 2009, 32 patients with type II and III Pilon fractures were treated with open reduction and anatomic plate fixation (AP group) and minimally invasive percutaneous locking compression plate osteosynthesis (LCP group). There were 11 males and 6 females in AP group, with an average age of (37.4 +/- 13.3) years (ranged, 19 to 55 years). And there were 10 males and 5 females in LCP group, with an average age of (34.6 +/- 11.3) years(ranged, 21 to 56 years). The operating time, fracture healing time, aligned angulation and ankle function were compared between the two groups. All the patients were followed up, and the during ranged from 12 to 25 months, with a mean of (15.0 +/- 1.7) months. The average operation time was (76.5 +/- 8.3) min for AP group and (58.3 +/- 3.4) min for LCP group; the average time of fracture healing was (20.5 +/- 0.4) weeks for AP group and (15.7 +/- 0.2) weeks for LCP group; the total angulation between anterior posterior film and lateral film was averaged (6.6 +/- 0.5) degrees for AP group and (3.6 +/- 0.2) degrees for LCP group. As to above index, the results of LCP group were better than those of AP group (P ankle joint, the results of LCP group were better than those of AP group in ankle joint pain, wakling and ankle joint function (P fracture with less invasion, faster bone union, more stabilized fixation, quicker recovery of ankle function and fewer complications, which is more advantaged for type II and III Pilon fractures.

  13. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PROXIMAL FEMUR LOCKING COMPRESSION PLATE VERSUS PROXIMAL FEMORAL NAILING IN THE MANAGEMENT OF COMMINUTED TROCHANTERIC AND SUBTROCHANTERIC FRACTURE

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    Satish Koti

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Fractures of proximal femur and hip are relatively common injuries in elderly individuals constituting 11.6% of total fractures. The latest implant for management of intertrochanteric fracture is Proximal Femoral Locking Compression Plate (PF-LCP. In this study, we compare the clinical outcome of fractures treated by proximal femoral nail with that of proximal femur locking compression plate. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study consists of 24 elderly patients of peritrochanteric factures of femur satisfying the inclusion criteria who were treated with PF-LCP or PFN in Department of Orthopaedics, S.V.R.R.G.G.H, Tirupati, during a period between December 2013 to October 2015. RESULTS 24 cases were treated with PF-LCP or PFN in a randomised pattern who satisfied inclusion criteria. Intraoperative complication were found to be more with PF-LCP in contrast to PFN. Postoperative rehabilitation was easier with PFN though not statistically significant functional and anatomical outcomes were found to be better with PFN. CONCLUSION Both PFN and PF-LCP have good effectiveness in the treatment of intertrochanteric fractures with the lateral unsubstantial femoral wall in the elderly patients. Each has its own advantages and disadvantages. Further studies with large number of patients and long-term follow up is needed to determine the optimal implant for the internal fixation of comminuted pertrochanteric femoral fractures.

  14. A locking compression plate versus the gold-standard non-locking plate with lag screw for first metatarsophalangeal fusion: A biomechanical comparison.

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    Mandell, Daniel; Karbassi, John; Zhou, Hanbing; Burroughs, Brian; Aurigemma, Philip; Patel, Abhay R

    2018-03-01

    The treatment of end-stage first metatarso-phalangeal joint (MTP) arthritis has been arthrodesis. A dorsal non-locking plate with a lag screw has been the standard traditional fixation method. This study compares the biomechanical strength of a locking compression plate (LCP) with and without internal compression versus this known gold standard. In group 1, six matched pairs of cadaver great toes were used to compare the standard non-locking dorsal plate and 3.5mm lag screw to an anatomic locking compression plate in which a lag screw was utilized rather than the internal compression features of the plate. In group 2, another six matched pairs of cadaver great toes were used to compare the gold standard to the locking compression plate, utilizing the plate's internal compression feature instead of a lag screw. A material testing system (MTS) machine applied loads to the MTP joints and measured displacement and stiffness of the constructs. The stiffness of the constructs (Young's modulus) was calculated from the force-displacement curves, and the displacement was measured. The locking compression plate group that used the compression features of the plate, without the lag screw, had less joint displacement and higher stiffness than control (p<0.05). The same plating construct in which a lag screw was used rather than internal compression of the plate was found to be stiffer than the control (p<0.05), but displacement was not statistically significant. The results suggest that a locking compression plate alone provides the stiffest construct for a first MTP joint fusion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Treatment type C fracture of the distal radius with locking compression plate and external fixators].

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    Yang, Xiang; Zhao, You-ming; Chen, Lin; Ye, Cong-cong; Guo, Wei-jun; Wang, Bo

    2013-12-01

    To compare efficacy of unilateral external fixators and locking compression plates in treating type C fractures of the distal radius. From January 2009 to June 2010, 76 patients with distal radius fracture were treated with LCP and external fixators, 54 patients were followed up. Among them, 29 cases were male and 25 cases were female with an average age of 45.31 (ranged, 24 to 68) years old. There were 29 patients in LCP group. According to AO classification, 8 cases were type C1, 7 cases were type C2 and 14 cases were type C3. There were 25 cases in external fixators group. According to AO classification, 6 cases were type C1, 8 cases were type C2 and 11 cases were type C3. Radial height, volar tilt and radial inclination were compared, advanced Gartland-Werley scoring were used to assessed wrist joint function after 6 and 12 months' following up. Two cases were suffered from nail infection in external fixators group. Fifty-four patients were followed up from 12 to 24 months with an average of 21.3 months. Radial height was (9.60 +/- 0.72) mm, volar tilt was (9.55 +/- 0.80) degrees and radial inclination was (21.40 +/- 0.78) degrees in LCP group,while those were (9.40 +/- 0.70) mm, (9.47 +/- 0.71) degrees and (21.20 +/- 0.73) degrees in external fixtors group, and with no statistical significance (P>0.05). Advanced Gartland-Werley score after 6 months' following up was 3.31 +/- 1.17 in LCP group, 5.56 +/- 1.58 in external fixtors group, and with significant difference (t=-5.99,Pmeaning (t=-1.55, P>0.05). LCP and external fixtors can receive good curative effects in treating type C distal radius fracture, and LCP can obtain obviously short-term efficacy, while there is no significant difference between two groups in long-term results. For serious distal radius comminuted fracture which unable to plate internal fixation, external fixators is a better choice.

  16. Use of locking compression plates in ulnar fractures of 18 horses.

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    Jacobs, Carrie C; Levine, David G; Richardson, Dean W

    2017-02-01

    To describe the outcome, clinical findings, and complications associated with the use of the locking compression plate (LCP) for various types of ulnar fractures in horses. Retrospective case series. Client owned horses (n = 18). Medical records, radiographs, and follow-up for horses having an ulnar fracture repaired using at least 1 LCP were reviewed. Fifteen of 18 horses had fractures of the ulna only, and 3 horses had fractures of the ulna and proximal radius. All 18 horses were discharged from the hospital. Complications occurred in 5 horses; incisional infection (n = 4, 22%), implant-associated infection (n = 2, 11%), and colic (n = 1, 6%). Follow-up was available for all horses at a range of 13-120 months and 15 horses (83%) were sound for their intended purpose and 3 horses (17%) were euthanatized. One horse was euthanatized for complications associated with original injury and surgery. The LCP is a viable method of internal fixation for various types of ulnar fractures, with most horses in this series returning to soundness. © 2017 The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  17. Drilling the near cortex with elongated figure-of-8 holes to reduce the stiffness of a locking compression plate construct.

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    Chen, Jerry Yongqiang; Zhou, Zhihong; Ang, Benjamin Fu Hong; Yew, Andy Khye Soon; Chou, Siaw Meng; Chia, Shi-Lu; Koh, Joyce Suang Bee; Howe, Tet Sen

    2015-12-01

    To compare the stiffness of locking compression plate (LCP) constructs with or without drilling the near cortex with elongated figure-of-8 holes. 24 synthetic bones were sawn to create a 10-mm gap and were fixed with a 9-hole 4.5-mm narrow LCP. In 12 bones, the near cortex of the adjacent holes to the LCP holes was drilled to create elongated figure-of-8 holes before screw insertion. The stiffness of LCP constructs under axial loading or 4-point bending was assessed by (1) dynamic quasi-physiological testing for fatigue strength, (2) quasi-static testing for stiffness, and (3) testing for absolute strength to failure. None of the 24 constructs had subcatastrophic or catastrophic failure after 10 000 cycles of fatigue loading (p=1.000). The axial stiffness reduced by 16% from 613±62 to 517±44 N/mm (p=0.012) in the case group, whereas the bending stiffness was 16±1 Nm2 in both groups (p=1.000). The maximum axial load to catastrophic failure was 1596±84 N for the control group and 1627±48 N for the case group (p=0.486), whereas the maximum bending moment to catastrophic failure was 79±12 and 80±10 Nm, respectively (p=0.919). Drilling the near cortex with elongated figure-of-8 holes reduces the axial stiffness of the LCP construct, without compromising its bending stiffness or strength.

  18. Application of Minimally Invasive Treatment of Locking Compression Plate in Schatzker Ⅰ-Ⅲ Tibial Plateau Fracture

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    Guohui Zhao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the clinical effect of minimally invasive treatment of locking compression plate (LCP in Schatzker Ⅰ-Ⅲ tibial plateau fracture. Methods: Thirty-eight patients with Schatzker Ⅰ-Ⅲ tibial plateau fracture in our hospital were given minimally invasive treatment of LCP, and the artificial bone was transplanted to the depressed bone. Adverse responses, wound healing time and clinical efficacy were observed. Results: All patients were followed-up for 14- 20 months, and the mean duration was 16 months. Within 1 week after operation, 1 patient suffered from short-term rejection reaction to artificial bone, but he healed after corresponding measures were taken. There were no complications like skin necrosis and externally-exposed steel plate among the patients. In addition, all fractures were recovered, and the recovery time was 2.6 - 4.1 months, with the mean duration being 3.4 months. The recovery of knee function was favorable, in which 20 cases were excellent, 14 were good, and 4 were general. The excellent and good rate was 89.5%. Conclusion: Minimally invasive treatment of LCP for Schatzker Ⅰ - Ⅲ tibial plateau fracture can reduce the postoperative relocation loss, and has small trauma and stable fixation.

  19. A STUDY OF SURGICAL MANAGEMENT OF DISTAL FEMORAL FRACTURES BY DISTAL FEMORAL LOCKING COMPRESSION PLATE OSTEOSYNTHESIS

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    Dema Rajaiah

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available AIMS AND OBJECTIVES To study the fractures of distal end of femur and the mechanism of injury in distal end femur fractures, the advantages and disadvantages of open reduction and internal fixation of distal end femur fractures by distal femoral locking compression plate osteosynthesis and to analyse the outcome in terms of range of Knee motion, time to union, and limb shortening. RESULTS The mean age of patient is 44 years, 85% are males, road traffic accidents account for majority (80%, right side involved in 70%, Muller’s type C fracture is common, good range of movements is seen 90% of cases and union occurred in 95% in 5 months. The results were assessed using Neer’s score, seven (35% patients had excellent results, eight (40% patients had good results, four (20% patients had fair results and one (5% patient had poor result. CONCLUSION From our study, we conclude that DF-LCP is a safe and reliable implant and has shown excellent to satisfactory results in majority of intra-articular fractures (AO type C. Fixation with locking compression plate showed more effectiveness in severely osteoporotic bones, shorter operative stay, faster recovery, faster union rates and excellent functional outcome.

  20. High failure rate of trochanteric fracture osteosynthesis with proximal femoral locking compression plate.

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    Wirtz, C; Abbassi, F; Evangelopoulos, D S; Kohl, S; Siebenrock, K A; Krüger, A

    2013-06-01

    Stable reconstruction of proximal femoral (PF) fractures is especially challenging due to the peculiarity of the injury patterns and the high load-bearing requirement. Since its introduction in 2007, the PF-locking compression plate (LCP) 4.5/5.0 has improved osteosynthesis for intertrochanteric and subtrochanteric fractures of the femur. This study reports our early results with this implant. Between January 2008 and June 2010, 19 of 52 patients (12 males, 7 females; mean age 59 years, range 19-96 years) presenting with fractures of the trochanteric region were treated at the authors' level 1 trauma centre with open reduction and internal fixation using PF-LCP. Postoperatively, partial weight bearing was allowed for all 19 patients. Follow-up included a thorough clinical and radiological evaluation at 1.5, 3, 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48 months. Failure analysis was based on conventional radiological and clinical assessment regarding the type of fracture, postoperative repositioning, secondary fracture dislocation in relation to the fracture constellation and postoperative clinical function (Merle d'Aubigné score). In 18 patients surgery achieved adequate reduction and stable fixation without intra-operative complications. In one patient an ad latus displacement was observed on postoperative X-rays. At the third month follow-up four patients presented with secondary varus collapse and at the sixth month follow-up two patients had 'cut-outs' of the proximal fragment, with one patient having implant failure due to a broken proximal screw. Revision surgeries were performed in eight patients, one patient receiving a change of one screw, three patients undergoing reosteosynthesis with implantation of a condylar plate and one patient undergoing hardware removal with secondary implantation of a total hip prosthesis. Eight patients suffered from persistent trochanteric pain and three patients underwent hardware removal. Early results for PF-LCP osteosynthesis show major

  1. A PROSPECTIVE STUDY OF DISTAL TIBIAL FRACTURES BY MIPO (LCP

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    Chandra Sekharam Naidu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: D istal tibial fractures represent a significant challenge to most of the surgeons even today. They constitute 1 - 10% of all lower extremity fractures . 1 The difficulty in treating the fractures of distal tibial end is exemplif ied by orthopedists, who in the first half of twentieth century, believed these injuries were so severe and fraught with so many complications, that these fractures were deemed not amenable for surgical reconstruction . 2 Conservative treatment by POP cast l ead to prolonged immobilization, leading to ankle and knee stiffness affecting quality of life of the patient . 3 Operative treatment is indicated for most tibial fractures caused by high energy trauma. Operative treatment allows early motion, and avoids sho rtening and other complications associated with prolonged immobilization . 4 The fundamental goal of treatment of distal tibial fractures is restoration of normal or near normal alignment and articular congruity and finally to obtain a well healed fracture; pain free weight bearing ; and functional ROM of ankle joint. For the past decade, plating has been successful in treating complex fractures of the lower extremity especially distal tibia . 5 Conventional ORIF have been associated with complications like infe ction and delayed or non - union due to devitalisation of bony fragments and additional damage to the soft tissues . 6 To improve fracture healing, more “biological” methods have been developed in the last decade to lessen the surgical dissection, preserving b lood supply to bony fragments and containing at least partially the fracture haematoma . 7 Recently, the trend is towards use of a Locking compression plate for treatment of fractures of the distal part of the tibia 8 . Compared with a conventional plate, a Lo cking compression plate imparts a higher degree of stability and provides better protection against primary and secondary losses of reduction and minimization of bone

  2. EVALUATION OF FUNCTIONAL OUTCOME AFTER OPEN REDUCTION AND INTERNAL FIXATION OF DISTAL FEMUR FRACTURES BY LOCKING COMPRESSION PLATE

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    L. Lokanadha Rao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND In the supra and intercondylar fractures of femur particularly with intra articular extension, patient may develop stiffness of knee, shortening, rotational deformities, internal derangement of knee with instability, varus and valgus deformities which affect patient’s routine lifestyle. If these cases were treated with locking compression plate, the results obtained were successful, superior, timesaving providing early ambulation and least disability improving the functional outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a prospective interventional study. This study includes 25 supracondylar and intercondylar fractures of femur (both Muller’s Type ‘A’, Type B and Type ‘C’ fractures treated with open reduction and internal fixation by Locking Compression Plate in the Department of Orthopaedics, King George Hospital, Visakhapatnam from September 2013 to September 2015. There are 16 males and 9 females with age ranging from 20 to 80 years with an average of 44.6 years. Average age for males is 28.9 years and average age for females is 25 years. 18 fractures were due to road traffic accidents and 6 cases are due to fall from significant heights, 1 case due to simple fall from standing (osteoporosis. 15 cases were in right femur (60% and 10 cases were in left femur (40%. RESULTS 25 cases were included in the study. There is an increase in the rate of union, decreased time taken for union, increased knee range of motion, decreased time for weight-bearing, postoperative complications and duration for hospital stay. CONCLUSION LCP proved to be a good implant which could take the challenges like poor bone stock, severe comminution both metaphyseal and articular and prove successful. The locking head screws distally have prevented varus collapse, even in cases of osteoporosis. The Condylar LCP can be used in either an open or a minimally invasive manner.

  3. Computational modelling of long bone fractures fixed with locking plates - How can the risk of implant failure be reduced?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nassiri, M

    2013-03-01

    The Locking Compression Plate (LCP) is part of a new plate generation requiring an adapted surgical technique and new thinking about commonly used concepts of internal fixation using plates. Knowledge of the fixation stability provided by these new plates is very limited and clarification is still necessary to determine how the mechanical stability and the risk of implant failure can best be controlled.

  4. Buckling analysis for axially compressed flat plates, structural sections, and stiffened plates reinforced with laminated composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, A. V.; Soong, T.; Miller, R. E., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    A classical buckling analysis is developed for stiffened, flat plates composed of a series of linked plate and beam elements. Plates are idealized as multilayered orthotropic elements. Structural beads and lips are idealized as beams. The loaded edges of the stiffened plate are simply-supported and the conditions at the unloaded edges can be prescribed arbitrarily. The plate and beam elements are matched along their common junctions for displacement continuity and force equilibrium in an exact manner. Offsets between elements are considered in the analysis. Buckling under uniaxial compressive load for plates, sections, and stiffened plates is investigated. Buckling loads are the lowest of all possible general and local failure modes, and the mode shape is used to determine whether buckling is a local or general instability. Numerical correlations with existing analysis and test data for plates, sections, and stiffened plates including boron-reinforced structures are discussed. In general correlations are reasonably good.

  5. Post-Buckling Strength of Uniformly Compressed Plates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.C.M.; Rosmanit, M.; Hofmeyer, H.; Camotim, D; Silvestre, N; Dinis, P.B.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper it is discussed how existing analytical and semi-analytical formulas for describing the elastic-post-buckling behavior of uniformly compressed square plates with initial imperfections, for loads up to three times the buckling load can be simplified and improved. For loads larger than

  6. Studies of the Buckling of Composite Plates in Compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayman, B.; Berggreen, Christian; Lundsgaard-Larsen, Christian

    2011-01-01

    As part of the Network of Excellence on Marine Structures (MARSTRUCT), a series of studies has been carried out into the buckling of glass-fibre-reinforced polymer plates with in-plane compression loading. The studies have included fabrication and testing of square, laminated panels with various...

  7. Studies of the buckling of composite plates in compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayman, B.; Berggreen, Christian; Lundsgaard-Larsen, Christian

    2009-01-01

    As part of the MARSTRUCT Network of Excellence on Marine Structures, a series of studies has been carried out into the buckling of glass fibre reinforced polymer plates with in-plane compression loading. The studies have included fabrication and testing of square, laminated panels with various...

  8. Equine ulnar fracture repair with locking compression plates can be associated with inadvertent penetration of the lateral cortex of the radius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuemmerle, Jan M; Kühn, Karolin; Bryner, Marco; Fürst, Anton E

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate if the use of locking head screws (LHS) in the distal holes of a locking compression plate (LCP) applied to the caudal aspect of the ulna to treat equine ulnar fractures is associated with a risk of injury to the lateral cortex of the radius. Controlled laboratory study. Cadaveric equine forelimbs (n = 8 pair). After transverse ulnar osteotomy, osteosynthesis was performed with a narrow 10-13 hole 4.5/5.0 LCP applied to the caudal aspect of each ulna. The distal 3 holes were filled with 4.5 mm cortex screws (CS) in 1 limb (group 1) and with 5.0 mm LHS contralaterally (group 2). CS were inserted in an angle deemed appropriate by the surgeon and LHS were inserted perpendicular to the plate. Implant position and injury to the lateral cortex of the radius were assessed by radiography, CT, and limb dissection. In group 1, injury of the lateral radius cortex did not occur. In group 2, 4 limbs and 6/24 LHS were associated with injury of the lateral radius cortex by penetration of a LHS. This difference was statistically significant. CS were inserted with a mean angle of 17.6° from the sagittal plane in a caudolateral-craniomedial direction. Use of LHS in the distal part of a LCP applied to the caudal aspect of the ulna is associated with a risk of inadvertent injury to the lateral cortex of the radius. © Copyright 2013 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  9. Postbuckling Analysis Of A Rectangular Plate Loaded In Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havran Jozef

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The stability analysis of a thin rectangular plate loaded in compression is presented. The nonlinear FEM equations are derived from the minimum total potential energy principle. The peculiarities of the effects of the initial imperfections are investigated using the user program. Special attention is paid to the influence of imperfections on the post-critical buckling mode. The FEM computer program using a 48 DOF element has been used for analysis. Full Newton-Raphson procedure has been applied.

  10. History of internal fixation with plates (part 2): new developments after World War II; compressing plates and locked plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernigou, Philippe; Pariat, Jacques

    2017-07-01

    The first techniques of operative fracture with plates were developed in the 19th century. In fact, at the beginning these methods consisted of an open reduction of the fracture usually followed by a very unstable fixation. As a consequence, the fracture had to be opened with a real risk of (sometimes lethal) infection, and due to unstable fixation, protection with a cast was often necessary. During the period between World Wars I and II, plates for fracture fixation developed with great variety. It became increasingly recognised that, because a fracture of a long bone normally heals with minimal resorption at the bone ends, this may result in slight shortening and collapse, so a very rigid plate might prevent such collapse. However, as a consequence, delayed healing was observed unless the patient was lucky enough to have the plate break. One way of dealing with this was to use a slotted plate in which the screws could move axially, but the really important advance was recognition of the role of compression. After the first description of compression by Danis with a "coapteur", Bagby and Müller with the AO improved the technique of compression. The classic dynamic compression plates from the 1970s were the key to a very rigid fixation, leading to primary bone healing. Nevertheless, the use of strong plates resulted in delayed union and the osteoporosis, cancellous bone, comminution, and/or pathological bone resulted in some failures due to insufficient stability. Finally, new devices represented by locking plates increased the stability, contributing to the principles of a more biological osteosynthesis while giving enough stability to allow immediate full weight bearing in some patients.

  11. Quality Assessment of Compressed Video for Automatic License Plate Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ukhanova, Ann; Støttrup-Andersen, Jesper; Forchhammer, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Definition of video quality requirements for video surveillance poses new questions in the area of quality assessment. This paper presents a quality assessment experiment for an automatic license plate recognition scenario. We explore the influence of the compression by H.264/AVC and H.265/HEVC s...... recognition in our study has a behavior similar to human recognition, allowing the use of the same mathematical models. We furthermore propose an application of one of the models for video surveillance systems......Definition of video quality requirements for video surveillance poses new questions in the area of quality assessment. This paper presents a quality assessment experiment for an automatic license plate recognition scenario. We explore the influence of the compression by H.264/AVC and H.265/HEVC...... standards on the recognition performance. We compare logarithmic and logistic functions for quality modeling. Our results show that a logistic function can better describe the dependence of recognition performance on the quality for both compression standards. We observe that automatic license plate...

  12. FUNCTIONAL OUTCOME OF SUPRACONDYLAR FRACTURES OF FEMUR MANAGED BY OPEN REDUCTION AND INTERNAL FIXATION WITH LOCKING COMPRESSION PLATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhusudhana

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Incidence of distal femur fractures is approximately 37 per 1 , 00,000 person - years.¹Distal femoral fractures has two different injury mechanisms, high energy trauma and low energy trauma. In high - energy trauma, the problem of restoring the function in a destroyed knee joint persists. Complex knee ligament injuries frequently occur additionally to extensive cartilage injuries. In elderly patients, extreme osteoporosis represents a particular problem for anchoring the implant. 2 Supracondylar and inter condylar fractures often are unstable and comminuted and tend to occur in the elderly or those with multiple injuries. Treatment options are many with varied results. The final outcome would depend upon the type of fracture, stabilization of fixation and and perhaps patient general condition. 3 The options for operative treatment are traditional plating techniques that require compression of the implant to the femoral shaft (blade plate, Dynamic Condylar Screw, non - locking condylar buttress plate, antegrade nailing fixation, retrograde nailing, sub muscular locked internal fixation and external fixation. 4 However, as the complexity of fractures needing treatment has changed from simple extra - articular supra - condylar types to inter - condylar and metaphyseal comminuted types, these implants may not be ideal. Double plating, and more recently, locked plating techniques have been advocated 5 . However with double plating there is often extensive soft tissue stripping on both sides of the femur, resulting in reduced blood supply and potential non - union and failure of the implants 6 . The LCP is a single beam construct where the strength of its fixation is equal to the sum of all screw - bone interfaces rather than a single screw’s axial stiffness or pullout resistance as seen in unlocked plates 7,8 . Its unique biomechanical function is based on splinting rather than compression resulting in flexible stabilization

  13. [Comparison study on locking compress plate external fixator and standard external fixator for treatment of tibial open fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Gang; Luo, Xiaozhong; Tan, Lun; Lin, Xu; Wu, Chao; Guo, Yong; Zhong, Zewei

    2013-11-01

    To compare the clinical results of locking compress plate (LCP) as an external fixator and standard external fixator for treatment of tibial open fractures. Between May 2009 and June 2012, 59 patients with tibial open fractures were treated with LCP as an external fixator in 36 patients (group A), and with standard external fixator in 23 patients (group B). There was no significant difference in gender, age, cause of injury, affected side, type of fracture, location, and interval between injury and surgery between 2 groups (P > 0.05). The time of fracture healing and incision healing, the time of partial weight-bearing, the range of motion (ROM) of knee and ankle, and complications were compared between 2 groups. The incidence of pin-track infection in group A (0) was significantly lower than that in group B (21.7%) (P=0.007). No significant difference was found in the incidence of superficial infection and deep infection of incision, and the time of incision healing between 2 groups (P > 0.05). Deep vein thrombosis occurred in 5 cases of group A and 2 cases of group B, showing no significant difference (Chi(2)=0.036, P=0.085). All patients were followed up 15.2 months on average (range, 9-28 months) in group A, and 18.6 months on average (range, 9-47 months) in group B. The malunion rate and nonunion rate showed no significant difference between groups A and B (0 versus 13.0% and 0 versus 8.7%, P > 0.05); the delayed union rate of group A (2.8%) was significantly lower than that of group B (21.7%) (Chi(2)=5.573, P=0.018). Group A had shorter time of fracture healing, quicker partial weight-bearing, greater ROM of the knee and ankle than group B (P fracture, and has good patients' compliance, so it is helpful to do functional exercise, improve fracture healing and function recovery, and reduce the complication incidence.

  14. Locking plate fixation in distal metaphyseal tibial fractures: series of 79 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rakesh K; Rohilla, Rajesh Kumar; Sangwan, Kapil; Singh, Vijendra; Walia, Saurav

    2010-12-01

    Open reduction and internal fixation in distal tibial fractures jeopardises fracture fragment vascularity and often results in soft tissue complications. Minimally invasive osteosynthesis, if possible, offers the best possible option as it permits adequate fixation in a biological manner. Seventy-nine consecutive adult patients with distal tibial fractures, including one patient with a bilateral fracture of the distal tibia, treated with locking plates, were retrospectively reviewed. The 4.5-mm limited-contact locking compression plate (LC-LCP) was used in 33 fractures, the metaphyseal LCP in 27 fractures and the distal medial tibial LCP in the remaining 20 fractures. Fibula fixation was performed in the majority of comminuted fractures (n = 41) to maintain the second column of the ankle so as to achieve indirect reduction and to prevent collapse of the fracture. There were two cases of delayed wound breakdown in fractures fixed with the 4.5-mm LC-LCP. Five patients required primary bone grafting and three patients required secondary bone grafting. All cases of delayed union (n = 7) and nonunion (n = 3) were observed in cases where plates were used in bridge mode. Minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) with LCP was observed to be a reliable method of stabilisation for these fractures. Peri-operative docking of fracture ends may be a good option in severely impacted fractures with gap. The precontoured distal medial tibial LCP was observed to be a better tolerated implant in comparison to the 4.5-mm LC-LCP or metaphyseal LCP with respect to complications of soft tissues, bone healing and functional outcome, though its contour needs to be modified.

  15. [Long-term results of calcaneal fracture treatment by open reduction and internal fixation using a calcaneal locking compression plate from an extended lateral approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeman, P; Zeman, J; Matejka, J; Koudela, K

    2008-12-01

    To report on the surgical treatment of intra-articular calcaneal fractures by open reduction and internal fixation with a calcaneal locking compression plate (LCP) from an extended lateral approach, and to retrospectively analyze the mid-term results in a group of patients treated by this technique. In the period from August 2005 till March 2007, a total of 49 patients with 61 calcaneal fractures were treated. Of these, 11 (18 %) were treated conservatively. Reduction combined with Kirschner-wire fixation was used in four fractures (6.6 %). Open reduction with internal calcaneal LCP fixation (ORIF- calcaneal LCP) from an extended lateral approach was carried out to treat 46 fractures (75.4 %) in 38 patients. The group evaluated here comprised 29 patients with 33 calcaneal fractures treated by ORIF-calcaneal LCP at a follow-up longer than 6 months. The fractures were classified on the basis of computer tomography (CT) findings as Sanders types I to IV. The group had two woman (6.9 %) and 27 men (93.1 %) with an average age of 34.2 years (range, 19-55 years). In 11 fractures (33.3 %), the primary treatment included filling a central cancellous bone defect area. Calcium phosphate bone substitute material (resorbable ChronOS) was used in nine cases (27.3 %), a self-solidifying hydroxyapatite implant was injected in two (6.1 %) cases (X3 Wright and Norian SRS, respectively), and a bone allograft was implanted in one case (3 %). Indicated for surgery were patients with an intra-articular calcaneal fracture, Sanders type II or type III, with articular surface displacement by more than 1 mm. Contraindications included age over sixty years, poor cooperation, smoking habits, peripheral vascular disease or skin infection. Surgery was performed only after oedema had resolved. The aim of our treatment was to achieve anatomical reconstruction of all articular surfaces, to restore the height, length, width and axis of the heel bone, to carry out primary stable osteosynthesis, and

  16. Simulated effect on the compressive and shear mechanical properties of bionic integrated honeycomb plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chenglin; Chen, Jinxiang; Wu, Zhishen; Xie, Juan; Zu, Qiao; Lu, Yun

    2015-05-01

    Honeycomb plates can be applied in many fields, including furniture manufacturing, mechanical engineering, civil engineering, transportation and aerospace. In the present study, we discuss the simulated effect on the mechanical properties of bionic integrated honeycomb plates by investigating the compressive and shear failure modes and the mechanical properties of trabeculae reinforced by long or short fibers. The results indicate that the simulated effect represents approximately 80% and 70% of the compressive and shear strengths, respectively. Compared with existing bionic samples, the mass-specific strength was significantly improved. Therefore, this integrated honeycomb technology remains the most effective method for the trial manufacturing of bionic integrated honeycomb plates. The simulated effect of the compressive rigidity is approximately 85%. The short-fiber trabeculae have an advantage over the long-fiber trabeculae in terms of shear rigidity, which provides new evidence for the application of integrated bionic honeycomb plates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Three-dimensional RF SoP technologies: LTCC versus LCP

    KAUST Repository

    Arabi, Eyad A.

    2014-12-18

    The system on package (SoP) is an emerging platform, introduced to provide enhanced functionality, and immense miniaturization through vertically integrated passive components in a multilayer process. This way the package is not a mere holder or cover but is a functional part of the system. The leading multilayer packaging technologies for SoP designs: low temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) and liquid crystal polymer (LCP) are compared in this work for the first time. Passive components and filters have been implemented in both technologies to show the advantages of the three-dimensional nature of these technologies. The comparison results show that parallel plate capacitors implemented in the ultra-thin LCP provides the highest capacitance density. For spiral inductors, conversely, LTCC inductors have the highest inductances while LCP inductors offer the highest self-resonant frequencies and the highest quality factors (Q). In a circuit level, simulated and measured results of a bandpass filter at 1.5 GHz show that both LCP and LTCC can provide similar performances with an incredible size reduction for the case of ultra-thin LCP. Also, the thin LCP filter exhibits a large degree of mechanical flexibility which makes this technology suitable for future flexible modules.

  18. Biomechanical investigation of an alternative concept to angular stable plating using conventional fixation hardware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windolf, Markus; Klos, Kajetan; Wähnert, Dirk; van der Pol, Bas; Radtke, Roman; Schwieger, Karsten; Jakob, Roland P

    2010-05-21

    Angle-stable locking plates have improved the surgical management of fractures. However, locking implants are costly and removal can be difficult. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the biomechanical performance of a newly proposed crossed-screw concept ("Fence") utilizing conventional (non-locked) implants in comparison to conventional LC-DCP (limited contact dynamic compression plate) and LCP (locking compression plate) stabilization, in a human cadaveric diaphyseal gap model. In eight pairs of human cadaveric femora, one femur per pair was randomly assigned to receive a Fence construct with either elevated or non-elevated plate, while the contralateral femur received either an LCP or LC-DCP instrumentation. Fracture gap motion and fatigue performance under cyclic loading was evaluated successively in axial compression and in torsion. Results were statistically compared in a pairwise setting. The elevated Fence constructs allowed significantly higher gap motion compared to the LCP instrumentations (axial compression: p concept can be of interest in cases were angle-stable implants are unavailable and can lead to new strategies in implant design.

  19. Comparative performance of locally made and the foreign made dynamic compression plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilal, M.; Gul, R.M.; Mujahid, M.; Askar, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Bone implants are widely used to treat patients due to trauma in different causalities. The major types of bone implants are plates known as Dynamic Compression Plates (DCP) and nails, both made of stainless steel (AISI 316L Grade). In Pakistan both local made and foreign made (DCP) are available. The unit price of foreign made DCP is about 8 to 10 times that of the local made, however, no comprehensive study has been done on the comparison of these plates. An in-depth analysis was performed to compare the essential properties of six different brands of DCP including two foreign, two local and two unknown brands. These properties included mechanical properties, such as bending stiffness, yield strength, modulus of elasticity and hardness. Compositional analysis and various dimensions of plate important for bone healing process were also compared. The results show that all plates have similar mechanical properties. The compositional analysis showed some variations from the ASTM standards for most of the plates. The dimensional analysis of plates showed that Slot Width and Land were within range for most of the plates but the Spherical Radius was out of range for all the plates. Generally, all plates have no major differences in their properties, material and shape. (author)

  20. Investigations on the ultimate compressive strength of composite plates with geometrical imperfections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misirlis, K.; Downes, J.; Dow, R.S.

    2009-01-01

    with initial geometric imperfections. This paper presents the validation of finite element models against a series of plate tests that were performed within this framework and parametric studies that were carried out to identify the effects of geometric imperfections on the ultimate compressive strength......A series of studies has been performed within the MARSTRUCT Network of Excellence on Marine Structures in order to investigate the buckling response of glass fibre reinforced polymer plates. These studies include the fabrication, testing and finite element analysis of a large number of plates...

  1. Explosive magnetic flux compression plate generators as fast high-energy power sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caird, R.S.; Erickson, D.J.; Garn, W.B.; Fowler, C.M.

    1976-01-01

    A type of explosive driven generator, called a plate generator, is described. It is capable of delivering electrical energies in the MJ range at TW power levels. Plane wave detonated explosive systems accelerate two large-area metal plates to high opposing velocities. An initial magnetic field is compressed and the flux transferred to an external load. The characteristics of the plate generator are described and compared with those of other types of generators. Methods of load matching are discussed. The results of several high-power experiments are also given

  2. Analytical results for post-buckling behaviour of plates in compression and in shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, M.

    1985-01-01

    The postbuckling behavior of long rectangular isotropic and orthotropic plates is determined. By assuming trigonometric functions in one direction, the nonlinear partial differential equations of von Karman large deflection plate theory are converted into nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The ordinary differential equations are solved numerically using an available boundary value problem solver which makes use of Newton's method. Results for longitudinal compression show different postbuckling behavior between isotropic and orthotropic plates. Results for shear show that change in inplane edge constraints can cause large change in postbuckling stiffness.

  3. Simulation techniques for spatially evolving instabilities in compressible flow over a flat plate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wasistho, B.; Geurts, Bernardus J.; Kuerten, Johannes G.M.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we present numerical techniques suitable for a direct numerical simulation in the spatial setting. We demonstrate the application to the simulation of compressible flat plate flow instabilities. We compare second and fourth order accurate spatial discretization schemes in combination

  4. A method of vehicle license plate recognition based on PCANet and compressive sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xianyi; Min, Feng

    2018-03-01

    The manual feature extraction of the traditional method for vehicle license plates has no good robustness to change in diversity. And the high feature dimension that is extracted with Principal Component Analysis Network (PCANet) leads to low classification efficiency. For solving these problems, a method of vehicle license plate recognition based on PCANet and compressive sensing is proposed. First, PCANet is used to extract the feature from the images of characters. And then, the sparse measurement matrix which is a very sparse matrix and consistent with Restricted Isometry Property (RIP) condition of the compressed sensing is used to reduce the dimensions of extracted features. Finally, the Support Vector Machine (SVM) is used to train and recognize the features whose dimension has been reduced. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method has better performance than Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) in the recognition and time. Compared with no compression sensing, the proposed method has lower feature dimension for the increase of efficiency.

  5. 3D lumped components and miniaturized bandpass filter in an ultra-thin M-LCP for SOP applications

    KAUST Repository

    Arabi, Eyad A.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, a library of 3D lumped components completely embedded in the thinnest, multilayer LCP (M-LCP) stack- up with four metallization layers and 100 μm of total thickness, is reported for the first time. A vertically and horizontally interdigitated capacitor, realized in this stack-up, provides higher self resonant frequency as compared to a similarly sized conventional parallel plate capacitor. Based on the above mentioned library, a miniaturized bandpass filter is presented for the GPS application. It utilizes mutually coupled inductors and is the smallest reported in the literature with a size of (0.035×0.028×0.00089)λg. Finally, the same filter realized in a competing ceramic technology (LTCC) is compared in performance with the ultra-thin M-LCP design. The M-LCP module presented in this work is inherently exible and offers great potential for wearable and conformal applications.

  6. Integrated microsystems packaging approach with LCP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaynes, Paul; Shacklette, Lawrence W.

    2006-05-01

    Within the government communication market there is an increasing push to further miniaturize systems with the use of chip-scale packages, flip-chip bonding, and other advances over traditional packaging techniques. Harris' approach to miniaturization includes these traditional packaging advances, but goes beyond this level of miniaturization by combining the functional and structural elements of a system, thus creating a Multi-Functional Structural Circuit (MFSC). An emerging high-frequency, near hermetic, thermoplastic electronic substrate material, Liquid Crystal Polymer (LCP), is the material that will enable the combination of the electronic circuit and the physical structure of the system. The first embodiment of this vision for Harris is the development of a battlefield acoustic sensor module. This paper will introduce LCP and its advantages for MFSC, present an example of the work that Harris has performed, and speak to LCP MFSCs' potential benefits to miniature communications modules and sensor platforms.

  7. Helium leak testing the Westinghouse LCP coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merritt, P.A.; Attaar, M.H.; Hordubay, T.D.

    1983-01-01

    The tests, equipment, and techniques used to check the Westinghouse LCP coil for coolant flow path integrity and helium leakage are unique in terms of test sensitivity and application. This paper will discuss the various types of helium leak testing done on the LCP coil as it enters different stages of manufacture. The emphasis will be on the degree of test sensitivity achieved under shop conditions, and what equipment, techniques and tooling are required to achieve this sensitivity (5.9 x 10 -8 scc/sec). Other topics that will be discussed are helium flow and pressure drop testing which is used to detect any restrictions in the flow paths, and the LCP final acceptance test which is the final leak test performed on the coil prior to its being sent for testing. The overall allowable leak rate for this coil is 5 x 10 -6 scc/sec. A general evaluation of helium leak testing experience are included

  8. Compressive failure modes and parameter optimization of the trabecular structure of biomimetic fully integrated honeycomb plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinxiang; Tuo, Wanyong; Zhang, Xiaoming; He, Chenglin; Xie, Juan; Liu, Chang

    2016-12-01

    To develop lightweight biomimetic composite structures, the compressive failure and mechanical properties of fully integrated honeycomb plates were investigated experimentally and through the finite element method. The results indicated that: fracturing of the fully integrated honeycomb plates primarily occurred in the core layer, including the sealing edge structure. The morphological failures can be classified into two types, namely dislocations and compactions, and were caused primarily by the stress concentrations at the interfaces between the core layer and the upper and lower laminations and secondarily by the disordered short-fiber distribution in the material; although the fully integrated honeycomb plates manufactured in this experiment were imperfect, their mass-specific compressive strength was superior to that of similar biomimetic samples. Therefore, the proposed bio-inspired structure possesses good overall mechanical properties, and a range of parameters, such as the diameter of the transition arc, was defined for enhancing the design of fully integrated honeycomb plates and improving their compressive mechanical properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Treatment Results Of Diaphyseal Forearm Fractures With Dynamique Compression Plate A Retrospective study of 156 Cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan BOUSSAKRI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This retrospective study addresses a series of 156 cases of forearm fractures. These 156 cases were managed in the trauma-orthopedic department (B4 of Fez University Hospital, Morocco, from May 2008 till January 2013. The purpose of this study is to analyze epidemiological and clinical factors of diaphyseal forearm fractures and the results of their treatment with dynamic compression plate (DCP, as well as the complications and therapeutic errors of this surgical technique. The frequency of hospitalization in the trauma-orthopedic department was 3,96%. Ages ranged between 16 and 83, the average age was 32. 132 patients were male (85%. 90% were managed at the day of trauma. Traffic accidents were the most frequent cause in 52% patients. The fracture was in the left forearm in 65% of patients. 53% of fracture lines were in the middle third of the forearm. 38 fractures were open, and 30 were admitted for polytrauma. Osteosynthesis was performed with dynamic compression plate for all patients. In comparison with the literature, our series shows the predominance of young male patients, with traffic accidents being the cause. Osteosynthesis with dynamic compression plate remains the treatment of choice that provides satisfactory results if the accuracy in this technique was respected.

  10. Generalized wall function and its application to compressible turbulent boundary layer over a flat plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.; Wu, S. P.

    2017-04-01

    Wall function boundary conditions including the effects of compressibility and heat transfer are improved for compressible turbulent boundary flows. Generalized wall function formulation at zero-pressure gradient is proposed based on coupled velocity and temperature profiles in the entire near-wall region. The parameters in the generalized wall function are well revised. The proposed boundary conditions are integrated into Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics code that includes the shear stress transport turbulence model. Numerical results are presented for a compressible boundary layer over a flat plate at zero-pressure gradient. Compared with experimental data, the computational results show that the generalized wall function reduces the first grid spacing in the directed normal to the wall and proves the feasibility and effectivity of the generalized wall function method.

  11. Comparison of the Mechanical Characteristics of a Universal Small Biplane Plating Technique Without Compression Screw and Single Anatomic Plate With Compression Screw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayton, Paul; Ferguson, Joe; Hatch, Daniel; Santrock, Robert; Scanlan, Sean; Smith, Bret

    2016-01-01

    To better understand the mechanical characteristics of biplane locked plating in small bone fixation, the present study compared the stability under cyclic cantilever loading of a 2-plate locked biplane (BPP) construct without interfragmentary compression with that of a single-plate locked construct with an additional interfragmentary screw (SPS) using surrogate bone models simulating Lapidus arthrodesis. In static ultimate plantar bending, the BPP construct failed at significantly greater load than did the SPS construct (556.2 ± 37.1 N versus 241.6 ± 6.3 N, p = .007). For cyclic failure testing in plantar bending at a 180-N starting load, the BPP construct failed at a significantly greater number of cycles (158,322 ± 50,609 versus 13,718 ± 10,471 cycles) and failure load (242.5 ± 25.0 N versus 180.0 ± 0.0 N) than the SPS construct (p = .002). For cyclic failure testing in plantar bending at a 120-N starting load, the results were not significantly different between the BPP and SPS constructs for the number of cycles (207,646 ± 45,253 versus 159,334 ± 69,430) or failure load (205.0 ± 22.4 N versus 185.0 ± 33.5 N; p = .300). For cyclic testing with 90° offset loading (i.e., medial to lateral bending) at a 120-N starting load, all 5 BPP constructs (tension side) and 2 of the 5 SPS constructs reached 250,000 cycles without failure. Overall, the present study found the BPP construct to have superior or equivalent stability in multiplanar orientations of force application in both static and fatigue testing. Thus, the concept of biplane locked plating, using 2 low profile plates and unicortical screw insertion, shows promise in small bone fixation, because it provides consistent stability in multiplanar orientations, making it universally adaptable to many clinical situations. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Perioperative lateral trochanteric wall fractures: sliding hip screw versus percutaneous compression plate for intertrochanteric hip fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, Joshua; Pillai, Gita; Ugliailoro, Anthony D; Yang, Edward

    2011-04-01

    This study was performed to determine the incidence of perioperative lateral wall fractures with a standard sliding hip screw (SHS) versus a percutaneous compression plate (PCCP) using identical meticulous closed reduction techniques in both groups. Retrospective analysis of a prospective trauma registry. Urban Level I trauma center. Over a 7-year period, 337 patients with intertrochanteric hip fractures were treated with either a SHS or a PCCP at our institution. The PCCP group (Group 1) consisted of 200 patients, of which 141 (71%) had adequate images to be included in the study. The SHS group (Group 2) consisted of 137 patients, of which 100 (73%) had adequate images to be included in the study. Closed reduction and plate application with either a standard sliding hip screw or a percutaneous compression plate for an Orthopaedic Trauma Association 31A1 or 31A2 intertrochanteric hip fracture. : Radiographic evidence of lateral trochanteric wall fracture as measured by intraoperative and perioperative radiographs. There was an overall lateral wall fracture incidence of 20% in the SHS group versus 1.4% in the PCCP group (P fracture types, there was a lateral wall fracture incidence of 29.8% in the SHS group versus 1.9% in the PCCP group (P trochanteric wall fracture compared with the SHS group. This difference became greater when just unstable intertrochanteric fractures were analyzed. An anatomic reduction, combined with a device (PCCP) that uses small-diameter defects in the lateral trochanteric wall, essentially eliminates perioperative lateral trochanteric wall fractures.

  13. Supraglenoid tubercle fractures repair with transverse locking compression plates in 4 horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, B J; Bayliss, I P M; Zedler, S T; Getman, L M; Richardson, D W

    2017-05-01

    To report on a series of 4 horses with supraglenoid tubercle fractures repaired with locking compression plates. Case series. Four horses ranging in age from 6 weeks to 20 months and weighing from 121 to 425 kg with supraglenoid tubercle fractures of 1 day to 6 weeks in duration. Supraglenoid tubercle fractures were reduced and stabilized with transversely positioned locking compression plate(s) with and without additional tension band wiring. All fractures reached bony union. Two postoperative surgical site infections were managed with drainage and antibiotherapy. Three of the 4 horses continued onto athletic careers including flat racing, dressage, and hunter/jumper competition. The remaining horse was lame for a prolonged period, but was sound at 4 years. The application of one or two, transversely positioned LCPs should be considered for the repair of SGT fractures because of the relative ease of the technique, and its elimination of a biceps brachii tenotomy. All screws can be inserted in a lateral to medial direction without transection or drill penetration of the biceps brachii tendon. SGT fractures of various durations can be repaired in a wide range of horses with transversely positioned LCPs, and allow return to athletic function. © 2017 The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  14. Biomechanical testing of a hybrid locking plate fixation of equine sesamoid osteotomies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida da Silveira, E; Levasseur, A; Lacourt, M; Elce, Y; Petit, Y

    2014-01-01

    To compare the biomechanical properties of a hybrid locking compression plate (LCP) construct with the compression screw technique as a treatment for transverse mid-body proximal sesamoid bone fractures. Ten paired forelimbs from abattoir horses were used. The medial proximal sesamoid bone of each limb was osteotomized transversely and randomly assigned, to either repair with a two-hole 3.5 mm LCP or a 4.5 mm cortical screw placed in lag fashion. Each limb was tested biomechanically by axial loading in single cycle until failure. The point of failure was evaluated from the load-displacement curves. Then a gross evaluation and radiographs were performed to identify the mode of failure. The loads to failure of limbs repaired with the hybrid LCP construct (4968 N ± 2167) and the limbs repaired with the screw technique (3009 N ± 1091) were significantly different (p fracture of the apical fragment of the proximal sesamoid bone. The LCP technique has potential to achieve a better fracture stability and healing when applied to mid-body fractures of the proximal sesamoid bone. Further testing, particularly fatigue resistance is required to corroborate its potential as a treatment option for mid-body fractures of the proximal sesamoid bone.

  15. Graphic Interface for LCP2 Optimization Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolae, Taropa Laurentiu; Gaunholt, Hans

    1998-01-01

    This report provides information about the software interface that is programmed for the Optimization Program LCP2. The first part is about the general description of the program followed by a guide for using the interface. The last chapters contain a discussion about problems or futute extension...... of the project. The program is written in Visual C++5.0 on a Windows NT4.0 operating system.......This report provides information about the software interface that is programmed for the Optimization Program LCP2. The first part is about the general description of the program followed by a guide for using the interface. The last chapters contain a discussion about problems or futute extensions...

  16. Molecular orientation of individual LCP particles in injection-moulded PPS/LCP blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kestenbach H.-J.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Polarized light microscopy was used to investigate the presence of preferred molecular orientation in the LCP phase of PPS/LCP blends after injection moulding. Normal birefringence effects appeared to be complicated by artifacts due to sample preparation and by the complex nature of polarized light transmission through a multicomponent sample. It was found, however, that, during low-temperature cutting of optically transparent thin sections on a standard microtome, individual LCP particles could be separated from the PPS matrix, and their birefringence analyzed separately. Preferred orientation was detected only in LCP fibrils which dominated in skin regions, but not in droplet-shaped particles which had formed in core regions. Quantitative measurements indicated that the molecular orientation of the fibrils increased linearly with their length-to-diameter aspect ratios which ranged from 15 to 50. Even for the highest aspect ratios, however, the degree of orientation was always less than that which could easily be introduced into pure LCP thin-film samples by manual shearing.

  17. Biomechanical investigation of an alternative concept to angular stable plating using conventional fixation hardware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radtke Roman

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Angle-stable locking plates have improved the surgical management of fractures. However, locking implants are costly and removal can be difficult. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the biomechanical performance of a newly proposed crossed-screw concept ("Fence" utilizing conventional (non-locked implants in comparison to conventional LC-DCP (limited contact dynamic compression plate and LCP (locking compression plate stabilization, in a human cadaveric diaphyseal gap model. Methods In eight pairs of human cadaveric femora, one femur per pair was randomly assigned to receive a Fence construct with either elevated or non-elevated plate, while the contralateral femur received either an LCP or LC-DCP instrumentation. Fracture gap motion and fatigue performance under cyclic loading was evaluated successively in axial compression and in torsion. Results were statistically compared in a pairwise setting. Results The elevated Fence constructs allowed significantly higher gap motion compared to the LCP instrumentations (axial compression: p ≤ 0.011, torsion p ≤ 0.015 but revealed similar performance under cyclic loading (p = 0.43. The Fence instrumentation with established bone-plate contact revealed larger fracture gap motion under axial compression compared to the conventional LC-DCP osteosynthesis (p ≤ 0.017. However, all contact Fence specimens survived the cyclic test, whereas all LC-DCP constructs failed early during torsion testing (p Conclusions Even though accentuated fracture gap motion became obvious, the "Fence" technique is considered an alternative to cost-intensive locking-head devices. The concept can be of interest in cases were angle-stable implants are unavailable and can lead to new strategies in implant design.

  18. [APPLICATION OF BUTTERFLY SHAPED LOCKING COMPRESSION PLATE IN COMPLEX DISTAL RADIUS FRACTURES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zongyuan; Ma, Tao; Xia, Jiang; Hu, Caizhi; Xu, Lei

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of butterfly shaped locking compression plate for the treatment of complex distal radius fractures. Between June 2011 and January 2013, 20 cases of complex distal radius fractures were treated with butterfly shaped locking compression plate fixation. There were 11 males and 9 females with an average age of 54 years (range, 25-75 years). Injury was caused by falling in 10 cases, by traffic accident in 7 cases, and by falling from height in 3 cases. All of fractures were closed. According to AO classification system, there were 8 cases of type C1, 8 cases of type C2, and 4 cases of type C3. Of them, 9 cases had radial styloid process fracture, 4 cases had sigmoid notch fracture, and 7 cases had both radial styloid process fracture and sigmoid notch fracture. The mean interval between injury and operation was 5.2 days (range, 3-15 days). All incisions healed by first intention; no complications of infection and necrosis occurred. All cases were followed up 14 months on average (range, 10-22 months). All factures healed after 9.3 weeks on average (range, 6-11 weeks). No complications such as displacement of fracture, joint surface subsidence, shortening of the radius, and carpal tunnel syndrome were found during follow-up. At last follow-up, the mean palmar tilt angle was 10.2° (range, 7-15°), and the mean ulnar deviation angle was 21.8° (range, 17-24°). The mean range of motion of the wrist was 45.3° (range, 35-68°) in dorsal extension, 53.5° (range, 40-78°) in palmar flexion, 19.8° (range, 12-27°) in radial inclination, 26.6° (range, 18-31°) in ulnar inclination, 70.2° (range, 45-90°) in pronation, and 68.4° (range, 25-88°) in supination. According to the Dienst scoring system, the results were excellent in 8 cases, good in 10 cases, and fair in 2 cases, and the excellent and good rate was 90%. Treatment of complex distal radius fractures with butterfly shaped locking compression plate can reconstruct normal anatomic

  19. Pulse coil concepts for the LCP Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, B.E.; Burn, P.B.

    1977-01-01

    The pulse coils described in this paper are resistive copper magnets driven by time-varying currents. They are included in the Large Coil Test Facility (LCTF) portion of the Large Coil Program (LCP) to simulate the pulsed field environment of the toroidal coils in a tokamak reactor. Since TNS (a 150 sec, 5MA, igniting tokamak) and the Oak Ridge EPR (Experimental Power Reactor) are representative of the first tokamaks to require the technology developed in LCP, the reference designs for these machines, especially TNS, are used to derive the magnetic criteria for the pulse coils. This criteria includes the magnitude, distribution, and rate of change of pulsed fields in the toroidal coil windings. Three pulse coil concepts are evaluated on the basis of magnetic criteria and factors such as versatility of design, ease of fabrication and cost of operation. The three concepts include (1) a pair of poloidal coils outside the LCTF torus, (2) a single poloidal coil threaded through the torus, and (3) a pair of vertical axis coil windings inside the bore of one or more of the toroidal test coils

  20. Predicting guar seed splitting by compression between two plates using Hertz theory of contact stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwakarma, R K; Shivhare, U S; Nanda, S K

    2012-09-01

    Hertz's theory of contact stresses was applied to predict the splitting of guar seeds during uni-axial compressive loading between 2 rigid parallel plates. The apparent modulus of elasticity of guar seeds varied between 296.18 and 116.19 MPa when force was applied normal to hilum joint (horizontal position), whereas it varied between 171.86 and 54.18 MPa when force was applied in the direction of hilum joint (vertical position) with in moisture content range of 5.16% to 15.28% (d.b.). At higher moisture contents, the seeds yielded after considerable deformation, thus showing ductile nature. Distribution of stresses below the point of contact were plotted to predict the location of critical point, which was found at 0.44 to 0.64 mm and 0.37 to 0.53 mm below the contact point in vertical and horizontal loading, respectively, depending upon moisture content. The separation of cotyledons from each other initiated before yielding of cotyledons and thus splitting of seed took place. The relationships between apparent modulus of elasticity, principal stresses with moisture content were described using second-order polynomial equations and validated experimentally. Manufacture of guar gum powder requires dehulling and splitting of guar seeds. This article describes splitting behavior of guar seeds under compressive loading. Results of this study may be used for design of dehulling and splitting systems of guar seeds. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Degradation of the compressive strength of unstiffened/stiffened steel plates due to both-sides randomly distributed corrosion wastage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorareh Hadj Mohammad

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the problem of the influence of randomly distributed corrosion wastage on the collapse strength and behaviour of unstiffened/stiffened steel plates in longitudinal compression. A series of elastic-plastic large deflection finite element analyses is performed on both-sides randomly corroded steel plates and stiffened plates. The effects of general corrosion are introduced into the finite element models using a novel random thickness surface model. Buckling strength, post-buckling behaviour, ultimate strength and post-ultimate behaviour of the models are investigated as results of both-sides random corrosion.

  2. LCP nanoparticle for tumor and lymph node metastasis imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Yu-Cheng

    A lipid/calcium/phosphate (LCP) nanoparticle formulation (particle diameter ˜25 nm) has previously been developed to delivery siRNA with superior efficiency. In this work, 111In was formulated into LCP nanoparticles to form 111In-LCP for SPECT/CT imaging. With necessary modifications and improvements of the LCP core-washing and surface-coating methods, 111In-LCP grafted with polyethylene glycol exhibited reduced uptake by the mononuclear phagocytic system. SPECT/CT imaging supported performed biodistribution studies, showing clear tumor images with accumulation of 8% or higher injected dose per gram tissue (ID/g) in subcutaneous, human-H460, lung-cancer xenograft and mouse-4T1, breast cancer metastasis models. Both the liver and the spleen accumulated ˜20% ID/g. Accumulation in the tumor was limited by the enhanced permeation and retention effect and was independent of the presence of a targeting ligand. A surprisingly high accumulation in the lymph nodes (˜70% ID/g) was observed. In the 4T1 lymph node metastasis model, the capability of intravenously injected 111In-LCP to visualize the size-enlarged and tumor-loaded sentinel lymph node was demonstrated. By analyzing the SPECT/CT images taken at different time points, the PK profiles of 111In-LCP in the blood and major organs were determined. The results indicated that the decrement of 111In-LCP blood concentration was not due to excretion, but to tissue penetration, leading to lymphatic accumulation. Larger LCP (diameter ˜65 nm) nanoparticles were also prepared for the purpose of comparison. Results indicated that larger LCP achieved slightly lower accumulation in the tumor and lymph nodes, but much higher accumulation in the liver and spleen; thus, larger nanoparticles might not be favorable for imaging purposes. We also demonstrated that LCP with a diameter of ˜25 nm were better able to penetrate into tissues, travel in the lymphatic system and preferentially accumulate in the lymph nodes due to 1) small

  3. An investigation on compression strength analysis of commercial aluminium tube to aluminium 2025 tube plate by using TIG welding process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannan, S., E-mail: kannan.dgl201127@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Mining Machinery Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (ISM), Dhanbad, Jharkhand, India, 826004 (India); Senthil Kumaran, S., E-mail: sskumaran@ymail.com [Research and Development Center, Department of Mechanical Engineering, RVS Educational Trust' s Group of Institutions, RVS School of Engineering and Technology, Dindigul, Tamilnadu, India, 624005 (India); Kumaraswamidhas, L.A., E-mail: lakdhas1978@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Mining Machinery Engineering, Indian School of Mines University, Dhanbad, Jharkhand, India, 826004 (India)

    2016-05-05

    In this present study, Tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding was applied to weld the dissimilar materials and authenticate the mechanical and metallurgical properties of tube to tube plate made up of commercial aluminium and Al 2025 respectively using an Zirconiated tungsten electrode along with filler material aluminium ER 2219. In total, twenty five pieces has been subjected to compression strength and hardness value to evaluate the optimal joint strength. The three optimization technique has been used in this experiment. Taguchi L{sub 25} orthogonal array is used to identify the most influencing process parameter which affects the joint strength. ANOVA method is measured for both compression strength and hardness to calculate the percentage of contribution for each process parameter. Genetic algorithm is used to validate the results obtained from the both experimental value and optimization value. The micro structural study is depicted the welding joints characterization in between tube to tube plate joints. The radiograph test is conducted to prove the welds are non-defective and no flaws are found during the welding process. The mechanical property of compression strength and hardness has been measured to obtain the optimal joint strength of the welded sample was about 174.846 MPa and 131.364 Hv respectively. - Highlights: • Commercial Al tube and Al 2025 tube plate successfully welded by TIG welding. • Compression strength and hardness value proves to obtain optimal joint strength. • The maximum compression and hardness was achieved in various input parameters.

  4. An investigation on compression strength analysis of commercial aluminium tube to aluminium 2025 tube plate by using TIG welding process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, S.; Senthil Kumaran, S.; Kumaraswamidhas, L.A.

    2016-01-01

    In this present study, Tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding was applied to weld the dissimilar materials and authenticate the mechanical and metallurgical properties of tube to tube plate made up of commercial aluminium and Al 2025 respectively using an Zirconiated tungsten electrode along with filler material aluminium ER 2219. In total, twenty five pieces has been subjected to compression strength and hardness value to evaluate the optimal joint strength. The three optimization technique has been used in this experiment. Taguchi L_2_5 orthogonal array is used to identify the most influencing process parameter which affects the joint strength. ANOVA method is measured for both compression strength and hardness to calculate the percentage of contribution for each process parameter. Genetic algorithm is used to validate the results obtained from the both experimental value and optimization value. The micro structural study is depicted the welding joints characterization in between tube to tube plate joints. The radiograph test is conducted to prove the welds are non-defective and no flaws are found during the welding process. The mechanical property of compression strength and hardness has been measured to obtain the optimal joint strength of the welded sample was about 174.846 MPa and 131.364 Hv respectively. - Highlights: • Commercial Al tube and Al 2025 tube plate successfully welded by TIG welding. • Compression strength and hardness value proves to obtain optimal joint strength. • The maximum compression and hardness was achieved in various input parameters.

  5. Graphene based strain sensor with LCP substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, M.; Yang, H. S.; Xia, Y. H.

    2018-02-01

    A flexible strain sensor constructed by an efficient, low-cost fabrication strategy is presented in this paper. It is assembled by adhering grid-like graphene on LCP substrate. Kinds of measurement setup have been designed to verify that the proposed flexible sensor device is suitable to be used in health monitoring system. From the experiment results, it can be proved that the sensor exhibits the following features: ultra-light, relatively good sensitivity, high reversibility, superior physical robustness, easy fabrication. With the great performance of this flexible strain sensor, it is considered to play an important role in body monitoring, structural health monitoring system, fatigue detection and healthcare systems in the near future.

  6. SURGICAL MANAGEMENT OF TRAUMATIC MANUBRIO-STERNAL DISLOCATION WITH LOCKING COMPRESSION PLATE; A CASE REPORT AND REVIEW OF LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAREED AHMED SHAIKH

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Manubriosternal joint dislocation as a result of trauma is rare with only few case reports published in literature. Materials that have been used for fixation of displaced manubriosternal joint are steel wires, polydioxanone ropes, and plates with screws. Case: We present a case of manubriosternal dislocation in which fixation was done with locking compression plate. This is a case of 32 years old lady with history of road traffic accident, car ran over her chest. She had bilateral lung contusions with multiple rib fractures on right side and manubriosternal joint dislocation of type-I. Patient was initially stabilized in high dependency unit, and once her contusions got better, she underwent fixation of her manubriosternal dislocation with locking compression plate. Post-operatively she remained pain free and was discharged home. Conclusion: This case is an important addition to literature regarding options that can be used for fixation of manubriosternal joint dislocation.

  7. Treatment of Unstable Trochanteric Femur Fractures: Proximal Femur Nail Versus Proximal Femur Locking Compression Plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ashutosh Kumar; Narsaria, Nidi; G R, Arun; Srivastava, Vivek

    Unstable trochanteric femur fractures are common fractures that are difficult to manage. We conducted a prospective study to compare functional outcomes and complications of 2 different implant designs, proximal femur nail (PFN) and proximal femur locking compression plate (PFLCP), used in internal fixation of unstable trochanteric femur fractures. On hospital admission, 48 patients with unstable trochanteric fractures were randomly assigned (using a sealed envelope method) to treatment with either PFN (24 patients) or PFLCP (24 patients). Perioperative data and complications were recorded. All cases were followed up for 2 years. The groups did not differ significantly (P > .05) in operative time, reduction quality, complications, hospital length of stay, union rate, or time to union. Compared with the PFLCP group, the PFN group had shorter incisions and less blood loss. Regarding functional outcomes, there was no significant difference in mean Harris Hip Score (P = .48) or Palmer and Parker mobility score (P = .58). Both PFN and PFLCP are effective in internal fixation of unstable trochanteric femur fractures.

  8. Research and development activity in support of LCP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubell, M.S.

    1979-01-01

    The research and development activity (RDAC) established in support of the Large Coil Program (LCP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is described. Some experimental results are presented and the importance of the RDAC to the magnet community is discussed

  9. High Q, Miniaturized LCP-Based Passive Components

    KAUST Repository

    Shamim, Atif

    2014-10-16

    Various methods and systems are provided for high Q, miniaturized LCP-based passive components. In one embodiment, among others, a spiral inductor includes a center connection and a plurality of inductors formed on a liquid crystal polymer (LCP) layer, the plurality of inductors concentrically spiraling out from the center connection. In another embodiment, a vertically intertwined inductor includes first and second inductors including a first section disposed on a side of the LCP layer forming a fraction of a turn and a second section disposed on another side of the LCP layer. At least a portion of the first section of the first inductor is substantially aligned with at least a portion of the second section of the second inductor and at least a portion of the first section of the second inductor is substantially aligned with at least a portion of the second section of the first inductor.

  10. High Q, Miniaturized LCP-Based Passive Components

    KAUST Repository

    Shamim, Atif; Arabi, Eyad A.

    2014-01-01

    Various methods and systems are provided for high Q, miniaturized LCP-based passive components. In one embodiment, among others, a spiral inductor includes a center connection and a plurality of inductors formed on a liquid crystal polymer (LCP) layer, the plurality of inductors concentrically spiraling out from the center connection. In another embodiment, a vertically intertwined inductor includes first and second inductors including a first section disposed on a side of the LCP layer forming a fraction of a turn and a second section disposed on another side of the LCP layer. At least a portion of the first section of the first inductor is substantially aligned with at least a portion of the second section of the second inductor and at least a portion of the first section of the second inductor is substantially aligned with at least a portion of the second section of the first inductor.

  11. CFRP materials reinforced with LCP fibres for applications in vehicle and aircraft engineering. Final report; Faserverbundkunststoffe mit einer LCP-Faserverstaerkung fuer Anwendungen im Fahrzeug- und Flugzeugbau. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-11

    CFRP materials reinforced with liquid crystalline polyester (LCP) fibres were produced and characterized with regard to their physical and mechanical characteristics. Compared with non-reinforced plastics, polypropylene/LCP fibre-UD laminates produced by filmstacking, epoxy resin/LCP fibre-UD laminates produced by spooling and epoxy resin composites with internal LCP fibre fleece had significantly higher strength and stiffness as well as high thermoforming resistance and waterproofness. [Deutsch] In diesem Forschungsvorhaben wurden Faserverbundkunststoffe mit einer Verstaerkungsfaser auf Basis eines thermotropen fluessigkristallinen Polyester [Liquid Crystalline Polyester, abgekuerzt LCP] hergestellt und bezueglich der physikalisch-mechanischen Eigenschaften charakterisiert. Die im `filmstacking`-Verfahren hergestellte Polypropylen/LCP-Faser-UD-Laminate und mittels Bewicklung gewonnene Epoxidharz/LCP-Faser-UD-Laminate sowie Epoxidharzverbunde mit eingearbeiteten LCP-Faservlies zeigen gegenueber den unverstaerkten Kunststoffmaterialien einen betraechtlichen Anstieg von Festigkeit und Steifigkeit. Die Faserverbunde weisen ausserdem eine hohe Waermeformbestaendigkeit und Wassersperrwirkung auf. (orig.)

  12. Mathematical model of mechanical testing of bone-implant (4.5 mm LCP construct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Urbanová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with the possibility of substituting time- and material-demanding mechanical testing of a bone defect fixation by mathematical modelling. Based on the mechanical model, a mathematical model of bone-implant construct stabilizing experimental segmental femoral bone defect (segmental ostectomy in a miniature pig ex vivo model using 4.5 mm titanium LCP was created. It was subsequently computer-loaded by forces acting parallel to the long axis of the construct. By the effect of the acting forces the displacement vector sum of individual construct points occurred. The greatest displacement was noted in the end segments of the bone in close proximity to ostectomy and in the area of the empty central plate hole (without screw at the level of the segmental bone defect. By studying the equivalent von Mises stress σEQV on LCP as part of the tested construct we found that the greatest changes of stress occur in the place of the empty central plate hole. The distribution of this strain was relatively symmetrical along both sides of the hole. The exceeding of the yield stress value and irreversible plastic deformations in this segment of LCP occurred at the acting of the force of 360 N. These findings are in line with the character of damage of the same construct loaded during its mechanic testing. We succeeded in creating a mathematical model of the bone-implant construct which may be further used for computer modelling of real loading of similar constructs chosen for fixation of bone defects in both experimental and clinical practice.

  13. Buckling and postbuckling behavior of square compression-loaded graphite-epoxy plates with circular cutouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Michael P.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented for unidirectional (0, 10)(sub s) and (90,10)(sub s) plates, ((0/90)(sub 5)(sub s)) plates, and for aluminum plates. Results are also presented for ((+/- theta)(sub 6)(sub s)) angle-ply plates for values of theta = 30, 45, and 60 degrees. The results indicate that the change in axial stiffness of a plate at buckling is strongly dependent upon cutout size and plate orthotropy. The presence of a cutout gives rise to an internal load distribution that changes, sometimes dramatically, as a function of cutout size coupled with the plate orthotropy. In the buckled state, the role of orthotropy becomes more significant since bending in addition to membrane orthotropy is present. Most of the plates with cutouts exhibited less postbuckling stiffness than the corresponding plate without a cutout, and the postbuckling stiffness decreased with increasing cutout size. However, some of the highly orthotropic plates with cutouts exhibited more postbuckling stiffness than the corresponding plate without a cutout. These results suggest the possibility of tailoring the cutout size and the stacking sequence of a composite plate to optimize postbuckling stiffness. It was found that plates with large radius cutouts do exhibit some postbuckling strength. The results also indicate that a cutout can influence modal interaction in a plate. Specifically, results are presented that show a plate with a relatively small cutout buckling at a higher load than the corresponding plate without a cutout, due to modal interaction. Other results are presented that indicate the presence of nonlinear prebuckling deformations, due to material nonlinearity, in the angle-ply plates with theta = 45 and 60 degrees. The nonlinear prebuckling deformations are more pronounced in the plates with theta = 45 degrees and become even more pronounced as the cutout size increases. Results are also presented that show how load-path eccentricity due to improper machining of the test specimens

  14. Fuel cell plates with skewed process channels for uniform distribution of stack compression load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granata, Jr., Samuel J.; Woodle, Boyd M.

    1989-01-01

    An electrochemical fuel cell includes an anode electrode, a cathode electrode, an electrolyte matrix sandwiched between electrodes, and a pair of plates above and below the electrodes. The plate above the electrodes has a lower surface with a first group of process gas flow channels formed thereon and the plate below the electrodes has an upper surface with a second group of process gas flow channels formed thereon. The channels of each group extend generally parallel to one another. The improvement comprises the process gas flow channels on the lower surface of the plate above the anode electrode and the process gas flow channels on the upper surface of the plate below the cathode electrode being skewed in opposite directions such that contact areas of the surfaces of the plates through the electrodes are formed in crisscross arrangements. Also, the plates have at least one groove in areas of the surfaces thereof where the channels are absent for holding process gas and increasing electrochemical activity of the fuel cell. The groove in each plate surface intersects with the process channels therein. Also, the opposite surfaces of a bipolar plate for a fuel cell contain first and second arrangements of process gas flow channels in the respective surfaces which are skewed the same amount in opposite directions relative to the longitudinal centerline of the plate.

  15. Numerical investigation of the effects of compressibility on the flutter of a cantilevered plate in an inviscid, subsonic, open flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colera, Manuel; Pérez-Saborid, Miguel

    2018-06-01

    We have carried out a numerical study of the influence of the upstream Mach number on the flutter of a two-dimensional, cantilevered, flexible plate subject to a subsonic, inviscid, open flow. We have assumed a linear elastic model for the plate and that the fluid flow is governed by the linearized potential theory. The fluid equations are solved with a novel frequency-domain, finite differences method to obtain the generalized aerodynamic forces as a function of the plate displacements. Then, these generalized forces are coupled to the equation of motion of the plate and an eigenvalue analysis is performed to find the flutter point. The obtained results are in good agreement with those of related theoretical and experimental studies found in the literature. To the best of our knowledge, the analysis performed here is the first self-consistent, parametric study of the influence of the compressibility on the flutter point of a two-dimensional cantilevered plate in subsonic flow.

  16. Characterization of cell mechanical properties by computational modeling of parallel plate compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarry, J P

    2009-11-01

    A substantial body of work has been reported in which the mechanical properties of adherent cells were characterized using compression testing in tandem with computational modeling. However, a number of important issues remain to be addressed. In the current study, using computational analyses, the effect of cell compressibility on the force required to deform spread cells is investigated and the possibility that stiffening of the cell cytoplasm occurs during spreading is examined based on published experimental compression test data. The effect of viscoelasticity on cell compression is considered and difficulties in performing a complete characterization of the viscoelastic properties of a cell nucleus and cytoplasm by this method are highlighted. Finally, a non-linear force-deformation response is simulated using differing linear viscoelastic properties for the cell nucleus and the cell cytoplasm.

  17. LCP crystallization and X-ray diffraction analysis of VcmN, a MATE transporter from Vibrio cholerae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusakizako, Tsukasa [Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Tanaka, Yoshiki [Graduate School of Biological Sciences, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, 8916-5 Takayama-cho, Ikoma, Nara 630-0192 (Japan); Hipolito, Christopher J. [Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba 305-8575 (Japan); Kuroda, Teruo [Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8553 (Japan); Ishitani, Ryuichiro [Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Suga, Hiroaki [Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Nureki, Osamu, E-mail: nureki@bs.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan)

    2016-06-22

    A V. cholerae MATE transporter was crystallized using the lipidic cubic phase (LCP) method. X-ray diffraction data sets were collected from single crystals obtained in a sandwich plate and a sitting-drop plate to resolutions of 2.5 and 2.2 Å, respectively. Multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) transporters, one of the multidrug exporter families, efflux xenobiotics towards the extracellular side of the membrane. Since MATE transporters expressed in bacterial pathogens contribute to multidrug resistance, they are important therapeutic targets. Here, a MATE-transporter homologue from Vibrio cholerae, VcmN, was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized in lipidic cubic phase (LCP). X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.5 Å resolution from a single crystal obtained in a sandwich plate. The crystal belonged to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 52.3, b = 93.7, c = 100.2 Å. As a result of further LCP crystallization trials, crystals of larger size were obtained using sitting-drop plates. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.2 Å resolution from a single crystal obtained in a sitting-drop plate. The crystal belonged to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 61.9, b = 91.8, c = 100.9 Å. The present work provides valuable insights into the atomic resolution structure determination of membrane transporters.

  18. Study of LCP based flexible patch antenna array

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffar, Farhan A.; Shamim, Atif; Roy, Langis

    2012-01-01

    Wrapping of a two element LCP based patch antenna array is studied in this work. For the first time, the designed array is bent in both E and H planes to observe the effect on the radiation and impedance performance of the antenna. The 38 GHz

  19. LCP- LIFETIME COST AND PERFORMANCE MODEL FOR DISTRIBUTED PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, C. S.

    1994-01-01

    The Lifetime Cost and Performance (LCP) Model was developed to assist in the assessment of Photovoltaic (PV) system design options. LCP is a simulation of the performance, cost, and revenue streams associated with distributed PV power systems. LCP provides the user with substantial flexibility in specifying the technical and economic environment of the PV application. User-specified input parameters are available to describe PV system characteristics, site climatic conditions, utility purchase and sellback rate structures, discount and escalation rates, construction timing, and lifetime of the system. Such details as PV array orientation and tilt angle, PV module and balance-of-system performance attributes, and the mode of utility interconnection are user-specified. LCP assumes that the distributed PV system is utility grid interactive without dedicated electrical storage. In combination with a suitable economic model, LCP can provide an estimate of the expected net present worth of a PV system to the owner, as compared to electricity purchased from a utility grid. Similarly, LCP might be used to perform sensitivity analyses to identify those PV system parameters having significant impact on net worth. The user describes the PV system configuration to LCP via the basic electrical components. The module is the smallest entity in the PV system which is modeled. A PV module is defined in the simulation by its short circuit current, which varies over the system lifetime due to degradation and failure. Modules are wired in series to form a branch circuit. Bypass diodes are allowed between modules in the branch circuits. Branch circuits are then connected in parallel to form a bus. A collection of buses is connected in parallel to form an increment to capacity of the system. By choosing the appropriate series-parallel wiring design, the user can specify the current, voltage, and reliability characteristics of the system. LCP simulation of system performance is site

  20. Internal (Annular) and Compressible External (Flat Plate) Turbulent Flow Heat Transfer Correlations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dechant, Lawrence [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Smith, Justin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Here we provide a discussion regarding the applicability of a family of traditional heat transfer correlation based models for several (unit level) heat transfer problems associated with flight heat transfer estimates and internal flow heat transfer associated with an experimental simulation design (Dobranich 2014). Variability between semi-empirical free-flight models suggests relative differences for heat transfer coefficients on the order of 10%, while the internal annular flow behavior is larger with differences on the order of 20%. We emphasize that these expressions are strictly valid only for the geometries they have been derived for e.g. the fully developed annular flow or simple external flow problems. Though, the application of flat plate skin friction estimate to cylindrical bodies is a traditional procedure to estimate skin friction and heat transfer, an over-prediction bias is often observed using these approximations for missile type bodies. As a correction for this over-estimate trend, we discuss a simple scaling reduction factor for flat plate turbulent skin friction and heat transfer solutions (correlations) applied to blunt bodies of revolution at zero angle of attack. The method estimates the ratio between axisymmetric and 2-d stagnation point heat transfer skin friction and Stanton number solution expressions for sub-turbulent Reynolds numbers %3C1x10 4 . This factor is assumed to also directly influence the flat plate results applied to the cylindrical portion of the flow and the flat plate correlations are modified by

  1. Close Intramedullary Interlocking Nailing Versus Locking Compression Plating In the Treatment of Closed Fracture Shaft of the Tibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, I K; Datta, N K; Chowdhury, A Z; Das, K P; Tarik, M M; Faisal, M A

    2016-07-01

    Fracture of tibial shaft is the commonest site of long bone fractures due to its superficial location involving young or middle-age people. Proper management is an important issue regarding the future effective movements. In this study patients were grouped in closed Intra medullary interlocking nailing and locking compression plating. Post-operative follow up at 2 weeks, 6 weeks, 12 weeks and 3 months thereafter up to 6 months were done. Each of the patients was evaluated clinically and radiologically by tucker criteria of Tuker et al. Patients were assessed for pain on full weight bearing and kneeling, shortening and range of motion of knee and ankle joints. Radiological assessment for union of fracture, alignment of fracture and angulations and position of nail and screws and infection were observed during follow up. A total number of 32 patients were selected but only 27 patients were available for follow up for a period of 6 months. They were grouped into Group A, consisting of 15 patients who took the treatment in the form of closed intramedullary interlocking nailing and Group B, consisting of 12 patients those underwent ORIF with locking compression plating. In both of the groups Motor Vehicle Accident was the main mechanism of trauma. Fracture involving the middle 3rd of the tibia is common in both the groups. During post-operative follow up, four patients in Group A complained anterior knee pain, one patient in Group B had superficial infection, most of the patients had no restriction of movement in the ankle and knee joints and a single patient in Group B showed 1.5cm shortening of the lower limb. Period of hospital stay and fracture union time were less in Group A, which was statistically significant. Both groups showed excellent result with minimum complications. So this study permits to conclude that close IM interlocking nailing and open reduction and internal fixation by locking compression plating is equally effective for the management of close

  2. Drag Induced by Flat-Plate Imperfections in Compressible Turbulent Flow Regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Molton , Pascal; Hue , David; Bur , Reynald

    2014-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents the results of a coupled experimental and numerical study aimed at evaluating the influence of typical aircraft surface imperfections on the flat-plate drag production in fully turbulent conditions. A test campaign involving high-level measurement techniques, such as microdrag evaluation, near-wall laser Doppler velocimetry, and oil-film interferometry, has been carried out at several Mach numbers from 0.5 to 1.3 to quantify the impact of a large ra...

  3. A Pitfall in Fixation of Distal Humeral Fractures with Pre-Contoured Locking Compression Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Jayakumar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Anatomically precontoured locking plates are intended to facilitate the fixation of articular fractures and particularly those associated with osteoporosis. Fractures of the distal humerus are relatively uncommon injuries where operative intervention can be exceptionally challenging. The distal humeral trochlea provides a very narrow anatomical window through which to pass a fixed-angle locking screw, which must also avoid the olecranon, coronoid, and radial fossae. We describe 3 patients (ages 27, 49, and 73 years with a bicolumnar fracture of the distal humerus where very short distal locking screws were used. Intra-articular screw placement was avoided but loss of fixation occurred in two patients and a third was treated with a prolonged period of immobilization. We postulate that fixed-angle screw trajectories may make it difficult for the surgeon to place screws of adequate length in this anatomically confined region, and may lead to insufficient distal fixation. Surgical tactics should include placement of as many screws as possible into the distal fragment, as long as possible, and that each screw pass through a plate without necessarily locking in.

  4. MINIMAL INVASIVE PLATE OSTEOSYNTHESIS- AN EFFECTIVE TREATMENT METHOD FOR DISTAL TIBIA INTRAARTICULAR (PILON FRACTURES- AN 18 MONTHS FOLLOW UP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saket Jati

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Tibial pilon fracture though requires operative treatment is difficult to manage. Conventional osteosynthesis is not suitable, because distal tibia is subcutaneous bone with poor vascularity. Closed reduction and Minimally Invasive Plate Osteosynthesis (MIPO for distal tibia has emerged as an alternative treatment option because it respects fracture biology and haematoma and also provides biomechanically stable construct. The aim of the study is to evaluate the results of minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis using locking plates in treating tibial pilon fractures in terms of fracture union, restoration of ankle function and complications. MATERIALS AND METHODS 30 patients with closed tibial pilon fractures (Ruedi and Allgower type I (14, type II (13, type III (3 treated with MIPO with Locking Compression Plates (LCP were prospectively followed for average duration of 18 months. RESULTS Average duration of injury-hospital and injury-surgery interval was as 12.05 hrs. and 3.50 days, respectively. All fractures got united with an average duration of 20.8 weeks (range 14-28 weeks. Olerud and Molander score was used for evaluation at 3 months, 6 months and 18 months. One patient had union with valgus angulation of 15 degrees, but no nonunion was found. CONCLUSION The present study shows that MIPO with LCP is an effective treatment method in terms of union time and complications rate for tibial pilon fracture promoting early union and early weight bearing.

  5. A Mathematical Model for the Non-Stationary Process of Compression Molding of Plates from Granulate of Thermoplastic Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir N. Vodyakov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mathematical modeling allows assigning optimal parameters for the process of compression molding of plates and calculating the dimensions of the mold without costly and long-term experiments. The options ensure the required precision of pressing. The disadvantages of the known models are the assumptions about the process isothermicity and independence of the thermal-physical coefficients from temperature. The models do not take into account the dependence of the pressure in the cavity of the mold on the excess of the melt; the problem of calculating the dimensions of the mold cavity for given plate dimensions is not posed. The known models do not give a complete description of all stages of the process. The aim of this paper is to develop a perfect mathematical model without limitations for the compression molding of plates from a granulate of highly filled thermoplastic composites. Materials and Methods: The paper proposes a non-stationary mathematical model. The model takes into account the presence of physical states transitions and dependence of the thermophysical characteristics of composites on temperature. The model is based on the known equations of thermal physics and continuum mechanics. Results: Initial and boundary conditions, rheological equations, systems of equations for the material, thermal, and power balance are determined for three stages of the process. The calculation problems are determined too. A program of iterative numerical calculation has been developed because of the resulting system of equations has no analytical solution. A convergence of experimental and theoretical results with the correlation coefficient confirms the adequacy of the developed mathematical model and the calculation program. Discussion and Conclusions: The results of the study allow calculating the dimensions of the mold cavity, the initial granulate required mass, technological losses, the time functions of pressure and temperature

  6. EVALUATION OF RESULTS IN FRACTURES OF BOTH BONES FOREARM TREATED WITH DYNAMIC COMPRESSION PLATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sindhuja G

    2017-06-01

    incisions for radius and ulna and preservation of the natural curves of radius will lessen the rate of complications. Rigid fixation of fractures after perfect anatomical reduction with 3.5 mm DCP and screws allows early mobilisation, prevents soft tissue contracture, muscular tethering and improves vascularity. A minimum of 6 cortices have to be fixed in each fracture fragment and the nearest screw to the fracture line should be at least 1 cm away. It minimises vascular damage to the plated bone segment.

  7. Functional Recovery Following Pertrochanteric Hip Fractures Fixated with the Dynamic Hip Screw vs. the Percutaneous Compression Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yocheved Laufer

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Dynamic Hip Screw (DHS is currently the most frequently used implant for the treatment of pertrochanteric hip fractures. The Percutaneous Compression Plate (PCCP is a recently developed, alternative device that involves minimal invasive surgery. The objective of the present study was to compare functional recovery following these two surgical procedures. A total of 76 consecutive elderly subjects (mean age and standard deviation, 80.6 ± 5.5 following pertrochanteric hip fracture fixation were evaluated prospectively. Functional recovery was assessed 3 and 12 weeks and 2 years following surgery. Differences between groups 3 weeks postsurgery were found only in pain level during ambulation and in the weight-bearing capability of the operated extremity, which were both in favor of the PCCP. By 3 months, both groups had improved in all measures, but did not reach their preinjury level of independence. However, the PCCP group ambulated with fewer assistive devices and demonstrated better recovery of basic activities of daily living (BADL. While the majority of the subjects from both groups ambulated independently 2 years postsurgery, the PCCP group exhibited less pain during ambulation, was more independent in ADL, and required fewer assistive devices for ambulation. To summarize, the PCCP presents enhanced short- and long-term recovery of functional abilities in comparison to DHS. However, given the limited number of patients, further studies are necessary to substantiate these results.

  8. Unstable recent intracapsular femoral neck fractures in young adults: Osteosynthesis and primary valgus osteotomy using broad dynamic compression plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Displaced intracapsular femoral neck fractures continue to be a difficult problem to treat. Various treatment modalities and their modifications have been proposed to improve the outcome. Osteosynthesis and primary valgus angulation osteotomy is one of them. Technique and outcome in a consecutive series of recent intracapsular femoral neck fractures in young adults, from a single center, is presented. Materials and Methods: Fifty-five patients of recent (< 3 weeks old displaced intracapsular fracture neck femur (Garden III and IV, Pauwels III, with or without comminution in the age group 20-50 years (mean 35.4±10.4 years were subjected to osteosynthesis and primary valgus intertrochanteric osteotomy using contoured broad dynamic compression plate (DCP. The patients were followed up from two to six years (mean 4.6 years. Results: Fifty-one fractures united by six months of the index procedure (92.7% union range. Avascular necrosis (AVN developed in six patients (11%. The other complications were shortening (six, coxa vara (two, infection (two and delayed union at osteotomy site (one. Excellent results were achieved in 48, good/fair in four and poor in three patients. Conclusion: Osteosynthesis with cancellous screw and primary valgus intertrochanteric osteotomy stabilized by a contoured broad DCP is a simple, easy to perform, biological treatment. Failure in a particular case can be treated with any appropriate second procedure. Level of Evidence: IV

  9. Pathogenic Leptospira species acquire factor H and vitronectin via the surface protein LcpA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Ludmila Bezerra; Miragaia, Lidia Dos Santos; Breda, Leandro Carvalho Dantas; Abe, Cecilia Mari; Schmidt, Mariana Costa Braga; Moro, Ana Maria; Monaris, Denize; Conde, Jonas Nascimento; Józsi, Mihály; Isaac, Lourdes; Abreu, Patrícia Antônia Estima; Barbosa, Angela Silva

    2015-03-01

    Upon infection, pathogenic Leptospira species bind several complement regulators in order to overcome host innate immunity. We previously characterized a 20-kDa leptospiral surface protein which interacts with C4b binding protein (C4BP): leptospiral complement regulator-acquiring protein A (LcpA). Here we show that LcpA also interacts with human factor H (FH), which remains functionally active once bound to the protein. Antibodies directed against short consensus repeat 20 (SCR20) inhibited binding of FH to LcpA by approximately 90%, thus confirming that this particular domain is involved in the interaction. We have also shown for the first time that leptospires bind human vitronectin and that the interaction is mediated by LcpA. Coincubation with heparin blocked LcpA-vitronectin interaction in a dose-dependent manner, strongly suggesting that binding may occur through the heparin binding domains of vitronectin. LcpA also bound to the terminal pathway component C9 and inhibited Zn(2+)-induced polymerization and membrane attack complex (MAC) formation. Competitive binding assays indicated that LcpA interacts with C4BP, FH, and vitronectin through distinct sites. Taken together, our findings indicate that LcpA may play a role in leptospiral immune evasion. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Histidine at Position 195 is Essential for Association of Heme- b in Lcp1VH2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oetermann, Sylvia; Vivod, Robin; Hiessl, Sebastian; Hogeback, Jens; Holtkamp, Michael; Karst, Uwe; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2018-05-01

    The latex clearing protein (Lcp) is the key enzyme of polyisoprene degradation in actinomycetes (Yikmis and Steinbüchel in Appl Environ Microbiol 78:4543-4551, https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.00001-12 , 2012). In this study it was shown that Lcp from Gordonia polyisoprenivorans VH2 (Lcp1VH2) harbors a non-covalently bound heme b as cofactor, which was identified by pyridine hemochrome spectra and confirmed by LC/ESI-ToF-MS. It contains iron, most likely in the Fe3+ state. We focused on the characterization of the heme-cofactor, its accessibility with respect to the conformation of Lcp1VH2, and the identification of putative histidine residues involved in the coordination of heme. A change was detectable in UV/Vis-spectra of reduced Lcp1VH2 when imidazole was added, showing that Lcp1VH2 "as isolated" occurs in an open state, directly being accessible for external ligands. In addition, three highly conserved histidines (H195, H200 and H228), presumably acting as ligands coordinating the heme within the heme pocket, were replaced with alanines by site-directed mutagenesis. The effect of these changes on in vivo rubber-mineralization was investigated. The lcp- deletion mutant complemented with the H195A variant of lcp1 VH2 was unable to mineralize poly( cis-1,4-isoprene). In vitro analyses of purified, recombinant Lcp1VH2H195A confirmed the loss of enzyme activity, which could be ascribed to the loss of heme. Hence, H195 is essential for the association of heme- b in the central region of Lcp1VH2.

  11. Intramedullary nail versus dynamic compression plate fixation in treating humeral shaft fractures: grading the evidence through a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JianXiong Ma

    Full Text Available There is a debate regarding the choice of operative intervention in humeral shaft fractures that require surgical intervention. The choices for operative interventions include intramedullary nailing (IMN and dynamic compression plate (DCP. This meta-analysis was performed to compare fracture union, functional outcomes, and complication rates in patients treated with IMN or DCP for humeral shaft fractures and to develop GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation-based recommendations for using the procedures to treat humeral shaft fractures. A systematic search of all the studies published through December 2012 was conducted using the Medline, Embase, Sciencedirect, OVID and Cochrane Central databases. The randomized controlled trials (RCTs and quasi-RCTs that compared IMN with DCP in treating adult patients with humeral shaft fractures and provided data regarding the safety and clinical effects were identified. The demographic characteristics, adverse events and clinical outcomes were manually extracted from all of the selected studies. Ten studies that included a total of 448 patients met the inclusion criteria. The results of a meta-analysis indicated that both IMN and DCP can achieve similar fracture union with a similar incidence of radial nerve injury and infection. IMN was associated with an increased risk of shoulder impingement, more restriction of shoulder movement, an increased risk of intraoperative fracture comminution, a higher incidence of implant failure, and an increased risk of re-operation. The overall GRADE system evidence quality was very low, which reduces our confidence in the recommendations of this system. DCP may be superior to IMN in the treatment of humeral shaft fractures. Because of the low quality evidence currently available, high-quality RCTs are required.

  12. Study of LCP based flexible patch antenna array

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffar, Farhan A.

    2012-07-01

    Wrapping of a two element LCP based patch antenna array is studied in this work. For the first time, the designed array is bent in both E and H planes to observe the effect on the radiation and impedance performance of the antenna. The 38 GHz simulation results reveal better performance for H plane bending as compared to E plane bending. A 100 um thick substrate is used for the design which is best suited for flexible antenna applications. Gain variations of 1.1 dB and 1.4 dB are observed for the two orientations while a significantly increased impedance bandwidth of 3 % is obtained with H plane wrapping. The design is highly suitable for broadband micro-cellular backhaul applications. © 2012 IEEE.

  13. First Metatarsophalangeal Joint Arthrodesis in Hallux Valgus Versus Hallux Rigidus Using Cup and Cone Preparation Compression Screw and Dorsal Plate Fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Calvin; Alfred, Terrence; Freihaut, Richard; Pit, Sabrina

    2017-10-19

    Various techniques have been described for first metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint arthrodesis. The purpose of this study was to determine if cup and cone preparation by a single surgeon with an interfragmentary screw and dorsal plate fixation provides a comparable union rate in hallux valgus versus hallux rigidus. Our study included all patients who underwent first MTP joint fusions using cup and cone preparation with an interfragmentary compression screw and dorsal plate fixation from 2010 to 2015. We compared union rates in 65 patients with hallux rigidus with 47 who had hallux valgus. One of 65 hallux rigidus cases developed non-union and underwent revision surgery. One of 47 patients in the hallux valgus group developed a painless non-union. All other patients achieved union based on post operative radiographs. Our rate of painful non-union was 1.5% for hallux rigidus and 0% for hallux valgus, which is lower than recent published literature of 7% for hallux valgus and 3.7% for hallux rigidus. We found no difference between the two groups suggesting this method may provide stronger fixation and may be preferable when dealing with hallux valgus. First metatarsophalangeal joint fusion in patients with severe hallux valgus and hallux rigidus, using spherical reamers, compression screw and dorsal plate fixation is equally successful at achieving clinical and radiographic fusion in both hallux valgus and hallux rigidus.

  14. 4D-CT scans reveal reduced magnitude of respiratory liver motion achieved by different abdominal compression plate positions in patients with intrahepatic tumors undergoing helical tomotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Yong, E-mail: hu.yong@zs-hospital.sh.cn; Zhou, Yong-Kang, E-mail: zhouyk2009@163.com; Chen, Yi-Xing, E-mail: chen.yixing@zs-hospital.sh.cn; Shi, Shi-Ming, E-mail: shiming32@126.com; Zeng, Zhao-Chong, E-mail: zeng.zhaochong@zs-hospital.sh.cn [Department of Radiation Oncology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, 180 Feng Lin Road, Shanghai 200032 (China)

    2016-07-15

    Purpose: While abdominal compression (AC) can be used to reduce respiratory liver motion in patients receiving helical tomotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma, the nature and extent of this effect is not well described. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the changes in magnitude of three-dimensional liver motion with abdominal compression using four-dimensional (4D) computed tomography (CT) images of several plate positions. Methods: From January 2012 to October 2015, 72 patients with intrahepatic carcinoma and divided into four groups underwent 4D-CT scans to assess respiratory liver motion. Of the 72 patients, 19 underwent abdominal compression of the cephalic area between the subxiphoid and umbilicus (group A), 16 underwent abdominal compression of the caudal region between the subxiphoid area and the umbilicus (group B), 11 patients underwent abdominal compression of the caudal umbilicus (group C), and 26 patients remained free breathing (group D). 4D-CT images were sorted into ten-image series, according to the respiratory phase from the end inspiration to the end expiration, and then transferred to treatment planning software. All liver contours were drawn by a single physician and confirmed by a second physician. Liver relative coordinates were automatically generated to calculate the liver respiratory motion in different axial directions to compile the 10 ten contours into a single composite image. Differences in respiratory liver motion were assessed with a one-way analysis of variance test of significance. Results: The average respiratory liver motion in the Y axial direction was 4.53 ± 1.16, 7.56 ± 1.30, 9.95 ± 2.32, and 9.53 ± 2.62 mm in groups A, B, C, and D, respectively, with a significant change among the four groups (p < 0.001). Abdominal compression was most effective in group A (compression plate on the subxiphoid area), with liver displacement being 2.53 ± 0.93, 4.53 ± 1.16, and 2.14 ± 0.92 mm on the X-, Y-, and Z

  15. Comparative study of bridge plate associated to the intramedullary pin and the dynamic compression plate on the experimental osteotomy fixation of femoral in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Clinical, radiographic, histological and scintigraphy analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, Natalie Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    The objectives were to benchmark and monitor the fracture healing of femoral osteotomy in rabbits after fixation with dynamic compression plate and bridge plate associated with intramedullary pin. Were used 14 New Zealand rabbits, four months old with mean weight of 3.5 pounds, from the Experimental Farm Professor Helio Barbosa of the Veterinary School of Minas Gerais Federal Univ. (UFMG). The animals were randomly divided into two groups (I and II). All rabbits underwent osteotomy across the middle third of right femur. In the group I was made to fix the osteotomy with the bridge plate (BP) associated with intramedullary pin, introduced the technique of minimal invasion. In group II, we used dynamic compression plate (DCP) via the conventional approach. Both groups were evaluated clinical, radiographic, histologic and scintigraphic findings. Clinical assessments were performed weekly until the 12 th postoperative week and radiographic examinations were performed before, immediately after, at 15, 30, 45, 60 and 90 days. The bone scintigraphy were performed before and at 20, 50 and 90 days after surgery to monitor the bone metabolism qualitatively and quantitatively. Observed perfusion and bone healing process. After 90 days of study, there was histopathologic evaluation of the osteotomized area and the insertion of screws. In the region of the osteotomy was observed predominance of trabecular bone in group I and group II, the predominance of bone osteons, compatible with the original bone. On insertion of the screws did not differ between groups and there was cortical discontinuity, little necrosis and local hemorrhage. The two types of fixation have led to consolidation within the scheduled period, maturing in early fixation with DCP fixation compared with BP. Scintigraphy demonstrated by the indices of activity and image characteristics, the process of bone healing was significantly greater in animals undergoing early fixation with DCP. (author)

  16. [Comparison of LCP and locked intramedullary nailing fixation in treatment of tibial diaphysis fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Peng; Tang, Peifu; Yao, Qi

    2007-11-01

    To evaluate the treatment results of LCP and locked intramedullary nailing for tibial diaphysis fractures. From October 2003 to April 2006, 55 patients with tibial diaphysis fractures (58 fractures) were treated. Of them there were 39 males and 16 females with an average of 39 years years ( 14 to 62 years). The fractures were on the left side in 27 patients and on the right side in 31 patients (3 patients had bilateral involvement). Thirty-four fractures were treated by intramedullary nailing (intramedullary nailing group) and 24 fractures by LCP fixation (LCP group). The average disease course was 3 days (intramedullary nailing group) and 3.1 days (LCP group). The operation time, the range of motion of knee and ankle joints, fracture healing time, and complications were evaluated. The patients were followed up 8-26 months (13 months on average). The operation time was 84.0+/-9.2 min (intramedullary nailing group) and 69.0+/-8.4 min (LCP group); the average cost in hospital was yen 19,297.78 in the intramedullary nailing group and yen 14,116.55 in the LCP group respectively, showing significant differences (P 0.05). The doral flexion and plantar flexion of ankle joint were 13.0+/-1.7 degrees and 41.0+/-2.6 degrees in intramedullary nailing group, and 10.0+/-1.4 degrees and 44.0+/-2.3 degrees in LCP group, showing no significant differences (P>0.05). The mean healing time was 3.3 months in intramedullary nailing group, and 3. 1 months in LCP group. Length discrepancy occurred in 1 case (2.5 cm), delayed union in 1 case and nailing end trouble in 3 cases in intramedullary nailing group; moreover rotation deformity occurred 1 case and anterior knee pain occurred in 6 cases (17.1%). One angulation and open fracture developed osteomyelitis in 1 case 1 week postoperatively and angulation deformity occurred in 1 case of distal-third tibial fractures in LCP group. LCP and locked intramedullary nailing can achieve satisfactory results in treating tibial diaphysis fracture

  17. The Impact of Nitinol Staples on the Compressive Forces, Contact Area, and Mechanical Properties in Comparison to a Claw Plate and Crossed Screws for the First Tarsometatarsal Arthrodesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiyer, Amiethab; Russell, Nicholas A; Pelletier, Matthew H; Myerson, Mark; Walsh, William R

    2016-06-01

    Background The optimal fixation method for the first tarsometatarsal arthrodesis remains controversial. This study aimed to develop a reproducible first tarsometatarsal testing model to evaluate the biomechanical performance of different reconstruction techniques. Methods Crossed screws or a claw plate were compared with a single or double shape memory alloy staple configuration in 20 Sawbones models. Constructs were mechanically tested in 4-point bending to 1, 2, and 3 mm of plantar displacement. The joint contact force and area were measured at time zero, and following 1 and 2 mm of bending. Peak load, stiffness, and plantar gapping were determined. Results Both staple configurations induced a significantly greater contact force and area across the arthrodesis than the crossed screw and claw plate constructs at all measurements. The staple constructs completely recovered their plantar gapping following each test. The claw plate generated the least contact force and area at the joint interface and had significantly greater plantar gapping than all other constructs. The crossed screw constructs were significantly stiffer and had significantly less plantar gapping than the other constructs, but this gapping was not recoverable. Conclusions Crossed screw fixation provides a rigid arthrodesis with limited compression and contact footprint across the joint. Shape memory alloy staples afford dynamic fixation with sustained compression across the arthrodesis. A rigid polyurethane foam model provides an anatomically relevant comparison for evaluating the interface between different fixation techniques. Clinical Relevance The dynamic nature of shape memory alloy staples offers the potential to permit early weight bearing and could be a useful adjunctive device to impart compression across an arthrodesis of the first tarsometatarsal joint. Therapeutic, Level V: Bench testing. © 2015 The Author(s).

  18. Fabrication of carbon-polymer composite bipolar plates for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells by compression moulding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raza, M.A.; Ahmed, R.; Saleem, A.; Din, R.U.

    2009-01-01

    Fuel cells are considered as one of the most important technologies to address the future energy and environmental pollution problems. These are the most promising power sources for road transportation and portable devices. A fuel cell is an electrochemical device that converts chemical energy into electrical energy. A fuel cell stack consists of bipolar plates and membrane electrode assemblies (MEA). The bipolar plate is by weight, volume and cost one of the most significant components of a fuel cell stack. Major functions of bipolar plates are to separate oxidant and fuel gas, provide flow channels, conduct electricity and provide heat transfer. Bipolar plates can be made from various materials including graphite, metals, carbon / carbon and carbon/ polymer composites. Materials for carbon-polymer composites are relatively inexpensive, less corrosive, strong and channels can be formed by means of a moulding process. Carbon-polymer composites are of two type i.e; thermosetting and thermoplastic. For thermosetting composite a bulk molding compound (BMC) was prepared by adding graphite, vinyl ester resin, methyl ethyl ketone peroxide and cobalt naphthalate. The BMC was thoroughly mixed, poured into a die mould of a bipolar plate with channels and hot pressed at a specific temperature and pressure. A bipolar plate was formed according to the die mould. Design of the mould is also discussed. Conducting polymers were also added to BMC to increase the conductivity of bipolar plates. Particle size of the graphite has also a significant effect on the conductivity of the bipolar plates. Thermoplastic composites were also prepared using polypropylene and graphite.

  19. Stainless Steel 2.0-mm Locking Compression Plate Osteosynthesis System for the Fixation of Comminuted Hand Fractures in Asian Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hing-Cheong Wong

    2011-12-01

    Conclusions: The stainless steel 2.0-mm LCP is useful for the fixation of unstable comminuted hand fractures, especially in metacarpal bones, because of its advantage of better stability, which allows more aggressive rehabilitation. However, its design is not very versatile and, therefore, limits its use in the finger region. Its bulkiness frequently causes implant impingement. The patients must be informed about the chance of implant removal later.

  20. Double-plating of ovine critical sized defects of the tibia: a low morbidity model enabling continuous in vivo monitoring of bone healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pearce Alexandra

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies using sheep critical sized defect models to test tissue engineered products report high morbidity and complications rates. This study evaluates a large bone defect model in the sheep tibia, stabilized with two, a novel Carbon fibre Poly-ether-ether-ketone (CF-PEEK and a locking compression plate (LCP which could sustain duration for up to 6 month with an acceptable low complication rate. Methods A large bone defect of 3 cm was performed in the mid diaphysis of the right tibia in 33 sheep. The defect was stabilised with the CF - PEEK plate and an LCP. All sheep were supported with slings for 8 weeks after surgery. The study was carried out for 3 months in 6 and for 6 months in 27 animals. Results The surgical procedure could easily be performed in all sheep and continuous in vivo radiographic evaluation of the defect was possible. This long bone critical sized defect model shows with 6.1% a low rate of complications compared with numbers mentioned in the literature. Conclusions This experimental animal model could serve as a standard model in comparative research. A well defined standard model would reduce the number of experimental animals needed in future studies and would therefore add to ethical considerations.

  1. Effect of stainless steel and titanium low-contact dynamic compression plate application on the vascularity and mechanical properties of cortical bone after fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, R; Podworny, N; Hearn, T; Anderson, G I; Schemitsch, E H

    1997-10-01

    Comparison of the effect of stainless steel and titanium low-contact dynamic compression plate application on the vascularity and mechanical properties of cortical bone after fracture. Randomized, prospective. Orthopaedic research laboratory. Ten large (greater than twenty-five kilogram) adult dogs. A short, midshaft spiral tibial fracture was created, followed by lag screw fixation and neutralization with an eight-hole, 3.5-millimeter, low-contact dynamic compression plate (LCDCP) made of either 316L stainless steel (n = five) or commercially pure titanium (n = five). After surgery, animals were kept with unrestricted weight-bearing in individual stalls for ten weeks. Cortical bone blood flow was assessed by laser Doppler flowmetry using a standard metalshafted probe (Periflux Pf303, Perimed, Jarfalla, Sweden) applied through holes in the custom-made LCDCPs at five sites. Bone blood flow was determined at four times: (a) prefracture, (b) postfracture, (c) postplating, and (d) ten weeks postplating. After the dogs were killed, the implant was removed and both the treated tibia and contralateral tibia were tested for bending stiffness and load to failure. Fracture creation decreased cortical perfusion in both groups at the fracture site (p = 0.02). The application of neither stainless steel nor titanium LCDCPs further decreased cortical bone blood flow after fracture creation. However, at ten weeks postplating, cortical perfusion significantly increased compared with acute postplating levels in the stainless steel (p = 0.003) and titanium (p = 0.001) groups. Cortical bone blood flow ten weeks postplating was not significantly different between the titanium group and the stainless steel group. Biomechanical tests performed on the tibiae with the plates removed did not reveal any differences in bending stiffness nor load required to cause failure between the two groups. Both titanium and stainless steel LCDCPs were equally effective in allowing revascularization, and

  2. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF FUNCTIONAL OUTCOMES OF FRACTURE SHAFT HUMERUS IN ADULTS TREATED WITH DYNAMIC COMPRESSION PLATING AND INTERLOCKING NAILING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagesh Desai

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Opti m al m ethod of hu m eral shaft f r acture f i xation remains in debate till date. Two techniq u es under study include i n tra m edullary nailing and dyna m ic co m pression plate fixation. Plating provides satisfactory results but requires extensive dissection and m eticulous radial nerve protection. Theoretical advantage of intra m ed u llary nailing included less invasive surgery, undisturbed fractu r e hemato m a and use of load sharing device support. Purpose of this study is to co m p are o u tco m es of each m ethod of fixation for fracture shaft of humerus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: P atients with diaphyseal fractures of the hu m erus were divided in two groups of 20 treated with dynam i c co m pression plate or w i th i n tra m edullary interlocking nail. Postoperatively both groups received sa m e type of physiotherapy. They were followed up regularly . T i me taken for radiological union in two groups was co m pared. After satisfactory radiological un i on, functional out c o m e was assessed by “Disabilities of Hand, Shoulder and Elbow (DASH Questionnaire”. RESULTS: F unctional outco m e was better in DCP group co m pared to int e rloc ki ng nailing group which was statistically significant ( P = 0.062. Rate of healing was marginally better in DCP group as compared to I.M nail. CONCLUSION: W e are of opi n i on that when s u r ge r y is opted as a c h oice of treat m ent, both modalities of treat m ent i.e. dyn a m i c co m pression plating and interlocking nailing are good as far as union of fracture is concerned, but considering number of co m plications and functional outco m e, we opine that d y na m i c co m p ression plating o f f ers bett e r result than anteg r ade i n te r l ocking nailing with respect to pain and function of shoulder joint

  3. Study of the microstructural evolution and rheological behavior by semisolid compression between parallel plate of the alloy A356 solidified under a continuously rotating magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leiva L, Ricardo; Sanchez V, Cristian; Mannheim C, Rodolfo; Bustos C, Oscar

    2004-01-01

    This work presents a study of the rheological behavior of the alloy A356, with and without continuous magnetic agitation during its solidification, in semisolid state. The evaluation was performed using a parallel plate compression rheometer with the digital recording of position and time data. The microstructural evolution was also studied at the start and end of the semisolid compression test. The procedure involved tests of short cylinders extracted from billets with a non dendritic microstructure cast under a continuously rotating magnetic field. These pieces were tested in different solid fractions, at constant charges and at constant deformation velocities. When the test is carried out at a constant charge the equation can be determined that governs the rheological behavior of the material in semisolid state following a power grade of two Ostwald-de-Waele parameters. But when the test is done at a constant deformation speed the flow behavior of the material can be described in the semisolid shaping process. The results obtained show that the morphology of the phases present in the microstructure is highly relevant to its rheological behavior. A globular coalesced rosette to rosette type microstructure was found to have the typical behavior of a fluid when shaped in a semisolid state but a cast dendritic structure did not behave this way. Also the Arrhenius type dependence of viscosity with temperature was established (CW)

  4. Histidine at Position 195 is Essential for Association of Heme-b in Lcp1VH2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oetermann, Sylvia; Vivod, Robin; Hiessl, Sebastian; Hogeback, Jens; Holtkamp, Michael; Karst, Uwe; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2018-03-01

    The latex clearing protein (Lcp) is the key enzyme of polyisoprene degradation in actinomycetes (Yikmis and Steinbüchel in Appl Environ Microbiol 78:4543-4551, https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.00001-12, 2012). In this study it was shown that Lcp from Gordonia polyisoprenivorans VH2 (Lcp1VH2) harbors a non-covalently bound heme b as cofactor, which was identified by pyridine hemochrome spectra and confirmed by LC/ESI-ToF-MS. It contains iron, most likely in the Fe3+ state. We focused on the characterization of the heme-cofactor, its accessibility with respect to the conformation of Lcp1VH2, and the identification of putative histidine residues involved in the coordination of heme. A change was detectable in UV/Vis-spectra of reduced Lcp1VH2 when imidazole was added, showing that Lcp1VH2 "as isolated" occurs in an open state, directly being accessible for external ligands. In addition, three highly conserved histidines (H195, H200 and H228), presumably acting as ligands coordinating the heme within the heme pocket, were replaced with alanines by site-directed mutagenesis. The effect of these changes on in vivo rubber-mineralization was investigated. The lcp- deletion mutant complemented with the H195A variant of lcp1 VH2 was unable to mineralize poly(cis-1,4-isoprene). In vitro analyses of purified, recombinant Lcp1VH2H195A confirmed the loss of enzyme activity, which could be ascribed to the loss of heme. Hence, H195 is essential for the association of heme-b in the central region of Lcp1VH2.

  5. Three-dimensional RF SoP technologies: LTCC versus LCP

    KAUST Repository

    Arabi, Eyad A.; Shamim, Atif

    2014-01-01

    or cover but is a functional part of the system. The leading multilayer packaging technologies for SoP designs: low temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) and liquid crystal polymer (LCP) are compared in this work for the first time. Passive components

  6. Comparison of filters: Inkjet printed on PEN substrate versus a laser-etched on LCP substrate

    KAUST Repository

    Arabi, Eyad A.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, microstrip-based bandpass filters on polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) and liquid crystal polymers (LCP) are presented to investigate the performance of filters on ultra-thin substrates. PEN (with a thickness of 120 μm) has been characterized and used for a filter for the first time. In addition to being low cost and transparent, it demonstrates comparable RF performance to LCP. The conductor losses are compared by fabricating filters with inkjet printed lines as well as laser etched copper clad LCP sheets. With 5 layers of inkjet printing, and a curing temperature below 200°C, a final silver thickness of 2 μm and conductivity of 9.6 × 106 S/m are achieved. The designs are investigated at two frequencies, 24 GHz as well as 5 GHz to assess their performance at high and low frequencies respectively. The 24 GHz inkjet printed filter shows an insertion loss of 2 dB, while the 5 GHz design gives an insertion loss of 8 dB. We find that thin substrates have a strong effect on the insertion loss of filters especially as the frequency is reduced. The same design, realized on LCP (thickness of 100 μm) through laser etching, demonstrates a very similar performance, thus verifying this finding. © 2014 European Microwave Association.

  7. Comparison of filters: Inkjet printed on PEN substrate versus a laser-etched on LCP substrate

    KAUST Repository

    Arabi, Eyad A.; McKerricher, Garret; Shamim, Atif

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, microstrip-based bandpass filters on polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) and liquid crystal polymers (LCP) are presented to investigate the performance of filters on ultra-thin substrates. PEN (with a thickness of 120 μm) has been characterized and used for a filter for the first time. In addition to being low cost and transparent, it demonstrates comparable RF performance to LCP. The conductor losses are compared by fabricating filters with inkjet printed lines as well as laser etched copper clad LCP sheets. With 5 layers of inkjet printing, and a curing temperature below 200°C, a final silver thickness of 2 μm and conductivity of 9.6 × 106 S/m are achieved. The designs are investigated at two frequencies, 24 GHz as well as 5 GHz to assess their performance at high and low frequencies respectively. The 24 GHz inkjet printed filter shows an insertion loss of 2 dB, while the 5 GHz design gives an insertion loss of 8 dB. We find that thin substrates have a strong effect on the insertion loss of filters especially as the frequency is reduced. The same design, realized on LCP (thickness of 100 μm) through laser etching, demonstrates a very similar performance, thus verifying this finding. © 2014 European Microwave Association.

  8. Users Manual for the Program LCP2 (Version 2.40)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaunholt, Hans

    1996-01-01

    LCP2 (Linear Circuit Program) is developed as an analysis and optimization tool to be used in the design of passive, active and digital filters with arbitrary structures. By the aid of an optimization loop the program may be used to solve nonlinear design equations for active filter structures or...

  9. CO2 Sparging Proof of Concept Test Report, Revision 1, LCP Chemicals Site, Brunswick, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    April 2013 report to evaluate the feasibility of CO2 sparging to remediate a sub-surface caustic brine pool (CBP) at the LCP Chemicals Superfund Site, GA. Region ID : 04, DocID: 10940639 , DocDate: 2013-04-01

  10. A fast Linear Complementarity Problem (LCP) solver for separating fluid-solid wall boundary Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Michael; Abel, Sarah Maria Niebe; Erleben, Kenny

    2017-01-01

    We address the task of computing solutions for a separating fluid-solid wall boundary condition model. We present an embarrassingly parallel, easy to implement, fluid LCP solver.We are able to use greater domain sizes than previous works have shown, due to our new solver. The solver exploits matr...

  11. Filling Open Screw Holes in the Area of Metaphyseal Comminution Does Not Affect Fatigue Life of the Synthes Variable Angle Distal Femoral Locking Plate in the AO/OTA 33-A3 Fracture Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, Luis; Collon, Kevin; Alhandi, Ali; Kaimrajh, David; Varon, Maria; Latta, Loren; Vilella, Fernando

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the biomechanical effect of filling locking variable angle (VA) screw holes at the area of metaphyseal fracture comminution in a Sawbones® (Sawbones USA, Vashon, Washington) model (AO/OTA 33A-3 fracture) using a Synthes VA locking compression plate (LCP) (Depuy Synthes, Warsaw, Indiana). Seven Sawbones® femur models had a Synthes VA-LCP placed as indicated by the manufacturers technique. A 4cm osteotomy was then created to simulate an AO/OTA 33-A3 femoral fracture pattern with metaphyseal comminution. The control group consisted of four constructs in which the open screw holes at the area of comminution were left unfilled; the experimental group consisted of three constructs in which the VA screw holes were filled with locking screws. One of the control constructs was statically loaded to failure at a rate of 5mm/min. A value equal to 75% of the ultimate load to failure was used as the loading force for fatigue testing of 250,000 cycles at 3Hz. Cycles to failure was recorded for each construct and averages were compared between groups. The average number of cycles to failure in the control and experimental groups were 37524±8187 and 43304±23835, respectively (p=0.72). No significant difference was observed with respect to cycles to failure or mechanism of failure between groups. In all constructs in both the control and experimental groups, plate failure reproducibly occurred with cracks through the variable angle holes in the area of bridged comminution. The Synthes VA-LCP in a simulated AO/OTA 33-A3 comminuted metaphyseal femoral fracture fails in a reproducible manner at the area of comminution through the "honeycomb" VA screw holes. Filling open VA screw holes at the site of comminution with locking screws does not increase fatigue life of the Synthes VA-LCP in a simulated AO/OTA 33-A3 distal femoral fracture. Further studies are necessary to determine whether use of this particular plate is contraindicated when bridging

  12. Locking internal fixator with minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis for the proximal and distal tibial fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TONG Da-ke

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To investigate the efficacy of the locking internal fixator (LIF, which includes the locking compression plate (LCP and the less invasive stable system (LISS, in the proximal and distal tibial fractures. Methods: We did a retrospective study on a total of 98 patients with either proximal or distal tibial fractures from January 2003 to January 2007, who had received the opera- tion with LIF by the minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO technique. The data consisted of 43 proximal tibial fractures (type AO41C3 and 55 distal tibial fractures (type AO43C3. Results: No complications were observed in all patients after operation. The mean healing time was 8.4 months (range 5-14 months. Only two cases of delayed union occurred at postoperative 10 months. No infections were reported after the definitive surgery even in the cases of open fractures. All patients reached a full range of motion at postoperative 6 to 9 months and regained the normal functions of knee and ankle joints. Conclusion: Using LIF in MIPO technique is a reliable approach towards the proximal and distal tibial fractures that are not suitable for intramedullary nailing. Key words: Internal fixator; Tibial fractures; Fracture fixation, intramedullary; Bone plates

  13. COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN TITANIUM ELASTIC NAILING (TENS AND DYNAMIC COMPRESSION PLATING (DCP IN THE TREATMENT OF FEMORAL DIAPHYSEAL FRACTURES IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramasubba Reddy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Orthopaedic surgeons have long maintained that all children who have sustained a diaphyseal fracture of femur recover with c onservative treatment, given the excellent remodeling ability of immature bone in children. Angulations, shortenings and malrotations are not always corrected by conservative treatment. Of many surgical options, titanium elastic nailing has been the newer implant which is being used regularly. Although good results have been reported with elastic intramedullary nails, plate fixation continues to be a viable alternative in surgical treatment of femoral shaft fractures. However there are not many studies comp aring the efficiency of titanium elastic nailing and plating for femoral diaphyseal fractures in pediatric age group. AIM : The present study aims to compare the surgical management of diaphyseal fractures of femur in children with Dynamic Compression Plati ng versus Titanium Elastic Nailing. DESIGN : This is a prospective study . MATERIALS AND METHODS : This prospective study was conducted in a tertiary hospital. Patients who presented to the out - patient department and casualty of the hospital with femoral diap hyseal fractures during April 2012 to June 2014 were considered for the study. Subjects fulfilling the predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria were included in the study. STATISTICAL METHODS : Fisher Exact test, Chi - Square Test, Student t test (Two t ailed, independent . RESULTS : Patients in the age group of 6 - 14 years were considered for the study, Patients were divided into two groups and treated with DCP/TENS. The duration of surgery, hospital stay, and, amount of blood loss was minimal in TENS grou p. Callus was seen early in TENS group. Radiological union was early in TENS group by 2 - 3 weeks. Outcome was better in patients treated with TENS (Excellent - 70%; Satisfactory – 30%; Poor - 0% in comparison to DCP (Excellent - 70%; Satisfactory - 25%; Poor - 5%. CO NCLUSION : TENS

  14. LCP method for a planar passive dynamic walker based on an event-driven scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xu-Dong; Wang, Qi

    2018-06-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to present a linear complementarity problem (LCP) method for a planar passive dynamic walker with round feet based on an event-driven scheme. The passive dynamic walker is treated as a planar multi-rigid-body system. The dynamic equations of the passive dynamic walker are obtained by using Lagrange's equations of the second kind. The normal forces and frictional forces acting on the feet of the passive walker are described based on a modified Hertz contact model and Coulomb's law of dry friction. The state transition problem of stick-slip between feet and floor is formulated as an LCP, which is solved with an event-driven scheme. Finally, to validate the methodology, four gaits of the walker are simulated: the stance leg neither slips nor bounces; the stance leg slips without bouncing; the stance leg bounces without slipping; the walker stands after walking several steps.

  15. Effect of MWNTs and SiC-Coated MWNTs on Properties of PEEK/LCP Blend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh Chandra Nayak

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs were modified with polycarbosilane-derived silicon carbide (SiC to improve its dispersion in the polymer matrix. PEEK/LCP/MWNTs nanocomposites were prepared by melt blending. TEM images show the improved dispersion of SiC-coated MWNTs against agglomerated structure of pure MWNTs in the blend. FESEM images shows better fibrillation of LCP in presence of SiC-coated MWNTs. TGA reveals that nanocomposites with SiC-coated MWNTs shows higher thermal stability than MWNTs filled blend system. Based on enhanced dispersion, storage modulus, tensile modulus and tensile strength were increased drastically with the incorporation of SiC-coated MWNTs. Glass transition temperature of the nanocomposites shows significant improvement with the incorporation of MWNTs.

  16. Dynamic compression plate (DCP) fixation of propagating medial condylar fractures of the third metacarpal/metatarsal bone in 30 racehorses: retrospective analysis (1990-2005).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, L R; Nixon, A J; Conway, J D; Morley, P S; Bladon, B M; Hogan, P M

    2014-11-01

    An in-depth review of dynamic compression plate (DCP) fixation of propagating medial condyle fractures of the third metacarpus or metatarsus has not been previously reported. To describe the technique, evaluate short-term outcome and long-term race performance of racehorses that underwent DCP fixation for repair of propagating or spiralling medial condylar fractures of the third metacarpal (McIII) or metatarsal (MtIII) bone. Retrospective case series. The surgical case records of 30 horses with propagating fractures of the medial condyle of McIII or MtIII were reviewed. Medical information included: age, breed, sex, presentation, how injury occurred (racing or training), surgical treatment and post operative complications. Racing information included: starts, top 3 placing and career earnings. Long propagating fractures of the medial condyle of Mc/tIII were identified in 23 Thoroughbred (TB) and 7 Standardbred (STB) racehorses. The fracture spiralled proximally in 22 of 30 cases (73%). Standardbreds had a higher propensity for hindlimb involvement (71%), whereas TBs tended to have more front limb involvement (61%). Twelve of 30 (40%) horses raced post surgery. Career earnings were significantly lower for TB horses with medial condylar fractures; $34,916 when compared with the national average of $60,841 (P≤0.03). Overall, horses having DCP fixation for medial condylar fractures had less starts post surgery (3.1 TBs and 5.8 STBs) compared with the national average (7 TBs and 17.3 STBs) and decreased lifetime starts 13.4 (TBs) compared with 17.3 nationally. Propagating medial condyle fractures can be repaired with plate fixation to potentially lessen the risk of catastrophic fracture destabilisation and return to racing can be expected in 40% of horses. Further prospective studies are warranted comparing lag screw fixation with DCP fixation for repair of severe medial condylar fractures of the metacarpus/metatarsus. © 2013 The Authors. Equine Veterinary Journal

  17. A PROSPECTIVE STUDY ON FUNCTIONAL OUTCOME OF HUMERUS SHAFT FRACTURES TREATED WITH OPEN REDUCTION AND INTERNAL FIXATION WITH DYNAMIC COMPRESSION PLATE AND SCREWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidyadhar S. Donimath

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Fracture of the humerus shaft accounts to 3% to 5% of all fractures. Majority of the fractures are unstable due to distraction force of the gravity in the upper limb and strong muscle contraction leading to displacement. Internal fixation and early mobilisation is more stressed on than splinting and prolonged immobilisation to allow earlier mobilisation and rapid return to work. The aim of the study was to study the union rates and the functional outcome and complications associated with shaft humerus fractures in KIMS Hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS A prospective study which was carried out from October 2015 to September 2017 in Karnataka Institute of Medical Sciences, Hubballi, Karnataka State, India. In this study period, 25 cases of fracture shaft of the humerus were treated by open reduction and internal fixation using DCP. Skeletally mature patients with fresh humerus diaphysis fractures were included in the study. Pathological fractures and Tscherne grade 2 and above, Gustilo Anderson type2 and above were excluded from the study. RESULTS In our series of 25 cases, there were 21 men and 4 women with average age of 42.5 years. Sixteen (64% cases were due to RTA and with predominance of right side. Transverse fractures were most common that is 15 (60% patients. Eleven (31% cases were having associated injuries. 92% of the fractures united with good to excellent outcome. There were 2 (8% cases of non-union due to infection and comminution. CONCLUSION Open reduction and internal fixation with dynamic compression plate is still the standard treatment of choice for fracture shaft of humerus achieving excellent to good functional outcome.

  18. Liquid Crystal Polymer (LCP) based antenna for flexible system on package (SoP) applications

    KAUST Repository

    Marnat, Loic; Shamim, Atif

    2012-01-01

    The design, fabrication and measurement of a bowtie antenna on a flexible Liquid Crystal Polymer (LCP) substrate is reported in this paper. The antenna is fed by a balun transition which helps improve the gain up to 5.1 dB. The antenna performance is analyzed for both planar and curved substrates. The comparison between simulation and measurements shows a good agreement. This structure can either be used to sense the bending of the substrate or use the bending to tilt the beam. © 2012 IEEE.

  19. Liquid Crystal Polymer (LCP) based antenna for flexible system on package (SoP) applications

    KAUST Repository

    Marnat, Loic

    2012-06-01

    The design, fabrication and measurement of a bowtie antenna on a flexible Liquid Crystal Polymer (LCP) substrate is reported in this paper. The antenna is fed by a balun transition which helps improve the gain up to 5.1 dB. The antenna performance is analyzed for both planar and curved substrates. The comparison between simulation and measurements shows a good agreement. This structure can either be used to sense the bending of the substrate or use the bending to tilt the beam. © 2012 IEEE.

  20. Thermal conductivity of a graphite bipolar plate (BPP) and its thermal contact resistance with fuel cell gas diffusion layers: Effect of compression, PTFE, micro porous layer (MPL), BPP out-of-flatness and cyclic load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghifar, Hamidreza; Djilali, Ned; Bahrami, Majid

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on measurements of thermal conductivity of a graphite bipolar plate (BPP) as a function of temperature and its thermal contact resistance (TCR) with treated and untreated gas diffusion layers (GDLs). The thermal conductivity of the BPP decreases with temperature and its thermal contact resistance with GDLs, which has been overlooked in the literature, is found to be dominant over a relatively wide range of compression. The effects of PTFE loading, micro porous layer (MPL), compression, and BPP out-of-flatness are also investigated experimentally. It is found that high PTFE loadings, MPL and even small BPP out-of-flatness increase the BPP-GDL thermal contact resistance dramatically. The paper also presents the effect of cyclic load on the total resistance of a GDL-BPP assembly, which sheds light on the behavior of these materials under operating conditions in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells.

  1. Short-term supplementation of low-dose gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), or GLA plus ALA does not augment LCP omega 3 status of Dutch vegans to an appreciable extent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, M R; Brouwer, D A; Hasperhoven, M B; Martini, I A; Muskiet, F A

    Vegans do not consume meat and fish and have therefore low intakes of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP). They may consequently have little negative feedback inhibition from dietary LCP on conversion of alpha -linolenic acid (ALA) to the LCP omega 3 eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and

  2. Miniaturized and Ferrite Based Tunable Bandpass Filters in LCP and LTCC Technologies for SoP Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Arabi, Eyad A.

    2015-01-01

    , namely low temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) and the liquid crystal polymers (LCP) is demonstrated. The miniaturized filter is based on a second order topology, which has been modified to improve the selectivity and out-of-band rejection without

  3. Identification of three homologous latex-clearing protein (lcp) genes from the genome of Streptomyces sp. strain CFMR 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanthini, Jayaram; Ong, Su Yean; Sudesh, Kumar

    2017-09-10

    Rubber materials have greatly contributed to human civilization. However, being a polymeric material does not decompose easily, it has caused huge environmental problems. On the other hand, only few bacteria are known to degrade rubber, with studies pertaining them being intensively focusing on the mechanism involved in microbial rubber degradation. The Streptomyces sp. strain CFMR 7, which was previously confirmed to possess rubber-degrading ability, was subjected to whole genome sequencing using the single molecule sequencing technology of the PacBio® RS II system. The genome was further analyzed and compared with previously reported rubber-degrading bacteria in order to identify the potential genes involved in rubber degradation. This led to the interesting discovery of three homologues of latex-clearing protein (Lcp) on the chromosome of this strain, which are probably responsible for rubber degrading activities. Genes encoding oxidoreductase α-subunit (oxiA) and oxidoreductase β-subunit (oxiB) were also found downstream of two lcp genes which are located adjacent to each other. In silico analysis reveals genes that have been identified to be involved in the microbial degradation of rubber in the Streptomyces sp. strain CFMR 7. This is the first whole genome sequence of a clear-zone-forming natural rubber- degrading Streptomyces sp., which harbours three Lcp homologous genes with the presence of oxiA and oxiB genes compared to the previously reported Gordonia polyisoprenivorans strain VH2 (with two Lcp homologous genes) and Nocardia nova SH22a (with only one Lcp gene). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. An in vitro biomechanical comparison of equine proximal interphalangeal joint arthrodesis techniques: an axial positioned dynamic compression plate and two abaxial transarticular cortical screws inserted in lag fashion versus three parallel transarticular cortical screws inserted in lag fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sod, Gary A; Riggs, Laura M; Mitchell, Colin F; Hubert, Jeremy D; Martin, George S

    2010-01-01

    To compare in vitro monotonic biomechanical properties of an axial 3-hole, 4.5 mm narrow dynamic compression plate (DCP) using 5.5 mm cortical screws in conjunction with 2 abaxial transarticular 5.5 mm cortical screws inserted in lag fashion (DCP-TLS) with 3 parallel transarticular 5.5 mm cortical screws inserted in lag fashion (3-TLS) for the equine proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint arthrodesis. Paired in vitro biomechanical testing of 2 methods of stabilizing cadaveric adult equine forelimb PIP joints. Cadaveric adult equine forelimbs (n=15 pairs). For each forelimb pair, 1 PIP joint was stabilized with an axial 3-hole narrow DCP (4.5 mm) using 5.5 mm cortical screws in conjunction with 2 abaxial transarticular 5.5 mm cortical screws inserted in lag fashion and 1 with 3 parallel transarticular 5.5 mm cortical screws inserted in lag fashion. Five matching pairs of constructs were tested in single cycle to failure under axial compression, 5 construct pairs were tested for cyclic fatigue under axial compression, and 5 construct pairs were tested in single cycle to failure under torsional loading. Mean values for each fixation method were compared using a paired t-test within each group with statistical significance set at Pcycle to failure, of the DCP-TLS fixation were significantly greater than those of the 3-TLS fixation. Mean cycles to failure in axial compression of the DCP-TLS fixation was significantly greater than that of the 3-TLS fixation. The DCP-TLS was superior to the 3-TLS in resisting the static overload forces and in resisting cyclic fatigue. The results of this in vitro study may provide information to aid in the selection of a treatment modality for arthrodesis of the equine PIP joint.

  5. Fuel cell end plate structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Robin J.; Katz, Murray; Schroll, Craig R.

    1991-04-23

    The end plates (16) of a fuel cell stack (12) are formed of a thin membrane. Pressure plates (20) exert compressive load through insulation layers (22, 26) to the membrane. Electrical contact between the end plates (16) and electrodes (50, 58) is maintained without deleterious making and breaking of electrical contacts during thermal transients. The thin end plate (16) under compressive load will not distort with a temperature difference across its thickness. Pressure plate (20) experiences a low thermal transient because it is insulated from the cell. The impact on the end plate of any slight deflection created in the pressure plate by temperature difference is minimized by the resilient pressure pad, in the form of insulation, therebetween.

  6. Analytic study of plastic instabilities during tension or compression tests on a metallic plate bi-axially loaded in its plane: symmetric and antisymmetric modes with respect to the median plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouve, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    This report is a continuation of the thesis [23], devoted to the onset of necking plastic instabilities during tension tests on metallic plates bi-axially loaded in their plane. We are also interested here in compression tests, and in the development of antisymmetric defects with respect to the median plane of the plate. As in the thesis, we search for the dominant mode, i.e. the most unstable pair of wavelengths (λ1, λ2) in the loading plane. An approximate analytical formulation for the growth rate is proposed, especially for plane-strain tests in the absence of viscous effects, and for static tests in tension in the x1 and x2 loading directions. In that latter case, we retrieve published results [14][15]. For plane-strain tests, we show that infinitely dense networks of shear bands inclined at 45 deg. with respect to the loading direction instantaneously occur when heat softening prevails over work-hardening. (author)

  7. Emission inventory for large combustion plants in France according to the 2001/80/CE European directive - LCP - February 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Jean-Pierre; Fontelle, Jean-Pierre; Gavel, Antoine; Vincent, Julien; Matthias, Etienne; Druart, Ariane; Jacquier, Guillaume; Nicco, Laetitia

    2010-02-01

    After a recall of the methodological aspects of this inventory (scope of application, concept of existing or new installation, thermal power, fuels, considered pollutants, equipment, data acquisition and processing), this report presents the national results: typology of large combustion plant (LCP) installations, energy consumption, atmospheric emissions (sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, particles), emission distribution per energy type, sector-based distribution of LCPs. It also presents regional results (for 2008 and evolutions in 2009)

  8. Less invasive plate osteosynthesis in humeral shaft fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apivatthakakul, Theerachai; Phornphutkul, Chanakarn; Laohapoonrungsee, Anupong; Sirirungruangsarn, Yuddhasert

    2009-12-01

    conventional screws in each fragment. Between January 2003 and January 2006, 23 patients were operated on using the less invasive plate osteosynthesis technique. The minimum follow-up period of 12 months was completed in 20 patients. The mean healing time was 14.6 weeks, defined as three of four cortices having stable bridging callus. In one patient with delayed union, healing was observed after 28 weeks. Functional outcomes were evaluated using the Constant Score and the Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) Score. 19 patients had good to excellent elbow function with a mean HSS Score of 93.5 points. All patients achieved satisfactory shoulder function with a mean Constant Score of 85.8 points compared to 90.6 on the healthy side. Complications observed were one paresthesia of lateral cutaneous nerve of forearm (no radial nerve injury) and one loosening of the LCP (Locking Compression Plate) screws due to technical error.

  9. Resultados de tratamento cirúrgico da pseudoartrose de fratura diafisária do úmero com placa de compressão dinâmica e enxerto de osso esponjoso Results of surgical treatment of nonunion of humeral shaft fracture with dynamic compression plate and cancellous bone grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olasinde Anthony Ayotunde

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliamos o tratamento da pseudoartrose de fratura diafisária do úmero com placa de compressão dinâmica de janeiro de 2002 a dezembro de 2009. MÉTODOS: Vinte e dois pacientes foram tratados durante o período do estudo. O trauma foi a causa predominante de lesão em 86,4% dos pacientes. RESULTADOS: A pseudoartrose foi atrófica em 81,8% e hipertrófica em 18,2% dos indivíduos. Havia lesão primária do nervo radial nervo em 27,3% dos pacientes. Todos os participantes tinham fratura fechada à apresentação e 81,2% deles tinham recebido tratamento anterior de traditional bone setters (pessoa que faz a redução de ossos quebrados ou deslocados, geralmente sem ser médico licenciado e 18,8% tinham falha do tratamento conservador com gesso. O tempo médio até a união foi 16 semanas. O tratamento anterior com traditional bone setters afetou significantemente o tempo de consolidação da fratura (p OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the treatment of nonunion of humeral shaft fracture with dynamic compression plate from January 2002 to December 2009. METHODS: Twenty two patients were treated over the study period. Trauma was the predominant cause of injury in 86,4% of the patients. RESULTS: Nonunion was atrophic in 81,8% and hypertrophic in 18,2% of the individuals. There was a primary injury of the radial nerve in 27,3% of the patients. All the participants had closed fracture at presentation, and 81,2% had received previous treatment from traditional bone setters and 18,8% had failure of the conservative cast management.The average time to healing was 16 weeks. Previous treatment from traditional bone setters significantly affected the time to fracture healing (p<0,05. All fractures had successful union. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that dynamic compression plating remains an effective treatment option for nonunion of humeral shaft fracture. Level of Evidence III, Retrospective study.

  10. DNABIT Compress - Genome compression algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajarajeswari, Pothuraju; Apparao, Allam

    2011-01-22

    Data compression is concerned with how information is organized in data. Efficient storage means removal of redundancy from the data being stored in the DNA molecule. Data compression algorithms remove redundancy and are used to understand biologically important molecules. We present a compression algorithm, "DNABIT Compress" for DNA sequences based on a novel algorithm of assigning binary bits for smaller segments of DNA bases to compress both repetitive and non repetitive DNA sequence. Our proposed algorithm achieves the best compression ratio for DNA sequences for larger genome. Significantly better compression results show that "DNABIT Compress" algorithm is the best among the remaining compression algorithms. While achieving the best compression ratios for DNA sequences (Genomes),our new DNABIT Compress algorithm significantly improves the running time of all previous DNA compression programs. Assigning binary bits (Unique BIT CODE) for (Exact Repeats, Reverse Repeats) fragments of DNA sequence is also a unique concept introduced in this algorithm for the first time in DNA compression. This proposed new algorithm could achieve the best compression ratio as much as 1.58 bits/bases where the existing best methods could not achieve a ratio less than 1.72 bits/bases.

  11. Cold plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marroquin, Christopher M.; O' Connell, Kevin M.; Schultz, Mark D.; Tian, Shurong

    2018-02-13

    A cold plate, an electronic assembly including a cold plate, and a method for forming a cold plate are provided. The cold plate includes an interface plate and an opposing plate that form a plenum. The cold plate includes a plurality of active areas arranged for alignment over respective heat generating portions of an electronic assembly, and non-active areas between the active areas. A cooling fluid flows through the plenum. The plenum, at the non-active areas, has a reduced width and/or reduced height relative to the plenum at the active areas. The reduced width and/or height of the plenum, and exterior dimensions of cold plate, at the non-active areas allow the non-active areas to flex to accommodate surface variations of the electronics assembly. The reduced width and/or height non-active areas can be specifically shaped to fit between physical features of the electronics assembly.

  12. Compression stockings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Call your health insurance or prescription plan: Find out if they pay for compression stockings. Ask if your durable medical equipment benefit pays for compression stockings. Get a prescription from your doctor. Find a medical equipment store where they can ...

  13. Plating laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seamster, A.G.; Weitkamp, W.G.

    1984-01-01

    The lead plating of the prototype resonator has been conducted entirely in the plating laboratory at SUNY Stony Brook. Because of the considerable cost and inconvenience in transporting personnel and materials to and from Stony Brook, it is clearly impractical to plate all the resonators there. Furthermore, the high-beta resonator cannot be accommodated at Stony Brook without modifying the set up there. Consequently the authors are constructing a plating lab in-house

  14. Comparative study of bridge plate associated to the intramedullary pin and the dynamic compression plate on the experimental osteotomy fixation of femoral in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Clinical, radiographic, histological and scintigraphy analyses; Estudo comparativo da placa em ponte associada ao pino intramedular e da placa de compressao dinamica na fixacao de osteotomia experimental em femur de coelhos (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Analises clinica, radiografica, histologica e cintilografica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Natalie Ferreira

    2011-07-01

    The objectives were to benchmark and monitor the fracture healing of femoral osteotomy in rabbits after fixation with dynamic compression plate and bridge plate associated with intramedullary pin. Were used 14 New Zealand rabbits, four months old with mean weight of 3.5 pounds, from the Experimental Farm Professor Helio Barbosa of the Veterinary School of Minas Gerais Federal Univ. (UFMG). The animals were randomly divided into two groups (I and II). All rabbits underwent osteotomy across the middle third of right femur. In the group I was made to fix the osteotomy with the bridge plate (BP) associated with intramedullary pin, introduced the technique of minimal invasion. In group II, we used dynamic compression plate (DCP) via the conventional approach. Both groups were evaluated clinical, radiographic, histologic and scintigraphic findings. Clinical assessments were performed weekly until the 12{sup th} postoperative week and radiographic examinations were performed before, immediately after, at 15, 30, 45, 60 and 90 days. The bone scintigraphy were performed before and at 20, 50 and 90 days after surgery to monitor the bone metabolism qualitatively and quantitatively. Observed perfusion and bone healing process. After 90 days of study, there was histopathologic evaluation of the osteotomized area and the insertion of screws. In the region of the osteotomy was observed predominance of trabecular bone in group I and group II, the predominance of bone osteons, compatible with the original bone. On insertion of the screws did not differ between groups and there was cortical discontinuity, little necrosis and local hemorrhage. The two types of fixation have led to consolidation within the scheduled period, maturing in early fixation with DCP fixation compared with BP. Scintigraphy demonstrated by the indices of activity and image characteristics, the process of bone healing was significantly greater in animals undergoing early fixation with DCP. (author)

  15. Impaired maternal glucose homeostasis during pregnancy is associated with low status of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP) and essential fatty acids (EFA) in the fetus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijck-Brouwer, DAJ; Hadders-Algra, M; Bouwstra, H; Decsi, T; Boehm, G; Martini, IA; Boersma, ER; Muskiet, FAJ

    Low status of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP) and essential fatty acids (EFA) in the fetus is associated with less favorable neonatal neurological condition. A 'relative', rather than 'absolute' EFA deficiency might explain this finding. A relative EFA deficiency may derive from

  16. PVD Silicon Carbide as a Thin Film Packaging Technology for Antennas on LCP Substrates for Harsh Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scardelletti, Maximilian C.; Stanton, John W.; Ponchak, George E.; Jordan, Jennifer L.; Zorman, Christian A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes an effort to develop a thin film packaging technology for microfabricated planar antennas on polymeric substrates based on silicon carbide (SiC) films deposited by physical vapor deposition (PVD). The antennas are coplanar waveguide fed dual frequency folded slot antennas fabricated on liquid crystal polymer (LCP) substrates. The PVD SiC thin films were deposited directly onto the antennas by RF sputtering at room temperature at a chamber pressure of 30 mTorr and a power level of 300 W. The SiC film thickness is 450 nm. The return loss and radiation patterns were measured before and after the SiC-coated antennas were submerged into perchloric acid for 1 hour. No degradation in RF performance or physical integrity of the antenna was observed.

  17. Miniaturized and Ferrite Based Tunable Bandpass Filters in LCP and LTCC Technologies for SoP Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Arabi, Eyad A.

    2015-04-01

    Wireless systems with emerging applications are leaning towards small size, light-weight and low cost. Another trend for these wireless devices is that new applications and functionalities are being added without increasing the size of the device. To accomplish this, individual components must be miniaturized and the system should be designed to maximize the integration of the individual components. The high level of 3D integration feasible in system on package design (SoP) concept can fulfill the latter requirement. Bandpass filters are important components on all wireless systems to reject the unwanted signals and reduce interference. Being mostly implemented with passive and distributed components, bandpass filters take considerable space in a wireless system. Moreover, with emerging bands and multiple applications encompassed in a single device, many bandpass filters are required. The miniaturization related to bandpass filters can be approached by three main ways: (1) at the component level through the miniaturization of individual bandpass filters, (2) at the system level through the use of tunable filters to reduce the overall number of filters, and (3) at the system level through the high level of integration in a 3D SoP platform. In this work we have focused on all three aspects of miniaturization of band pass filters mentioned above. In the first part of this work, a low frequency (1.5 GHz global positioning system (GPS) band) filter implemented through 3D lumped components in two leading SoP technologies, namely low temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) and the liquid crystal polymers (LCP) is demonstrated. The miniaturized filter is based on a second order topology, which has been modified to improve the selectivity and out-of-band rejection without increasing the size. Moreover, for the case of LCP, the filter is realized in an ultra-thin stack up comprising four metallization layers with an overall thickness of only 100 _m. Due to its ultra

  18. Stability of radial head and neck fractures: a biomechanical study of six fixation constructs with consideration of three locking plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhart, Klaus Josef; Mueller, Lars P; Krezdorn, David; Appelmann, Philipp; Prommersberger, Karl J; Sternstein, Werner; Rommens, Pol M

    2007-12-01

    Open reduction and internal fixation of radial neck fractures can lead to secondary loss of reduction and nonunion due to insufficient stability. Nevertheless, there are only a few biomechanical studies about the stability achieved by different osteosynthesis constructs. Forty-eight formalin-fixed, human proximal radii were divided into 6 groups according to their bone density (measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry). A 2.7-mm gap osteotomy was performed to simulate an unstable radial neck fracture, which was fixed with 3 nonlocking implants: a 2.4-mm T plate, a 2.4-mm blade plate, and 2.0-mm crossed screws, and 3 locking plates: a 2.0-mm LCP T plate, a 2.0-mm 6x2 grid plate, and a 2.0-mm radial head plate. Implants were tested under axial (N/mm) and torsional (Ncm/ degrees ) loads with a servohydraulic materials testing machine. The radial head plate was significantly stiffer than all other implants under axial as well as under torsional loads, with values of 36 N/mm and 13 Ncm/ degrees . The second-stiffest implant was the blade plate, with values of 20 N/mm and 6 Ncm/ degrees . The weakest implants were the 2.0-mm LCP, with values of 6 N/mm and 2 Ncm/ degrees , and the 2.0-mm crossed screws, with values of 18 N/mm and 2 Ncm/ degrees . The 2.4-mm T plate, with values of 14 N/mm and 4 Ncm/ degrees , and the 2.0-mm grid plate, with values of 8 N/mm and 4 Ncm/ degrees came to lie in the midfield. The 2.0-mm angle-stable plates-depending on their design-allow fixation with comparable or even higher stability than the bulky 2.4-mm nonlocking implants and 2.0-mm crossed screws.

  19. An in vitro biomechanical comparison of hydroxyapatite coated and uncoated ao cortical bone screws for a limited contact: dynamic compression plate fixation of osteotomized equine 3rd metacarpal bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Myra E; Sod, Gary A; Riggs, Laura M; Mitchell, Colin F

    2015-02-01

    To compare the monotonic biomechanical properties of a broad 4.5 mm limited contact-dynamic compression plate (LC-DCP) fixation secured with hydroxyapatite (HA) coated cortical bone screws (HA-LC-DCP) versus uncoated cortical bone screws (AO-LC-DCP) to repair osteotomized equine 3rd metacarpal (MC3) bones. Experimental. Adult equine cadaveric MC3 bones (n = 12 pair). Twelve pairs of equine MC3 were divided into 3 test groups (4 pairs each) for: (1) 4 point bending single cycle to failure testing; (2) 4 point bending cyclic fatigue testing; and (3) torsional single cycle to failure testing. For the HA-LC-DCP-MC3 construct, an 8-hole broad LC-DCP (Synthes Ltd, Paoli, PA) was secured on the dorsal surface of each randomly selected MC3 bone with a combination of four 5.5 mm and four 4.5 mm HA-coated cortical screws. For the AO-LC-DCP-MC3 construct, an 8-hole 4.5 mm broad LC-DCP was secured on the dorsal surface of the contralateral MC3 bone with a combination of four 5.5 mm and four 4.5 mm uncoated cortical screws. All MC3 bones had mid-diaphyseal osteotomies. Mean test variable values for each method were compared using a paired t-test within each group. Significance was set at P < .05. Mean yield load, yield bending moment, composite rigidity, failure load, and failure bending moment, under 4 point bending, single cycle to failure, of the HA-LC-DCP fixation were significantly greater than those of the AO-LC-DCP fixation. Mean ± SD values for the HA-LC-DCP and the AO-LC-DCP fixation techniques, respectively, in single cycle to failure under 4 point bending were: yield load, 26.7 ± 2.15 and 16.3 ± 1.38 kN; yield bending moment, 527.4 ± 42.4 and 322.9 ± 27.2 N-m; composite rigidity, 5306 ± 399 and 3003 ± 300 N-m/rad; failure load, 40.6 ± 3.94 and 26.5 ± 2.52 kN; and failure bending moment, 801.9 ± 77.9 and 522.9 ± 52.2 N-m. Mean cycles to failure in 4 point bending of the HA

  20. Wellhead compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrington, Joe [Sertco Industries, Inc., Okemah, OK (United States); Vazquez, Daniel [Hoerbiger Service Latin America Inc., Deerfield Beach, FL (United States); Jacobs, Denis Richard [Hoerbiger do Brasil Industria de Equipamentos, Cajamar, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Over time, all wells experience a natural decline in oil and gas production. In gas wells, the major problems are liquid loading and low downhole differential pressures which negatively impact total gas production. As a form of artificial lift, wellhead compressors help reduce the tubing pressure resulting in gas velocities above the critical velocity needed to surface water, oil and condensate regaining lost production and increasing recoverable reserves. Best results come from reservoirs with high porosity, high permeability, high initial flow rates, low decline rates and high total cumulative production. In oil wells, excessive annulus gas pressure tends to inhibit both oil and gas production. Wellhead compression packages can provide a cost effective solution to these problems by reducing the system pressure in the tubing or annulus, allowing for an immediate increase in production rates. Wells furthest from the gathering compressor typically benefit the most from wellhead compression due to system pressure drops. Downstream compressors also benefit from higher suction pressures reducing overall compression horsepower requirements. Special care must be taken in selecting the best equipment for these applications. The successful implementation of wellhead compression from an economical standpoint hinges on the testing, installation and operation of the equipment. Key challenges and suggested equipment features designed to combat those challenges and successful case histories throughout Latin America are discussed below.(author)

  1. Speech Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry D. Gibson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Speech compression is a key technology underlying digital cellular communications, VoIP, voicemail, and voice response systems. We trace the evolution of speech coding based on the linear prediction model, highlight the key milestones in speech coding, and outline the structures of the most important speech coding standards. Current challenges, future research directions, fundamental limits on performance, and the critical open problem of speech coding for emergency first responders are all discussed.

  2. Study on buckling and plastic collapse behavior of a continuous stiffened plate subjected to in-plane compression loads; Mennai asshuku kaju wo ukeru renzoku bodo panel no zakutsu sosei hokai kyodo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, T; Fujikubo, M; Yanagihara, D [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-04-10

    A hull structure is constituted by thin panels, and reinforced longitudinally and laterally by stiffened members to increase the effectiveness of the structure. In order to attain findings on buckling and plastic collapse behavior of stiffened plates, this paper describes analysis of elasto-plastic large deflection by using the finite element method on thin stiffened plates having flat-bars and angle-bars. The analysis includes the case of an aspect ratio being 5.0 and the case to consider welding residual stress. Considerations were given on cross sectional shape, panel aspect ratio and effects of initial welding imperfections against the buckling and plastic collapse behavior of the stiffened plates. The angle-bars tend to cause secondary buckling more easily because it has greater bending and twisting rigidity, and stronger constraint against deflection than the flat-bars. When the aspect ratio is larger and the span is longer, the ultimate strength declines, and the withstand power after the ultimate strength decreases rapidly. Existence of the residual stress tends to make the secondary buckling occur more easily. The secondary buckling affects little the withstand power after the ultimate strength. 3 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Plate tectonics

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chaubey, A.K.

    's continental drift theory was later disproved, it was one of the first times that the idea of crustal movement had been introduced to the scientific community; and it has laid the groundwork for the development of modern plate tectonics. In the early... of the structure of the atom was to physical sciences and the theory of evolution was to the life sciences. Tectonics is the study of the forces within the Earth that give rise to continents, ocean basins, mountain ranges, earthquake belts and other large-scale...

  4. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Plate Share Create Your Plate ! Share: Seven Simple Steps to Create Your Plate It's simple and effective ... foods within each food category. Try these seven steps to get started: Using your dinner plate, put ...

  5. Analysis of Biaxially Stressed Bridge Deck Plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe; Bondum, Tommi Højer

    2012-01-01

    The ultimate state analysis of bridge deck plates at the intersection zone between main girders and transverse beams is complicated by biaxial membrane stresses, which may be in compression or tension in either direction depending on the bridge configuration and the specific location. This paper...

  6. Pre-Stressing Timber-Based Plate Tensegrity Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Andreas; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2012-01-01

    Tensile structures occur in numerous varieties utilising combinations of tension and compression. Introducing structural plates in the basic tensegrity unit and tensegric assemblies varies the range of feasible topologies and provides the structural system with an integrated surface. The present...... paper considers the concept of plate tensegrity based on CLT plates (cross-laminated timber). It combines the principles of tensegrity with the principles of plate shells and is characterised by a plate shell stabilised by struts and cables. The paper deals with material aspects and robustness of timber...

  7. Letter from Kirk Kessler, EPS to Galo Jackson, USEPA. Subject: Results of the July 2011 Sampling in the Former Brunswick-Altamaha Canal South of the LCP Chemicals Site, Brunswick, Ga, Revision Dated April 19, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Results report of sediment and fish tissue samples collected from the former Brunswick-Altamaha Canal, in a segment of the canal south of the LCP Chemicals Site in Brunswick, Georgia in July 2010. Region ID: 04 DocID: 10843428, DocDate: 04-19-2012

  8. DNABIT Compress – Genome compression algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Rajarajeswari, Pothuraju; Apparao, Allam

    2011-01-01

    Data compression is concerned with how information is organized in data. Efficient storage means removal of redundancy from the data being stored in the DNA molecule. Data compression algorithms remove redundancy and are used to understand biologically important molecules. We present a compression algorithm, “DNABIT Compress” for DNA sequences based on a novel algorithm of assigning binary bits for smaller segments of DNA bases to compress both repetitive and non repetitive DNA sequence. Our ...

  9. DNABIT Compress – Genome compression algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajarajeswari, Pothuraju; Apparao, Allam

    2011-01-01

    Data compression is concerned with how information is organized in data. Efficient storage means removal of redundancy from the data being stored in the DNA molecule. Data compression algorithms remove redundancy and are used to understand biologically important molecules. We present a compression algorithm, “DNABIT Compress” for DNA sequences based on a novel algorithm of assigning binary bits for smaller segments of DNA bases to compress both repetitive and non repetitive DNA sequence. Our proposed algorithm achieves the best compression ratio for DNA sequences for larger genome. Significantly better compression results show that “DNABIT Compress” algorithm is the best among the remaining compression algorithms. While achieving the best compression ratios for DNA sequences (Genomes),our new DNABIT Compress algorithm significantly improves the running time of all previous DNA compression programs. Assigning binary bits (Unique BIT CODE) for (Exact Repeats, Reverse Repeats) fragments of DNA sequence is also a unique concept introduced in this algorithm for the first time in DNA compression. This proposed new algorithm could achieve the best compression ratio as much as 1.58 bits/bases where the existing best methods could not achieve a ratio less than 1.72 bits/bases. PMID:21383923

  10. Kombination von Platte und Fixateur externe zur biologischen Osteosynthese von Mehrfragmentfrakturen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pippow, A.; Krähenbühl, L.; Michel, M. C.; Witschger, P.

    2002-01-01

    In a comminuted fracture, a unilateral plate doesn't always give enough stability because the contralateral cortex cannot be used as a buttress. New plate systems as the Locking Compression Plate (LCP) may solve this problem. Another method to stabilize the contralateral cortex is by using an

  11. Shock absorbing properties of toroidal shells under compression, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugita, Yuji

    1985-01-01

    The author has previously presented the static load-deflection relations of a toroidal shell subjected to axisymmetric compression between rigid plates and those of its outer half when subjected to lateral compression. In both these cases, the analytical method was based on the incremental Rayleigh-Ritz method. In this paper, the effects of compression angle and strain rate on the load-deflection relations of the toroidal shell are investigated for its use as a shock absorber for the radioactive material shipping cask which must keep its structural integrity even after accidental falls at any angle. Static compression tests have been carried out at four angles of compression, 10 0 , 20 0 , 50 0 , 90 0 and the applications of the preceding analytical method have been discussed. Dynamic compression tests have also been performed using the free-falling drop hammer. The results are compared with those in the static compression tests. (author)

  12. Environmental effects on the compressive properties - Thermosetting vs. thermoplastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, A.; Jeelani, S.

    1992-01-01

    The influence of moisture and temperature on the compressive properties of graphite/epoxy and APC-2 materials systems was investigated to assess the viability of using APC-2 instead of graphite/epoxy. Data obtained indicate that the moisture absorption rate of T-300/epoxy is higher than that of APC-2. Thick plate with smaller surface area absorbs less moisture than thin plate with larger surface area. The compressive strength and modulus of APC-2 are higher than those of T-300/epoxy composite, and APC-2 sustains higher compressive strength in the presence of moisture. The compressive strength and modulus decrease with the increase of temperature in the range of 23-100 C. The compression failure was in the form of delamination, interlaminar shear, and end brooming.

  13. [Comparative study on the strength of different mechanisms of operation of multidirectionally angle-stable distal radius plates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, S; Hoffmeier, K; Gueorguiev, B G; Klos, K; Gras, F; Hofmann, G O; Mückley, T

    2011-12-01

    Polyaxial angle-stable plating is thought to be particularly beneficial in the management of complex intra-articular fractures of the distal radius. The present study was performed to investigate the strength of polyaxial locking interfaces of distal radius plates. We tested the polyaxial interfaces of 3 different distal radius plates (2.4 mm Variable Angle LCP Two-Column Volar Distal Radius Plate, Synthes, Palmar Classic, Königsee Implantate and VariAx Plate Stryker). The strength of 0° and 10° screw locking angle was obtained during static loading. The strength of Palmar Classic with a 0° locking angle is significantly the best of all tested systems. With a 10° locking angle there is no significant difference between Palmar Classic, Two column Plate and VariAx Plate. The strength of polyaxial interfaces differs between the tested systems. A reduction of ultimate strength is due to increases of screw locking angle. The design of polyaxial locking interfaces should be investigated in human bone models. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Theroretical modelling of the plate-tubes coupling in the hydroelasticity of the perforated plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhupanov, V.A.; Manoach, E.S.

    1983-01-01

    In the previous investigations on the perforated plate hydroelasticity the problem of the plates-tubes-liquid interaction in the process of the general structural vibration is stated. But the interaction of the vibrating plates with the tubes, passing through them, is taken into account considering the tubes only as absolutely rigid supports. This is one of the possible technical realizations. In the present article the case when the tubes are taking part in the plate motion (vibration) is studied. Two circular perforated plates are supported by the absolutely rigid wall of the modelled roundcircular reactor barrel. The distance between the plates is given. They are connected by tubes, passing through, and clamped into the perforation holes. The plates and the tubes are made by any elastic HOOKIAN material. The volume between the two plates and outwardly to the tubes, but intrinsically of the barrel is filled by ideal, compressible and heavy liquid. Evidently the liquid volume is multiconnected one. The free vibration of the whole system is considered with the purposes: i) to give a theoretical model of the plates-tubes-liquid interaction including governing equations and boundary conditions; ii) to trace the solution of the eigen-value problem for the modelled structure; iii) to underline the engineering sides of the modelling process. (orig./GL)

  15. Compressible Vortex Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elavarasan, Ramasamy; Arakeri, Jayawant; Krothapalli, Anjaneyulu

    1999-11-01

    The interaction of a high-speed vortex ring with a shock wave is one of the fundamental issues as it is a source of sound in supersonic jets. The complex flow field induced by the vortex alters the propagation of the shock wave greatly. In order to understand the process, a compressible vortex ring is studied in detail using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and shadowgraphic techniques. The high-speed vortex ring is generated from a shock tube and the shock wave, which precedes the vortex, is reflected back by a plate and made to interact with the vortex. The shadowgraph images indicate that the reflected shock front is influenced by the non-uniform flow induced by the vortex and is decelerated while passing through the vortex. It appears that after the interaction the shock is "split" into two. The PIV measurements provided clear picture about the evolution of the vortex at different time interval. The centerline velocity traces show the maximum velocity to be around 350 m/s. The velocity field, unlike in incompressible rings, contains contributions from both the shock and the vortex ring. The velocity distribution across the vortex core, core diameter and circulation are also calculated from the PIV data.

  16. ADVANCED RECIPROCATING COMPRESSION TECHNOLOGY (ARCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danny M. Deffenbaugh; Klaus Brun; Ralph E. Harris; J. Pete Harrell; Robert J. Mckee; J. Jeffrey Moore; Steven J. Svedeman; Anthony J. Smalley; Eugene L. Broerman; Robert A Hart; Marybeth G. Nored; Ryan S. Gernentz; Shane P. Siebenaler

    2005-12-01

    . Retrofit technologies that address the challenges of slow-speed integral compression are: (1) optimum turndown using a combination of speed and clearance with single-acting operation as a last resort; (2) if single-acting is required, implement infinite length nozzles to address nozzle pulsation and tunable side branch absorbers for 1x lateral pulsations; and (3) advanced valves, either the semi-active plate valve or the passive rotary valve, to extend valve life to three years with half the pressure drop. This next generation of slow-speed compression should attain 95% efficiency, a three-year valve life, and expanded turndown. New equipment technologies that address the challenges of large-horsepower, high-speed compression are: (1) optimum turndown with unit speed; (2) tapered nozzles to effectively reduce nozzle pulsation with half the pressure drop and minimization of mechanical cylinder stretch induced vibrations; (3) tunable side branch absorber or higher-order filter bottle to address lateral piping pulsations over the entire extended speed range with minimal pressure drop; and (4) semi-active plate valves or passive rotary valves to extend valve life with half the pressure drop. This next generation of large-horsepower, high-speed compression should attain 90% efficiency, a two-year valve life, 50% turndown, and less than 0.75 IPS vibration. This program has generated proof-of-concept technologies with the potential to meet these ambitious goals. Full development of these identified technologies is underway. The GMRC has committed to pursue the most promising enabling technologies for their industry.

  17. A Possible Differentially Shortened Strike-slip Plate Boundary: the Okhotsk Plate Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, D.; Egorov, V.; Mackey, K. G.; Fujita, K.

    2004-12-01

    The Okhotsk plate has been postulated based on a combination of GPS geodetic inversions (REVEL1), seimsicity, geologic and lineament data. Lying between the North American and Eurasian plates, its northwestern corner would appear to be undergoing compression in a scissors motion between the two bounding plates. Extrusion tectonics along multiple, large strike-slip faults within the Okhotsk plate itself have been suggested to allow the escape of material away from the apex of Eurasia-North America. The plate boundary between Okhotsk and North America has been suggested to be diffuse, based on widely scattered minor seismicity. However, the large, left lateral, Ulakhan fault has also been suggested as a candidate plate boundary. We present field geological and geomorphological evidence of the partitioning of deformation between the Ulakhan fault, and several parallel and oblique, linked faults. The Ulakhan fault strand appears to have a maximum displacement of 24 km based on river valley offsets and closing large pull apart basins. Some of the displacement from the Ulakhan fault appears relayed into the plate margin along oblique trending, thrust/oblique slip faults. Estimated shortening over these faults is equivalent to the amount of shortening relayed into the plate margin from the plate boundary. There may be several thrust/oblique slip faults along the Ulakhan fault, which leads to the interesting situation of a segmented, strike-slip plate boundary being actively shortened in a margin parallel direction. This may be the result of postulated extrusion of the Okhotsk plate due to North America/Eurasia convergence. Such a situation would have important consequences for the interpretation of GPS data in a plate tectonic context.

  18. Radiation shielding plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Torakichi; Sugawara, Takeo.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the weight and stabilize the configuration of a radiation shielding plate which is used in close contact with an object to be irradiated with radiation rays. Constitution: The radiation shielding plate comprises a substrate made of lead glass and a metallic lead coating on the surface of the substrate by means of plating, vapor deposition or the like. Apertures for permeating radiation rays are formed to the radiation shielding plate. Since the shielding plate is based on a lead glass plate, a sufficient mechanical strength can be obtained with a thinner structure as compared with the conventional plate made of metallic lead. Accordingly, if the shielding plate is disposed on a soft object to be irradiated with radiation rays, the object and the plate itself less deform to obtain a radiation irradiation pattern with distinct edges. (Moriyama, K.)

  19. A Compressive Superresolution Display

    KAUST Repository

    Heide, Felix; Gregson, James; Wetzstein, Gordon; Raskar, Ramesh; Heidrich, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new compressive display architecture for superresolution image presentation that exploits co-design of the optical device configuration and compressive computation. Our display allows for superresolution, HDR, or glasses-free 3D presentation.

  20. A Compressive Superresolution Display

    KAUST Repository

    Heide, Felix

    2014-06-22

    In this paper, we introduce a new compressive display architecture for superresolution image presentation that exploits co-design of the optical device configuration and compressive computation. Our display allows for superresolution, HDR, or glasses-free 3D presentation.

  1. Create Your Plate

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  3. Create Your Plate

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  4. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with ... Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart-Healthy ...

  5. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal ... Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook ...

  6. [Comparing clinical effects of titanic elastic nail and locking compression pine fixation in treating subtrochanteric fractures in older children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Kang-xiang; Yin, Shan-qing

    2013-12-01

    To explore optimal choice of surgical treatment for subtrochanteric fractures in older children. A retrospective study of 36 older children with subtrochanteric fractures was performed between January 2010 and January 2012. Among them, 18 patients (11 males and 7 females) aged from 7 to 13 years old with an average of 9.4 were treated with titanic elastic nail (TEN) fixation, 4 cases were Type II A, 3 cases were II B, 2 cases were II C, 4 cases were III A, 3 cases were III B according to Seinsheimer classification. Eighteen patients (10 males and 8 females) aged was from 8 to 13 years with an average of 9.6 were treated with locking compression pine (LCP) fixation, and 3 cases were Type II A, 4 cases were II B, 3 cases were II C, 4 cases were IIIA, 2 cases were III B. Fracture healing time, postoperative complications (including wound infection, failure and breakage of internal fixtion, deformities of angular on the sagittal view, deformities of coxa vara) and recovery of hip joint function were observed and recorded. All children were followed up from 15 to 36 months with an average of 21. Fracture were all healed, the time ranged from 7 to 16 weeks (mean 9.5). Three cases in TEN group occurred mild deformities of angular on the sagittal view, 3 cases occurred deformities of coxa vara and 2 cases occurred limb shortening; while 1 case occurred mild deformities of angular on the sagittal view, and no deformities of coxa vara and limb shortening occurred in LCP group. No early close of epiphyseal injury, avascular necrosis of femoral head occurred. Clinical efficacy were evaluated by Sanders standard, 14 cases got excellent results, 3 cases were moderate in LCP group, while 9 cases in excellent, 4 in moderate in TEN group. There were no significant differences between two group in recovery of hip joint function and complications. For the treatment of subtrochanteric fractures in older children,the efficacy of LCP fixation is better than that of TFN fixation, which

  7. Microbunching and RF Compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venturini, M.; Migliorati, M.; Ronsivalle, C.; Ferrario, M.; Vaccarezza, C.

    2010-01-01

    Velocity bunching (or RF compression) represents a promising technique complementary to magnetic compression to achieve the high peak current required in the linac drivers for FELs. Here we report on recent progress aimed at characterizing the RF compression from the point of view of the microbunching instability. We emphasize the development of a linear theory for the gain function of the instability and its validation against macroparticle simulations that represents a useful tool in the evaluation of the compression schemes for FEL sources.

  8. Mining compressing sequential problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoang, T.L.; Mörchen, F.; Fradkin, D.; Calders, T.G.K.

    2012-01-01

    Compression based pattern mining has been successfully applied to many data mining tasks. We propose an approach based on the minimum description length principle to extract sequential patterns that compress a database of sequences well. We show that mining compressing patterns is NP-Hard and

  9. Compression for radiological images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Dennis L.

    1992-07-01

    The viewing of radiological images has peculiarities that must be taken into account in the design of a compression technique. The images may be manipulated on a workstation to change the contrast, to change the center of the brightness levels that are viewed, and even to invert the images. Because of the possible consequences of losing information in a medical application, bit preserving compression is used for the images used for diagnosis. However, for archiving the images may be compressed to 10 of their original size. A compression technique based on the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) takes the viewing factors into account by compressing the changes in the local brightness levels. The compression technique is a variation of the CCITT JPEG compression that suppresses the blocking of the DCT except in areas of very high contrast.

  10. Paper microzone plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrilho, Emanuel; Phillips, Scott T; Vella, Sarah J; Martinez, Andres W; Whitesides, George M

    2009-08-01

    This paper describes 96- and 384-microzone plates fabricated in paper as alternatives to conventional multiwell plates fabricated in molded polymers. Paper-based plates are functionally related to plastic well plates, but they offer new capabilities. For example, paper-microzone plates are thin (approximately 180 microm), require small volumes of sample (5 microL per zone), and can be manufactured from inexpensive materials ($0.05 per plate). The paper-based plates are fabricated by patterning sheets of paper, using photolithography, into hydrophilic zones surrounded by hydrophobic polymeric barriers. This photolithography used an inexpensive formulation photoresist that allows rapid (approximately 15 min) prototyping of paper-based plates. These plates are compatible with conventional microplate readers for quantitative absorbance and fluorescence measurements. The limit of detection per zone loaded for fluorescence was 125 fmol for fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled bovine serum albumin, and this level corresponds to 0.02 the quantity of analyte per well used to achieve comparable signal-to-noise in a 96-well plastic plate (using a solution of 25 nM labeled protein). The limits of detection for absorbance on paper was approximately 50 pmol per zone for both Coomassie Brilliant Blue and Amaranth dyes; these values were 0.4 that required for the plastic plate. Demonstration of quantitative colorimetric correlations using a scanner or camera to image the zones and to measure the intensity of color, makes it possible to conduct assays without a microplate reader.

  11. Radiological Image Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Shih-Chung Benedict

    The movement toward digital images in radiology presents the problem of how to conveniently and economically store, retrieve, and transmit the volume of digital images. Basic research into image data compression is necessary in order to move from a film-based department to an efficient digital -based department. Digital data compression technology consists of two types of compression technique: error-free and irreversible. Error -free image compression is desired; however, present techniques can only achieve compression ratio of from 1.5:1 to 3:1, depending upon the image characteristics. Irreversible image compression can achieve a much higher compression ratio; however, the image reconstructed from the compressed data shows some difference from the original image. This dissertation studies both error-free and irreversible image compression techniques. In particular, some modified error-free techniques have been tested and the recommended strategies for various radiological images are discussed. A full-frame bit-allocation irreversible compression technique has been derived. A total of 76 images which include CT head and body, and radiographs digitized to 2048 x 2048, 1024 x 1024, and 512 x 512 have been used to test this algorithm. The normalized mean -square-error (NMSE) on the difference image, defined as the difference between the original and the reconstructed image from a given compression ratio, is used as a global measurement on the quality of the reconstructed image. The NMSE's of total of 380 reconstructed and 380 difference images are measured and the results tabulated. Three complex compression methods are also suggested to compress images with special characteristics. Finally, various parameters which would effect the quality of the reconstructed images are discussed. A proposed hardware compression module is given in the last chapter.

  12. Numerical Modeling of Compressible Flow and Its Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    such that the plate centerline corresponded to z = 0. The medium grid was then constructed from the coarse grid using a cubic spline to divide each...implicit terms were linearized in the standard thin layer manner. The implicit terms were evaluated with second- order spatial accuracy, yielding a...compression ramp. The configuration included a flat- plate region to develop an equilibrium turbulent boundary layer at Mach 2.25, which was validated

  13. The Okhotsk Plate and the Eurasia-North America plate boundary zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, David; Mackey, Kevin

    2014-05-01

    The Eurasia-North America plate boundary zone transitions from spreading at rates of ~ 25mm/yr in the North Atlantic, to compression at rates of ~ 5mm/yr in the region of the Okhotsk plate. Because the pole of rotation between Eurasia and North America lies more or less on their mutual boundary, there is a linear change in rate along the boundary, and regions near the euler pole are subject to extremely low deformation rates. The Okhotsk - Eurasia - North America triple junction lies slightly south of the rotation pole, placing the Okhotsk plate entirely in a weakly contractional setting. Regions near the triple junction absorb 1mm/yr contraction. Further south, towards the shoreline of the Okhotsk sea, up to 5 mm/yr contraction may be absorbed within the plate. How shortening is accommodated across the boundary remains an open question. One possibility is wholesale extrusion of the entire Okhotsk plate (or possibly its northwestern corner) along two plate boundary strike slip faults (Eurasia-Okhostk and North America Okhotsk). The problem with this model is that the seismic record does not presently clearly support it, with the largest events distributed both within the plate interior and on its boundaries. This may suggest that instead, the Okhotsk plate, and particularly its north-western end, consists of a series of smaller blocks which shuffle against each other, partially accommodating extrusion, but also permitting some internal deformation and change of shape of the Okhotsk plate itself. We present analyses of the very sparse seismic record from the region, as well as geometric-kinematic, tectonic models of the possible deformation of northwest Okhotsk to try to better understand the different probabilities of how this slowly deforming plate boundary zone is behaving.

  14. Buckling analysis for structural sections and stiffened plates reinforced with laminated composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, A. V.; Soong, T.-C.; Miller, R. E., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A classical buckling analysis is developed for stiffened, flat plates composed of a series of linked flat plate and beam elements. Plates are idealized as multilayered orthotropic elements; structural beads and lips are idealized as beams. The loaded edges of the stiffened plate are simply supported and the conditions at the unloaded edges can be prescribed arbitrarily. The plate and beam elements are matched along their common junctions for displacement continuity and force equilibrium in an exact manner. Offsets between elements are considered in the analysis. Buckling under uniaxial compressive load for plates, sections and stiffened plates is investigated. Buckling loads are found as the lowest of all possible general and local failure modes and the mode shape is used to determine whether buckling is a local or general instability. Numerical correlations with existing analysis and test data for plates, sections and stiffened plates including boron-reinforced structures are discussed. In general, correlations are reasonably good.

  15. RoxB Is a Novel Type of Rubber Oxygenase That Combines Properties of Rubber Oxygenase RoxA and Latex Clearing Protein (Lcp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birke, Jakob; Röther, Wolf; Jendrossek, Dieter

    2017-07-15

    Only two types of rubber oxygenases, rubber oxygenase (RoxA) and latex clearing protein (Lcp), have been described so far. RoxA proteins (RoxAs) are c -type cytochromes of ≈70 kDa produced by Gram-negative rubber-degrading bacteria, and they cleave polyisoprene into 12-oxo-4,8-dimethyltrideca-4,8-diene-1-al (ODTD), a C 15 oligo-isoprenoid, as the major end product. Lcps are common among Gram-positive rubber degraders and do not share amino acid sequence similarities with RoxAs. Furthermore, Lcps have much smaller molecular masses (≈40 kDa), are b -type cytochromes, and cleave polyisoprene to a mixture of C 20 , C 25 , C 30 , and higher oligo-isoprenoids as end products. In this article, we purified a new type of rubber oxygenase, RoxB Xsp (RoxB of Xanthomonas sp. strain 35Y). RoxB Xsp is distantly related to RoxAs and resembles RoxAs with respect to molecular mass (70.3 kDa for mature protein) and cofactor content (2 c -type hemes). However, RoxB Xsp differs from all currently known RoxAs in having a distinctive product spectrum of C 20 , C 25 , C 30 , and higher oligo-isoprenoids that has been observed only for Lcps so far. Purified RoxB Xsp revealed the highest specific activity of 4.5 U/mg (at 23°C) of all currently known rubber oxygenases and exerts a synergistic effect on the efficiency of polyisoprene cleavage by RoxA Xsp RoxB homologs were identified in several other Gram-negative rubber-degrading species, pointing to a prominent function of RoxB for the biodegradation of rubber in Gram-negative bacteria. IMPORTANCE The enzymatic cleavage of rubber (polyisoprene) is of high environmental importance given that enormous amounts of rubber waste materials are permanently released (e.g., by abrasion of tires). Research from the last decade has discovered rubber oxygenase A, RoxA, and latex clearing protein (Lcp) as being responsible for the primary enzymatic attack on the hydrophobic and water-insoluble biopolymer poly( cis -1,4-isoprene) in Gram

  16. Shock compression profiles in ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grady, D.E.; Moody, R.L.

    1996-03-01

    An investigation of the shock compression properties of high-strength ceramics has been performed using controlled planar impact techniques. In a typical experimental configuration, a ceramic target disc is held stationary, and it is struck by plates of either a similar ceramic or by plates of a well-characterized metal. All tests were performed using either a single-stage propellant gun or a two-stage light-gas gun. Particle velocity histories were measured with laser velocity interferometry (VISAR) at the interface between the back of the target ceramic and a calibrated VISAR window material. Peak impact stresses achieved in these experiments range from about 3 to 70 GPa. Ceramics tested under shock impact loading include: Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, AlN, B{sub 4}C, SiC, Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, TiB{sub 2}, WC and ZrO{sub 2}. This report compiles the VISAR wave profiles and experimental impact parameters within a database-useful for response model development, computational model validation studies, and independent assessment of the physics of dynamic deformation on high-strength, brittle solids.

  17. Biomechanical properties of orthogonal plate configuration versus parallel plate configuration using the same locking plate system for intra-articular distal humeral fractures under radial or ulnar column axial load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Toshiya; Hara, Akira; Iwase, Hideaki; Ichihara, Satoshi; Nagao, Masashi; Maruyama, Yuichiro; Kaneko, Kazuo

    2016-10-01

    Previous reports have questioned whether an orthogonal or parallel configuration is superior for distal humeral articular fractures. In previous clinical and biomechanical studies, implant failure of the posterolateral plate has been reported with orthogonal configurations; however, the reason for screw loosening in the posterolateral plate is unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate biomechanical properties and to clarify the causes of posterolateral plate loosening using a humeral fracture model under axial compression on the radial or ulnar column separately. And we changed only the plate set up: parallel or orthogonal. We used artificial bone to create an Association for the Study of Internal Fixation type 13-C2.3 intra-articular fracture model with a 1-cm supracondylar gap. We used an anatomically-preshaped distal humerus locking compression plate system (Synthes GmbH, Solothurn, Switzerland). Although this is originally an orthogonal plate system, we designed a mediolateral parallel configuration to use the contralateral medial plate instead of the posterolateral plate in the system. We calculated the stiffness of the radial and ulnar columns and anterior movement of the condylar fragment in the lateral view. The parallel configuration was superior to the orthogonal configuration regarding the stiffness of the radial column axial compression. There were significant differences between the two configurations regarding anterior movement of the capitellum during axial loading of the radial column. The posterolateral plate tended to bend anteriorly under axial compression compared with the medial or lateral plate. We believe that in the orthogonal configuration axial compression induced more anterior displacement of the capitellum than the trochlea, which eventually induced secondary fragment or screw dislocation on the posterolateral plate, or nonunion at the supracondylar level. In the parallel configuration, anterior movement of the capitellum or

  18. Create Your Plate

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  20. Compressed sensing & sparse filtering

    CERN Document Server

    Carmi, Avishy Y; Godsill, Simon J

    2013-01-01

    This book is aimed at presenting concepts, methods and algorithms ableto cope with undersampled and limited data. One such trend that recently gained popularity and to some extent revolutionised signal processing is compressed sensing. Compressed sensing builds upon the observation that many signals in nature are nearly sparse (or compressible, as they are normally referred to) in some domain, and consequently they can be reconstructed to within high accuracy from far fewer observations than traditionally held to be necessary. Apart from compressed sensing this book contains other related app

  1. Dynamic plate osteosynthesis for fracture stabilization: how to do it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juerg Sonderegger

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Plate osteosynthesis is one treatment option for the stabilization of long bones. It is widely accepted to achieve bone healing with a dynamic and biological fixation where the perfusion of the bone is left intact and micromotion at the fracture gap is allowed. The indications for a dynamic plate osteosynthesis include distal tibial and femoral fractures, some midshaft fractures, and adolescent tibial and femoral fractures with not fully closed growth plates. Although many lower limb shaft fractures are managed successfully with intramedullary nails, there are some important advantages of open-reduction-and-plate fixation: the risk of malalignment, anterior knee pain, or nonunion seems to be lower. The surgeon performing a plate osteosynthesis has the possibility to influence fixation strength and micromotion at the fracture gap. Long plates and oblique screws at the plate ends increase fixation strength. However, the number of screws does influence stiffness and stability. Lag screws and screws close to the fracture site reduce micromotion dramatically. Dynamic plate osteosynthesis can be achieved by applying some simple rules: long plates with only a few screws should be used. Oblique screws at the plate ends increase the pullout strength. Two or three holes at the fracture site should be omitted. Lag screws, especially through the plate, must be avoided whenever possible. Compression is not required. Locking plates are recommended only in fractures close to the joint. When respecting these basic concepts, dynamic plate osteosynthesis is a safe procedure with a high healing and a low complication rate. 

  2. Iberian plate kinematics: A jumping plate boundary between Eurasia and Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, S.P.; Schouten, Hans; Roest, W.R.; Klitgord, Kim D.; Kovacs, L.C.; Verhoef, J.; Macnab, R.

    1990-01-01

    THE rotation of Iberia and its relation to the formation of the Pyrenees has been difficult to decipher because of the lack of detailed sea-floor spreading data, although several models have been proposed1-7. Here we use detailed aeromagnetic measurements from the sea floor offshore of the Grand Banks of Newfoundland to show that Iberia moved as part of the African plate from late Cretaceous to mid-Eocene time, with a plate boundary extending westward from the Bay of Biscay. When motion along this boundary ceased, a boundary linking extension in the King's Trough to compression along the Pyrenees came into existence. Finally, since the late Oligocene, Iberia has been part of the Eurasian plate, with the boundary between Eurasia and Africa situated along the Azores-Gibraltar fracture zone.

  3. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In Memory In Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community ... Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Create Your Plate Create Your Plate is a ...

  4. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans and a Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets ...

  5. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart- ... Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods ...

  6. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ready, you can try new foods within each food category. Try these seven steps to get started: Using your dinner plate, put a line down the middle of the plate. Then on one side, cut it ... and starchy foods. See this list of grains and starchy foods . ...

  7. Anisotropic Concrete Compressive Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustenhoff Hansen, Søren; Jørgensen, Henrik Brøner; Hoang, Linh Cao

    2017-01-01

    When the load carrying capacity of existing concrete structures is (re-)assessed it is often based on compressive strength of cores drilled out from the structure. Existing studies show that the core compressive strength is anisotropic; i.e. it depends on whether the cores are drilled parallel...

  8. Experiments with automata compression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daciuk, J.; Yu, S; Daley, M; Eramian, M G

    2001-01-01

    Several compression methods of finite-state automata are presented and evaluated. Most compression methods used here are already described in the literature. However, their impact on the size of automata has not been described yet. We fill that gap, presenting results of experiments carried out on

  9. Towards stacked zone plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, S; Rehbein, S; Guttman, P; Heim, S; Schneider, G

    2009-01-01

    Fresnel zone plates are the key optical elements for soft and hard x-ray microscopy. For short exposure times and minimum radiation load of the specimen the diffraction efficiency of the zone plate objectives has to be maximized. As the efficiency strongly depends on the height of the diffracting zone structures the achievable aspect ratio of the nanostructures determines these limits. To reach aspect ratios ≥ 20:1 for high efficient optics we propose to superimpose zone plates on top of each other. With this multiplication approach the final aspect ratio is only limited by the number of stacked zone plate layers. For the stack process several nanostructuring process steps have to be developed and/or improved. Our results show for the first time two layers of zone plates stacked on top of each other.

  10. A concept of PWR using plate and shell heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freire, Luciano Ondir; Andrade, Delvonei Alves de

    2015-01-01

    In previous work it was verified the physical possibility of using plate and shell heat exchangers for steam generation in a PWR for merchant ships. This work studies the possibility of using GESMEX commercial of the shelf plate and shell heat exchanger of series XPS. It was found it is feasible for this type of heat exchanger to meet operational and accidental requirements for steam generation in PWR. Additionally, it is proposed an arrangement of such heat exchangers inside the reactor pressure vessel. Such arrangement may avoid ANSI/ANS51.1 nuclear class I requirements on those heat exchangers because they are contained in the reactor coolant pressure barrier and play no role in accidental scenarios. Additionally, those plates work under compression, preventing the risk of rupture. Being considered non-nuclear safety, having a modular architecture and working under compression may turn such architectural choice a must to meet safety objectives with improved economics. (author)

  11. A concept of PWR using plate and shell heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freire, Luciano Ondir; Andrade, Delvonei Alves de, E-mail: luciano.ondir@gmail.com, E-mail: delvonei@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    In previous work it was verified the physical possibility of using plate and shell heat exchangers for steam generation in a PWR for merchant ships. This work studies the possibility of using GESMEX commercial of the shelf plate and shell heat exchanger of series XPS. It was found it is feasible for this type of heat exchanger to meet operational and accidental requirements for steam generation in PWR. Additionally, it is proposed an arrangement of such heat exchangers inside the reactor pressure vessel. Such arrangement may avoid ANSI/ANS51.1 nuclear class I requirements on those heat exchangers because they are contained in the reactor coolant pressure barrier and play no role in accidental scenarios. Additionally, those plates work under compression, preventing the risk of rupture. Being considered non-nuclear safety, having a modular architecture and working under compression may turn such architectural choice a must to meet safety objectives with improved economics. (author)

  12. [Application of the anatomic plate and trapezoid plate in comminuted intertrochanteric fracture combined with trochanteric coronal position fracture: a controlled clinical trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Ping; Liu, Xing-Yan; Gao, Ming-Xuan; Tian, Qi

    2010-05-01

    To investigate the therapeutic effect and operative characteristic of the anatomic plate and trapezoid plate for treament of the comminuted intertrochanteric fracture combined with trochanteric coronal position fracture. From Jan. 1998 to Mar. 2007, 57 patients suffered from comminuted intertrochanteric fracture combined with trochanteric coronal position fracture were randomly divided into two groups, 21 patients in trapezoid plate group were treated with the trapezoid compression plate, included 11 males and 10 females with an average age of 41.8 years; and 36 patients in anatomic plate group were treated with the anatomic plate, included 17 males and 19 females with an average age of 42.1 years. All of the 57 fractures were A3 type according to AO classification. The functions of hip joints were evaluated according to the Harris hip functional standard score. All 57 patients were followed-up for 5 months to 9 years and 3 months with an average of 4.8 years. The healing time of the fractures was from 8 to 20 weeks with an average of 12.8 weeks. The results of Harris scoring showed the pain scores of the anatomic plate group were higher than that of the trapezoid plate group (P 0.05). In unstable comminuted intertrochanteric fracture combined with trochanteric coronal position fracture, the lateral wall of trochanteric is often destroyed. The anatomic plate and the trapeziod compression plate can provide effective internal fixation, while many othere internal fixation methods were limited in this kind of fracture. As compared with the anatomic plate fixation, the trapezoid compression plate fixation of comminuted intertrochanteric fracture combined with trochanteric coronal position fracture have several advantages, such as fewer complications, faster union of fracture and earlier recovery of joint functions.

  13. Analyzing the effects of size of hole on Plate failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behzad, Mohammadzadeh; Noh, Hyukchun [Sejong Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The load at critical point in which an infinitesimal increase in load can make the plate to buckle, is buckling load. When a plate element is subjected to direct compression, bending, shear, or a combination of these stresses in its plane, the plate may buckle locally before the member as a whole becomes unstable or before the yield stress of the material is reached. Holes can either increase or decrease critical load of a plate depending on its position and geometry. The presence of holes in plates will change the strength and stiffness, so the amounts of stress and its distribution which induce strain and buckling will be changed. This study deals with studying the buckling of plate with holes using finite element method(FEM). Buckling is one of the main reasons for steel members to fail during service life time. As plates are frequently used in the structures of nuclear power plants and in some cases making holes in plates is necessary, it is necessary to assay the capacity of the plates especially in terms of buckling. FEM is a useful approach which makes the plate analysis be performed with ease. This study relates the buckling load of plates with through-thickness holes to a dimensionless parameter (D/a). By increasing D/a ratio, the amount of plate strength is observed to be decreased. After D/a=0.5, the rate of decreasing is observed to be increased drastically. Therefore, it is better to use ratio D/a less than or equal to 0.5. As a further study, it is possible to investigate other aspects such as different thickness, different positions and so on.

  14. Analyzing the effects of size of hole on Plate failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behzad, Mohammadzadeh; Noh, Hyukchun

    2013-01-01

    The load at critical point in which an infinitesimal increase in load can make the plate to buckle, is buckling load. When a plate element is subjected to direct compression, bending, shear, or a combination of these stresses in its plane, the plate may buckle locally before the member as a whole becomes unstable or before the yield stress of the material is reached. Holes can either increase or decrease critical load of a plate depending on its position and geometry. The presence of holes in plates will change the strength and stiffness, so the amounts of stress and its distribution which induce strain and buckling will be changed. This study deals with studying the buckling of plate with holes using finite element method(FEM). Buckling is one of the main reasons for steel members to fail during service life time. As plates are frequently used in the structures of nuclear power plants and in some cases making holes in plates is necessary, it is necessary to assay the capacity of the plates especially in terms of buckling. FEM is a useful approach which makes the plate analysis be performed with ease. This study relates the buckling load of plates with through-thickness holes to a dimensionless parameter (D/a). By increasing D/a ratio, the amount of plate strength is observed to be decreased. After D/a=0.5, the rate of decreasing is observed to be increased drastically. Therefore, it is better to use ratio D/a less than or equal to 0.5. As a further study, it is possible to investigate other aspects such as different thickness, different positions and so on

  15. Anisotropic elastic plates

    CERN Document Server

    Hwu, Chyanbin

    2010-01-01

    As structural elements, anisotropic elastic plates find wide applications in modern technology. The plates here are considered to be subjected to not only in plane load but also transverse load. In other words, both plane and plate bending problems as well as the stretching-bending coupling problems are all explained in this book. In addition to the introduction of the theory of anisotropic elasticity, several important subjects have are discussed in this book such as interfaces, cracks, holes, inclusions, contact problems, piezoelectric materials, thermoelastic problems and boundary element a

  16. High loading uranium plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiencek, T.C.; Domagala, R.F.; Thresh, H.R.

    1990-01-01

    Two embodiments of a high uranium fuel plate are disclosed which contain a meat comprising structured uranium compound confined between a pari of diffusion bonded ductile metal cladding plates uniformly covering the meat, the meat hiving a uniform high fuel loading comprising a content of uranium compound greater than about 45 Vol. % at a porosity not greater than about 10 Vol. %. In a first embodiment, the meat is a plurality of parallel wires of uranium compound. In a second embodiment, the meat is a dispersion compact containing uranium compound. The fuel plates are fabricated by a hot isostatic pressing process

  17. Fabrication procedures for HFIR control plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowden, G.A.; Hicks, G.R.; Knight, R.W.

    1984-10-01

    The HFIR control system uses Alclad cylindrically shaped components, which have regions containing 31 vol % Eu/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and 38 vol % Ta, respectively. Exacting control of the water passage between these components and adjacent reactor parts is mandatory, and precise dimensional control of the finished products is required. This report describes the procedures developed for manufacturing outer control plates and inner control cylinders. Results are cited which demonstrate that circular-shaped outer control plates can be produced with less than 0.025-in. variation from the specified 9.300-in. radius in any region of the plate. Other results show that, by the exercise of careful control, inner control, inner control plates can be welded into cylindrical geometry with diametrical variations held to less than +- 0.010 in. of the intended 17.846-in. average diam. The cylinders can then be explosively sized, while under compression, with diametric variations of less than 0.005 in. while controlling roundness variations to less than 0.030 in. from the specified 17.842-in. finished diam.

  18. Fabrication procedures for HFIR control plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowden, G.A.; Hicks, G.R.; Knight, R.W.

    1984-10-01

    The HFIR control system uses Alclad cylindrically shaped components, which have regions containing 31 vol % Eu 2 O 3 and 38 vol % Ta, respectively. Exacting control of the water passage between these components and adjacent reactor parts is mandatory, and precise dimensional control of the finished products is required. This report describes the procedures developed for manufacturing outer control plates and inner control cylinders. Results are cited which demonstrate that circular-shaped outer control plates can be produced with less than 0.025-in. variation from the specified 9.300-in. radius in any region of the plate. Other results show that, by the exercise of careful control, inner control, inner control plates can be welded into cylindrical geometry with diametrical variations held to less than +- 0.010 in. of the intended 17.846-in. average diam. The cylinders can then be explosively sized, while under compression, with diametric variations of less than 0.005 in. while controlling roundness variations to less than 0.030 in. from the specified 17.842-in. finished diam

  19. Multidomain spectral solution of compressible viscous flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopriva, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    We develop a nonoverlapping mutidomain spectral collocation method to solve compressible viscous flows. At the interfaces, the advection terms are treated with a characteristic correction method. The diffusion terms are treated with a penalty method. Spectral accuracy is demonstrated on linear model problems in one and two space dimensions. The method is applied to a subsonic and supersonic flow over a flat plate. The results are compared to solutions of the boundary-layer equations which show that two digit accuracy in the adiabatic plate temperature is obtained with 16 points in the boundary layer for a freestream Mach number of two. A second application is to a transonic flow in a two-dimensional converging-diverging nozzle, where the computed results are compared to experimental data

  20. Heat insulating plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, J.A.F.

    1976-10-28

    Micro-porous insulation plates are dealt with, for example, how they are used in the insulation of heat storage devices. Since one side of such plates is exposed to a temperature of over 700/sup 0/C, a shrinkage of the glass texture of the covering can occur, which can exceed the shrinkage of the inner micro-porous material, so that cracks and splits in the high temperature side of the covering can come about. The task of the invention is to design the plate in such a way as to prevent this from happening. For this purpose the plate is provided, according to invention specifications, with flutes, waves, ribs, waffle or grid patterns and the covering is set into the recesses originating from this.

  1. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Plate is a simple and effective way to manage your blood glucose levels and lose weight. With ... been easier. It can be a challenge to manage portion control wherever you are. Now, our best- ...

  2. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Food Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans and a Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods donate en -- A Future Without Diabetes - a- ...

  3. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose ... Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart- ...

  4. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans and a Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets ...

  5. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Children and Type 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's License ... blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ...

  6. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... diabetes. Other Ways to Give Become a Member Vehicle Donation Planned Giving Options Memorial Giving Brochures & Envelopes ... to manage your blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with ...

  7. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... breast cancer and AIDS combined. Your gift today will help us get closer to curing diabetes and ... on one side, cut it again so you will have three sections on your plate. Fill the ...

  8. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning ... serving of dairy or both as your meal plan allows. Choose healthy fats in small amounts. For ...

  9. Create Your Plate

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  10. Create Your Plate

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  11. Create Your Plate

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  12. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... for Association Events Messaging Tools Recruiting Advocates Local Market Planning Training Webinars News & Events Advocacy News Call ... Meals > Create Your Plate Share: Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Create Your ...

  13. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Us in the Fight for a Cure Your tax-deductible gift today can fund critical diabetes research ... Close www.diabetes.org > Food and Fitness > Food > Planning Meals > Create Your Plate Share: Print Page Text ...

  14. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... critical diabetes research and support vital diabetes education services that improve the lives of those with diabetes. $50 $100 $250 $500 Other Other Ways ... Meals > Create Your Plate ...

  15. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... 800-342-2383) Give by Mail Close ... your plate with more non-starchy veggies and smaller portions of starchy foods and protein—no special tools or counting required! You can ...

  16. Humvee Armor Plate Drilling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    When drilling holes in hard steel plate used in up-armor kits for Humvee light trucks, the Anniston Army Depot, Anniston, Alabama, requested the assistance of the National Center for Defense Manufacturing and Machining (NCDMM...

  17. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Easy Advocacy Checklists for Association Events Messaging Tools Recruiting Advocates Local Market Planning Training Webinars News & Events ... blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ...

  18. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ... Complications Health Insurance For Parents & Kids Know Your Rights We Can Help Enroll in the Living WIth ...

  19. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ... today and help fund grants supporting next generation scientists. Donate Today We Can Help - we-can-help. ...

  20. Compressed-air power tools in orthopaedic surgery: exhaust air is a potential source of contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagi, H C; DiPasquale, Thomas; Sanders, Roy; Herscovici, Dolfi

    2002-01-01

    To determine if the exhaust from surgical compressed-air power tools contains bacteria and if the exhaust leads to contamination of sterile surfaces. Bacteriologic study of orthopaedic power tools. Level I trauma center operative theater. None. Part I. Exhaust from two sterile compact air drills was sampled directly at the exhaust port. Part II. Exhaust from the drills was directed at sterile agar plates from varying distances. The agar plates represented sterile surfaces within the operative field. Part III. Control cultures. A battery-powered drill was operated over open agar plates in similar fashion as the compressed-air drills. Agar plates left open in the operative theater served as controls to rule out atmospheric contamination. Random cultures were taken from agar plates, gloves, drills, and hoses. Incidence of positive cultures. In Part I, all filters from both compressed-air drill exhausts were culture negative ( = 0.008). In Part II, the incidence of positive cultures for air drills number one and number two was 73% and 82%, respectively. The most commonly encountered organisms were, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, and Micrococcus species. All control cultures from agar plates, battery-powered drill, gloves, and hoses were negative ( compressed-air power tools in orthopaedic surgery may contribute to the dissemination of bacteria onto the surgical field. We do not recommend the use of compressed-air power tools that do not have a contained exhaust.

  1. Compressive laser ranging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babbitt, Wm Randall; Barber, Zeb W; Renner, Christoffer

    2011-12-15

    Compressive sampling has been previously proposed as a technique for sampling radar returns and determining sparse range profiles with a reduced number of measurements compared to conventional techniques. By employing modulation on both transmission and reception, compressive sensing in ranging is extended to the direct measurement of range profiles without intermediate measurement of the return waveform. This compressive ranging approach enables the use of pseudorandom binary transmit waveforms and return modulation, along with low-bandwidth optical detectors to yield high-resolution ranging information. A proof-of-concept experiment is presented. With currently available compact, off-the-shelf electronics and photonics, such as high data rate binary pattern generators and high-bandwidth digital optical modulators, compressive laser ranging can readily achieve subcentimeter resolution in a compact, lightweight package.

  2. BAO Plate Archive Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickaelian, A. M.; Gigoyan, K. S.; Gyulzadyan, M. V.; Paronyan, G. M.; Abrahamyan, H. V.; Andreasyan, H. R.; Azatyan, N. M.; Kostandyan, G. R.; Samsonyan, A. L.; Mikayelyan, G. A.; Farmanyan, S. V.; Harutyunyan, V. L.

    2017-12-01

    We present the Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (BAO) Plate Archive Project that is aimed at digitization, extraction and analysis of archival data and building an electronic database and interactive sky map. BAO Plate Archive consists of 37,500 photographic plates and films, obtained with 2.6m telescope, 1m and 0.5m Schmidt telescopes and other smaller ones during 1947-1991. The famous Markarian Survey (or the First Byurakan Survey, FBS) 2000 plates were digitized in 2002-2005 and the Digitized FBS (DFBS, www.aras.am/Dfbs/dfbs.html) was created. New science projects have been conducted based on this low-dispersion spectroscopic material. Several other smaller digitization projects have been carried out as well, such as part of Second Byurakan Survey (SBS) plates, photographic chain plates in Coma, where the blazar ON 231 is located and 2.6m film spectra of FBS Blue Stellar Objects. However, most of the plates and films are not digitized. In 2015, we have started a project on the whole BAO Plate Archive digitization, creation of electronic database and its scientific usage. Armenian Virtual Observatory (ArVO, www.aras.am/Arvo/arvo.htm) database will accommodate all new data. The project runs in collaboration with the Armenian Institute of Informatics and Automation Problems (IIAP) and will continues during 4 years in 2015-2018. The final result will be an Electronic Database and online Interactive Sky map to be used for further research projects. ArVO will provide all standards and tools for efficient usage of the scientific output and its integration in international databases.

  3. On the characterisation of the dynamic compressive behaviour of silicon carbides subjected to isentropic compression experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinszner Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic materials are commonly used as protective materials particularly due to their very high hardness and compressive strength. However, the microstructure of a ceramic has a great influence on its compressive strength and on its ballistic efficiency. To study the influence of microstructural parameters on the dynamic compressive behaviour of silicon carbides, isentropic compression experiments have been performed on two silicon carbide grades using a high pulsed power generator called GEPI. Contrary to plate impact experiments, the use of the GEPI device and of the lagrangian analysis allows determining the whole loading path. The two SiC grades studied present different Hugoniot elastic limit (HEL due to their different microstructures. For these materials, the experimental technique allowed evaluating the evolution of the equivalent stress during the dynamic compression. It has been observed that these two grades present a work hardening more or less pronounced after the HEL. The densification of the material seems to have more influence on the HEL than the grain size.

  4. Neutron imaging plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niimura, Nobuo

    1995-01-01

    Imaging plates have been used in the field of medical diagnosis since long ago, but their usefulness was verified as the two-dimensional detector for analyzing the X-ray crystalline structure of high bio molecules like protein, and they have contributed to the remarkable progress in this field. The great contribution is due to the excellent features, such as the detection efficiency of about 100%, the positional resolution smaller than 0.2 mm, the dynamic range of five digits, and the area of several hundreds mm square. The neutron imaging plates have not yet obtained the sufficient results. It was planned to construct the neutron diffractometer for biological matters, and to put imaging plate neutron detectors (IP-ND) to practical use as the detector. The research on the development of IP-NDs was carried out, and the IPp-NDs having the performance comparable with that for X-ray were able to be produced. Imaging plates are the integral type two-dimensional radiation detector using photostimulated luminescence matters, and their principle is explained. As to neutron imaging plates, the converter, neutron detection efficiency and the flight of secondary particles in photo-stimulated luminescence matters are described. As for the present state of development of neutron imaging plates, the IP-NDs made for trial, the dynamic range, the positional resolution, the detection efficiency and the kinds of converters, and the application of IP-NDs are reported. (K.I.)

  5. Buckling of Flat Thin Plates under Combined Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion DIMA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to provide a quick methodology to determine the critical values of the forces applied to the central plane of a flat isotropic plate at which a change to the stable configuration of equilibrium occurs. Considering the variety of shapes, boundary conditions and loading combinations, the article does not intend to make an exhaustive presentation of the plate buckling. As an alternative, there will be presented only the most used configurations such as: rectangular flat thin plates, boundary conditions with simply supported (hinged or clamped (fixed edges, combined loadings with single compression or single shear or combination between them, compression and shear, with or without transverse loading, encountered at wings and control surfaces shell of fin and rudder or stabilizer and elevator. The reserve factor and the critical stresses will be calculated using comparatively two methods, namely the methodology proposed by the present article and ASSIST 6.6.2.0 – AIRBUS France software, a dedicated software to local calculations, for a simply supported plate under combined loading, compression on the both sides and shear.

  6. Quasi-isentropic compression using compressed water flow generated by underwater electrical explosion of a wire array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurovich, V.; Virozub, A.; Rososhek, A.; Bland, S.; Spielman, R. B.; Krasik, Ya. E.

    2018-05-01

    A major experimental research area in material equation-of-state today involves the use of off-Hugoniot measurements rather than shock experiments that give only Hugoniot data. There is a wide range of applications using quasi-isentropic compression of matter including the direct measurement of the complete isentrope of materials in a single experiment and minimizing the heating of flyer plates for high-velocity shock measurements. We propose a novel approach to generating quasi-isentropic compression of matter. Using analytical modeling and hydrodynamic simulations, we show that a working fluid composed of compressed water, generated by an underwater electrical explosion of a planar wire array, might be used to efficiently drive the quasi-isentropic compression of a copper target to pressures ˜2 × 1011 Pa without any complex target designs.

  7. Thermoelastic buckling of plates in a cylindrical geometry against an elastic back support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, L.D.; Wierman, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    A plate which is fixed at its edges to a strong edge support structure will develop large compressive stresses when heated from ambient temperature more rapidly than the support structure. Determining the response of the plate to this situation requires stability analysis to ascertain whether the plate might buckle, or whether the constrained thermal expansion will lead to compressive stresses exceeding the yield point because it did not buckle. A special case is considered here, both analytically and experimentally, in which the plate is curved slightly into a cylindrical shape and the convex face of the plate is against a supporting surface. This case is more complex because the buckling mode will be a harmonic rather than the fundamental mode which is usually encountered

  8. Posterior column acetabular fracture fixation using a W-shaped angular plate: A biomechanical analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Su

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the stability and feasibility of four fixation constructs in a posterior column acetabular fracture: one reconstruction plate, one reconstruction plate and lag screw, two reconstruction plates, and a W-shaped acetabular angular plate.Twenty embalmed cadaveric pelvises with a posterior column acetabular fractures were allocated to one of four groups: 1 a reconstruction plate, 2 a reconstruction plate with a posterior column lag screw, 3 double reconstruction plates, and 4 a W-shaped acetabular angular plate. These constructs were mechanically loaded on a testing machine, and construct stiffness values were measured. Strain gauges were utilized to measure the mechanical behavior in the condition of compressive force.Final stiffness was not different between the two reconstruction plates (445.81±98.30 N/mm and the W-shaped acetabular angular plate (447.43±98.45 N/mm, p = 0.524, both of which were superior to a single reconstruction plate (248.90±61.95 N/mm and a combined plate and lag screw (326.41±94.34 N/mm. Following the fixation of the W-shaped acetabular angular plate, the strain distribution was similar to the intact condition around the acetabulum. The parameters of the W-shaped acetabular angular plate that were observed at the superior region of the acetabulum were less than those of a single reconstruction plate (p<0.05, a single reconstruction plate with lag screw (p<0.05, and two reconstruction plates (p<0.05.The novel W-shaped acetabular angular plate fixation technique was able to provide the biomechanically stiffest construct for stabilization of a posterior column acetabular fracture; it also resulted in a partial restoration of joint loading parameters toward the intact state.

  9. Cadmium plating replacements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, M.J.; Groshart, E.C.

    1995-03-01

    The Boeing Company has been searching for replacements to cadmium plate. Two alloy plating systems seem close to meeting the needs of a cadmium replacement. The two alloys, zinc-nickel and tin-zinc are from alloy plating baths; both baths are neutral pH. The alloys meet the requirements for salt fog corrosion resistance, and both alloys excel as a paint base. Currently, tests are being performed on standard fasteners to compare zinc-nickel and tin-zinc on threaded hardware where cadmium is heavily used. The Hydrogen embrittlement propensity of the zinc-nickel bath has been tested, and just beginning for the tin-zinc bath. Another area of interest is the electrical properties on aluminum for tin-zinc and will be discussed. The zinc-nickel alloy plating bath is in production in Boeing Commercial Airplane Group for non-critical low strength steels. The outlook is promising that these two coatings will help The Boeing Company significantly reduce its dependence on cadmium plating.

  10. Bending and stretching of plates

    CERN Document Server

    Mansfield, E H; Hemp, W S

    1964-01-01

    The Bending and Stretching of Plates deals with elastic plate theory, particularly on small- and large-deflexion theory. Small-deflexion theory concerns derivation of basic equations, rectangular plates, plates of various shapes, plates whose boundaries are amenable to conformal transformation, plates with variable rigidity, and approximate methods. Large-deflexion theory includes general equations and some exact solutions, approximate methods in large-deflexion theory, asymptotic large-deflexion theories for very thin plates. Asymptotic theories covers membrane theory, tension field theory, a

  11. Optical pulse compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, A.J.

    1975-01-01

    The interest in using large lasers to achieve a very short and intense pulse for generating fusion plasma has provided a strong impetus to reexamine the possibilities of optical pulse compression at high energy. Pulse compression allows one to generate pulses of long duration (minimizing damage problems) and subsequently compress optical pulses to achieve the short pulse duration required for specific applications. The ideal device for carrying out this program has not been developed. Of the two approaches considered, the Gires--Tournois approach is limited by the fact that the bandwidth and compression are intimately related, so that the group delay dispersion times the square of the bandwidth is about unity for all simple Gires--Tournois interferometers. The Treacy grating pair does not suffer from this limitation, but is inefficient because diffraction generally occurs in several orders and is limited by the problem of optical damage to the grating surfaces themselves. Nonlinear and parametric processes were explored. Some pulse compression was achieved by these techniques; however, they are generally difficult to control and are not very efficient. (U.S.)

  12. Stress relaxation in vanadium under shock and shockless dynamic compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanel, G. I.; Razorenov, S. V.; Garkushin, G. V.; Savinykh, A. S.; Zaretsky, E. B.

    2015-01-01

    Evolutions of elastic-plastic waves have been recorded in three series of plate impact experiments with annealed vanadium samples under conditions of shockless and combined ramp and shock dynamic compression. The shaping of incident wave profiles was realized using intermediate base plates made of different silicate glasses through which the compression waves were entered into the samples. Measurements of the free surface velocity histories revealed an apparent growth of the Hugoniot elastic limit with decreasing average rate of compression. The growth was explained by “freezing” of the elastic precursor decay in the area of interaction of the incident and reflected waves. A set of obtained data show that the current value of the Hugoniot elastic limit and plastic strain rate is rather associated with the rate of the elastic precursor decay than with the local rate of compression. The study has revealed the contributions of dislocation multiplications in elastic waves. It has been shown that independently of the compression history the material arrives at the minimum point between the elastic and plastic waves with the same density of mobile dislocations

  13. Isentropic Compression of Argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oona, H.; Solem, J.C.; Veeser, L.R.; Ekdahl, C.A.; Rodriquez, P.J.; Younger, S.M.; Lewis, W.; Turley, W.D.

    1997-01-01

    We are studying the transition of argon from an insulator to a conductor by compressing the frozen gas isentropically to pressures at which neighboring atomic orbitals overlap sufficiently to allow some electron motion between atoms. Argon and the other rare gases have closed electron shells and therefore remain montomic, even when they solidify. Their simple structure makes it likely that any measured change in conductivity is due to changes in the atomic structure, not in molecular configuration. As the crystal is compressed the band gap closes, allowing increased conductivity. We have begun research to determine the conductivity at high pressures, and it is our intention to determine the compression at which the crystal becomes a metal

  14. Pulsed Compression Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roestenberg, T. [University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands)

    2012-06-07

    The advantages of the Pulsed Compression Reactor (PCR) over the internal combustion engine-type chemical reactors are briefly discussed. Over the last four years a project concerning the fundamentals of the PCR technology has been performed by the University of Twente, Enschede, Netherlands. In order to assess the feasibility of the application of the PCR principle for the conversion methane to syngas, several fundamental questions needed to be answered. Two important questions that relate to the applicability of the PCR for any process are: how large is the heat transfer rate from a rapidly compressed and expanded volume of gas, and how does this heat transfer rate compare to energy contained in the compressed gas? And: can stable operation with a completely free piston as it is intended with the PCR be achieved?.

  15. Medullary compression syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barriga T, L.; Echegaray, A.; Zaharia, M.; Pinillos A, L.; Moscol, A.; Barriga T, O.; Heredia Z, A.

    1994-01-01

    The authors made a retrospective study in 105 patients treated in the Radiotherapy Department of the National Institute of Neoplasmic Diseases from 1973 to 1992. The objective of this evaluation was to determine the influence of radiotherapy in patients with medullary compression syndrome in aspects concerning pain palliation and improvement of functional impairment. Treatment sheets of patients with medullary compression were revised: 32 out of 39 of patients (82%) came to hospital by their own means and continued walking after treatment, 8 out of 66 patients (12%) who came in a wheelchair or were bedridden, could mobilize by their own after treatment, 41 patients (64%) had partial alleviation of pain after treatment. In those who came by their own means and did not change their characteristics, functional improvement was observed. It is concluded that radiotherapy offers palliative benefit in patients with medullary compression syndrome. (authors). 20 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs

  16. Plating on Zircaloy-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dini, J.W.; Johnson, H.R.; Jones, A.

    1979-03-01

    Zircaloy-2 is a difficult alloy to coat with an adherent electroplate because it easily forms a tenacious oxide film in air and aqueous solutions. Procedures reported in the literature and those developed at SLL for surmounting this problem were investigated. The best results were obtained when specimens were first etched in either an ammonium bifluoride/sulfuric acid or an ammonium bifluoride solution, plated, and then heated at 700 0 C for 1 hour in a constrained condition. Machining threads in the Zircaloy-2 for the purpose of providing sites for mechanical interlocking of the plating also proved satisfactory

  17. NICKEL PLATING PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, T.B.; Zava, T.E.

    1959-05-12

    A simplified process is presented for plating nickel by the vapor decomposition of nickel carbonyl. In a preferred form of the invention a solid surface is nickel plated by subjecting the surface to contact with a mixture containing by volume approximately 20% nickel carbonyl vapor, 2% hydrogen sulfide and .l% water vapor or 1% oxygen and the remainder carbon dioxide at room temperature until the desired thickness of nickel is obtained. The advantage of this composition over others is that the normally explosive nickel carbonyl is greatly stabilized.

  18. Hydrodynamics of a flexible plate between pitching rigid plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junyoung; Kim, Daegyoum

    2017-11-01

    The dynamics of a flexible plate have been studied as a model problem in swimming and flying of animals and fluid-structure interaction of plants and flags. Motivated by fish schooling and an array of sea grasses, we investigate the dynamics of a flexible plate closely placed between two pitching rigid plates. In most studies on passive deformation of the flexible plate, the plate is immersed in a uniform flow or a wavy flow. However, in this study, the flexible plate experiences periodic deformation by the oscillatory flow generated by the prescribed pitching motion of the rigid plates. In our model, the pitching axes of the rigid plates and the clamping position of the flexible plate are aligned on the same line. The flexible plate shows various responses depending on length and pitching frequency of rigid plates, thickness of a flexible plate, and free-stream velocity. To find the effect of each variable on the response of the flexible plate, amplitude of a trailing edge and modal contribution of a flapping motion are compared, and flow structure around the flexible plate is examined.

  19. Graph Compression by BFS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Apostolico

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The Web Graph is a large-scale graph that does not fit in main memory, so that lossless compression methods have been proposed for it. This paper introduces a compression scheme that combines efficient storage with fast retrieval for the information in a node. The scheme exploits the properties of the Web Graph without assuming an ordering of the URLs, so that it may be applied to more general graphs. Tests on some datasets of use achieve space savings of about 10% over existing methods.

  20. ADVANCED RECIPROCATING COMPRESSION TECHNOLOGY (ARCT). FINAL REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danny M. Deffenbaugh; Klaus Brun; Ralph E. Harris; J. Pete Harrell; Robert J. Mckee; J. Jeffrey Moore; Steven J. Svedeman; Anthony J. Smalley; Eugene L. Broerman; Robert A Hart; Marybeth G. Nored; Ryan S. Gernentz; Shane P. Siebenaler

    2005-01-01

    . Retrofit technologies that address the challenges of slow-speed integral compression are: (1) optimum turndown using a combination of speed and clearance with single-acting operation as a last resort; (2) if single-acting is required, implement infinite length nozzles to address nozzle pulsation and tunable side branch absorbers for 1x lateral pulsations; and (3) advanced valves, either the semi-active plate valve or the passive rotary valve, to extend valve life to three years with half the pressure drop. This next generation of slow-speed compression should attain 95% efficiency, a three-year valve life, and expanded turndown. New equipment technologies that address the challenges of large-horsepower, high-speed compression are: (1) optimum turndown with unit speed; (2) tapered nozzles to effectively reduce nozzle pulsation with half the pressure drop and minimization of mechanical cylinder stretch induced vibrations; (3) tunable side branch absorber or higher-order filter bottle to address lateral piping pulsations over the entire extended speed range with minimal pressure drop; and (4) semi-active plate valves or passive rotary valves to extend valve life with half the pressure drop. This next generation of large-horsepower, high-speed compression should attain 90% efficiency, a two-year valve life, 50% turndown, and less than 0.75 IPS vibration. This program has generated proof-of-concept technologies with the potential to meet these ambitious goals. Full development of these identified technologies is underway. The GMRC has committed to pursue the most promising enabling technologies for their industry

  1. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... meal-planning, . In this section Food Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans and a Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods donate en -- A Future Without Diabetes - a-future-without-diabetes-2.html A Future ...

  2. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tool is not to scale because of the differences in types of vegetables. When creating your plate ... function (data) { $('#survey-errors').remove(); $('.survey-form .form-group .survey-alert-wrap').remove(); if (data.submitSurveyResponse.success == ' ...

  3. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods donate en -- A Future Without Diabetes - a-future-without-diabetes-2.html A Future Without Diabetes Donate towards research today and your gift will be matched. Donate ...

  4. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Planning Meals > Create Your Plate Share: Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Create ... Type 2 Education Series Hear audio clips and full recordings of past Q&A events at your ...

  5. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites Search ≡ Are ... Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten ...

  6. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tax-deductible gift today can fund critical diabetes research and support vital diabetes education services that improve the ... effective way to manage your blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ...

  7. Microchannel plate photodetectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majka, R.

    1977-01-01

    A review is given the status of development work on photodetectors using microchannel plates (MCP) as the electron gain element. Projections are made and opinions are presented on what might be available in the next few years. Several uses for these devices at ISABELLE are mentioned

  8. Parallel plate detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardes, D.; Volkov, P.

    1981-01-01

    A 5x3cm 2 (timing only) and a 15x5cm 2 (timing and position) parallel plate avalanche counters (PPAC) are considered. The theory of operation and timing resolution is given. The measurement set-up and the curves of experimental results illustrate the possibilities of the two counters [fr

  9. Flat plate collector. Solarflachkollektor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raab, N

    1979-03-29

    The invention refers to a flat solar collector with an absorber plate, which is arranged on a support and is covered by a transparent window, between which and the plate there is an air space. The previously known structures of this type had the disadvantage that the thermal expansion of the enclosed air caused considerable difficulties. The purpose of the invention is therefore to create a collector, which can be used on the modular system, retains its properties and is safe in spite of the great temperature variations. According to the invention this problem is solved by providing a compensating space in the collector, which is separated by a diaphragm from the airspace between the plate and the covering window. The airspace therefore remains sealed against the atmosphere, so that no dirt, corrosion of the inside and no condensation can reduce the efficiency of the collector. A rise in pressure due to an increase in temperature is immediately reduced by expansion of the diaphragm, which enters the compensation space. In order to increase the pressure in the airspace above the plate for increases in temperature, the compensation space is connected to the atmosphere. The diaphragm can be mirrored on the side towards the absorber, which makes the diaphragm into an insulating element, as it reflects radiated heat from the absorber.

  10. Waveguide module comprising a first plate with a waveguide channel and a second plate with a raised portion in which a sealing layer is forced into the waveguide channel by the raised portion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassner, II, Bernd H.; Liedtke, Richard; McDonald, Jacob Jeremiah; Halligan, Matthew

    2018-04-17

    The various technologies presented herein relate to utilizing a sealing layer of malleable material to seal gaps, etc., at a joint between edges of a waveguide channel formed in a first plate and a surface of a clamping plate. A compression pad is included in the surface of the clamping plate and is dimensioned such that the upper surface of the pad is less than the area of the waveguide channel opening on the first plate. The sealing layer is placed between the waveguide plate and the clamping plate, and during assembly of the waveguide module, the compression pad deforms a portion of the sealing layer such that it ingresses into the waveguide channel opening. Deformation of the sealing layer results in the gaps, etc., to be filled, improving the operational integrity of the joint.

  11. Compressible generalized Newtonian fluids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Málek, Josef; Rajagopal, K.R.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 6 (2010), s. 1097-1110 ISSN 0044-2275 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : power law fluid * uniform temperature * compressible fluid Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 1.290, year: 2010

  12. Temporal compressive sensing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Bryan W.

    2017-12-12

    Methods and systems for temporal compressive sensing are disclosed, where within each of one or more sensor array data acquisition periods, one or more sensor array measurement datasets comprising distinct linear combinations of time slice data are acquired, and where mathematical reconstruction allows for calculation of accurate representations of the individual time slice datasets.

  13. Compression of Infrared images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantel, Claire; Forchhammer, Søren

    2017-01-01

    best for bits-per-pixel rates below 1.4 bpp, while HEVC obtains best performance in the range 1.4 to 6.5 bpp. The compression performance is also evaluated based on maximum errors. These results also show that HEVC can achieve a precision of 1°C with an average of 1.3 bpp....

  14. Gas compression infrared generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hug, W.F.

    1980-01-01

    A molecular gas is compressed in a quasi-adiabatic manner to produce pulsed radiation during each compressor cycle when the pressure and temperature are sufficiently high, and part of the energy is recovered during the expansion phase, as defined in U.S. Pat. No. 3,751,666; characterized by use of a cylinder with a reciprocating piston as a compressor

  15. A Simplified Model for the Effect of Weld-Induced Residual Stresses on the Axial Ultimate Strength of Stiffened Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bai-Qiao; Guedes Soares, C.

    2018-03-01

    The present work investigates the compressive axial ultimate strength of fillet-welded steel-plated ship structures subjected to uniaxial compression, in which the residual stresses in the welded plates are calculated by a thermo-elasto-plastic finite element analysis that is used to fit an idealized model of residual stress distribution. The numerical results of ultimate strength based on the simplified model of residual stress show good agreement with those of various methods including the International Association of Classification Societies (IACS) Common Structural Rules (CSR), leading to the conclusion that the simplified model can be effectively used to represent the distribution of residual stresses in steel-plated structures in a wide range of engineering applications. It is concluded that the widths of the tension zones in the welded plates have a quasi-linear behavior with respect to the plate slenderness. The effect of residual stress on the axial strength of the stiffened plate is analyzed and discussed.

  16. Shock compression experiments on Lithium Deuteride single crystals.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knudson, Marcus D.; Desjarlais, Michael Paul; Lemke, Raymond W.

    2014-10-01

    S hock compression exper iments in the few hundred GPa (multi - Mabr) regime were performed on Lithium Deuteride (LiD) single crystals . This study utilized the high velocity flyer plate capability of the Sandia Z Machine to perform impact experiments at flyer plate velocities in the range of 17 - 32 km/s. Measurements included pressure, density, and temperature between %7E200 - 600 GPa along the Principal Hugoniot - the locus of end states achievable through compression by large amplitude shock waves - as well as pressure and density of re - shock states up to %7E900 GPa . The experimental measurements are compared with recent density functional theory calculations as well as a new tabular equation of state developed at Los Alamos National Labs.

  17. Compressible Fluid Suspension Performance Testing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoogterp, Francis

    2003-01-01

    ... compressible fluid suspension system that was designed and installed on the vehicle by DTI. The purpose of the tests was to evaluate the possible performance benefits of the compressible fluid suspension system...

  18. Efecto de la época de plantación en la dinámica de la emergencia de caña semilla de alta calidad (termotratada y micropropagada de las variedades CP 65-357 y LCP 85-384 Effect of planting date on emergence dynamics of high quality CP 65-357 and LCP 85-384 seed cane (hot-water treated and micropropagated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A. Digonzelli

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evalúa el efecto de la época de plantación en la dinámica de la emergencia de caña semilla de alta calidad (micropropagada y termotratada de las variedades CP 65-357 y LCP 85-384, en condiciones de disponibilidad hídrica adecuada. La caña semilla micropropagada y termotratada (50ºC, 2 hs se plantó, con una densidad de 15 yemas/m, en tres épocas contrastantes: otoño, invierno y primavera. El material empleado estaba libre de escaldadura de la hoja (Xanthomonas albilineans y achaparramiento (Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli. La época de plantación afectó todas las variables de la dinámica de la emergencia en las dos variedades y en ambos orígenes de la semilla. El origen afectó significativamente el inicio y la duración de la emergencia (t e y t50, pero no tuvo efecto en el porcentaje final ni en la tasa media de emergencia. La emergencia (% fue mayor en la plantación de octubre, que en las de mayo y agosto (59%, 35% y 45%, respectivamente. El te y el t50 fueron mayores en mayo que en agosto y octubre. La semilla micropropagada presentó, en general, valores de t e y t50 menores que la termotratada. La época de plantación fue el principal factor que afectó la dinámica de la emergencia de caña semilla de alta calidad de CP 65-357 y LCP 85-384. La variedad y el origen de la semilla afectaron significativamente, aunque en menor magnitud que la época de plantación, el inicio y la duración de la fase de emergencia.Planting date influence on emergence dynamics of high quality CP 65-357 and LCP 85-384 seed cane (hot-water treated and micropropagated, without humidity constraints, was evaluated. Material used was free from leaf scald disease (Xanthomonas albilineans and ratoon stunting disease (Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli. Seed cane, micropropagated and hot-water treated (50ºC, 2 hours, was planted with a 15 buds/m density in three contrasting dates: autumn, winter and spring. The material was irrigated during the trial. Planting

  19. Micro calcification evaluation using CR plates in computerized mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustos F, M.; Prata M, A.

    2017-10-01

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of mortality in the world. In 2012, about 14 million new cases were registered, of which 1.6 million are breast cancer, according to the World Health Organization. The National Cancer Institute of Brazil estimated 57 thousand new cases of breast cancer by 2016. Mammography is the imaging technique most used worldwide for the early diagnosis of breast cancer. Computed radiography (CR) plates are used for digital radiography, and are widely used to obtain digital mammograms. This work aims to evaluate te response of CR plates to the variation of exposure in mammography equipment. Three CR plates for mammography of different models were used for the study. X-ray beams were selected to perform successive exposures of CR plates by varying the exposure time. These exposures were performed to obtain raw images that were subsequently analyzed using ImageJ software, from which the value of intensity recorded in the central region of each image was obtained, correlating it with the exposure time. From these data the necessary correlations were made to determine the exposure time for which the CR plate begins to saturate, observing that the saturation occurs first for the highest value of the applied voltage. Finally, successive exposures of the CR plate were made using the compressed breast simulator made of acrylic plates and containing microcalcifications of different sizes to determine the qualitative resolution of CR plates, observing that only microcalcifications above 177 μm are visible in the image. The knowledge of saturation characteristics and resolution of the CR plate allows the selection of more adequate parameters to work without approaching the saturation region. (Author)

  20. Micro calcification evaluation using CR plates in computerized mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustos F, M.; Prata M, A., E-mail: mabelita.bfm@gmail.com [Federal University of Minas Gerais, School of Engineering, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Av. Antonio Carlos CEP 131270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2017-10-15

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of mortality in the world. In 2012, about 14 million new cases were registered, of which 1.6 million are breast cancer, according to the World Health Organization. The National Cancer Institute of Brazil estimated 57 thousand new cases of breast cancer by 2016. Mammography is the imaging technique most used worldwide for the early diagnosis of breast cancer. Computed radiography (CR) plates are used for digital radiography, and are widely used to obtain digital mammograms. This work aims to evaluate te response of CR plates to the variation of exposure in mammography equipment. Three CR plates for mammography of different models were used for the study. X-ray beams were selected to perform successive exposures of CR plates by varying the exposure time. These exposures were performed to obtain raw images that were subsequently analyzed using ImageJ software, from which the value of intensity recorded in the central region of each image was obtained, correlating it with the exposure time. From these data the necessary correlations were made to determine the exposure time for which the CR plate begins to saturate, observing that the saturation occurs first for the highest value of the applied voltage. Finally, successive exposures of the CR plate were made using the compressed breast simulator made of acrylic plates and containing microcalcifications of different sizes to determine the qualitative resolution of CR plates, observing that only microcalcifications above 177 μm are visible in the image. The knowledge of saturation characteristics and resolution of the CR plate allows the selection of more adequate parameters to work without approaching the saturation region. (Author)

  1. A biomechanical comparison of four fixed-angle dorsal plates in a finite element model of dorsally-unstable radius fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knežević, Josip; Kodvanj, Janoš; Čukelj, Fabijan; Pamuković, Frane; Pavić, Arsen

    2017-11-01

    To compare the finite element models of two different composite radius fracture patterns, reduced and stabilised with four different fixed-angle dorsal plates during axial, dorsal and volar loading conditions. Eight different plastic models representing four AO/ASIF type 23-A3 distal radius fractures and four AO/ASIF 23-C2 distal radius fractures were obtained and fixed each with 1 of 4 methods: a standard dorsal non-anatomical fixed angle T-plate (3.5mm Dorsal T-plate, Synthes), anatomical fixed-angle double plates (2.4mm LCP Dorsal Distal Radius, Synthes), anatomical fixed angle T-plate (2.4mm Acu-Loc Dorsal Plate, Acumed) or anatomical variable-angle dorsal T-plate (3.5mm, Dorsal Plate, Zrinski). Composite radius with plate and screws were scanned with a 3D optical scanner and later processed in Abaqus Software to generate the finite element model. All models were axially loaded at 3 points (centrally, volarly and dorsally) with 50 N forces to avoid the appearance of plastic deformations of the models. Total displacements at the end of the bone and the stresses in the bones and plates were determined and compared. Maximal von Mises stress in bone for 3-part fracture models was very similar to that in 2-part fracture models. The biggest difference between models and the largest displacements were seen during volar loading. The stresses in all models were the highest above the fracture gap. The best performance in all parameters tested was with the Zrinski plate and the most modest results were with the Synthes T-plate. There was no significant difference between 2-part (AO/ASIF type 23-A3) and 3-part (AO/ASIF 23-C2) fracture models. Maximal stresses in the plates appeared above the fracture gap; therefore, it is worth considering the development of plates without screw holes above the gap. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Strength properties of interlocking compressed earth brick units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saari, S.; Bakar, B. H. Abu; Surip, N. A.

    2017-10-01

    This study presents a laboratory investigation on the properties of interlocking compressed earth brick (ICEB) units. Compressive strength, which is one of the most important properties in masonry structures, is used to determine masonry performance. The compressive strength of the ICEB units was determined by applying a compressive strength test for 340 units from four types of ICEB. To analyze the strength of the ICEB units, each unit was capped by a steel plate at the top and bottom to create a flat surface, and then ICEB was loaded until failure. The average compressive strength of the corresponding ICEB units are as follows: wall brick, 19.15 N/mm2; beam brick, 16.99 N/mm2; column brick, 13.18 N/mm2; and half brick, 11.79 N/mm2. All the ICEB units had compressive strength of over 5 N/mm2, which is the minimum strength for a load-bearing brick. This study proves that ICEB units may be used as load-bearing bricks. The strength of ICEBs is equal to that of other common bricks and blocks that are currently available in the market.

  3. Plate Full of Color

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Plate Full of Color teaches the value of eating a variety of colorful and healthy foods.

  4. LZ-Compressed String Dictionaries

    OpenAIRE

    Arz, Julian; Fischer, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    We show how to compress string dictionaries using the Lempel-Ziv (LZ78) data compression algorithm. Our approach is validated experimentally on dictionaries of up to 1.5 GB of uncompressed text. We achieve compression ratios often outperforming the existing alternatives, especially on dictionaries containing many repeated substrings. Our query times remain competitive.

  5. Tree compression with top trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Landau, Gad M.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a new compression scheme for labeled trees based on top trees [3]. Our compression scheme is the first to simultaneously take advantage of internal repeats in the tree (as opposed to the classical DAG compression that only exploits rooted subtree repeats) while also supporting fast...

  6. Tree compression with top trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Landau, Gad M.

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new compression scheme for labeled trees based on top trees. Our compression scheme is the first to simultaneously take advantage of internal repeats in the tree (as opposed to the classical DAG compression that only exploits rooted subtree repeats) while also supporting fast...

  7. Efectos de la calidad de la caña semilla en los componentes del rendimiento cultural de las variedades CP65-357 y LCP85-384 (Saccharum spp. según diferentes edades de corte (Parte I Effects of seedcane quality on yielding components of varieties CP65-357 and LCP85-384 (Saccharum spp. in different crops (Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María I. Cuenya

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Las principales variedades de caña de azúcar cultivadas en Tucumán mostraron, hasta hace pocos años, una elevada infección con achaparramiento de la caña soca, enfermedad sistémica causada por Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli, ampliamente reconocida por su efecto detrimental sobre el rendimiento cultural. Esta situación fue consecuencia de que los productores cañeros utilizaban caña semilla proveniente de lotes comerciales en lugar de caña semilla de semilleros saneados. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de la calidad de la semilla en los componentes del rendimiento cultural en LCP85-384 y CP65-357, dos variedades ampliamente difundidas en Tucumán. Para cada variedad se evaluaron dos alternativas con respecto a la calidad de la semilla: Semilla de Alta Calidad (SAC proveniente de micropropagación in vitro y Semilla Comercial (SC proveniente de un cañaveral comercial. Se implantó un ensayo de acuerdo a un diseño en bloques completos al azar con seis repeticiones. En caña planta, soca 1 y soca 2 se evaluaron: número de tallos/parcela, peso, altura y diámetro del tallo y rendimiento de caña/ha. Se efectuaron análisis de la varianza y pruebas de comparación de medias (DLS de Fisher. En ambas variedades los componentes del rendimiento cultural más afectados por la calidad de la semilla utilizada fueron el peso y la altura de tallos a través de edades de corte. Para CP65-357 y LCP85-384 los tratamientos con SAC produjeron, en promedio, tallos más altos y más pesados en comparación con los tratamientos obtenidos a partir de SC. El diámetro de tallos no se afectó por la calidad de la semilla. Se detectaron importantes disminuciones en el rendimiento cultural (t caña/ha por la utilización de SC (10-25% en CP65-357 y 19-25% en LCP85-384 a través de las edades de corte. Estos resultados sustentan la utilización generalizada de semilleros saneados, sistema puesto en marcha por la EEAOC a partir del año 2000

  8. Deformation of the Northwestern Okhotsk Plate: How is it happening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, D.; Fujita, K.; Mackey, K.

    2009-09-01

    The Eurasia (EU) - North America (NA) plate boundary zone across Northeast Asia still presents many open questions within the plate tectonic paradigm. Constraining the geometry and number of plates or microplates present in the plate boundary zone is especially difficult because of the location of the EU-NA euler pole close to or even upon the EU-NA boundary. One of the major challenges remains the geometry of the Okhotsk plate (OK). whose northwestern portion terminates on the EU-OK-NA triple junction and is thus caught and compressed between converging EU and NA. We suggest that this leads to a coherent and understandable large scale deformation pattern of mostly northwest-southeast trending strike-slip faults which split Northwest OK into several extruding slivers. When the fault geometry is analysed together with space geodetic and focal mechanism data it suggests a central block which is extruding faster bordered east and west by progressively slower extruding blocks until the OK plate boundary faults are encountered. Taking into account elastic loading from both the intra-OK faults and the OK-Pacific (PA) boundary reconciles geodetic motions with geologic slip rates on at least the OK-NA boundary which corresponds to the Ulakhan fault.

  9. Effect of plate shapes in orifice plate type flowmeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, S.V.

    1984-01-01

    The study of unusual plate shapes in orifice plate type flowmeters is presented, with a view to providing data for the substitution of the plate with one centered circular orifice in those applications where its use is not possible. For this purpose, six pairs of plates with different forms, with and without chamfered edges, were made and tested in a closed water loop. Results show that, generally, the use of chamfers improves the results and, in the case of perforated and slotlike orificed plates, the narrow-ness of the fluid passage tends to make unnecessary its use. (Author) [pt

  10. Femoral fracture repair using a locking plate technique in an adult captive polar bear (Ursus maritimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Dawn M; Dew, Terry; Douglass, Michael; Perez, Edward

    2010-02-01

    To report successful femoral fracture repair in a polar bear. Case report. Female polar bear (Ursus maritimus) 5 years and approximately 250 kg. A closed, complete, comminuted fracture of the distal midshaft femur was successfully reduced and stabilized using a compression plating technique with 2 specialized human femur plates offering axial, rotational, and bending support, and allowing the bone to share loads with the implant. Postoperative radiographs were obtained at 11.5 weeks, 11 months, and 24 months. Bone healing characterized by marked periosteal reaction was evident at 11 months with extensive remodeling evident at 24 months. No complications were noted. Distal mid shaft femoral fracture was reduced, stabilized, and healed in an adult polar bear with a locking plate technique using 2 plates. Previously, femoral fractures in polar bears were considered irreparable. Use of 2 plates applied with a locking plate technique can result in successful fracture repair despite large body weight and inability to restrict postoperative activity.

  11. Digital cinema video compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husak, Walter

    2003-05-01

    The Motion Picture Industry began a transition from film based distribution and projection to digital distribution and projection several years ago. Digital delivery and presentation offers the prospect to increase the quality of the theatrical experience for the audience, reduce distribution costs to the distributors, and create new business opportunities for the theater owners and the studios. Digital Cinema also presents an opportunity to provide increased flexibility and security of the movies for the content owners and the theater operators. Distribution of content via electronic means to theaters is unlike any of the traditional applications for video compression. The transition from film-based media to electronic media represents a paradigm shift in video compression techniques and applications that will be discussed in this paper.

  12. Fingerprints in compressed strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Cording, Patrick Hagge

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we show how to construct a data structure for a string S of size N compressed into a context-free grammar of size n that supports efficient Karp–Rabin fingerprint queries to any substring of S. That is, given indices i and j, the answer to a query is the fingerprint of the substring S......[i,j]. We present the first O(n) space data structures that answer fingerprint queries without decompressing any characters. For Straight Line Programs (SLP) we get O(log⁡N) query time, and for Linear SLPs (an SLP derivative that captures LZ78 compression and its variations) we get O(log⁡log⁡N) query time...

  13. Plate removal following orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Mhairi; Langford, Richard Julian; Bhanji, Adam; Farr, David

    2015-11-01

    The objectives of this study are to determine the removal rates of orthognathic plates used during orthognathic surgery at James Cook University Hospital and describe the reasons for plate removal. 202 consecutive orthognathic cases were identified between July 2004 and July 2012. Demographics and procedure details were collected for these patients. Patients from this group who returned to theatre for plate removal between July 2004 and November 2012 were identified and their notes were analysed for data including reason for plate removal, age, smoking status, sex and time to plate removal. 3.2% of plates were removed with proportionally more plates removed from the mandible than the maxilla. 10.4% of patients required removal of one or more plate. Most plates were removed within the first post-operative year. The commonest reasons for plate removal were plate exposure and infection. The plate removal rates in our study are comparable to those seen in the literature. Copyright © 2015 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Plate Tearing by a Cone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    1997-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with steady-state plate tearing by a cone. This is a scenario where a cone is forced through a ductile metal plate with a constant lateral tip penetration in a motion in the plane of the plate. The considered process could be an idealisaton of the damage, which...... as for the out-of-plane reaction force....

  15. Normal and abnormal growth plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, R.; Madewell, J.E.; Swischuk, L.E.

    1987-01-01

    Skeletal growth is a dynamic process. A knowledge of the structure and function of the normal growth plate is essential in order to understand the pathophysiology of abnormal skeletal growth in various diseases. In this well-illustrated article, the authors provide a radiographic classification of abnormal growth plates and discuss mechanisms that lead to growth plate abnormalities

  16. WSNs Microseismic Signal Subsection Compression Algorithm Based on Compressed Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhouzhou Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For wireless network microseismic monitoring and the problems of low compression ratio and high energy consumption of communication, this paper proposes a segmentation compression algorithm according to the characteristics of the microseismic signals and the compression perception theory (CS used in the transmission process. The algorithm will be collected as a number of nonzero elements of data segmented basis, by reducing the number of combinations of nonzero elements within the segment to improve the accuracy of signal reconstruction, while taking advantage of the characteristics of compressive sensing theory to achieve a high compression ratio of the signal. Experimental results show that, in the quantum chaos immune clone refactoring (Q-CSDR algorithm for reconstruction algorithm, under the condition of signal sparse degree higher than 40, to be more than 0.4 of the compression ratio to compress the signal, the mean square error is less than 0.01, prolonging the network life by 2 times.

  17. Characterization of a texture gradient in tantalum plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, S.I.; Gray, G.T. III.

    1994-01-01

    Clark et al. have shown that significant texture gradients can be produced in rolled tantalum plate and that the strength of the gradient is dependent on the processing path. Texture gradients are often ignored because they are time consuming to characterize and add significant complexity to materials modeling. The variation in texture through the thickness of rolled materials is most commonly measured by sectioning samples to different depths through the thickness of the plate and then measuring the texture from these section planes by X-ray diffraction. A new technique based on automatic indexing of electron backscatter diffraction patterns in the scanning electron microscope enables spatially specific orientations to be measured in a practical manner. This technique allows spatial variations in texture to be measured directly enabling gradients in texture to be investigated in more detail than previously possible. This data can be used directly in coupled finite-element/polycrystal-plasticity models to simulate the effects of variations in texture on the plastic behavior of polycrystals. This work examines the variation in texture through the thickness of a tantalum plate and its resultant effect on the compressive deformation of samples prepared from the plate. The characterization of the texture gradient using the automatic point-by-point measurement technique mentioned above is described in detail. The effect of the gradient on the plastic response of through-thickness compression tests is also discussed

  18. A measurement method for piezoelectric material properties under longitudinal compressive stress–-a compression test method for thin piezoelectric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Lae-Hyong; Lee, Dae-Oen; Han, Jae-Hung

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a new compression test method for piezoelectric materials to investigate changes in piezoelectric properties under the compressive stress condition. Until now, compression tests of piezoelectric materials have been generally conducted using bulky piezoelectric ceramics and pressure block. The conventional method using the pressure block for thin piezoelectric patches, which are used in unimorph or bimorph actuators, is prone to unwanted bending and buckling. In addition, due to the constrained boundaries at both ends, the observed piezoelectric behavior contains boundary effects. In order to avoid these problems, the proposed method employs two guide plates with initial longitudinal tensile stress. By removing the tensile stress after bonding a piezoelectric material between the guide layers, longitudinal compressive stress is induced in the piezoelectric layer. Using the compression test specimens, two important properties, which govern the actuation performance of the piezoelectric material, the piezoelectric strain coefficients and the elastic modulus, are measured to evaluate the effects of applied electric fields and re-poling. The results show that the piezoelectric strain coefficient d 31 increases and the elastic modulus decreases when high voltage is applied to PZT5A, and the compression in the longitudinal direction decreases the piezoelectric strain coefficient d 31 but does not affect the elastic modulus. We also found that the re-poling of the piezoelectric material increases the elastic modulus, but the piezoelectric strain coefficient d 31 is not changed much (slightly increased) by re-poling

  19. Compressed sensing electron tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leary, Rowan; Saghi, Zineb; Midgley, Paul A.; Holland, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    The recent mathematical concept of compressed sensing (CS) asserts that a small number of well-chosen measurements can suffice to reconstruct signals that are amenable to sparse or compressible representation. In addition to powerful theoretical results, the principles of CS are being exploited increasingly across a range of experiments to yield substantial performance gains relative to conventional approaches. In this work we describe the application of CS to electron tomography (ET) reconstruction and demonstrate the efficacy of CS–ET with several example studies. Artefacts present in conventional ET reconstructions such as streaking, blurring of object boundaries and elongation are markedly reduced, and robust reconstruction is shown to be possible from far fewer projections than are normally used. The CS–ET approach enables more reliable quantitative analysis of the reconstructions as well as novel 3D studies from extremely limited data. - Highlights: • Compressed sensing (CS) theory and its application to electron tomography (ET) is described. • The practical implementation of CS–ET is outlined and its efficacy demonstrated with examples. • High fidelity tomographic reconstruction is possible from a small number of images. • The CS–ET reconstructions can be more reliably segmented and analysed quantitatively. • CS–ET is applicable to different image content by choice of an appropriate sparsifying transform

  20. Rigid-Plastic Post-Buckling Analysis of Columns and Quadratic Plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe

    2008-01-01

    the compressive load as a function of the transverse displacement. An estimate of the magnitude of the transverse displacement prior to the forming of the collapse mechanism is introduced into the compressive load function, determined by the virtual work equation, thereby revealing a qualified estimate...... yield lines accommodate differential rotations of rigid parts and the area “collapse” yield lines accommodate local area changes of the rigid parts thereby preserving compatibility of the rigid parts of a plate. The approach will be illustrated for rigid plastic column analysis and for a quadratic plate...

  1. A simple accurate chest-compression depth gauge using magnetic coils during cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandori, Akihiko; Sano, Yuko; Zhang, Yuhua; Tsuji, Toshio

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes a new method for calculating chest compression depth and a simple chest-compression gauge for validating the accuracy of the method. The chest-compression gauge has two plates incorporating two magnetic coils, a spring, and an accelerometer. The coils are located at both ends of the spring, and the accelerometer is set on the bottom plate. Waveforms obtained using the magnetic coils (hereafter, "magnetic waveforms"), which are proportional to compression-force waveforms and the acceleration waveforms were measured at the same time. The weight factor expressing the relationship between the second derivatives of the magnetic waveforms and the measured acceleration waveforms was calculated. An estimated-compression-displacement (depth) waveform was obtained by multiplying the weight factor and the magnetic waveforms. Displacements of two large springs (with similar spring constants) within a thorax and displacements of a cardiopulmonary resuscitation training manikin were measured using the gauge to validate the accuracy of the calculated waveform. A laser-displacement detection system was used to compare the real displacement waveform and the estimated waveform. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) between the real displacement using the laser system and the estimated displacement waveforms were calculated. The estimated displacement error of the compression depth was within 2 mm (compression gauge, based on a new calculation method, provides an accurate compression depth (estimation error < 2 mm).

  2. Study of uranium plating measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Jufang; Wen Zhongwei; Wang Mei; Wang Dalun; Liu Rong; Jiang Li; Lu Xinxin

    2007-06-01

    In neutron physics experiments, the measurement for plate-thickness of uranium can directly affect uncertainties of experiment results. To measure the plate-thickness of transform target (enriched uranium plating and depleted uranium plating), the back to back ionization chamber, small solid angle device and Au-Si surface barrier semi-conductor, were used in the experiment study. Also, the uncertainties in the experiment were analyzed. Because the inhomo-geneous of uranium lay of plate can quantitively affect the result, the homogeneity of uranium lay is checked, the experiment result reflects the homogeneity of uranium lay is good. (authors)

  3. [Conventional plate osteosynthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaue, K

    2010-02-01

    Consolidation of bone is an essential clinical problem when treating fractures, fixing osteotomies and fusing joints. In most cases, the means of fixation are plates and screws. The goal is functional postoperative therapy by moving the adjacent joints and thus avoiding the deleterious disadvantages of long-lasting articular immobilization. Pre-operative planning, surgical approach, a good understanding of the precise mechanics of the structure and the biological answer for the various tissues are prerequisites of successful osteosynthesis. The choice of implants and the application of their versatility, as well as their adaptation to individual cases are the key to good results.

  4. Plate Full of Color

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-08-04

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Plate Full of Color teaches the value of eating a variety of colorful and healthy foods.  Created: 8/4/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 8/5/2008.

  5. Compressive Transient Imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Qilin

    2017-04-01

    High resolution transient/3D imaging technology is of high interest in both scientific research and commercial application. Nowadays, all of the transient imaging methods suffer from low resolution or time consuming mechanical scanning. We proposed a new method based on TCSPC and Compressive Sensing to achieve a high resolution transient imaging with a several seconds capturing process. Picosecond laser sends a serious of equal interval pulse while synchronized SPAD camera\\'s detecting gate window has a precise phase delay at each cycle. After capturing enough points, we are able to make up a whole signal. By inserting a DMD device into the system, we are able to modulate all the frames of data using binary random patterns to reconstruct a super resolution transient/3D image later. Because the low fill factor of SPAD sensor will make a compressive sensing scenario ill-conditioned, We designed and fabricated a diffractive microlens array. We proposed a new CS reconstruction algorithm which is able to denoise at the same time for the measurements suffering from Poisson noise. Instead of a single SPAD senor, we chose a SPAD array because it can drastically reduce the requirement for the number of measurements and its reconstruction time. Further more, it not easy to reconstruct a high resolution image with only one single sensor while for an array, it just needs to reconstruct small patches and a few measurements. In this thesis, we evaluated the reconstruction methods using both clean measurements and the version corrupted by Poisson noise. The results show how the integration over the layers influence the image quality and our algorithm works well while the measurements suffer from non-trival Poisson noise. It\\'s a breakthrough in the areas of both transient imaging and compressive sensing.

  6. Fast Compressive Tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kaihua; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Ming-Hsuan

    2014-10-01

    It is a challenging task to develop effective and efficient appearance models for robust object tracking due to factors such as pose variation, illumination change, occlusion, and motion blur. Existing online tracking algorithms often update models with samples from observations in recent frames. Despite much success has been demonstrated, numerous issues remain to be addressed. First, while these adaptive appearance models are data-dependent, there does not exist sufficient amount of data for online algorithms to learn at the outset. Second, online tracking algorithms often encounter the drift problems. As a result of self-taught learning, misaligned samples are likely to be added and degrade the appearance models. In this paper, we propose a simple yet effective and efficient tracking algorithm with an appearance model based on features extracted from a multiscale image feature space with data-independent basis. The proposed appearance model employs non-adaptive random projections that preserve the structure of the image feature space of objects. A very sparse measurement matrix is constructed to efficiently extract the features for the appearance model. We compress sample images of the foreground target and the background using the same sparse measurement matrix. The tracking task is formulated as a binary classification via a naive Bayes classifier with online update in the compressed domain. A coarse-to-fine search strategy is adopted to further reduce the computational complexity in the detection procedure. The proposed compressive tracking algorithm runs in real-time and performs favorably against state-of-the-art methods on challenging sequences in terms of efficiency, accuracy and robustness.

  7. SeqCompress: an algorithm for biological sequence compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardaraz, Muhammad; Tahir, Muhammad; Ikram, Ataul Aziz; Bajwa, Hassan

    2014-10-01

    The growth of Next Generation Sequencing technologies presents significant research challenges, specifically to design bioinformatics tools that handle massive amount of data efficiently. Biological sequence data storage cost has become a noticeable proportion of total cost in the generation and analysis. Particularly increase in DNA sequencing rate is significantly outstripping the rate of increase in disk storage capacity, which may go beyond the limit of storage capacity. It is essential to develop algorithms that handle large data sets via better memory management. This article presents a DNA sequence compression algorithm SeqCompress that copes with the space complexity of biological sequences. The algorithm is based on lossless data compression and uses statistical model as well as arithmetic coding to compress DNA sequences. The proposed algorithm is compared with recent specialized compression tools for biological sequences. Experimental results show that proposed algorithm has better compression gain as compared to other existing algorithms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparative data compression techniques and multi-compression results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, M R; Ibrahimy, M I; Motakabber, S M A; Ferdaus, M M; Khan, M N H

    2013-01-01

    Data compression is very necessary in business data processing, because of the cost savings that it offers and the large volume of data manipulated in many business applications. It is a method or system for transmitting a digital image (i.e., an array of pixels) from a digital data source to a digital data receiver. More the size of the data be smaller, it provides better transmission speed and saves time. In this communication, we always want to transmit data efficiently and noise freely. This paper will provide some compression techniques for lossless text type data compression and comparative result of multiple and single compression, that will help to find out better compression output and to develop compression algorithms

  9. Analysis by compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meredith, David

    MEL is a geometric music encoding language designed to allow for musical objects to be encoded parsimoniously as sets of points in pitch-time space, generated by performing geometric transformations on component patterns. MEL has been implemented in Java and coupled with the SIATEC pattern...... discovery algorithm to allow for compact encodings to be generated automatically from in extenso note lists. The MEL-SIATEC system is founded on the belief that music analysis and music perception can be modelled as the compression of in extenso descriptions of musical objects....

  10. Compressive Fatigue in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clorius, Christian Odin; Pedersen, Martin Bo Uhre; Hoffmeyer, Preben

    1999-01-01

    An investigation of fatigue failure in wood subjected to load cycles in compression parallel to grain is presented. Small clear specimens of spruce are taken to failure in square wave formed fatigue loading at a stress excitation level corresponding to 80% of the short term strength. Four...... frequencies ranging from 0.01 Hz to 10 Hz are used. The number of cycles to failure is found to be a poor measure of the fatigue performance of wood. Creep, maximum strain, stiffness and work are monitored throughout the fatigue tests. Accumulated creep is suggested identified with damage and a correlation...

  11. Compressive full waveform lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weiyi; Ke, Jun

    2017-05-01

    To avoid high bandwidth detector, fast speed A/D converter, and large size memory disk, a compressive full waveform LIDAR system, which uses a temporally modulated laser instead of a pulsed laser, is studied in this paper. Full waveform data from NEON (National Ecological Observatory Network) are used. Random binary patterns are used to modulate the source. To achieve 0.15 m ranging resolution, a 100 MSPS A/D converter is assumed to make measurements. SPIRAL algorithm with canonical basis is employed when Poisson noise is considered in the low illuminated condition.

  12. Metal Hydride Compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Terry A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Bowman, Robert [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Smith, Barton [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Anovitz, Lawrence [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jensen, Craig [Hawaii Hydrogen Carriers LLC, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Conventional hydrogen compressors often contribute over half of the cost of hydrogen stations, have poor reliability, and have insufficient flow rates for a mature FCEV market. Fatigue associated with their moving parts including cracking of diaphragms and failure of seal leads to failure in conventional compressors, which is exacerbated by the repeated starts and stops expected at fueling stations. Furthermore, the conventional lubrication of these compressors with oil is generally unacceptable at fueling stations due to potential fuel contamination. Metal hydride (MH) technology offers a very good alternative to both conventional (mechanical) and newly developed (electrochemical, ionic liquid pistons) methods of hydrogen compression. Advantages of MH compression include simplicity in design and operation, absence of moving parts, compactness, safety and reliability, and the possibility to utilize waste industrial heat to power the compressor. Beyond conventional H2 supplies of pipelines or tanker trucks, another attractive scenario is the on-site generating, pressuring and delivering pure H2 at pressure (≥ 875 bar) for refueling vehicles at electrolysis, wind, or solar generating production facilities in distributed locations that are too remote or widely distributed for cost effective bulk transport. MH hydrogen compression utilizes a reversible heat-driven interaction of a hydride-forming metal alloy with hydrogen gas to form the MH phase and is a promising process for hydrogen energy applications [1,2]. To deliver hydrogen continuously, each stage of the compressor must consist of multiple MH beds with synchronized hydrogenation & dehydrogenation cycles. Multistage pressurization allows achievement of greater compression ratios using reduced temperature swings compared to single stage compressors. The objectives of this project are to investigate and demonstrate on a laboratory scale a two-stage MH hydrogen (H2) gas compressor with a

  13. Retrospective analysis of extra-articular distal humerus shaft fractures treated with the use of pre-contoured lateral column metaphyseal LCP by triceps-sparing posterolateral approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatinder Kharbanda

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Management of extra-articular distal humerus fractures presents a challenge to the treating surgeon due to the complex anatomy of the distal part of the humerus and complicated fracture morphology. Although surgical treatment has shown to provide a more stable reduction and alignment and predictable return to function, it has been associated with complications like iatrogenic radial nerve palsy, infection, non-union and Implant failure. We in the present series retrospectively analysed 20 patients with extra-articular distal humerus shaft fractures surgically treated using the extra-articular distal humeral locking plate approached by the triceps-sparing posterolateral approach. The outcome was assessed using the DASH score, range of motion at the elbow and the time to union. The mean time to radiographic fracture union was 12 weeks.

  14. Retrospective analysis of extra-articular distal humerus shaft fractures treated with the use of pre-contoured lateral column metaphyseal LCP by triceps-sparing posterolateral approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharbanda, Yatinder; Tanwar, Yashwant Singh; Srivastava, Vishal; Birla, Vikas; Rajput, Ashok; Pandit, Ramsagar

    2017-04-01

    Management of extra-articular distal humerus fractures presents a challenge to the treating surgeon due to the complex anatomy of the distal part of the humerus and complicated fracture morphology. Although surgical treatment has shown to provide a more stable reduction and alignment and predictable return to function, it has been associated with complications like iatrogenic radial nerve palsy, infection, non-union and Implant failure. We in the present series retrospectively analysed 20 patients with extra-articular distal humerus shaft fractures surgically treated using the extra-articular distal humeral locking plate approached by the triceps-sparing posterolateral approach. The outcome was assessed using the DASH score, range of motion at the elbow and the time to union. The mean time to radiographic fracture union was 12 weeks.

  15. Active Deformation in the Overriding Plate Associated with Temporal Changes of the Philippine Sea Plate Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiyama, T.; Sato, H.; Van Horne, A.

    2015-12-01

    We present detailed geologic evidence linking changes over time in Philippine Sea plate (PHS) motion and intracontinental deformation in central and southwest (SW) Japan during the Pliocene and after. In the early Pliocene, subduction of the PHS plate under SW Japan restarted in a northerly direction after period of deceleration or cessation. Later, motion changed to a more westerly direction. Corresponding geological changes found in the overriding plate include unconformities in the forearc basins, changes in slip sense on faults, depocenter migration, re-organization of drainage systems and volcanism. Quaternary intraplate deformation is prominent north of the Median Tectonic Line (MTL) inactive segment, above a shallow flat slab. In contrast, less Quaternary tectonic activity is found north of the MTL active segment which lies over a steadily-slipping portion of the subducting slab that behaves as a less-deformed rigid block. Depocenters and active thrusting have migrated north/northwestward over the past 5 My above the shallow flat slab segment of the PHS. We reconstructed the Plio-Pleistocene migration history using Neogene stratigraphy and shallow seismic reflection profiles. We see shallow PHS slab contact with the lower continental crust in our deep seismic reflection profiles, which may explain its enhanced downward drag of the overriding plate and synchronous strong compression in the crust. We find evidence of more westerly PHS plate subduction since the middle Pleistocene in (1) unconformities in the Kumano forearc basin deposits in SW Japan, (2) drastic stream captures in Shikoku, and (3) concordant changes in fault slip sense from thrust to dextral slip along the MTL. Oblique subduction could have induced stronger horizontal stress in the overriding plate above the shallow flat slab which could account for the increasing geologic slip rate observed on active structures. During four repetitions of megathrust earthquake sequences since the 17th century

  16. Coupling intensity and isostatic competition between subducting slab and overriding plate control trench motions and tectonics of the overriding plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, G.; Moresi, L. N.

    2017-12-01

    Trench motions not only reflect tectonic regimes on the overriding plate but also shed light on the competition between subducting slab and overriding plate, however, major controls over trench advance or retreat and their consequences are still illusive. We use 2D thermo-mechanical experiments to study the problem. We find that the coupling intensity particularly in the uppermost 200 km and the isostatic competition between subducting slab and overriding plate largely determine trench motion and tectonics of in the overriding plate. Coupling intensity is the result of many contributing factors, including frictional coefficient of brittle part of the subducting interface and the viscosity of the ductile part, thermal regime and rheology of the overriding plate, and water contents and magmatic activity in the subducting slab and overriding plate. In this study, we are not concerned with the dynamic evolution of individual controlling parameter but simply use effective media. For instance, we impose simple model parameters such as frictional coefficient and vary the temperature and strain-rate dependent viscosity of the weak layer between the subducting slab and overriding plate. In the coupled end-member case, strong coupling leads to strong corner flow, depth-dependent compression/extension, and mantle return flow on the overriding plate side. It results in fast trench retreat, broad overriding plate extension, and even slab breakoff. In the decoupled end-member case, weak coupling causes much weaker response on the overriding plate side compared with the coupled end-member case, and the subducting slab can be largely viewed as a conveyer belt. We find that the isostatic competition between the subducting slab and overriding plate also has a major control over trench motion, and may better be viewed in 3D models. This is consistent with the findings in previous 3D studies that trench motion is most pronounced close to the slab edge. Here we propose that the

  17. Plating on difficult-to-plate metals: what's new

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesner, H.J.

    1980-01-01

    Some of the changes since 1970 in procedures for plating on such materials as titanium, molybdenum, silicon, aluminum, and gallium arsenide are summarized. While basic procedures for plating some of these materials were developed as many as 30 to 40 years ago, changes in the end uses of the plated products have necessitated new plating processes. In some cases, vacuum techniques - such as ion bombardment, ion implantation, and vacuum metallization - have been introduced to improve the adhesion of electrodeposits. In other cases, these techniques have been used to deposit materials upon which electrodeposits are required

  18. Free compression tube. Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Ioan

    2012-11-01

    During the flight of vehicles, their propulsion energy must overcome gravity, to ensure the displacement of air masses on vehicle trajectory, to cover both energy losses from the friction between a solid surface and the air and also the kinetic energy of reflected air masses due to the impact with the flying vehicle. The flight optimization by increasing speed and reducing fuel consumption has directed research in the aerodynamics field. The flying vehicles shapes obtained through studies in the wind tunnel provide the optimization of the impact with the air masses and the airflow along the vehicle. By energy balance studies for vehicles in flight, the author Ioan Rusu directed his research in reducing the energy lost at vehicle impact with air masses. In this respect as compared to classical solutions for building flight vehicles aerodynamic surfaces which reduce the impact and friction with air masses, Ioan Rusu has invented a device which he named free compression tube for rockets, registered with the State Office for Inventions and Trademarks of Romania, OSIM, deposit f 2011 0352. Mounted in front of flight vehicles it eliminates significantly the impact and friction of air masses with the vehicle solid. The air masses come into contact with the air inside the free compression tube and the air-solid friction is eliminated and replaced by air to air friction.

  19. Photon compression in cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensley, D.L.

    1977-01-01

    It has been shown theoretically that intense microwave radiation is absorbed non-classically by a newly enunciated mechanism when interacting with hydrogen plasma. Fields > 1 Mg, lambda > 1 mm are within this regime. The predicted absorption, approximately P/sub rf/v/sub theta/sup e/, has not yet been experimentally confirmed. The applications of such a coupling are many. If microwave bursts approximately > 5 x 10 14 watts, 5 ns can be generated, the net generation of power from pellet fusion as well as various military applications becomes feasible. The purpose, then, for considering gas-gun photon compression is to obtain the above experimental capability by converting the gas kinetic energy directly into microwave form. Energies of >10 5 joules cm -2 and powers of >10 13 watts cm -2 are potentially available for photon interaction experiments using presently available technology. The following topics are discussed: microwave modes in a finite cylinder, injection, compression, switchout operation, and system performance parameter scaling

  20. Fingerprints in Compressed Strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Cording, Patrick Hagge; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2013-01-01

    The Karp-Rabin fingerprint of a string is a type of hash value that due to its strong properties has been used in many string algorithms. In this paper we show how to construct a data structure for a string S of size N compressed by a context-free grammar of size n that answers fingerprint queries...... derivative that captures LZ78 compression and its variations) we get O(loglogN) query time. Hence, our data structures has the same time and space complexity as for random access in SLPs. We utilize the fingerprint data structures to solve the longest common extension problem in query time O(logNlogℓ) and O....... That is, given indices i and j, the answer to a query is the fingerprint of the substring S[i,j]. We present the first O(n) space data structures that answer fingerprint queries without decompressing any characters. For Straight Line Programs (SLP) we get O(logN) query time, and for Linear SLPs (an SLP...

  1. Compressive sensing in medical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Christian G; Sidky, Emil Y

    2015-03-10

    The promise of compressive sensing, exploitation of compressibility to achieve high quality image reconstructions with less data, has attracted a great deal of attention in the medical imaging community. At the Compressed Sensing Incubator meeting held in April 2014 at OSA Headquarters in Washington, DC, presentations were given summarizing some of the research efforts ongoing in compressive sensing for x-ray computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging systems. This article provides an expanded version of these presentations. Sparsity-exploiting reconstruction algorithms that have gained popularity in the medical imaging community are studied, and examples of clinical applications that could benefit from compressive sensing ideas are provided. The current and potential future impact of compressive sensing on the medical imaging field is discussed.

  2. Generalized massive optimal data compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsing, Justin; Wandelt, Benjamin

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we provide a general procedure for optimally compressing N data down to n summary statistics, where n is equal to the number of parameters of interest. We show that compression to the score function - the gradient of the log-likelihood with respect to the parameters - yields n compressed statistics that are optimal in the sense that they preserve the Fisher information content of the data. Our method generalizes earlier work on linear Karhunen-Loéve compression for Gaussian data whilst recovering both lossless linear compression and quadratic estimation as special cases when they are optimal. We give a unified treatment that also includes the general non-Gaussian case as long as mild regularity conditions are satisfied, producing optimal non-linear summary statistics when appropriate. As a worked example, we derive explicitly the n optimal compressed statistics for Gaussian data in the general case where both the mean and covariance depend on the parameters.

  3. Strain-dependent dynamic compressive properties of magnetorheological elastomeric foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wereley, Norman M.; Perez, Colette; Choi, Young T.

    2018-05-01

    This paper addresses the strain-dependent dynamic compressive properties (i.e., so-called Payne effect) of magnetorheological elastomeric foams (MREFs). Isotropic MREF samples (i.e., no oriented particle chain structures), fabricated in flat square shapes (nominal size of 26.5 mm x 26.5 mm x 9.5 mm) were synthesized by randomly dispersing micron-sized iron oxide particles (Fe3O4) into a liquid silicone foam in the absence of magnetic field. Five different Fe3O4 particle concentrations of 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10 percent by volume fraction (hereinafter denoted as vol%) were used to investigate the effect of particle concentration on the dynamic compressive properties of the MREFs. The MREFs were sandwiched between two multi-pole flexible plate magnets in order to activate the magnetorheological (MR) strengthening effect. Under two different pre-compression conditions (i.e., 35% and 50%), the dynamic compressive stresses of the MREFs with respect to dynamic strain amplitudes (i.e., 1%-10%) were measured by using a servo-hydraulic testing machine. The complex modulus (i.e., storage modulus and loss modulus) and loss factors of the MREFs with respect to dynamic strain amplitudes were presented as performance indices to evaluate their strain-dependent dynamic compressive behavior.

  4. Strain-dependent dynamic compressive properties of magnetorheological elastomeric foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman M. Wereley

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the strain-dependent dynamic compressive properties (i.e., so-called Payne effect of magnetorheological elastomeric foams (MREFs. Isotropic MREF samples (i.e., no oriented particle chain structures, fabricated in flat square shapes (nominal size of 26.5 mm x 26.5 mm x 9.5 mm were synthesized by randomly dispersing micron-sized iron oxide particles (Fe3O4 into a liquid silicone foam in the absence of magnetic field. Five different Fe3O4 particle concentrations of 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10 percent by volume fraction (hereinafter denoted as vol% were used to investigate the effect of particle concentration on the dynamic compressive properties of the MREFs. The MREFs were sandwiched between two multi-pole flexible plate magnets in order to activate the magnetorheological (MR strengthening effect. Under two different pre-compression conditions (i.e., 35% and 50%, the dynamic compressive stresses of the MREFs with respect to dynamic strain amplitudes (i.e., 1%-10% were measured by using a servo-hydraulic testing machine. The complex modulus (i.e., storage modulus and loss modulus and loss factors of the MREFs with respect to dynamic strain amplitudes were presented as performance indices to evaluate their strain-dependent dynamic compressive behavior.

  5. Posterior coronal plating for tibial fractures: technique and advantages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montu Jain

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Tibial shaft fractures are straightforward to treat but when associated with soft tissue injury particularly at the nail entry/plate insertion site or there is significant comminution proximally or a large butterfly fragment/a second split component in the posterior coronal plane, it is a challenge to the treating surgeon. The aim of the present report is to describe the technique of posterior coronal plating in such a scenario and its advantages. Methods:Between July 2008 and June 2011, 12 patients were pro spectively treated by this approach using 4.5 mm broad dynamic compression plates. Results:The time of bony consolidation and full weight bearing averaged 21.7 weeks (range, 16-26 weeks. Patients were followed up for at least 24 months (range, 24-48 months. At 1 year postoper atively, no loss in reduction or alignment was observed. Mean Hospital for Lower Extremity Measurement Functional Score was 72.8 (range, 64-78. All patients were satisfied with their treatment outcomes. Conclusion:Direct posterior approach and fixation using prone position helps to visualise the fracture fragments and provide rigid fixation. The approach is simple and extensile easily, apart from advantages of less soft tissue and hardware problems compared to standard medial or lateral plating. Key words: Tibial fractures; Bone plates; Orthopedic procedures

  6. Acoustic impact on the laminated plates placed between barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paimushin, V. N.; Gazizullin, R. K.; Fedotenkov, G. V.

    2016-11-01

    On the basis of previously derived equations, analytical solutions are established on the forced vibrations of two-layer and three-layers rectangular plates hinged in an opening of absolutely rigid walls during the transmission of monoharmonic sound waves. It is assumed that the partition wall is situated between two absolutely rigid barriers, one of them by harmonic oscillation with a given displacements amplitude on the plate forms the incident sound wave, and the other is stationary and has a coating of deformable energy absorbing material with high damping properties. The behavior of acoustic environments in the spaces between the deformable plate and the barriers described by classical wave equation based on the ideal compressible fluid model. To describe the process of dynamic deformation of the energy absorbing coating of fixed barrier, two-dimensional equations of motion based on the use of models transversely soft layer are derived with a linear approximation of the displacement field in the thickness direction of the coating and taking into account the damping properties of the material and the hysteresis model for it. The influence of the physical and mechanical properties of the concerned mechanical system and the frequency of the incident sound wave on the parameters of its insulation properties of the plate, as well as on the parameters of the stress-strain state of the plate has been analyzed.

  7. Introduction to compressible fluid flow

    CERN Document Server

    Oosthuizen, Patrick H

    2013-01-01

    IntroductionThe Equations of Steady One-Dimensional Compressible FlowSome Fundamental Aspects of Compressible FlowOne-Dimensional Isentropic FlowNormal Shock WavesOblique Shock WavesExpansion Waves - Prandtl-Meyer FlowVariable Area FlowsAdiabatic Flow with FrictionFlow with Heat TransferLinearized Analysis of Two-Dimensional Compressible FlowsHypersonic and High-Temperature FlowsHigh-Temperature Gas EffectsLow-Density FlowsBibliographyAppendices

  8. Mammographic compression in Asian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Susie; Abdul Aziz, Yang Faridah; Ng, Kwan Hoong

    2017-01-01

    To investigate: (1) the variability of mammographic compression parameters amongst Asian women; and (2) the effects of reducing compression force on image quality and mean glandular dose (MGD) in Asian women based on phantom study. We retrospectively collected 15818 raw digital mammograms from 3772 Asian women aged 35-80 years who underwent screening or diagnostic mammography between Jan 2012 and Dec 2014 at our center. The mammograms were processed using a volumetric breast density (VBD) measurement software (Volpara) to assess compression force, compression pressure, compressed breast thickness (CBT), breast volume, VBD and MGD against breast contact area. The effects of reducing compression force on image quality and MGD were also evaluated based on measurement obtained from 105 Asian women, as well as using the RMI156 Mammographic Accreditation Phantom and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) slabs. Compression force, compression pressure, CBT, breast volume, VBD and MGD correlated significantly with breast contact area (pAsian women. The median compression force should be about 8.1 daN compared to the current 12.0 daN. Decreasing compression force from 12.0 daN to 9.0 daN increased CBT by 3.3±1.4 mm, MGD by 6.2-11.0%, and caused no significant effects on image quality (p>0.05). Force-standardized protocol led to widely variable compression parameters in Asian women. Based on phantom study, it is feasible to reduce compression force up to 32.5% with minimal effects on image quality and MGD.

  9. Plate Tearing by a Cone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    1998-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with steady-state plate tearing by a cone. This is a scenario where a cone is forced through a ductile metal plate with a constant lateral tip penetration in a motion in the plane of the plate. The considered process could be an idealisation of the damage, which...... as for the out-of-plane reaction force. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  10. Bipolar Plates for PEM Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lædre, Sigrid

    2016-01-01

    Summary of thesis: The Bipolar Plate (BPP) is an important component in both Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFCs) and Proton Exchange Membrane Water Electrolyzers (PEMWEs). Bipolar plate material and processing constitutes for a large fraction of the cost and weight of a PEM cell stack. The main tasks for the bipolar plates in both systems are to separate single cell in a stack, conduct current between single cells and remove heat from active areas. In addition, the BPPs distribu...

  11. Scintillator plate calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, L.E.

    1990-01-01

    Calorimetry using scintillator plates or tiles alternated with sheets of (usually heavy) passive absorber has been proven over multiple generations of collider detectors. Recent detectors including UA1, CDF, and ZEUS have shown good results from such calorimeters. The advantages offered by scintillator calorimetry for the SSC environment, in particular, are speed (<10 nsec), excellent energy resolution, low noise, and ease of achieving compensation and hence linearity. On the negative side of the ledger can be placed the historical sensitivity of plastic scintillators to radiation damage, the possibility of nonuniform response because of light attenuation, and the presence of cracks for light collection via wavelength shifting plastic (traditionally in sheet form). This approach to calorimetry is being investigated for SSC use by a collaboration of Ames Laboratory/Iowa State University, Argonne National Laboratory, Bicron Corporation, Florida State University, Louisiana State University, University of Mississippi, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Westinghouse Electric Corporation, and University of Wisconsin

  12. Reviewing metallic PEMFC bipolar plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H.; Turner, J.A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    2010-08-15

    A bipolar plate is one of the most important components in a polymer exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack and has multiple functions. Metallic bipolar plate candidates have advantages over composite rivals in excellent electrical and thermal conductivity, good mechanical strength, high chemical stability, very wide alloy choices, low cost and, most importantly, existing pathways for high-volume, high-speed mass production. The challenges with metallic bipolar plates are the higher contact resistance and possible corrosion products, which may contaminate the membrane electrode assembly. This review evaluates the candidate metallic and coating materials for bipolar plates and gives the perspective of the research trends. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  13. SU-F-T-91: Development of Real Time Abdominal Compression Force (ACF) Monitoring System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, T; Kim, D; Kang, S; Cho, M; Kim, K; Shin, D; Noh, Y; Suh, T [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, S [Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Hard-plate based abdominal compression is known to be effective, but no explicit method exists to quantify abdominal compression force (ACF) and maintain the proper ACF through the whole procedure. In addition, even with compression, it is necessary to do 4D CT to manage residual motion but, 4D CT is often not possible due to reduced surrogating sensitivity. In this study, we developed and evaluated a system that both monitors ACF in real time and provides surrogating signal even under compression. The system can also provide visual-biofeedback. Methods: The system developed consists of a compression plate, an ACF monitoring unit and a visual-biofeedback device. The ACF monitoring unit contains a thin air balloon in the size of compression plate and a gas pressure sensor. The unit is attached to the bottom of the plate thus, placed between the plate and the patient when compression is applied, and detects compression pressure. For reliability test, 3 volunteers were directed to take several different breathing patterns and the ACF variation was compared with the respiratory flow and external respiratory signal to assure that the system provides corresponding behavior. In addition, guiding waveform were generated based on free breathing, and then applied for evaluating the effectiveness of visual-biofeedback. Results: We could monitor ACF variation in real time and confirmed that the data was correlated with both respiratory flow data and external respiratory signal. Even under abdominal compression, in addition, it was possible to make the subjects successfully follow the guide patterns using the visual biofeedback system. Conclusion: The developed real time ACF monitoring system was found to be functional as intended and consistent. With the capability of both providing real time surrogating signal under compression and enabling visual-biofeedback, it is considered that the system would improve the quality of respiratory motion management in radiation

  14. SU-F-T-91: Development of Real Time Abdominal Compression Force (ACF) Monitoring System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, T; Kim, D; Kang, S; Cho, M; Kim, K; Shin, D; Noh, Y; Suh, T; Kim, S

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Hard-plate based abdominal compression is known to be effective, but no explicit method exists to quantify abdominal compression force (ACF) and maintain the proper ACF through the whole procedure. In addition, even with compression, it is necessary to do 4D CT to manage residual motion but, 4D CT is often not possible due to reduced surrogating sensitivity. In this study, we developed and evaluated a system that both monitors ACF in real time and provides surrogating signal even under compression. The system can also provide visual-biofeedback. Methods: The system developed consists of a compression plate, an ACF monitoring unit and a visual-biofeedback device. The ACF monitoring unit contains a thin air balloon in the size of compression plate and a gas pressure sensor. The unit is attached to the bottom of the plate thus, placed between the plate and the patient when compression is applied, and detects compression pressure. For reliability test, 3 volunteers were directed to take several different breathing patterns and the ACF variation was compared with the respiratory flow and external respiratory signal to assure that the system provides corresponding behavior. In addition, guiding waveform were generated based on free breathing, and then applied for evaluating the effectiveness of visual-biofeedback. Results: We could monitor ACF variation in real time and confirmed that the data was correlated with both respiratory flow data and external respiratory signal. Even under abdominal compression, in addition, it was possible to make the subjects successfully follow the guide patterns using the visual biofeedback system. Conclusion: The developed real time ACF monitoring system was found to be functional as intended and consistent. With the capability of both providing real time surrogating signal under compression and enabling visual-biofeedback, it is considered that the system would improve the quality of respiratory motion management in radiation

  15. Adiabatic compression and radiative compression of magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, C.H.

    1980-01-01

    Flux is conserved during mechanical compression of magnetic fields for both nonrelativistic and relativistic compressors. However, the relativistic compressor generates radiation, which can carry up to twice the energy content of the magnetic field compressed adiabatically. The radiation may be either confined or allowed to escape

  16. Plate Versus Intramedullary Nail Fixation of Anterior Tibial Stress Fractures: A Biomechanical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markolf, Keith L; Cheung, Edward; Joshi, Nirav B; Boguszewski, Daniel V; Petrigliano, Frank A; McAllister, David R

    2016-06-01

    Anterior midtibial stress fractures are an important clinical problem for patients engaged in high-intensity military activities or athletic training activities. When nonoperative treatment has failed, intramedullary (IM) nail and plate fixation are 2 surgical options used to arrest the progression of a fatigue fracture and allow bone healing. A plate will be more effective than an IM nail in preventing the opening of a simulated anterior midtibial stress fracture from tibial bending. Controlled laboratory study. Fresh-frozen human tibias were loaded by applying a pure bending moment in the sagittal plane. Thin transverse saw cuts, 50% and 75% of the depth of the anterior tibial cortex, were created at the midtibia to simulate a fatigue fracture. An extensometer spanning the defect was used to measure the fracture opening displacement (FOD) before and after the application of IM nail and plate fixation constructs. IM nails were tested without locking screws, with a proximal screw only, and with proximal and distal screws. Plates were tested with unlocked bicortical screws (standard compression plate) and locked bicortical screws; both plate constructs were tested with the plate edge placed 1 mm from the anterior tibial crest (anterior location) and 5 mm posterior to the crest. For the 75% saw cut depth, the mean FOD values for all IM nail constructs were 13% to 17% less than those for the saw cut alone; the use of locking screws had no significant effect on the FOD. The mean FOD values for all plate constructs were significantly less than those for all IM nail constructs. The mean FOD values for all plates were 28% to 46% less than those for the saw cut alone. Anterior plate placement significantly decreased mean FOD values for both compression and locked plate constructs, but the mean percentage reductions for locked and unlocked plates were not significantly different from each other for either plate placement. The percentage FOD reductions for all plate

  17. Measurement of the residual stress distribution in a thick pre-stretched aluminum plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, S. X.; Li, X. Q.; M, S.; Zhang, Y. C.; Gong, Y. D.

    2008-12-01

    Thick pre-stretched aluminum alloy plates are widely used in aircraft, while machining distortion caused by initial residual stress release in thick plates is a common and serious problem. To reduce the distortion, the residual stress distribution in thick plate must be measured. According to the characteristics of the thick pre-stretched aluminum alloy plate, based the elastic mechanical theory, this article deduces the modified layer-removal strain method adapting two different strain situations, which are caused by tensile and compressive stress. To validate this method, the residual stresses distribution along the thick direction of plate 2D70T351 is measured by this method, it is shown that the new method deduced in this paper is simple and accurate, and is very useful in engineering.

  18. 100 MW turbine foundation plate concreasting during construction of the Rovno NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presman, I.G.

    1984-01-01

    Manufacture technique and the design 1000 MW turbine foundation plate during construction of the Rovno NPP has been described. The plate dimensions are 73.7x26 m, the height is up to 5 m. The plate concrete volume is 5900 m 3 , the mass of reinforcement is 357 t. The main characteristics of concrete are presented. Tests of control samples of concrete with the age 28 and 365 days have shown the strength at compression 3540 and 4580 N/cm 2 , for axial stretch 280 and 426 N/cm 2 respectively. The change of temperature regime of the plate concrete is shown. Control results have shown the corAespondence between the design of the foundation plate and requirements to the working project

  19. Waves and compressible flow

    CERN Document Server

    Ockendon, Hilary

    2016-01-01

    Now in its second edition, this book continues to give readers a broad mathematical basis for modelling and understanding the wide range of wave phenomena encountered in modern applications.  New and expanded material includes topics such as elastoplastic waves and waves in plasmas, as well as new exercises.  Comprehensive collections of models are used to illustrate the underpinning mathematical methodologies, which include the basic ideas of the relevant partial differential equations, characteristics, ray theory, asymptotic analysis, dispersion, shock waves, and weak solutions. Although the main focus is on compressible fluid flow, the authors show how intimately gasdynamic waves are related to wave phenomena in many other areas of physical science.   Special emphasis is placed on the development of physical intuition to supplement and reinforce analytical thinking. Each chapter includes a complete set of carefully prepared exercises, making this a suitable textbook for students in applied mathematics, ...

  20. Flow influence on a mode of flow choking in the airfoil cascade of the thin plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Л.Г. Волянська

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available  Flow of viscous compressible gas is considered in the airfoil cascade of the thin plates with great negative angle of attack. Influence of wall boundary layer upon a mode of  flow choking in the airfoil cascade is estimated in the article.

  1. Ex vivo biomechanical evaluation of pigeon (Columba livia) cadaver intact humeri and ostectomized humeri stabilized with caudally applied titanium locking plate or stainless steel nonlocking plate constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrow, Brett G; Biskup, Jeffrey J; Weigel, Joseph P; Jones, Michael P; Xie, Xie; Liaw, Peter K; Tharpe, Josh L; Sharma, Aashish; Penumadu, Dayakar

    2017-05-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate mechanical properties of pigeon (Columba livia) cadaver intact humeri versus ostectomized humeri stabilized with a locking or nonlocking plate. SAMPLE 30 humeri from pigeon cadavers. PROCEDURES Specimens were allocated into 3 groups and tested in bending and torsion. Results for intact pigeon humeri were compared with results for ostectomized humeri repaired with a titanium 1.6-mm screw locking plate or a stainless steel 1.5-mm dynamic compression plate; the ostectomized humeri mimicked a fracture in a thin cortical bone. Locking plates were secured with locking screws (2 bicortical and 4 monocortical), and nonlocking plates were secured with bicortical nonlocking screws. Constructs were cyclically tested nondestructively in 4-point bending and then tested to failure in bending. A second set of constructs were cyclically tested non-destructively and then to failure in torsion. Stiffness, strength, and strain energy of each construct were compared. RESULTS Intact specimens were stiffer and stronger than the repair groups for all testing methods, except for nonlocking constructs, which were significantly stiffer than intact specimens under cyclic bending. Intact bones had significantly higher strain energies than locking plates in both bending and torsion. Locking and nonlocking plates were of equal strength and strain energy, but not stiffness, in bending and were of equal strength, stiffness, and strain energy in torsion. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results for this study suggested that increased torsional strength may be needed before bone plate repair can be considered as the sole fixation method for avian species.

  2. Zone plate imaging of 14-MeV neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerche, R.A.; Lane, S.M.; Hawryluk, A.M.; Ceglio, N.M.

    1986-01-01

    At Livermore we are interested in imaging the thermonuclear burn region of fusion targets irradiated at our Nova laser facility. We expect compressed core diameters to be 10's of microns, and would like images with better than 10-μm resolution. Alpha particle images provided the first direct information about the thermonuclear burn geometry in thin walled exploding pusher targets. In future high density target experiments, only highly penetrating radiations like the 14-MeV neutrons will escape the target core to provide information about the burn region. To make the measurement with a neutron ''pinhole'' camera requires a 10μm pinhole through about 10 cm of material and 10 14 to 10 15 source neutrons. Penumbral imaging offers some improvement over a pinhole. Zone plate coded imaging (ZPCI) techniques are particularly well suited for imaging small objects like the compressed core of a laser fusion target. We have been using ZPCI techniques to image nonpenetrating radiations like x rays and alpha particles for about 10 years. The techniques are well developed. Imaging penetrating radiations like 14-MeV neutrons using ZPCI techniques has several possible advantages. The large solid angle subtended by the Zone plate might substantially reduce the required target neutron yield needed to produce a useful image, and a neutron zone plate system with 10-μm resolution might be easier to fabricate and characterize than a pinhole system. This paper explores the use of ZPCI techniques with penetrating radiation

  3. Modeling particulate removal in plate-plate and wire-plate electrostatic precipitators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ramechecandane

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study is concerned with the modeling of electrically charged particles in a model plate-plate and a single wire-plate electrostatic precipitator (ESP. The particle concentration distributions for both a plate-plate and a wire-plate ESP are calculated using a modified drift flux model. Numerical investigations are performed using the modified drift flux model for particle number concentration, in addition to the RNG k - ε model for the mean turbulent flow field and the Poisson equation for the electric field. The proposed model and the outlined methodology for coupling the flow field, electric field, charging kinetics and particle concentration is applied to two model precipitators that are truly representative of a wide class of commercialized ESPs. The present investigation is quite different from the earlier studies as it does not make assumptions like a homogeneous electric field or an infinite turbulent diffusivity. The electric field calculated is a strong function of position and controls the migration velocity of particles. Hence, the proposed model can be implemented in a flow solver to obtain a full-fledged solution for any kind of ESP with no limitations on the particle number concentration, as encountered in a Lagrangian approach. The effect of turbulent diffusivity on particle number concentration in a plate-plate ESP is investigated in detail and the results obtained are compared with available experimental data. Similarly, the effect of particle size/diameter and applied electric potential on the accumulative collection performance in the case of a wire-plate ESP is studied and the results obtained are compared with available numerical data. The numerical results obtained using the modified drift flux model for both the plate-plate and wire-plate ESP are in close agreement with available experimental and numerical data.

  4. A prospective randomized study of operative treatment for noncomminuted humeral shaft fractures: conventional open plating versus minimal invasive plate osteosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Wan; Oh, Chang-Wug; Byun, Young-Soo; Kim, Jung Jae; Park, Ki Chul

    2015-04-01

    To compare the clinical and radiologic results of conventional open plating (COP) and minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) in the treatment of noncomminuted humeral shaft fractures. Randomized prospective study. Five level 1 trauma centers. Sixty-eight consecutive patients were randomized into 2 study groups: those treated by COP (COP group; n = 32) and those treated by MIPO (MIPO group; n = 36). Simple humeral shaft fractures (AO/OTA classification types A and B) were reduced by open reduction or closed reduction and fixed with a narrow 4.5/5.0 locking compression plate, metaphyseal locking compression plate, or proximal humeral internal locking system plate to the anterior lateral aspect of the humerus. Fracture healing time, operative time, radiation exposure time, and intraoperative nerve injury. To assess shoulder and elbow function, we used the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) scoring system and the Mayo elbow performance index, including the range of motion and pain. Radiographic measurements included fracture alignment, delayed union, and nonunion. Thirty-one fractures (97%) healed in the COP group within 16 weeks, whereas 36 fractures (100%) were healed in the MIPO group by 15 weeks. No significant difference was observed in the operative time or complication rates. In both groups, all fractures achieved union without malunion and with excellent functional outcomes by definition of the Mayo elbow performance index and UCLA scoring system. This study confirmed a high overall rate of union and excellent functional outcomes in both MIPO and COP groups. MIPO is equivalent to COP as a safe and effective method for simple types of humeral shaft fractures when surgery is indicated, and the surgeon is experienced in the technique. Therapeutic Level I. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  5. Two-dimensional simulations of steady perforated-plate stabilized premixed flames

    KAUST Repository

    Altay, H. Murat

    2010-03-17

    The objective of this work is to examine the impact of the operating conditions and the perforated-plate design on the steady, lean premixed flame characteristics. We perform two-dimensional simulations of laminar flames using a reduced chemical kinetics mechanism for methane-air combustion, consisting of 20 species and 79 reactions. We solve the heat conduction problem within the plate, allowing heat exchange between the gas mixture and the solid plate. The physical model is based on a zero-Mach-number formulation of the axisymmetric compressible conservation equations. The results suggest that the flame consumption speed, the flame structure, and the flame surface area depend significantly on the equivalence ratio, mean inlet velocity, the distance between the perforated-plate holes and the plate thermal conductivity. In the case of an adiabatic plate, a conical flame is formed, anchored near the corner of the hole. When the heat exchange between themixture and the plate is finite, the flame acquires a Gaussian shape stabilizing at a stand-off distance, that grows with the plate conductivity. The flame tip is negatively curved; i.e. concave with respect to the reactants. Downstream of the plate, the flame base is positively curved; i.e. convex with respect to the reactants, stabilizing above a stagnation region established between neighboring holes. As the plate\\'s thermal conductivity increases, the heat flux to the plate decreases, lowering its top surface temperature. As the equivalence ratio increases, the flame moves closer to the plate, raising its temperature, and lowering the flame stand-off distance. As the mean inlet velocity increases, the flame stabilizes further downstream, the flame tip becomes sharper, hence raising the burning rate at that location. The curvature of the flame base depends on the distance between the neighboring holes; and the flame there is characterized by high concentration of intermediates, like carbon monoxide. © 2010 Taylor

  6. Application specific compression : final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melgaard, David Kennett; Byrne, Raymond Harry; Myers, Daniel S.; Harrison, Carol D.; Lee, David S.; Lewis, Phillip J.; Carlson, Jeffrey J.

    2008-12-01

    With the continuing development of more capable data gathering sensors, comes an increased demand on the bandwidth for transmitting larger quantities of data. To help counteract that trend, a study was undertaken to determine appropriate lossy data compression strategies for minimizing their impact on target detection and characterization. The survey of current compression techniques led us to the conclusion that wavelet compression was well suited for this purpose. Wavelet analysis essentially applies a low-pass and high-pass filter to the data, converting the data into the related coefficients that maintain spatial information as well as frequency information. Wavelet compression is achieved by zeroing the coefficients that pertain to the noise in the signal, i.e. the high frequency, low amplitude portion. This approach is well suited for our goal because it reduces the noise in the signal with only minimal impact on the larger, lower frequency target signatures. The resulting coefficients can then be encoded using lossless techniques with higher compression levels because of the lower entropy and significant number of zeros. No significant signal degradation or difficulties in target characterization or detection were observed or measured when wavelet compression was applied to simulated and real data, even when over 80% of the coefficients were zeroed. While the exact level of compression will be data set dependent, for the data sets we studied, compression factors over 10 were found to be satisfactory where conventional lossless techniques achieved levels of less than 3.

  7. Compressed Baryonic Matter of Astrophysics

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Yanjun; Xu, Renxin

    2013-01-01

    Baryonic matter in the core of a massive and evolved star is compressed significantly to form a supra-nuclear object, and compressed baryonic matter (CBM) is then produced after supernova. The state of cold matter at a few nuclear density is pedagogically reviewed, with significant attention paid to a possible quark-cluster state conjectured from an astrophysical point of view.

  8. Streaming Compression of Hexahedral Meshes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isenburg, M; Courbet, C

    2010-02-03

    We describe a method for streaming compression of hexahedral meshes. Given an interleaved stream of vertices and hexahedral our coder incrementally compresses the mesh in the presented order. Our coder is extremely memory efficient when the input stream documents when vertices are referenced for the last time (i.e. when it contains topological finalization tags). Our coder then continuously releases and reuses data structures that no longer contribute to compressing the remainder of the stream. This means in practice that our coder has only a small fraction of the whole mesh in memory at any time. We can therefore compress very large meshes - even meshes that do not file in memory. Compared to traditional, non-streaming approaches that load the entire mesh and globally reorder it during compression, our algorithm trades a less compact compressed representation for significant gains in speed, memory, and I/O efficiency. For example, on the 456k hexahedra 'blade' mesh, our coder is twice as fast and uses 88 times less memory (only 3.1 MB) with the compressed file increasing about 3% in size. We also present the first scheme for predictive compression of properties associated with hexahedral cells.

  9. Data Compression with Linear Algebra

    OpenAIRE

    Etler, David

    2015-01-01

    A presentation on the applications of linear algebra to image compression. Covers entropy, the discrete cosine transform, thresholding, quantization, and examples of images compressed with DCT. Given in Spring 2015 at Ocean County College as part of the honors program.

  10. Images compression in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebelo, M.S.; Furuie, S.S.; Moura, L.

    1992-01-01

    The performance of two methods for images compression in nuclear medicine was evaluated. The LZW precise, and Cosine Transformed, approximate, methods were analyzed. The results were obtained, showing that the utilization of approximated method produced images with an agreeable quality for visual analysis and compression rates, considerably high than precise method. (C.G.C.)

  11. Laterally Loaded Nail-Plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jacob; Rathkjen, Arne

    Load-displacement curves from about 200 short-term and laterally loaded nail-plate joints are analysed. The nail-plates are from Gang-Nail Systems, type GNA 20 S. The test specimens and the measuring systems are described. The tests are divided into 32 different series. The influence of the number...

  12. MyPlate Food Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español MyPlate Food Guide KidsHealth / For Teens / MyPlate Food Guide What's ... and other sugary drinks. Avoid large portions . Five Food Groups Different food groups have different nutrients and ...

  13. Scintillating plate calorimeter optical design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeil, R.; Fazely, A.; Gunasingha, R.; Imlay, R.; Lim, J.

    1990-01-01

    A major technical challenge facing the builder of a general purpose detector for the SSC is to achieve an optimum design for the calorimeter. Because of its fast response and good energy resolution, scintillating plate sampling calorimeters should be considered as a possible technology option. The work of the Scintillating Plate Calorimeter Collaboration is focused on compensating plate calorimeters. Based on experimental and simulation studies, it is expected that a sampling calorimeter with alternating layers of high-Z absorber (Pb, W, DU, etc.) and plastic scintillator can be made compensating (e/h = 1.00) by suitable choice of the ratio of absorber/scintillator thickness. Two conceptual designs have been pursued by this subsystem collaboration. One is based on lead as the absorber, with read/out of the scintillator plates via wavelength shifter fibers. The other design is based on depleted uranium as the absorber with wavelength shifter (WLS) plate readout. Progress on designs for the optical readout of a compensating scintillator plate calorimeter are presented. These designs include readout of the scintillator plates via wavelength shifter plates or fiber readout. Results from radiation damage studies of the optical components are presented

  14. Compressive Sensing in Communication Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fyhn, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    . The need for cheaper, smarter and more energy efficient wireless devices is greater now than ever. This thesis addresses this problem and concerns the application of the recently developed sampling theory of compressive sensing in communication systems. Compressive sensing is the merging of signal...... acquisition and compression. It allows for sampling a signal with a rate below the bound dictated by the celebrated Shannon-Nyquist sampling theorem. In some communication systems this necessary minimum sample rate, dictated by the Shannon-Nyquist sampling theorem, is so high it is at the limit of what...... with using compressive sensing in communication systems. The main contribution of this thesis is two-fold: 1) a new compressive sensing hardware structure for spread spectrum signals, which is simpler than the current state-of-the-art, and 2) a range of algorithms for parameter estimation for the class...

  15. Fundamental processes in ion plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattox, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    Ion plating is a generic term applied to film deposition processes in which the substrate surface and/or the depositing film is subjected to a flux of high energy particles sufficient to cause changes in the interfacial region of film properties compared to a nonbombarded deposition. Ion plating is being accepted as an alternative coating technique to sputter deposition, vacuum evaporation and electroplating. In order to intelligently choose between the various deposition techniques, the fundamental mechanisms, relating to ion plating, must be understood. This paper reviews the effects of low energy ion bombardment on surfaces, interface formation and film development as they apply to ion plating and the implementation and applications of the ion plating process

  16. Efectos de la calidad sanitaria de la caña semilla en los componentes del rendimiento cultural de las variedades CP 65-357 y LCP 85-384 (Saccharum spp., según diferentes edades de corte (Parte 2 Effects of seedcane quality on yielding components of CP 65-357 and LCP 85-384 (Saccharum spp. varieties at different crop ages (Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María B. García

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tradicionalmente, la mayoría de los productores de caña de azúcar de Tucumán utilizó en sus plantaciones, caña semilla proveniente de lotes comerciales con elevada infección de RSD (del inglés "ratoon stunting disease". Esta enfermedad sistémica, causada por Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli, es ampliamente reconocida por su efecto detrimental sobre el rendimiento cultural. Desde hace pocos años, la disponibilidad de caña semilla saneada hizo viable la incorporación de cambios fundamentales en las prácticas culturales, que posibilitan aumentar la productividad de los cañaverales tucumanos. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue cuantificar el efecto de la calidad sanitaria de la caña semilla sobre el rendimiento cultural y sus componentes en dos variedades comerciales, LCP 85-384 y CP 65-357, a través de seis edades de corte. Este trabajo complementa la información obtenida para las tres primeras edades de corte, ya publicada. Se evaluaron dos calidades de caña semilla: semilla de alta calidad (SAC, saneada por cultivo de meristemas y multiplicada por propagación in vitro, y semilla comercial (SC infectada con RSD. Los tratamientos se implantaron en un diseño en bloques completos al azar con seis repeticiones. En cada edad se evaluaron: número de tallos/ parcela y peso, altura y diámetro de los tallos. Mediante el análisis de la varianza y pruebas de comparación de medias (DMS de Fisher, se determinó que la calidad sanitaria de la semilla afecta los componentes del rendimiento cultural. Se verificaron diferencias a favor de la semilla SAC para peso y altura de los tallos y, en menor medida, para número de tallos. El diámetro de los tallos no resultó afectado por la calidad de la semilla. Para cada edad, se registraron importantes disminuciones en la producción de caña/ha en los tratamientos provenientes de SC respecto a los originados de SAC. Considerando la producción acumulada en las seis cosechas (planta a soca 5, los

  17. Evaluation of mammogram compression efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przelaskowski, A.; Surowski, P.; Kukula, A.

    2005-01-01

    Lossy image coding significantly improves performance over lossless methods, but a reliable control of diagnostic accuracy regarding compressed images is necessary. The acceptable range of compression ratios must be safe with respect to as many objective criteria as possible. This study evaluates the compression efficiency of digital mammograms in both numerically lossless (reversible) and lossy (irreversible) manner. Effective compression methods and concepts were examined to increase archiving and telediagnosis performance. Lossless compression as a primary applicable tool for medical applications was verified on a set 131 mammograms. Moreover, nine radiologists participated in the evaluation of lossy compression of mammograms. Subjective rating of diagnostically important features brought a set of mean rates given for each test image. The lesion detection test resulted in binary decision data analyzed statistically. The radiologists rated and interpreted malignant and benign lesions, representative pathology symptoms, and other structures susceptible to compression distortions contained in 22 original and 62 reconstructed mammograms. Test mammograms were collected in two radiology centers for three years and then selected according to diagnostic content suitable for an evaluation of compression effects. Lossless compression efficiency of the tested coders varied, but CALIC, JPEG-LS, and SPIHT performed the best. The evaluation of lossy compression effects affecting detection ability was based on ROC-like analysis. Assuming a two-sided significance level of p=0.05, the null hypothesis that lower bit rate reconstructions are as useful for diagnosis as the originals was false in sensitivity tests with 0.04 bpp mammograms. However, verification of the same hypothesis with 0.1 bpp reconstructions suggested their acceptance. Moreover, the 1 bpp reconstructions were rated very similarly to the original mammograms in the diagnostic quality evaluation test, but the

  18. The Golosyiv plate archive digitisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeeva, T. P.; Sergeev, A. V.; Pakuliak, L. K.; Yatsenko, A. I.

    2007-08-01

    The plate archive of the Main Astronomical Observatory of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (Golosyiv, Kyiv) includes about 85 000 plates which have been taken in various observational projects during 1950-2005. Among them are about 25 000 of direct northern sky area plates and more than 600 000 plates containing stellar, planetary and active solar formations spectra. Direct plates have a limiting magnitude of 14.0-16.0 mag. Since 2002 we have been organising the storage, safeguarding, cataloguing and digitization of the plate archive. The very initial task was to create the automated system for detection of astronomical objects and phenomena, search of optical counterparts in the directions of gamma-ray bursts, research of long period, flare and other variable stars, search and rediscovery of asteroids, comets and other Solar System bodies to improve the elements of their orbits, informational support of CCD observations and space projects, etc. To provide higher efficiency of this work we have prepared computer readable catalogues and database for 250 000 direct wide field plates. Now the catalogues have been adapted to Wide Field Plate Database (WFPDB) format and integrated into this world database. The next step will be adaptation of our catalogues, database and images to standards of the IVOA. Some magnitude and positional accuracy estimations for Golosyiv archive plates have been done. The photometric characteristics of the images of NGC 6913 cluster stars on two plates of the Golosyiv's double wide angle astrograph have been determined. Very good conformity of the photometric characteristics obtained with external accuracies of 0.13 and 0.15 mag. has been found. The investigation of positional accuracy have been made with A3± format fixed bed scanner (Microtek ScanMaker 9800XL TMA). It shows that the scanner has non-detectable systematic errors on the X-axis, and errors of ± 15 μm on the Y-axis. The final positional errors are about ± 2 μm (

  19. Indonesian Landforms and Plate Tectonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Th. Verstappen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v5i3.103The horizontal configuration and vertical dimension of the landforms occurring in the tectonically unstable parts of Indonesia were resulted in the first place from plate tectonics. Most of them date from the Quaternary and endogenous forces are ongoing. Three major plates – the northward moving Indo-Australian Plate, the south-eastward moving SE-Asian Plate and the westward moving Pacific Plate - meet at a plate triple-junction situated in the south of New Guinea’s Bird’s Head. The narrow North-Moluccan plate is interposed between the Asia and Pacific. It tapers out northward in the Philippine Mobile Belt and is gradually disappearing. The greatest relief amplitudes occur near the plate boundaries: deep ocean trenches are associated with subduction zones and mountain ranges with collision belts. The landforms of the more stable areas of the plates date back to a more remote past and, where emerged, have a more subdued relief that is in the first place related to the resistance of the rocks to humid tropical weathering Rising mountain ranges and emerging island arcs are subjected to rapid humid-tropical river erosions and mass movements. The erosion products accumulate in adjacent sedimentary basins where their increasing weight causes subsidence by gravity and isostatic compensations. Living and raised coral reefs, volcanoes, and fault scarps are important geomorphic indicators of active plate tectonics. Compartmental faults may strongly affect island arcs stretching perpendicular to the plate movement. This is the case on Java. Transcurrent faults and related pull-apart basins are a leading factor where plates meet at an angle, such as on Sumatra. The most complicated situation exists near the triple-junction and in the Moluccas. Modern research methods, such as GPS measurements of plate movements and absolute dating of volcanic outbursts and raised coral reefs are important tools. The mega-landforms resulting

  20. A distal femoral supra-condylar plate: biomechanical comparison with condylar plate and first clinical application for treatment of supracondylar fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Bowei; Ding, Zhenqi; Shen, Junguo; Zhai, Wenliang; Kang, Liangqi; Zhou, Liang; Sha, Mo; Liang, Dongzhu

    2012-08-01

    An anatomical supra-condylar plate is designed and analysed by biomechanical testing. The biomechanical properties of the supra-condylar and condylar plate were compared in six matched pairs of cadaveric femurs. A transverse osteotomy gap was created to simulate an OTA/AO type A3 supracondylar fracture. The left and right specimens were fitted with supra-condylar and condylar plate, respectively. Nondestructive axial compression, three-point bending and torsion tests were performed, and the peak load of the bone-implant construction was measured. The fracture site suitable for supra-condylar plate application and its correlation with femoral length were calculated. The gender influence on it was also discussed. The difference of stiffness between the supra-condylar and condyle groups were not significant (P > 0.05) at 363.4 and 362.5 N/mm for compression, 229.5 and 237.6 N/mm in the sagittal plane and 195.5 and 188.4 N/mm in the coronal plane for three-point bending, and 7.5 and 7.9 Nm/deg for axial torsion, respectively. The peak load was 4438 ± 136.15 N and 5215 ± 174.33 N, respectively, for the two groups. The average extent of the fracture site suitable for the application of the supra-condylar plate was 70.86 ± 4.61 mm. The femoral length and gender showed no influence on it. Despite the limited bone contact area provided by the supra-condylar plate, its construct stiffness is comparable to the condylar plate. The supra-condylar plate can be used to treat carefully-selected extra-articular supracondylar fractures.

  1. Compression etiology in tendinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almekinders, Louis C; Weinhold, Paul S; Maffulli, Nicola

    2003-10-01

    Recent studies have emphasized that the etiology of tendinopathy is not as simple as was once thought. The etiology is likely to be multifactorial. Etiologic factors may include some of the traditional factors such as overuse, inflexibility, and equipment problems; however, other factors need to be considered as well, such as age-related tendon degeneration and biomechanical considerations as outlined in this article. More research is needed to determine the significance of stress-shielding and compression in tendinopathy. If they are confirmed to play a role, this finding may significantly alter our approach in both prevention and in treatment through exercise therapy. The current biomechanical studies indicate that certain joint positions are more likely to place tensile stress on the area of the tendon commonly affected by tendinopathy. These joint positions seem to be different than the traditional positions for stretching exercises used for prevention and rehabilitation of tendinopathic conditions. Incorporation of different joint positions during stretching exercises may exert more uniform, controlled tensile stress on these affected areas of the tendon and avoid stresshielding. These exercises may be able to better maintain the mechanical strength of that region of the tendon and thereby avoid injury. Alternatively, they could more uniformly stress a healing area of the tendon in a controlled manner, and thereby stimulate healing once an injury has occurred. Additional work will have to prove if a change in rehabilitation exercises is more efficacious that current techniques.

  2. Advances in compressible turbulent mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dannevik, W.P.; Buckingham, A.C.; Leith, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    This volume includes some recent additions to original material prepared for the Princeton International Workshop on the Physics of Compressible Turbulent Mixing, held in 1988. Workshop participants were asked to emphasize the physics of the compressible mixing process rather than measurement techniques or computational methods. Actual experimental results and their meaning were given precedence over discussions of new diagnostic developments. Theoretical interpretations and understanding were stressed rather than the exposition of new analytical model developments or advances in numerical procedures. By design, compressibility influences on turbulent mixing were discussed--almost exclusively--from the perspective of supersonic flow field studies. The papers are arranged in three topical categories: Foundations, Vortical Domination, and Strongly Coupled Compressibility. The Foundations category is a collection of seminal studies that connect current study in compressible turbulent mixing with compressible, high-speed turbulent flow research that almost vanished about two decades ago. A number of contributions are included on flow instability initiation, evolution, and transition between the states of unstable flow onset through those descriptive of fully developed turbulence. The Vortical Domination category includes theoretical and experimental studies of coherent structures, vortex pairing, vortex-dynamics-influenced pressure focusing. In the Strongly Coupled Compressibility category the organizers included the high-speed turbulent flow investigations in which the interaction of shock waves could be considered an important source for production of new turbulence or for the enhancement of pre-existing turbulence. Individual papers are processed separately

  3. Mammography image compression using Wavelet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azuhar Ripin; Md Saion Salikin; Wan Hazlinda Ismail; Asmaliza Hashim; Norriza Md Isa

    2004-01-01

    Image compression plays an important role in many applications like medical imaging, televideo conferencing, remote sensing, document and facsimile transmission, which depend on the efficient manipulation, storage, and transmission of binary, gray scale, or color images. In Medical imaging application such Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACs), the image size or image stream size is too large and requires a large amount of storage space or high bandwidth for communication. Image compression techniques are divided into two categories namely lossy and lossless data compression. Wavelet method used in this project is a lossless compression method. In this method, the exact original mammography image data can be recovered. In this project, mammography images are digitized by using Vider Sierra Plus digitizer. The digitized images are compressed by using this wavelet image compression technique. Interactive Data Language (IDLs) numerical and visualization software is used to perform all of the calculations, to generate and display all of the compressed images. Results of this project are presented in this paper. (Author)

  4. Advances in compressible turbulent mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dannevik, W.P.; Buckingham, A.C.; Leith, C.E. [eds.

    1992-01-01

    This volume includes some recent additions to original material prepared for the Princeton International Workshop on the Physics of Compressible Turbulent Mixing, held in 1988. Workshop participants were asked to emphasize the physics of the compressible mixing process rather than measurement techniques or computational methods. Actual experimental results and their meaning were given precedence over discussions of new diagnostic developments. Theoretical interpretations and understanding were stressed rather than the exposition of new analytical model developments or advances in numerical procedures. By design, compressibility influences on turbulent mixing were discussed--almost exclusively--from the perspective of supersonic flow field studies. The papers are arranged in three topical categories: Foundations, Vortical Domination, and Strongly Coupled Compressibility. The Foundations category is a collection of seminal studies that connect current study in compressible turbulent mixing with compressible, high-speed turbulent flow research that almost vanished about two decades ago. A number of contributions are included on flow instability initiation, evolution, and transition between the states of unstable flow onset through those descriptive of fully developed turbulence. The Vortical Domination category includes theoretical and experimental studies of coherent structures, vortex pairing, vortex-dynamics-influenced pressure focusing. In the Strongly Coupled Compressibility category the organizers included the high-speed turbulent flow investigations in which the interaction of shock waves could be considered an important source for production of new turbulence or for the enhancement of pre-existing turbulence. Individual papers are processed separately.

  5. The thermoviscoplastic response of polycrystalline tungsten in compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lennon, A.M.; Ramesh, K.T.

    2000-01-01

    The thermomechanical response of commercially pure polycrystalline tungsten was investigated over a wide range of strain rates and temperatures. The material was examined in two forms: one an equiaxed recrystallized microstructure and the other a heavily deformed extruded microstructure that was loaded in compression along the extrusion axis. Low strain rate (10 -3 -10 0 s -1 ) compression experiments were conducted on an MTS servo-hydraulic load frame equipped with an infra-red furnace capable of sustaining specimen temperatures in excess of 600 C. High strain rate (10 3 -10 4 s -1 ) experiments were performed on a compression Kolsky bar equipped with an infra-red heating system capable of developing specimen temperatures as high as 800 C. Pressure-shear plate impact experiments were used to obtain shear stress versus shear strain curves at very high rates (∝10 4 -10 5 s -1 ). The recrystallized material was able to sustain very substantial plastic deformations in compression (at room temperature), with a flow stress that appears to be rate-dependent. Intergranular microcracks were developed during the compressive deformations. Under quasi-static loadings a few relatively large axial splitting cracks were formed, while under dynamic loadings a very large number of small, uniformly distributed microcracks (that did not link up to form macrocracks) were developed. The rate of nucleation of microcracks increased dramatically with strain rate. The extruded tungsten is also able to sustain large plastic deformations in compression, with a flow stress that increases with the rate of deformation. The strain hardening of the extruded material is lower than that of the recrystallized material, and is relatively insensitive to the strain rate. (orig.)

  6. Nonlinear morphoelastic plates I: Genesis of residual stress

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, J.

    2011-04-28

    Volumetric growth of an elastic body may give rise to residual stress. Here a rigorous analysis is given of the residual strains and stresses generated by growth in the axisymmetric Kirchhoff plate. Balance equations are derived via the Global Constraint Principle, growth is incorporated via a multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient, and the system is closed by a response function. The particular case of a compressible neo-Hookean material is analyzed, and the existence of residually stressed states is established. © SAGE Publications 2011.

  7. Nonlinear morphoelastic plates I: Genesis of residual stress

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, J.; Goriely, A.; Tabor, M.

    2011-01-01

    Volumetric growth of an elastic body may give rise to residual stress. Here a rigorous analysis is given of the residual strains and stresses generated by growth in the axisymmetric Kirchhoff plate. Balance equations are derived via the Global Constraint Principle, growth is incorporated via a multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient, and the system is closed by a response function. The particular case of a compressible neo-Hookean material is analyzed, and the existence of residually stressed states is established. © SAGE Publications 2011.

  8. The Effect of Al on the Compressibility of Silicate Perovskite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, M. J.; Kubo, A.; Yoshino, T.; Koga, K. T.; Ohishi, Y.

    2003-12-01

    Experimental data on compressibility of aluminous silicate perovskite show widely disparate results. Several studies show that Al causes a dramatic increase in compressibility1-3, while another study indicates a mild decrease in compressibility4. Here we report new results for the effect of Al on the room-temperature compressibility of perovskite using in situ X-ray diffraction in the diamond anvil cell from 30 to 100 GPa. We studied compressibility of perovskite in the system MgSiO3-Al2O3 in compositions with 0 to 25 mol% Al. Perovskite was synthesized from starting glasses using laser-heating in the DAC, with KBr as a pressure medium. Diffraction patterns were obtained using monochromatic radiation and an imaging plate detector at beamline BL10XU, SPring8, Japan. Addition of Al into the perovskite structure causes systematic increases in orthorhombic distortion and unit cell volume at ambient conditions (V0). Compression of the perovskite unit cell is anisotropic, with the a axis about 25% and 3% more compressive than the b and c axes, respectively. The magnitude of orthorhombic distortion increases with pressure, but aluminous perovskite remains stable to at least 100 GPa. Our results show that Al causes only a mild increase in compressibility, with the bulk modulus (K0) decreasing at a rate of 0.7 GPa/0.01 XAl. This increase in compressibility is consistent with recent ab initio calculations if Al mixes into both the 6- and 8-coordinated sites by coupled substitution5, where 2 Al3+ = Mg2+ + Si4+. Our results together with those of [4] indicate that this substitution mechanism predominates throughout the lower mantle. Previous mineralogic models indicating the upper and lower mantle are compositionally similar in terms of major elements remain effectively unchanged because solution of 5 mol% Al into perovskite has a minor effect on density. 1. Zhang & Weidner (1999). Science 284, 782-784. 2. Kubo et al. (2000) Proc. Jap. Acad. 76B, 103-107. 3. Daniel et al

  9. Plate shell structures of glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Anne

    to their curved shape. A plate shell structure maintains a high stiffness-to-weight ratio, while facilitating the use of plane structural elements. The study focuses on using laminated glass panes for the load bearing facets. Various methods of generating a plate shell geometry are suggested. Together with Ghent......, such as facet size, imperfections, and connection characteristics. The critical load is compared to that of a similar, but smoothly curved, shell structure. Based on the investigations throughout the study, a set of guidelines for the structural design of plate shells of glass is proposed....

  10. Plating on stainless steel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dini, J.W.; Johnson, H.R.

    1981-01-01

    Quantitative adhesion data are presented for a variety of electroplated stainless steel type alloys. Results show that excellent adhesion can be obtained by using a Wood's nickel strike or a sulfamate nickel strike prior to final plating. Specimens plated after Wood's nickel striking failed in the deposit rather than at the interface between the substrate and the coating. Flyer plate quantitative tests showed that use of anodic treatment in sulfuric acid prior to Wood's nickel striking even further improved adhesion. In contrast activation of stainless steels by immersion or cathodic treatment in hydrochloric acid resulted in very reduced bond strengths with failure always occurring at the interface between the coating and substrate

  11. Context-Aware Image Compression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacky C K Chan

    Full Text Available We describe a physics-based data compression method inspired by the photonic time stretch wherein information-rich portions of the data are dilated in a process that emulates the effect of group velocity dispersion on temporal signals. With this coding operation, the data can be downsampled at a lower rate than without it. In contrast to previous implementation of the warped stretch compression, here the decoding can be performed without the need of phase recovery. We present rate-distortion analysis and show improvement in PSNR compared to compression via uniform downsampling.

  12. Compressive sensing for urban radar

    CERN Document Server

    Amin, Moeness

    2014-01-01

    With the emergence of compressive sensing and sparse signal reconstruction, approaches to urban radar have shifted toward relaxed constraints on signal sampling schemes in time and space, and to effectively address logistic difficulties in data acquisition. Traditionally, these challenges have hindered high resolution imaging by restricting both bandwidth and aperture, and by imposing uniformity and bounds on sampling rates.Compressive Sensing for Urban Radar is the first book to focus on a hybrid of two key areas: compressive sensing and urban sensing. It explains how reliable imaging, tracki

  13. Injection, compression and confinement of electrons in a magnetic mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, A.

    1975-01-01

    A Helmholtz coil configuration has been constructed where the magnetic field can be increased to about 10 kGauss in 20 μsec. Electrons are injected from a hot tantalum filament between two plates across which a potential of about 5 keV is applied. The electric field E is perpendicular to the magnetic field B so that the direction of the E x B drift is radial--into the magnetic mirror. About 10 14 electrons were injected and about 10 13 electrons were trapped. The initial electron energy was about 5 keV and after compression 500 keV x-rays were observed. The confinement time is very sensitive to vacuum. Confinement times of milliseconds and good compression were observed at vacuum of 5.10 -5 torr or less. Above 5.10 -5 torr there was no trapping or compression. After a compressed ring of electrons was formed, it was released by a pulse applied to one of the Helmholtz coils that reduced the field. Ejection of the electron ring was observed by x-ray measurements

  14. Thermophysical properties of multi-shock compressed dense argon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q F; Zheng, J; Gu, Y J; Chen, Y L; Cai, L C; Shen, Z J

    2014-02-21

    In contrast to the single shock compression state that can be obtained directly via experimental measurements, the multi-shock compression states, however, have to be calculated with the aid of theoretical models. In order to determine experimentally the multiple shock states, a diagnostic approach with the Doppler pins system (DPS) and the pyrometer was used to probe multiple shocks in dense argon plasmas. Plasma was generated by a shock reverberation technique. The shock was produced using the flyer plate impact accelerated up to ∼6.1 km/s by a two-stage light gas gun and introduced into the plenum argon gas sample, which was pre-compressed from the environmental pressure to about 20 MPa. The time-resolved optical radiation histories were determined using a multi-wavelength channel optical transience radiance pyrometer. Simultaneously, the particle velocity profiles of the LiF window was measured with multi-DPS. The states of multi-shock compression argon plasma were determined from the measured shock velocities combining the particle velocity profiles. We performed the experiments on dense argon plasmas to determine the principal Hugonoit up to 21 GPa, the re-shock pressure up to 73 GPa, and the maximum measure pressure of the fourth shock up to 158 GPa. The results are used to validate the existing self-consistent variational theory model in the partial ionization region and create new theoretical models.

  15. Hierarchical compression of Caenorhabditis elegans locomotion reveals phenotypic differences in the organization of behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Marin, Alex; Stephens, Greg J; Brown, André E X

    2016-08-01

    Regularities in animal behaviour offer insights into the underlying organizational and functional principles of nervous systems and automated tracking provides the opportunity to extract features of behaviour directly from large-scale video data. Yet how to effectively analyse such behavioural data remains an open question. Here, we explore whether a minimum description length principle can be exploited to identify meaningful behaviours and phenotypes. We apply a dictionary compression algorithm to behavioural sequences from the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans freely crawling on an agar plate both with and without food and during chemotaxis. We find that the motifs identified by the compression algorithm are rare but relevant for comparisons between worms in different environments, suggesting that hierarchical compression can be a useful step in behaviour analysis. We also use compressibility as a new quantitative phenotype and find that the behaviour of wild-isolated strains of C. elegans is more compressible than that of the laboratory strain N2 as well as the majority of mutant strains examined. Importantly, in distinction to more conventional phenotypes such as overall motor activity or aggregation behaviour, the increased compressibility of wild isolates is not explained by the loss of function of the gene npr-1, which suggests that erratic locomotion is a laboratory-derived trait with a novel genetic basis. Because hierarchical compression can be applied to any sequence, we anticipate that compressibility can offer insights into the organization of behaviour in other animals including humans. © 2016 The Authors.

  16. Multiplate ionization total absorption spectrometer with a compressed gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baskakov, V.I.; Dolgoshein, B.A.; Kantserov, V.A.

    1978-01-01

    The characteristics of a multiplate total absorption spectrometer working with the compressed xenon (up to 25 atm) containing up to 23 radiation lengths of matter are studied. The dependence of the spectrometer energy resolution on the detecting matter density, on the material and thickness of the absorber plates has been studied. The ability of the spectrometer with a tungsten absorber to select hadrons and electrons with P=6 GeV/c by total energy release and characteristics of the cascade longitudinal development has been also studied. The gas spectrometer as it is shown differs quite slightly from the similar spectrometer with liquid argon as for its time resolution it is much better

  17. Efficient Lossy Compression for Compressive Sensing Acquisition of Images in Compressive Sensing Imaging Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangwei Li

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Compressive Sensing Imaging (CSI is a new framework for image acquisition, which enables the simultaneous acquisition and compression of a scene. Since the characteristics of Compressive Sensing (CS acquisition are very different from traditional image acquisition, the general image compression solution may not work well. In this paper, we propose an efficient lossy compression solution for CS acquisition of images by considering the distinctive features of the CSI. First, we design an adaptive compressive sensing acquisition method for images according to the sampling rate, which could achieve better CS reconstruction quality for the acquired image. Second, we develop a universal quantization for the obtained CS measurements from CS acquisition without knowing any a priori information about the captured image. Finally, we apply these two methods in the CSI system for efficient lossy compression of CS acquisition. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed solution improves the rate-distortion performance by 0.4~2 dB comparing with current state-of-the-art, while maintaining a low computational complexity.

  18. MyPlate Daily Checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Price Tag Read the Food Label Kitchen Timesavers Cooking for Your Family Tasty & Low-Cost Recipes Sample 2-Week Menus Resources for Professionals MyPlate Tip Sheets Print Materials Infographics 5 Ways ...

  19. License plate recognition (phase B).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    License Plate Recognition (LPR) technology has been used for off-line automobile enforcement purposes. The technology has seen mixed success with correct reading rate as high as 60 to 80% depending on the specific application and environment. This li...

  20. Armor Plate Surface Roughness Measurements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stanton, Brian; Coburn, William; Pizzillo, Thomas J

    2005-01-01

    ...., surface texture and coatings) that could become important at high frequency. We measure waviness and roughness of various plates to know the parameter range for smooth aluminum and rolled homogenous armor (RHA...

  1. Bypass transition in compressible boundary layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandervegt, J. J.

    1992-01-01

    transitional state. The effects of large free stream turbulence in compressible boundary layers at Mach numbers are examined both in the subsonic and transonic regime using direct numerical simulations. The flow is computed over a flat plate and curved surface. while many applications operate in the transonic regime. Due the nature of their numerical scheme, a non-conservation formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations, it is a non-trivial extension to compute flow fields in the transonic regime. This project aims at better understanding the effects of large free-stream turbulence in compressible boundary layers at mach number both in the subsonic and transonic regime using direct numerical simulations. The present project aims at computing the flow over a flat plate and curved surface. This research will provide data which can be used to clarify mechanisms leading to transition in an environment with high free stream turbulence. This information is useful for the development of turbulence models, which are of great importance for CFD applications, and are currently unreliable for more complex flows, such as transitional flows.

  2. Compressed gas fuel storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, John J.; Tiller, Dale B.; Wienhold, Paul D.; Hildebrand, Richard J.

    2001-01-01

    A compressed gas vehicle fuel storage system comprised of a plurality of compressed gas pressure cells supported by shock-absorbing foam positioned within a shape-conforming container. The container is dimensioned relative to the compressed gas pressure cells whereby a radial air gap surrounds each compressed gas pressure cell. The radial air gap allows pressure-induced expansion of the pressure cells without resulting in the application of pressure to adjacent pressure cells or physical pressure to the container. The pressure cells are interconnected by a gas control assembly including a thermally activated pressure relief device, a manual safety shut-off valve, and means for connecting the fuel storage system to a vehicle power source and a refueling adapter. The gas control assembly is enclosed by a protective cover attached to the container. The system is attached to the vehicle with straps to enable the chassis to deform as intended in a high-speed collision.

  3. Compressed sensing for distributed systems

    CERN Document Server

    Coluccia, Giulio; Magli, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a survey of the state-of-the art in the exciting and timely topic of compressed sensing for distributed systems. It has to be noted that, while compressed sensing has been studied for some time now, its distributed applications are relatively new. Remarkably, such applications are ideally suited to exploit all the benefits that compressed sensing can provide. The objective of this book is to provide the reader with a comprehensive survey of this topic, from the basic concepts to different classes of centralized and distributed reconstruction algorithms, as well as a comparison of these techniques. This book collects different contributions on these aspects. It presents the underlying theory in a complete and unified way for the first time, presenting various signal models and their use cases. It contains a theoretical part collecting latest results in rate-distortion analysis of distributed compressed sensing, as well as practical implementations of algorithms obtaining performance close to...

  4. Nonlinear compression of optical solitons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    linear pulse propagation is the nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation [1]. There are ... Optical pulse compression finds important applications in optical fibres. The pulse com ..... to thank CSIR, New Delhi for financial support in the form of SRF.

  5. Highly conductive thermoplastic composite blends suitable for injection molding of bipolar plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mighri, F.; Huneault, M.A.; Champagne, M.F.

    2003-01-01

    This study aimed at developing highly conductive, lightweight, and low-cost bipolar plates for use in proton exchange membranes (PEM) fuel cells. Injection and compression molding of highly filled polypropylene, PP, and polyphenylene sulfide, PPS, based blends were used as a mean for mass production of bipolar plates. Loadings up to 60-wt% in the form of graphite, conductive carbon black and carbon fibers were investigated. The developed formulations have a combination of properties and processability suitable for bipolar plate manufacturing, such as good chemical resistance, sufficient fluidity, and good electrical and thermal conductivity. Electrical resistivities around 0.15 and 0.09 Ohm-cm were respectively achieved for the PP and PPS-based blends, respectively. Two bipolar plate designs were successfully fabricated by molding the gas flow channels over aluminum plates to form a metallic/polymer composite plate, or simply by direct injection molding of the conductive polymer composite. For the first design, overall plate resistivities of 0.2 and 0.1 Ohm-cm were respectively attained using PP and PPS based blends as conductive skin. A lower volume resistivity of around 0.06 Ohm-cm was attained for the second injected plate design with PPS based blend. (author)

  6. Rhodium platings – experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Rudolf, R.; Budić, B.; Stamenković, D.; Čolić, M.; Ivanič, A.; Kosec, B.

    2013-01-01

    Modern rhodium plating solutions are based on either sulphate or phosphate. Although in theory there are four possible combinations, in practice only three different rhodium electrolytes are used. These are based on dilutions of rhodium sulphate or phosphate concentrates with added sulphuric or phosphoric acid. These processes are be discussed in this paper with a demonstration of Rh platings in the Slovenian firm Zlatarna Celje d.d.

  7. Rhodium platings – experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rudolf

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern rhodium plating solutions are based on either sulphate or phosphate. Although in theory there are four possible combinations, in practice only three different rhodium electrolytes are used. These are based on dilutions of rhodium sulphate or phosphate concentrates with added sulphuric or phosphoric acid. These processes are be discussed in this paper with a demonstration of Rh platings in the Slovenian firm Zlatarna Celje d.d.

  8. 29 CFR 1917.154 - Compressed air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compressed air. 1917.154 Section 1917.154 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Related Terminal Operations and Equipment § 1917.154 Compressed air. Employees shall be... this part during cleaning with compressed air. Compressed air used for cleaning shall not exceed a...

  9. Double-compression method for biomedical images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonenko, Yevhenii A.; Mustetsov, Timofey N.; Hamdi, Rami R.; Małecka-Massalska, Teresa; Orshubekov, Nurbek; DzierŻak, RóŻa; Uvaysova, Svetlana

    2017-08-01

    This paper describes a double compression method (DCM) of biomedical images. A comparison of image compression factors in size JPEG, PNG and developed DCM was carried out. The main purpose of the DCM - compression of medical images while maintaining the key points that carry diagnostic information. To estimate the minimum compression factor an analysis of the coding of random noise image is presented.

  10. Static and Monoharmonic Acoustic Impact on a Laminated Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paimushin, V. N.; Gazizullin, R. K.

    2017-07-01

    A discrete layered damping model of a multilayer plate at small displacements and deformations, with account of the internal damping of layers according to the Thompson-Kelvin-Voight model, is presented. Based on the equations derived, an analytical solution to the static deformation problem for single-layer rectangular plate hinge-supported along its contour and subjected of a uniformly distributed pressure applied to one of its boundary planes is obtained. Its convergence to the three-dimensional solution is analyzed in relation to the dimension of mesh in the thickness direction of the plate. It is found that, for thin plates, the dimension of the problem formulated can be reduced on the basis of simplified hypotheses applied to each layer. An analytical solutions is also constructed for the forced vibrations of two- and three-layer rectangular plates hinged in the opening of an absolutely stiff dividing wall upon transmission of a monoharmonic sound wave through them. It was assumed that the dividing wall is situated between two absolutely stiff barriers; one of them, owing to the harmonic vibration with a given displacement amplitude of the plate, forms an incident sound wave, and the other is stationary and is coated by a energy-absorbing material with high damping properties. Behavior of the acoustic media in spaces between the deformable plate and the barriers is described by the classical wave equations based on the model of an ideal compressible fluid. To describe the process of dynamic deformation of the energy-absorbing coating of the fixed barrier, two-dimensional equations of motion are derived based on the model of a transversely soft layer, a linear approximation of displacement fields in the thickness direction of the coating, and the account of damping properties of its material by using the hysteresis model. The effect of physical and mechanical parameters of the mechanical system considered and of frequency of the incident sound wave on the

  11. Perceptual Image Compression in Telemedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew B.; Ahumada, Albert J., Jr.; Eckstein, Miguel; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    The next era of space exploration, especially the "Mission to Planet Earth" will generate immense quantities of image data. For example, the Earth Observing System (EOS) is expected to generate in excess of one terabyte/day. NASA confronts a major technical challenge in managing this great flow of imagery: in collection, pre-processing, transmission to earth, archiving, and distribution to scientists at remote locations. Expected requirements in most of these areas clearly exceed current technology. Part of the solution to this problem lies in efficient image compression techniques. For much of this imagery, the ultimate consumer is the human eye. In this case image compression should be designed to match the visual capacities of the human observer. We have developed three techniques for optimizing image compression for the human viewer. The first consists of a formula, developed jointly with IBM and based on psychophysical measurements, that computes a DCT quantization matrix for any specified combination of viewing distance, display resolution, and display brightness. This DCT quantization matrix is used in most recent standards for digital image compression (JPEG, MPEG, CCITT H.261). The second technique optimizes the DCT quantization matrix for each individual image, based on the contents of the image. This is accomplished by means of a model of visual sensitivity to compression artifacts. The third technique extends the first two techniques to the realm of wavelet compression. Together these two techniques will allow systematic perceptual optimization of image compression in NASA imaging systems. Many of the image management challenges faced by NASA are mirrored in the field of telemedicine. Here too there are severe demands for transmission and archiving of large image databases, and the imagery is ultimately used primarily by human observers, such as radiologists. In this presentation I will describe some of our preliminary explorations of the applications

  12. Evaluation of a new image compression technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algra, P.R.; Kroon, H.M.; Noordveld, R.B.; DeValk, J.P.J.; Seeley, G.W.; Westerink, P.H.

    1988-01-01

    The authors present the evaluation of a new image compression technique, subband coding using vector quantization, on 44 CT examinations of the upper abdomen. Three independent radiologists reviewed the original images and compressed versions. The compression ratios used were 16:1 and 20:1. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed no difference in the diagnostic contents between originals and their compressed versions. Subjective visibility of anatomic structures was equal. Except for a few 20:1 compressed images, the observers could not distinguish compressed versions from original images. They conclude that subband coding using vector quantization is a valuable method for data compression in CT scans of the abdomen

  13. Oil prospection using the tectonic plate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pointu, Agnès

    2015-04-01

    sedimentation rate is necessary to bury organic matter and to restrict the mineralization. Consequences of crustal extension are also studied by using an experimental sand box model. The creation of faults is related to the subsidence of the margin. This subsidence allows the crossing of the oil window, leading to pyrolysis of organic matter and its transformation into oil. Afterwards, students compare the structures obtained after extension in their sand box to the actual organization of the Ghawar oil accumulation (seismic line). They can see that faults created by extension forces have not been preserved and can assume that compression forces have caused formation of the traps. An animation of paleo-location of continents during the upper Jurassic helps them to think that compression forces are linked to the closure of the Tethys Sea. A model using gravel and clay is used to show the principle of oil trapping. This way, students understand how the tectonic plate models explain the actual location of oil deposits and then how it can be used to look for new deposits.

  14. Modeling RERTR experimental fuel plates using the PLATE code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, S.L.; Meyer, M.K.; Hofman, G.L.; Snelgrove, J.L.; Brazener, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    Modeling results using the PLATE dispersion fuel performance code are presented for the U-Mo/Al experimental fuel plates from the RERTR-1, -2, -3 and -5 irradiation tests. Agreement of the calculations with experimental data obtained in post-irradiation examinations of these fuels, where available, is shown to be good. Use of the code to perform a series of parametric evaluations highlights the sensitivity of U-Mo dispersion fuel performance to fabrication variables, especially fuel particle shape and size distributions. (author)

  15. Plating on some difficult-to-plate metals and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dini, J.W.; Johnson, H.R.

    1980-02-01

    Electrodeposition of coatings on metals such as beryllium, beryllium-copper, Kovar, lead, magnesium, thorium, titanium, tungsten, uranium, zirconium, and their alloys can be problematic. This is due in most cases to a natural oxide surface film that readily reforms after being removed. The procedures we recommend for plating on these metals rely on replacing the oxide film with a displacement coating, or etching to allow mechanical keying between the substrate and plated deposit. The effectiveness of the procedures is demonstrated by interface bond strengths found in ring-shear and conical-head tensile tests

  16. Electroless metal plating of plastics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, L.J.

    1986-01-01

    The product of an electroless plating process is described for plating at least one main group metal directly on a surface of a polymeric substrate comprising the steps of forming a nonaqueous solution containing a metallic salt of an alkali metal in a positive valence state and at least one main group metal in a negative valence state, the main group metal being selected from the group consisting of Ge, Sn, Pb, As, Sb, Bi, Si and Te, selecting an aromatic polymeric substrate reducible by the solublized salt and resistant to degration during the reaction, and carrying out a redox reaction between the salt in solution and the substrate by contacting the solution with the substrate for a sufficient time to oxidize and deposit the main group metal in elemental form to produce a plated substrate. The product is characterized by the plated metal being directly on the surface of the polymeric substrate and the alkali metal being retained in the plated substrate with the substrate being negatively charged with electrons transferred from the main group metal during the redox reaction

  17. Building indifferentiable compression functions from the PGV compression functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gauravaram, P.; Bagheri, Nasour; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde

    2016-01-01

    Preneel, Govaerts and Vandewalle (PGV) analysed the security of single-block-length block cipher based compression functions assuming that the underlying block cipher has no weaknesses. They showed that 12 out of 64 possible compression functions are collision and (second) preimage resistant. Black......, Rogaway and Shrimpton formally proved this result in the ideal cipher model. However, in the indifferentiability security framework introduced by Maurer, Renner and Holenstein, all these 12 schemes are easily differentiable from a fixed input-length random oracle (FIL-RO) even when their underlying block...

  18. Compression of Probabilistic XML Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldman, Irma; de Keijzer, Ander; van Keulen, Maurice

    Database techniques to store, query and manipulate data that contains uncertainty receives increasing research interest. Such UDBMSs can be classified according to their underlying data model: relational, XML, or RDF. We focus on uncertain XML DBMS with as representative example the Probabilistic XML model (PXML) of [10,9]. The size of a PXML document is obviously a factor in performance. There are PXML-specific techniques to reduce the size, such as a push down mechanism, that produces equivalent but more compact PXML documents. It can only be applied, however, where possibilities are dependent. For normal XML documents there also exist several techniques for compressing a document. Since Probabilistic XML is (a special form of) normal XML, it might benefit from these methods even more. In this paper, we show that existing compression mechanisms can be combined with PXML-specific compression techniques. We also show that best compression rates are obtained with a combination of PXML-specific technique with a rather simple generic DAG-compression technique.

  19. Plasma heating by adiabatic compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, R.A. Jr.

    1972-01-01

    These two lectures will cover the following three topics: (i) The application of adiabatic compression to toroidal devices is reviewed. The special case of adiabatic compression in tokamaks is considered in more detail, including a discussion of the equilibrium, scaling laws, and heating effects. (ii) The ATC (Adiabatic Toroidal Compressor) device which was completed in May 1972, is described in detail. Compression of a tokamak plasma across a static toroidal field is studied in this device. The device is designed to produce a pre-compression plasma with a major radius of 17 cm, toroidal field of 20 kG, and current of 90 kA. The compression leads to a plasma with major radius of 38 cm and minor radius of 10 cm. Scaling laws imply a density increase of a factor 6, temperature increase of a factor 3, and current increase of a factor 2.4. An additional feature of ATC is that it is a large tokamak which operates without a copper shell. (iii) Data which show that the expected MHD behavior is largely observed is presented and discussed. (U.S.)

  20. Concurrent data compression and protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed, M.

    2009-01-01

    Data compression techniques involve transforming data of a given format, called source message, to data of a smaller sized format, called codeword. The primary objective of data encryption is to ensure security of data if it is intercepted by an eavesdropper. It transforms data of a given format, called plaintext, to another format, called ciphertext, using an encryption key or keys. Thus, combining the processes of compression and encryption together must be done in this order, that is, compression followed by encryption because all compression techniques heavily rely on the redundancies which are inherently a part of a regular text or speech. The aim of this research is to combine two processes of compression (using an existing scheme) with a new encryption scheme which should be compatible with encoding scheme embedded in encoder. The novel technique proposed by the authors is new, unique and is highly secured. The deployment of sentinel marker' enhances the security of the proposed TR-One algorithm from 2/sup 44/ ciphertexts to 2/sup 44/ +2/sub 20/ ciphertexts thus imposing extra challenges to the intruders. (author)

  1. Radiologic image compression -- A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, S.; Huang, H.K.; Zaremba, L.; Gooden, D.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of radiologic image compression is to reduce the data volume of and to achieve a lot bit rate in the digital representation of radiologic images without perceived loss of image quality. However, the demand for transmission bandwidth and storage space in the digital radiology environment, especially picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) and teleradiology, and the proliferating use of various imaging modalities, such as magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, ultrasonography, nuclear medicine, computed radiography, and digital subtraction angiography, continue to outstrip the capabilities of existing technologies. The availability of lossy coding techniques for clinical diagnoses further implicates many complex legal and regulatory issues. This paper reviews the recent progress of lossless and lossy radiologic image compression and presents the legal challenges of using lossy compression of medical records. To do so, the authors first describe the fundamental concepts of radiologic imaging and digitization. Then, the authors examine current compression technology in the field of medical imaging and discuss important regulatory policies and legal questions facing the use of compression in this field. The authors conclude with a summary of future challenges and research directions. 170 refs

  2. 30 CFR 75.1730 - Compressed air; general; compressed air systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compressed air; general; compressed air systems... Compressed air; general; compressed air systems. (a) All pressure vessels shall be constructed, installed... Safety and Health district office. (b) Compressors and compressed-air receivers shall be equipped with...

  3. Dual small fragment plating improves screw-to-screw load sharing for mid-diaphyseal humeral fracture fixation: a finite element study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmopoulos, Victor; Luedke, Colten; Nana, Arvind D

    2015-01-01

    A smaller humerus in some patients makes the use of a large fragment fixation plate difficult. Dual small fragment plate constructs have been suggested as an alternative. This study compares the biomechanical performance of three single and one dual plate construct for mid-diaphyseal humeral fracture fixation. Five humeral shaft finite element models (1 intact and 4 fixation) were loaded in torsion, compression, posterior-anterior (PA) bending, and lateral-medial (LM) bending. A comminuted fracture was simulated by a 1-cm gap. Fracture fixation was modelled by: (A) 4.5-mm 9-hole large fragment plate (wide), (B) 4.5-mm 9-hole large fragment plate (narrow), (C) 3.5-mm 9-hole small fragment plate, and (D) one 3.5-mm 9-hole small fragment plate and one 3.5-mm 7-hole small fragment plate. Model A showed the best outcomes in torsion and PA bending, whereas Model D outperformed the others in compression and LM bending. Stress concentrations were located near and around the unused screw holes for each of the single plate models and at the neck of the screws just below the plates for all the models studied. Other than in PA bending, Model D showed the best overall screw-to-screw load sharing characteristics. The results support using a dual small fragment locking plate construct as an alternative in cases where crutch weight-bearing (compression) tolerance may be important and where anatomy limits the size of the humerus bone segment available for large fragment plate fixation.

  4. Strain and stress tensors of rolled uranium plate by Rietveld refinement of TOF neutron-diffraction data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balzar, D.; Popa, N.C.; Vogel, S.

    2010-01-01

    We report the complete macroscopic average strain and stress tensors for a cold-rolled uranium plate, based on the neutron TOF measurements. Both tensors were determined by the least-squares refinement of the interplanar spacings of 19 Bragg reflections. Based on the pole figures, as determined by GSAS, a triclinic sample symmetry of the uranium plate was assumed. Strain and stress are tensile in both the transverse and rolling directions and very small in the normal direction (through the thickness of the plate). Shear strain and stress components are compressive and of significant magnitude.

  5. Operative treatment of intra-articular calcaneal fractures with calcaneal plates and its complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rak Vaclav

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In a retrospective study we analysed intra-articular calcaneal fracture treatment by comparing results and complications related to fracture stabilization with nonlocking calcaneal plates and locking compression plates. Materials and Methods: We performed 76 osteosynthesis (67 patients of intra-articular calcaneal fractures using the standard extended lateral approach from February 2004 to October 2007. Forty-two operations using nonlocking calcaneal plates (group A were performed during the first three years, and 34 calcaneal fractures were stabilized using locking compression plates (group B in 2007. In the Sanders type IV fractures, reconstruction of the calcaneal shape was attempted. Depending on the type of late complication, we performed subtalar arthroscopy in six cases, arthroscopically assisted subtalar distraction bone block arthrodesis in six cases, and plate removal with lateral-wall decompression in five cases. The patients were evaluated by the AOFAS Ankle-Hindfoot Scale. Results: Wound healing complications were 7/42 (17% in group A and 1/34 (3% in group B. No patient had deep osseous infection or foot rebound compartment syndrome. Preoperative size of Bφhler´s angle correlated with postoperative clinical results in both groups. There were no late complications necessitating corrective procedure or arthroscopy until December 2008 in Group B. All late complications ccurred in Group A. The overall results according to the AOFAS Ankle Hindfoot Scale were good or excellent in 23/42 (55% in group A and in 30/34 (85% in group B. Conclusion: Open reduction and internal fixation of intra-articular calcaneal fractures has become a standard surgical method. Fewer complications and better results related to treatment with locking compression plates confirmed in comparison to nonlocking ones were noted for all Sanders types of intra-articular calcaneal fractures. Age and Sanders type IV fractures are not considered to be the

  6. Investigation of turbulence models with compressibility corrections for hypersonic boundary flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Tang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The applications of pressure work, pressure-dilatation, and dilatation-dissipation (Sarkar, Zeman, and Wilcox models to hypersonic boundary flows are investigated. The flat plate boundary layer flows of Mach number 5–11 and shock wave/boundary layer interactions of compression corners are simulated numerically. For the flat plate boundary layer flows, original turbulence models overestimate the heat flux with Mach number high up to 10, and compressibility corrections applied to turbulence models lead to a decrease in friction coefficients and heating rates. The pressure work and pressure-dilatation models yield the better results. Among the three dilatation-dissipation models, Sarkar and Wilcox corrections present larger deviations from the experiment measurement, while Zeman correction can achieve acceptable results. For hypersonic compression corner flows, due to the evident increase of turbulence Mach number in separation zone, compressibility corrections make the separation areas larger, thus cannot improve the accuracy of calculated results. It is unreasonable that compressibility corrections take effect in separation zone. Density-corrected model by Catris and Aupoix is suitable for shock wave/boundary layer interaction flows which can improve the simulation accuracy of the peak heating and have a little influence on separation zone.

  7. Soft Plate and Impact Tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikoff, Basil

    In the field of tectonics, most of our ideas are published in journals. This is not true of other fields, such as history, in which ideas are primarily published in books. Within my own field of structural geology, I can recall only one book, Strain Fades by E. Hansen (Springer-Verlag, 1971), which presents a new idea in book form. However, even this book is more useful for its philosophical approach and particular methodology of determining directions of folding, than for its overarching idea.Enter Soft Plate and Impact Tectonics, a new book with an interesting hypothesis that has been informally discussed in the geoscience community: A fundamental tenet of plate tectonics is incorrect—namely, that the plates are rigid. This assertion is evident when looking at any mountain range, and is perhaps most clearly stated in Molnar [1988].

  8. Rectal perforation by compressed air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Jin

    2017-07-01

    As the use of compressed air in industrial work has increased, so has the risk of associated pneumatic injury from its improper use. However, damage of large intestine caused by compressed air is uncommon. Herein a case of pneumatic rupture of the rectum is described. The patient was admitted to the Emergency Room complaining of abdominal pain and distension. His colleague triggered a compressed air nozzle over his buttock. On arrival, vital signs were stable but physical examination revealed peritoneal irritation and marked distension of the abdomen. Computed tomography showed a large volume of air in the peritoneal cavity and subcutaneous emphysema at the perineum. A rectal perforation was found at laparotomy and the Hartmann procedure was performed.

  9. Compact torus compression of microwaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewett, D.W.; Langdon, A.B.

    1985-01-01

    The possibility that a compact torus (CT) might be accelerated to large velocities has been suggested by Hartman and Hammer. If this is feasible one application of these moving CTs might be to compress microwaves. The proposed mechanism is that a coaxial vacuum region in front of a CT is prefilled with a number of normal electromagnetic modes on which the CT impinges. A crucial assumption of this proposal is that the CT excludes the microwaves and therefore compresses them. Should the microwaves penetrate the CT, compression efficiency is diminished and significant CT heating results. MFE applications in the same parameters regime have found electromagnetic radiation capable of penetrating, heating, and driving currents. We report here a cursory investigation of rf penetration using a 1-D version of a direct implicit PIC code

  10. Premixed autoignition in compressible turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konduri, Aditya; Kolla, Hemanth; Krisman, Alexander; Chen, Jacqueline

    2016-11-01

    Prediction of chemical ignition delay in an autoignition process is critical in combustion systems like compression ignition engines and gas turbines. Often, ignition delay times measured in simple homogeneous experiments or homogeneous calculations are not representative of actual autoignition processes in complex turbulent flows. This is due the presence of turbulent mixing which results in fluctuations in thermodynamic properties as well as chemical composition. In the present study the effect of fluctuations of thermodynamic variables on the ignition delay is quantified with direct numerical simulations of compressible isotropic turbulence. A premixed syngas-air mixture is used to remove the effects of inhomogeneity in the chemical composition. Preliminary results show a significant spatial variation in the ignition delay time. We analyze the topology of autoignition kernels and identify the influence of extreme events resulting from compressibility and intermittency. The dependence of ignition delay time on Reynolds and turbulent Mach numbers is also quantified. Supported by Basic Energy Sciences, Dept of Energy, United States.

  11. Lossless Compression of Broadcast Video

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bo; Eriksen, N.; Faber, E.

    1998-01-01

    We investigate several techniques for lossless and near-lossless compression of broadcast video.The emphasis is placed on the emerging international standard for compression of continous-tone still images, JPEG-LS, due to its excellent compression performance and moderatecomplexity. Except for one...... cannot be expected to code losslessly at a rate of 125 Mbit/s. We investigate the rate and quality effects of quantization using standard JPEG-LS quantization and two new techniques: visual quantization and trellis quantization. Visual quantization is not part of baseline JPEG-LS, but is applicable...... in the framework of JPEG-LS. Visual tests show that this quantization technique gives much better quality than standard JPEG-LS quantization. Trellis quantization is a process by which the original image is altered in such a way as to make lossless JPEG-LS encoding more effective. For JPEG-LS and visual...

  12. Efficient access of compressed data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggers, S.J.; Shoshani, A.

    1980-06-01

    A compression technique is presented that allows a high degree of compression but requires only logarithmic access time. The technique is a constant suppression scheme, and is most applicable to stable databases whose distribution of constants is fairly clustered. Furthermore, the repeated use of the technique permits the suppression of a multiple number of different constants. Of particular interest is the application of the constant suppression technique to databases the composite key of which is made up of an incomplete cross product of several attribute domains. The scheme for compressing the full cross product composite key is well known. This paper, however, also handles the general, incomplete case by applying the constant suppression technique in conjunction with a composite key suppression scheme

  13. Compressibility of rotating black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, Brian P.

    2011-01-01

    Interpreting the cosmological constant as a pressure, whose thermodynamically conjugate variable is a volume, modifies the first law of black hole thermodynamics. Properties of the resulting thermodynamic volume are investigated: the compressibility and the speed of sound of the black hole are derived in the case of nonpositive cosmological constant. The adiabatic compressibility vanishes for a nonrotating black hole and is maximal in the extremal case--comparable with, but still less than, that of a cold neutron star. A speed of sound v s is associated with the adiabatic compressibility, which is equal to c for a nonrotating black hole and decreases as the angular momentum is increased. An extremal black hole has v s 2 =0.9 c 2 when the cosmological constant vanishes, and more generally v s is bounded below by c/√(2).

  14. Compressive behavior of fine sand.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Bradley E. (Air Force Research Laboratory, Eglin, FL); Kabir, Md. E. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Song, Bo; Chen, Wayne (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN)

    2010-04-01

    The compressive mechanical response of fine sand is experimentally investigated. The strain rate, initial density, stress state, and moisture level are systematically varied. A Kolsky bar was modified to obtain uniaxial and triaxial compressive response at high strain rates. A controlled loading pulse allows the specimen to acquire stress equilibrium and constant strain-rates. The results show that the compressive response of the fine sand is not sensitive to strain rate under the loading conditions in this study, but significantly dependent on the moisture content, initial density and lateral confinement. Partially saturated sand is more compliant than dry sand. Similar trends were reported in the quasi-static regime for experiments conducted at comparable specimen conditions. The sand becomes stiffer as initial density and/or confinement pressure increases. The sand particle size become smaller after hydrostatic pressure and further smaller after dynamic axial loading.

  15. Gentilly 2 divider plate replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forest, J.; Klisel, E.; McClellan, G.; Schnelder, W.

    1995-01-01

    The steam generators at the Gentilly 2 Nuclear Plant in operation since 1983 were built with primary divider plates of a bolted panel configuration. During a routine outage inspection, it was noted that two bolts had dislodged from the divider and were located lying in the primary head. Subsequent inspections revealed erosion damage to a substantial number of divider plate bolts and to a lesser extent, to the divider plate itself. After further inspection and repair the units were returned to operation, however, it was determined that a permanent replacement of the primary divider plates was going to be necessary. After evaluation of various options, it was decided that the panel type dividers would be replaced with a single piece floating design. The divider itself was to be of a one piece all-welded arrangement to be constructed from individual panels to be brought in through the manways. In view of the strength limitations of the bolted attachment of the upper seat bar to the tubesheet, a new welded seat bar was provided. To counteract erosion concerns, the new divider is fitted with erosion resistant inserts or weld buildup and with improved sealing features in order to minimize leakage and erosion. At an advanced stage in the design and manufacture of the components, the issue of divider strength during LOCA conditions came into focus. Analysis was performed to determine the strength and/or failure characteristics of the divider to a variety of small and large LOCA conditions. The paper describes the diagnosis of the original divider plates and the design, manufacture, field mobilization, installation and subsequent operation of the replacement divider plates. (author)

  16. Correlations between quality indexes of chest compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng-Ling; Yan, Li; Huang, Su-Fang; Bai, Xiang-Jun

    2013-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a kind of emergency treatment for cardiopulmonary arrest, and chest compression is the most important and necessary part of CPR. The American Heart Association published the new Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care in 2010 and demanded for better performance of chest compression practice, especially in compression depth and rate. The current study was to explore the relationship of quality indexes of chest compression and to identify the key points in chest compression training and practice. Totally 219 healthcare workers accepted chest compression training by using Laerdal ACLS advanced life support resuscitation model. The quality indexes of chest compression, including compression hands placement, compression rate, compression depth, and chest wall recoil as well as self-reported fatigue time were monitored by the Laerdal Computer Skills and Reporting System. The quality of chest compression was related to the gender of the compressor. The indexes in males, including self-reported fatigue time, the accuracy of compression depth and the compression rate, the accuracy of compression rate, were higher than those in females. However, the accuracy of chest recoil was higher in females than in males. The quality indexes of chest compression were correlated with each other. The self-reported fatigue time was related to all the indexes except the compression rate. It is necessary to offer CPR training courses regularly. In clinical practice, it might be better to change the practitioner before fatigue, especially for females or weak practitioners. In training projects, more attention should be paid to the control of compression rate, in order to delay the fatigue, guarantee enough compression depth and improve the quality of chest compression.

  17. Semiclassical theory of plate vibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogomolny, E.; Hugues, E.

    1996-11-01

    The bi-harmonic equation of flexural vibrations of elastic plates is studied by a semiclassical method which can easily be generalized for other models of wave propagation. The surface and perimeter terms of the asymptotic number of levels are derived exactly. The next constant term is also derived. A semiclassical approximation of the quantization condition is obtained. A Berry-Tabor formula and a Gutzwiller trace formula are deduced for the integrable and chaotic cases respectively. From 600 eigenvalues of a clamped stadium plate obtained by a specially developed numerical algorithm, the trace formula is assessed, looking at its Fourier transform compared with the membrane case. (author)

  18. Efficient Compression of Far Field Matrices in Multipole Algorithms based on Spherical Harmonics and Radiating Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Schroeder

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a compression of far field matrices in the fast multipole method and its multilevel extension for electromagnetic problems. The compression is based on a spherical harmonic representation of radiation patterns in conjunction with a radiating mode expression of the surface current. The method is applied to study near field effects and the far field of an antenna placed on a ship surface. Furthermore, the electromagnetic scattering of an electrically large plate is investigated. It is demonstrated, that the proposed technique leads to a significant memory saving, making multipole algorithms even more efficient without compromising the accuracy.

  19. Excessive chest compression rate is associated with insufficient compression depth in prehospital cardiac arrest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monsieurs, Koenraad G.; De Regge, Melissa; Vansteelandt, Kristof; De Smet, Jeroen; Annaert, Emmanuel; Lemoyne, Sabine; Kalmar, Alain F.; Calle, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Background and goal of study: The relationship between chest compression rate and compression depth is unknown. In order to characterise this relationship, we performed an observational study in prehospital cardiac arrest patients. We hypothesised that faster compressions are associated with

  20. Development of a compressive sampling hyperspectral imager prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barducci, Alessandro; Guzzi, Donatella; Lastri, Cinzia; Nardino, Vanni; Marcoionni, Paolo; Pippi, Ivan

    2013-10-01

    Compressive sensing (CS) is a new technology that investigates the chance to sample signals at a lower rate than the traditional sampling theory. The main advantage of CS is that compression takes place during the sampling phase, making possible significant savings in terms of the ADC, data storage memory, down-link bandwidth, and electrical power absorption. The CS technology could have primary importance for spaceborne missions and technology, paving the way to noteworthy reductions of payload mass, volume, and cost. On the contrary, the main CS disadvantage is made by the intensive off-line data processing necessary to obtain the desired source estimation. In this paper we summarize the CS architecture and its possible implementations for Earth observation, giving evidence of possible bottlenecks hindering this technology. CS necessarily employs a multiplexing scheme, which should produce some SNR disadvantage. Moreover, this approach would necessitate optical light modulators and 2-dim detector arrays of high frame rate. This paper describes the development of a sensor prototype at laboratory level that will be utilized for the experimental assessment of CS performance and the related reconstruction errors. The experimental test-bed adopts a push-broom imaging spectrometer, a liquid crystal plate, a standard CCD camera and a Silicon PhotoMultiplier (SiPM) matrix. The prototype is being developed within the framework of the ESA ITI-B Project titled "Hyperspectral Passive Satellite Imaging via Compressive Sensing".

  1. The impact of chest compression rates on quality of chest compressions : a manikin study

    OpenAIRE

    Field, Richard A.; Soar, Jasmeet; Davies, Robin P.; Akhtar, Naheed; Perkins, Gavin D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose\\ud Chest compressions are often performed at a variable rate during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). The effect of compression rate on other chest compression quality variables (compression depth, duty-cycle, leaning, performance decay over time) is unknown. This randomised controlled cross-over manikin study examined the effect of different compression rates on the other chest compression quality variables.\\ud Methods\\ud Twenty healthcare professionals performed two minutes of co...

  2. The tectonic plates are moving!

    CERN Document Server

    Livermore, Roy

    2018-01-01

    Written in a witty and informal style, this book explains modern plate tectonics in a non-technical manner, showing not only how it accounts for phenomena such as great earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions, but also how it controls conditions at the Earth’s surface, including global geography and climate, making it suitable for life. The book presents the advances that have been made since the establishment of plate tectonics in the 1960s, highlighting, on the fiftieth anniversary of the theory, the contributions of a small number of scientists who have never been widely recognized for their discoveries. Beginning with the publication of a short article in Nature by Vine and Matthews, the book traces the development of plate tectonics through two generations of the theory. First-generation plate tectonics covers the exciting scientific revolution of the 1960s, its heroes, and its villains. The second generation includes the rapid expansions in sonar, satellite, and seismic technologies during the 1...

  3. License plate recognition using DTCNNs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Brugge, M.H; Stevens, J.H; Nijhuis, J.A G; Spaanenburg, L; Tavsanonoglu, V

    1998-01-01

    Automatic license plate recognition requires a series of complex image processing steps. For practical use, the amount of data to he processed must be minimized early on. This paper shows that the computationally most intensive steps can be realized by DTCNNs. Moreover; high-level operations like

  4. Hydroelasticity of a Floating Plate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, X.; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Cui, W.

    2003-01-01

    The membrane forces are included in the hydroelastic analysis of a floating plate undergoing large vertical deflections in regular monochromatic multidirectional waves. The first-order vertical displacements induced by the linear wave exciting forces are calculated by the mode expansion method in...

  5. Stress state in perforated plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visner, J.

    1977-01-01

    The method is described of photoelastic measurement of stress concentration factors (s.c.f) in plates perforated by a square, triangular and diagonal grid of circular holes and loaded by uniaxial or biaxial tensile stress. A loading equipment which was developed and its modifications are described. Stress concentration factors found are compared with theoretical and experimental results given in references. (author)

  6. Regulators of growth plate maturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emons, Joyce Adriana Mathilde

    2010-01-01

    Estrogen is known to play an important role in longitudinal bone growth and growth plate maturation, but the mechanism by which estrogens exert their effect is not fully understood. In this thesis this role is further explored. Chapter 1 contains a general introduction to longitudinal bone growth

  7. Elastic stability of thick auxetic plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Teik-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Auxetic materials and structures exhibit a negative Poisson’s ratio while thick plates encounter shear deformation, which is not accounted for in classical plate theory. This paper investigates the effect of a negative Poisson’s ratio on thick plates that are subjected to buckling loads, taking into consideration the shear deformation using Mindlin plate theory. Using a highly accurate shear correction factor that allows for the effect of Poisson’s ratio, the elastic stability of circular and square plates are evaluated in terms of dimensionless parameters, namely the Mindlin-to-Kirchhoff critical buckling load ratio and Mindlin critical buckling load factors. Results for thick square plates reveal that both parameters increase as the Poisson’s ratio becomes more negative. In the case of thick circular plates, the Mindlin-to-Kirchhoff critical buckling load ratios and the Mindlin critical buckling load factors increase and decrease, respectively, as the Poisson’s ratio becomes more negative. The results obtained herein show that thick auxetic plates behave as thin conventional plates, and therefore suggest that the classical plate theory can be used to evaluate the elastic stability of thick plates if the Poisson’s ratio of the plate material is sufficiently negative. The results also suggest that materials with highly negative Poisson’s ratios are recommended for square plates, but not circular plates, that are subjected to buckling loads. (paper)

  8. Compressing Data Cube in Parallel OLAP Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Dehne

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an efficient algorithm to compress the cubes in the progress of the parallel data cube generation. This low overhead compression mechanism provides block-by-block and record-by-record compression by using tuple difference coding techniques, thereby maximizing the compression ratio and minimizing the decompression penalty at run-time. The experimental results demonstrate that the typical compression ratio is about 30:1 without sacrificing running time. This paper also demonstrates that the compression method is suitable for Hilbert Space Filling Curve, a mechanism widely used in multi-dimensional indexing.

  9. CEPRAM: Compression for Endurance in PCM RAM

    OpenAIRE

    González Alberquilla, Rodrigo; Castro Rodríguez, Fernando; Piñuel Moreno, Luis; Tirado Fernández, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    We deal with the endurance problem of Phase Change Memories (PCM) by proposing Compression for Endurance in PCM RAM (CEPRAM), a technique to elongate the lifespan of PCM-based main memory through compression. We introduce a total of three compression schemes based on already existent schemes, but targeting compression for PCM-based systems. We do a two-level evaluation. First, we quantify the performance of the compression, in terms of compressed size, bit-flips and how they are affected by e...

  10. CNEA developments in U-Mo-ZrY-4 mini plates and plates fabrication process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López, M.; Picchetti, B.; Gonzalez, A.; Taboada, H.

    2013-01-01

    The Uranium Molybdenum alloy was the material chosen to develop the fabrication of high density nuclear fuel, due to its excellent behaviour under irradiation –a consequence of the metastable bcc crystalline structure-. At present, the study is focused on the application of this alloy to monolithic fuel plate development, which fuel core is a thin U-Mo layer. The Zircalloy-4 (Zry-4) alloy used as cladding material is extensively known in the nuclear industry due to its low neutron capture section efficiency and excellent mechanical and corrosion resistance properties. Miniplates fabrication process involves a welded compact made of two Zry-4 covers and a frame surrounding a monolithic U-Mo core, which is co rolled under high temperature. Molybdenum contains of 7% to 10% (mass) in U Mo alloys guarantees the presence of meta-stable bcc gamma phase and, at the same time, does not penalize the neutron economy due to Mo98 presence. In the case of U Mo monolithic miniplates relevant parameters of fabrication, considering the behaviour of the U-Mo alloys reported in many work and in order to optimize the o-rolling process, have been revised: co-rolling temperature, compressive stress and presence of gap. Under this experimental conditions can be studied the the interdiffusion layer, the binding between materials and the Dog Bone. The experimental results shows that 650ºC is an optimal co-rolling temperature; at higher temperatures not only a bigger interdiffusion layer is observed –this phenomenon can lead to a region enriched in Molybdenum- but also a bigger Dog Bone is obtained. Working at higher compressive stress has the same effect in relation to the interdiffusion layer. In addition, the absence of gases in the core is essential for the correct binding of the materials. Concerning the monolithic U-Mo plates fabrication, involved in the ALT FUTURE experiment a new workshop has been conditioned. The aim is to use all the valuable information collected during

  11. Entropy, Coding and Data Compression

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 9. Entropy, Coding and Data Compression. S Natarajan. General Article Volume 6 Issue 9 September 2001 pp 35-45. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/09/0035-0045 ...

  12. Shock compression of synthetic opal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, A; Okuno, M; Okudera, H; Mashimo, T; Omurzak, E; Katayama, S; Koyano, M

    2010-01-01

    Structural change of synthetic opal by shock-wave compression up to 38.1 GPa has been investigated by using SEM, X-ray diffraction method (XRD), Infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopies. Obtained information may indicate that the dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole due to high shock and residual temperature are very important factors in the structural evolution of synthetic opal by shock compression. Synthetic opal loses opalescence by 10.9 and 18.4 GPa of shock pressures. At 18.4 GPa, dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole and transformation of network structure may occur simultaneously. The 4-membered ring of TO 4 tetrahedrons in as synthetic opal may be relaxed to larger ring such as 6-membered ring by high residual temperature. Therefore, the residual temperature may be significantly high at even 18.4 GPa of shock compression. At 23.9 GPa, opal sample recovered the opalescence. Origin of this opalescence may be its layer structure by shock compression. Finally, sample fuse by very high residual temperature at 38.1 GPa and the structure closes to that of fused SiO 2 glass. However, internal silanole groups still remain even at 38.1 GPa.

  13. Range Compressed Holographic Aperture Ladar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    entropy saturation behavior of the estimator is analytically described. Simultaneous range-compression and aperture synthesis is experimentally...4 2.1 Circular and Inverse -Circular HAL...2.3 Single Aperture, Multi-λ Imaging ...................................................................................... 14 2.4 Simultaneous Range

  14. Compression of Probabilistic XML documents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldman, Irma

    2009-01-01

    Probabilistic XML (PXML) files resulting from data integration can become extremely large, which is undesired. For XML there are several techniques available to compress the document and since probabilistic XML is in fact (a special form of) XML, it might benefit from these methods even more. In

  15. Shock compression of synthetic opal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, A.; Okuno, M.; Okudera, H.; Mashimo, T.; Omurzak, E.; Katayama, S.; Koyano, M.

    2010-03-01

    Structural change of synthetic opal by shock-wave compression up to 38.1 GPa has been investigated by using SEM, X-ray diffraction method (XRD), Infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopies. Obtained information may indicate that the dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole due to high shock and residual temperature are very important factors in the structural evolution of synthetic opal by shock compression. Synthetic opal loses opalescence by 10.9 and 18.4 GPa of shock pressures. At 18.4 GPa, dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole and transformation of network structure may occur simultaneously. The 4-membered ring of TO4 tetrahedrons in as synthetic opal may be relaxed to larger ring such as 6-membered ring by high residual temperature. Therefore, the residual temperature may be significantly high at even 18.4 GPa of shock compression. At 23.9 GPa, opal sample recovered the opalescence. Origin of this opalescence may be its layer structure by shock compression. Finally, sample fuse by very high residual temperature at 38.1 GPa and the structure closes to that of fused SiO2 glass. However, internal silanole groups still remain even at 38.1 GPa.

  16. Shock compression of synthetic opal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, A; Okuno, M; Okudera, H [Department of Earth Sciences, Kanazawa University Kanazawa, Ishikawa, 920-1192 (Japan); Mashimo, T; Omurzak, E [Shock Wave and Condensed Matter Research Center, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, 860-8555 (Japan); Katayama, S; Koyano, M, E-mail: okuno@kenroku.kanazawa-u.ac.j [JAIST, Nomi, Ishikawa, 923-1297 (Japan)

    2010-03-01

    Structural change of synthetic opal by shock-wave compression up to 38.1 GPa has been investigated by using SEM, X-ray diffraction method (XRD), Infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopies. Obtained information may indicate that the dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole due to high shock and residual temperature are very important factors in the structural evolution of synthetic opal by shock compression. Synthetic opal loses opalescence by 10.9 and 18.4 GPa of shock pressures. At 18.4 GPa, dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole and transformation of network structure may occur simultaneously. The 4-membered ring of TO{sub 4} tetrahedrons in as synthetic opal may be relaxed to larger ring such as 6-membered ring by high residual temperature. Therefore, the residual temperature may be significantly high at even 18.4 GPa of shock compression. At 23.9 GPa, opal sample recovered the opalescence. Origin of this opalescence may be its layer structure by shock compression. Finally, sample fuse by very high residual temperature at 38.1 GPa and the structure closes to that of fused SiO{sub 2} glass. However, internal silanole groups still remain even at 38.1 GPa.

  17. Primary cilia modulate Ihh signal transduction in response to hydrostatic loading of growth plate chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yvonne Y; Wang, Lai; Welter, Jean F; Ballock, R Tracy

    2012-01-01

    Indian hedgehog (Ihh) is a key component of the regulatory apparatus governing chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation in the growth plate. Recent studies have demonstrated that the primary cilium is the site of Ihh signaling within the cell, and that primary cilia are essential for bone and cartilage formation. Primary cilia are also postulated to act as mechanosensory organelles that transduce mechanical forces acting on the cell into biological signals. In this study, we used a hydrostatic compression system to examine Ihh signal transduction under the influence of mechanical load. Our results demonstrate that hydrostatic compression increased both Ihh gene expression and Ihh-responsive Gli-luciferase activity. These increases were aborted by disrupting the primary cilia structure with chloral hydrate. These results suggest that growth plate chondrocytes respond to hydrostatic loading by increasing Ihh signaling, and that the primary cilium is required for this mechano-biological signal transduction to occur. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Primary Cilia Modulate IHH Signal Transduction in Response to Hydrostatic Loading of Growth Plate Chondrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Y, Yvonne Y.; Wang, Lai; Welter, J, Jean F.; Ballock, R. Tracy

    2011-01-01

    Indian Hedgehog (Ihh) is a key component of the regulatory apparatus governing chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation in the growth plate. Recent studies have demonstrated that the primary cilium is the site of Ihh signaling within the cell, and that primary cilia are essential for bone and cartilage formation. Primary cilia are also postulated to act as mechanosensory organelles that transduce mechanical forces acting on the cell into biological signals. In this study, we used a hydrostatic compression system to examine Ihh signal transduction under the influence of mechanical load. Our results demonstrate that hydrostatic compression increased both Ihh gene expression and Ihh-responsive Gli-luciferase activity. These increases were aborted by disrupting the primary cilia structure with chloral hydrate. These results suggest that growth plate chondrocytes respond to hydrostatic loading by increasing Ihh signaling, and that the primary cilium is required for this mechano-biological signal transduction to occur. PMID:21930256

  19. High-Velocity Impact Behaviour of Prestressed Composite Plates under Bird Strike Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Heimbs

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental and numerical analysis of the response of laminated composite plates under high-velocity impact loads of soft body gelatine projectiles (artificial birds is presented. The plates are exposed to tensile and compressive preloads before impact in order to cover realistic loading conditions of representative aeronautic structures under foreign object impact. The modelling methodology for the composite material, delamination interfaces, impact projectile, and preload using the commercial finite element code Abaqus are presented in detail. Finally, the influence of prestress and of different delamination modelling approaches on the impact response is discussed and a comparison to experimental test data is given. Tensile and compressive preloading was found to have an influence on the damage pattern. Although this general behaviour could be predicted well by the simulations, further numerical challenges for improved bird strike simulation accuracy are highlighted.

  20. On the effect of thermomechanical processing on the mechanical properties of 2297 plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta, E.; Garcia, O.; Dakessian, A.; Aung Ra, K.; Torroledo, J.; Tsang, A.; Foyos, J.; Ogren, J.; Es-Said, O.S. [Loyola Marymount Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States). National Science Foundation, Research Experiences for Undergraduates Program; Hahn, M. [Northrop Grumman, Materials and Processes Technology Dept., El Segundo, CA (United States)

    2002-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of compression prior to aging on the hardness values of the 2297-T87 plate stock. Blocks were solution treated at 521 C (970 F), water quenched and naturally aged for 24 hours. Samples were subsequently compressed between 2-15% nominal strain and artificially aged. One aging schedule included single isotherms: 160 C (320 F) and 177 C (350 F) for 24 and 36 hours. The second schedule included multistep aging: 121 C (250 F) for 18 hours or 24 hours followed by 177 C (350 F) for 24 hours. The hardness values obtained are compared to those of the as-received-T87 plate. (orig.)

  1. Force balancing in mammographic compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branderhorst, W.; Groot, J. E. de; Lier, M. G. J. T. B. van; Grimbergen, C. A.; Neeter, L. M. F. H.; Heeten, G. J. den; Neeleman, C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In mammography, the height of the image receptor is adjusted to the patient before compressing the breast. An inadequate height setting can result in an imbalance between the forces applied by the image receptor and the paddle, causing the clamped breast to be pushed up or down relative to the body during compression. This leads to unnecessary stretching of the skin and other tissues around the breast, which can make the imaging procedure more painful for the patient. The goal of this study was to implement a method to measure and minimize the force imbalance, and to assess its feasibility as an objective and reproducible method of setting the image receptor height. Methods: A trial was conducted consisting of 13 craniocaudal mammographic compressions on a silicone breast phantom, each with the image receptor positioned at a different height. The image receptor height was varied over a range of 12 cm. In each compression, the force exerted by the compression paddle was increased up to 140 N in steps of 10 N. In addition to the paddle force, the authors measured the force exerted by the image receptor and the reaction force exerted on the patient body by the ground. The trial was repeated 8 times, with the phantom remounted at a slightly different orientation and position between the trials. Results: For a given paddle force, the obtained results showed that there is always exactly one image receptor height that leads to a balance of the forces on the breast. For the breast phantom, deviating from this specific height increased the force imbalance by 9.4 ± 1.9 N/cm (6.7%) for 140 N paddle force, and by 7.1 ± 1.6 N/cm (17.8%) for 40 N paddle force. The results also show that in situations where the force exerted by the image receptor is not measured, the craniocaudal force imbalance can still be determined by positioning the patient on a weighing scale and observing the changes in displayed weight during the procedure. Conclusions: In mammographic breast

  2. Adiabatic compression of ion rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larrabee, D.A.; Lovelace, R.V.

    1982-01-01

    A study has been made of the compression of collisionless ion rings in an increasing external magnetic field, B/sub e/ = zB/sub e/(t), by numerically implementing a previously developed kinetic theory of ring compression. The theory is general in that there is no limitation on the ring geometry or the compression ratio, lambdaequivalentB/sub e/ (final)/B/sub e/ (initial)> or =1. However, the motion of a single particle in an equilibrium is assumed to be completely characterized by its energy H and canonical angular momentum P/sub theta/ with the absence of a third constant of the motion. The present computational work assumes that plasma currents are negligible, as is appropriate for a low-temperature collisional plasma. For a variety of initial ring geometries and initial distribution functions (having a single value of P/sub theta/), it is found that the parameters for ''fat'', small aspect ratio rings follow general scaling laws over a large range of compression ratios, 1 3 : The ring radius varies as lambda/sup -1/2/; the average single particle energy as lambda/sup 0.72/; the root mean square energy spread as lambda/sup 1.1/; and the total current as lambda/sup 0.79/. The field reversal parameter is found to saturate at values typically between 2 and 3. For large compression ratios the current density is found to ''hollow out''. This hollowing tends to improve the interchange stability of an embedded low β plasma. The implications of these scaling laws for fusion reactor systems are discussed

  3. Natural Convective Heat Transfer from Narrow Plates

    CERN Document Server

    Oosthuizen, Patrick H

    2013-01-01

    Natural Convective Heat Transfer from Narrow Plates deals with a heat transfer situation that is of significant practical importance but which is not adequately dealt with in any existing textbooks or in any widely available review papers. The aim of the book is to introduce the reader to recent studies of natural convection from narrow plates including the effects of plate edge conditions, plate inclination, thermal conditions at the plate surface and interaction of the flows over adjacent plates. Both numerical and experimental studies are discussed and correlation equations based on the results of these studies are reviewed.

  4. Effect of compressibility on the hypervelocity penetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, W. J.; Chen, X. W.; Chen, P.

    2018-02-01

    We further consider the effect of rod strength by employing the compressible penetration model to study the effect of compressibility on hypervelocity penetration. Meanwhile, we define different instances of penetration efficiency in various modified models and compare these penetration efficiencies to identify the effects of different factors in the compressible model. To systematically discuss the effect of compressibility in different metallic rod-target combinations, we construct three cases, i.e., the penetrations by the more compressible rod into the less compressible target, rod into the analogously compressible target, and the less compressible rod into the more compressible target. The effects of volumetric strain, internal energy, and strength on the penetration efficiency are analyzed simultaneously. It indicates that the compressibility of the rod and target increases the pressure at the rod/target interface. The more compressible rod/target has larger volumetric strain and higher internal energy. Both the larger volumetric strain and higher strength enhance the penetration or anti-penetration ability. On the other hand, the higher internal energy weakens the penetration or anti-penetration ability. The two trends conflict, but the volumetric strain dominates in the variation of the penetration efficiency, which would not approach the hydrodynamic limit if the rod and target are not analogously compressible. However, if the compressibility of the rod and target is analogous, it has little effect on the penetration efficiency.

  5. Shock compression experiments on Lithium Deuteride (LiD) single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudson, M. D.; Desjarlais, M. P.; Lemke, R. W.

    2016-12-01

    Shock compression experiments in the few hundred GPa (multi-Mbar) regime were performed on Lithium Deuteride single crystals. This study utilized the high velocity flyer plate capability of the Sandia Z Machine to perform impact experiments at flyer plate velocities in the range of 17-32 km/s. Measurements included pressure, density, and temperature between ˜190 and 570 GPa along the Principal Hugoniot—the locus of end states achievable through compression by large amplitude shock waves—as well as pressure and density of reshock states up to ˜920 GPa. The experimental measurements are compared with density functional theory calculations, tabular equation of state models, and legacy nuclear driven results that have been reanalyzed using modern equations of state for the shock wave standards used in the experiments.

  6. Effect of the Process Parameters on the Formability, Microstructure, and Mechanical Properties of Thin Plates Fabricated by Rheology Forging Process with Electromagnetic Stirring Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chul Kyu; Jang, Chang Hyun; Kang, Chung Gil

    2014-01-01

    A thin plate (150 × 150 × 1.2 mm) with embedded corrugation is fabricated using the rheoforming method. Semisolid slurry is created using the electromagnetic stirring (EMS) system, and the thin plate is made with the forging die at the 200-ton hydraulic press. The cross sections and microstructures of the slurry with and without stirring are examined. To investigate the effect of the process parameters on the formability, microstructure, and mechanical properties of thin plate the slurry is subjected to 16 types of condition for the forging experiment. The 16 types included the following conditions: Whether the EMS is applied or not, three fractions of the solid phase at 35, 45 and 55 pct; two compression velocities at 30 and 300 mm s-1; and four different compression pressures—100, 150, 200 and 250 MPa. The thin plate's formability is enhanced at higher punch velocity for compressing the slurry, and fine solid particles are uniformly distributed, which in turn, enhances the plate's mechanical properties. The pressure between 150 and 200 MPa is an appropriate condition to form thin plates. A thin plate without defects can be created when the slurry at 35 pct of the solid fraction (f s) was applied at the compression velocity of 300 mm s-1 and 150 MPa of pressure. The surface state of thin plate is excellent with 220 MPa of tensile strength and 13.5 pct of elongation. The primary particles are fine over the entire plate, and there are no liquid segregation-related defects.

  7. Subduction Drive of Plate Tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, W. B.

    2003-12-01

    Don Anderson emphasizes that plate tectonics is self-organizing and is driven by subduction, which rights the density inversion generated as oceanic lithosphere forms by cooling of asthenosphere from the top. The following synthesis owes much to many discussions with him. Hinge rollback is the key to kinematics, and, like the rest of actual plate behavior, is incompatible with bottom-up convection drive. Subduction hinges (which are under, not in front of, thin leading parts of arcs and overriding plates) roll back into subducting plates. The Pacific shrinks because bounding hinges roll back into it. Colliding arcs, increasing arc curvatures, back-arc spreading, and advance of small arcs into large plates also require rollback. Forearcs of overriding plates commonly bear basins which preclude shortening of thin plate fronts throughout periods recorded by basin strata (100 Ma for Cretaceous and Paleogene California). This requires subequal rates of advance and rollback, and control of both by subduction. Convergence rate is equal to rates of rollback and advance in many systems but is greater in others. Plate-related circulation probably is closed above 650 km. Despite the popularity of concepts of plumes from, and subduction into, lower mantle, there is no convincing evidence for, and much evidence against, penetration of the 650 in either direction. That barrier not only has a crossing-inhibiting negative Clapeyron slope but also is a compositional boundary between fractionated (not "primitive"), sluggish lower mantle and fertile, mobile upper mantle. Slabs sink more steeply than they dip. Slabs older than about 60 Ma when their subduction began sink to, and lie down on and depress, the 650-km discontinuity, and are overpassed, whereas younger slabs become neutrally buoyant in mid-upper mantle, into which they are mixed as they too are overpassed. Broadside-sinking old slabs push all upper mantle, from base of oceanic lithosphere down to the 650, back under

  8. Flux compression generators as plasma compression power sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, C.M.; Caird, R.S.; Erickson, D.J.; Freeman, B.L.; Thomson, D.B.; Garn, W.B.

    1979-01-01

    A survey is made of applications where explosive-driven magnetic flux compression generators have been or can be used to directly power devices that produce dense plasmas. Representative examples are discussed that are specific to the theta pinch, the plasma gun, the dense plasma focus and the Z pinch. These examples are used to illustrate the high energy and power capabilities of explosive generators. An application employing a rocket-borne, generator-powered plasma gun emphasizes the size and weight potential of flux compression power supplies. Recent results from a local effort to drive a dense plasma focus are provided. Imploding liners ae discussed in the context of both the theta and Z pinches

  9. EMPIRICAL STUDY OF CAR LICENSE PLATES RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasa Zata Dina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of vehicles on the road has increased drastically in recent years. The license plate is an identity card for a vehicle. It can map to the owner and further information about vehicle. License plate information is useful to help traffic management systems. For example, traffic management systems can check for vehicles moving at speeds not permitted by law and can also be installed in parking areas to se-cure the entrance or exit way for vehicles. License plate recognition algorithms have been proposed by many researchers. License plate recognition requires license plate detection, segmentation, and charac-ters recognition. The algorithm detects the position of a license plate and extracts the characters. Various license plate recognition algorithms have been implemented, and each algorithm has its strengths and weaknesses. In this research, I implement three algorithms for detecting license plates, three algorithms for segmenting license plates, and two algorithms for recognizing license plate characters. I evaluate each of these algorithms on the same two datasets, one from Greece and one from Thailand. For detecting li-cense plates, the best result is obtained by a Haar cascade algorithm. After the best result of license plate detection is obtained, for the segmentation part a Laplacian based method has the highest accuracy. Last, the license plate recognition experiment shows that a neural network has better accuracy than other algo-rithm. I summarize and analyze the overall performance of each method for comparison.

  10. The task of control digital image compression

    OpenAIRE

    TASHMANOV E.B.; МАМАTOV М.S.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we consider the relationship of control tasks and image compression losses. The main idea of this approach is to allocate structural lines simplified image and further compress the selected data

  11. Discrete Wigner Function Reconstruction and Compressed Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jia-Ning; Fang, Lei; Ge, Mo-Lin

    2011-01-01

    A new reconstruction method for Wigner function is reported for quantum tomography based on compressed sensing. By analogy with computed tomography, Wigner functions for some quantum states can be reconstructed with less measurements utilizing this compressed sensing based method.

  12. Compressibility Analysis of the Tongue During Speech

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Unay, Devrim

    2001-01-01

    .... In this paper, 3D compression and expansion analysis of the tongue will be presented. Patterns of expansion and compression have been compared for different syllables and various repetitions of each syllable...

  13. Compressed normalized block difference for object tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yun; Zhang, Dengzhuo; Cai, Donglan; Zhou, Hao; Lan, Ge

    2018-04-01

    Feature extraction is very important for robust and real-time tracking. Compressive sensing provided a technical support for real-time feature extraction. However, all existing compressive tracking were based on compressed Haar-like feature, and how to compress many more excellent high-dimensional features is worth researching. In this paper, a novel compressed normalized block difference feature (CNBD) was proposed. For resisting noise effectively in a highdimensional normalized pixel difference feature (NPD), a normalized block difference feature extends two pixels in the original formula of NPD to two blocks. A CNBD feature can be obtained by compressing a normalized block difference feature based on compressive sensing theory, with the sparse random Gaussian matrix as the measurement matrix. The comparative experiments of 7 trackers on 20 challenging sequences showed that the tracker based on CNBD feature can perform better than other trackers, especially than FCT tracker based on compressed Haar-like feature, in terms of AUC, SR and Precision.

  14. The effects of friction on the compressive behaviour of high strength steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashton, M.; Parry, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    An investigation, covering a wide range of strain rate and temperature, has been performed into the effects of interfacial friction on the compressive properties of an armour plate steel. In order to calculate the coefficient of friction, ring tests were carried out and the Avitzur analysis applied. In general, coefficients of friction decreased with increasing temperature and strain rate. Other specimen observations indicated the same friction trends. It is essential that friction corrections be applied if meaningful results are to be obtained. (orig.)

  15. The beetle elytron plate: a lightweight, high-strength and buffering functional-structural bionic material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Xie, Juan; Chen, Jinxiang; Okabe, Yoji; Pan, Longcheng; Xu, Mengye

    2017-06-30

    To investigate the characteristics of compression, buffering and energy dissipation in beetle elytron plates (BEPs), compression experiments were performed on BEPs and honeycomb plates (HPs) with the same wall thickness in different core structures and using different molding methods. The results are as follows: 1) The compressive strength and energy dissipation capacity in the BEP are 2.44 and 5.0 times those in the HP, respectively, when the plates are prepared using the full integrated method (FIM). 2) The buckling stress is directly proportional to the square of the wall thickness (t). Thus, for core structures with equal wall thicknesses, although the core volume of the BEP is 42 percent greater than that of the HP, the mechanical properties of the BEP are several times higher than those of the HP. 3) It is also proven that even when the single integrated method (SIM) is used to prepare BEPs, the properties discussed above remain superior to those of HPs by a factor of several; this finding lays the foundation for accelerating the commercialization of BEPs based on modern manufacturing processes.

  16. On Normalized Compression Distance and Large Malware

    OpenAIRE

    Borbely, Rebecca Schuller

    2015-01-01

    Normalized Compression Distance (NCD) is a popular tool that uses compression algorithms to cluster and classify data in a wide range of applications. Existing discussions of NCD's theoretical merit rely on certain theoretical properties of compression algorithms. However, we demonstrate that many popular compression algorithms don't seem to satisfy these theoretical properties. We explore the relationship between some of these properties and file size, demonstrating that this theoretical pro...

  17. Image quality (IQ) guided multispectral image compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yufeng; Chen, Genshe; Wang, Zhonghai; Blasch, Erik

    2016-05-01

    Image compression is necessary for data transportation, which saves both transferring time and storage space. In this paper, we focus on our discussion on lossy compression. There are many standard image formats and corresponding compression algorithms, for examples, JPEG (DCT -- discrete cosine transform), JPEG 2000 (DWT -- discrete wavelet transform), BPG (better portable graphics) and TIFF (LZW -- Lempel-Ziv-Welch). The image quality (IQ) of decompressed image will be measured by numerical metrics such as root mean square error (RMSE), peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), and structural Similarity (SSIM) Index. Given an image and a specified IQ, we will investigate how to select a compression method and its parameters to achieve an expected compression. Our scenario consists of 3 steps. The first step is to compress a set of interested images by varying parameters and compute their IQs for each compression method. The second step is to create several regression models per compression method after analyzing the IQ-measurement versus compression-parameter from a number of compressed images. The third step is to compress the given image with the specified IQ using the selected compression method (JPEG, JPEG2000, BPG, or TIFF) according to the regressed models. The IQ may be specified by a compression ratio (e.g., 100), then we will select the compression method of the highest IQ (SSIM, or PSNR). Or the IQ may be specified by a IQ metric (e.g., SSIM = 0.8, or PSNR = 50), then we will select the compression method of the highest compression ratio. Our experiments tested on thermal (long-wave infrared) images (in gray scales) showed very promising results.

  18. Speech Data Compression using Vector Quantization

    OpenAIRE

    H. B. Kekre; Tanuja K. Sarode

    2008-01-01

    Mostly transforms are used for speech data compressions which are lossy algorithms. Such algorithms are tolerable for speech data compression since the loss in quality is not perceived by the human ear. However the vector quantization (VQ) has a potential to give more data compression maintaining the same quality. In this paper we propose speech data compression algorithm using vector quantization technique. We have used VQ algorithms LBG, KPE and FCG. The results table s...

  19. Considerations and Algorithms for Compression of Sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, Jesper

    We consider compression of unordered sets of distinct elements. After a discus- sion of the general problem, we focus on compressing sets of fixed-length bitstrings in the presence of statistical information. We survey techniques from previous work, suggesting some adjustments, and propose a novel...... compression algorithm that allows transparent incorporation of various estimates for probability distribution. Our experimental results allow the conclusion that set compression can benefit from incorporat- ing statistics, using our method or variants of previously known techniques....

  20. A biological compression model and its applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Minh Duc; Dix, Trevor I; Allison, Lloyd

    2011-01-01

    A biological compression model, expert model, is presented which is superior to existing compression algorithms in both compression performance and speed. The model is able to compress whole eukaryotic genomes. Most importantly, the model provides a framework for knowledge discovery from biological data. It can be used for repeat element discovery, sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis. We demonstrate that the model can handle statistically biased sequences and distantly related sequences where conventional knowledge discovery tools often fail.

  1. FRESCO: Referential compression of highly similar sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandelt, Sebastian; Leser, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    In many applications, sets of similar texts or sequences are of high importance. Prominent examples are revision histories of documents or genomic sequences. Modern high-throughput sequencing technologies are able to generate DNA sequences at an ever-increasing rate. In parallel to the decreasing experimental time and cost necessary to produce DNA sequences, computational requirements for analysis and storage of the sequences are steeply increasing. Compression is a key technology to deal with this challenge. Recently, referential compression schemes, storing only the differences between a to-be-compressed input and a known reference sequence, gained a lot of interest in this field. In this paper, we propose a general open-source framework to compress large amounts of biological sequence data called Framework for REferential Sequence COmpression (FRESCO). Our basic compression algorithm is shown to be one to two orders of magnitudes faster than comparable related work, while achieving similar compression ratios. We also propose several techniques to further increase compression ratios, while still retaining the advantage in speed: 1) selecting a good reference sequence; and 2) rewriting a reference sequence to allow for better compression. In addition,we propose a new way of further boosting the compression ratios by applying referential compression to already referentially compressed files (second-order compression). This technique allows for compression ratios way beyond state of the art, for instance,4,000:1 and higher for human genomes. We evaluate our algorithms on a large data set from three different species (more than 1,000 genomes, more than 3 TB) and on a collection of versions of Wikipedia pages. Our results show that real-time compression of highly similar sequences at high compression ratios is possible on modern hardware.

  2. Earth's Decelerating Tectonic Plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forte, A M; Moucha, R; Rowley, D B; Quere, S; Mitrovica, J X; Simmons, N A; Grand, S P

    2008-08-22

    Space geodetic and oceanic magnetic anomaly constraints on tectonic plate motions are employed to determine a new global map of present-day rates of change of plate velocities. This map shows that Earth's largest plate, the Pacific, is presently decelerating along with several other plates in the Pacific and Indo-Atlantic hemispheres. These plate decelerations contribute to an overall, globally averaged slowdown in tectonic plate speeds. The map of plate decelerations provides new and unique constraints on the dynamics of time-dependent convection in Earth's mantle. We employ a recently developed convection model constrained by seismic, geodynamic and mineral physics data to show that time-dependent changes in mantle buoyancy forces can explain the deceleration of the major plates in the Pacific and Indo-Atlantic hemispheres.

  3. Efectos del agregado de cachaza y de diferentes densidades de plantación en la capacidad productiva de un semillero saneado de la variedad de caña de azúcar (Saccharum spp. LCP85-384 Effects of filter cake incorporation and different planting densities on the productive capacity of a healthy LCP85-384 sugarcane variety (Saccharum spp. nursery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María I. Cuenya

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available El alto valor agregado de la semilla saneada de caña de azúcar exige la implementación de diversos manejos culturales que potencien al máximo la productividad de los semilleros. Este trabajo evalúa diferentes alternativas de manejo en la plantación de semilla saneada por termoterapia de la variedad LCP85-384, combinando distintas densidades de yemas con el agregado o no de cachaza en la base del surco. Se implantó un ensayo en Parcelas Divididas con tres repeticiones. Las parcelas principales contemplaron el agregado o no de cachaza. Las subparcelas comprendieron las siguientes densidades de plantación por metro lineal de surco: tres, seis y nueve yemas uninodales; dos y tres trozos de tres yemas cada uno (2 x 3Y y 3 x 3Y, respectivamente y un tallo cortado al medio (8 a 10 yemas. En caña planta y soca 1 se evaluaron número de tallos/parcela, altura promedio de tallos, número de yemas/m lineal del tallo y número de yemas/parcela. Se efectuaron análisis de la varianza y pruebas de comparación de medias (DLS de Fisher. Se detectaron diferencias altamente significativas entre los subtratamientos con respecto al número total de tallos/parcela (caña planta y soca 1 y a la altura promedio de tallos (caña planta. Para ambas variables y en las dos edades de corte, los mayores valores se registraron para los subtratamientos que involucraron trozos de caña y los menores valores para aquellos originados de yemas individuales. Para el número total de yemas/parcela, producidas durante los dos años, se detectaron diferencias altamente significativas entre tratamientos principales y entre subtratamientos. Para esta última variable, de interés en un semillero con dos años de aprovechamiento, el subtratamiento de 3 x 3Y resultó la mejor alternativa de plantación, presentando diferencias significativas con el resto de las densidades ensayadas. La aplicación de cachaza en plantación resultó ventajosa cuando se consideró el

  4. Silicon-micromachined microchannel plates

    CERN Document Server

    Beetz, C P; Steinbeck, J; Lemieux, B; Winn, D R

    2000-01-01

    Microchannel plates (MCP) fabricated from standard silicon wafer substrates using a novel silicon micromachining process, together with standard silicon photolithographic process steps, are described. The resulting SiMCP microchannels have dimensions of approx 0.5 to approx 25 mu m, with aspect ratios up to 300, and have the dimensional precision and absence of interstitial defects characteristic of photolithographic processing, compatible with positional matching to silicon electronics readouts. The open channel areal fraction and detection efficiency may exceed 90% on plates up to 300 mm in diameter. The resulting silicon substrates can be converted entirely to amorphous quartz (qMCP). The strip resistance and secondary emission are developed by controlled depositions of thin films, at temperatures up to 1200 deg. C, also compatible with high-temperature brazing, and can be essentially hydrogen, water and radionuclide-free. Novel secondary emitters and cesiated photocathodes can be high-temperature deposite...

  5. Mathematical methods for elastic plates

    CERN Document Server

    Constanda, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical models of deformation of elastic plates are used by applied mathematicians and engineers in connection with a wide range of practical applications, from microchip production to the construction of skyscrapers and aircraft. This book employs two important analytic techniques to solve the fundamental boundary value problems for the theory of plates with transverse shear deformation, which offers a more complete picture of the physical process of bending than Kirchhoff’s classical one.   The first method transfers the ellipticity of the governing system to the boundary, leading to singular integral equations on the contour of the domain. These equations, established on the basis of the properties of suitable layer potentials, are then solved in spaces of smooth (Hölder continuous and Hölder continuously differentiable) functions.   The second technique rewrites the differential system in terms of complex variables and fully integrates it, expressing the solution as a combination of complex ana...

  6. The stability of cassette walls in compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voutay, Pierre-Arnaud

    Much research into the behaviour of cold formed steel columns in the last decade has focused on channel sections undergoing local, distortional and overall buckling. Light gauge steel cassette sections are a particular form of channel section which offers an alternative form of load-bearing wall assembly for use in low-rise steel framed construction. Cassette wall sections possess wide and slender flanges so that, by including intermediate stiffeners in these wide flanges, a significant increase in the ultimate load capacity may be achieved. However, the introduction of intermediate stiffeners also increases the number of buckling modes (stiffener buckling) and, therefore complicates the behaviour and increases the risk of interactive buckling between these modes. The work undertaken in this thesis aims to clarify the behaviour of wide flanges in compression with and without intermediate stiffeners. In this research, the distortional mode of web and narrow flange buckling was inhibited by connecting the narrow flanges of the cassettes together at suitable intervals. "Generalised Beam Theory" (GBT), which allows the individual buckling modes to be considered individually and in predetermined combinations, provides a particularly good tool with which to analyse and understand the buckling behaviour of cassette sections with and without intermediate stiffeners. "Generalised Beam Theory" (GBT) is used throughout this work to determine the elastic buckling stress of the sections studied (simply supported stiffened plates, as well as cassette sections). Since the economic design of cold-formed steel sections requires the consideration of post- buckling behaviour, elastic buckling values are not directly comparable with design code values which are usually based on the concept of effective width. Therefore, finite element analysis with both material and geometric nonlinearity has also been carried out in order to obtain the ultimate strength in the critical mode or mode

  7. Subjective evaluation of compressed image quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heesub; Rowberg, Alan H.; Frank, Mark S.; Choi, Hyung-Sik; Kim, Yongmin

    1992-05-01

    Lossy data compression generates distortion or error on the reconstructed image and the distortion becomes visible as the compression ratio increases. Even at the same compression ratio, the distortion appears differently depending on the compression method used. Because of the nonlinearity of the human visual system and lossy data compression methods, we have evaluated subjectively the quality of medical images compressed with two different methods, an intraframe and interframe coding algorithms. The evaluated raw data were analyzed statistically to measure interrater reliability and reliability of an individual reader. Also, the analysis of variance was used to identify which compression method is better statistically, and from what compression ratio the quality of a compressed image is evaluated as poorer than that of the original. Nine x-ray CT head images from three patients were used as test cases. Six radiologists participated in reading the 99 images (some were duplicates) compressed at four different compression ratios, original, 5:1, 10:1, and 15:1. The six readers agree more than by chance alone and their agreement was statistically significant, but there were large variations among readers as well as within a reader. The displacement estimated interframe coding algorithm is significantly better in quality than that of the 2-D block DCT at significance level 0.05. Also, 10:1 compressed images with the interframe coding algorithm do not show any significant differences from the original at level 0.05.

  8. H.264/AVC Video Compression on Smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharabayko, M. P.; Markov, N. G.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we studied the usage of H.264/AVC video compression tools by the flagship smartphones. The results show that only a subset of tools is used, meaning that there is still a potential to achieve higher compression efficiency within the H.264/AVC standard, but the most advanced smartphones are already reaching the compression efficiency limit of H.264/AVC.

  9. Relationship between the edgewise compression strength of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of this study were used to determine the linear regression constants in the Maltenfort model by correlating the measured board edgewise compression strength (ECT) with the predicted strength, using the paper components' compression strengths, measured with the short-span compression test (SCT) and the ...

  10. Ordinary Cannulated Compression Screws or Headless Cannulated Compression Screws? A Synthetic Bone Biomechanical Research in the Internal Fixation of Vertical Femoral Neck Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baokun Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this study is to verify whether the headless cannulated compression screw (HCCS has higher biomechanical stability than the ordinary cannulated compression screw (OCCS in the treatment of vertical femoral neck fractures. Materials and Methods. 30 synthetic femur models were equally divided into 2 groups, with 50°, 60°, and 70° Pauwels angle of femoral neck fracture, under 3D printed guiding plates and C-arm fluoroscopic guidance. The femur molds were fixed with three parallel OCCSs as OCCS group and three parallel HCCSs as HCCS group. All specimens were tested for compressive strength and maximum load to failure with a loading rate of 2 mm/min. Results. The result showed that there was no significant difference with the compressive strength in the Pauwels angle of 50° and 60°. However, we observed that the maximum load to failure with the Pauwels angle of 50°, 60°, and 70° and the compressive strength with 70° of HCCS group showed better performance than the OCCS group. Conclusion. HCCS performs with better biomechanical stability than OCCS in the treatment of vertical femoral neck fracture, especially with the Pauwels angle of 70°.

  11. PLATE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kling, Joyce; Hjulmand, Lise-Lotte

    2008-01-01

    Copenhagen Business School (CBS) finds itself needing to address the issue of English-medium instruction for its increasing number of foreign exchange and full degree students. With internationalisation as a main pillar of the institution’s agenda, there are concerns whether the teaching faculty...... of academic teaching and lecturing into account....

  12. Electroless metal plating of plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, L.J.

    1982-09-20

    Process for plating main group metals on aromatic polymers is carried out by the use of a nonaqueous solution of a salt of an alkali metal in a positive valence state and a main group metal in a negative valence state with contact between the solution and polymer providing a redox reaction causing the deposition of the main group metal and the reduction of the polymer. Products from the process exhibit useful decorative and electrical properties.

  13. A tandem parallel plate analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Y.; Fujisawa, A.; Iguchi, H.; Nishizawa, A.; Kawasumi, Y.

    1996-11-01

    By a new modification of a parallel plate analyzer the second-order focus is obtained in an arbitrary injection angle. This kind of an analyzer with a small injection angle will have an advantage of small operational voltage, compared to the Proca and Green analyzer where the injection angle is 30 degrees. Thus, the newly proposed analyzer will be very useful for the precise energy measurement of high energy particles in MeV range. (author)

  14. Curved Folded Plate Timber Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Buri, Hans Ulrich; Stotz, Ivo; Weinand, Yves

    2011-01-01

    This work investigates the development of a Curved Origami Prototype made with timber panels. In the last fifteen years the timber industry has developed new, large size, timber panels. Composition and dimensions of these panels and the possibility of milling them with Computer Numerical Controlled machines shows great potential for folded plate structures. To generate the form of these structures we were inspired by Origami, the Japanese art of paper folding. Common paper tessellations are c...

  15. PRETREATING URANIUM FOR METAL PLATING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrmann, R.F.

    1961-05-01

    A process is given for anodically treating the surface of uranium articles, prior to metal plating. The metal is electrolyzed in an aqueous solution of about 10% polycarboxylic acid, preferably oxalic acid, from 1 to 5% by weight of glycerine and from 1 to 5% by weight of hydrochloric acid at from 20 to 75 deg C for from 30 seconds to 15 minutes. A current density of from 60 to 100 amperes per square foot is used.

  16. Embedded adhesive connection for laminated glass plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Zangenberg; Poulsen, S.H.; Bagger, A.

    2012-01-01

    The structural behavior of a new connection design, the embedded adhesive connection, used for laminated glass plates is investigated. The connection consists of an aluminum plate encapsulated in-between two adjacent triple layered laminated glass plates. Fastening between glass and aluminum...... usage in a design situation. The embedded connection shows promising potential as a future fastening system for load-carrying laminated glass plates....

  17. Method of producing exfoliated graphite composite compositions for fuel cell flow field plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhamu, Aruna; Shi, Jinjun; Guo, Jiusheng; Jang, Bor Z

    2014-04-08

    A method of producing an electrically conductive composite composition, which is particularly useful for fuel cell bipolar plate applications. The method comprises: (a) providing a supply of expandable graphite powder; (b) providing a supply of a non-expandable powder component comprising a binder or matrix material; (c) blending the expandable graphite with the non-expandable powder component to form a powder mixture wherein the non-expandable powder component is in the amount of between 3% and 60% by weight based on the total weight of the powder mixture; (d) exposing the powder mixture to a temperature sufficient for exfoliating the expandable graphite to obtain a compressible mixture comprising expanded graphite worms and the non-expandable component; (e) compressing the compressible mixture at a pressure within the range of from about 5 psi to about 50,000 psi in predetermined directions into predetermined forms of cohered graphite composite compact; and (f) treating the so-formed cohered graphite composite to activate the binder or matrix material thereby promoting adhesion within the compact to produce the desired composite composition. Preferably, the non-expandable powder component further comprises an isotropy-promoting agent such as non-expandable graphite particles. Further preferably, step (e) comprises compressing the mixture in at least two directions. The method leads to composite plates with exceptionally high thickness-direction electrical conductivity.

  18. Using autoencoders for mammogram compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chun Chet; Eswaran, Chikkannan

    2011-02-01

    This paper presents the results obtained for medical image compression using autoencoder neural networks. Since mammograms (medical images) are usually of big sizes, training of autoencoders becomes extremely tedious and difficult if the whole image is used for training. We show in this paper that the autoencoders can be trained successfully by using image patches instead of the whole image. The compression performances of different types of autoencoders are compared based on two parameters, namely mean square error and structural similarity index. It is found from the experimental results that the autoencoder which does not use Restricted Boltzmann Machine pre-training yields better results than those which use this pre-training method.

  19. Culture: copying, compression, and conventionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamariz, Mónica; Kirby, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Through cultural transmission, repeated learning by new individuals transforms cultural information, which tends to become increasingly compressible (Kirby, Cornish, & Smith, ; Smith, Tamariz, & Kirby, ). Existing diffusion chain studies include in their design two processes that could be responsible for this tendency: learning (storing patterns in memory) and reproducing (producing the patterns again). This paper manipulates the presence of learning in a simple iterated drawing design experiment. We find that learning seems to be the causal factor behind the increase in compressibility observed in the transmitted information, while reproducing is a source of random heritable innovations. Only a theory invoking these two aspects of cultural learning will be able to explain human culture's fundamental balance between stability and innovation. Copyright © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  20. Instability of ties in compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch-Hansen, Thomas Cornelius

    2013-01-01

    Masonry cavity walls are loaded by wind pressure and vertical load from upper floors. These loads results in bending moments and compression forces in the ties connecting the outer and the inner wall in a cavity wall. Large cavity walls are furthermore loaded by differential movements from...... the temperature gradient between the outer and the inner wall, which results in critical increase of the bending moments in the ties. Since the ties are loaded by combined compression and moment forces, the loadbearing capacity is derived from instability equilibrium equations. Most of them are iterative, since...... exact instability solutions are complex to derive, not to mention the extra complexity introducing dimensional instability from the temperature gradients. Using an inverse variable substitution and comparing an exact theory with an analytical instability solution a method to design tie...

  1. Diagnostic imaging of compression neuropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weishaupt, D.; Andreisek, G.

    2007-01-01

    Compression-induced neuropathy of peripheral nerves can cause severe pain of the foot and ankle. Early diagnosis is important to institute prompt treatment and to minimize potential injury. Although clinical examination combined with electrophysiological studies remain the cornerstone of the diagnostic work-up, in certain cases, imaging may provide key information with regard to the exact anatomic location of the lesion or aid in narrowing the differential diagnosis. In other patients with peripheral neuropathies of the foot and ankle, imaging may establish the etiology of the condition and provide information crucial for management and/or surgical planning. MR imaging and ultrasound provide direct visualization of the nerve and surrounding abnormalities. Bony abnormalities contributing to nerve compression are best assessed by radiographs and CT. Knowledge of the anatomy, the etiology, typical clinical findings, and imaging features of peripheral neuropathies affecting the peripheral nerves of the foot and ankle will allow for a more confident diagnosis. (orig.) [de

  2. [Medical image compression: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreña, Tatiana; Romero, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Modern medicine is an increasingly complex activity , based on the evidence ; it consists of information from multiple sources : medical record text , sound recordings , images and videos generated by a large number of devices . Medical imaging is one of the most important sources of information since they offer comprehensive support of medical procedures for diagnosis and follow-up . However , the amount of information generated by image capturing gadgets quickly exceeds storage availability in radiology services , generating additional costs in devices with greater storage capacity . Besides , the current trend of developing applications in cloud computing has limitations, even though virtual storage is available from anywhere, connections are made through internet . In these scenarios the optimal use of information necessarily requires powerful compression algorithms adapted to medical activity needs . In this paper we present a review of compression techniques used for image storage , and a critical analysis of them from the point of view of their use in clinical settings.

  3. Compressed optimization of device architectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frees, Adam [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics; Gamble, John King [Microsoft Research, Redmond, WA (United States). Quantum Architectures and Computation Group; Ward, Daniel Robert [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for Computing Research; Blume-Kohout, Robin J [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for Computing Research; Eriksson, M. A. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics; Friesen, Mark [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics; Coppersmith, Susan N. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2014-09-01

    Recent advances in nanotechnology have enabled researchers to control individual quantum mechanical objects with unprecedented accuracy, opening the door for both quantum and extreme- scale conventional computation applications. As these devices become more complex, designing for facility of control becomes a daunting and computationally infeasible task. Here, motivated by ideas from compressed sensing, we introduce a protocol for the Compressed Optimization of Device Architectures (CODA). It leads naturally to a metric for benchmarking and optimizing device designs, as well as an automatic device control protocol that reduces the operational complexity required to achieve a particular output. Because this protocol is both experimentally and computationally efficient, it is readily extensible to large systems. For this paper, we demonstrate both the bench- marking and device control protocol components of CODA through examples of realistic simulations of electrostatic quantum dot devices, which are currently being developed experimentally for quantum computation.

  4. Modified tubularized incised plate urethroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivaji Mane

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To share our experience of doing tubularized incised plate urethroplasty with modifications. Materials and Methods: This is a single surgeon personal series from 2004 to 2009. One hundred patients of distal hypospadias were subjected for Snodgrass urethroplasty with preputioplasty. The age range was 1 to 5 year with mean age of 2.7 years. Selection criteria were good urethral plate, without chordee and torsion needing complete degloving. Main technical modification from original Snodgrass procedure was spongioplasty, preputioplasty, and dorsal slit when inability to retract prepuce during surgery. Results: Average follow-up period is 23 months. Seven (7% patients developed fistula and one patient had complete preputial dehiscence. Phimosis developed in three (3% patients and required circumcision. Dorsal slit was required in seven patients. One patient developed meatal stenosis in postoperative period. All other patients are passing single urinary stream and have cosmesis that is acceptable. Conclusions: Modified tubularized incised plate urethroplasty with preputioplasty effectively gives cosmetically normal looking penis with low complications.

  5. Divertor plate for thermonuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Seiichiro; Sato, Keisuke; Nishio, Satoshi.

    1993-01-01

    In a divertor plate for a thermonuclear reactor, adjacent cooling pipes are electrically insulated from each other and pipes made of a gradient functional material prepared by compositing ceramics having an insulation property and metals are metallurgically joined to at least one portion of each of the cooling pipes. Electric current caused upon occurrence of plasma disruption is interrupted by the insulation portion, so that a large circuit is not formed and electromagnetic force is decreased to such a extent that the divertor plate is not ruptured. Since a header of the cooling pipes can be installed at any optional position, the installation space can be reduced. Further, since inlet and exit collection headers can be disposed on both ends of the cooling pipes, it is possible to shorten the length of the cooling pipe of the divertor plate corresponded to high heat fluxes and reduce the pressure loss on the side of coolants to about 1/2. Further, turn back portions of small radius of curvature of the cooling pipes are eliminated to reduce the cost and extend the lifetime and, in addition, protection tiles can be attached easily. (N.H.)

  6. Finite element analysis of functionally graded bone plate at femur bone fracture site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satapathy, Pravat Kumar; Sahoo, Bamadev; Panda, L. N.; Das, S.

    2018-03-01

    This paper focuses on the analysis of fractured Femur bone with functionally graded bone plate. The Femur bone is modeled by using the data from the CT (Computerized Tomography) scan and the material properties are assigned using Mimics software. The fracture fixation plate used here is composed of Functionally Graded Material (FGM). The functionally graded bone plate is considered to be composed of different layers of homogeneous materials. Finite element method approach is adopted for analysis. The volume fraction of the material is calculated by considering its variation along the thickness direction (z) according to a power law and the effective properties of the homogeneous layers are estimated. The model developed is validated by comparing numerical results available in the literature. Static analysis has been performed for the bone plate system by considering both axial compressive load and torsional load. The investigation shows that by introducing FG bone plate instead of titanium, the stress at the fracture site increases by 63 percentage and the deformation decreases by 15 percentage, especially when torsional load is taken into consideration. The present model yields better results in comparison with the commercially available bone plates.

  7. Residual strains in a stainless steel perforated plate subjected to reverse loading at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durelli, A.J.; Buitrago, J.

    1974-01-01

    An investigation was made to determine strains in a stainless steel perforated plate subjected to a temperature of 1100 0 F and to a successively applied tensile and compressive in-plane loading sufficiently large to produce creep and plastic strains. The duration of the test was 1000 hours. Square grids of lines (at distance of 0.25 in.) and crossed-gratings (500 lines-per-inch) were engraved on both surfaces of the plate before the test. After the plate was unloaded and brought back to room temperature the grids were analyzed using traveling microscopes, and the gratings using the moire effect. Both Cartesian strains were determined from the moire isothetics along the axes of the plate, along the two lines tangent to the hole and parallel to those axes and along the edges of the plate. Grid measurements were made at specific points. The deformed shapes of the hole and of the plate are also given. It is estimated that strains larger than 0.001 can be determined with the techniques and methods used. (U.S.)

  8. Generating Quasi-Isentropic Loading to Targets via Flier-Plate Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Qiang; Su Xiaopeng; Wang Chuanbin; Zhang Lianmeng; Hua Jinsong; Tan Hua

    2008-01-01

    The quasi-isentropic loading technique allows investigation of material properties in a high-pressure, low-temperature regime that is inaccessible by conventional shock wave experiments. In the present paper, the layered flier-plate and graded density flier-plate, which have different variations in the density gradient along the thickness direction but the same density range, were designed and fabricated. Impact experiments were then performed on a two-stage light gas gun. VISAR-measured results show that wave profiles with an initial jump followed by a slowly-rising front to the peak velocity amplitude are generated by using both types of the flier-plate, indicating that quasi-isentropic loading to the targets have been successfully realized. The process of quasi-isentropic loading can be seen as the successive overlap of a series of small shock waves by the transient layers in the flier-plate. It is obvious that the graded density flier-plate creates a more smoothly rising front, and the compression effect must be closer to isentropic loading than that of the layered flier-plate with the same density range

  9. Compressed air energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Frederick W.; Kartsounes, George T.

    1981-01-01

    An internal combustion reciprocating engine is operable as a compressor during slack demand periods utilizing excess power from a power grid to charge air into an air storage reservoir and as an expander during peak demand periods to feed power into the power grid utilizing air obtained from the air storage reservoir together with combustible fuel. Preferably the internal combustion reciprocating engine is operated at high pressure and a low pressure turbine and compressor are also employed for air compression and power generation.

  10. Compressing spatio-temporal trajectories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Joachim; Katajainen, Jyrki; Merrick, Damian

    2009-01-01

    such that the most common spatio-temporal queries can still be answered approximately after the compression has taken place. In the process, we develop an implementation of the Douglas–Peucker path-simplification algorithm which works efficiently even in the case where the polygonal path given as input is allowed...... to self-intersect. For a polygonal path of size n, the processing time is O(nlogkn) for k=2 or k=3 depending on the type of simplification....

  11. Secure matching of Dutch car license plates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sunil, A.B.; Erkiny, Z.; Veugenyz, T.

    2016-01-01

    License plate matching plays an important role in applications like law enforcement, traffic management and road pricing, where the plate is first recognized and then compared to a database of authorized vehicle registration plates. Unfortunately, there are several privacy related issues that should

  12. Moving Divertor Plates in a Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweben, S.J.; Zhang, H.

    2009-01-01

    Moving divertor plates could help solve some of the problems of the tokamak divertor through mechanical ingenuity rather than plasma physics. These plates would be passively heated on each pass through the tokamak and cooled and reprocessed outside the tokamak. There are many design options using varying plate shapes, orientations, motions, coatings, and compositions

  13. Designing a licence plate for memorability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schraagen, J.M.C.; Dongen, C.J.G. van

    2005-01-01

    Good memorability of licence plates is important in those cases where licence plates are viewed for a brief period of time and the information is essential for police investigations. The purpose of the current study was to design a new Dutch licence plate that could be remembered well. A memory

  14. Strength of Ship Plates under Combined Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cui, W.; Wang, Y.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2002-01-01

    Strength of ship plates plays a significant role in the ultimate strength analysis of ship structures. In recent years several authors have proposed simplified analytical methods to calculate the ultimate strength of unstiffened plates. The majority of these investigations deal with plates subjec...

  15. Strength of ship plates under combined loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cui, Weiching; Wang, Yongjun; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2000-01-01

    Strength of ship plates plays a significant role for the ultimate strength analysis of ship structures. In recent years several authors have proposed simplified methods to calculate the ultimate strength of unstiffened plates. The majority of these investigations deal with plates subjected to lon...

  16. Operational test of bonded magnetocaloric plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, Christian; Navickaité, Kristina; Neves Bez, Henrique

    2017-01-01

    Bonded plates made by hot pressing La0.85Ce0.15Fe11.25Mn0.25Si1.5Hy particles and resin have been tested as active magnetic regenerators in a small scale magnetocaloric device. Firstly the plates were carefully characterised magnetically and thermally. The plates were prepared with 5 wt% resin...

  17. Moving Divertor Plates in a Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.J. Zweben, H. Zhang

    2009-02-12

    Moving divertor plates could help solve some of the problems of the tokamak divertor through mechanical ingenuity rather than plasma physics. These plates would be passively heated on each pass through the tokamak and cooled and reprocessed outside the tokamak. There are many design options using varying plate shapes, orientations, motions, coatings, and compositions.

  18. [Compression treatment for burned skin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafar, Fadhel; Lassoued, Mohamed A; Sahnoun, Mahdi; Sfar, Souad; Cheikhrouhou, Morched

    2012-02-01

    The regularity of a compressive knit is defined as its ability to perform its function in a burnt skin. This property is essential to avoid the phenomenon of rejection of the material or toxicity problems But: Make knits biocompatible with high burnet of human skin. We fabric knits of elastic material. To ensure good adhesion to the skin, we made elastic material, typically a tight loop knitted. The Length of yarn absorbed by stitch and the raw matter are changed with each sample. The physical properties of each sample are measured and compared. Surface modifications are made to these samples by impregnation of microcapsules based on jojoba oil. Knits are compressif, elastic in all directions, light, thin, comfortable, and washable for hygiene issues. In addition, the washing can find their compressive properties. The Jojoba Oil microcapsules hydrated the human burnet skin. This moisturizer is used to the firmness of the wound and it gives flexibility to the skin. Compressive Knits are biocompatible with burnet skin. The mixture of natural and synthetic fibers is irreplaceable in terms comfort and regularity.

  19. Compressibility effects on turbulent mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panickacheril John, John; Donzis, Diego

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the effect of compressibility on passive scalar mixing in isotropic turbulence with a focus on the fundamental mechanisms that are responsible for such effects using a large Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) database. The database includes simulations with Taylor Reynolds number (Rλ) up to 100, turbulent Mach number (Mt) between 0.1 and 0.6 and Schmidt number (Sc) from 0.5 to 1.0. We present several measures of mixing efficiency on different canonical flows to robustly identify compressibility effects. We found that, like shear layers, mixing is reduced as Mach number increases. However, data also reveal a non-monotonic trend with Mt. To assess directly the effect of dilatational motions we also present results with both dilatational and soleniodal forcing. Analysis suggests that a small fraction of dilatational forcing decreases mixing time at higher Mt. Scalar spectra collapse when normalized by Batchelor variables which suggests that a compressive mechanism similar to Batchelor mixing in incompressible flows might be responsible for better mixing at high Mt and with dilatational forcing compared to pure solenoidal mixing. We also present results on scalar budgets, in particular on production and dissipation. Support from NSF is gratefully acknowledged.

  20. Image compression of bone images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayrapetian, A.; Kangarloo, H.; Chan, K.K.; Ho, B.; Huang, H.K.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) experiment conducted to compare the diagnostic performance of a compressed bone image with the original. The compression was done on custom hardware that implements an algorithm based on full-frame cosine transform. The compression ratio in this study is approximately 10:1, which was decided after a pilot experiment. The image set consisted of 45 hand images, including normal images and images containing osteomalacia and osteitis fibrosa. Each image was digitized with a laser film scanner to 2,048 x 2,048 x 8 bits. Six observers, all board-certified radiologists, participated in the experiment. For each ROC session, an independent ROC curve was constructed and the area under that curve calculated. The image set was randomized for each session, as was the order for viewing the original and reconstructed images. Analysis of variance was used to analyze the data and derive statistically significant results. The preliminary results indicate that the diagnostic quality of the reconstructed image is comparable to that of the original image

  1. Locking compression plate osteosynthesis of complicated mandibular fractures in six horses

    OpenAIRE

    Kümmerle, Jan M; Kummer, Martin R; Auer, Jörg A; Nitzl, Dagmar; Fürst, Anton

    2009-01-01

    Complicated mandibular fractures were recognised in one foal, one pony and four horses. The foal was two months old while the adult animals ranged in age from 12 to 24 years. Three horses had a unilateral horizontal ramus fracture. Two fractures were open and one was closed. Comminution was present in one of these patients while lthe other two horses had marked displacement of the fragments. Two suffered from comminuted fractures of the horizontal and vertical ramus of the mandible. One of th...

  2. Compressing DNA sequence databases with coil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendy Michael D

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Publicly available DNA sequence databases such as GenBank are large, and are growing at an exponential rate. The sheer volume of data being dealt with presents serious storage and data communications problems. Currently, sequence data is usually kept in large "flat files," which are then compressed using standard Lempel-Ziv (gzip compression – an approach which rarely achieves good compression ratios. While much research has been done on compressing individual DNA sequences, surprisingly little has focused on the compression of entire databases of such sequences. In this study we introduce the sequence database compression software coil. Results We have designed and implemented a portable software package, coil, for compressing and decompressing DNA sequence databases based on the idea of edit-tree coding. coil is geared towards achieving high compression ratios at the expense of execution time and memory usage during compression – the compression time represents a "one-off investment" whose cost is quickly amortised if the resulting compressed file is transmitted many times. Decompression requires little memory and is extremely fast. We demonstrate a 5% improvement in compression ratio over state-of-the-art general-purpose compression tools for a large GenBank database file containing Expressed Sequence Tag (EST data. Finally, coil can efficiently encode incremental additions to a sequence database. Conclusion coil presents a compelling alternative to conventional compression of flat files for the storage and distribution of DNA sequence databases having a narrow distribution of sequence lengths, such as EST data. Increasing compression levels for databases having a wide distribution of sequence lengths is a direction for future work.

  3. Influence of cracks and pitting corrosion on residual ultimate strength of stiffened plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Jing

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available [Objectives] Ships and offshore platforms serve in the harsh sea environment for a long time. Cracks and pitting corrosion will occur in such a structure and the damage will affect its ultimate strength.[Methods] To investigate the influence of cracks and pitting corrosion on ultimate bearing capacity, the ultimate strength of a structure under axial compression is studied by using a nonlinear finite element. The mesh size of a stiffened plate with cracks and pitting corrosion is first discussed. Then the influence of the relative positions of cracks and pitting corrosion, number of corrosion points and crack length impact on the residual ultimate strength of damaged stiffened plates is discussed via a series of calculations.[Results] The results indicate that the increase in crack length and pitting corrosion significantly decreases the ultimate strength of a stiffened plate. [Conclusions] This provides a useful reference for designing and maintaining ships and offshore structures in their life cycles.

  4. Investigating the effect of clamping force on the fatigue life of bolted plates using volumetric approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esmaeili, F.; Chakherlou, T. N.; Zehsaz, M.; Hasanifard, S.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the effects of bolt clamping force on the fatigue life for bolted plates made from Al7075-T6 have been studied on the values of notch strength reduction factor obtained by volumetric approach. To attain stress distribution around the notch (hole) which is required for volumetric approach, nonlinear finite element simulations were carried out. To estimate the fatigue life, the available smooth S-N curve of Al7075-T6 and the notch strength reduction factor obtained from volumetric method were used. The estimated fatigue life was compared with the available experimental test results. The investigation shows that there is a good agreement between the life predicted by the volumetric approach and the experimental results for various specimens with different amount of clamping forces. Volumetric approach and experimental results showed that the fatigue life of bolted plates improves because of the compressive stresses created around the plate hole due to clamping force.

  5. Effect of component compression on the initial performance of an IPV nickel-hydrogen cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahn, Randall F.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental method was developed for evaluating the effect of component compression on the charge and discharge voltage characteristics of a 3 1/2 in. diameter boiler plate cell. A standard boiler plate pressure vessel was modified by the addition of a mechanical feedthrough on the bottom of the vessel which permitted different compressions to be applied to the components without disturbing the integrity of the stack. Compression loadings from 0.94 to 27.4 psi were applied by suspending weights from the feedthrough rod. Cell voltages were measured for 0.96-C, 55-min charge and for 1.37-C, 35-min and 2-C, 24-min discharges. An initial change in voltage performance on both charge and discharge as the loading increased was attributed to seating of the components. Subsequent variation of the compression from 2.97 to 27.4 psi caused only minor changes in either the charge or the discharge voltages. Several one month open-circuit voltage stands and 1100 cycles under LEO conditions at the maximum loading have produced no change in performance.

  6. Plate tectonics, habitability and life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spohn, Tilman; Breuer, Doris

    2016-04-01

    The role of plate tectonics in defining habitability of terrestrial planets is being increasingly discussed (e.g., Elkins-Tanton, 2015). Plate tectonics is a significantly evolved concept with a large variety of aspects. In the present context, cycling of material between near surface and mantle reservoirs is most important. But increased heat transport through mixing of cold lithosphere with the deep interior and formation of continental crust may also matter. An alternative mechanism of material cycling between these reservoirs is hot-spot volcanism combined with crust delamination. Hot-spot volcanism will transport volatiles to the atmosphere while delamination will mix crust, possibly altered by sedimentation and chemical reactions, with the mantle. The mechanism works as long as the stagnant lithosphere plate has not grown thicker than the crust and as long as volcanic material is added onto the crust. Thermal evolution studies suggest that the mechanism could work for the first 1-2 Ga of planetary evolution. The efficiency of the mechanism is limited by the ratio of extrusive to intrusive volcanism, which is thought to be less than 0.25. Plate tectonics would certainly have an advantage by working even for more evolved planets. A simple, most-used concept of habitability requires the thermodynamic stability of liquid water on the surface of a planet. Cycling of CO2between the atmosphere, oceans and interior through subduction and surface volcanism is an important element of the carbonate-silicate cycle, a thermostat feedback cycle that will keep the atmosphere from entering into a runaway greenhouse. Calculations for a model Earth lacking plate tectonics but degassing CO2, N, and H2O to form a surface ocean and a secondary atmosphere (Tosi et al, 2016) suggest that liquid water can be maintained on the surface for 4.5Ga. The model planet would then qualify as habitable. It is conceivable that the CO2 buffering capability of its ocean together with silicate

  7. Envera Variable Compression Ratio Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles Mendler

    2011-03-15

    Aggressive engine downsizing, variable compression ratio and use of the Atkinson cycle are being combined to improve fuel economy by up to 40 percent relative to port fuel injected gasoline engines, while maintaining full engine power. Approach Engine downsizing is viewed by US and foreign automobile manufacturers as one of the best options for improving fuel economy. While this strategy has already demonstrated a degree of success, downsizing and fuel economy gains are currently limited. With new variable compression ratio technology however, the degree of engine downsizing and fuel economy improvement can be greatly increased. A small variable compression ratio (VCR) engine has the potential to return significantly higher vehicle fuel economy while also providing high power. Affordability and potential for near term commercialization are key attributes of the Envera VCR engine. VCR Technology To meet torque and power requirements, a smaller engine needs to do more work per stroke. This is typically accomplished by boosting the incoming charge with either a turbo or supercharger so that more energy is present in the cylinder per stroke to do the work. With current production engines the degree of engine boosting (which correlates to downsizing) is limited by detonation (combustion knock) at high boost levels. Additionally, the turbo or supercharger needs to be responsive and efficient while providing the needed boost. VCR technology eliminates the limitation of engine knock at high load levels by reducing compression ratio to {approx}9:1 (or whatever level is appropriate) when high boost pressures are needed. By reducing the compression ratio during high load demand periods there is increased volume in the cylinder at top dead center (TDC) which allows more charge (or energy) to be present in the cylinder without increasing the peak pressure. Cylinder pressure is thus kept below the level at which the engine would begin to knock. When loads on the engine are low

  8. JPEG and wavelet compression of ophthalmic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikelboom, Robert H.; Yogesan, Kanagasingam; Constable, Ian J.; Barry, Christopher J.

    1999-05-01

    This study was designed to determine the degree and methods of digital image compression to produce ophthalmic imags of sufficient quality for transmission and diagnosis. The photographs of 15 subjects, which inclined eyes with normal, subtle and distinct pathologies, were digitized to produce 1.54MB images and compressed to five different methods: (i) objectively by calculating the RMS error between the uncompressed and compressed images, (ii) semi-subjectively by assessing the visibility of blood vessels, and (iii) subjectively by asking a number of experienced observers to assess the images for quality and clinical interpretation. Results showed that as a function of compressed image size, wavelet compressed images produced less RMS error than JPEG compressed images. Blood vessel branching could be observed to a greater extent after Wavelet compression compared to JPEG compression produced better images then a JPEG compression for a given image size. Overall, it was shown that images had to be compressed to below 2.5 percent for JPEG and 1.7 percent for Wavelet compression before fine detail was lost, or when image quality was too poor to make a reliable diagnosis.

  9. Full title: Biomechanical comparison between stainless steel, titanium and carbon-fiber reinforced polyetheretherketone volar locking plates for distal radius fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugnai, Raffaele; Tarallo, Luigi; Capra, Francesco; Catani, Fabio

    2018-05-25

    As the popularity of volar locked plate fixation for distal radius fractures has increased, so have the number and variety of implants, including variations in plate design, the size and angle of the screws, the locking screw mechanism, and the material of the plates. carbon-fiber reinforced polyetheretherketone (CFR-PEEK) plate features similar biomechanical properties to metallic plates, representing, therefore, an optimal alternative for the treatment of distal radius fractures. three different materials-composed plates were evaluated: stainless steel volar lateral column (Zimmer); titanium DVR (Hand Innovations); CFR-PEEK DiPHOS-RM (Lima Corporate). Six plates for each type were implanted in sawbones and an extra-articular rectangular osteotomy was created. Three plates for each material were tested for load to failure and bending stiffness in axial compression. Moreover, 3 constructs for each plate were evaluated after dynamically loading for 6000 cycles of fatigue. the mean bending stiffness pre-fatigue was significantly higher for the stainless steel plate. The titanium plate yielded the higher load to failure both pre and post fatigue. After cyclic loading, the bending stiffness increased by a mean of 24% for the stainless steel plate; 33% for the titanium; and 17% for the CFR-PEEK plate. The mean load to failure post-fatigue increased by a mean of 10% for the stainless steel and 14% for CFR-PEEK plates, whereas it decreased (-16%) for the titanium plate. Statistical analysis between groups reported significant values (p plastic deformation, and lower load to failure. N/A. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  10. Free vibration analysis of corroded steel plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eslami-Majd, Alireza; Rahbar-Ranji, Ahmad [AmirKabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    Vibration analysis of unstiffened/stiffened plates has long been studied due to its importance in the design and condition assessments of ship and offshore structures. Corrosion is inevitable in steel structures and has been so far considered in strength analysis of structures. We studied the free vibration of pitted corroded plates with simply supported boundary conditions. Finite element analysis, with ABAQUS, was used to determine the natural frequencies and mode shapes of corroded plates. Influential parameters including plate aspect ratio, degree of pit, one-sided/both-sided corroded plate, and different corrosion patterns were investigated. By increasing the degree of corrosion, reduction of natural frequency increases. Plate aspect ratio and plate dimensions have no influence on reduction of natural frequency. Different corrosion patterns on the surface of one-sided corroded plates have little influence on reduction of natural frequency. Ratio of pit depth over plate thickness has no influence on the reduction of natural frequency. The reduction of natural frequency in both-sided corroded plates is higher than one-sided corroded plates with the same amount of total corrosion loss. Mode shapes of vibration would change due to corrosion, except square mode shapes.

  11. Bottom nozzle for nuclear reactor fuel assembly having an adaptor plate and a coupled filtration plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdier, M.; Mortgat, R.

    1992-01-01

    The bottom nozzle includes an adaptor plate with openings to allow the passage of water and a filtration plate with small holes. The openings in the adaptor plate are symmetrical with regard to medians and diagonals. Within each zone, some of the openings are rectangular and some may be circular. The small holes in the filtration plate coincide with the rectangular openings in the adaptor plate

  12. METHOD OF MAKING AND PLATE CONNECTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patriarca, P.; Shubert, C.E.; Slaughter, G.M.

    1963-02-26

    This invention relates to a method of joining, by welding or brazing, a tube to a plate, particularly where the tube and the plate are of different thickness or have different thermal conductivities and are subject to high temperatures. In this method the tube is inserted in the core of a plate containing an annular groove in its back face concentric with the bore and in communication with the bore. One end of the tube is welded substantially flush with the front end of the plate. Brazing alloy is placed in the groove on the back face of the plate and heat is applied to the plate and tube to melt the brazing alloy to permit the alloy to flow into the bore and bond the tube to the plate. (AEC)

  13. PWR integral tie plate and locking mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flora, B.S.; Osborne, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    A locking mechanism for securing an upper tie plate to the tie rods of a nuclear fuel bundle is described. The mechanism includes an upper tie plate assembly and locking sleeves fixed to the ends of the tie rods. The tie plate is part of the upper tie plate assembly and is secured to the fuel bundle by securing the entire upper tie plate assembly to the locking sleeves fixed to the tie rods. The assembly includes, in addition to the tie plate, locking nuts for engaging the locking sleeves, retaining sleeves to operably connect the locking nuts to the assembly, a spring biased reaction plate to restrain the locking nuts in the locked position and a means to facilitate the removal of the entire assembly as a unit from the fuel bundle

  14. Plate Tectonics as a Far-From-Equilibrium Self-Organized Dissipative System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D. L.

    2001-12-01

    or the asthenosphere by hot upwellings. The study of soft matter, bubble rafts, foam, fragile systems, force bridges and jamming may give insights into the physics of plate tectonics. For example, plates might be defined as "force bridges" that carry lateral compression, but dissolve and reform if the stress system changes. In the plate tectonic problem it is not clear what, if anything, is being minimized. Is it dissipation, or toroidal energy or something else? This session should stimulate new ways of thinking about plates, plate boundaries and lithospheric rheology.

  15. Vortex Dynamics around Pitching Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-29

    electrical signals are A/D converted in an ATI NetBox interface and recorded using a Java application, and are filtered in three steps. The first is a low...the plate while staying attached to the corners of the leading edge. During this process, a second vortex loop, created by the quick angular ...is a spike in CL centered around t = 0 due to non-circulatory6 effects from the angular acceleration of the wing. The amplitude of the peak is

  16. Micro plate fission chamber development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Mei; Wen Zhongwei; Lin Jufang; Jiang Li; Liu Rong; Wang Dalun

    2014-01-01

    To conduct the measurement of neutron flux and the fission rate distribution at several position in assemblies, the micro plate fission chamber was designed and fabricated. Since the requirement of smaller volume and less structure material was taken into consideration, it is convinient, commercial and practical to use fission chamber to measure neutron flux in specific condition. In this paper, the structure of fission chamber and process of fabrication were introduced and performance test result was presented. The detection efficiency is 91.7%. (authors)

  17. Non-cyanide silver plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dini, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Technic, Inc. have entered into a CRADA (Cooperative Research and Development Agreement) with the goal of providing industry with an environmentally benign alternative to the presently used silver cyanide plating process. This project has been in place for about six months and results are quite promising. The main objective, that of deposition of deposits as thick as 125 um (5 mils), has been met. Property data such as stress and hardness have been obtained and the structure of the deposit has been analyzed via metallography and x-ray diffraction. These results will be presented in this paper, along with plans for future work

  18. Magnetic compression into Brillouin flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, R.

    1977-01-01

    The trajectories of beam edge electrons are calculated in the transition region between an electrostatic gun and an increasing magnetic field for various field shapes, transition length, and cathode fluxes, assuming that the resultant beam is of Brillouin flow type. The results give a good physical interpretation to the axial gradient of the magnetic field being responsible for the amount of magnetic compression and also for the proper injection conditions. Therefore it becomes possible to predict from the known characteristics of any fairly laminary electrostatic gun the necessary axial gradient of the magnetic field and the axial position of the gun with respect to the field build-up. (orig.) [de

  19. Antiproton compression and radial measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Andresen, G B; Bowe, P D; Bray, C C; Butler, E; Cesar, C L; Chapman, S; Charlton, M; Fajans, J; Fujiwara, M C; Funakoshi, R; Gill, D R; Hangst, J S; Hardy, W N; Hayano, R S; Hayden, M E; Humphries, A J; Hydomako, R; Jenkins, M J; Jorgensen, L V; Kurchaninov, L; Lambo, R; Madsen, N; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Page R D; Povilus, A; Pusa, P; Robicheaux, F; Sarid, E; Seif El Nasr, S; Silveira, D M; Storey, J W; Thompson, R I; Van der Werf, D P; Wurtele, J S; Yamazaki, Y

    2008-01-01

    Control of the radial profile of trapped antiproton clouds is critical to trapping antihydrogen. We report detailed measurements of the radial manipulation of antiproton clouds, including areal density compressions by factors as large as ten, achieved by manipulating spatially overlapped electron plasmas. We show detailed measurements of the near-axis antiproton radial profile, and its relation to that of the electron plasma. We also measure the outer radial profile by ejecting antiprotons to the trap wall using an octupole magnet.

  20. Capillary waves of compressible fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falk, Kerstin; Mecke, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    The interplay of thermal noise and molecular forces is responsible for surprising features of liquids on sub-micrometer lengths-in particular at interfaces. Not only does the surface tension depend on the size of an applied distortion and nanoscopic thin liquid films dewet faster than would be expected from hydrodynamics, but also the dispersion relation of capillary waves differ at the nanoscale from the familiar macroscopic behavior. Starting with the stochastic Navier-Stokes equation we study the coupling of capillary waves to acoustic surface waves which is possible in compressible fluids. We find propagating 'acoustic-capillary waves' at nanometer wavelengths where in incompressible fluids capillary waves are overdamped.