WorldWideScience

Sample records for compressed nuclear matter

  1. Compression modes and the nuclear matter incompressibility ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We review the current status of the nuclear matter ( = and no Coulomb interaction) incompressibility coefficient, , and describe the theoretical and the experimental methods used to determine from properties of compression modes in nuclei. In particular we consider the long standing problem of the conflicting ...

  2. Binding Energy and Compression Modulus of Infinite Nuclear Matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... MeV at the normal nuclear matter saturation density consistent with the best available density-dependent potentials derived from the G-matrix approach. The results of the incompressibility modulus, k∞ is in excellent agreement with the results of other workers. Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics, ...

  3. Compressed Baryonic Matter of Astrophysics

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Yanjun; Xu, Renxin

    2013-01-01

    Baryonic matter in the core of a massive and evolved star is compressed significantly to form a supra-nuclear object, and compressed baryonic matter (CBM) is then produced after supernova. The state of cold matter at a few nuclear density is pedagogically reviewed, with significant attention paid to a possible quark-cluster state conjectured from an astrophysical point of view.

  4. arXiv Isothermal compressibility of hadronic matter formed in relativistic nuclear collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Maitreyee; Chatterjee, Arghya; Chatterjee, Sandeep; Adhya, Souvik Priyam; Thakur, Sanchari; Nayak, Tapan K.

    We present the first estimates of isothermal compressibility (\\kT) of hadronic matter formed in relativistic nuclear collisions (\\sNN=7.7~GeV to 2.76~TeV) using experimentally observed quantities. \\kT~is related to the fluctuation in particle multiplicity, temperature and volume of the system formed in the collisions. Multiplicity fluctuations are obtained from the event-by-event distributions of charged particle multiplicities in narrow centrality bins. The dynamical components of the fluctuations are extracted by removing the contributions to the fluctuations from the number of participating nucleons. From the available experimental data, a constant value of \\kT~has been observed as a function of collision energy. The results are compared with calculations from UrQMD, AMPT and EPOS event generators, and estimations of \\kT~are made for Pb-Pb collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. A hadron resonance gas (HRG) model has been used to calculate \\kT~as a function of collision energy. Our results show a dec...

  5. Direct photons as a potential probe for the triangle -resonance in compressed nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, R.S.

    1994-04-01

    Pions are trapped in the compressed hadronic matter formed in relativistic heavy-ion collisions for the time periods of 15 fm/c. Such time scales are long compared to the width of the Δ-resonance and result in an enhancement of the Δ/π o γ-ratio over the free value. Simulations for the acceptance of the photon spectrometer TAPS indicate that the photon signal from the Δ-resonance might be observable. (orig.)

  6. The Compressed Baryonic Matter experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seddiki Sélim

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM experiment is a next-generation fixed-target detector which will operate at the future Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR in Darmstadt. The goal of this experiment is to explore the QCD phase diagram in the region of high net baryon densities using high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions. Its research program includes the study of the equation-of-state of nuclear matter at high baryon densities, the search for the deconfinement and chiral phase transitions and the search for the QCD critical point. The CBM detector is designed to measure both bulk observables with a large acceptance and rare diagnostic probes such as charm particles, multi-strange hyperons, and low mass vector mesons in their di-leptonic decay. The physics program of CBM will be summarized, followed by an overview of the detector concept, a selection of the expected physics performance, and the status of preparation of the experiment.

  7. The Compressed Baryonic Matter Experiment at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuser, Johann M.

    2013-01-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment will explore the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter in the region of high net baryon densities. The experiment is being laid out for nuclear collision rates from 0.1 to 10 MHz to access a unique wide spectrum of probes, including rarest particles like hadrons containing charm quarks, or multi-strange hyperons. The physics programme will be performed with ion beams of energies up to 45 GeV/nucleon. Those will be delivered by the SIS-300 synchrotron at the completed FAIR accelerator complex. Parts of the research programme can already be addressed with the SIS-100 synchrotron at the start of FAIR operation in 2018. The initial energy range of up to 11 GeV/nucleon for heavy nuclei, 14 GeV/nucleon for light nuclei, and 29 GeV for protons, allows addressing the equation of state of compressed nuclear matter, the properties of hadrons in a dense medium, the production and propagation of charm near the production threshold, and exploring the third, strange dimension of the nuclide chart. In this article we summarize the CBM physics programme, the preparation of the detector, and give an outline of the recently begun construction of the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research

  8. Thermal compression modulus of polarized neutron matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd-Alla, M.

    1990-05-01

    We applied the equation of state for pure polarized neutron matter at finite temperature, calculated previously, to calculate the compression modulus. The compression modulus of pure neutron matter at zero temperature is very large and reflects the stiffness of the equation of state. It has a little temperature dependence. Introducing the spin excess parameter in the equation of state calculations is important because it has a significant effect on the compression modulus. (author). 25 refs, 2 tabs

  9. The compressed baryonic matter experiment at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senger, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Substantial experimental and theoretical efforts worldwide are devoted to explore the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter. At top RHIC and LHC energies, the QCD phase diagram is studied at very high temperatures and very low net-baryon densities. These conditions presumably existed in the early universe about a microsecond after the big bang. For larger net-baryon densities and lower temperatures, it is expected that the QCD phase diagram exhibits a rich structure such as a critical point, a first order phase transition between hadronic and partonic matter, or new phases like quarkyonic matter. The experimental discovery of these prominent landmarks of the QCD phase diagram would be a major breakthrough in our understanding of the properties of nuclear matter. The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment will be one of the major scientific pillars of the future Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt. The goal of the CBM research program is to explore the QCD phase diagram in the region of high baryon densities using high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions. This includes the study of the equation-of-state of nuclear matter at neutron star core densities, and the search for the deconfinement and chiral phase transitions. The CBM detector is designed to measure rare diagnostic probes such as multi-strange hyperons, charmed particles and vector mesons decaying into lepton pairs with unprecedented precision and statistics. Most of these particles will be studied for the first time in the FAIR energy range. In order to achieve the required precision, the measurements will be performed at very high reaction rates of 100 kHz to 10 MHz. This requires very fast and radiation-hard detectors, and a novel data read-out and analysis concept based on free streaming front-end electronics and a high-performance computing cluster for online event selection. The layout, the physics performance, and the status of the proposed CBM experimental facility

  10. Images compression in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebelo, M.S.; Furuie, S.S.; Moura, L.

    1992-01-01

    The performance of two methods for images compression in nuclear medicine was evaluated. The LZW precise, and Cosine Transformed, approximate, methods were analyzed. The results were obtained, showing that the utilization of approximated method produced images with an agreeable quality for visual analysis and compression rates, considerably high than precise method. (C.G.C.)

  11. Shock waves in relativistic nuclear matter, I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleeson, A.M.; Raha, S.

    1979-02-01

    The relativistic Rankine-Hugoniot relations are developed for a 3-dimensional plane shock and a 3-dimensional oblique shock. Using these discontinuity relations together with various equations of state for nuclear matter, the temperatures and the compressibilities attainable by shock compression for a wide range of laboratory kinetic energy of the projectile are calculated. 12 references

  12. Nuclear matter revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negele, J.W.; Zabolitzky, J.G.

    1978-01-01

    It is stated that at the Workshop on Nuclear and Dense Matter held at the University of Illinois in May 1977 significant progress was reported that largely resolves many of the questions raised in this journal Vol. 6, p.149, 1976. These include perturbative versus variational methods as applied to nuclear matter, exact solutions for bosons, what is known as the fermion 'homework problem', and various other considerations regarding nuclear matter, including the use of variational methods as opposed to perturbation theory. (15 references) (U.K.)

  13. The Compressed Baryonic Matter Experiment at FAIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heuser J.M.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM experiment is being planned at the international research centre FAIR, under realization next to the GSI laboratory in Darmstadt, Germany. Its physics programme addresses the QCD phase diagram in the region of highest net baryon densities. Of particular interest are the expected first order phase transition from partonic to hadronic matter, ending in a critical point, and modifications of hadron properties in the dense medium as a signal of chiral symmetry restoration. Laid out as a fixed-target experiment at the synchrotrons SIS-100/SIS-300, providing magnetic bending power of 100 and 300 T/m, the CBM detector will record both proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at beam energies up to 45A GeV. Hadronic, leptonic and photonic observables have to be measured with large acceptance. The nuclear interaction rates will reach up to 10 MHz to measure extremely rare probes like charm near threshold. Two versions of the experiment are being studied, optimized for either electron-hadron or muon identification, combined with silicon detector based charged-particle tracking and micro-vertex detection. The research programme will start at SIS-100 with ion beams between 2 and 11A GeV, and protons up to energies of 29 GeV using the HADES detector and an initial configuration of the CBM experiment. The CBM physics requires the development of novel detector systems, trigger and data acquisition concepts as well as innovative real-time reconstruction techniques. Progress with feasibility studies of the experiment and the development of its detector systems are discussed.

  14. Compressed baryonic matter experiment at FAIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Eschke

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM experiment is being planned at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR, under realization next to the GSI laboratory in Darmstadt, Germany. Its physics programme addresses the QCD phase diagram in the region of highest net baryon densities. Of particular interest are the expected first order phase transition from partonic to hadronic matter, ending in a critical point, and modifcations of hadron properties in the dense medium as a signal of chiral symmetry restoration. Laid out as a fixed-target experiment at the synchrotrons SIS-100/SIS-300, providing magnetic bending power of 100 and 300 T/Fm, the CBM detector will record both proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at beam energies up to 45 AGeV. Hadronic, leptonic and photonic observables will be measured in a large acceptance. The nuclear interaction rates will reach up to 10 MHz to measure extremely rare probes like charm near threshold. This requires the development of novel detector systems, trigger and data acquisition concepts as well as in- novative real-time reconstruction techniques. A key observable of the physics program is a precise measurement of lowmass vector mesons and charmonium in their leptonic decay channel. In CBM, electrons will be identified using a gaseous RICH detector combined with several TRD detectors positioned after a system of silicon tracking stations which are located inside a magnetic dipole field. The concept of the RICH detector, results on R & D as well as feasibility studies and invariant mass distributions of charmonium will be discussed.

  15. Nuclear matter in all its states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonche, P.; Cugnon, J.; Babinet, R.; Mathiot, J.F.; Van Hove, L.; Buenerd, M.; Galin, J.; Lemaire, M.C.; Meyer, J.

    1986-01-01

    This report includes the nine lectures which have been presented at the Joliot-Curie School of Nuclear Physics in 1985. The subjects covered are the following: thermodynamic description of excited nuclei; heavy ion reactions at high energy (theoretical approach); heavy ion reactions at high energy (experimental approach); relativistic nuclear physics and quark effects in nuclei; quark matter; nuclear compressibility and its experimental determinations; hot nuclei; anti p-nucleus interaction; geant resonances at finite temperature [fr

  16. Nuclear matter theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negele, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    Recent advances in variational and perturbative theories are surveyed which offer genuine promise that nuclear matter will soon become a viable tool for investigating nuclear interactions. The basic elements of the hypernetted chain expansion for Jastrow variational functions are briefly reviewed, and comparisons of variational and perturbative results for a series of increasingly complicated systems are presented. Prospects for investigating realistic forces are assessed and the unresolved, open problems are summarized

  17. Dibaryons and nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besliu, C.; Popa, L.; Popa, V.

    1992-01-01

    We discuss some recent ideas concerning the structure and the properties of the dibaryonic resonances, with special emphasis on their behaviour when produced in dense nuclear matter. Some features of their de-excitation mechanism and consequent experimentally identifiable signatures are predicted. (Author)

  18. Nuclear transmutation by flux compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifritz, W.

    2001-01-01

    A new idea for the transmutation of minor actinides, long (and even short) lived fission products is presented. It is based an the property of neutron flux compression in nuclear (fast and/or thermal) reactors possessing spatially non-stationary critical masses. An advantage factor for the burn-up fluence of the elements to be transmuted in the order of magnitude of 100 and more is obtainable compared with the classical way of transmutation. Three typical examples of such transmuters (a subcritical ringreactor with a rotating reflector, a sub-critical ring reactor with a rotating spallation source, the socalled ''pulsed energy amplifier'', and a fast burn-wave reactor) are presented and analysed with regard to this purpose. (orig.) [de

  19. The Compressed Baryonic Matter experiment at FAIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Höhne Claudia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The CBM experiment will investigate highly compressed baryonic matter created in A+A collisions at the new FAIR research center. With a beam energy range up to 11 AGeV for the heaviest nuclei at the SIS 100 accelerator, CBM will investigate the QCD phase diagram in the intermediate range, i.e. at moderate temperatures but high net-baryon densities. This intermediate range of the QCD phase diagram is of particular interest, because a first order phase transition ending in a critical point and possibly new highdensity phases of strongly interacting matter are expected. In this range of the QCD phase diagram only exploratory measurements have been performed so far. CBM, as a next generation, high-luminosity experiment, will substantially improve our knowledge of matter created in this region of the QCD phase diagram and characterize its properties by measuring rare probes such as multi-strange hyperons, dileptons or charm, but also with event-by-event fluctuations of conserved quantities, and collective flow of identified particles. The experimental preparations with special focus on hadronic observables and strangeness is presented in terms of detector development, feasibility studies and fast track reconstruction. Preparations are progressing well such that CBM will be ready with FAIR start. As quite some detectors are ready before, they will be used as upgrades or extensions of already running experiments allowing for a rich physics program prior to FAIR start.

  20. Kaons in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolomeitsev, E.E.

    1997-02-01

    The subject of the doctoral thesis is examination of the properties of kaons in nuclear matter. A specific method is explained that has been developed for the scientific objectives of the thesis and permits description of the kaon-nucleon interactions and kaon-nucleon scattering in a vacuum. The main challenge involved was to find approaches that would enable application of the derived relations out of the kaon mass shell, connected with the second objective, namely to possibly find methods which are independent of models. The way chosen to achieve this goal relied on application of reduction formulas as well as current algebra relations and the PCAC hypothesis. (orig./CB) [de

  1. Condensed Matter Nuclear Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biberian, Jean-Paul

    2006-02-01

    1. General. A tribute to gene Mallove - the "Genie" reactor / K. Wallace and R. Stringham. An update of LENR for ICCF-11 (short course, 10/31/04) / E. Storms. New physical effects in metal deuterides / P. L. Hagelstein ... [et al.]. Reproducibility, controllability, and optimization of LENR experiments / D. J. Nagel -- 2. Experiments. Electrochemistry. Evidence of electromagnetic radiation from Ni-H systems / S. Focardi ... [et al.]. Superwave reality / I. Dardik. Excess heat in electrolysis experiments at energetics technologies / I. Dardik ... [et al.]. "Excess heat" during electrolysis in platinum/K[symbol]CO[symbol]/nickel light water system / J. Tian ... [et al.]. Innovative procedure for the, in situ, measurement of the resistive thermal coefficient of H(D)/Pd during electrolysis; cross-comparison of new elements detected in the Th-Hg-Pd-D(H) electrolytic cells / F. Celani ... [et al.]. Emergence of a high-temperature superconductivity in hydrogen cycled Pd compounds as an evidence for superstoihiometric H/D sites / A. Lipson ... [et al.]. Plasma electrolysis. Calorimetry of energy-efficient glow discharge - apparatus design and calibration / T. B. Benson and T. O. Passell. Generation of heat and products during plasma electrolysis / T. Mizuno ... [et al.]. Glow discharge. Excess heat production in Pd/D during periodic pulse discharge current in various conditions / A. B. Karabut. Beam experiments. Accelerator experiments and theoretical models for the electron screening effect in metallic environments / A. Huke, K. Czerski, and P. Heide. Evidence for a target-material dependence of the neutron-proton branching ratio in d+d reactions for deuteron energies below 20keV / A. Huke ... [et al.]. Experiments on condensed matter nuclear events in Kobe University / T. Minari ... [et al.]. Electron screening constraints for the cold fusion / K. Czerski, P. Heide, and A. Huke. Cavitation. Low mass 1.6 MHz sonofusion reactor / R. Stringham. Particle detection. Research

  2. Past and present of nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, H.G.

    1994-05-01

    The subject of nuclear matter is interesting for many fields of physics ranging from condensed matter to lattice QCD. Knowing its properties is important for our understanding of neutron stars, supernovae and cosmology. Experimentally, we have the most precise information on ground state nuclear matter from the mass formula and from the systematics of monopole vibrations. This gives us the ground state density, binding energy and the compression modulus k at ground state density. However, those methods can not be extended towards the regime we are most interested in, the regime of high density and high temperature. Additional information can be obtained from the observation of neutron stars and of supernova explosions. In both cases information is limited by the rare events that nature provides for us. High energy heavy ion collisions, on the other hand, allow us to perform controlled experiments in the laboratory. For a very short period in time we can create a system that lets us study nuclear matter properties. Density and temperature of the system depend on the mass of the colliding nuclei, on their energy and on the impact parameter. The system created in nuclear collisions has at best about 200 constituents not even close to infinite nuclear matter, and it lasts only for collision times of ∼ 10 -22 sec, not an ideal condition for establishing any kind of equilibrium. Extended size and thermal and chemical equilibrium, however, axe a priori conditions of nuclear matter. As a consequence we need realistic models that describe the collision dynamics and non-equilibrium effects in order to relate experimental observables to properties of nuclear matter. The study of high energy nuclear collisions started at the Bevalac. I will try to summarize the results from the Bevalac studies, the highlights of the continuing program, and extension to higher energies without claiming to be complete

  3. Nuclear matter and electron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sick, I [Dept. fuer Physik und Astronomie, Univ. Basel (Switzerland)

    1998-06-01

    We show that inclusive electron scattering at large momentum transfer allows a measurement of short-range properties of nuclear matter. This provides a very valuable constraint in selecting the calculations appropriate for predicting nuclear matter properties at the densities of astrophysical interest. (orig.)

  4. Chiral thermodynamics of nuclear matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiorilla, Salvatore

    2012-10-23

    The equation of state of nuclear matter is calculated at finite temperature in the framework of in-medium chiral perturbation theory up to three-loop order. The dependence of its thermodynamic properties on the isospin-asymmetry is investigated. The chiral quark condensate is evaluated for symmetric nuclear matter. Its behaviour as a function of density and temperature sets important nuclear physics constraints for the QCD phase diagram.

  5. Chiral thermodynamics of nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorilla, Salvatore

    2012-01-01

    The equation of state of nuclear matter is calculated at finite temperature in the framework of in-medium chiral perturbation theory up to three-loop order. The dependence of its thermodynamic properties on the isospin-asymmetry is investigated. The chiral quark condensate is evaluated for symmetric nuclear matter. Its behaviour as a function of density and temperature sets important nuclear physics constraints for the QCD phase diagram.

  6. Nuclear matter and its equation of state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stock, R.

    1985-11-01

    We can estimate the nuclear bulk compressibility from the excitation energy of the monopole vibration mode, which represents a density oscillation about rho 0 , of extremely small magnitude (a few percent) only. A description of the monopole excitation energy systematics has been obtained by assuming a parabolic shape about rho 0 for the energy-density relation of cold nuclear matter. This implies a linear pressure response to small density changes inside nuclear matter. It enables one to define a nuclear 'sound' mode and the sound velocity turns out to be vsub(s)proportional0.2 c. All of this could be known only for small excursions from rho 0 as long as we were unable to subject nuclei to extreme stresses. The study of head-on collisions of heavy nuclei at high energy has removed this limitation. In these reactions we are reproducing under laboratory conditions the extremely violent transformations of matter occuring in the cosmic and stellar evolution. From the quark-gluon stage of the Big Bang, prior to hadronic freeze-out, to the supernova these cosmic events require an understanding of matter bulk properties over an enormous range of density, from about 10 times rho 0 down to about 10 -3 rho 0 . We will approach them through the compression-expansion-freeze-out cycle of central nucleus-nucleus collisions in the energy range from 50 MeV per projectile nucleon, corresponding to the compression barrier, upwards to 225 GeV/A (the top energy of the CERN SPS), and further into the TeV/A range by observation of events induced by cosmic ray nuclei. In this article I describe some of the results recently obtained at the BEVALAC, i.e. in the GeV/A domain. (orig./HSI)

  7. Phase transitions in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glendenning, N.K.

    1984-11-01

    The rather general circumstances under which a phase transition in hadronic matter at finite temperature to an abnormal phase in which baryon effective masses become small and in which copious baryon-antibaryon pairs appear is emphasized. A preview is also given of a soliton model of dense matter, in which at a density of about seven times nuclear density, matter ceases to be a color insulator and becomes increasingly color conducting. 22 references

  8. Probing nuclear matter with dileptons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, L.S.

    1986-06-01

    Dileptons are shown to be of interest in helping probe extreme conditions of temperature and density in nuclear matter. The current state of experimental knowledge about dileptons is briefly described, and their use in upcoming experiments with light ions at CERN SPS are reviewed, including possible signatures of quark matter formation. Use of dileptons in an upcoming experiment with a new spectrometer at Berkeley is also discussed. This experiment will probe the nuclear matter equation of state at high temperature and density. 16 refs., 8 figs

  9. Challenges in QCD matter physics -The scientific programme of the Compressed Baryonic Matter experiment at FAIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablyazimov, T.; Abuhoza, A.; Adak, R. P.; Adamczyk, M.; Agarwal, K.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmad, F.; Ahmad, N.; Ahmad, S.; Akindinov, A.; Akishin, P.; Akishina, E.; Akishina, T.; Akishina, V.; Akram, A.; Al-Turany, M.; Alekseev, I.; Alexandrov, E.; Alexandrov, I.; Amar-Youcef, S.; Anđelić, M.; Andreeva, O.; Andrei, C.; Andronic, A.; Anisimov, Yu.; Appelshäuser, H.; Argintaru, D.; Atkin, E.; Avdeev, S.; Averbeck, R.; Azmi, M. D.; Baban, V.; Bach, M.; Badura, E.; Bähr, S.; Balog, T.; Balzer, M.; Bao, E.; Baranova, N.; Barczyk, T.; Bartoş, D.; Bashir, S.; Baszczyk, M.; Batenkov, O.; Baublis, V.; Baznat, M.; Becker, J.; Becker, K.-H.; Belogurov, S.; Belyakov, D.; Bendarouach, J.; Berceanu, I.; Bercuci, A.; Berdnikov, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Berendes, R.; Berezin, G.; Bergmann, C.; Bertini, D.; Bertini, O.; Beşliu, C.; Bezshyyko, O.; Bhaduri, P. P.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattacharjee, B.; Bhattacharyya, A.; Bhattacharyya, T. K.; Biswas, S.; Blank, T.; Blau, D.; Blinov, V.; Blume, C.; Bocharov, Yu.; Book, J.; Breitner, T.; Brüning, U.; Brzychczyk, J.; Bubak, A.; Büsching, H.; Bus, T.; Butuzov, V.; Bychkov, A.; Byszuk, A.; Cai, Xu; Cãlin, M.; Cao, Ping; Caragheorgheopol, G.; Carević, I.; Cătănescu, V.; Chakrabarti, A.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chaus, A.; Chen, Hongfang; Chen, LuYao; Cheng, Jianping; Chepurnov, V.; Cherif, H.; Chernogorov, A.; Ciobanu, M. I.; Claus, G.; Constantin, F.; Csanád, M.; D'Ascenzo, N.; Das, Supriya; Das, Susovan; de Cuveland, J.; Debnath, B.; Dementiev, D.; Deng, Wendi; Deng, Zhi; Deppe, H.; Deppner, I.; Derenovskaya, O.; Deveaux, C. A.; Deveaux, M.; Dey, K.; Dey, M.; Dillenseger, P.; Dobyrn, V.; Doering, D.; Dong, Sheng; Dorokhov, A.; Dreschmann, M.; Drozd, A.; Dubey, A. K.; Dubnichka, S.; Dubnichkova, Z.; Dürr, M.; Dutka, L.; Dželalija, M.; Elsha, V. V.; Emschermann, D.; Engel, H.; Eremin, V.; Eşanu, T.; Eschke, J.; Eschweiler, D.; Fan, Huanhuan; Fan, Xingming; Farooq, M.; Fateev, O.; Feng, Shengqin; Figuli, S. P. D.; Filozova, I.; Finogeev, D.; Fischer, P.; Flemming, H.; Förtsch, J.; Frankenfeld, U.; Friese, V.; Friske, E.; Fröhlich, I.; Frühauf, J.; Gajda, J.; Galatyuk, T.; Gangopadhyay, G.; García Chávez, C.; Gebelein, J.; Ghosh, P.; Ghosh, S. K.; Gläßel, S.; Goffe, M.; Golinka-Bezshyyko, L.; Golovatyuk, V.; Golovnya, S.; Golovtsov, V.; Golubeva, M.; Golubkov, D.; Gómez Ramírez, A.; Gorbunov, S.; Gorokhov, S.; Gottschalk, D.; Gryboś, P.; Grzeszczuk, A.; Guber, F.; Gudima, K.; Gumiński, M.; Gupta, A.; Gusakov, Yu.; Han, Dong; Hartmann, H.; He, Shue; Hehner, J.; Heine, N.; Herghelegiu, A.; Herrmann, N.; Heß, B.; Heuser, J. M.; Himmi, A.; Höhne, C.; Holzmann, R.; Hu, Dongdong; Huang, Guangming; Huang, Xinjie; Hutter, D.; Ierusalimov, A.; Ilgenfritz, E.-M.; Irfan, M.; Ivanischev, D.; Ivanov, M.; Ivanov, P.; Ivanov, Valery; Ivanov, Victor; Ivanov, Vladimir; Ivashkin, A.; Jaaskelainen, K.; Jahan, H.; Jain, V.; Jakovlev, V.; Janson, T.; Jiang, Di; Jipa, A.; Kadenko, I.; Kähler, P.; Kämpfer, B.; Kalinin, V.; Kallunkathariyil, J.; Kampert, K.-H.; Kaptur, E.; Karabowicz, R.; Karavichev, O.; Karavicheva, T.; Karmanov, D.; Karnaukhov, V.; Karpechev, E.; Kasiński, K.; Kasprowicz, G.; Kaur, M.; Kazantsev, A.; Kebschull, U.; Kekelidze, G.; Khan, M. M.; Khan, S. A.; Khanzadeev, A.; Khasanov, F.; Khvorostukhin, A.; Kirakosyan, V.; Kirejczyk, M.; Kiryakov, A.; Kiš, M.; Kisel, I.; Kisel, P.; Kiselev, S.; Kiss, T.; Klaus, P.; Kłeczek, R.; Klein-Bösing, Ch.; Kleipa, V.; Klochkov, V.; Kmon, P.; Koch, K.; Kochenda, L.; Koczoń, P.; Koenig, W.; Kohn, M.; Kolb, B. W.; Kolosova, A.; Komkov, B.; Korolev, M.; Korolko, I.; Kotte, R.; Kovalchuk, A.; Kowalski, S.; Koziel, M.; Kozlov, G.; Kozlov, V.; Kramarenko, V.; Kravtsov, P.; Krebs, E.; Kreidl, C.; Kres, I.; Kresan, D.; Kretschmar, G.; Krieger, M.; Kryanev, A. V.; Kryshen, E.; Kuc, M.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucher, V.; Kudin, L.; Kugler, A.; Kumar, Ajit; Kumar, Ashwini; Kumar, L.; Kunkel, J.; Kurepin, A.; Kurepin, N.; Kurilkin, A.; Kurilkin, P.; Kushpil, V.; Kuznetsov, S.; Kyva, V.; Ladygin, V.; Lara, C.; Larionov, P.; Laso García, A.; Lavrik, E.; Lazanu, I.; Lebedev, A.; Lebedev, S.; Lebedeva, E.; Lehnert, J.; Lehrbach, J.; Leifels, Y.; Lemke, F.; Li, Cheng; Li, Qiyan; Li, Xin; Li, Yuanjing; Lindenstruth, V.; Linnik, B.; Liu, Feng; Lobanov, I.; Lobanova, E.; Löchner, S.; Loizeau, P.-A.; Lone, S. A.; Lucio Martínez, J. A.; Luo, Xiaofeng; Lymanets, A.; Lyu, Pengfei; Maevskaya, A.; Mahajan, S.; Mahapatra, D. P.; Mahmoud, T.; Maj, P.; Majka, Z.; Malakhov, A.; Malankin, E.; Malkevich, D.; Malyatina, O.; Malygina, H.; Mandal, M. M.; Mandal, S.; Manko, V.; Manz, S.; Marin Garcia, A. M.; Markert, J.; Masciocchi, S.; Matulewicz, T.; Meder, L.; Merkin, M.; Mialkovski, V.; Michel, J.; Miftakhov, N.; Mik, L.; Mikhailov, K.; Mikhaylov, V.; Milanović, B.; Militsija, V.; Miskowiec, D.; Momot, I.; Morhardt, T.; Morozov, S.; Müller, W. F. J.; Müntz, C.; Mukherjee, S.; Muñoz Castillo, C. E.; Murin, Yu.; Najman, R.; Nandi, C.; Nandy, E.; Naumann, L.; Nayak, T.; Nedosekin, A.; Negi, V. S.; Niebur, W.; Nikulin, V.; Normanov, D.; Oancea, A.; Oh, Kunsu; Onishchuk, Yu.; Ososkov, G.; Otfinowski, P.; Ovcharenko, E.; Pal, S.; Panasenko, I.; Panda, N. R.; Parzhitskiy, S.; Patel, V.; Pauly, C.; Penschuck, M.; Peshekhonov, D.; Peshekhonov, V.; Petráček, V.; Petri, M.; Petriş, M.; Petrovici, A.; Petrovici, M.; Petrovskiy, A.; Petukhov, O.; Pfeifer, D.; Piasecki, K.; Pieper, J.; Pietraszko, J.; Płaneta, R.; Plotnikov, V.; Plujko, V.; Pluta, J.; Pop, A.; Pospisil, V.; Poźniak, K.; Prakash, A.; Prasad, S. K.; Prokudin, M.; Pshenichnov, I.; Pugach, M.; Pugatch, V.; Querchfeld, S.; Rabtsun, S.; Radulescu, L.; Raha, S.; Rami, F.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Raportirenko, A.; Rautenberg, J.; Rauza, J.; Ray, R.; Razin, S.; Reichelt, P.; Reinecke, S.; Reinefeld, A.; Reshetin, A.; Ristea, C.; Ristea, O.; Rodriguez Rodriguez, A.; Roether, F.; Romaniuk, R.; Rost, A.; Rostchin, E.; Rostovtseva, I.; Roy, Amitava; Roy, Ankhi; Rożynek, J.; Ryabov, Yu.; Sadovsky, A.; Sahoo, R.; Sahu, P. K.; Sahu, S. K.; Saini, J.; Samanta, S.; Sambyal, S. S.; Samsonov, V.; Sánchez Rosado, J.; Sander, O.; Sarangi, S.; Satława, T.; Sau, S.; Saveliev, V.; Schatral, S.; Schiaua, C.; Schintke, F.; Schmidt, C. J.; Schmidt, H. R.; Schmidt, K.; Scholten, J.; Schweda, K.; Seck, F.; Seddiki, S.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Semennikov, A.; Senger, A.; Senger, P.; Shabanov, A.; Shabunov, A.; Shao, Ming; Sheremetiev, A. D.; Shi, Shusu; Shumeiko, N.; Shumikhin, V.; Sibiryak, I.; Sikora, B.; Simakov, A.; Simon, C.; Simons, C.; Singaraju, R. N.; Singh, A. K.; Singh, B. K.; Singh, C. P.; Singhal, V.; Singla, M.; Sitzmann, P.; Siwek-Wilczyńska, K.; Škoda, L.; Skwira-Chalot, I.; Som, I.; Song, Guofeng; Song, Jihye; Sosin, Z.; Soyk, D.; Staszel, P.; Strikhanov, M.; Strohauer, S.; Stroth, J.; Sturm, C.; Sultanov, R.; Sun, Yongjie; Svirida, D.; Svoboda, O.; Szabó, A.; Szczygieł, R.; Talukdar, R.; Tang, Zebo; Tanha, M.; Tarasiuk, J.; Tarassenkova, O.; Târzilă, M.-G.; Teklishyn, M.; Tischler, T.; Tlustý, P.; Tölyhi, T.; Toia, A.; Topil'skaya, N.; Träger, M.; Tripathy, S.; Tsakov, I.; Tsyupa, Yu.; Turowiecki, A.; Tuturas, N. G.; Uhlig, F.; Usenko, E.; Valin, I.; Varga, D.; Vassiliev, I.; Vasylyev, O.; Verbitskaya, E.; Verhoeven, W.; Veshikov, A.; Visinka, R.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Volkov, S.; Volochniuk, A.; Vorobiev, A.; Voronin, Aleksey; Voronin, Alexander; Vovchenko, V.; Vznuzdaev, M.; Wang, Dong; Wang, Xi-Wei; Wang, Yaping; Wang, Yi; Weber, M.; Wendisch, C.; Wessels, J. P.; Wiebusch, M.; Wiechula, J.; Wielanek, D.; Wieloch, A.; Wilms, A.; Winckler, N.; Winter, M.; Wiśniewski, K.; Wolf, Gy.; Won, Sanguk; Wu, Ke-Jun; Wüstenfeld, J.; Xiang, Changzhou; Xu, Nu; Yang, Junfeng; Yang, Rongxing; Yin, Zhongbao; Yoo, In-Kwon; Yuldashev, B.; Yushmanov, I.; Zabołotny, W.; Zaitsev, Yu.; Zamiatin, N. I.; Zanevsky, Yu.; Zhalov, M.; Zhang, Yifei; Zhang, Yu; Zhao, Lei; Zheng, Jiajun; Zheng, Sheng; Zhou, Daicui; Zhou, Jing; Zhu, Xianglei; Zinchenko, A.; Zipper, W.; Żoładź, M.; Zrelov, P.; Zryuev, V.; Zumbruch, P.; Zyzak, M.

    2017-03-01

    Substantial experimental and theoretical efforts worldwide are devoted to explore the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter. At LHC and top RHIC energies, QCD matter is studied at very high temperatures and nearly vanishing net-baryon densities. There is evidence that a Quark-Gluon-Plasma (QGP) was created at experiments at RHIC and LHC. The transition from the QGP back to the hadron gas is found to be a smooth cross over. For larger net-baryon densities and lower temperatures, it is expected that the QCD phase diagram exhibits a rich structure, such as a first-order phase transition between hadronic and partonic matter which terminates in a critical point, or exotic phases like quarkyonic matter. The discovery of these landmarks would be a breakthrough in our understanding of the strong interaction and is therefore in the focus of various high-energy heavy-ion research programs. The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at FAIR will play a unique role in the exploration of the QCD phase diagram in the region of high net-baryon densities, because it is designed to run at unprecedented interaction rates. High-rate operation is the key prerequisite for high-precision measurements of multi-differential observables and of rare diagnostic probes which are sensitive to the dense phase of the nuclear fireball. The goal of the CBM experiment at SIS100 (√{s_{NN}}= 2.7-4.9 GeV) is to discover fundamental properties of QCD matter: the phase structure at large baryon-chemical potentials ( μ_B > 500 MeV), effects of chiral symmetry, and the equation of state at high density as it is expected to occur in the core of neutron stars. In this article, we review the motivation for and the physics programme of CBM, including activities before the start of data taking in 2024, in the context of the worldwide efforts to explore high-density QCD matter.

  10. Spectral properties of nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozek, P

    2006-01-01

    We review self-consistent spectral methods for nuclear matter calculations. The in-medium T-matrix approach is conserving and thermodynamically consistent. It gives both the global and the single-particle properties the system. The T-matrix approximation allows to address the pairing phenomenon in cold nuclear matter. A generalization of nuclear matter calculations to the super.uid phase is discussed and numerical results are presented for this case. The linear response of a correlated system going beyond the Hartree-Fock+ Random-Phase-Approximation (RPA) scheme is studied. The polarization is obtained by solving a consistent Bethe-Salpeter (BS) equation for the coupling of dressed nucleons to an external field. We find that multipair contributions are important for the spin(isospin) response when the interaction is spin(isospin) dependent

  11. Extreme states in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafelski, J.; Frankfurt Univ.

    1981-01-01

    Theory of hot nuclear fireballs consisting of all possible finite size hadronic constituents in chemical and thermal equilibrium is presented. As a complement of this hadronic gas phase characterized by maximal temperature and energy density, the quark bag description of the hadronic fireball is considered. Preliminary calculations of temperatures and mean transverse momenta of particles emitted in high multiplicity relativistic nuclear collisions together with some considereations on the observability of quark matter are offered. (orig.)

  12. Kaons in nuclear matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiselberg, H [NORDITA, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    1998-06-01

    The kaon energy in a nuclear medium and its dependence on kaon-nucleon and nucleon-nucleon correlations is discussed. The transition from the Lenz potential at low densities to the Hartree potential at high densities can be calculated analytically by making a Wigner-Seitz cell approximation and employing a square well potential. As the Hartree potential is less attractive than the Lenz one, kaon condensation inside cores of neutron stars appears to be less likely than previously estimated. (orig.)

  13. Instability in relativistic nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tezuka, Hirokazu.

    1979-11-01

    The stability of the Fermi gas state in the nuclear matter which satisfies the saturation property is considered relativistically. It is shown that the Fermi gas state is stable at very low density and at high density, but it is unstable for density fluctuation in the intermediate density region including the normal density. (author)

  14. Incompressibility of asymmetric nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Liewen; Cai, Baojun; Shen, Chun; Ko, Cheming; Xu, Jun; Li, Baoan

    2010-01-01

    Using an isospin- and momentum-dependent modified Gogny (MDI) interaction, the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock (SHF) approach, and a phenomenological modified Skyrme-like (MSL) model, we have studied the incompressibility K sat (δ) of isospin asymmetric nuclear matter at its saturation density. Our results show that in the expansion of K sat (δ) in powers of isospin asymmetry δ, i.e., K sat (δ) = K 0 + K sat,2 δ 2 + K sat,4 δ 4 + O(δ 6 ), the magnitude of the 4th-order K sat,4 parameter is generally small. The 2nd-order K sat,2 parameter thus essentially characterizes the isospin dependence of the incompressibility of asymmetric nuclear matter at saturation density. Furthermore, the K sat,2 can be expressed as K sat,2 = K sym – 6L – J 0 /K 0 L in terms of the slope parameter L and the curvature parameter K sym of the symmetry energy and the third-order derivative parameter J 0 of the energy of symmetric nuclear matter at saturation density, and we find the higher order J 0 contribution to K sat,2 generally cannot be neglected. Also, we have found a linear correlation between K sym and L as well as between J 0 /K 0 and K 0 . Using these correlations together with the empirical constraints on K 0 and L, the nuclear symmetry energy E sym (ρ0) at normal nuclear density, and the nucleon effective mass, we have obtained an estimated value of K sat,2 = -370 ± 120 MeV for the 2nd-order parameter in the isospin asymmetry expansion of the incompressibility of asymmetric nuclear matter at its saturation density. (author)

  15. Thermodynamics of neutron-rich nuclear matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López, Jorge A., E-mail: jorgelopez@utep.edu [Department of Physics, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas 79968, U.S.A (United States); Porras, Sergio Terrazas, E-mail: sterraza@uacj.mx; Gutiérrez, Araceli Rodríguez, E-mail: al104010@alumnos.uacj.mx [Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez, Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, México (Mexico)

    2016-07-07

    This manuscript presents methods to obtain properties of neutron-rich nuclear matter from classical molecular dynamics. Some of these are bulk properties of infinite nuclear matter, phase information, the Maxwell construction, spinodal lines and symmetry energy.

  16. The determination of nuclear matter temperature and density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, K.L.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review some of the things we have learned about nuclear matter under extreme conditions during the past few years in relativistic heavy ion studies. High energy heavy-ion collisions provide a unique mechanism for exploring the dependence of the nuclear potential energy epsilon(rho,T) on the degree of compression and excitation, and may even show the existence of new phases of matter. Thus the determination of the nuclear equation of state remains the ultimate goal of many researchers in this field. (orig.)

  17. Meson theory and nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skyrme, T.H.R.

    1994-01-01

    An attempt is made to justify the use of the concept of a 'mesic fluid' in connection with the structure of nuclear matter. A transformation is made of the usual symmetric pseudo-scalar meson theory to bring into evidence certain saturation properties, which provide a natural basis for the use of a 'self-consistent' field in the discussion of nuclear structure. Fluctuations about this semi-classical saturated state will give rise to residual interparticle forces within the nucleus, and are also briefly considered in relation to electromagnetic interactions. (author). 5 refs

  18. Challenges in QCD matter physics. The scientific programme of the Compressed Baryonic Matter experiment at FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ablyazimov, T. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR-LIT), Dubna (Russian Federation). Lab. of Information Technologies; Abuhoza, A. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH (GSI), Darmstadt (Germany); Adak, R.P. [Bose Institute, Kolkata (India). Dept. of Physics; and others

    2017-03-15

    Substantial experimental and theoretical efforts worldwide are devoted to explore the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter. At LHC and top RHIC energies, QCD matter is studied at very high temperatures and nearly vanishing net-baryon densities. There is evidence that a Quark-Gluon-Plasma (QGP) was created at experiments at RHIC and LHC. The transition from the QGP back to the hadron gas is found to be a smooth cross over. For larger net-baryon densities and lower temperatures, it is expected that the QCD phase diagram exhibits a rich structure, such as a first-order phase transition between hadronic and partonic matter which terminates in a critical point, or exotic phases like quarkyonic matter. The discovery of these landmarks would be a breakthrough in our understanding of the strong interaction and is therefore in the focus of various high-energy heavy-ion research programs. The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at FAIR will play a unique role in the exploration of the QCD phase diagram in the region of high net-baryon densities, because it is designed to run at unprecedented interaction rates. High-rate operation is the key prerequisite for high-precision measurements of multi-differential observables and of rare diagnostic probes which are sensitive to the dense phase of the nuclear fireball. The goal of the CBM experiment at SIS100 (√(s{sub NN}) = 2.7-4.9 GeV) is to discover fundamental properties of QCD matter: the phase structure at large baryon-chemical potentials (μ{sub B} > 500 MeV), effects of chiral symmetry, and the equation of state at high density as it is expected to occur in the core of neutron stars. In this article, we review the motivation for and the physics programme of CBM, including activities before the start of data taking in 2024, in the context of the worldwide efforts to explore high-density QCD matter. (orig.)

  19. Challenges in QCD matter physics. The scientific programme of the Compressed Baryonic Matter experiment at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ablyazimov, T.; Adak, R.P.

    2017-01-01

    Substantial experimental and theoretical efforts worldwide are devoted to explore the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter. At LHC and top RHIC energies, QCD matter is studied at very high temperatures and nearly vanishing net-baryon densities. There is evidence that a Quark-Gluon-Plasma (QGP) was created at experiments at RHIC and LHC. The transition from the QGP back to the hadron gas is found to be a smooth cross over. For larger net-baryon densities and lower temperatures, it is expected that the QCD phase diagram exhibits a rich structure, such as a first-order phase transition between hadronic and partonic matter which terminates in a critical point, or exotic phases like quarkyonic matter. The discovery of these landmarks would be a breakthrough in our understanding of the strong interaction and is therefore in the focus of various high-energy heavy-ion research programs. The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at FAIR will play a unique role in the exploration of the QCD phase diagram in the region of high net-baryon densities, because it is designed to run at unprecedented interaction rates. High-rate operation is the key prerequisite for high-precision measurements of multi-differential observables and of rare diagnostic probes which are sensitive to the dense phase of the nuclear fireball. The goal of the CBM experiment at SIS100 (√(s_N_N) = 2.7-4.9 GeV) is to discover fundamental properties of QCD matter: the phase structure at large baryon-chemical potentials (μ_B > 500 MeV), effects of chiral symmetry, and the equation of state at high density as it is expected to occur in the core of neutron stars. In this article, we review the motivation for and the physics programme of CBM, including activities before the start of data taking in 2024, in the context of the worldwide efforts to explore high-density QCD matter. (orig.)

  20. Nuclear matter physics at NICA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senger, P. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    The exploration of the QCD phase diagram is one of the most exciting and challenging projects of modern nuclear physics. In particular, the investigation of nuclear matter at high baryon densities offers the opportunity to find characteristic structures such as a first-order phase transition with a region of phase coexistence and a critical endpoint. The experimental discovery of these prominent landmarks of the QCD phase diagram would be a major breakthrough in our understanding of the properties of nuclear matter. Equally important is the quantitative experimental information on the properties of hadrons in dense matter which may shed light on chiral symmetry restoration and the origin of hadron masses. Worldwide, substantial efforts at the major heavy-ion accelerators are devoted to the clarification of these fundamental questions, and new dedicated experiments are planned at future facilities like CBM at FAIR in Darmstadt and MPD at NICA/JINR in Dubna. In this article the perspectives for MPD at NICA will be discussed. (orig.)

  1. Nuclear compression effects on pion production in nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, M.; Gyulassy, M.; Wakai, M.; Kitazoe, Y.

    1985-01-01

    We show that the method of analyzing the pion excitation function proposed by Stock et al. may determine only a part of the nuclear matter equation of state. With the addition of missing kinetic energy terms the implied high density nuclear equation of state would be much stiffer than expected from conventional theory. A stiff equation of state would also follow if shock dynamics with early chemical freeze out were valid. (orig.)

  2. Strangeness in hot and dense nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nappi, E.

    2009-01-01

    Ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions are believed to provide the extreme conditions of energy densities able to lead to a transition to a short-lived state, called Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP), where the quarks are no longer bound inside hadrons. The studies performed so far, formerly at SPS (CERN) and later at RHIC (BNL) allowed to achieve a multitude of crucial results consistent with the hypothesis that a new phase of the QCD matter has been indeed created. However, the emerging picture is that of the formation of a strongly interacting medium with negligibly small viscosity, a perfect liquid, rather than the ideal perturbative QCD parton-gas predicted by most theorists. The head-on collision between lead nuclei at the unprecedented energies of the forthcoming Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, due to start in 2008, will allow to measure the properties of compressed and excited nuclear matter at even higher initial densities and temperatures, far above the predicted QCD phase transition point. The longer duration of the quark-gluon plasma phase and the much more abundant production of hard probes, which depend much less on details of the later hadronic phase, will likely provide a consistent and uncontroversial experimental evidence of the QGP formation. Among the signals what witness the charge in the nature of the state of nuclear matter, the chemical equilibrium value of the strangeness plays a key role since it is directly sensitive to the matter properties and provides information on the link between the partonic and the hadronic phases. The aim of this course is to overview the underlying goals, the current status and the prospect of the physics of the nucleus-nucleus collisions at ultrarelativistic energies. Among the experimental methods adopted to investigate the challenging signatures of the QGP formation, emphasis on those related to the strangeness flavour will be given.

  3. D mesons in asymmetric nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Amruta; Mazumdar, Arindam

    2009-01-01

    We calculate the in-medium D and D meson masses in isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter in an effective chiral model. The D and D mass modifications arising from their interactions with the nucleons and the scalar mesons in the effective hadronic model are seen to be appreciable at high densities and have a strong isospin dependence. These mass modifications can open the channels of the decay of the charmonium states (Ψ ' ,χ c ,J/Ψ) to DD pairs in dense hadronic matter. The isospin asymmetry in the doublet D=(D 0 ,D + ) is seen to be particularly appreciable at high densities and should show in observables such as their production and flow in asymmetric heavy-ion collisions in the compressed baryonic matter experiments in the future facility of FAIR, GSI. The results of the present work are compared to calculations of the D(D) in-medium masses in the literature using the QCD sum rule approach, quark meson coupling model, and coupled channel approach as well as to those from studies of quarkonium dissociation using heavy-quark potentials from lattice QCD at finite temperatures

  4. Quasiparticle interaction in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poggioli, R.S.; Jackson, A.D.

    1975-07-01

    A microscopic calculation of the quasiparticle interaction in nuclear matter is detailed. In order to take especial care of the contributions from the low momentum states, a model space is introduced. Excluded from the model space, the high momentum states are absorbed into the model interaction. Brueckner theory suggests the choice of a truncated G-matrix as a good approximation for this model interaction. A simple perturbative approach is attempted within the model space. The calculated quasiparticle interaction is consistent with experimental results. (11 tables, 14 figures)

  5. Quantum hadrodynamic and nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serot, B.D.

    1984-01-01

    The properties of infinite nuclear matter are studied in the model relativistic quantum field theory of Walecka. Neutral scalar and vector meson exchange reproduces the basic Lorentz structure of the observed nucleon-nucleon interaction, and the consequences of this structure are studied in detail. In the mean-field approximation, nuclear saturation involves a cancellation between large attractive and repulsive components in the average potential energy. The attractive scalar field decreases the nucleon mass significantly, and the strong vector repulsion implies a stiff high-density equation of state. Corrections to the mean-field approach arising from vacuum fluctuations, self-consistent nucleon exchange, and two-nucleon correlations are examined. These have a small effect on the condensed meson fields but may produce significant changes in the binding energy. Corrections to the mean-field equation of state are small at high density

  6. Phase transition from nuclear matter to color superconducting quark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentz, W. E-mail: bentz@keyaki.cc.u-tokai.ac.jp; Horikawa, T.; Ishii, N.; Thomas, A.W

    2003-06-02

    We construct the nuclear and quark matter equations of state at zero temperature in an effective quark theory (the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model), and discuss the phase transition between them. The nuclear matter equation of state is based on the quark-diquark description of the single nucleon, while the quark matter equation of state includes the effects of scalar diquark condensation (color superconductivity). The effect of diquark condensation on the phase transition is discussed in detail.

  7. Nuclear interactions and hadronic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovici, Mihai; Pop, Amalia; Stoicea, Gabriel; Berceanu, Ionela; Moisa, Dorin; Petris, Mariana; Simion, Victor; Aiftimiei, Cristina; Cruceru, Ilie; Ciobanu, Mircea; Catanescu, Vasile; Caragheorgheopol; Gheorghe

    2002-01-01

    The new generation of heavy ion accelerators and complex experimental devices, developed in the last two decades, give access to new information concerning the dynamics of nuclear collisions and allow to obtain and study in the laboratory the nuclear matter under extreme conditions of density and temperature. Of special interest is the intermediate energy region where the reactions are dominated by the competition between the mean field and nucleon-nucleon interaction. Fundamental aspects of nuclear reaction studies are probed at different instants of a nuclear collision. One can learn about the transport properties of nuclear matter in pure nucleonic regime and understand the modification of the nucleon-nucleon cross section due to various in-medium effects: density effects, effective mass, quantum effects, three-body interactions. With increasing energy, fast particle emission associated with direct nucleon-nucleon collisions in the first steps of the reaction come into play too. At higher energy, flow measurements are crucial tests of the influence of medium effects by probing the elastic part of the nucleon-nucleon collisions. On the other side, at higher incident energies, the characteristics of the nuclear equation of state (EoS) can be studied if local thermal and chemical equilibrium turns out to be established. Understanding of the properties of the nuclear matter in extreme conditions is a fundamental goal. The EoS is also an essential ingredient in the description of the massive stars leading to supernova explosion and neutron star formation. Experimental studies of such aspects needs experimental devices of high complexity which can detect and identify event by event all products coming out from heavy ion interactions at intermediate, relativistic and ultra-relativistic energies, having as complete as possible information on their mass, charge, velocity vector. CHIMERA and FOPI are such devices for intermediate and relativistic energy, respectively. Our

  8. Nuclear matter as an MIT bag crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Q.; Derreth, C.; Schaefer, A.; Greiner, W.

    1986-01-01

    An MIT bag crystal model of nuclear matter is formulated. The energy bands of the quarks are calculated as a function of the overlap between adjacent bags. A clear indication of substantial overlap is found. Accordingly, infinite nuclear matter is more similar to a quark gas than to a nucleonic structure. (author)

  9. Quasiparticle pole strength in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poggioli, R.S.; Jackson, A.D.

    1975-01-01

    It is argued that single-particle-like behavior in nuclear matter is much less probable than Brueckner theory suggests. In particular, the quasiparticle pole strength is evaluated for nuclear matter and it is shown that, contrary to the spirit of Brueckner theory, low momentum states play a crucial role in determining the magnitude of z/sub k/sub F/. (auth)

  10. Structure of the subsaturated nuclear matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, Toshiki; Maruyama, Tomoyuki; Chiba, Satoshi; Iwamoto, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Niita, Koji; Oyamatsu, Kazuhiro

    1998-07-01

    Quantum molecular dynamics is applied to study the ground state and excited state properties of nuclear matter at subsaturation densities. The structure of nuclear matter at subsaturation density shows some exotic shapes with variation of the density. However, the structure in our result is rather irregular compared to those of previous works due to the existence of local minimum configurations. (author)

  11. Description of hot compressed hadronic matter based on an effective chiral Lagrangian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florkowski, W. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1996-11-01

    In this report we give the review of the recent results obtained in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model, describing the properties of hot compressed matter. The first large class problems concerns the behaviour of static meson correlation functions. In particular, this includes the investigation of the screening of meson fields at finite temperature or density. Another wide range of problems presented in our report concerns the formulation of the transport theory for the NJL model and its applications to the description of high energy nuclear collision. 86 refs, 35 figs.

  12. Description of hot compressed hadronic matter based on an effective chiral Lagrangian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florkowski, W.

    1996-11-01

    In this report we give the review of the recent results obtained in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model, describing the properties of hot compressed matter. The first large class problems concerns the behaviour of static meson correlation functions. In particular, this includes the investigation of the screening of meson fields at finite temperature or density. Another wide range of problems presented in our report concerns the formulation of the transport theory for the NJL model and its applications to the description of high energy nuclear collision. 86 refs, 35 figs

  13. Isospin dependent properties of asymmetric nuclear matter

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, P. Roy; Basu, D. N.; Samanta, C.

    2009-01-01

    The density dependence of nuclear symmetry energy is determined from a systematic study of the isospin dependent bulk properties of asymmetric nuclear matter using the isoscalar and the isovector components of density dependent M3Y interaction. The incompressibility $K_\\infty$ for the symmetric nuclear matter, the isospin dependent part $K_{asy}$ of the isobaric incompressibility and the slope $L$ are all in excellent agreement with the constraints recently extracted from measured isotopic de...

  14. Nuclear matter in neutron star crust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kido, Toshihiko; Maruyama, Toshiki; Chiba, Satoshi; Niita, Koji

    2000-01-01

    Properties of nuclear matter below the nuclear saturation density is analyzed by numerical simulations with the periodic boundary condition. The equation of state at these densities is softened by the formation of cluster(s) internal density of which is nearly equal to the saturation density. The structure of nuclear matter shows some exotic shapes with variation of the density. Furthermore, it is found that the symmetry parameter a sym (ρ) is not a linear function of density at low density region. (author)

  15. Nuclear matter from effective quark-quark interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldo, M; Fukukawa, K

    2014-12-12

    We study neutron matter and symmetric nuclear matter with the quark-meson model for the two-nucleon interaction. The Bethe-Bruckner-Goldstone many-body theory is used to describe the correlations up to the three hole-line approximation with no extra parameters. At variance with other nonrelativistic realistic interactions, the three hole-line contribution turns out to be non-negligible and to have a substantial saturation effect. The saturation point of nuclear matter, the compressibility, the symmetry energy, and its slope are within the phenomenological constraints. Since the interaction also reproduces fairly well the properties of the three-nucleon system, these results indicate that the explicit introduction of the quark degrees of freedom within the considered constituent quark model is expected to reduce the role of three-body forces.

  16. Hyperon interactions in nuclear matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhar, Madhumita; Lenske, Horst [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Giessen (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    Baryon-baryon interactions within the SU(3)-octet are investigated in free space and nuclear matter. A meson exchange model is used for determining the interaction. The Bethe-Salpeter equations are solved in a 3-D reduction scheme. In-medium effects have been incorporated by including a two particle Pauli projection operator in the scattering equation. The coupling of the various channels of total strangeness S=-1,-2 and conserved total charge is studied in detail. Calculations and the corresponding results are compared for using the isospin and the particle basis. Matrix elements are compared in detail, in particular discussing mixing effects of different hyperon channels. Special attention is paid to the physical thresholds. The density dependence of interaction is clearly seen in the variation of the in-medium low-energy parameters. The approach is compared to descriptions derived from chiral-EFT and other meson-exchange models e.g. the Nijmegen and the Juelich model.

  17. A data compression algorithm for nuclear spectrum files

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mika, J.F.; Martin, L.J.; Johnston, P.N.

    1990-01-01

    The total space occupied by computer files of spectra generated in nuclear spectroscopy systems can lead to problems of storage, and transmission time. An algorithm is presented which significantly reduces the space required to store nuclear spectra, without loss of any information content. Testing indicates that spectrum files can be routinely compressed by a factor of 5. (orig.)

  18. Symmetric nuclear matter with Skyrme interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manisa, K.; Bicer, A.; Atav, U.

    2010-01-01

    The equation of state (EOS) and some properties of symmetric nuclear matter, such as the saturation density, saturation energy and incompressibility, are obtained by using Skyrme's density-dependent effective nucleon-nucleon interaction.

  19. Skyrmions, dense matter and nuclear forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pethick, C.J.

    1984-12-01

    A simple introduction to a number of properties of Skyrme's chiral soliton model of baryons is given. Some implications of the model for dense matter and for nuclear interactions are discussed. (orig.)

  20. Compressed beam directed particle nuclear energy generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salisbury, W.W.

    1985-01-01

    This invention relates to the generation of energy from the fusion of atomic nuclei which are caused to travel towards each other along collision courses, orbiting in common paths having common axes and equal radii. High velocity fusible ion beams are directed along head-on circumferential collision paths in an annular zone wherein beam compression by electrostatic focusing greatly enhances head-on fusion-producing collisions. In one embodiment, a steady radial electric field is imposed on the beams to compress the beams and reduce the radius of the spiral paths for enhancing the particle density. Beam compression is achieved through electrostatic focusing to establish and maintain two opposing beams in a reaction zone

  1. Pion condensation in symmetric nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabir, K.; Saha, S.; Nath, L.M.

    1987-09-01

    Using a model which is based essentially on the chiral SU(2)xSU(2) symmetry of the pion-nucleon interaction, we examine the possibility of pion condensation in symmetric nucleon matter. We find that the pion condensation is not likely to occur in symmetric nuclear matter for any finite value of the nuclear density. Consequently, no critical opalescence phenomenon is expected to be seen in the pion-nucleus interaction. (author). 20 refs

  2. Pion condensation in symmetric nuclear matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, K.; Saha, S.; Nath, L. M.

    1988-01-01

    Using a model which is based essentially on the chiral SU(2)×SU(2) symmetry of the pion-nucleon interaction, we examine the possibility of pion condensation in symmetric nucleon matter. We find that the pion condensation is not likely to occur in symmetric nuclear matter for any finite value of the nuclear density. Consequently, no critical opalescence phenomenom is expected to be seen in the pion-nucleus interaction.

  3. Soliton matter as a model of dense nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glendenning, N.K.

    1985-01-01

    We employ the hybrid soliton model of the nucleon consisting of a topological meson field and deeply bound quarks to investigate the behavior of the quarks in soliton matter as a function of density. To organize the calculation, we place the solitons on a spatial lattice. The model suggests the transition of matter from a color insulator to a color conductor above a critical density of a few times normal nuclear density. 9 references, 5 figures

  4. Nuclear matter as a nonlinear optical medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hefter, E.F.; Papini, G.

    1986-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the question whether nuclear matter should be considered as a nonlinear optical medium. Taking, in a pragmatic way, quality and quantity of the results of well-established linear and nonlinear approaches as the main criterion, an affirmative answer is seen to be consistent with long-standing practices adhered to in nuclear physics

  5. Relativity damps OPEP in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, M.K.

    1998-06-01

    Using a relativistic Dirac-Brueckner analysis the OPEP contribution to the ground state energy of nuclear matter is studied. In the study the pion is derivative-coupled. The author finds that the role of the tensor force in the saturation mechanism is substantially reduced compared to its dominant role in a usual nonrelativistic treatment. He shows that the damping of derivative-coupled OPEP is actually due to the decrease of M * /M with increasing density. He points out that if derivative-coupled OPEP is the preferred form of nuclear effective lagrangian nonrelativistic treatment of nuclear matter is in trouble. Lacking the notion of M * it cannot replicate the damping. He suggests an examination of the feasibility of using pseudoscalar coupled πN interaction before reaching a final conclusion about nonrelativistic treatment of nuclear matter

  6. Isospin dependent properties of asymmetric nuclear matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, P. Roy; Basu, D. N.; Samanta, C.

    2009-07-01

    The density dependence of nuclear symmetry energy is determined from a systematic study of the isospin dependent bulk properties of asymmetric nuclear matter using the isoscalar and isovector components of the density dependent M3Y interaction. The incompressibility K∞ for the symmetric nuclear matter, the isospin dependent part Kasy of the isobaric incompressibility, and the slope L are all in excellent agreement with the constraints recently extracted from measured isotopic dependence of the giant monopole resonances in even-A Sn isotopes, from the neutron skin thickness of nuclei, and from analyses of experimental data on isospin diffusion and isotopic scaling in intermediate energy heavy-ion collisions. This work provides a fundamental basis for the understanding of nuclear matter under extreme conditions and validates the important empirical constraints obtained from recent experimental data.

  7. Radiation hardness investigation of avalanche photodiodes for the Projectile Spectator Detector readout at the Compressed Baryonic Matter experiment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kushpil, Vasilij; Mikhaylov, Vasily; Kushpil, Svetlana; Tlustý, Pavel; Svoboda, Ondřej; Kugler, Andrej

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 787, JUL (2015), s. 117-120 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LG12007; GA MŠk LG14004; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : avalanche photodiodes * single protons detection * radiation hardness * neutron irradiation tests * compressed Baryonic Matter experiment * Projectile Spectator Detector Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics , Colliders Impact factor: 1.200, year: 2015

  8. Ambiguities about infinite nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabre de la Ripelle, M.

    1978-01-01

    Exact solutions of the harmonic-oscillator and infinite hyperspherical well are given for the ground state of a infinitely heavy (N=Z) nucleus. The density of matter is a steadily decreasing function. The kinetic energy per particle is 12% smaller than the one predicted by the Fermi sea

  9. Magnetic properties of strongly asymmetric nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutschera, M.; Wojcik, W.

    1988-01-01

    We investigate stability of neutron matter containing a small proton admixture with respect to spin fluctuations. We establish conditions under which strongly asymmetric nuclear matter could acquire a permanent magnetization. It is shown that if the protons are localized, the system becomes unstable to spin fluctuations for arbitrarily weak proton-neutron spin interactions. For non-localized protons there exists a threshold value of the spin interaction above which the system can develop a spontaneous polarization. 12 refs., 2 figs. (author)

  10. Charmonium formation and suppression in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Jiajun; Wang Jia; Zhuang Chao; Zhuang Pengfei

    2005-01-01

    The coupling Schroedinger equations describing the evolution of cc-bar states in nuclear matter are analytically and systematically solved via perturbation method, and the correlation between charmonium formation and nuclear absorption is investigated. After calculating J/Ψ and Ψ' suppression in nucleon-nucleus collisions and comparing with experiment data, it is found that the formation time effect plays an important rule in charmonium suppression, especially in Ψ' suppression. (authors)

  11. High Momentum Probes of Nuclear Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fries, R.

    2009-07-24

    We discuss how the chemical composition of QCD jets is altered by final state interactions in surrounding nuclear matter. We describe this process through conversions of leading jet particles. We find that conversions lead to an enhancement of kaons at high transverse momentum in Au+Au collisions at RHIC, while their azimuthal asymmetry v{sub 2} is suppressed.

  12. Nuclear and quark matter at high temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biro, Tamas S. [H.A.S. Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Budapest (Hungary); Jakovac, Antal [Roland Eotvos University, Budapest (Hungary); Schram, Zsolt [University of Debrecen, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Debrecen (Hungary)

    2017-03-15

    We review important ideas on nuclear and quark matter description on the basis of high-temperature field theory concepts, like resummation, dimensional reduction, interaction scale separation and spectral function modification in media. Statistical and thermodynamical concepts are spotted in the light of these methods concentrating on the -partially still open- problems of the hadronization process. (orig.)

  13. Covariant density functional theory for nuclear matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badarch, U.

    2007-07-01

    The present thesis is organized as follows. In Chapter 2 we study the Nucleon-Nucleon (NN) interaction in Dirac-Brueckner (DB) approach. We start by considering the NN interaction in free-space in terms of the Bethe-Salpeter (BS) equation to the meson exchange potential model. Then we present the DB approach for nuclear matter by extending the BS equation for the in-medium NN interaction. From the solution of the three-dimensional in-medium BS equation, we derive the DB self-energies and total binding energy which are the main results of the DB approach, which we later incorporate in the field theoretical calculation of the nuclear equation of state. In Chapter 3, we introduce the basic concepts of density functional theory in the context of Quantum Hadrodynamics (QHD-I). We reach the main point of this work in Chapter 4 where we introduce the DDRH approach. In the DDRH theory, the medium dependence of the meson-nucleon vertices is expressed as functionals of the baryon field operators. Because of the complexities of the operator-valued functionals we decide to use the mean-field approximation. In Chapter 5, we contrast microscopic and phenomenological approaches to extracting density dependent meson-baryon vertices. Chapter 6 gives the results of our studies of the EOS of infinite nuclear matter in detail. Using formulas derived in Chapters 4 and 5 we calculate the properties of symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter and pure neutron matter. (orig.)

  14. Condensed matter studies by nuclear methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolas, K.; Tomala, K.

    1988-01-01

    The separate abstract was prepared for 1 of the papers in this volume. The remaining 13 papers dealing with the use but not with advances in the use of nuclear methods in studies of condensed matter, were considered outside the subject scope of INIS. (M.F.W.)

  15. Covariant density functional theory for nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badarch, U.

    2007-01-01

    The present thesis is organized as follows. In Chapter 2 we study the Nucleon-Nucleon (NN) interaction in Dirac-Brueckner (DB) approach. We start by considering the NN interaction in free-space in terms of the Bethe-Salpeter (BS) equation to the meson exchange potential model. Then we present the DB approach for nuclear matter by extending the BS equation for the in-medium NN interaction. From the solution of the three-dimensional in-medium BS equation, we derive the DB self-energies and total binding energy which are the main results of the DB approach, which we later incorporate in the field theoretical calculation of the nuclear equation of state. In Chapter 3, we introduce the basic concepts of density functional theory in the context of Quantum Hadrodynamics (QHD-I). We reach the main point of this work in Chapter 4 where we introduce the DDRH approach. In the DDRH theory, the medium dependence of the meson-nucleon vertices is expressed as functionals of the baryon field operators. Because of the complexities of the operator-valued functionals we decide to use the mean-field approximation. In Chapter 5, we contrast microscopic and phenomenological approaches to extracting density dependent meson-baryon vertices. Chapter 6 gives the results of our studies of the EOS of infinite nuclear matter in detail. Using formulas derived in Chapters 4 and 5 we calculate the properties of symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter and pure neutron matter. (orig.)

  16. Quark mobility in extended nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivers, D.

    1988-01-01

    The propagation of an energetic quark through extended nuclear matter is analyzed in terms of a simple model in which localization of color is imposed through chromoelectric flux tubes. A mobile quark in the nuclear medium creates a disturbance which affects neighboring nucleons. The model suggests that the spatial properties of the disturbance involve a competition among different dynamical mechanisms. Experimental measurements involving the target fragmentation region in deep-inelastic leptoproduction on large nuclei may help specify some of the important features of nuclear dynamics. copyright 1988 Academic Press, Inc

  17. The public and nuclear matters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Riordan, Timothy

    1987-01-01

    The nuclear industry has an image problem and is facing a major crisis of public confidence. The solution lies not merely in better public relations and advertising campaigns, but in a fundamental reassessment of electricity management, a comprehensive re-examination of the economics of electricity use and generation and, in all probability, a shift towards more public-friendly reactor designs. Over the next decade the industry faces two great forces: the power of public opinion and the momentum of inherent technological advance. Somehow these two elements have to be guided so that they complement each other. This article aims to show how this might be achieved. (author)

  18. Infinite nuclear matter model and mass formulae for nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satpathy, L.

    2016-01-01

    The matter composed of the nucleus is a quantum-mechanical interacting many-fermionic system. However, the shell and classical liquid drop have been taken as the two main features of nuclear dynamics, which have guided the evolution of nuclear physics. These two features can be considered as the macroscopic manifestation of the microscopic dynamics of the nucleons at fundamental level. Various mass formulae have been developed based on either of these features over the years, resulting in many ambiguities and uncertainties posing many challenges in this field. Keeping this in view, Infinite Nuclear Matter (INM) model has been developed during last couple of decades with a many-body theoretical foundation employing the celebrated Hugenholtz-Van Hove theorem, quite appropriate for the interacting quantum-mechanical nuclear system. A mass formula called INM mass formula based on this model yields rms deviation of 342 keV being the lowest in literature. Some of the highlights of its result includes its determination of INM density in agreement with the electron scattering data leading to the resolution of the long standing 'r 0 -paradox' it predicts new magic numbers giving rise to new island of stability in the drip-line regions. This is the manifestation of a new phenomenon where shell-effect over comes the repulsive component of nucleon-nucleon force resulting in the broadening of the stability peninsula. Shell quenching in N= 82,and N= 126 shells, and several islands of inversion have been predicted. The model determines the empirical value of the nuclear compression modulus, using high precission 4500 data comprising nuclear masses, neutron and proton separation energies. The talk will give a critical review of the field of mass formula and our understanding of nuclear dynamics as a whole

  19. Nuclear compression effects on pion production in nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, M.; Gyulassy, M.; Wakai, M.; Kitazoe, Y.

    1984-11-01

    The pion multiplicity produced in nuclear collisions between 0.2 and 2 AGeV is calculated assuming shock formation. We also correct the procedure of extracting the nuclear equation of state as proposed by Stock et al. The nuclear equation of state would have to be extremely stiff for this model to reproduce the observed multiplicities. The assumptions of this model are critically analyzed. (author)

  20. Confinement and deconfinement of quarks in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baym, G.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear matter at high baryon density or excitation energy is expected to undergo a transition to deconfined quark matter, a new state of matter, whose production and detection would be an exciting and basic advance in nuclear physics. These lectures summarize current understanding of quark matter and the deconfinement transition. Beginning with a review of elementary models of confinement, the basic properties of quark matter are described, estimates of the transition from hadronic to quark matter are made, and various ways one might see quark matter experimentally by production in nuclear collisions or in the form of metastable exotic nuclear objects are discussed. (author)

  1. Mathematical analysis of compressive/tensile molecular and nuclear structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dayu

    Mathematical analysis in chemistry is a fascinating and critical tool to explain experimental observations. In this dissertation, mathematical methods to present chemical bonding and other structures for many-particle systems are discussed at different levels (molecular, atomic, and nuclear). First, the tetrahedral geometry of single, double, or triple carbon-carbon bonds gives an unsatisfying demonstration of bond lengths, compared to experimental trends. To correct this, Platonic solids and Archimedean solids were evaluated as atoms in covalent carbon or nitrogen bond systems in order to find the best solids for geometric fitting. Pentagonal solids, e.g. the dodecahedron and icosidodecahedron, give the best fit with experimental bond lengths; an ideal pyramidal solid which models covalent bonds was also generated. Second, the macroscopic compression/tension architectural approach was applied to forces at the molecular level, considering atomic interactions as compressive (repulsive) and tensile (attractive) forces. Two particle interactions were considered, followed by a model of the dihydrogen molecule (H2; two protons and two electrons). Dihydrogen was evaluated as two different types of compression/tension structures: a coaxial spring model and a ring model. Using similar methods, covalent diatomic molecules (made up of C, N, O, or F) were evaluated. Finally, the compression/tension model was extended to the nuclear level, based on the observation that nuclei with certain numbers of protons/neutrons (magic numbers) have extra stability compared to other nucleon ratios. A hollow spherical model was developed that combines elements of the classic nuclear shell model and liquid drop model. Nuclear structure and the trend of the "island of stability" for the current and extended periodic table were studied.

  2. Asymmetric nuclear matter and neutron star properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engvik, L.; Hjorth-Jensen, M.; Osnes, E.; Bao, G.; Oestgaard, E.

    1994-06-01

    Properties of neutron stars such as mass and radius, using a relativistic Dirac-Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approach, are calculated. Modern meson-exchange potential models are used to evaluate the G-matrix for asymmetric nuclear matter. For pure neutron matter the maximum mass is found to be M max ∼ 2.4M for a radius R ∼ 12 km. With a proton fraction of 30% the result is M max ∼ 2.1M for a radius R ∼ 10.5 km, close to the experimental values. The implications are discussed. 20 refs., 3 figs

  3. Wanted! Nuclear Data for Dark Matter Astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gondolo, P.

    2014-01-01

    Astronomical observations from small galaxies to the largest scales in the universe can be consistently explained by the simple idea of dark matter. The nature of dark matter is however still unknown. Empirically it cannot be any of the known particles, and many theories postulate it as a new elementary particle. Searches for dark matter particles are under way: production at high-energy accelerators, direct detection through dark matter-nucleus scattering, indirect detection through cosmic rays, gamma rays, or effects on stars. Particle dark matter searches rely on observing an excess of events above background, and a lot of controversies have arisen over the origin of observed excesses. With the new high-quality cosmic ray measurements from the AMS-02 experiment, the major uncertainty in modeling cosmic ray fluxes is in the nuclear physics cross sections for spallation and fragmentation of cosmic rays off interstellar hydrogen and helium. The understanding of direct detection backgrounds is limited by poor knowledge of cosmic ray activation in detector materials, with order of magnitude differences between simulation codes. A scarcity of data on nucleon spin densities blurs the connection between dark matter theory and experiments. What is needed, ideally, are more and better measurements of spallation cross sections relevant to cosmic rays and cosmogenic activation, and data on the nucleon spin densities in nuclei

  4. Strange mesons in dense nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senger, P.

    2000-10-01

    Experimental data on the production of kaons and antikaons in heavy ion collisions at relativistic energies are reviewed with respect to in-medium effects. The K - /K + ratios measured in nucleus-nucleus collisions are 1-2 orders of magnitude larger than in proton-proton collisions. The azimuthal angle distributions of K + mesons indicate a repulsive kaon-nucleon potential. Microscopic transport calculations consistently explain both the yields and the emission patterns of kaons and antikaons when assuming that their properties are modified in dense nuclear matter. The K + production excitation functions measured in light and heavy collision systems provide evidence for a soft nuclear equation-of-state. (orig.)

  5. Description of a nucleon in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunatian, G.G.

    1992-01-01

    The nonlinear cloudy bag model, CBM, is generalized to describe a nucleon in nuclear matter at various densities ρ and temperatures T. The influence of the nuclear medium on the bag-nucleon in the framework of CBM is due to the modification of the equation describing the CBM pion field π. These changes are accounted for in the CBM by including in the CBM lagrangian the pion polarization operator π(ρ,T). The free pion propagator D is replaced in a nuclear medium by D(ρ,T). The changing of the pion field π and propagator D leads via the CBM equations to the modification of the bag size R and quark momentum p, determined simultaneously from these equations, and then to modifications of other bag-nucleon characteristics: the total energy E, r.m.s. radii, magnetic moment μ, polarizability α and so on, which all are expressed as the expectation values of the corresponding operators in the bag-nucleon state. The quantity π(ρ,T) was studied in the works whose results are used in this investigation. The nucleon size R in the nuclear matter at normal density ρ o and zero temperature decreases by 5% and the quarks momentum p also decreases, however, insignificantly, by 1-2%. On the other hand, the values of the r.m.s. radii increases by 15% for a proton and by 100% for a neutron. The author has also found that the polarizability of a nucleon in nuclear matter is roughly two times as much as in free space

  6. Properties of the cloudy bag in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunatyan, G.G.

    1986-01-01

    Because of the pion mode softening, the pion field of the clody bag in the nuclear matter increases if the nuclear density increases. This causes in its turn the decreasing of the bag size and at a sufficiently large density of the nuclear matter lead to absolute instability of the cloudy bag-nucleon, which means the transition of the nuclear matter in another nonnucleon phase

  7. Nuclear matter calculations with a pseudoscalar-pseudovector chiral model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niembro, R.; Marcos, S.; Bernardos, P. [University of Cantabria, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Modern Physics, 39005 Santander (Spain); Fomenko, V.N. [St Petersburg University for Railway Engineering, Department of Mathematics, 197341 St Petersburg (Russian Federation); Savushkin, L.N. [St Petersburg University for Telecomunications, Department of Physics, 191065 St Petersburg (Russian Federation); Lopez-Quelle, M. [University of Cantabria, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Applied Physics, 39005 Santander, Spain (Spain)

    1998-10-01

    A mixed pseudoscalar-pseudovector {pi}N coupling relativistic Lagrangian is obtained from a pure pseudoscalar chiral one, by transforming the nucleon field according to a generalized Weinberg transformation, which depends on a mixing parameter. The interaction is generated by the {sigma}, {omega} and {pi} meson exchanges. Within the Hartree-Fock context, pion polarization effects, including the {delta} isobar, are considered in the random phase approximation in nuclear matter. These effects are interpreted, in a non-relativistic framework, as a modification of the range and intensity of a Yukawa-type potential by means of a simple function which takes into account the nucleon-hole and {delta}-hole excitations. Results show stability of relativistic nuclear matter against pion condensation. Compression modulus is diminished by the combined effects of the nucleon and {delta} polarization towards the usually accepted experimental values. The {pi}N interaction strength used in this paper is less than the conventional one to ensure the viability of the model. The fitting parameters of the model are the scalar meson mass m{sub {sigma}} and the {omega}-N coupling constant g{sub {omega}}. (author)

  8. A new model for nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skyrme, T.H.R.

    1994-01-01

    The different values obtained for nuclear radii from electromagnetic interactions as compared with specifically nuclear interactions suggested a model of nuclear matter in which the meson field is supposed to condense into an incompressible fluid and the nucleonic sources are confined to its interior by a strong interaction between the sources and the fluid as a whole. The sources are also coupled to spin and charge fluctuations in the fluid, whose exchange leads to further internucleonic forces. It is necessary to postulate that the fluid have a comparatively low density; as a result rotational levels of the fluid are high, leading to a small probability of exchange of angular momentum (and charge coupled to it) with the sources. The values of the anomalous electrical interactions of nucleons deduced are in rough agreement with the facts. The nuclear structure indicated is a shell model embedded in the mesic fluid whose oscillations, strongly coupled to the nucleons, give rise to the collective features of nuclear structure as in the theory of Bohr and Mottelson. It is suggested that this picture of the mesic field may indicate where to look for solutions of the meson field equations. (author). 9 refs

  9. Neutrino neutral current interactions in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, C.J.; Wehrberger, K.

    1991-01-01

    Detailed knowledge of neutrino transport properties in matter is crucial for an understanding of the evolution of supernovae and of neutron star cooling. We investigate screening of neutrino scattering from a dense degenerate gas of electrons, protons and neutrons. We take into account correlations induced by the Coulomb interactions of the electrons and protons, and the strong interactions of the protons and neutrons. Nuclear matter is described by the σω model of quantum hadrodynamics. Results are presented for typical astrophysical scenarios. The differential cross section is strongly reduced at large energy transfer, where electrons dominate, and slightly reduced for small energy transfer, where nucleons dominate. At large densities, the nucleon effective mass is considerably lower than the free mass, and the region dominated by nucleons extends to larger energy transfer than for free nucleons. (orig.)

  10. Kaon dynamics in dense nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, Ch.

    1998-01-01

    In this thesis a list of cross sections concerning the kaons and antikaons production, has been presented. A new method for the parametrisation of particles rescattering cross sections, based on the neural networks has been developed. Because of the influence of the nuclear matter on kaons properties, the effect of the optical potential parameters has been studied. In particular a term has been added to the vector part of this potential to determine the relative importance of this part compared to the scalar part. A new parametrisation of the resonance lifetime has been proposed. (A.L.B.)

  11. Pion condensation in symmetric nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamsunnahar, T.; Saha, S.; Kabir, K.; Nath, L.M.

    1991-01-01

    We have investigated the possibility of pion condensation in symmetric nuclear matter using a model of pion-nucleon interaction based essentially on chiral SU(2) x SU(2) symmetry. We have found that pion condensation is not possible for any finite value of the density. Consequently, no critical opalescence phenomenon is likely to be seen in pion-nucleus scattering nor is it likely to be possible to explain the EMC effect in terms of an increased number of pions in the nucleus. (author)

  12. History of the nuclear matter safety and control law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, G.

    1994-01-01

    In this text we give the history of the law creation on the control and safety of nuclear matter. Initially based on the CEA regulation single owner of nuclear matter, the development of nuclear energy has conducted the French government to edict law in relation with IAEA and Euratom recommendations

  13. Femtosecond visualization of lattice dynamics in shock-compressed matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milathianaki, D; Boutet, S; Williams, G J; Higginbotham, A; Ratner, D; Gleason, A E; Messerschmidt, M; Seibert, M M; Swift, D C; Hering, P; Robinson, J; White, W E; Wark, J S

    2013-10-11

    The ultrafast evolution of microstructure is key to understanding high-pressure and strain-rate phenomena. However, the visualization of lattice dynamics at scales commensurate with those of atomistic simulations has been challenging. Here, we report femtosecond x-ray diffraction measurements unveiling the response of copper to laser shock-compression at peak normal elastic stresses of ~73 gigapascals (GPa) and strain rates of 10(9) per second. We capture the evolution of the lattice from a one-dimensional (1D) elastic to a 3D plastically relaxed state within a few tens of picoseconds, after reaching shear stresses of 18 GPa. Our in situ high-precision measurement of material strength at spatial (<1 micrometer) and temporal (<50 picoseconds) scales provides a direct comparison with multimillion-atom molecular dynamics simulations.

  14. Pseudo-Goldstone modes in isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, T.D.; Broniowski, W.

    1995-01-01

    The authors analyze the chiral limit in dense isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter. It is shown that the pseudo-Goldstone modes in this system are qualitatively different from the case of isospin-symmetric matter

  15. Hadronic spectral functions in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, M.; Leupold, S.; Mosel, U.

    2004-01-01

    We study the in-medium properties of mesons (π,η,ρ) and baryon resonances in cold nuclear matter within a coupled-channel analysis. The meson self energies are generated by particle-hole excitations. Thus multi-peak spectra are obtained for the mesonic spectral functions. In turn this leads to medium-modifications of the baryon resonances. Special care is taken to respect the analyticity of the spectral functions and to take into account effects from short-range correlations both for positive and negative parity states. Our model produces sensible results for pion and Δ dynamics in nuclear matter. We find a strong interplay of the ρ meson and the D 13 (1520), which moves spectral strength of the ρ spectrum to smaller invariant masses and leads to a broadening of the baryon resonance. The optical potential for the η meson resulting from our model is rather attractive whereas the in-medium properties modifications of the S 11 (1535) are found to be quite small

  16. Sound modes in hot nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolomietz, V. M.; Shlomo, S.

    2001-01-01

    The propagation of the isoscalar and isovector sound modes in a hot nuclear matter is considered. The approach is based on the collisional kinetic theory and takes into account the temperature and memory effects. It is shown that the sound velocity and the attenuation coefficient are significantly influenced by the Fermi surface distortion (FSD). The corresponding influence is much stronger for the isoscalar mode than for the isovector one. The memory effects cause a nonmonotonous behavior of the attenuation coefficient as a function of the relaxation time leading to a zero-to-first sound transition with increasing temperature. The mixing of both the isoscalar and the isovector sound modes in an asymmetric nuclear matter is evaluated. The condition for the bulk instability and the instability growth rate in the presence of the memory effects is studied. It is shown that both the FSD and the relaxation processes lead to a shift of the maximum of the instability growth rate to the longer-wavelength region

  17. Big Bang synthesis of nuclear dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, Edward; Lasenby, Robert; March-Russell, John; West, Stephen M.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the physics of dark matter models featuring composite bound states carrying a large conserved dark “nucleon” number. The properties of sufficiently large dark nuclei may obey simple scaling laws, and we find that this scaling can determine the number distribution of nuclei resulting from Big Bang Dark Nucleosynthesis. For plausible models of asymmetric dark matter, dark nuclei of large nucleon number, e.g. ≳10 8 , may be synthesised, with the number distribution taking one of two characteristic forms. If small-nucleon-number fusions are sufficiently fast, the distribution of dark nuclei takes on a logarithmically-peaked, universal form, independent of many details of the initial conditions and small-number interactions. In the case of a substantial bottleneck to nucleosynthesis for small dark nuclei, we find the surprising result that even larger nuclei, with size ≫10 8 , are often finally synthesised, again with a simple number distribution. We briefly discuss the constraints arising from the novel dark sector energetics, and the extended set of (often parametrically light) dark sector states that can occur in complete models of nuclear dark matter. The physics of the coherent enhancement of direct detection signals, the nature of the accompanying dark-sector form factors, and the possible modifications to astrophysical processes are discussed in detail in a companion paper.

  18. New experimental platform to study high density laser-compressed matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauthier, M.; Fletcher, L. B.; Galtier, E.; Gamboa, E. J.; Granados, E.; Hastings, J. B.; Heimann, P.; Lee, H. J.; Nagler, B.; Schropp, A.; Falcone, R.; Glenzer, S. H.; Ravasio, A.; Gleason, A.; Döppner, T.; LePape, S.; Ma, T.; Pak, A.; MacDonald, M. J.; Ali, S.

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a new experimental platform at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) which combines simultaneous angularly and spectrally resolved x-ray scattering measurements. This technique offers a new insights on the structural and thermodynamic properties of warm dense matter. The < 50 fs temporal duration of the x-ray pulse provides near instantaneous snapshots of the dynamics of the compression. We present a proof of principle experiment for this platform to characterize a shock-compressed plastic foil. We observe the disappearance of the plastic semi-crystal structure and the formation of a compressed liquid ion-ion correlation peak. The plasma parameters of shock-compressed plastic can be measured as well, but requires an averaging over a few tens of shots

  19. Vector Mesons in Cold Nuclear Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Tulio E; Arruda-Neto, Joāo Dias de Toledo

    2013-01-01

    The attenuation of vector mesons in cold nuclear matter is studied through the mechanism of incoherent photoproduction off complex nuclei. The latter is described via the time-dependent multi-collisional Monte Carlo (MCMC) intranuclear cascade model. The results for the transparency ratios of ω mesons reproduce previous measurements of CB-ELSA/TAPS with an inelastic ωN cross section around 40 mb for ρ ω ∼ 1.1 GeV/c. The corresponding in-medium width (nuclear rest frame) is extracted dinamically from the algorithm and depends on the average nuclear density p N and target nucleus: ∼ 49.2 MeV/c 2 for carbon (p N ≈ 0.114 far −3 ) and ∼ 77.3 MeV/c 2 for lead (p N ≈ 0.137 far −−3 ). The calculations fail to reproduce the huge absorption observed at JLab assuming the same inelastic cross section and the discrepancy between the two experiments remains a challenge.

  20. Hirschegg '95: Dynamical properties of hadrons in nuclear matter. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldmeier, H.; Noerenberg, W.

    1995-01-01

    The following topics were dealt with: Chiral symmetry, chiral condensates, in-medium effective chiral Lagrangians, Δ's in nuclei, nonperturbative QCD, electron scattering from nuclear matter, nuclear shadowing, QCD sum rules, deconfinement, ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions, nuclear dimuon and electron pair production, photoproduction from nuclei, subthreshold K + production, kaon polarization in nuclear matter, charged pion production in relativistic heavy ion collisions, the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model, the SU(3) L xSU(3) R sigma model, nonequilibrium dense nuclear matter, pion pair production at finite temperature. (HSI)

  1. Nuclear matter from chiral effective field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drischler, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear matter is an ideal theoretical system that provides key insights into the physics of different length scales. While recent ab initio calculations of medium-mass to heavy nuclei have demonstrated that realistic saturation properties in infinite matter are crucial for reproducing experimental binding energies and charge radii, the nuclear-matter equation of state allows tight constraints on key quantities of neutron stars. In the present thesis we take advantage of both aspects. Chiral effective field theory (EFT) with pion and nucleon degrees of freedom has become the modern low-energy approach to nuclear forces based on the symmetries of quantum chromodynamics, the fundamental theory of strong interactions. The systematic chiral expansion enables improvable calculations associated with theoretical uncertainty estimates. In recent years, chiral many-body forces were derived up to high orders, allowing consistent calculations including all many-body contributions at next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order (N 3 LO). Many further advances have driven the construction of novel chiral potentials with different regularization schemes. Here, we develop advanced methods for microscopic calculations of the equation of state of homogeneous nuclear matter with arbitrary proton-to-neutron ratio at zero temperature. Specifically, we push the limits of many-body perturbation theory (MBPT) considerations to high orders in the chiral and in the many-body expansion. To address the challenging inclusion of three-body forces, we introduce a new partial-wave method for normal ordering that generalizes the treatment of these contributions. We show improved predictions for the neutron-matter equation of state with consistent N 3 LO nucleon-nucleon (NN) plus three-nucleon (3N) potentials using MBPT up to third order and self-consistent Green's function theory. The latter also provides nonperturbative benchmarks for the many-body convergence. In addition, we extend the normal

  2. Nuclear matter from chiral effective field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drischler, Christian

    2017-11-15

    Nuclear matter is an ideal theoretical system that provides key insights into the physics of different length scales. While recent ab initio calculations of medium-mass to heavy nuclei have demonstrated that realistic saturation properties in infinite matter are crucial for reproducing experimental binding energies and charge radii, the nuclear-matter equation of state allows tight constraints on key quantities of neutron stars. In the present thesis we take advantage of both aspects. Chiral effective field theory (EFT) with pion and nucleon degrees of freedom has become the modern low-energy approach to nuclear forces based on the symmetries of quantum chromodynamics, the fundamental theory of strong interactions. The systematic chiral expansion enables improvable calculations associated with theoretical uncertainty estimates. In recent years, chiral many-body forces were derived up to high orders, allowing consistent calculations including all many-body contributions at next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order (N{sup 3}LO). Many further advances have driven the construction of novel chiral potentials with different regularization schemes. Here, we develop advanced methods for microscopic calculations of the equation of state of homogeneous nuclear matter with arbitrary proton-to-neutron ratio at zero temperature. Specifically, we push the limits of many-body perturbation theory (MBPT) considerations to high orders in the chiral and in the many-body expansion. To address the challenging inclusion of three-body forces, we introduce a new partial-wave method for normal ordering that generalizes the treatment of these contributions. We show improved predictions for the neutron-matter equation of state with consistent N{sup 3}LO nucleon-nucleon (NN) plus three-nucleon (3N) potentials using MBPT up to third order and self-consistent Green's function theory. The latter also provides nonperturbative benchmarks for the many-body convergence. In addition, we extend the

  3. A method of loss free compression for the data of nuclear spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Mingshan; Wu Shiying; Chen Yantao; Xu Zurun

    2000-01-01

    A new method of loss free compression based on the feature of the data of nuclear spectrum is provided, from which a practicable algorithm is successfully derived. A compression rate varying from 0.50 to 0.25 is obtained and the distribution of the processed data becomes even more suitable to be reprocessed by another compression such as Huffman Code to improve the compression rate

  4. Simulation study for the nuclear matter below the saturation density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kido, Toshihiko; Maruyama, Toshiki; Chiba, Satoshi; Niita, Koji

    1999-01-01

    The infinite nuclear matter that consists of numerous protons and neutrons is described by using periodic boundary conditions. The motion of each nucleon in the fundamental cell is decided by a Molecular Dynamics. The ground states or the excited states of the nuclear matter are simulated. (author)

  5. On the thermal properties of polarized nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, M.Y.M.; Montasser, S.S.; Ramadan, S.

    1979-08-01

    The thermal properties of polarized nuclear matter are calculated using Skyrme III interaction modified by Dabrowski for polarized nuclear matter. The temperature dependence of the volume, isospin, spin and spin isospin pressure and energies are determined. The temperature, isospin, spin and spin isospin dependence of the equilibrium Fermi momentum is also discussed. (author)

  6. On the spin saturation and thermal properties of nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, M.Y.M.; Ramadan, S.

    1983-12-01

    The binding energy and the incompressibility of nuclear matter with degree of spin saturation D is calculated using the Skyrme interaction and two forms of a velocity dependent effective potential. The effect of the degree of spin saturation D on the thermal properties of nuclear matter is also discussed. It is found that generally the pressure decreases with increasing D. (author)

  7. Phase transitions in nuclear matter and consequences for neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaempfer, B.

    1983-04-01

    Estimates of the minimal bombarding energy necessary to reach the quark gluon phase in heavy ion collisions are presented within a hydrodynamical scenario. Further, the consequences of first-order phase transitions from nuclear/neutron matter to pion-condensed matter or quark matter are discussed for neutron stars. (author)

  8. A theory overview on the Compressed Baryonic Matter Experiment at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahrgang, Marlene

    2014-01-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at FAIR offers for the first time in heavy-ion physics the opportunity to investigate extremely baryon-dense strongly interacting matter with large data samples as a basis for high precision measurements. This will allow us to put theories at test, answer questions about the structure of the phase diagram of QCD and the transport properties of the medium. In this overview I will highlight some recent advances on several key questions, which will be addressed by the CBM experiment.

  9. A fermionic molecular dynamics technique to model nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vantournhout, K.; Jachowicz, N.; Ryckebusch, J.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: At sub-nuclear densities of about 10 14 g/cm 3 , nuclear matter arranges itself in a variety of complex shapes. This can be the case in the crust of neutron stars and in core-collapse supernovae. These slab like and rod like structures, designated as nuclear pasta, have been modelled with classical molecular dynamics techniques. We present a technique, based on fermionic molecular dynamics, to model nuclear matter at sub-nuclear densities in a semi classical framework. The dynamical evolution of an antisymmetric ground state is described making the assumption of periodic boundary conditions. Adding the concepts of antisymmetry, spin and probability distributions to classical molecular dynamics, brings the dynamical description of nuclear matter to a quantum mechanical level. Applications of this model vary from investigation of macroscopic observables and the equation of state to the study of fundamental interactions on the microscopic structure of the matter. (author)

  10. P. W. Bridgman's contributions to the foundations of shock compression of condensed matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nellis, W J, E-mail: nellis@physics.harvard.ed [Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge MA 02138 (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Based on his 50-year career in static high-pressure research, P. W. Bridgman (PWB) is the father of modern high-pressure physics. What is not generally recognized is that Bridgman was also intimately connected with establishing shock compression as a scientific tool and he predicted major events in shock research that occurred up to 40 years after his death. In 1956 the first phase transition under shock compression was reported in Fe at 13 GPa (130 kbar). PWB said a phase transition could not occur in a {approx}microsec, thus setting off a controversy. The scientific legitimacy of shock compression resulted 5 years later when static high-pressure researchers confirmed with x-ray diffraction the existence of epsilon-Fe. Once PWB accepted the fact that shock waves generated with chemical explosives were a valid scientific tool, he immediately realized that substantially higher pressures would be achieved with nuclear explosives. He included his ideas for achieving higher pressures in articles published a few years after his death. L. V. Altshuler eventually read Bridgman's articles and pursued the idea of using nuclear explosives to generate super high pressures, which subsequently morphed today into giant lasers. PWB also anticipated combining static and shock methods, which today is done with pre-compression of a soft sample in a diamond anvil cell followed by laser-driven shock compression. One variation of that method is the reverberating-shock technique, in which the first shock pre-compresses a soft sample and subsequent reverberations isentropically compress the first-shocked state.

  11. Nucleons, Nuclear Matter and Quark Matter: A unified NJL approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Lawley; W. Bentz; A.W. Thomas

    2006-02-10

    We use an effective quark model to describe both hadronic matter and deconfined quark matter. By calculating the equations of state and the corresponding neutron star properties, we show that the internal properties of the nucleon have important implications for the properties of these systems.

  12. Nucleons, nuclear matter and quark matter: a unified NJL approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawley, S [Special Research Centre for the Subatomic Structure of Matter, University of Adelaide, Adelaide SA 5005 (Australia); Bentz, W [Department of Physics, School of Science, Tokai University Hiratsuka-shi, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Thomas, A W [Jefferson Lab, 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States)

    2006-05-01

    We use an effective quark model to describe both hadronic matter and deconfined quark matter. By calculating the equations of state and the corresponding neutron star properties, we show that the internal properties of the nucleon have important implications for the properties of these systems.

  13. Asymmetric nuclear matter in a modified quark meson coupling model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, R.N.; Sahoo, H.S.; Panda, P.K.; Barik, N.

    2014-01-01

    In an earlier attempt we have successfully used this model in developing the nuclear equation of state and analysed various other bulk properties of symmetric nuclear matter with the dependence of quark masses. In the present work we want to apply the model to analyze asymmetric nuclear matter with the variation of the asymmetry parameter y p as well as analyze the effects of symmetry energy and the slope of the symmetry energy L

  14. Study of suprathermal electron transport in solid or compressed matter for the fast-ignitor scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, F.

    2010-01-01

    The inertial confinement fusion (ICF) concept is widely studied nowadays. It consists in quickly compressing and heating a small spherical capsule filled with fuel, using extremely energetic lasers. Since approximately 15 years, the fast-ignition (FI) technique has been proposed to facilitate the fuel heating by adding a particle beam - electrons generated by an ultra-intense laser - at the exact moment when the capsule compression is at its maximum. This thesis constitutes an experimental study of these electron beams generated by picosecond-scale lasers. We present new results on the characteristics of these electrons after they are accelerated by the laser (energy, divergence, etc.) as well as their interaction with the matter they pass through. The experimental results are explained and reveal different aspects of these laser-accelerated fast electrons. Their analysis allowed for significant progress in understanding several mechanisms: how they are injected into solid matter, how to measure their divergence, and how they can be automatically collimated inside compressed matter. (author) [fr

  15. Antikaons in infinite nuclear matter and nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, M.

    2007-01-01

    In this work we studied the properties of antikaons and hyperons in infinite cold nuclear matter. The in-medium antikaon-nucleon scattering amplitude and self-energy has been calculated within a covariant many-body framework in the first part. Nuclear saturation effects have been taken into account in terms of scalar and vector nucleon mean-fields. In the second part of the work we introduced a non-local method for the description of kaonic atoms. The many-body approach of anti KN scattering can be tested by the application to kaonic atoms. A self-consistent and covariant many-body approach has been used for the determination of the antikaon spectral function and anti KN scattering amplitudes. It considers s-, p- and d-waves and the application of an in-medium projector algebra accounts for proper mixing of partial waves in the medium. The on-shell reduction scheme is also implemented by means of the projector algebra. The Bethe-Salpeter equation has been rewritten, so that the free-space anti KN scattering can be used as the interaction kernel for the in-medium scattering equation. The latter free-space scattering is based on a realistic coupled-channel dynamics and chiral SU(3) Lagrangian. Our many-body approach is generalized for the presence of large scalar and vector nucleon mean-fields. It is supplemented by an improved renormalization scheme, that systematically avoids the occurrence of medium-induced power-divergent structures and kinematical singularities. A modified projector basis has been introduced, that allows for a convenient inclusion of nucleon mean-fields. The description of the results in terms of the 'physical' basis is done with the help of a recoupling scheme based on the projector algebra properties. (orig.)

  16. Coherent scattering of neutrinos by 'nuclear pasta' in dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonoda, Hidetaka

    2007-01-01

    We examine coherent scattering cross section of neutrino and nucleon systems via weak-neutral current at subnuclear densities, which will be important in supernova cores. Below melting density and temparature of nuclei, nuclear shape becomes rodlike and slablike; this is called nuclear 'pasta'. Transition of structure will greatly influence coherent effects which can not easily be predicted. We calculate static structure factor of nuclear matter using data of several nuclear models, and discuss the effects of existence of nuclear pasta on neutrino opacity in hot dense matter

  17. Challenges in QCD matter physics -The scientific programme of the Compressed Baryonic Matter experiment at FAIR

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ablyazimov, T.; Abuhoza, A.; Adak, R. P.; Adamczyk, M.; Kugler, Andrej; Kushpil, Vasilij; Mikhaylov, Vasily; Petráček, V.; Pospíšil, V.; Prakash, Arun; Škoda, L.; Svoboda, Ondřej; Tlustý, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 3 (2017), č. článku 60. ISSN 1434-6001 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : FAIR * RHIC * LHC Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders OBOR OECD: Nuclear physics Impact factor: 2.833, year: 2016

  18. Phases of kinky holographic nuclear matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot-Ripley, Matthew; Sutcliffe, Paul; Zamaklar, Marija [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University,South Road, Durham (United Kingdom)

    2016-10-17

    Holographic QCD at finite baryon number density and zero temperature is studied within the five-dimensional Sakai-Sugimoto model. We introduce a new approximation that models a smeared crystal of solitonic baryons by assuming spatial homogeneity to obtain an effective kink theory in the holographic direction. The kink theory correctly reproduces a first order phase transition to lightly bound nuclear matter. As the density is further increased the kink splits into a pair of half-kink constituents, providing a concrete realization of the previously suggested dyonic salt phase, where the bulk soliton splits into constituents at high density. The kink model also captures the phenomenon of baryonic popcorn, in which a first order phase transition generates an additional soliton layer in the holographic direction. We find that this popcorn transition takes place at a density below the dyonic salt phase, making the latter energetically unfavourable. However, the kink model predicts only one pop, rather than the sequence of pops suggested by previous approximations. In the kink model the two layers produced by the single pop form the surface of a soliton bag that increases in size as the baryon chemical potential is increased. The interior of the bag is filled with abelian electric potential and the instanton charge density is localized on the surface of the bag. The soliton bag may provide a holographic description of a quarkyonic phase.

  19. Kaons in nuclear matter; Kaonen in Kernmaterie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolomeitsev, E.E.

    1997-02-01

    The subject of the doctoral thesis is examination of the properties of kaons in nuclear matter. A specific method is explained that has been developed for the scientific objectives of the thesis and permits description of the kaon-nucleon interactions and kaon-nucleon scattering in a vacuum. The main challenge involved was to find approaches that would enable application of the derived relations out of the kaon mass shell, connected with the second objective, namely to possibly find methods which are independent of models. The way chosen to achieve this goal relied on application of reduction formulas as well as current algebra relations and the PCAC hypothesis. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Die Arbeit befasst sich mit der Untersuchung der Eigenschaften von Kao nen in Kernmaterie. Zu diesem Zweck wurde ein Verfahren entwickelt, di e Kaon- Nukleon- Wechselwirkung und Kaon- Nukleon- Streuung im Vakuumzu beschreiben. Die Hauptherausforderung bestand darin, dass die abgel eiteten Relationen ausserhalb der Kaonen- Massenschale anwendbar werde n. Eine Nebenforderung war, dass die vorgeschlagenen Verfahren moeglic hst modell- unabhaengig sind. Um dieses Ziel zu erreichen, wurden Redu ktionsformeln, Stromalgebra- Relationen und die PCAC- Hypothese angewe ndet.

  20. Track theory and nuclear photographic emulsions for Dark Matter searches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ditlov, V.A.

    2013-01-01

    This work is devoted to the analysis of possibilities of nuclear emulsions for Dark Matter search, particles of which can produce slow recoil-nuclei. Tracks of such recoil-nuclei in developed nuclear emulsion consist from several emulsion grains. The analysis was carried out with Monte-Carlo calculations made on the basis of the Track Theory and the various factors influencing Dark Matter particles registration efficiency were investigated. Problems, which should be solved for optimal utilization of nuclear emulsions in Dark Matter search, were formulated. B ody - Highlights: ► Specific features of Dark Matter Search in nuclear photographic emulsions. ► Track theory for WIMP search in nuclear emulsions. ► Primary efficiency for single WIMP registration. ► Properties of primary WIMP registration efficiency. ► Primary registration efficiency of WIMP flow

  1. 76 FR 13661 - In the Matter of Certain Connecting Devices (“Quick Clamps”) for Use With Modular Compressed Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-587] In the Matter of Certain Connecting Devices (``Quick Clamps'') for Use With Modular Compressed Air Conditioning Units, Including Filters... within the United States after importation of certain devices for modular compressed air conditioning...

  2. Nuclear data compression and reconstruction via discrete wavelet transform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Young Ryong; Cho, Nam Zin [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    Discrete Wavelet Transforms (DWTs) are recent mathematics, and begin to be used in various fields. The wavelet transform can be used to compress the signal and image due to its inherent properties. We applied the wavelet transform compression and reconstruction to the neutron cross section data. Numerical tests illustrate that the signal compression using wavelet is very effective to reduce the data saving spaces. 7 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs. (Author)

  3. Nuclear data compression and reconstruction via discrete wavelet transform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Young Ryong; Cho, Nam Zin [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    Discrete Wavelet Transforms (DWTs) are recent mathematics, and begin to be used in various fields. The wavelet transform can be used to compress the signal and image due to its inherent properties. We applied the wavelet transform compression and reconstruction to the neutron cross section data. Numerical tests illustrate that the signal compression using wavelet is very effective to reduce the data saving spaces. 7 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs. (Author)

  4. Reflection on penal policy in nuclear matters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cisse, A.

    1996-01-01

    This document expresses ethical reflexions as far as nuclear energy development is concerned. The potential diversion of the peaceful use of nuclear energy results in the necessity of a criminal policy which would control the nuclear regulations. For each potential nuclear infringement, systems of laws are established either to prevent damages or to penalize them. (TEC)

  5. Clustering phenomena in nuclear matter below the saturation density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takemoto, Hiroki; Fukushima, Masahiro; Chiba, Satoshi; Horiuchi, Hisashi; Akaishi, Yoshinori; Tohsaki, Akihiro

    2004-01-01

    We investigate density-fluctuated states of nuclear matter as a result of clustering below the saturation density ρ 0 by description in terms of the Bloch function. The Bloch description has the advantage of a unified representation for a density-fluctuated state from an aggregate of uncorrelated clusters in extremely low-density regions to the plane-wave state of uniform matter in relatively high-density regions. We treat the density-fluctuated states due to α and 16 O clustering in symmetric nuclear matter and due to 10 He clustering in asymmetric nuclear matter. The density-fluctuated states develop as the density of matter decreases below each critical density around 0.2-0.4 ρ 0 which depends on what kind of effective force we use

  6. Physical properties of compressive knits compound with different matters impregnated by microcapsules moisturizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadhel Jaâfar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The compressive knits include a very varied group of different device functions, from the more merely (protection to the more developed (scars improvement, skin hydration…. We combined two therapy forms the pressure and the hydration of burned skin. We essayed to reunite the advantages of two techniques pressure and hydration in only one and the same instrument in the form of compressive knit with microencapsulated surface. The compressive knits are elaborated with different textile matters such us Cotton/Spandex, Polyester/Spandex, Polyamide/Spandex, Viscose/Spandex and Cotton/Polyester/Spandex. The hydration product chosen in this application is the Jojoba Oil. The microcapsules were prepared according to the Phase Separation Method. The physical properties such us the Pressure, the Mass per Area, the Thickness, the Air Permeability and the Adiathermic Power are tested. According to the results, we conclude that the knits are compressive, comfort, smooth, no allergen, thinness and washable. The raw materials selected for the samples studied are biocompatible with human skin.

  7. Monotonous braking of high energy hadrons in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugalski, Z.

    1979-01-01

    Propagation of high energy hadrons in nuclear matter is discussed. The possibility of the existence of the monotonous energy losses of hadrons in nuclear matter is considered. In favour of this hypothesis experimental facts such as pion-nucleus interactions (proton emission spectra, proton multiplicity distributions in these interactions) and other data are presented. The investigated phenomenon in the framework of the hypothesis is characterized in more detail

  8. Many-body theory of nuclear and neutron star matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandharipande, V R; Akmal, A; Ravenhall, D G [Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States)

    1998-06-01

    We present results obtained for nuclei, nuclear and neutron star matter, and neutron star structure obtained with the recent Argonne v{sub 18} two- nucleon and Urbana IX three-nucleon interactions including relativistic boost corrections. These interactions predict that matter will undergo a transition to a spin layered phase with neutral pion condensation. We also consider the possibility of a transition to quark matter. (orig.)

  9. Many-body theory of nuclear and neutron star matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandharipande, V.R.; Akmal, A.; Ravenhall, D.G.

    1998-01-01

    We present results obtained for nuclei, nuclear and neutron star matter, and neutron star structure obtained with the recent Argonne v 18 two- nucleon and Urbana IX three-nucleon interactions including relativistic boost corrections. These interactions predict that matter will undergo a transition to a spin layered phase with neutral pion condensation. We also consider the possibility of a transition to quark matter. (orig.)

  10. Nuclear incompressibility: from finite nuclei to nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treiner, J.; Krivine, H.; Bohigas, O.

    1981-01-01

    The recent increase of experimental data concerning the Giant Monopole Resonance Energy Esub(M) gives information on the incompressibility modulus of nuclear matter, provided one can extrapolate the incompressibility of a nucleus Ksub(A) defined by Esub(M)=[h 2 /m KA/ 2 >]sup(1/2), to the infinite medium. We discuss the theoretical interpretation of the coefficients of an Asup(-1/3) - expansion of Ksub(A) by studying the asymptotic behaviour of two RPA sum rules (corresponding to the scaling and the constrained model), evaluated using self-consistent Thomas-Fermi calculations. We show that the scaling model is the most suitable one as it leads to a rapidly converging Asup(-1/3)-expansion of the corresponding incompressibility Ksub(A)sup(S), whereas this is not the case with the constrained model. Some semi-empirical relations between the coefficients of the expansion of Ksub(A)sup(S) are established, which reduce to one the number of free-parameters in a best fit analysis of the experimental data. This reduction is essential due to the still limited number and accuracy of experimental data. We then show the compatibility of the data given by the various experimental groups with this parametrization and obtain a value of Ksub(nm)=220+-20 MeV, in good agreement with more microscopic analysis

  11. Formation and disintegration of high-density nuclear matter in heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitazoe, Yasuhiro; Matsuoka, Kazuo; Sano, Mitsuo

    1976-01-01

    The formation of high-density nuclear matter which may be expected to be attained in high-energy heavy-ion collisions and the subsequent disintegration of dense matter are investigated by means of the hydrodynamics. Head-on collisions of identical nuclei are considered in the nonrelativistic approximation. The compressed density cannot exceed 4 times of the normal one so long as the freedom of only nucleons is considered, and can become higher than 4 times when other freedoms such as the productions of mesons and also nucleon isobars are additionally taken into account. The angular distributions for ejected particles predominate both forwards and backwards at low collision energies, corresponding to the formation of nuclear density less than 2 times of the normal density and become isotropic at the point of 2 times of the normal one. As the collision energy increases further, lateral ejection is intensified gradually. (auth.)

  12. The role of meson dynamics in nuclear matter saturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, E.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of the saturation of nuclea matter in the non-relativistic limit of the model proposed by J.D. Walecka is studied. In the original context nuclear matter saturation is obtained as a direct consequence of relativistic effects and both scalar and vector mesons are treated statically. In the present work we investigate the effect of the meson dynamics for the saturation using a Born-Oppenheimer approximation for the ground state. An upper limit for the saturation curve of nuclear matter and are able to decide now essential is the relativistic treatment of the nucleons for this problem, is obtained. (author) [pt

  13. Photons in dense nuclear matter: Random-phase approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetina, Stephan; Rrapaj, Ermal; Reddy, Sanjay

    2018-04-01

    We present a comprehensive and pedagogic discussion of the properties of photons in cold and dense nuclear matter based on the resummed one-loop photon self-energy. Correlations among electrons, muons, protons, and neutrons in β equilibrium that arise as a result of electromagnetic and strong interactions are consistently taken into account within the random phase approximation. Screening effects, damping, and collective excitations are systematically studied in a fully relativistic setup. Our study is relevant to the linear response theory of dense nuclear matter, calculations of transport properties of cold dense matter, and investigations of the production and propagation of hypothetical vector bosons such as the dark photons.

  14. The thermal curve of nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Y.G.; Peter, J.; Siwek, A.; Bocage, F.; Bougault, R.; Brou, R.; Colin, J.; Cussol, D.; Durand, D.; Genouin-Duhamel, E.; Gulminelli, F.; Lecolley, J.F.; Lefort, T.; Le Neindre, N.; Lopez, O.; Louvel, M.; Nguyen, A.D.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Tamain, B.; Vient, E.

    1997-01-01

    Earlier measurements of nuclear matter thermal curve of liquid to gas phase transition presented two limitation: only one temperature measuring method was available and the mass number of the formed nuclei decreased from 190 to 50 when the excitation energy increased. To avoid these limitations experiments with the multidetector INDRA at GANIL were carried-out. Among the quasi-projectiles issued from the 36 Ar collisions at 52, 74, 95 A.MeV on the 58 Ni, nuclei of close masses were selected. The excitation energy was determined by the calorimetry of the charged products emitted by quasi-projectiles while the temperature was measured by three different methods. Very different apparent temperatures were obtained for the same excitation energy/nucleon. Only one curve displays a slope variation but no indication of plateau. With the quasi-projectiles obtained from the collisions of 129 Xe at 50 MeV/u on a 119 Sn target behaviors similar to those of 36 Ar were observed in the covered domain of excitation energy. To solve this puzzle and recover the initial temperatures of interest the only mean was to do a theoretical simulation in which one follows the de-excitation of the nuclei formed at different excitation energies and look for the thermal curve able to reproduce the observed temperatures. Two extreme possibilities were taken into account concerning the de-excitation process: either a sequential process established at E * /A≤ 3 MeV/u or a sudden multifragmentation in several hot fragments, most probably at E * /A≥ 10 MeV/u. In both cases it was possible to reproduce the whole set of experimental results concerning the 36 Ar projectile. The initial temperature increases steadily as a function of excitation energy showing no plateau or singular points. The results indicate that, being a system without external pressure, in its passage from the liquid phase to the gas phase the nucleus does not display necessarily a temperature plateau. Discussions on

  15. Dark matter annihilation in the milky way galaxy: effects of baryonic compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prada, F; Klypin, A; Flix, J; Martínez, M; Simonneau, E

    2004-12-10

    If the dark matter (DM), which is considered to constitute most of the mass of galaxies, is made of supersymmetric particles, the central region of our Galaxy should emit gamma rays produced by their annihilation. We use detailed models of the Milky Way to make accurate estimates of continuum gamma-ray fluxes. We argue that the most important effect, which was previously neglected, is the compression of the dark matter due to the infall of baryons to the galactic center: it boosts the expected signal by a factor 1000. To illustrate this effect, we computed the expected gamma fluxes in the minimal supergravity scenario. Our models predict that the signal could be detected at high confidence levels by imaging atmospheric C erenkov telescopes assuming that neutralinos make up most of the DM in the Universe.

  16. Techniques for data compression in experimental nuclear physics problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byalko, A.A.; Volkov, N.G.; Tsupko-Sitnikov, V.M.

    1984-01-01

    Techniques and ways for data compression during physical experiments are estimated. Data compression algorithms are divided into three groups: the first one includes the algorithms based on coding and which posses only average indexes by data files, the second group includes algorithms with data processing elements, the third one - algorithms for converted data storage. The greatest promise for the techniques connected with data conversion is concluded. The techniques possess high indexes for compression efficiency and for fast response, permit to store information close to the source one

  17. Pion condensation and density isomerism in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecking, P.; Weise, W.

    1979-01-01

    The possible existence of density isomers in nuclear matter, induced by pion condensation, is discussed; the nuclear equation of state is treated within the framework of the sigma model. Repulsive short-range baryon-baryon correlations, the admixture of Δ (1232) isobars and finite-range pion-baryon vertex form factors are taken into account. The strong dependence of density isomerism on the high density extrapolation of the equation of state for normal nuclear matter is also investigated. We find that, once finite range pion-baryon vertices are introduced, the appearance of density isomers becomes unlikely

  18. QCD sum rule for nucleon in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallik, S.; Sarkar, Sourav

    2010-01-01

    We consider the two-point function of nucleon current in nuclear matter and write a QCD sum rule to analyse the residue of the nucleon pole as a function of nuclear density. The nucleon self-energy needed for the sum rule is taken as input from calculations using phenomenological N N potential. Our result shows a decrease in the residue with increasing nuclear density, as is known to be the case with similar quantities. (orig.)

  19. From quantum to semiclassical kinetic equations: Nuclear matter estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galetti, D.; Mizrahi, S.S.; Nemes, M.C.; Toledo Piza, A.F.R. de

    1985-01-01

    Starting from the exact microscopic time evolution of the quantum one body density associated with a many fermion system semiclassical approximations are derived to it. In the limit where small momentum transfer two body collisions are dominant we get a Fokker-Planck equation and work out friction and diffusion tensors explicitly for nuclear matter. If arbitrary momentum transfers are considered a Boltzmann equation is derived and used to calculate the viscosity coefficient of nuclear matter. A derivation is given of the collision term used by Landau to describe the damping of zero sound waves at low temperature in Plasmas. Memory effects are essential for this. The damping of zero sound waves in nuclear matter is also calculated and the value so obtained associated with the bulk value of the damping of giant resonances in finite nuclei. The bulk value is estimated to be quite small indicating the importance of the nuclear surface for the damping. (Author) [pt

  20. History of the APS Topical Group on Shock Compression of Condensed Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, J W

    2001-01-01

    In order to provide broader scientific recognition and to advance the science of shock compressed condensed matter, a group of American Physical Society (APS) members worked within the Society to make this field an active part of the APS. Individual papers were presented at APS meetings starting in the 1940's and shock wave sessions were organized starting with the 1967 Pasadena meeting. Shock wave topical conferences began in 1979 in Pullman, WA. Signatures were obtained on a petition in 1984 from a balanced cross-section of the shock wave community to form an APS Topical Group (TG). The APS Council officially accepted the formation of the Shock Compression of Condensed Matter (SCCM) TG at its October 1984 meeting. This action firmly aligned the shock wave field with a major physical science organization. Most early topical conferences were sanctioned by the APS while those held after 1992 were official APS meetings. The topical group organizes a shock wave topical conference in odd numbered years while participating in shock wavehigh pressure sessions at APS general meetings in even numbered years

  1. Simulations of cold nuclear matter at sub-saturation densities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giménez Molinelli, P.A., E-mail: pagm@df.uba.ar [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires and IFIBA, CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Buenos Aires 1428 (Argentina); Nichols, J.I. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires and IFIBA, CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Buenos Aires 1428 (Argentina); López, J.A. [Department of Physics, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Dorso, C.O. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires and IFIBA, CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Buenos Aires 1428 (Argentina)

    2014-03-01

    Ideal nuclear matter is expected to undergo a first order phase transition at the thermodynamic limit. At such phase transitions the size of density fluctuations (bubbles or droplets) scale with the size of the system. This means that simulations of nuclear matter at sub-saturation densities will inexorably suffer from what is vaguely referred to as “finite size effects”. It is usually thought that these finite size effects can be diminished by imposing periodic boundary conditions and making the system large enough, but as we show in this work, that is actually not the case at sub-saturation densities. In this paper we analyze the equilibrium configurations of molecular dynamics simulations of a classical model for symmetric ideal (uncharged) nuclear matter at sub-saturation densities and low temperatures, where phase coexistence is expected at the thermodynamic limit. We show that the most stable configurations in this density range are almost completely determined by artificial aspects of the simulations (i.e. boundary conditions) and can be predicted analytically by surface minimization. This result is very general and is shown to hold true for several well known semi-classical models of nuclear interaction and even for a simple Lennard-Jones potential. Also, in the limit of very large systems, when “small size” effects can be neglected, those equilibrium configurations seem to be restricted to a few structures reminiscent to the “Pasta Phases” expected in Neutron Star matter, but arising from a completely different origin: In Neutron Star matter, the non-homogeneous structures arise from a competition between nuclear and Coulomb interactions while for ideal nuclear matter they emerge from finite (yet not “small”) size effects. The role of periodic boundary conditions and finite size effects in Neutron Star matter simulations are reexamined.

  2. Pion absorption in excited nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, H.R.; Albrecht, R.; Bock, R.; Gutbrod, H.H.; Kolb, B.W.; Lund, I.; Awes, T.C.; Baktash, C.; Ferguson, R.L.; Lee, I.Y.; Plasil, F.; Saini, S.; Tincknell, M.; Young, G.R.; Beckmann, P.; Berger, F.; Clewing, G.; Dragon, L.; Glasow, R.; Kampert, K.H.; Peitzmann, T.; Purschke, M.; Santo, R.; Claesson, G.; Eklund, A.; Garpman, S.; Gustafsson, H.A.; Idh, J.; Oskarsson, A.; Otterlund, I.; Persson, S.; Stenlund, E.; Franz, A.; Jacobs, P.; Poskanzer, A.M.; Ritter, H.G.; Kristiansson, P.; Loehner, H.; Obenshain, F.E.; Sorensen, S.P.; Siemiarczuk, T.

    1992-02-01

    The target dependence and azimuthal correlations of protons and plons are investigated for pA reactions at 4.9, 60 and 200 GeV. The experimental observations can be understood qualitatively under the assumption that pions are absorbed in excited target spectator matter. (orig.)

  3. The discovery of nuclear compression phenomena in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, H.R.

    1991-01-01

    This article has attempted to review more than 15 years of research on shock compression phenomena, which is closely related to the goal of determining the nuclear EOS. Exciting progress has been made in this field over the last years and the fundamental physics of relativistic heavy ion-collisions has been well established. Overwhelming experimental evidence for the existence of shock compression has been extracted from the data. While early, inclusive measurements had been rather inconclusive, the advent of 4π-detectors like the GSI-LBL Plastic Ball had enabled the outstanding discovery of collective flow effects, as they were predicted by fluid-dynamical calculations. The particular case of conical Mach shock waves, anticipated for asymmetric collisions, has not been observed. What are the reasons? Surprisingly, the maximum energy of 2.1 GeV/nucleon for heavy ions at the BEVALAC had been found to be too low for Mach shock waves to occur. The small 20 Ne-nucleus is stopped in the heavy Au target. A Mach cone, however, if it had developed in the early stage of the collision will be wiped out by thermal motion in the process of slowing the projectile down to rest. A comparison of the data with models hints towards a rather hard EOS, although a soft one cannot be excluded definitively. A quantitative extraction is aggravated by a number in-medium and final-state effects which influence the calculated observables in a similar fashion as different choices of an EOS. Thus, as of now, the precise knowledge of the EOS of hot and dense matter is still an open question and needs further investigation. (orig.)

  4. $J/\\Psi$ mass shift in nuclear matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gastao Krein, Anthony Thomas, Kazuo Tsushima

    2011-02-01

    The $J/\\Psi$ mass shift in cold nuclear matter is computed using an effective Lagrangian approach. The mass shift is computed by evaluating $D$ and $D^*$ meson loop contributions to the $J/\\Psi$ self-energy employing medium-modified meson masses. The modification of the $D$ and $D^*$ masses in nuclear matter is obtained using the quark-meson coupling model. The loop integrals are regularized with dipole form factors and the sensitivity of the results to the values of form-factor cutoff masses is investigated. The $J/\\Psi$ mass shift arising from the modification of the $D$ and $D^*$ loops at normal nuclear matter density is found to range from $-16$~MeV to $-24$~MeV under a wide variation of values of the cutoff masses. Experimental perspectives for the formation of a bound state of $J/\\Psi$ to a nucleus are investigated.

  5. Equation of state of nuclear matter of nucleons and dibaryons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrowczynski, St.

    1985-01-01

    The nuclear matter is considered consisting of nucleons and dibaryons, i.e. elementary particles of double baryon charge. The equation of state of such matter at zero temperature is found. The ideal gas approximation is considered and then the role of interaction is discussed which is included by means of delta-like potential. The peculiarities and possible phisical consequences of the equation of state are considered

  6. Modified quark-meson coupling model for nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, X.; Jennings, B.K.

    1996-01-01

    The quark-meson coupling model for nuclear matter, which describes nuclear matter as nonoverlapping MIT bags bound by the self-consistent exchange of scalar and vector mesons, is modified by introducing medium modification of the bag constant. We model the density dependence of the bag constant in two different ways: One invokes a direct coupling of the bag constant to the scalar meson field, and the other relates the bag constant to the in-medium nucleon mass. Both models feature a decreasing bag constant with increasing density. We find that when the bag constant is significantly reduced in nuclear medium with respect to its free-space value, large canceling isoscalar Lorentz scalar and vector potentials for the nucleon in nuclear matter emerge naturally. Such potentials are comparable to those suggested by relativistic nuclear phenomenology and finite-density QCD sum rules. This suggests that the reduction of bag constant in nuclear medium may play an important role in low- and medium-energy nuclear physics. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  7. Nuclear physics: the core of matter, the fuel of stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiffer, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    Dramatic progress has been made in all branches of physics since the National Research Council's 1986 decadal survey of the field. The Physics in a New Era series explores these advances and looks ahead to future goals. The series includes assessments of the major subfields and reports on several smaller subfields, and preparation has begun on an overview volume on the unity of physics, its relationships to other fields, and its contributions to national needs. Nuclear Physics is the latest volume of the series. The book describes current activity in understanding nuclear structure and symmetries, the behavior of matter at extreme densities, the role of nuclear physics in astrophysics and cosmology, and the instrumentation and facilities used by the field. It makes recommendations on the resources needed for experimental and theoretical advances in the coming decade. Nuclear physics addresses the nature of matter making up 99.9 percent of the mass of our everyday world. It explores the nuclear reactions that fuel the stars, including our Sun, which provides the energy for all life on Earth. The field of nuclear physics encompasses some 3,000 experimental and theoretical researchers who work at universities and national laboratories across the United States, as well as the experimental facilities and infrastructure that allow these researchers to address the outstanding scientific questions facing us. This report provides an overview of the frontiers of nuclear physics as we enter the next millennium, with special attention to the state of the science in the United States.The current frontiers of nuclear physics involve fundamental and rapidly evolving issues. One is understanding the structure and behavior of strongly interacting matter in terms of its basic constituents, quarks and gluons, over a wide range of conditions - from normal nuclear matter to the dense cores of neutron stars, and to the Big Bang that was the birth of the universe. Another is to describe

  8. Energy-range relations for hadrons in nuclear matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strugalski, Z.

    1985-01-01

    Range-energy relations for hadrons in nuclear matter exist similarly to the range-energy relations for charged particles in materials. When hadrons of GeV kinetic energies collide with atomic nuclei massive enough, events occur in which incident hadron is stopped completely inside the target nucleus without causing particle production - without pion production in particular. The stoppings are always accompanied by intensive emission of nucleons with kinetic energy from about 20 up to about 400 MeV. It was shown experimentally that the mean number of the emitted nucleons is a measure of the mean path in nuclear matter in nucleons on which the incident hadrons are stopped.

  9. Thermal properties of nuclear matter under the periodic boundary condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otuka, Naohiko; Ohnishi, Akira

    1999-01-01

    We present the thermal properties of nuclear matter under the periodic boundary condition by the use of our hadronic nucleus-nucleus cascade model (HANDEL) which is developed to treat relativistic heavy-ion collisions from BNL-AGS to CERN-SPS. We first show some results of p-p scattering calculation in our new version which is improved in order to treat isospin ratio and multiplicity more accurately. We then display the results of calculation of nuclear matter with baryon density ρ b = 0.77 fm 3 at some energy densities. Time evolution of particle abundance and temperature are shown. (author)

  10. Lectures notes on phase transformations in nuclear matter

    CERN Document Server

    López, Jorge A

    2000-01-01

    The atomic nucleus, despite of being one of the smallest objects found in nature, appears to be large enough to experience phase transitions. The book deals with the liquid and gaseous phases of nuclear matter, as well as with the experimental routes to achieve transformation between them.Theoretical models are introduced from the ground up and with increasing complexity to describe nuclear matter from a statistical and thermodynamical point of view. Modern critical phenomena, heavy ion collisions and computational techniques are presented while establishing a linkage to experimental data.The

  11. Charge symmetry breaking nuclear forces and the properties of nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haensel, P.

    1977-01-01

    The charge symmetry breaking (CSB) component of the nuclear forces yields the charge asymmetric term Esub(a)(N-Z)/A in the nuclear binding energy of nuclear matter. Calculation performed with several models of the CSB nuclear forces, and accounting for the strong short-range two-body correlations, gives Esub(a) approximately -0.2 MeV at the normal nuclear density. The charge asymmetry of the effective nucleon-nucleon interaction is determined primarily by the CSB nuclear forces at the neutron excess, observed in finite nuclei. The exclusion principle and dispersion (self-consistency) effects of the nuclear medium decrease this charge asymmetry. (author)

  12. α particles and the ''pasta'' phase in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avancini, S. S.; Barros, C. C. Jr.; Menezes, D. P.; Providencia, C.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of the α particles in nuclear matter at low densities are investigated within three different parametrizations of relativistic models at finite temperature. Both homogeneous and inhomogeneous matter (pasta phase) are described for neutral nuclear matter with fixed proton fractions and stellar matter subject to β equilibrium and trapped neutrinos. In homogeneous matter, α particles are present only at densities below 0.02 fm -3 and their presence decreases with increase of the temperature and, for a fixed temperature, the α particle fraction decreases for smaller proton fractions. A repulsive interaction is important to mimic the dissolution of the clusters in homogeneous matter. The effect of the α particles on the pasta structure is very small except close to the critical temperatures and/or proton fractions, when it may still predict a pasta phase while no pasta phase would occur in the absence of light clusters. It is shown that for densities above 0.01 fm 3 the α-particle fraction in the pasta phase is much larger than that in homogeneous matter.

  13. Quark distributions in nuclear matter and the EMC effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mineo, H.; Bentz, W. E-mail: bentz@keyaki.cc.u-tokai.ac.jp; Ishii, N.; Thomas, A.W.; Yazaki, K

    2004-05-03

    Quark light cone momentum distributions in nuclear matter and the structure function of a bound nucleon are investigated in the framework of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. This framework describes the nucleon as a relativistic quark-diquark state, and the nuclear matter equation of state by using the mean field approximation. The scalar and vector mean fields in the nuclear medium couple to the quarks in the nucleon and their effect on the spin independent nuclear structure function is investigated in detail. Special emphasis is placed on the important effect of the vector mean field and on a formulation which guarantees the validity of the number and momentum sum rules from the outset.

  14. Supernovae and high density nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahana, S.

    1986-01-01

    The role of the nuclear equation of state (EOS) in producing prompt supernova explosions is examined. Results of calculations of Baron, Cooperstein, and Kahana incorporating general relativity and a new high density EOS are presented, and the relevance of these calculations to laboratory experiments with heavy ions considered. 31 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Supernovae and high density nuclear matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahana, S.

    1986-01-01

    The role of the nuclear equation of state (EOS) in producing prompt supernova explosions is examined. Results of calculations of Baron, Cooperstein, and Kahana incorporating general relativity and a new high density EOS are presented, and the relevance of these calculations to laboratory experiments with heavy ions considered. 31 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Instability in relativistic mean-field theories of nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friman, B.L.; Henning, P.A.

    1988-01-01

    We investigate the stability of the nuclear matter ground state with respect to small-perturbations of the meson fields in relativistic mean-field theories. The popular σ-ω model is shown to have an instability at about twice the nuclear density, which gives rise to a new ground state with periodic spin alignment. Taking into account the contributions of the Dirac sea properly, this instability vanishes. Consequences for relativistic heavy-ion-collisions are discussed briefly. (orig.)

  17. Instability in relativistic mean-field theories of nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friman, B.L.; Henning, P.A.

    1988-01-01

    We investigate the stability of the nuclear matter ground state with respect to small perturbations of the meson fields in relativistic mean-field theories. The popular σ-ω model is shown to have an instability at about twice the nuclear density, which gives rise to a new ground state with periodic spin alignment. Taking into account the contributions of the Dirac sea properly, this instability vanishes. Consequences for relativistic heavy-ion collisions are discussed briefly. (orig.)

  18. Measurements Matter in Nuclear Safeguards & Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aregbe, Y.; Jakopic, R.; Richter, S.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Hult, M.

    2015-01-01

    The deliverable of any laboratory is a measurement result with stated uncertainty and traceability (ISO/IEC 17025: 2005). Measurement results, particularly in safeguards, have to be accurate, comparable and traceable to a stated reference, preferably to the SI. Results provided by operator-, safeguards- or network laboratories have to be in compliance with specific quality goals for nuclear material and environmental sample analysis. Metrological quality control tools are prerequisites to build up confidence in measurement results that have to be translated into meaningful safeguards conclusions or to demonstrate conformity of findings with declared processes. The European Commission—Joint Research Centre (EC–JRC) has dedicated facilities, laboratories and projects to provide certified nuclear reference materials (CRM), to develop reference methods and to organize inter-laboratory comparisons (ILC) in compliance with ISO Guide 34, ISO17025 and ISO17043, including respective training. Recent examples are: – cooperation with the JAEA to investigate on the application of Neutron Resonance Densitometry (NRD) to quantify the amount of special nuclear material in particlelike debris of melted fuel as formed in the nuclear accident in Fukushima – training in metrology and gamma-ray spectrometry for EURATOM safeguards inspectors – development of uranium reference particle standards under a new EC support task to the IAEA. Currently, the JRC puts major efforts in producing CRMs and conformity assessment tools for “age-dating” of uranium and plutonium samples. They are needed for method validation in determining the date of the last chemical separation of uranium or plutonium from their daughter nuclides. These type of CRMs are not only needed in nuclear safeguards and forensics, but could support in the future a possible new type of “verification mechanism” as part of the Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty (FMCT), since measurements and measurement standards

  19. Compression and release dynamics of an active matter system of Euglena gracilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Amy; Tsang, Alan C. H.; Ouellette, Nicholas; Riedel-Kruse, Ingmar

    Active matter, defined as ensembles of self-propelled particles, encompasses a large variety of systems at all scales, from nanoparticles to bird flocks. Though various models and simulations have been created to describe the dynamics of these systems, experimental verification has been difficult to obtain. This is frequently due to the complex interaction rules which govern the particle behavior, in turn making systematic varying of parameters impossible. Here, we propose a model for predicting the system evolution of compression and release of an active system based on experiments and simulations. In particular, we consider ensembles of the unicellular, photo-responsive algae, Euglena gracilis, under light stimulation. By varying the spatiotemporal light patterns, we are able to finely adjust cell densities and achieve arbitrary non-homogeneous distributions, including compression into high-density aggregates of varying geometries. We observe the formation of depletion zones after the release of the confining stimulus and investigate the effects of the density distribution and particle rotational noise on the depletion. These results provide implications for defining state parameters which determine system evolution.

  20. Meson production in nuclear collisions and the equation of state of hadronic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosse, E.

    1993-01-01

    Whereas nuclear matter at saturation, i.e. at its ground state density [ρ o ≅ 1 nucleon per 6 fm 3 ] is realized in the center of nuclei, it is compressed to much higher density in neutron stars and during explosive stellar processes like novae and supernovae. The hard core repulsion in the nucleon-nucleon potential and also the Pauli principle counteract such a compression and the stiffness of the equation of state of this matter is determined by these two effects - at least up to a certain density. For very high density and temperature it is believed that the nucleons dissociate into a plasma of quarks and gluons. On the other hand there are detailed theoretical arguments and also experimental evidence shown here, that in the intermediate density range the equation of state is influenced by a different scenario. The conversion of nucleons into heavier baryons leads directly to an additional mass density and at the same time their different quantum numbers allow a higher particle number in a given volume of phase space. The heavy baryons in question are nucleon resonances (Δ,N*) and to smaller extent also hyperons; to conserve strangeness the formation of the latter is associated with the production of kaons whereas Δ's and N*'s are strongly coupled to the pions in the hadronic matter in the collision zone. (author)

  1. Three-dimensional structure of low-density nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Minoru; Maruyama, Toshiki; Yabana, Kazuhiro; Tatsumi, Toshitaka

    2012-01-01

    We numerically explore the pasta structures and properties of low-density nuclear matter without any assumption on the geometry. We observe conventional pasta structures, while a mixture of the pasta structures appears as a metastable state at some transient densities. We also discuss the lattice structure of droplets.

  2. Three-dimensional calculation of inhomogeneous nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Minoru; Maruyama, Toshiki; Yabana, Kazuhiro; Tatsumi, Toshitaka

    2012-01-01

    We numerically explore the pasta structures and properties of low-density symmetric nuclear matter without any assumption on the geometry. We observe conventional pasta structures, while a mixture of the pasta appears as a meta-stable state at some transient densities. We also analyze the lattice structure of droplets.

  3. Three-dimensional calculation of inhomogeneous nuclear matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, Minoru; Maruyama, Toshiki; Yabana, Kazuhiro; Tatsumi, Toshitaka [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Science, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan); Graduate School of Pure and Applied Science, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Department of Physics, Kyoto University (Japan)

    2012-11-12

    We numerically explore the pasta structures and properties of low-density symmetric nuclear matter without any assumption on the geometry. We observe conventional pasta structures, while a mixture of the pasta appears as a meta-stable state at some transient densities. We also analyze the lattice structure of droplets.

  4. Three-dimensional structure of low-density nuclear matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, Minoru, E-mail: okamoto@nucl.ph.tsukuba.ac.jp [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Science, University of Tsukuba, Tennoudai 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Shirakata Shirane 2-4, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Maruyama, Toshiki, E-mail: maruyama.toshiki@jaea.go.jp [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Shirakata Shirane 2-4, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Graduate School of Pure and Applied Science, University of Tsukuba, Tennoudai 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Yabana, Kazuhiro, E-mail: yabana@nucl.ph.tsukuba.ac.jp [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Science, University of Tsukuba, Tennoudai 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Center of Computational Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tennoudai 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Tatsumi, Toshitaka, E-mail: tatsumi@ruby.scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2012-07-09

    We numerically explore the pasta structures and properties of low-density nuclear matter without any assumption on the geometry. We observe conventional pasta structures, while a mixture of the pasta structures appears as a metastable state at some transient densities. We also discuss the lattice structure of droplets.

  5. QUANTUM TRANSPORT-THEORY OF NUCLEAR-MATTER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOTERMANS, W; MALFLIET, R

    1990-01-01

    Quantum kinetic equations are derived using the Keldysh Green's function formalism to describe non-equilibrium processes in nuclear matter and nucleus-nucleus collisions. A general transport equation is proposed which includes energy spreading effects. We discuss a number of specific kinetic

  6. The symmetry energy in nuclei and in nuclear matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Isacker, P.; Dieperink, A. E. L.

    2006-01-01

    We discuss to what extent information on ground-state properties of finite nuclei (energies and radii) can be used to obtain constraints on the symmetry energy in nuclear matter and its dependence on the density. The starting point is a generalized Weizsacker formula for ground-state energies. In

  7. The symmetry energy in nuclei and in nuclear matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieperink, A. E. L.; Van Isacker, P.

    We discuss to what extent information on ground-state properties of finite nuclei ( energies and radii) can be used to obtain constraints on the symmetry energy in nuclear matter and its dependence on the density. The starting point is a generalized Weizsacker formula for ground-state energies. In

  8. Nuclear symmetry energy and stability of matter in neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubis, Sebastian

    2007-01-01

    It is shown that the nuclear symmetry energy is the key quantity in the stability consideration in neutron star matter. The symmetry energy controls the position of crust-core transition and also may lead to new effects in the inner core of neutron star

  9. Nuclear matter equation of state and σ-meson parameters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We try to determine phenomenologically the extent of in-medium modification of -meson parameters so that the saturation observables of the nuclear matter equation of state (EOS) are reproduced. To calculate the EOS we have used Brueckner–Bethe–Goldstone formalism with Bonn potential as two-body interaction.

  10. Charm and Hidden Charm Scalar Resonances in Nuclear Matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolos, Laura; Molina, Raquel; Gamermann, Daniel; Oset, Eulogio

    2009-01-01

    We study the properties of the scalar charm resonances D(s0)(2317) and D(0)(2400), and the theoretical hidden charm state X(3700) in nuclear matter. We find that for the D(s0)(2317) and X(3700) resonances, with negligible and small width at zero density, respectively, the width becomes about 100 MeV

  11. Spin polarized states in strongly asymmetric nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isayev, A.A.; Yang, J.

    2004-01-01

    The possibility of appearance of spin polarized states in strongly asymmetric nuclear matter is analyzed within the framework of a Fermi liquid theory with the Skyrme effective interaction. The zero temperature dependence of the neutron and proton spin polarization parameters as functions of density is found for SLy4 and SLy5 effective forces. It is shown that at some critical density strongly asymmetric nuclear matter undergoes a phase transition to the state with the oppositely directed spins of neutrons and protons while the state with the same direction of spins does not appear. In comparison with neutron matter, even small admixture of protons strongly decreases the threshold density of spin instability. It is clarified that protons become totally polarized within a very narrow density domain while the density profile of the neutron spin polarization parameter is characterized by the appearance of long tails near the transition density

  12. Matter in extremis: Ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions at RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, Peter; Wang, Xin-Nian

    2004-08-20

    We review the physics of nuclear matter at high energy density and the experimental search for the Quark-Gluon Plasma at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The data obtained in the first three years of the RHIC physics program provide several lines of evidence that a novel state of matter has been created in the most violent, head-on collisions of Au nuclei at {radical}s = 200 GeV. Jet quenching and global measurements show that the initial energy density of the strongly interacting medium generated in the collision is about two orders of magnitude larger than that of cold nuclear matter, well above the critical density for the deconfinement phase transition predicted by lattice QCD. The observed collective flow patterns imply that the system thermalizes early in its evolution, with the dynamics of its expansion consistent with ideal hydrodynamic flow based on a Quark-Gluon Plasma equation of state.

  13. Matter in extremis: Ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions at RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, Peter; Wang, Xin-Nian

    2004-01-01

    We review the physics of nuclear matter at high energy density and the experimental search for the Quark-Gluon Plasma at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The data obtained in the first three years of the RHIC physics program provide several lines of evidence that a novel state of matter has been created in the most violent, head-on collisions of Au nuclei at √s = 200 GeV. Jet quenching and global measurements show that the initial energy density of the strongly interacting medium generated in the collision is about two orders of magnitude larger than that of cold nuclear matter, well above the critical density for the deconfinement phase transition predicted by lattice QCD. The observed collective flow patterns imply that the system thermalizes early in its evolution, with the dynamics of its expansion consistent with ideal hydrodynamic flow based on a Quark-Gluon Plasma equation of state

  14. Comparative study of three-nucleon potentials in nuclear matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovato, Alessandro; Benhar, Omar; Fantoni, Stefano; Schmidt, Kevin E.

    2012-02-01

    A new generation of local three-body potentials providing an excellent description of the properties of light nuclei, as well as of the neutron-deuteron doublet scattering length, has been recently derived. We have performed a comparative analysis of the equations of state of both pure neutron matter (PNM) and symmetric nuclear matter (SNM) at zero temperature obtained using these models of three-nucleon forces. In particular, we have carried out both variational and auxiliary field diffusion Monte Carlo calculations of the equation of state of PNM, while in the case of SNM we have only the variational approach has been considered. None of the considered potentials simultaneously explains the empirical equilibrium density and binding energy of symmetric nuclear matter. However, two of them provide reasonable values of the saturation density. The ambiguity concerning the treatment of the contact term of the chiral inspired potentials is discussed.

  15. New filterability and compressibility test cell design for nuclear products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Féraud, J.P. [CEA Marcoule, DTEC/SGCS/LGCI, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Bourcier, D., E-mail: damien.bourcier@cea.fr [CEA Marcoule, DTEC/SGCS/LGCI, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Ode, D. [CEA Marcoule, DTEC/SGCS/LGCI, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Puel, F. [Université Lyon 1, Villeurbanne (France); CNRS, UMR5007, Laboratoire d‘Automatique et de Génie des Procédés (LAGEP), CPE-Lyon, 43 bd du 11 Novembre 1918, 69100 Villeurbanne (France)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Test easily usable without tools in a glove box. • The test minimizes the slurry volume necessary for this type of study. • The test characterizes the flow resistance in a porous medium in formation. • The test is performed at four pressure levels to determine the compressibility. • The technical design ensures reproducible flow resistance measurements. -- Abstract: Filterability and compressibility tests are often carried out at laboratory scale to obtain data required to scale up solid/liquid separation processes. Current technologies, applied with a constant pressure drop, enable specific resistance and cake formation rate measurement in accordance with a modified Darcy's law. The new test cell design described in this paper is easily usable without tools in a glove box and minimizes the slurry volume necessary for this type of study. This is an advantage for investigating toxic and hazardous products such as radioactive materials. Uranium oxalate precipitate slurries were used to test and validate this new cell. In order to reduce the test cell volume, a statistical approach was applied on 8 results obtained with cylindrical test cells of 1.8 cm and 3 cm in diameter. Wall effects can therefore be ignored despite the small filtration cell diameter, allowing tests to be performed with only about one-tenth of the slurry volume of a standard commercial cell. The significant reduction in the size of this experimental device does not alter the consistency of filtration data which may be used in the design of industrial equipment.

  16. New filterability and compressibility test cell design for nuclear products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Féraud, J.P.; Bourcier, D.; Ode, D.; Puel, F.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Test easily usable without tools in a glove box. • The test minimizes the slurry volume necessary for this type of study. • The test characterizes the flow resistance in a porous medium in formation. • The test is performed at four pressure levels to determine the compressibility. • The technical design ensures reproducible flow resistance measurements. -- Abstract: Filterability and compressibility tests are often carried out at laboratory scale to obtain data required to scale up solid/liquid separation processes. Current technologies, applied with a constant pressure drop, enable specific resistance and cake formation rate measurement in accordance with a modified Darcy's law. The new test cell design described in this paper is easily usable without tools in a glove box and minimizes the slurry volume necessary for this type of study. This is an advantage for investigating toxic and hazardous products such as radioactive materials. Uranium oxalate precipitate slurries were used to test and validate this new cell. In order to reduce the test cell volume, a statistical approach was applied on 8 results obtained with cylindrical test cells of 1.8 cm and 3 cm in diameter. Wall effects can therefore be ignored despite the small filtration cell diameter, allowing tests to be performed with only about one-tenth of the slurry volume of a standard commercial cell. The significant reduction in the size of this experimental device does not alter the consistency of filtration data which may be used in the design of industrial equipment

  17. Nonlinear mean field theory for nuclear matter and surface properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boguta, J.; Moszkowski, S.A.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear matter properties are studied in a nonlinear relativistic mean field theory. We determine the parameters of the model from bulk properties of symmetric nuclear matter and a reasonable value of the effective mass. In this work, we stress the nonrelativistic limit of the theory which is essentially equivalent to a Skyrme hamiltonian, and we show that most of the results can be obtained, to a good approximation, analytically. The strength of the required parameters is determined from the binding energy and density of nuclear matter and the effective nucleon mass. For realistic values of the parameters, the nonrelativistic approximation turns out to be quite satisfactory. Using reasonable values of the parameters, we can account for other key properties of nuclei, such as the spin-orbit coupling, surface energy, and diffuseness of the nuclear surface. Also the energy dependence of the nucleon-nucleus optical model is accounted for reasonably well except near the Fermi surface. It is found, in agreement with empirical results, that the Landau parameter F 0 is quite small in normal nuclear matter. Both density dependence and momentum dependence of the NN interaction, but especially the former, are important for nuclear saturation. The required scalar and vector coupling constants agree fairly well with those obtained from analyses of NN scattering phase shifts with one-boson-exchange models. The mean field theory provides a semiquantitative justification for the weak Skyrme interaction in odd states. The strength of the required nonlinear term is roughly consistent with that derived using a new version of the chiral mean field theory in which the vector mass as well as the nucleon mass is generated by the sigma-field. (orig.)

  18. Variational theory of nuclear and neutron matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandharipande, V.R.; Wiringa, R.B.

    1989-06-01

    In these lectures we will discuss attempts to solve the A = 3 to ∞ nuclear many-body problems with the variational method. We choose the form of a variational wave function Χ v (1, 2 hor-ellipsis A) to describe the ground state. The Χ v and the ground-state energy E v are obtained by minimizing E v = left-angle Χ v |H|Χ v right-angle/left-angle Χ v |Χ v right-angle with respect to variations in Χ v . If the form of the variational wave function is chosen properly we can expect Χ v ∼ Χ 0 and E v ∼ E 0 where Χ 0 and E 0 are the exact ground-state wave function and energy. In general E v ≥ E 0 in variational calculations. 63 refs., 11 figs

  19. Climate Change, Nuclear Power and Nuclear Proliferation: Magnitude Matters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert J. Goldston

    2010-03-03

    Integrated energy, environment and economics modeling suggests electrical energy use will increase from 2.4 TWe today to 12 TWe in 2100. It will be challenging to provide 40% of this electrical power from combustion with carbon sequestration, as it will be challenging to provide 30% from renewable energy sources. Thus nuclear power may be needed to provide ~30% by 2100. Calculations of the associated stocks and flows of uranium, plutonium and minor actinides indicate that the proliferation risks at mid-century, using current light-water reactor technology, are daunting. There are institutional arrangements that may be able to provide an acceptable level of risk mitigation, but they will be difficult to implement. If a transition is begun to fast-spectrum reactors at mid-century, without a dramatic change in the proliferation risks of such systems, at the end of the century proliferation risks are much greater, and more resistant to mitigation. The risks of nuclear power should be compared with the risks of the estimated 0.64oC long-term global surface-average temperature rise predicted if nuclear power were replaced with coal-fired power plants without carbon sequestration. Fusion energy, if developed, would provide a source of nuclear power with much lower proliferation risks than fission.

  20. Climate Change, Nuclear Power and Nuclear Proliferation: Magnitude Matters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldston, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Integrated energy, environment and economics modeling suggests electrical energy use will increase from 2.4 TWe today to 12 TWe in 2100. It will be challenging to provide 40% of this electrical power from combustion with carbon sequestration, as it will be challenging to provide 30% from renewable energy sources. Thus nuclear power may be needed to provide ∼30% by 2100. Calculations of the associated stocks and flows of uranium, plutonium and minor actinides indicate that the proliferation risks at mid-century, using current light-water reactor technology, are daunting. There are institutional arrangements that may be able to provide an acceptable level of risk mitigation, but they will be difficult to implement. If a transition is begun to fast-spectrum reactors at mid-century, without a dramatic change in the proliferation risks of such systems, at the end of the century proliferation risks are much greater, and more resistant to mitigation. The risks of nuclear power should be compared with the risks of the estimated 0.64 C long-term global surface-average temperature rise predicted if nuclear power were replaced with coal-fired power plants without carbon sequestration. Fusion energy, if developed, would provide a source of nuclear power with much lower proliferation risks than fission.

  1. Equation of state and stability of hot asymmetric nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samaddar, S.K.

    1989-01-01

    The nuclear incompressibility as obtained from different sources, from nuclei, high energy nuclear collisions, supernova and neutron stars are briefly reviewed. All these data in general favour a compression modulus, K α ∼ 300 Mev with a minimum uncertainty ∼ 50 MeV. Using a finite rang e density and momentum dependent two-body effective interaction, variation of nucl ear incompressibility with temperature, asymmetry and density is discussed in a non-relativistic mean field approach. The same formalism has also been used to study the limiting temperatures of infinite as well as finite nuclear systems in the astrophysical context as well as in high energy heavy ion collisions. (autho r). 16 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  2. Variational method for infinite nuclear matter with noncentral forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, M.; Yamada, M.

    1998-01-01

    Approximate energy expressions are proposed for infinite zero-temperature nuclear matter by taking into account noncentral forces. They are explicitly expressed as functionals of spin- (isospin-) dependent radial distribution functions, tensor distribution functions and spin-orbit distribution functions, and can be used conveniently in the variational method. A notable feature of these expressions is that they automatically guarantee the necessary conditions on the spin-isospin-dependent structure functions. The Euler-Lagrange equations are derived from these energy expressions and numerically solved for neutron matter and symmetric nuclear matter. The results show that the noncentral forces bring down the total energies too much with too dense saturation densities. Since the main reason for these undesirable results seems to be the long tails of the noncentral distribution functions, an effective theory is proposed by introducing a density-dependent damping function into the noncentral potentials to suppress the long tails of the non-central distribution functions. By adjusting the value of a parameter included in the damping function, we can reproduce the saturation point (both the energy and density) of symmetric nuclear matter with the Hamada-Johnston potential. (Copyright (1998) World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd)

  3. Pion condensation in a theory consistent with bulk properties of nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glendenning, N.K.

    1980-01-01

    A relativistic field theory of nuclear matter is solved for the self-consistent field strengths inthe mean-field approximation. The theory is constrained to reproduce the bulk properties of nuclear matter. A weak pion condensate is compatible with this constraint. At least this is encouraging as concerns the possible existence of a new phase of nuclear matter. In contrast, the Lee-Wick density isomer is probably not compatible with the properties of nuclear matter. 3 figures

  4. Variational theory of nuclear and neutron matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandharipande, V.R.; Wiringa, R.B. (Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (USA). Dept. of Physics; Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))

    1989-06-01

    In these lectures we will discuss attempts to solve the A = 3 to {infinity} nuclear many-body problems with the variational method. We choose the form of a variational wave function {Chi}{sub v}(1, 2{hor ellipsis}A) to describe the ground state. The {Chi}{sub v} and the ground-state energy E{sub v} are obtained by minimizing E{sub v} = {l angle}{Chi}{sub v}{vert bar}H{vert bar}{Chi}{sub v}{r angle}/{l angle}{Chi}{sub v}{vert bar}{Chi}{sub v}{r angle} with respect to variations in {Chi}{sub v}. If the form of the variational wave function is chosen properly we can expect {Chi}{sub v} {approx} {Chi}{sub 0} and E{sub v} {approx} E{sub 0} where {Chi}{sub 0} and E{sub 0} are the exact ground-state wave function and energy. In general E{sub v} {ge} E{sub 0} in variational calculations. 63 refs., 11 figs.

  5. Nuclear matter descriptions including quark structure of the hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huguet, R.

    2008-07-01

    It is nowadays well established that nucleons are composite objects made of quarks and gluons, whose interactions are described by Quantum chromodynamics (QCD). However, because of the non-perturbative character of QCD at the energies of nuclear physics, a description of atomic nuclei starting from quarks and gluons is still not available. A possible alternative is to construct effective field theories based on hadronic degrees of freedom, in which the interaction is constrained by QCD. In this framework, we have constructed descriptions of infinite nuclear matter in relativistic mean field theories taking into account the quark structure of hadrons. In a first approach, the in medium modifications of mesons properties is dynamically obtained in a Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) quark model. This modification is taken into account in a relativistic mean field theory based on a meson exchange interaction between nucleons. The in-medium modification of mesons masses and the properties of infinite nuclear matter have been studied. In a second approach, the long and short range contributions to the in-medium modification of the nucleon are determined. The short range part is obtained in a NJL quark model of the nucleon. The long range part, related to pions exchanges between nucleons, has been determined in the framework of Chiral Perturbation theory. These modifications have been used to constrain the couplings of a point coupling relativistic mean field model. A realistic description of the saturation properties of nuclear matter is obtained. (author)

  6. Review of the theory of infinite nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llano, M. de; Tolmachev, V.V.

    1975-01-01

    Given a two-body force, there seems to be two distinct starting points in the many-body perturbation-theoretic problem of computing the energy per nucleon of infinite (as well as finite) nuclear matter: ordinary Hartree-Fock theory and the Brueckner theory. The former theory, treated almost exclusively with plane-wave solutions, has long-ago fallen into disuse, to yield to the latter, apparently more sophisticated, theory. After a brief outline of many-fermion diagramatic techniques, the Brueckner-Bethe-Goldstone series expansion in terms of the density is discussed as a low density, non-ideal Fermi gas theory, whose convergence is analyzed. A calculation based on particle-hole Green's function techniques shows that a nucleon gas condenses to the liquid phase at about 3% of the empirical nuclear matter saturation density. The analogy between the BBG expansion and the virial expansion for a classical or quantum gas is studied with special emphasis on the apparent impossibility of analytical-continuing the latter gas theory to densities in the liquid regime, as first elucidated by Lee and Yang. It is finally argued that ordinary HF theory may provide a good starting point for the eventual understanding of nuclear matter as it gives (in the finite nuclear problem, at any rate) not only the basic liquid properties of a definite density and a surface but also provides independent-particle aspects, avoiding at the same time the idea of n-body clusters appropriate only for dilute gases. This program has to date not been carried out for infinite nuclear matter, mainly because of insufficient knowledge regarding low-energy, non-plane-wave solutions of the HF equations, in the thermodynamic limit [pt

  7. Climate Change, Nuclear Power and Nuclear Proliferation: Magnitude Matters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldston, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Integrated energy, environment and economics modeling suggests that worldwide electrical energy use will increase from 2.4 TWe today to ∼12 TWe in 2100. It will be challenging to provide 40% of this electrical power from combustion with carbon sequestration, as it will be challenging to provide 30% from renewable energy sources derived from natural energy flows. Thus nuclear power may be needed to provide ∼30%, 3600 GWe, by 2100. Calculations of the associated stocks and flows of uranium, plutonium and minor actinides indicate that the proliferation risks at mid-century, using current light-water reactor technology, are daunting. There are institutional arrangements that may be able to provide an acceptable level of risk mitigation, but they will be difficult to implement. If a transition is begun to fast-spectrum reactors at mid-century, without a dramatic change in the proliferation risks of such systems, at the end of the century global nuclear proliferation risks are much greater, and more resistant to mitigation. Fusion energy, if successfully demonstrated to be economically competitive, would provide a source of nuclear power with much lower proliferation risks than fission.

  8. Climate Change, Nuclear Power and Nuclear Proliferation: Magnitude Matters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert J. Goldston

    2011-04-28

    Integrated energy, environment and economics modeling suggests that worldwide electrical energy use will increase from 2.4 TWe today to ~12 TWe in 2100. It will be challenging to provide 40% of this electrical power from combustion with carbon sequestration, as it will be challenging to provide 30% from renewable energy sources derived from natural energy flows. Thus nuclear power may be needed to provide ~30%, 3600 GWe, by 2100. Calculations of the associated stocks and flows of uranium, plutonium and minor actinides indicate that the proliferation risks at mid-century, using current light-water reactor technology, are daunting. There are institutional arrangements that may be able to provide an acceptable level of risk mitigation, but they will be difficult to implement. If a transition is begun to fast-spectrum reactors at mid-century, without a dramatic change in the proliferation risks of such systems, at the end of the century global nuclear proliferation risks are much greater, and more resistant to mitigation. Fusion energy, if successfully demonstrated to be economically competitive, would provide a source of nuclear power with much lower proliferation risks than fission.

  9. Symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter in the relativistic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, H.; Weber, F.; Weigel, M.K.

    1995-01-01

    Symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter is studied in the framework of the relativistic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock and in the relativistic version of the so-called Λ 00 approximation. The equations are solved self-consistently in the full Dirac space, so avoiding the ambiguities in the choice of the effective scattering amplitude in matter. The calculations were performed for some modern meson-exchange potentials constructed by Brockmann and Machleidt. In some cases we used also the Groningen potentials. First, we examine the outcome for symmetric matter with respect to other calculations, which restrict themselves to positive-energy states only. The main part is devoted to the properties of asymmetric matter. In this case we obtain additionally to the good agreement with the parameters of symmetric matter, also a quite satisfactory agreement with the semiempirical macroscopic coefficients of asymmetric matter. Furthermore, we tested the assumption of a quadratic dependence of the asymmetry energy for a large range of asymmetries. Included is also the dependence of nucleon self-energies on density and neutron excess. For the purpose of comparison we discuss further the similarities and differences with relativistic Hartree and Hartree-Fock calculations and nonrelativistic Skyrme calculations

  10. Nuclear matter flow in the Kr+Au collisions at 43 MeV/u

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bougault, R.; Delaunay, F.; Genoux-Lubain, A.; Lebrun, C.; Lecolley, J.F.; Lefebvres, F.; Louvel, M.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Aloff, J.C.; Bilwes, B.; Bilwes, R.; Glaser, M.; Rudolf, G.; Scheibling, F.; Stuttge, L.

    1989-01-01

    When heavy nuclei collide at energy far above the Coulomb barrier we may study the property of nuclear matter in temperature and also density regions far away from the equilibrium. We then hope to study dynamical effects related to the compressibility and the two body collision term. At relativistic energies, some collective effects (flow, bounce off) have been established from a shape analysis done with a large number of light particles with Z ≤ 10. For incident energies lower than 100 MeV/u we may expect that the number of nuclear species formed will be smaller and that a large part of the nuclear matter involved in the collision will be shared in a limited number of heavy fragments (Z ≥ 10). If dynamical effects are still present at GANIL energies they ought to manifest themselves through the properties of the produced fragments (masses, emission angles, velocities and correlated variables). We will present an analysis of heavy nuclei collisions at 43 MeV/u based on as exclusive as possible detection of large fragments

  11. Fermi liquid, clustering, and structure factor in dilute warm nuclear matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röpke, G.; Voskresensky, D. N.; Kryukov, I. A.; Blaschke, D.

    2018-02-01

    Properties of nuclear systems at subsaturation densities can be obtained from different approaches. We demonstrate the use of the density autocorrelation function which is related to the isothermal compressibility and, after integration, to the equation of state. This way we connect the Landau Fermi liquid theory well elaborated in nuclear physics with the approaches to dilute nuclear matter describing cluster formation. A quantum statistical approach is presented, based on the cluster decomposition of the polarization function. The fundamental quantity to be calculated is the dynamic structure factor. Comparing with the Landau Fermi liquid theory which is reproduced in lowest approximation, the account of bound state formation and continuum correlations gives the correct low-density result as described by the second virial coefficient and by the mass action law (nuclear statistical equilibrium). Going to higher densities, the inclusion of medium effects is more involved compared with other quantum statistical approaches, but the relation to the Landau Fermi liquid theory gives a promising approach to describe not only thermodynamic but also collective excitations and non-equilibrium properties of nuclear systems in a wide region of the phase diagram.

  12. Pure Neutron Matter Constraints and Nuclear Symmetry Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fattoyev, F J; Newton, W G; Xu, Jun; Li, Bao-An

    2013-01-01

    In this review, we will discuss the results of our recent work [1] to study the general optimization of the pure isovector parameters of the popular relativistic mean-field (RMF) and Skyrme-Hartree-Fock (SHF) nuclear energy-density functionals (EDFs), using constraints on the pure neutron matter (PNM) equation of state (EoS) from recent ab initio calculations. By using RMF and SHF parameterizations that give equivalent predictions for ground-state properties of doubly magic nuclei and properties of symmetric nuclear matter (SNM) and PNM, we found that such optimization leads to broadly consistent symmetry energy J and its slope parameter L at saturation density within a tight range of α(J) sym , (b) the symmetry energy at supra-saturation densities, and (c) the radius of neutron stars.

  13. Relativistic nuclear matter with alternative derivative coupling models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delfino, A.; Coelho, C.T.; Malheiro, M.

    1994-01-01

    Effective Lagrangians involving nucleons coupled to scalar and vector fields are investigated within the framework of relativistic mean-field theory. The study presents the traditional Walecka model and different kinds of scalar derivative coupling suggested by Zimanyi and Moszkowski. The incompressibility (presented in an analytical form), scalar potential, and vector potential at the saturation point of nuclear matter are compared for these models. The real optical potential for the models are calculated and one of the models fits well the experimental curve from-50 to 400 MeV while also gives a soft equation of state. By varying the coupling constants and keeping the saturation point of nuclear matter approximately fixed, only the Walecka model presents a first order phase transition of finite temperature at zero density. (author)

  14. Determination of nuclear-matter temperature and density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, K.L.

    1980-01-01

    Some of the things learned about nuclear matter under extreme conditions during the past few years in relativistic heavy ion studies are reviewed. Two developments are discussed. The completion of analyses and publication of results from the impact parameter selected, single-particle inclusive experiments have proven to be important. Preliminary results from the new generation of two-particle correlation and particle-exclusive measurements, especially those using streamer chambers, look even more definitive. Also the measurement of more exotic ejectiles with long mean free paths in nuclear matter promises to provide more basic information. Calculations are offering real guidance and are providing explanations of high energy collisions. The Monte Carlo and intranuclear cascade calculations discussed are especially informative

  15. Strangeness in nuclear matter at DAΦNE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gianotti, P.

    1998-01-01

    The low energy kaons from the φ meson produced at DAΦNE offer a unique opportunity to study strangeness in nuclear matter. The interaction of kaons with hadronic matter can be investigated at DAΦNE using three main approaches: study of hypernuclei production and decay, kaons scattering on nucleons, kaonic atoms formation. These studies explore kaon-nucleon and hyperon-nucleon forces at very low energy, the nuclear shell model in presence of strangeness quantum number and eventual quarks deconfinement phenomena. The experiments devoted to study this physical program at DAΦNE are FINUDA and DEAR. The physics topics of both experiments are illustrated together with a detailed descriptions of the two detectors

  16. Quasi-static electron density fluctuations of atoms in hot compressed matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimaldi, F.; Grimaldi-Lecourt, A.

    1982-01-01

    The standard theoretical methods for the calculation of properties of hot compressed matter lead to a description based on the Average Atom model. In this model the degenerate orbitals are populated with the Fermi-Dirac (FD) density, partitioned according to the binomial distribution. Since the one particle picture is inadequate to evaluate reliable optical properties, a method involving correlated population fluctuations, but limited to unrelaxed orbitals and lacking time dependence, has been examined. The probability distribution of fluctuations in a particular level is evaluated through a decoupling procedure. The method is carried out self consistently. For each level this leads to the definition of an effective 1st order ionization energy as a statistical sum of all possible transition energies. As a result the effective number of electrons exchanged with the outside weights the chemical potential. This defines an effective chemical potential μsup(k) for each level. In many cases of interest the statistics leads to FD type average occupation numbers. This allows a treatment of the continuum in a Thomas-Fermi like model using the effective ionization energy and μsup(k). We obtain a simultaneous description of charge rearrangements and net fluctuations in the Wigner-Seitz cell. The discussion is supported by numerical results for iron. (author)

  17. Investigation of the organic matter in inactive nuclear tank liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenley, R.L.; Griest, W.H.

    1990-08-01

    Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methodology for regulatory organics fails to account for the organic matter that is suggested by total organic carbon (TOC) analysis in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) inactive nuclear waste-tank liquids and sludges. Identification and measurement of the total organics are needed to select appropriate waste treatment technologies. An initial investigation was made of the nature of the organics in several waste-tank liquids. This report details the analysis of ORNL wastes

  18. Self-Energy of Decuplet Baryons in Nuclear Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Ouellette, Stephen M.; Seki, Ryoichi

    1997-01-01

    We calculate, in chiral perturbation theory, the change in the self-energy of decuplet baryons in nuclear matter. These self-energy shifts are relevant in studies of meson-nucleus scattering and of neutron stars. Our results are leading order in an expansion in powers of the ratio of characteristic momenta to the chiral symmetry-breaking scale (or the nucleon mass). Included are contact diagrams generated by 4-baryon operators, which were neglected in earlier studies for the $\\Delta$ isomulti...

  19. Mass shift of σ-meson in nuclear matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mass shift of σ-meson in nuclear matter. J R MORONES-IBARRA1, MÓNICA MENCHACA MACIEL1,∗. ,. AYAX SANTOS-GUEVARA2 and FELIPE ROBLEDO PADILLA1. 1Facultad de Ciencias Físico-Matemáticas, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, UANL,. Av. Universidad S/N Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolás de los ...

  20. Properties of the ρ meson in dense nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, M.

    1992-05-01

    In order to reach a description of the ρ meson, which is in accordance with the principles of the gauge invariance of the electromagnetic interaction, the vector-dominance hypothesis, and the unitarity a model for the ρ meson in the vacuum is developed. Thereafter follows the calculation of the properties of the ρ meson in nuclear matter. First the connection between the spectral function of the ρ meson and the dilepton production rate for an equilibrium state is derived. Then the model for the pion in nuclear matter is described. Following approximations are applied: The description of the pion-baryon interaction pursues non-relativistically and both the width of the delta resonance and the short-range repulsive delta-nucleon interaction is neglected. The self-energy of the ρ meson in nuclear matter following from this description is formally derived from the requirement to couple the ρ meson to a conserved current. The corrections for the 3-point and 4-point vertex resulting from this are calculated and discussed. Thereafter the physical consequences of the changed self-energy of the ρ meson in nuclear matter are considered. By means of the spectral function it is shown that up to the two-fold of the ground-state density the position of the resonance is nearly not changed. At still higher densities the resonances is a little shifted to higher energies. In the range of an invariant mass of about 400 meV a strong increasement concentrated on a small range results. This is caused by coupling to a naked delta-hole state and a pion. Finally the possibilities are discussed to apply the results of this thesis to the prediction of experimental data. Thereby it is proved to be necessary to base on a simulation of the heavy ion reaction. (orig./HSI) [de

  1. Conversion width of Σ-hyperon in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filimonov, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    Width G of ΣN→ΛN conversion for Σ - hyperon in nuclear matter on the base of one-boson exchange model is calculated. Essential compensation of contributions of diffe-- rent mesons to amplitude of the conversiop is shown to take place. As a result G decreases approximately twice as compaped with the value from exchange only by π-meson. Without accout of Pauli principle it is obtained G=15-25 MeV

  2. Comments on nucleon mean free paths in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blann, M.

    1977-01-01

    It is suggested that recent evidence cited for a fourfold increase in the mean free path of nucleons in nuclear matter results from an error in formulation of the exciton model. The literature cited as being in support of the longer mean free path is reviewed and found to be in disagreement with the new value, and in quite reasonable agreement with results used over the past 30 years. (Auth.)

  3. Quark mean field theory and consistency with nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, J.; Tomio, L.; Dey, M.; Frederico, T.

    1989-01-01

    1/N c expansion in QCD (with N c the number of colours) suggests using a potential from meson sector (e.g. Richardson) for baryons. For light quarks a σ field has to be introduced to ensure chiral symmetry breaking ( χ SB). It is found that nuclear matter properties can be used to pin down the χ SB-modelling. All masses, M Ν , m σ , m ω are found to scale with density. The equations are solved self consistently. (author)

  4. Time characteristics for the spinodal decomposition in nuclear matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idier, D.; Farine, M.; Benhassine, B.; Remaud, B.; Sebille, F.

    1992-12-31

    Dynamics of the fluctuation growth are studied. Time characteristics are key quantities to determine the conditions under which spinodal decomposition could be observed. Dynamical instabilities arising from fluctuations in spinodal zone for nuclear matter are studied using Skyrme type interactions within a pseudo-particle model. Typical times for cluster formation are extracted. The numerical treatment is based on the Vlasov phase space transport equation. (K.A.) 11 refs.; 7 figs.

  5. Time characteristics for the spinodal decomposition in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idier, D.; Farine, M.; Benhassine, B.; Remaud, B.; Sebille, F.

    1992-01-01

    Dynamics of the fluctuation growth are studied. Time characteristics are key quantities to determine the conditions under which spinodal decomposition could be observed. Dynamical instabilities arising from fluctuations in spinodal zone for nuclear matter are studied using Skyrme type interactions within a pseudo-particle model. Typical times for cluster formation are extracted. The numerical treatment is based on the Vlasov phase space transport equation. (K.A.) 11 refs.; 7 figs

  6. Empirical information on nuclear matter fourth-order symmetry energy from an extended nuclear mass formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We establish a relation between the equation of state of nuclear matter and the fourth-order symmetry energy asym,4(A of finite nuclei in a semi-empirical nuclear mass formula by self-consistently considering the bulk, surface and Coulomb contributions to the nuclear mass. Such a relation allows us to extract information on nuclear matter fourth-order symmetry energy Esym,4(ρ0 at normal nuclear density ρ0 from analyzing nuclear mass data. Based on the recent precise extraction of asym,4(A via the double difference of the “experimental” symmetry energy extracted from nuclear masses, for the first time, we estimate a value of Esym,4(ρ0=20.0±4.6 MeV. Such a value of Esym,4(ρ0 is significantly larger than the predictions from mean-field models and thus suggests the importance of considering the effects of beyond the mean-field approximation in nuclear matter calculations.

  7. Properties of nuclear matter from macroscopic–microscopic mass formulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the standard Skyrme energy density functionals together with the extended Thomas–Fermi approach, the properties of symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter represented in two macroscopic–microscopic mass formulas: Lublin–Strasbourg nuclear drop energy (LSD formula and Weizsäcker–Skyrme (WS* formula, are extracted through matching the energy per particle of finite nuclei. For LSD and WS*, the obtained incompressibility coefficients of symmetric nuclear matter are K∞=230±11 MeV and 235±11 MeV, respectively. The slope parameter of symmetry energy at saturation density is L=41.6±7.6 MeV for LSD and 51.5±9.6 MeV for WS*, respectively, which is compatible with the liquid-drop analysis of Lattimer and Lim [4]. The density dependence of the mean-field isoscalar and isovector effective mass, and the neutron–proton effective masses splitting for neutron matter are simultaneously investigated. The results are generally consistent with those from the Skyrme Hartree–Fock–Bogoliubov calculations and nucleon optical potentials, and the standard deviations are large and increase rapidly with density. A better constraint for the effective mass is helpful to reduce uncertainties of the depth of the mean-field potential.

  8. Infinite nuclear matter based for mass of atomic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satpathy, L.

    1987-01-01

    The ground-state energy of an atomic nucleus with asymmetry β is considered to be equivalent to the energy of a perfect sphere made up of infinite nuclear matter of the same asymmetry plus a residual energy eta, called the local energy. Eta represents the energy due to shell, deformation, diffuseness and exchange Coulomb effects, etc. Using this picture and the generalised Hugenholtz-Van Hove theorem of many-body theory, the previously proposed mass relation is derived in a transport way in which eta drops away in a very natural manner. The validity of this mass relation is studied globally using the latest mass table. The model is suitable for the extraction of the saturation properties of nuclear matter. The binding energy per nucleon and the saturation Fermi momentum of nuclear matter obtained through this model are 18.33 MeV and 1.48 fm -1 respectively. It is shown in several representative cases in the Periodic Table that the masses of nuclei in the far unknown region can be reliably predicted. (author)

  9. Skyrme interaction to second order in nuclear matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, N.

    2015-09-01

    Based on the phenomenological Skyrme interaction various density-dependent nuclear matter quantities are calculated up to second order in many-body perturbation theory. The spin-orbit term as well as two tensor terms contribute at second order to the energy per particle. The simultaneous calculation of the isotropic Fermi-liquid parameters provides a rigorous check through the validity of the Landau relations. It is found that published results for these second order contributions are incorrect in most cases. In particular, interference terms between s-wave and p-wave components of the interaction can contribute only to (isospin or spin) asymmetry energies. Even with nine adjustable parameters, one does not obtain a good description of the empirical nuclear matter saturation curve in the low density region 0\\lt ρ \\lt 2{ρ }0. The reason for this feature is the too strong density-dependence {ρ }8/3 of several second-order contributions. The inclusion of the density-dependent term \\frac{1}{6}{t}3{ρ }1/6 is therefore indispensable for a realistic description of nuclear matter in the Skyrme framework.

  10. Finite size effects in neutron star and nuclear matter simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giménez Molinelli, P.A., E-mail: pagm@df.uba.ar; Dorso, C.O.

    2015-01-15

    In this work we study molecular dynamics simulations of symmetric nuclear and neutron star matter using a semi-classical nucleon interaction model. Our aim is to gain insight on the nature of the so-called “finite size effects”, unavoidable in this kind of simulations, and to understand what they actually affect. To do so, we explore different geometries for the periodic boundary conditions imposed on the simulation cell: cube, hexagonal prism and truncated octahedron. For nuclear matter simulations we show that, at sub-saturation densities and low temperatures, the solutions are non-homogeneous structures reminiscent of the “nuclear pasta” phases expected in neutron star matter simulations, but only one structure per cell and shaped by specific artificial aspects of the simulations—for the same physical conditions (i.e. number density and temperature) different cells yield different solutions. The particular shape of the solution at low enough temperature and a given density can be predicted analytically by surface minimization. We also show that even if this behavior is due to the imposition of periodic boundary conditions on finite systems, this does not mean that it vanishes for very large systems, and it is actually independent of the system size. We conclude that, for nuclear matter simulations, the cells' size sets the only characteristic length scale for the inhomogeneities, and the geometry of the periodic cell determines the shape of those inhomogeneities. To model neutron star matter we add a screened Coulomb interaction between protons, and perform simulations in the three cell geometries. Our simulations indeed produce the well known nuclear pasta, with (in most cases) several structures per cell. However, we find that for systems not too large results are affected by finite size in different ways depending on the geometry of the cell. In particular, at the same certain physical conditions and system size, the hexagonal prism yields a

  11. Covariant description of dynamical processes in relativistic nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celenza, L.S.; Pantziris, A.; Shakin, C.M.

    1992-01-01

    We report results of covariant calculations of density-dependent polarization processes in relativistic nuclear matter. We consider the polarization induced by those mesons that play an important role in the boson-exchange model of nuclear forces (σ,π,ρ,ω). After obtaining the polarization operators, we construct the propagators for these mesons. The covariant nature of the calculation greatly clarifies the structure of the polarization operators and associated Green's functions. (In addition to the meson momentum, these quantities depend upon another four-vector, η μ , that describes the uniform motion of the medium.) In the case of the pion, we show that the same results are obtained for pseudovector or pseudoscalar coupling to the nucleon, if the associated Lagrangians are related by chiral transformations. Of particular interest are the extremely large values found for the polarization operators of the omega and sigma mesons. It is also found that the coupling of the sigma and omega fields through the polarization process is also extremely large. (Because of these results one cannot usefully consider the sigma and omega fields as independent degrees of freedom in nuclear matter.) We describe methods for reorganizing the calculation of ring diagrams in which we group those diagrams that exhibit strong cancellations. We also comment on the implication of our results for nuclear structure studies

  12. Towards a chiral effective field theory of nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallik, S.

    2008-01-01

    As a preliminary attempt to formulate an effective theory of nuclear matter, we undertake to calculate the effective pole parameters of nucleon in such a medium. We begin with the virial expansion of these parameters to leading order in nucleon number density in terms of the on-shell NN scattering amplitude. We then proceed to calculate the same parameters in the effective theory, getting a formula for the nucleon mass-shift to leading order, that was known already to give too large a value to be acceptable at normal nuclear density. At this point the virial expansion suggests a modification of this formula, which we carry out following Weinberg's method for the two-nucleon system in the effective theory. The results are encouraging enough to attempt a complete, next-to-leading order calculation of the off-shell nucleon spectral function in nuclear medium. (author)

  13. The effective action approach applied to nuclear matter (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Huu Phat; Nguyen Tuan Anh.

    1996-11-01

    Within the framework of the Walecka model (QHD-I) the application of the Cornwall-Jackiw-Tomboulis (CJT) effective action to nuclear matter is presented. The main feature is the treating of the meson condensates for the system of finite nuclear density. The system of couple Schwinger-Dyson (SD) equations is derived. It is shown that SD equations for sigma-omega mixings are absent in this formalism. Instead, the energy density of the nuclear ground state does explicitly contain the contributions from the ring diagrams, amongst others. In the bare-vertex approximation, the expression for energy density is written down for numerical computation in the next paper. (author). 14 refs, 3 figs

  14. Thermodynamic instabilities in hot and dense nuclear matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavagno A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the presence of thermodynamic instabilities in a hot and dense nuclear medium where a nuclear phase transition can take place. Similarly to the low density nuclear liquid-gas phase transition, we show that such a phase transition is characterized by pure hadronic matter with both mechanical instability (fluctuations on the baryon density that by chemical-diffusive instability (fluctuations on the strangeness concentration. The analysis is performed by requiring the global conservation of baryon number and zero net strangeness in the framework of an effective relativistic mean field theory with the inclusion of the Δ(1232-isobars, hyperons and the lightest pseudoscalar and vector meson degrees of freedom. It turns out that in this situation hadronic phases with different values of strangeness content may coexist, altering significantly meson-antimeson ratios.

  15. The investigation on compressed air quality analysis results of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, K. B.; Kim, H. K.; Kim, W. S.

    2000-01-01

    The compressed air system of nuclear power plants provides pneumatic power for both operation and control of various plant equipment, tools, and instrumentation. Included in the air supply systems are the compressors, coolers, moisture separators, dryers, filters and air receiver tanks that make up the major items of equipment. The service air system provides oil-free compressed air for general plant and maintenance use and the instrument air system provides dry, oil-free, compressed air for both nonessential and essential components and instruments. NRC recommended the periodic checks on GL88-14 'Instrument air supply system problems affecting safety-related equipment'. To ensure that the quality of the instrument air is equivalent to or exceeds the requirement s of ISA-S7.3(1975), air samples are taken at every refueling outage and analyzed for moisture, oil and particulate content. The over all results are satisfied the requirements of ISA-S7.3

  16. Time of flight measurements of unirradiated and irradiated nuclear graphite under cyclic compressive load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodel, W., E-mail: william.bodel@hotmail.com [Nuclear Graphite Research Group, The University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Atkin, C. [Health and Safety Laboratory, Buxton (United Kingdom); Marsden, B.J. [Nuclear Graphite Research Group, The University of Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2017-04-15

    The time-of-flight technique has been used to investigate the stiffness of nuclear graphite with respect to the grade and grain direction. A loading rig was developed to collect time-of-flight measurements during cycled compressive loading up to 80% of the material's compressive strength and subsequent unloading of specimens along the axis of the applied stress. The transmission velocity (related to Young's modulus), decreased with increasing applied stress; and depending on the graphite grade and orientation, the modulus then increased, decreased or remained constant upon unloading. These tests were repeated while observing the microstructure during the load/unload cycles. Initial decreases in transmission velocity with compressive load are attributed to microcrack formation within filler and binder phases. Three distinct types of behaviour occur on unloading, depending on the grade, irradiation, and loading direction. These different behaviours can be explained in terms of the material microstructure observed from the microscopy performed during loading.

  17. Thin Foil Acceleration Method for Measuring the Unloading Isentropes of Shock-Compressed Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asay, J.R.; Chhabildas, L.C.; Fortov, V.E.; Kanel, G.I.; Khishchenko, K.V.; Lomonosov, I.V.; Mehlhorn, T.; Razorenov, S.V.; Utkin, A.V.

    1999-01-01

    This work has been performed as part of the search for possible ways to utilize the capabilities of laser and particle beams techniques in shock wave and equation of state physics. The peculiarity of these techniques is that we have to deal with micron-thick targets and not well reproducible incident shock wave parameters, so all measurements should be of a high resolution and be done in one shot. Besides the Hugoniots, the experimental basis for creating the equations of state includes isentropes corresponding to unloading of shock-compressed matter. Experimental isentrope data are most important in the region of vaporization. With guns or explosive facilities, the unloading isentrope is recovered from a series of experiments where the shock wave parameters in plates of standard low-impedance materials placed behind the sample are measured [1,2]. The specific internal energy and specific volume are calculated from the measured p(u) release curve which corresponds to the Riemann integral. This way is not quite suitable for experiments with beam techniques where the incident shock waves are not well reproducible. The thick foil method [3] provides a few experimental points on the isentrope in one shot. When a higher shock impedance foil is placed on the surface of the material studied, the release phase occurs by steps, whose durations correspond to that for the shock wave to go back and forth in the foil. The velocity during the different steps, connected with the knowledge of the Hugoniot of the foil, allows us to determine a few points on the isentropic unloading curve. However, the method becomes insensitive when the low pressure range of vaporization is reached in the course of the unloading. The isentrope in this region can be measured by recording the smooth acceleration of a thin witness plate foil. With the mass of the foil known, measurements of the foil acceleration will give us the vapor pressure

  18. Microscopic equation of state calculations: 1. Nuclear matter. 2. Liquid helium 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyer, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    A new method for calculating the equation of state of extended Fermi systems is proposed and applied to nuclear matter and liquid 3 He. New techniques are developed for summing up the particle-particle (pp) and particle-hole (ph) ring diagrams to all orders in the calculation of the ground state shift ΔE 0 for many-body systems. Analytic expressions for ΔE pp P 0 , the contribution from all of the pp ring diagrams to ΔE 0 , and ΔE ph 0 , the corresponding contribution from all of the ph ring diagrams, have been obtained. It has been shown that the pp ring diagram sum may be written as an integral over frequency, involving the particle-particle Green's function. A similar integral expression is derived for the ph ring diagram sum. Two methods are developed for carrying out the frequency integrations, namely the multipole and transition amplitude methods. These methods have been tested on an exactly-solvable many-fermion model, a modified Lipkin model, and compared. The author has studied the instability of nuclear matter at both zero and finite temperature within the pp ring diagram framework. He has found using the Gogny D1 effective nucleon-nucleon interaction, complex eigenvalues of an RPA-type secular equation are obtained in a well-defined temperature-density region. When complex eigenvalues occur, the thermodynamic potential becomes complex. The possible connection between the occurrence of complex eigenvalues and liquid-gas phase separation is discussed. The pp ring diagrams are also found to lower the compression modulus of nuclear matter. Lastly, the pp ring diagram method is applied to the calculation of the ground state energy of normal and spin-polarized liquid 3 He. We have found a binding energy per particle (BE/A) of 1.45 degree K and 1.79 degree K for the normal and spin-polarized systems, respectively

  19. Compressed-air and backup nitrogen systems in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, E.W.

    1982-07-01

    This report reviews and evaluates the performance of the compressed-air and pressurized-nitrogen gas systems in commercial nuclear power units. The information was collected from readily available operating experiences, licensee event reports, system designs in safety analysis reports, and regulatory documents. The results are collated and analyzed for significance and impact on power plant safety performance. Under certain circumstances, the fail-safe philosophy for a piece of equipment or subsystem of the compressed-air systems initiated a series of actions culminating in reactor transient or unit scram. However, based on this study of prevailing operating experiences, reclassifying the compressed-gas systems to a higher safety level will neither prevent (nor mitigate) the reoccurrences of such happenings nor alleviate nuclear power plant problems caused by inadequate maintenance, operating procedures, and/or practices. Conversely, because most of the problems were derived from the sources listed previously, upgrading of both maintenance and operating procedures will not only result in substantial improvement in the performance and availability of the compressed-air (and backup nitrogen) systems but in improved overall plant performance

  20. Properties of rho and eta mesons in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, M.; Sauermann, C.; Friman, B.L.; Technische Hochschule Darmstadt; Noerenberg, W.; Technische Hochschule Darmstadt

    1993-10-01

    The properties of ρ- and η-mesons in nuclear matter are studied within the scope of hadronic models. Unknown model parameters are obtained from fits to scattering data. - The treatment of the ρ-meson includes the coupling to two pions which, in matter, are strongly mixed with delta-particle-nucleon-hole states. The ρ-meson self-energy is evaluated in a current conserving approximation with in-medium pion propagators and vertex corrections. While the position of the original peak in the spectral function remains almost unchanged, its width grows rapidly with increasing density. Consequently, the ρ-meson strength function is strongly dispersed at high densities. Due to vertex corrections a new peak at a mass around 3m π emerges with increasing density, while the spectral function around the two-pion threshold is found to be smooth at all densities. The η-meson is strongly mixed with N * (1535)-particle-nucleon-hole states in nuclear matter. The corresponding dispersion relations with an upper and a lower branch look similar to those of the (π, ΔN -1 )-modes. However, since the N * is an S-wave resonance in the ηN-channel, the repulsion of the two branches survives at zero momentum. (orig.)

  1. Feasibility of Ericsson type isothermal expansion/compression gas turbine cycle for nuclear energy use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Akihiko

    2007-01-01

    A gas turbine with potential demand for the next generation nuclear energy use such as HTGR power plants, a gas cooled FBR, a gas cooled nuclear fusion reactor uses helium as working gas and with a closed cycle. Materials constituting a cycle must be set lower than allowable temperature in terms of mechanical strength and radioactivity containment performance and so expansion inlet temperature is remarkably limited. For thermal efficiency improvement, isothermal expansion/isothermal compression Ericsson type gas turbine cycle should be developed using wet surface of an expansion/compressor casing and a duct between stators without depending on an outside heat exchanger performing multistage re-heat/multistage intermediate cooling. Feasibility of an Ericsson cycle in comparison with a Brayton cycle and multi-stage compression/expansion cycle was studied and technologies to be developed were clarified. (author)

  2. Conserving relativistic many-body approach: Equation of state, spectral function, and occupation probabilities of nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Jong, F.; Malfliet, R.

    1991-01-01

    Starting from a relativistic Lagrangian we derive a ''conserving'' approximation for the description of nuclear matter. We show this to be a nontrivial extension over the relativistic Dirac-Brueckner scheme. The saturation point of the equation of state calculated agrees very well with the empirical saturation point. The conserving character of the approach is tested by means of the Hugenholtz--van Hove theorem. We find the theorem fulfilled very well around saturation. A new value for compression modulus is derived, K=310 MeV. Also we calculate the occupation probabilities at normal nuclear matter densities by means of the spectral function. The average depletion κ of the Fermi sea is found to be κ∼0.11

  3. Opportunities and challenges in applying the compressive sensing framework to nuclear science and engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mille, Matthew; Su, Lin; Yazici, Birsen; Xu, X. George

    2011-01-01

    Compressive sensing is a 5-year old theory that has already resulted in an extremely large number of publications in the literature and that has the potential to impact every field of engineering and applied science that has to do with data acquisition and processing. This paper introduces the mathematics, presents a simple demonstration of radiation dose reduction in x-ray CT imaging, and discusses potential application in nuclear science and engineering. (author)

  4. Equation of state of dense nuclear matter and neutron star structure from nuclear chiral interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombaci, Ignazio; Logoteta, Domenico

    2018-02-01

    Aims: We report a new microscopic equation of state (EOS) of dense symmetric nuclear matter, pure neutron matter, and asymmetric and β-stable nuclear matter at zero temperature using recent realistic two-body and three-body nuclear interactions derived in the framework of chiral perturbation theory (ChPT) and including the Δ(1232) isobar intermediate state. This EOS is provided in tabular form and in parametrized form ready for use in numerical general relativity simulations of binary neutron star merging. Here we use our new EOS for β-stable nuclear matter to compute various structural properties of non-rotating neutron stars. Methods: The EOS is derived using the Brueckner-Bethe-Goldstone quantum many-body theory in the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approximation. Neutron star properties are next computed solving numerically the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkov structure equations. Results: Our EOS models are able to reproduce the empirical saturation point of symmetric nuclear matter, the symmetry energy Esym, and its slope parameter L at the empirical saturation density n0. In addition, our EOS models are compatible with experimental data from collisions between heavy nuclei at energies ranging from a few tens of MeV up to several hundreds of MeV per nucleon. These experiments provide a selective test for constraining the nuclear EOS up to 4n0. Our EOS models are consistent with present measured neutron star masses and particularly with the mass M = 2.01 ± 0.04 M⊙ of the neutron stars in PSR J0348+0432.

  5. Rare isotopes and the sound of dilute nuclear matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakonstantinou, P.

    2018-04-01

    Dilute baryonic matter, at densities below the normal saturation density of symmetric matter, is found on the crust of neutron stars and in collapsing supernova matter, its properties determining the evolution of those stellar objects. It is also readily found on the surface of ordinary and exotic atomic nuclei and lives fleetingly in the form of space-extended resonances of excited nucleons. Liminal states of nuclear matter, between saturation and full evaporation or clusterization, are manifest in the structure of symmetric nuclei through clustering and of very asymmetric rare species in haloes and the neutron skin; they stand literally at the threshold of a nucleus's response to hadronic probes, including processes which hinder or enable fusion. In this contribution I focus on excited states, and in particular exotic or not-so-exotic dipole excitation modes of N = Z nuclei and neutron-rich species, including new theoretical results on threshold strength. Modes of special interest are vibrations of and within diffuse surface layers and alpha-cluster oscillations. The modeling of such processes is relevant, directly or indirectly, for the description of reactions at astrophysical energies.

  6. Observation of Compressive Deformation Behavior of Nuclear Graphite by Digital Image Correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyunju; Kim, Eungseon; Kim, Minhwan; Kim, Yongwan

    2014-01-01

    Polycrystalline nuclear graphite has been proposed as a fuel element, moderator and reflector blocks, and core support structures in a very high temperature gas-cooled reactor. During reactor operation, graphite core components and core support structures are subjected to various stresses. It is therefore important to understand the mechanism of deformation and fracture of nuclear graphites, and their significance to structural integrity assessment methods. Digital image correlation (DIC) is a powerful tool to measure the full field displacement distribution on the surface of the specimens. In this study, to gain an understanding of compressive deformation characteristic, the formation of strain field during a compression test was examined using a commercial DIC system. An examination was made to characterize the compressive deformation behavior of nuclear graphite by a digital image correlation. The non-linear load-displacement characteristic prior to the peak load was shown to be mainly dominated by the presence of localized strains, which resulted in a permanent displacement. Young's modulus was properly calculated from the measured strain

  7. Nucleon-nucleon correlations in dense nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alm, T.

    1993-02-01

    In this thesis new results on the problematics of the formation of nucleon-nucleon correlations in nuclear matter could be presented. Starting from a general study of the two-particle problem in matter we studied the occurrence of a suprafluid phase (pair condensate of nucleons). The Gorkov decoupling by means of anomalous Green functions was generalized, so that also Cooper pairs with spin 1 (triplet pairing) can be described. A generalized gap equation resulted, which permits to determine the order parameters of the suprafluied phase in arbitrary channels of the nucleon-nucleon scattering states. This equation was solvd in the 1 S 0 -, in the 3 P 2 - 3 F 2 , and in the 3 S 1 - 3 D 1 channel under application of realistic nucleon-nucleon potentials. The behaviour of the resulting gap parameters in the single channels was studied as function of density and temperature. (orig.) [de

  8. Equidistant structure and effective nucleon mass in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tezuka, Hirokazu.

    1981-11-01

    The effective nucleon mass of the Equidistant Multi-Layer Structure (EMULS) is discussed self-consistently. In the density region where the Fermi gas state in nuclear matter is unstable against the density fluctuation, the EMULS gives lower binding energy. It is, however, shown that such a structure with an ordinary nucleon mass collapses due to too strong attraction. We point out that such a collapse can be avoided by taking account of an effective nucleon mass affected by the localization of nucleons. (author)

  9. Thermostatic properties of semi-infinite polarized nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd-Alla, M.; Hassan, M.Y.M.; Ramadan, S.

    1988-03-01

    The surface and curvature properties of semi-infinite polarized nuclear matter (SPNM) are calculated using an expansion for the Fermi integrals up to T 2 . A density matrix expansion is obtained for a modified form of Seyler-Blanchard interaction. New parameters that characterize the surface and curvature properties of SPNM are introduced. The level density parameter is extracted from the low temperature expansion of the free energy and compared with previous calculations. A reasonable agreement is obtained for the parameters calculated before. (author). 78 refs, 1 fig., 5 tabs

  10. Quark mean field theory and consistency with nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, J.; Dey, M.; Frederico, T.; Tomio, L.

    1990-09-01

    1/N c expansion in QCD (with N c the number of colours) suggests using a potential from meson sector (e.g. Richardson) for baryons. For light quarks a σ field has to be introduced to ensure chiral symmetry breaking ( χ SB). It is found that nuclear matter properties can be used to pin down the χ SB-modelling. All masses, M N , m σ , m ω are found to scale with density. The equations are solved self consistently. (author). 29 refs, 2 tabs

  11. Onset of superfluidity in hot asymmetric nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alm, T.; Roepke, G.; Friman, B.L.

    1991-05-01

    The onset of superfluidity in hot asymmetric nuclear matter is studied within a generalized Beth-Uhlenbeck approach. The finite tempeature t-matrix is of the Bethe-Goldstone type and contains hole-hole propagation not considered in the Brueckner G-matrix approach. It is shown that the phase contour for the onset of superfluidity in this approach is identical to that obtained within Gorkov's approach to BCS theory. Results for the realistic Paris potential imply that the critical temperature in the neutron-proton triplet channel is on the order of 6-8 MeV and thus much larger than that for singlet pairing. (orig.)

  12. Mass shift of σ-meson in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morones-Ibarra, J.R.; Maciel, Mónica Menchaca; Padilla, Felipe Robledo; Santos-Guevara, Ayax

    2013-01-01

    The propagation of σ-meson in nuclear matter is studied in the Walecka model, by assuming that sigma couples to a pair of nucleon-antinucleon states to particle-hole states. The in-medium effect of σ-ω mixing is also studied. For completeness, the coupling of sigma to two virtual pions was also considered. It is found that the σ-meson mass decreases with respect to its value in vacuum and that the contribution of the σ-ω mixing effect on the mass shift is relatively small. (author)

  13. No pion condensate in nuclear matter due to fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinert, H.

    1981-01-01

    We show that if pion condensation occurs in a mean-field theory of infinite nuclear matter, fluctuations completely prevent the formation of a condensate as well as of the associated Goldstone mode. Thus if an increase of opalescence should ever be observed experimentally, it is these fluctuations which are measured rather than the scattering on the Goldstone modes. They preserve isotopic symmetry and increase very smoothly as the density passes the formerly critical density. There are no discontinuities in any thermodynamic quantitiy. (orig.)

  14. The formation of spiral galaxies: adiabatic compression with Young's algorithm and the relation of dark matter haloes to their primordial antecedents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katz, Harley; McGaugh, Stacy S.; Sellwood, J. A.; de Blok, W. J. G.

    We utilize Young's algorithm to model the adiabatic compression of the dark matter haloes of galaxies in the THINGS survey to determine the relationship between the halo fit to the rotation curve and the corresponding primordial halo prior to compression. Young's algorithm conserves radial action

  15. Self-consistent determination of quasiparticle properties in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oset, E.; Palanques-Mestre, A.

    1981-01-01

    The self-energy of nuclear matter is calculated by directing the attention to the energy and momentum dependent pieces which determine the quasiparticle properties. A microscopic approach is followed which starts from the boson exchange picture for the NN interaction, then the π-and p-mesons are shown to play a major role in the nucleon renormalization. The calculation is done self-consistently and the effective mass and pole strength determined as a function of the nuclear density and momentum. Particular emphasis is put on the non-static character of the interaction and its consequences. Finally a comparison is made with other calculations and with experimental results. The consequences of the nucleon renormalization in pion condensation are also examined with the result that the critical density is pushed up appreciably. (orig.)

  16. Is a condensed state of nuclear matter possible?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'yakonov, D.I.; Mirlin, A.D.

    1988-01-01

    Nucleon chiral models naturally lead to the concept of ''generalized'' or ''classical'' nucleons which are characterized by a definite orientation in spin-isospin space. Nucleons and Δ resonances are different rotational states of generalized nucleons. Interaction of two generalized nucleons is sharply anisotropic and at a definite relative orientation leads to very strong attraction. This gives an idea of possible existence of a condensed state of nuclear matter, i.e. of a crystal or Fermi liquid with a short-range order which consists of N and Δ coherent superpositions. The variational estimate shows that at densities a few times that of the standard nuclear density this condensed state may be energetically favourable

  17. Strange quark matter in the Universe and accelerator nuclear beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okonov, Eh.

    1995-01-01

    An almost symmetric mixture of u, d and s-quarks - Strange Quark Matter (SQM) is strongly argued to be the ground and absolutely stable of the matter. Astrophysical objects, supposed to be the SQM states, could be formed as the result of the Big Bang (in the early Universe) and the conversion of neutron stars into strange ones. Such objects are considered to be favourable candidates as black holes. The unique possibility to produce the SQM under terrestrial conditions (at accelerator laboratories) are violent relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions so called 'little big bang'. The expected singulares of SQM are reviewed which could be revealed from astrophysical observations of peculiarities of large SQM objects as well as from accelerator experiments with searching smaller SQM states including the simplest one - metastable six-quark H dihyperon. The first results of the Dubna search experiments, with considerable heating of matter and formation a dense strangeness abundant fireball (mixed phase?) in central nuclear collisions, is presented. Under these favourable conditions a candidate for H dihyperon is observed and an upper limit of production cross sections of this SQM state is estimated. Some prospects and advantages of further searches for light SQM states, using the JINR new superconducting accelerator - Nuclotron with energy 5-6 GeV per nucleon, are briefly outlined. 19 refs., 7 figs

  18. Discovery potential for directional dark matter detection with nuclear emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guler, A. M.; NEWSdm Collaboration

    2017-06-01

    Direct Dark Matter searches are nowadays one of the most exciting research topics. Several Experimental efforts are concentrated on the development, construction, and operation of detectors looking for the scattering of target nuclei with Weakly Interactive Massive Particles (WIMPs). In this field a new frontier can be opened by directional detectors able to reconstruct the direction of the WIMP-recoiled nucleus thus allowing to extend dark matter searches beyond the neutrino floor. Exploiting directionality would also give a proof of the galactic origin of dark matter making it possible to have a clear and unambiguous signal to background separation. The angular distribution of WIPM-scattered nuclei is indeed expected to be peaked in the direction of the motion of the Solar System in the Galaxy, i.e. toward the Cygnus constellation, while the background distribution is expected to be isotropic. Current directional experiments are based on the use of gas TPC whose sensitivity is limited by the small achievable detector mass. In this paper we show the potentiality in terms of exclusion limit of a directional experiment based on the use of a solid target made by newly developed nuclear emulsions and read-out systems reaching sub-micrometric resolution.

  19. Boiling Patterns of Iso-asymmetric Nuclear Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tõke, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Limits of thermodynamic metastability of self-bound neutron-rich nuclear matter are explored within the framework of microcanonical thermodynamics of interacting Fermi Gas model in Thomas-Fermi approximation. It is found that as the excitation energy per nucleon of the system is increased beyond a certain limiting value, the system loses metastability and becomes unstable with respect to joint fluctuations in excitation energy per nucleon and in isospin per nucleon. As a result, part of the system is forced to boil off in a form of iso-rich non-equilibrated vapors. Left behind in such a process, identifiable with distillation, is a more iso-symmetric metastable residue at a temperature characteristic of its residual isospin content. With a progressing increase in the initial excitation energy per nucleon, more neutron-rich matter is boiled off and a more iso-symmetric residue is left behind with progressively increasing characteristic temperature. Eventually, when all excess neutrons are shed, the system boils uniformly with a further supply of excitation energy, leaving behind a smaller and smaller residue at a characteristic boiling-point temperature of iso-symmetric matter.

  20. Antiferromagnetism of nuclear matter in the model with effective Gogny interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isayev, A.A.; Yang, J.

    2006-01-01

    The possibility of ferromagnetic (FM) antiferromagnetic (AFM) phase transitions in symmetric nuclear matter is analyzed within the framework of a Fermi-liquid theory with the effective Gogny interaction. It is shown that at some critical density nuclear matter undergoes a phase transition to the AFM spin state. The self-consistent equations of spin-polarized nuclear matter have no solutions corresponding to FM spin ordering and, hence, the FM transition does not appear. The AFM spin state properties are investigated [ru

  1. Quark condensates in nuclear matter in the global color symmetry model of QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yuxin; Gao Dongfeng; Guo Hua

    2003-01-01

    With the global color symmetry model being extended to finite chemical potential, we study the density dependence of the local and nonlocal scalar quark condensates in nuclear matter. The calculated results indicate that the quark condensates increase smoothly with the increasing of nuclear matter density before the critical value (about 12ρ 0 ) is reached. It also manifests that the chiral symmetry is restored suddenly as the density of nuclear matter reaches its critical value. Meanwhile, the nonlocal quark condensate in nuclear matter changes nonmonotonously against the space-time distance among the quarks

  2. Quark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Csernai, L.; Kampert, K. H.

    1994-10-15

    Precisely one decade ago the GSI (Darmstadt)/LBL (Berkeley) Collaboration at the Berkeley Bevalac reported clear evidence for collective sidewards flow in high energy heavy ion collisions. This milestone observation clearly displayed the compression and heating up of nuclear matter, providing new insights into how the behaviour of nuclear matter changes under very different conditions. This year, evidence for azimuthally asymmetric transverse flow at ten times higher projectile energy (11 GeV per nucleon gold on gold collisions) was presented by the Brookhaven E877 collaboration at the recent European Research Conference on ''Physics of High Energy Heavy Ion Collisions'', held in Helsinki from 17-22 June.

  3. J/psi production in proton-nucleus collisions at ALICE: cold nuclear matter really matters

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    Heavy quarkonia are expected to be sensitive to the properties of strongly interacting matter, at both low and high temperatures. In nucleus-nucleus collisions, a phase transition to a deconfined state of quarks and gluons (Quark-Gluon Plasma) is thought to take place once the temperature of the system exceeds a critical temperature of the order of 150-200 MeV. The deconfined state can induce a suppression of charmonium (due to color screening, dominant at SPS and RHIC energies), which can be overturned at LHC energy by the (re)combination of the large number of free c and cbar quarks, taking place when the system cools down below the critical temperature. Cold nuclear matter also has an influence on heavy quarkonia. Such effects can be studied in proton-nucleus collisions, where no deconfined state is expected to be created. At LHC energy, they mainly include nuclear shadowing, gluon saturation, break-up of the quarkonium states, and parton energy loss in the initial and final state. The study of these eff...

  4. Cascade and intermittency model for turbulent compressible self-gravitating matter and self-binding phase-space density fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biglari, H.; Diamond, P.H.

    1988-01-01

    A simple physical model which describes the dynamics of turbulence and the spectrum of density fluctuations in compressible, self-gravitating matter and self-binding, phase-space density fluctuations is presented. The two systems are analogous to each other in that each tends to self-organize into hierarchical structures via the mechanism of Jeans collapse. The model, the essential physical ingredient of which is a cascade constrained by the physical requirement of quasivirialization, is shown to exhibit interesting geometric properties such as intrinsic intermittency and anisotropy

  5. A Study of Nuclear Recoil Backgrounds in Dark Matter Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westerdale, Shawn S. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Despite the great success of the Standard Model of particle physics, a preponderance of astrophysical evidence suggests that it cannot explain most of the matter in the universe. This so-called dark matter has eluded direct detection, though many theoretical extensions to the Standard Model predict the existence of particles with a mass on the $1-1000$ GeV scale that interact only via the weak nuclear force. Particles in this class are referred to as Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), and their high masses and low scattering cross sections make them viable dark matter candidates. The rarity of WIMP-nucleus interactions makes them challenging to detect: any background can mask the signal they produce. Background rejection is therefore a major problem in dark matter detection. Many experiments greatly reduce their backgrounds by employing techniques to reject electron recoils. However, nuclear recoil backgrounds, which produce signals similar to what we expect from WIMPs, remain problematic. There are two primary sources of such backgrounds: surface backgrounds and neutron recoils. Surface backgrounds result from radioactivity on the inner surfaces of the detector sending recoiling nuclei into the detector. These backgrounds can be removed with fiducial cuts, at some cost to the experiment's exposure. In this dissertation we briefly discuss a novel technique for rejecting these events based on signals they make in the wavelength shifter coating on the inner surfaces of some detectors. Neutron recoils result from neutrons scattering from nuclei in the detector. These backgrounds may produce a signal identical to what we expect from WIMPs and are extensively discussed here. We additionally present a new tool for calculating ($\\alpha$, n)yields in various materials. We introduce the concept of a neutron veto system designed to shield against, measure, and provide an anti-coincidence veto signal for background neutrons. We discuss the research and

  6. A study of nuclear recoil backgrounds in dark matter detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerdale, Shawn S.

    Despite the great success of the Standard Model of particle physics, a preponderance of astrophysical evidence suggests that it cannot explain most of the matter in the universe. This so-called dark matter has eluded direct detection, though many theoretical extensions to the Standard Model predict the existence of particles with a mass on the 1-1000 GeV scale that interact only via the weak nuclear force. Particles in this class are referred to as Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), and their high masses and low scattering cross sections make them viable dark matter candidates. The rarity of WIMP-nucleus interactions makes them challenging to detect: any background can mask the signal they produce. Background rejection is therefore a major problem in dark matter detection. Many experiments greatly reduce their backgrounds by employing techniques to reject electron recoils. However, nuclear recoil backgrounds, which produce signals similar to what we expect from WIMPs, remain problematic. There are two primary sources of such backgrounds: surface backgrounds and neutron recoils. Surface backgrounds result from radioactivity on the inner surfaces of the detector sending recoiling nuclei into the detector. These backgrounds can be removed with fiducial cuts, at some cost to the experiment's exposure. In this dissertation we briefly discuss a novel technique for rejecting these events based on signals they make in the wavelength shifter coating on the inner surfaces of some detectors. Neutron recoils result from neutrons scattering off of nuclei in the detector. These backgrounds may produce a signal identical to what we expect from WIMPs and are extensively discussed here. We additionally present a new tool for calculating (alpha, n) yields in various materials. We introduce the concept of a neutron veto system designed to shield against, measure, and provide an anti-coincidence veto signal for background neutrons. We discuss the research and development

  7. Analytical relations between nuclear symmetry energy and single-nucleon potentials in isospin asymmetric nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Chang; Li Baoan; Chen Liewen; Ko, Che Ming

    2011-01-01

    Using the Hugenholtz-Van Hove theorem, we derive general expressions for the quadratic and quartic symmetry energies in terms of the isoscalar and isovector parts of single-nucleon potentials in isospin asymmetric nuclear matter. These expressions are useful for gaining deeper insights into the microscopic origins of the uncertainties in our knowledge on nuclear symmetry energies especially at supra-saturation densities. As examples, the formalism is applied to two model single-nucleon potentials that are widely used in transport model simulations of heavy-ion reactions.

  8. Optimization of a transition radiation detector for the compressed baryonic matter experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arend, Andreas

    2014-07-01

    The Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) of the compressed baryonic matter (CBM) experiment at FAIR has to provide electron-pion separation as well as charged-particle tracking. Within this work, thin and symmetric Multi-Wire Proportional Chambers (MWPCs) without additional drift region were proposed. the proposed prototypes feature a foil-based entrance window to minimize the material budget and to reduce the absorption probability of the generated TR photon. Based on the conceptual design of thin and symmetric MWPCs without drift region, multiple prototypes were constructed and their performance presented within this thesis. With the constructed prototypes of generations II and III the geometries of the wire and cathode planes were determined to be 4+4 mm and 5+5 mm. Based on the results of a performed test beam campaign in 2011 with this prototypes new prototypes of generation IV were manufactured and tested in a subsequent test beam campaign in 2012. Prototypes of different radiators were developed together with the MWPC prototypes. Along with regular foil radiators, foam-based radiator types made of polyethylene foam were utilized. Also radiators constructed in a sandwich design, which used different fiber materials confined with solid foam sheets, were used. For the prototypes without drift region, simulations of the electrostatic and mechanical properties were performed. The GARFIELD software package was used to simulate the electric field and to determine the resulting drift lines of the generated electrons. The mean gas amplification depending on the utilized gas and the applied anode voltage was simulated and the gas-gain homogeneity was verified. Since the thin foil-based entrance window experiences a deformation due to pressure differences inside and outside the MWPC, the variation on the gas gain depending on the deformation was simulated. The mechanical properties focusing on the stability of the entrance window was determined with a finiteelement

  9. Optimization of a transition radiation detector for the compressed baryonic matter experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arend, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) of the compressed baryonic matter (CBM) experiment at FAIR has to provide electron-pion separation as well as charged-particle tracking. Within this work, thin and symmetric Multi-Wire Proportional Chambers (MWPCs) without additional drift region were proposed. the proposed prototypes feature a foil-based entrance window to minimize the material budget and to reduce the absorption probability of the generated TR photon. Based on the conceptual design of thin and symmetric MWPCs without drift region, multiple prototypes were constructed and their performance presented within this thesis. With the constructed prototypes of generations II and III the geometries of the wire and cathode planes were determined to be 4+4 mm and 5+5 mm. Based on the results of a performed test beam campaign in 2011 with this prototypes new prototypes of generation IV were manufactured and tested in a subsequent test beam campaign in 2012. Prototypes of different radiators were developed together with the MWPC prototypes. Along with regular foil radiators, foam-based radiator types made of polyethylene foam were utilized. Also radiators constructed in a sandwich design, which used different fiber materials confined with solid foam sheets, were used. For the prototypes without drift region, simulations of the electrostatic and mechanical properties were performed. The GARFIELD software package was used to simulate the electric field and to determine the resulting drift lines of the generated electrons. The mean gas amplification depending on the utilized gas and the applied anode voltage was simulated and the gas-gain homogeneity was verified. Since the thin foil-based entrance window experiences a deformation due to pressure differences inside and outside the MWPC, the variation on the gas gain depending on the deformation was simulated. The mechanical properties focusing on the stability of the entrance window was determined with a finiteelement

  10. The numerical study of the compressible rising of nuclear fireball at low altitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lin; Zheng Yi; Cheng Xianyou

    2010-01-01

    To study the evolution of nuclear fireball during the phase of compressible rising, the pressure and density were computed with numerical method. It can be concluded that the distribution of parameters of fireball changed during its rising the pressure in the upper part of fireball increased while the one of lower part decreased. the dilute area lied in the middle of fireball initially moved upward, on the other hand, the gradient of density in the upper and side part increased and is contrary to the changing of density beneath the fireball. The computational results of density agreed with experimental shadow graphs very well. (authors)

  11. Differential isospin-fractionation in dilute asymmetric nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Baoan; Chen Liewen; Ma Hongru; Xu Jun; Yong Gaochan

    2007-01-01

    The differential isospin-fractionation (IsoF) during the liquid-gas phase transition in dilute asymmetric nuclear matter is studied as a function of nucleon momentum. Within a self-consistent thermal model it is shown that the neutron/proton ratio of the gas phase becomes smaller than that of the liquid phase for energetic nucleons, although the gas phase is overall more neutron-rich. Clear indications of the differential IsoF consistent with the thermal model predictions are demonstrated within a transport model for heavy-ion reactions. Future comparisons with experimental data will allow us to extract critical information about the momentum dependence of the isovector strong interaction

  12. Two-body correlation functions in dilute nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isayev, A A

    2006-01-01

    Finding the distinct features of the crossover from the regime of large overlapping Cooper pairs to the limit of non-overlapping pairs of fermions (Shafroth pairs) in multicomponent Fermi systems remains one of the actual problems in a quantum many-body theory. Here this transition is studied by calculating the two-body density, spin and isospin correlation functions in dilute asymmetric nuclear matter. It is shown that criterion of the crossover (Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 090402 (2005)), consisting in the change of the sign of the density correlation function at low momentum transfer, fails to describe correctly the density-driven BEC-BCS transition at finite isospin asymmetry or finite temperature. As an unambiguous signature of the BEC-BCS transition, there can be used the presence (BCS regime) or absence (BEC regime) of the singularity in the momentum distribution of the quasiparticle density of states

  13. Study of the Λ(1116 interaction in cold nuclear matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold Oliver

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of Λ hyperons with baryonic nuclear matter at saturation density is expected to be attractive. The interaction strength was extracted from hypernuclei data. A different approach to obtain the potential depth of the Λ mean-field potential is to compare experimental data with transport simulations. We analyze experimental data of Λ hyperons measured with the HADES detector in p+93Nb reactions with a kinetic beam energy of 3.5 GeV carried by the proton. The high statistic of measured Λ hyperons allows us to perform a double differential analysis in Lorentz-invariant observables of transverse momentum and rapidity. We present the analysis method and a comparison with simulations.

  14. Hyperon interaction in free space and nuclear matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhar, Madhumita; Lenske, Horst [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Justus- Liebig-University Giessen (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Baryon-baryon interactions within the SU(3)-octet are investigated in free space and nuclear matter.A meson exchange model based on SU(3) symmetry is used for determining the interaction. The Bethe-Salpeter equations are solved in a 3-D reduction scheme. In-medium effect has been incorporated by including a two particle Pauli projector operator in the scattering equation. The coupling of the various channels of total strangeness S and conserved total charge is studied in detail. Special attention is paid to the physical thresholds. The density dependence of interaction is clearly seen in the variation of the in-medium low-energy parameters. The approach is compared to descriptions derived from chiral-EFT and other meson-exchange models e.g. the Nijmegen and the Juelich model.

  15. Effective pion--nucleon interaction in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celenza, L.S.; Liu, L.C.; Nutt, W.; Shakin, C.M.

    1976-01-01

    We discuss the modification of the interaction between a pion and a nucleon in the presence of an infinite medium of nucleons (nuclear matter). The theory presented here is covariant and is relevant to the calculation of the pion--nucleus optical potential. The specific effects considered are the modifications of the nucleon propagator due to the Pauli principle and the modification of the pion and nucleon propagators due to collisions with nucleons of the medium. We also discuss in detail the pion self-energy in the medium, paying close attention to off-shell effects. These latter effects are particularly important because of the rapid variation with energy of the fundamental pion--nucleon interaction. Numerical results are presented, the main feature being the appearance of a significant damping width for the (3, 3) resonance

  16. Static and Covariant Meson-Exchange Interactions in Nuclear Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, B.V.; Hirata, D.

    2011-01-01

    The Dirac version of static meson exchange interactions provides a good description of low-energy NN scattering as well as very reasonable saturation properties in Dirac-Brueckner calculations of nuclear matter. We include retardation terms to make these interactions covariant and readjust the coupling constants so as to maintain a reasonable description of NN scattering. In this case, we find the Dirac-Brueckner approximation to nuclear matter to be extremely overbound. The Bonn meson-exchange interactions provide a good fit to low-energy nucleon-nucleon scattering and the deuteron binding energy using a static interaction and the Thompson form of the reduced two-nucleon interaction. We have readjusted the coupling constants of the these interactions to obtain almost equivalent fits to the scattering data and deuteron binding energy with a static interaction and the Blankenbecler-Sugar form of the reduced two-nucleon propagator and using both forms of the propagator with a covariant interaction. Dirac-Brueckner calculations using the static interactions furnish saturation properties similar to those found for the Bonn interactions. The covariant interactions, on the contrary, yield extreme overbinding and do not show signs of saturation before our calculations diverge. One of the advantages claimed for Dirac mean field calculations over nonrelativistic ones has been the fact that they yield reasonable saturation properties without the necessity of a three-body interaction. This is usually credited to the three-body effects introduced by virtual scattering through the Dirac sea states. These are included, in part, through the Dirac form of the self-energy in our calculations. However, we have explicitly excluded their contribution to the Brueckner scattering kernel. Dirac-Brueckner calculations in which both the positive and negative energy states are included in the scattering kernel result in less binding than those that include only the positive-energy ones

  17. 3D2 pairing in asymmetric nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alm, T.

    1996-01-01

    The superfluid 3 D 2 pairing instability in isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter is studied, using the Paris nucleon-nucleon interaction as an input. It is found that the critical temperature associated with the transition to the superfluid phase becomes strongly suppressed with increasing isospin asymmetry, and vanishes for asymmetry parameter values α (≡(n n -n p )/(n n +n p )) that are larger than several percent. It is shown that for neutron star models based on relativistic, field-theoretical equations of state, a large fraction of their interior may exist in a 3 D 2 -paired superfluid phase. The implications of such a 3 D 2 superfluid in massive neutron stars is discussed with respect to observable pulsar phenomena. Another interesting phenomenon, discussed in the paper, concerns the numerical finding of two critical superfluid temperatures for a given density in the case of isospin-asymmetric matter. Using the BCS cut-off ansatz, a mathematical expression for the critical temperature is derived which confirms this finding analytically. (orig.)

  18. Short-range correlations in quark and nuclear matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froemel, Frank

    2007-06-15

    In the first part of this thesis, the role of short-range correlations in quark matter is explored within the framework of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. Starting from a next-to-leading order expansion in the inverse number of the quark colors, a fully self-consistent model constructed that employs the close relations between spectral functions and self-energies. In contrast to the usual quasiparticle approximations, this approach allows the investigation of the collisional broadening of the quark spectral function. Numerical calculations at various chemical potentials and zero temperature show that the short-range correlations do not only induce a finite width of the spectral function but also have some influence on the structure of the chiral phase transition. In the second part of this thesis, the temperature and density dependence of the nucleon spectral function in symmetric nuclear matter is investigated. The short-range correlations can be well described by a simple, self-consistent model on the one-particle-two-hole and two-particle-one-hole level (1p2h, 2p1h). The thermodynamically consistent description of the mean-field properties of the nucleons is ensured by incorporating a Skyrme-type potential. Calculations at temperatures and densities that can also be found in heavy-ion collisions or supernova explosions and the formation of neutron stars show that the correlations saturate at high temperatures and densities. (orig.)

  19. Many body effects in nuclear matter QCD sum rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drukarev, E. G.; Ryskin, M. G.; Sadovnikova, V. A.

    2017-12-01

    We calculate the single-particle nucleon characteristics in symmetric nuclear matter with inclusion of the 3N and 4N interactions. We calculated the contribution of the 3N interactions earlier, now we add that of the 4N ones. The contribution of the 4N forces to nucleon self energies is expressed in terms of the nonlocal scalar condensate (d = 3) and of the configurations of the vector-scalar and the scalar-scalar quark condensates (d = 6) in which two diquark operators act on two different nucleons of the matter.These four-quark condensates are obtained in the model-independent way. The density dependence of the nucleon effective mass, of the vector self energy and of the single-particle potential energy are obtained. We traced the dependence of the nucleon characteristics on the actual value of the pion-nucleon sigma term. We obtained also the nucleon characteristics in terms of the quasifree nucleons, with the noninteracting nucleons surrounded by their pion clouds as the starting point. This approach leads to strict hierarchy of the many body forces.

  20. 75 FR 10833 - In the Matter of Entergy Nuclear Operations; Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station; Demand for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. 05000271; License No. DPR-28; EA-10-034; NRC-2010-0089] In the Matter of Entergy Nuclear Operations; Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station; Demand for... this Demand for Information, the following information, in writing, and under oath or affirmation: 1...

  1. Investigation of nuclear matter properties by means of high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stock, R.

    1985-09-01

    We review recent advances towards an understanding of high density nuclear matter, as created in central collisions of nuclei at high energy. In particular, information obtained for the nuclear matter equation of state will be discussed. The lectures focus on the Bevalac energy domain of 0.4 to 2 GeV per projectile nucleon. (orig.)

  2. Nuclear matter in relativistic mean field theory with isovector scalar meson.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubis, S.; Kutschera, M. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1996-12-01

    Relativistic mean field (RMF) theory of nuclear matter with the isovector scalar mean field corresponding to the {delta}-meson [a{sub 0}(980)] is studied. While the {delta}-meson field vanishes in symmetric nuclear matter, it can influence properties of asymmetric nuclear matter in neutron stars. The RMF contribution due to {delta}-field to the nuclear symmetry energy is negative. To fit the empirical value, E{sub s}{approx}30 MeV, a stronger {rho}-meson coupling is required than in absence of the {delta}-field. The energy per particle of neutron star matter is than larger at high densities than the one with no {delta}-field included. Also, the proton fraction of {beta}-stable matter increases. Splitting of proton and neutron effective masses due to the {delta}-field can affect transport properties of neutron star matter. (author). 4 refs, 6 figs.

  3. Nuclear matter in relativistic mean field theory with isovector scalar meson

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubis, S.; Kutschera, M.

    1996-12-01

    Relativistic mean field (RMF) theory of nuclear matter with the isovector scalar mean field corresponding to the δ-meson [a 0 (980)] is studied. While the δ-meson field vanishes in symmetric nuclear matter, it can influence properties of asymmetric nuclear matter in neutron stars. The RMF contribution due to δ-field to the nuclear symmetry energy is negative. To fit the empirical value, E s ∼30 MeV, a stronger ρ-meson coupling is required than in absence of the δ-field. The energy per particle of neutron star matter is than larger at high densities than the one with no δ-field included. Also, the proton fraction of β-stable matter increases. Splitting of proton and neutron effective masses due to the δ-field can affect transport properties of neutron star matter. (author). 4 refs, 6 figs

  4. Pion Condensation and Alternating Layer Spin Model in Symmetric Nuclear Matter : Use of Extended Effective Nuclear Forces : Nuclear Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Teiji, KUNIHIRO; Tatsuyuki, TAKATSUKA; Ryozo, TAMAGAKI; Department of National Sciences, Ryukoku University; College of Humanities and Social Sciences, Iwate University; Department of Physics, Kyoto University

    1985-01-01

    Pion condensation in the symmetric nuclear matter is investigated on the basis of the ALS (alternating-layer-spin) model which provides a good description for the π^0 condensation. We perform energy calculations in a realistic way where the isobar (Δ)-mixing, the short range effects and the exchange energy of the interaction are taken into account. The Δ-mixing effect is built in the model state as previously done in the neutron matter. We preferentially employ G-0 force of Sprung and Banerje...

  5. Toward the fundamental theory of nuclear matter physics: The microscopic theory of nuclear collective dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakata, F.; Marumori, T.; Hashimoto, Y.; Tsukuma, H.; Yamamoto, Y.; Terasaki, J.; Iwasawa, Y.; Itabashi, H.

    1992-01-01

    Since the research field of nuclear physics is expanding rapidly, it is becoming more imperative to develop the microscopie theory of nuclear matter physics which provides us with a unified understanding of diverse phenomena exhibited by nuclei. An estabishment of various stable mean-fields in nuclei allows us to develop the microscopie theory of nuclear collective dynamics within the mean-field approximation. The classical-level theory of nuclear collective dynamics is developed by exploiting the symplectic structure of the timedependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF)-manifold. The importance of exploring the single-particle dynamics, e.g. the level-crossing dynamics in connection with the classical order-to-chaos transition mechanism is pointed out. Since the classical-level theory os directly related to the full quantum mechanical boson expansion theory via the symplectic structure of the TDHF-manifold, the quantum theory of nuclear collective dynamics is developed at the dictation of what os developed on the classical-level theory. The quantum theory thus formulated enables us to introduce the quantum integrability and quantum chaoticity for individual eigenstates. The inter-relationship between the classical-level and quantum theories of nuclear collective dynamics might play a decisive role in developing the quantum theory of many-body problems. (orig.)

  6. The Nuclear Installations (Excepted Matter) Regulations 1978 (Statutory Instrument No. 1779, 4 December 1978)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    These Regulations prescribe, for the purposes of the definition of 'excepted matter' in the Nuclear Installations Act 1965, certain specified quantities and forms of nuclear matter, and supersede the Nuclear Installations (excepted Matter) Regulations 1965. They bring the definition of excepted matter in those Regulations into line with the decisions of 27 October 1977 of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's Steering Committee excluding certain kinds and quantities of nuclear substances from the scope of the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy. Compared with the 1965 Regulations, the principal changes in relation to consignments are that activity limits and packing requirements now take account of the most recent IAEA Regulations. (NEA) [fr

  7. Temperature dependence of single-particle properties in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo, W.; Lu, G.C.; Li, Z.H.; Lombardo, U.; Schulze, H.-J.

    2006-01-01

    The single-nucleon potential in hot nuclear matter is investigated in the framework of the Brueckner theory by adopting the realistic Argonne V 18 or Nijmegen 93 two-body nucleon-nucleon interaction supplemented by a microscopic three-body force. The rearrangement contribution to the single-particle potential induced by the ground state correlations is calculated in terms of the hole-line expansion of the mass operator and provides a significant repulsive contribution in the low-momentum region around and below the Fermi surface. Increasing temperature leads to a reduction of the effect, while increasing density makes it become stronger. The three-body force suppresses somewhat the ground state correlations due to its strong short-range repulsion, increasing with density. Inclusion of the three-body force contribution results in a quite different temperature dependence of the single-particle potential at high enough densities as compared to that adopting the pure two-body force. The effects of three-body force and ground state correlations on the nucleon effective mass are also discussed

  8. Target design for the cylindrical compression of matter driven by heavy ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piriz, A.R. [E. T. S. I. Industriales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)]. E-mail: roberto.piriz@uclm.es; Temporal, M. [E. T. S. I. Industriales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Lopez Cela, J.J. [E. T. S. I. Industriales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Grandjouan, N. [LULI, UMR 7605, Ecole Polytechnique-CNRS-CEA-Universite Paris VI, Palaiseau (France); Tahir, N.A. [GSI Darmstadt, Plankstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Serna Moreno, M.C. [E. T. S. I. Industriales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Portugues, R.F. [E. T. S. I. Industriales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Hoffmann, D.H.H. [GSI Darmstadt, Plankstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2005-05-21

    The compression of a cylindrical sample of hydrogen contained in a hollow shell of Pb or Au has been analyzed in the framework of the experiments to be performed in the heavy ion synchrotron SIS100 to be constructed at the Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI) Darmstadt. The target implosion is driven by an intense beam of heavy ions with a ring-shaped focal spot. We report the results of a parametric study of the final state of the compressed hydrogen in terms of the target and beam parameters. We consider the generation of the annular heated region by means of a radio-frequency wobbler that rotates the beam at extremely high frequencies in order to accommodate symmetry constraints. We have also studied the hydrogen conditions that can be achieved with a non-rotating beam with Gaussian focal spot and the possibility to use a beam stopper as an alternative way to avoid the direct heating of the sample. Finally, we report the analysis of the hydrodynamic instabilities that affect the implosion and the mitigating effects of the elastoplastic properties of the shell.

  9. Target design for the cylindrical compression of matter driven by heavy ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piriz, A.R.; Temporal, M.; Lopez Cela, J.J.; Grandjouan, N.; Tahir, N.A.; Serna Moreno, M.C.; Portugues, R.F.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.

    2005-01-01

    The compression of a cylindrical sample of hydrogen contained in a hollow shell of Pb or Au has been analyzed in the framework of the experiments to be performed in the heavy ion synchrotron SIS100 to be constructed at the Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI) Darmstadt. The target implosion is driven by an intense beam of heavy ions with a ring-shaped focal spot. We report the results of a parametric study of the final state of the compressed hydrogen in terms of the target and beam parameters. We consider the generation of the annular heated region by means of a radio-frequency wobbler that rotates the beam at extremely high frequencies in order to accommodate symmetry constraints. We have also studied the hydrogen conditions that can be achieved with a non-rotating beam with Gaussian focal spot and the possibility to use a beam stopper as an alternative way to avoid the direct heating of the sample. Finally, we report the analysis of the hydrodynamic instabilities that affect the implosion and the mitigating effects of the elastoplastic properties of the shell

  10. Chiral approach to nuclear matter: role of two-pion exchange with virtual delta-isobar excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, virtual delta-isobar excitation S.; Kaiser, N.; Weise, W.

    2005-04-01

    We extend a recent three-loop calculation of nuclear matter by including the effects from two-pion exchange with single and double virtual Δ(1232)-isobar excitation. Regularization dependent short-range contributions from pion-loops are encoded in a few NN-contact coupling constants. The empirical saturation point of isospin-symmetric nuclear matter, E=-16 MeV, ρ=0.16 fm, can be well reproduced by adjusting the strength of a two-body term linear in density (and tuning an emerging three-body term quadratic in density). The nuclear matter compressibility comes out as K=304 MeV. The real single-particle potential U(p,k) is substantially improved by the inclusion of the chiral πNΔ-dynamics: it grows now monotonically with the nucleon momentum p. The effective nucleon mass at the Fermi surface takes on a realistic value of M(k)=0.88M. As a consequence of these features, the critical temperature of the liquid-gas phase transition gets lowered to the value T≃15 MeV. In this work we continue the complex-valued single-particle potential U(p,k)+iW(p,k) into the region above the Fermi surface p>k. The effects of 2 π-exchange with virtual Δ-excitation on the nuclear energy density functional are also investigated. The effective nucleon mass associated with the kinetic energy density is M(ρ)=0.64M. Furthermore, we find that the isospin properties of nuclear matter get significantly improved by including the chiral πNΔ-dynamics. Instead of bending downward above ρ as in previous calculations, the energy per particle of pure neutron matter E(k) and the asymmetry energy A(k) now grow monotonically with density. In the density regime ρ=2ρnuclear physics our results agree well with sophisticated many-body calculations and (semi)-empirical values.

  11. Prediction of concrete compressive strength considering humidity and temperature in the construction of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Seung Hee; Jang, Kyung Pil [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Myongji University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Bang, Jin-Wook [Department of Civil Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jang Hwa [Structural Engineering Research Division, Korea Institute of Construction Technology (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yun Yong, E-mail: yunkim@cnu.ac.kr [Structural Engineering Research Division, Korea Institute of Construction Technology (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Compressive strength tests for three concrete mixes were performed. • The parameters of the humidity-adjusted maturity function were determined. • Strength can be predicted considering temperature and relative humidity. - Abstract: This study proposes a method for predicting compressive strength developments in the early ages of concretes used in the construction of nuclear power plants. Three representative mixes with strengths of 6000 psi (41.4 MPa), 4500 psi (31.0 MPa), and 4000 psi (27.6 MPa) were selected and tested under various curing conditions; the temperature ranged from 10 to 40 °C, and the relative humidity from 40 to 100%. In order to consider not only the effect of the temperature but also that of humidity, an existing model, i.e. the humidity-adjusted maturity function, was adopted and the parameters used in the function were determined from the test results. A series of tests were also performed in the curing condition of a variable temperature and constant humidity, and a comparison between the measured and predicted strengths were made for the verification.

  12. Application of an effective gauge-invariant model to nuclear matter in the relativistic Hartree-Fock approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardos, P. [Universidad de Cantabria, Departamento de Matematica Aplicada y Ciencias de la Computacion, 39005, Santander (Spain); Fomenko, V.N. [St Petersburg University for Railway Engineering, Department of Mathematics, 190031, St Petersburg (Russian Federation); Marcos, S.; Niembro, R. [Universidad de Cantabria, Departamento de Fisica Moderna, 39005, Santander (Spain); Lopez-Quelle, M. [Universidad de Cantabria, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, 39005, Santander (Spain); Savushkin, L.N. [St Petersburg University for Telecommunications, Department of Physics, 191186, St Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2001-02-01

    An effective nuclear model describing {omega}-, {rho}- and axial-mesons as gauge fields is applied to nuclear matter in the relativistic Hartree-Fock approximation. The isoscalar two-pion exchange is simulated by a scalar field s similar to that used in the conventional relativistic mean-field approach. Two more scalar fields are essential ingredients of the present treatment: the {sigma}-field, the chiral partner of the pion, and the {sigma}-field, the Higgs field for the {omega}-meson. Two versions of the model are used depending on whether the {sigma}-field is considered as a dynamical variable or 'frozen', by taking its mass as infinite. The model contains four free parameters in the first case and three in the second one which are fitted to the nuclear matter saturation conditions. The nucleon and meson effective masses, compressibility modulus and symmetry energy are calculated. The results prove the reliability of the Dirac-Hartree-Fock approach within the linear realization of the chiral symmetry. (author)

  13. Neutrino propagation in neutron matter and the nuclear equation of state

    CERN Document Server

    Margueron, J; Nguyen Van Giai; Jiang, W

    2001-01-01

    We study the propagation of neutrinos inside dense matter under the conditions prevailing in a proto-neutron star. Equations of state obtained with different nuclear effective interactions (Skyrme type and Gogny type) are first discussed. It is found that for many interactions, spin and/or isospin instabilities occur at densities larger than the saturation density of nuclear matter. From this study we select two representative interactions, SLy230b and D1P. We calculate the response functions in pure neutron matter where nuclear correlations are described at the Hartree-Fock plus RPA level. These response functions allow us to evaluate neutrino mean free paths corresponding to neutral current processes.

  14. Chiral symmetry, scalar field and confinement: from nucleon structure to nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanfray, Guy; Ericson, Magda

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the relevance of the scalar modes appearing in chiral theories with spontaneous symmetry breaking such as the NJL model for nuclear matter studies. We show that it depends on the relative role of chiral symmetry breaking and confinement in the nucleon mass origin. It is only in the case of a mixed origin that nuclear matter can be stable and reach saturation. We describe models of nucleon structure where this balance is achieved. We show how chiral constarints and confinement modify the QCD sum rules for the mass evolution in nuclear matter.

  15. Can tonne-scale direct detection experiments discover nuclear dark matter?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, Alistair; Kirk, Russell; Monroe, Jocelyn; West, Stephen M., E-mail: Alistair.Butcher.2010@live.rhul.ac.uk, E-mail: Russell.Kirk.2008@live.rhul.ac.uk, E-mail: Jocelyn.Monroe@rhul.ac.uk, E-mail: Stephen.West@rhul.ac.uk [Department of Physics, Royal Holloway University of London, Egham, Surrey, TW20 0EX (United Kingdom)

    2017-10-01

    Models of nuclear dark matter propose that the dark sector contains large composite states consisting of dark nucleons in analogy to Standard Model nuclei. We examine the direct detection phenomenology of a particular class of nuclear dark matter model at the current generation of tonne-scale liquid noble experiments, in particular DEAP-3600 and XENON1T. In our chosen nuclear dark matter scenario distinctive features arise in the recoil energy spectra due to the non-point-like nature of the composite dark matter state. We calculate the number of events required to distinguish these spectra from those of a standard point-like WIMP state with a decaying exponential recoil spectrum. In the most favourable regions of nuclear dark matter parameter space, we find that a few tens of events are needed to distinguish nuclear dark matter from WIMPs at the 3 σ level in a single experiment. Given the total exposure time of DEAP-3600 and XENON1T we find that at best a 2 σ distinction is possible by these experiments individually, while 3 σ sensitivity is reached for a range of parameters by the combination of the two experiments. We show that future upgrades of these experiments have potential to distinguish a large range of nuclear dark matter models from that of a WIMP at greater than 3 σ .

  16. Can tonne-scale direct detection experiments discover nuclear dark matter?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butcher, Alistair; Kirk, Russell; Monroe, Jocelyn; West, Stephen M.

    2017-01-01

    Models of nuclear dark matter propose that the dark sector contains large composite states consisting of dark nucleons in analogy to Standard Model nuclei. We examine the direct detection phenomenology of a particular class of nuclear dark matter model at the current generation of tonne-scale liquid noble experiments, in particular DEAP-3600 and XENON1T. In our chosen nuclear dark matter scenario distinctive features arise in the recoil energy spectra due to the non-point-like nature of the composite dark matter state. We calculate the number of events required to distinguish these spectra from those of a standard point-like WIMP state with a decaying exponential recoil spectrum. In the most favourable regions of nuclear dark matter parameter space, we find that a few tens of events are needed to distinguish nuclear dark matter from WIMPs at the 3 σ level in a single experiment. Given the total exposure time of DEAP-3600 and XENON1T we find that at best a 2 σ distinction is possible by these experiments individually, while 3 σ sensitivity is reached for a range of parameters by the combination of the two experiments. We show that future upgrades of these experiments have potential to distinguish a large range of nuclear dark matter models from that of a WIMP at greater than 3 σ .

  17. Hyperons in nuclear matter from SU(3) chiral effective field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petschauer, S.; Kaiser, N. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department, Garching (Germany); Haidenbauer, J. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute for Advanced Simulation, Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Juelich (Germany); Meissner, Ulf G. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute for Advanced Simulation, Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Juelich (Germany); Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Bonn (Germany); Weise, W. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department, Garching (Germany); Villa Tambosi, ECT, Villazzano (Trento) (Italy)

    2016-01-15

    Brueckner theory is used to investigate the properties of hyperons in nuclear matter. The hyperon-nucleon interaction is taken from chiral effective field theory at next-to-leading order with SU(3) symmetric low-energy constants. Furthermore, the underlying nucleon-nucleon interaction is also derived within chiral effective field theory. We present the single-particle potentials of Λ and Σ hyperons in symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter computed with the continuous choice for intermediate spectra. The results are in good agreement with the empirical information. In particular, our calculation gives a repulsive Σ-nuclear potential and a weak Λ-nuclear spin-orbit force. (orig.)

  18. Nuclear and Condensed Matter Physics: VI Regional CRRNSM Conference. AIP Conference Proceedings, No. 513 [APCPCS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messina, A.

    2000-01-01

    This book contains 102 scientific contributions in the areas of nuclear and condensed matter physics. The conference was attended by 144 physicists, most of them belonging to the Sicilian Universities of Palermo, Catania and Messina

  19. S-matrix approach to the equation of state of dilute nuclear matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-04-01

    matrix framework, a method is presented to calculate the equation of state of dilute warm nuclear matter. The result is a model-independent virial series for the pressure and density that systematically includes contributions from ...

  20. Influence of flow constraints on the properties of the critical endpoint of symmetric nuclear matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanytskyi, A. I.; Bugaev, K. A.; Sagun, V. V.; Bravina, L. V.; Zabrodin, E. E.

    2018-06-01

    We propose a novel family of equations of state for symmetric nuclear matter based on the induced surface tension concept for the hard-core repulsion. It is shown that having only four adjustable parameters the suggested equations of state can, simultaneously, reproduce not only the main properties of the nuclear matter ground state, but the proton flow constraint up its maximal particle number densities. Varying the model parameters we carefully examine the range of values of incompressibility constant of normal nuclear matter and its critical temperature, which are consistent with the proton flow constraint. This analysis allows us to show that the physically most justified value of nuclear matter critical temperature is 15.5-18 MeV, the incompressibility constant is 270-315 MeV and the hard-core radius of nucleons is less than 0.4 fm.

  1. Nuclear matter saturation in a U(1) circle-times chiral model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Wei

    1989-01-01

    The mean-field approximation in the U(1) circle-times chiral model for nuclear matter maturation is reviewed. Results show that it cannot be the correct saturation mechanism. It is argued that in this chiral model, other than the fact the ω mass can depend on the density of nuclear matter, saturation is still quite like the Walecka picture. 16 refs., 3 figs

  2. Properties of nuclear and neutron matter using D1 Gogny force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, H.M.M.; Ramadan, Kh.A.; Hammad, M.

    2004-01-01

    In the present work, we investigate the equation of state of hot and cold nuclear and neutron matter using the Gogny effective interaction. The binding energy per particle, symmetry energies, free energy, and pressure are calculated as a function of the density ρ, fm -3 , for the nuclear and neutron matter. The results are comparable with previous theoretical estimates using the Seyler-Blanchard effective interaction and the famous calculation of Friedman and Pandharipande using a realistic interaction

  3. Softness of Nuclear Matter and the Production of Strange Particles in Neutron Stars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伟; 文德华; 刘良钢

    2003-01-01

    In the various models, we study the influences of the softness of nuclear matter, the vacuum fluctuation ofnucleons and σ mesons on the production of strange particles in neutron stars. Wefind that the stiffer the nuclear matter is, the more easily the strange particles is produced in neutron stars. The vacuum fluctuation of nucleons has large effect on strange particle production while that of σ meson has little effect on it.

  4. Systematic study of the giant monopolar resonance via inelastic scattering of 108.5 MeV 3He. Measurement of the nuclear compressibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebrun, Didier.

    1981-09-01

    The giant monopole resonance has been studied via inelastic scattering of 108.5 MeV 3 He at very small angles (including 0 0 ) on approximately 50 nuclei. Its angular distribution reaches its maximum in this region and leads to clear separation with GQR. DWBA analysis shows a smooth increase of the strength from few per cent of the sum rule in light nuclei up to 100% in heavier ones. The excitation energy analysis shows a crossing effect of the monopole and quadrupole frequencies in A = 40-50 region, a coupling effect between the two modes in deformed nuclei, an asymmetry effect in several series of isotopes. Compressibility moduli of nuclear matter Ksub(infinity), surface Ksub(s) and asymmetry Ksub(tau) have seen extracted, as well as the Landau parameter F 0 at saturation [fr

  5. Role of isospin in nuclear-matter liquid-gas phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducoin, C.

    2006-10-01

    Nuclear matter presents a phase transition of the liquid-gas type. This well-known feature is due to the nuclear interaction profile (mean-range attractive, short-range repulsive). Symmetric-nuclear-matter thermodynamics is thus analogous to that of a Van der Waals fluid. The study shows up to be more complex in the case of asymmetric matter, composed of neutrons and protons in an arbitrary proportion. Isospin, which distinguishes both constituents, gives a measure of this proportion. Studying asymmetric matter, isospin is an additional degree of freedom, which means one more dimension to consider in the space of observables. The nuclear liquid-gas transition is associated with the multi-fragmentation phenomenon observed in heavy-ion collisions, and to compact-star physics: the involved systems are neutron rich, so they are affected by the isospin degree of freedom. The present work is a theoretical study of isospin effects which appear in the asymmetric nuclear matter liquid-gas phase transition. A mean-field approach is used, with a Skyrme nuclear effective interaction. We demonstrate the presence of a first-order phase transition for asymmetric matter, and study the isospin distillation phenomenon associated with this transition. The case of phase separation at thermodynamic equilibrium is compared to spinodal decomposition. Finite size effects are addressed, as well as the influence of the electron gas which is present in the astrophysical context. (author)

  6. Some Recent Progress on Quark Pairings in Dense Quark and Nuclear Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang Jinyi; Wang Jincheng; Wang Qun

    2012-01-01

    In this review article we give a brief overview on some recent progress in quark pairings in dense quark/nuclear matter mostly developed in the past five years. We focus on following aspects in particular: the BCS-BEC crossover in the CSC phase, the baryon formation and dissociation in dense quark/nuclear matter, the Ginzburg-Landau theory for three-flavor dense matter with U A (1) anomaly, and the collective and Nambu-Goldstone modes for the spin-one CSC. (physics of elementary particles and fields)

  7. Agmatine inhibits nuclear factor-κB nuclear translocation in acute spinal cord compression injury rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doaa M. Samy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Secondary damage after acute spinal cord compression injury (SCCI exacerbates initial insult. Nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB-p65 activation is involved in SCCI deleterious effects. Agmatine (Agm showed neuroprotection against various CNS injuries. However, Agm impact on NF-κB signaling in acute SCCI remains to be investigated. The present study compared the effectiveness of Agm therapy and decompression laminectomy (DL in functional recovery, oxidative stress, inflammatory and apoptotic responses, and modulation of NF-κB activation in acute SCCI rat model. Rats were either sham-operated or subjected to SCCI at T8–9, using 2-Fr. catheter. SCCI rats were randomly treated with DL at T8–9, intraperitoneal Agm (100 mg/kg/day, combined (DL/Agm treatment or saline (n = 16/group. After 28-days of neurological follow-up, spinal cords were either subjected to biochemical measurement of oxidative stress and inflammatory markers or histopathology and immuno-histochemistry for NF-κB-p65 and caspase-3 expression (n = 8/group. Agm was comparable to DL in facilitating neurological functions recovery, reducing inflammation (TNF-α/interleukin-6, and apoptosis. Agm was distinctive in combating oxidative stress. Agm neuroprotective effects were paralleled with inhibition of NF-κB-p65 nuclear translocation. Combined pharmacological and surgical interventions were proved superior in functional recovery. In conclusion, present research suggested a new mechanism for Agm neuroprotection in rats SCCI through inhibition of NF-κB activation.

  8. Quark matter or new particles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, F. Curtis

    1988-01-01

    It has been argued that compression of nuclear matter to somewhat higher densities may lead to the formation of stable quark matter. A plausible alternative, which leads to radically new astrophysical scenarios, is that the stability of quark matter simply represents the stability of new particles compounded of quarks. A specific example is the SU(3)-symmetric version of the alpha particle, composed of spin-zero pairs of each of the baryon octet (an 'octet' particle).

  9. Non-Abelian behavior of α bosons in cold symmetric nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Hua; Bonasera, Aldo

    2011-01-01

    The ground-state energy of infinite symmetric nuclear matter is usually described by strongly interacting nucleons obeying the Pauli exclusion principle. We can imagine a unitary transformation which groups four nonidentical nucleons (i.e., with different spin and isospin) close in coordinate space. Those nucleons, being nonidentical, do not obey the Pauli principle, thus their relative momenta are negligibly small (just to fulfill the Heisenberg principle). Such a cluster can be identified with an α boson. But in dense nuclear matter, those α particles still obey the Pauli principle since are constituted of fermions. The ground state energy of nuclear matter α clusters is the same as for nucleons, thus it is degenerate. We could think of α particles as vortices which can now braid, for instance making 8 Be which leave the ground state energy unchanged. Further braiding to heavier clusters ( 12 C, 16 O,...) could give a different representation of the ground state at no energy cost. In contrast d-like clusters (i.e., N=Z odd-odd nuclei, where N and Z are the neutron and proton number, respectively) cannot describe the ground state of nuclear matter and can be formed at high excitation energies (or temperatures) only. We show that even-even, N=Z, clusters could be classified as non-Abelian states of matter. As a consequence an α condensate in nuclear matter might be hindered by the Fermi motion, while it could be possible a condensate of 8 Be or heavier clusters.

  10. Sound-like collective mode excitation with pion absorption in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Xijiun; Shen Jianguo; Huang Lingfang

    1985-01-01

    The relativistic mean field theory consistent with bulk properties of nuclear matter is extended to study the excitations of the sound-like collective modes in nuclear matter. Corresponding relativistic mean field equations are solved numerically and self-consistently. The effective mass of nucleon, the speed of the sound and the amplitude of the sound-like solution are calculated. When the nuclear density is near or greater than the saturation density, the sound-like non-trivial solution could be found

  11. Isospin and momentum dependence of liquid-gas phase transition in hot asymmetric nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Jun; Ma, Hongru; Chen, Liewen; Li, Baoan

    2008-01-01

    The liquid-gas phase transition in hot neutron-rich nuclear matter is investigated within a self-consistent thermal model using different interactions with or without isospin and/or momentum dependence. The boundary of the phase-coexistence region is shown to be sensitive to the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy as well as the isospin and momentum dependence of the nuclear interaction. (author)

  12. The matter of probability controlling melting of nuclear ship reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pihowicz, W.; Sobczyk, S.

    2008-01-01

    In the first part of this work beside description of split power, power of radioactivity disintegration and afterpower and its ability to extinguish, the genera condition of melting nuclear reactor core and its detailed versions were described. This paper also include the description of consequences melting nuclear reactor core both in case of stationary and mobile (ship) reactor and underline substantial differences. Next, fulfilled with succeed, control under melting of stationary nuclear reactor core was characterized.The middle part describe author's idea of controlling melting of nuclear ship reactor core. It is based on: - the suggestion of prevention pressure's untightness in safety tank of nuclear ship reactor by '' corium '' - and the suggestion of preventing walls of this tank from melting by '' corium ''. In the end the technological and construction barriers of the prevention from melting nuclear ship reactor and draw conclusions was presented. (author)

  13. Preamplifier-shaper prototype for the Fast Transition Detector of the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at FAIR

    CERN Document Server

    Soltveit, Hans Kristian

    2007-01-01

    In this work a preamplifier-shaper prototype for the Fast Transition Detector of the Compressed BaryonicMatter (CBM) experiment at FAIR fabricated using a 0.35 μm CMOS technology will be presented. The ASIC integrates 16 identical Charge Sensitive Amplifiers (CSA) followed by a Pole-Zero network, two bridged-T filters, Common-Mode FeedBack (CMFB) network and two non-inverting level shifting stages. The circuit is optimized for a detector capacitance Cd of (5-10)pF. Measurement results confirm the noise of 330 e− + 12 e−/pF obtained in simulations for a pulse with a Full Width Half Maximum (FWHM) of 71 ns. The circuit recovers to the baseline within 200 ns. The conversion gain is 12.64 mV/fC. An integral nonlinearity of 0.7% is also achieved. The maximum output swing is 2 V. The power consumption is 16 mW/channel where the main contributors are the input transistor and the level shifting stage with 5.3 mW and 6.6 mW, respectively. The total area of the chip is 12 mm2. Although the circuit was designed for...

  14. Some comments on the behaviour of the excited nuclear matter formed in nuclear collisions at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besliu, Calin; Jipa, Alexandru; Argintaru, Dan

    2003-01-01

    In the last years many experiments have been performed in different laboratories to investigate the behaviour of the nuclear matter formed in nuclear collisions at high energies. Therefore, many experimental results are available at present. For explaining these experimental results a lot of models have been proposed. A very large number of concepts have been used. Taking into account some own experimental results obtained in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at energies between a few A GeV and a few hundred A GeV we comments in the frame a phenomenological geometric picture the main experimental results on charged particle multiplicities, participants, cross sections, momentum spectra, temperature slopes, nuclear matter flow, size and structure of the participant regions, antiparticle to particle ratios and chemical potential. Some jumps in the dependencies of some interesting physical quantities on the available energies in the centre of mass system can be reported. Trends to behaviours like-saturation of some physical quantities are observed, too. Therefore, some connections with the possible phase transitions in nuclear matter are included. A few specific signals of different phase transitions in nuclear matter are suggested. (authors)

  15. Chiral symmetry and nuclear matter equation of state

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In other words, we want to probe if, in the context of a two-body force model, the empirical ... action occurs by the surrounding nucleons through Pauli blocking and the nuclear mean field. Nuclear ... sigma and delta have been considered.

  16. Modification of the omega-meson lifetime in nuclear matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotulla, M.; Trnka, D.; Muehlich, P.; Anton, G.; Bacelar, J. C. S.; Bartholomy, O.; Bayadilov, D.; Beloglazov, Y. A.; Bogendoerfer, R.; Castelijns, R.; Crede, V.; Dutz, H.; Ehmanns, A.; Elsner, D.; Ewald, R.; Fabry, I.; Fuchs, M.; Essig, K.; Funke, Ch.; Gothe, R.; Gregor, R.; Gridnev, A. B.; Gutz, E.; Hoeffgen, S.; Hoffmeister, P.; Horn, I.; Hoessl, J.; Jaegle, I.; Junkersfeld, J.; Kalinowsky, H.; Klein, Frank; Klein, Fritz; Klempt, E.; Konrad, M.; Kopf, B.; Krusche, B.; Langheinrich, J.; Loehner, H.; Lopatin, I. V.; Lotz, J.; Lugert, S.; Menze, D.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Mertens, T.; Metag, V.; Mosel, U.; Nanova, M.; Novotny, R.; Ostrick, M.; Pant, L. M.; van Pee, H.; Pfeiffer, M.; Roy, A.; Radkov, A.; Schadmand, S.; Schmidt, Ch.; Schmieden, H.; Schoch, B.; Shende, S.; Suft, G.; Sumachev, V. V.; Szczepanek, T.; Suele, A.; Thoma, U.; Varma, R.; Walther, D.; Weinheimer, Ch.; Wendel, Ch.

    2008-01-01

    Information on hadron properties in the nuclear medium has been derived from the photoproduction of omega mesons on the nuclei C, Ca, Nb, and Pb using the Crystal Barrel/TAPS detector at the ELSA tagged photon facility in Bonn. The dependence of the omega-meson cross section on the nuclear mass

  17. Tritium in organic matter around Krsko Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristof, Romana; Zorko, Benjamin; Kozar Logar, Jasmina; Kosenina, Suzana

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the research was to obtain first results of tritium in the organic matter of environmental samples in the vicinity of Krsko NPP. The emphasis was on the layout of suitable sampling network of crops and fruits in nearby agricultural area. Method for determination of tritium in organic matter in the form of Tissue Free Water Tritium (TFWT) and Organically Bound Tritium (OBT) has been implemented. Capabilities of the methods were tested on real environmental samples and its findings were compared to modeled activities of tritium from atmospheric releases and literature based results of TFWT and OBT. (author)

  18. Isospin-dependent properties of asymmetric nuclear matter in relativistic mean field models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lie-Wen; Ko, Che Ming; Li, Bao-An

    2007-11-01

    Using various relativistic mean-field models, including nonlinear ones with meson field self-interactions, models with density-dependent meson-nucleon couplings, and point-coupling models without meson fields, we have studied the isospin-dependent bulk and single-particle properties of asymmetric nuclear matter. In particular, we have determined the density dependence of nuclear symmetry energy from these different relativistic mean-field models and compared the results with the constraints recently extracted from analyses of experimental data on isospin diffusion and isotopic scaling in intermediate energy heavy-ion collisions as well as from measured isotopic dependence of the giant monopole resonances in even-A Sn isotopes. Among the 23 parameter sets in the relativistic mean-field model that are commonly used for nuclear structure studies, only a few are found to give symmetry energies that are consistent with the empirical constraints. We have also studied the nuclear symmetry potential and the isospin splitting of the nucleon effective mass in isospin asymmetric nuclear matter. We find that both the momentum dependence of the nuclear symmetry potential at fixed baryon density and the isospin splitting of the nucleon effective mass in neutron-rich nuclear matter depend not only on the nuclear interactions but also on the definition of the nucleon optical potential.

  19. Quark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csernai, L.; Kampert, K.H.

    1994-01-01

    Precisely one decade ago the GSI (Darmstadt)/LBL (Berkeley) Collaboration at the Berkeley Bevalac reported clear evidence for collective sidewards flow in high energy heavy ion collisions. This milestone observation clearly displayed the compression and heating up of nuclear matter, providing new insights into how the behaviour of nuclear matter changes under very different conditions. This year, evidence for azimuthally asymmetric transverse flow at ten times higher projectile energy (11 GeV per nucleon gold on gold collisions) was presented by the Brookhaven E877 collaboration at the recent European Research Conference on ''Physics of High Energy Heavy Ion Collisions'', held in Helsinki from 17-22 June

  20. The future of the nuclear industry: a matter of communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Waal, H S

    1993-11-01

    Since the very first successes achieved by the early scientists the infant nuclear industry was plagued by an atmosphere of uncertainty, conflict, anxiety and expectations. After the initial euphoria the Chernobyl accident shocked public opinion and perspectives changed. Nuclear energy is experience by the public in three dimensions. Firstly there are the technical realities of the reactor and its fantastically reduced source of power. Secondly, there is a psychological and political meaning, including the association of modern technology with authority, government, and control. The third dimension is the product of old myths about `divine secrets`, mad scientists dreadful pollution and cosmic apocalypse. To a large extent the nuclear industry is at fault for these emotional connotations. An early lapse in the communication process can be blamed for many of the misconceptions. The nuclear industry lost an opportunity by sticking to `vagueness`. Recent trends show that a pattern of conditional acceptance is present in public opinion with regard to the nuclear industry. Possible solutions, including better communication, aggressive marketing, and the training of scientists to become communicators, are discussed. A study was done of community attitudes around Koeberg, and it is concluded that the public must be convinced of the fact that nuclear power is clean, safe, cheap and accepted as such by the industrially developed word. 62 refs., 13 figs.

  1. The future of the nuclear industry: a matter of communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Waal, H.S.

    1993-11-01

    Since the very first successes achieved by the early scientists the infant nuclear industry was plagued by an atmosphere of uncertainty, conflict, anxiety and expectations. After the initial euphoria the Chernobyl accident shocked public opinion and perspectives changed. Nuclear energy is experience by the public in three dimensions. Firstly there are the technical realities of the reactor and its fantastically reduced source of power. Secondly, there is a psychological and political meaning, including the association of modern technology with authority, government, and control. The third dimension is the product of old myths about 'divine secrets', mad scientists dreadful pollution and cosmic apocalypse. To a large extent the nuclear industry is at fault for these emotional connotations. An early lapse in the communication process can be blamed for many of the misconceptions. The nuclear industry lost an opportunity by sticking to 'vagueness'. Recent trends show that a pattern of conditional acceptance is present in public opinion with regard to the nuclear industry. Possible solutions, including better communication, aggressive marketing, and the training of scientists to become communicators, are discussed. A study was done of community attitudes around Koeberg, and it is concluded that the public must be convinced of the fact that nuclear power is clean, safe, cheap and accepted as such by the industrially developed word. 62 refs., 13 figs

  2. Variational Calculation for the Equation of State of Hot Asymmetric Nuclear Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Togashi, Hajime; Kanzawa, Hiroaki; Takano, Masatoshi

    2010-01-01

    We calculate the equation of state (EOS) of asymmetric nuclear matter at finite temperatures with the cluster variational method based on the realistic nuclear Hamiltonian composed of the AV18 and UIX nuclear potentials. The free energy is calculated with an extension of the variational method proposed by Schmidt and Pandharipande. The obtained thermodynamic quantities such as entropy, internal energy, pressure and chemical potential derived from the free energy are reasonable. It is also found that the present variational calculation is self-consistent. These thermodynamic quantities are essential ingredients in our project for constructing a new nuclear EOS applicable to supernova simulations.

  3. Antiferromagnetic spin phase transition in nuclear matter with effective Gogny interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isayev, A.A.; Yang, J.

    2004-01-01

    The possibility of ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic phase transitions in symmetric nuclear matter is analyzed within the framework of a Fermi liquid theory with the effective Gogny interaction. It is shown that at some critical density nuclear matter with the D1S effective force undergoes a phase transition to the antiferromagnetic spin state (opposite directions of neutron and proton spins). The self-consistent equations of spin polarized nuclear matter with the D1S force have no solutions corresponding to ferromagnetic spin ordering (the same direction of neutron and proton spins) and, hence, the ferromagnetic transition does not appear. The dependence of the antiferromagnetic spin polarization parameter as a function of density is found at zero temperature

  4. Sigma-omega meson coupling and properties of nuclei and nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haidari, Maryam M.; Sharma, Madan M.

    2008-01-01

    We have constructed a Lagrangian model with a coupling of σ and ω mesons in the relativistic mean-field theory. Properties of finite nuclei and nuclear matter are explored with the new Lagrangian model SIG-OM. The study shows that an excellent description of binding energies and charge radii of nuclei over a large range of isospin is achieved with SIG-OM. With an incompressibility of nuclear matter K=265 MeV, it is also able to describe the breathing-mode isoscalar giant monopole resonance energies appropriately. It is shown that the high-density behaviour of the equation of state of nuclear and neutron matter with the σ-ω coupling is much softer than that of the non-linear scalar coupling model

  5. Collective effects on transport coefficients of relativistic nuclear matter. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mornas, L.

    1993-04-01

    The transport coefficients (thermal conductivity, shear and bulk viscosities) of symmetric nuclear matter and neutron matter are calculated in the Walecka model with a Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck collision term by means of a Chapman-Enskog expansion in first order. The order of magnitude of the influence of collective effects induced by the presence of the mean σ and ω fields on these coefficients is evaluated. (orig.). 9 figs

  6. Proton impurity in the neutron matter: a nuclear polaron problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutschera, M [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland); Wojcik, W [Politechnika Krakowska, Cracow (Poland)

    1992-10-01

    We study interactions of a proton impurity with density oscillations of the neutron matter in a Debye approximation. The proton-phonon coupling is of the deformation-potential type at long wavelengths. It is weak at low density and increases with the neutron matter density. We calculate the proton`s effective mass perturbatively for a weak coupling, and use a canonical transformation technique for stronger couplings. The proton`s effective mass grows significantly with density, and at higher densities the proton impurity can be localized. This behaviour is similar to that of the polaron in solids. We obtain properties of the localized proton in the strong coupling regime from variational calculations, treating the neutron in the Thomas-Fermi approximation. (author). 14 refs, 8 figs.

  7. Tensor quasiparticle interaction and spin-isospin sound in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haensel, P.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of the tensor components of the quasiparticle interaction in nuclear matter on the spin-isospin sound type excitations is studied. Numerical results are obtained using a simplified model of the quasiparticle interaction in nuclear matter. The quasiparticle distribution matrix corresponding to the spin-isospin sound is found to be qualitatively different from that obtained for purely central quasiparticle interaction. The macroscopic effects, however, are restricted to a small change in the phase velocity of the spin-isospin sound. (Auth.)

  8. Nuclear matter properties using different sets of parameters in the Gogny interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, Kh.A.; Mansour, H.M.M.

    2002-01-01

    In the present work we use the finite range density dependent effective Gogny interaction to study the equation of state of polarized nuclear matter. Six sets of the interaction parameters are used and a comparison is made with the calculations of Friedman and Pandharipande using a realistic interaction. One of the parameter sets (D1) gives similar results for the properties of polarized nuclear matter while the other parameter sets (D1S, D250, D260, D280 and D300) yield results which are reasonably comparable with the realistic interaction calculation of Friedman and Pandharipande. (author)

  9. Symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter in the Thomas-Fermi model at finite temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strobel, K.; Weber, F.; Weigel, M.K.

    1999-01-01

    The properties of warm symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter are investigated in the frame of the Thomas-Fermi approximation using a recent modern parameterization of the effective nucleon-nucleon interaction of Myers and Swiatecki. Special attention is paid to the liquid-gas phase transition, which is of special interest in modern nuclear physics. We have determined the critical temperature, critical density and the so-called flash temperature. Furthermore, the equation of state for cold neutron star matter is calculated. (orig.)

  10. The stability of nuclear matter in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentz, W. E-mail: bentz@keyaki.cc.u-tokai.ac.jp; Thomas, A.W. E-mail: athomas@physics.adelaide.edu.au

    2001-12-17

    Using the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model to describe the nucleon as a quark-diquark state, we discuss the stability of nuclear matter in a hybrid model for the ground state at finite nucleon density. It is shown that a simple extension of the model to simulate the effects of confinement leads to a scalar polarizability of the nucleon. This, in turn, leads to a less attractive effective interaction between the nucleons, helping to achieve saturation of the nuclear matter ground state. It is also pointed out that that the same effect naturally leads to a suppression of 'Z-graph' contributions with increasing scalar potential.

  11. Radiative muon capture and induced pseudoscalar coupling constant in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheoun, Myung Ki; Kim, K S; Choi, T K

    2003-01-01

    Radiative muon capture is studied to investigate the induced pseudoscalar coupling constant g P in nuclear matter. According to the recent TRIUMF experiment for μ - p → nν μ γ, the g P was surprisingly larger than the value obtained from μ - p → nν μ experiment by as much as 44%. The result may affect seriously theoretical interpretations of the experimental results for the radiative muon captures in finite nuclei. In view of the recent TRIUMF result, the radiative muon capture in nuclear matter is revisited in a framework of the relativistic mean field theory

  12. Nuclear matter with a pseudo-particle model: static bulk and surface properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idier, D.; Benhassine, B.; Farine, M.; Remaud, B.; Sebille, F.

    1993-01-01

    Direct calculations of cold and hot nuclear matter (bulk and surface properties) are carried out within the frame of a pseudo-particle model using a gaussian decomposition of the distribution function. Comparisons with Hartree-Fock calculations, for a large class of effective interactions, show that such a model is reliable to reproduce accurately the equation of state of nuclear matter for large ranges of densities and temperatures. The number of gaussians per nucleon and the gaussian widths are critical parameters in that semi-classical model. (orig.)

  13. Nuclear matter with pseudo-particle model: static bulk and surface properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idier, D.; Benhassine, B.; Farine, M.; Remaud, B.; Sebille, F.

    1993-12-31

    Direct calculations of cold and hot nuclear matter (bulk and surface properties) are carried out within the frame of a pseudo-particle model using a Gaussian decomposition of the distribution function. Comparisons with Hartree-Fock calculations, for a large class of effective interactions, show that such a model is reliable to reproduce accurately the equation of state of nuclear matter for large ranges of densities and temperatures. The number of Gaussian per nucleon and the Gaussian widths are critical parameters in that semi-classical model. (author) 13 refs.; 9 figs.; 2 tabs.

  14. Nuclear matter with pseudo-particle model: static bulk and surface properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idier, D.; Benhassine, B.; Farine, M.; Remaud, B.; Sebille, F.

    1993-01-01

    Direct calculations of cold and hot nuclear matter (bulk and surface properties) are carried out within the frame of a pseudo-particle model using a Gaussian decomposition of the distribution function. Comparisons with Hartree-Fock calculations, for a large class of effective interactions, show that such a model is reliable to reproduce accurately the equation of state of nuclear matter for large ranges of densities and temperatures. The number of Gaussian per nucleon and the Gaussian widths are critical parameters in that semi-classical model. (author) 13 refs.; 9 figs.; 2 tabs

  15. Nuclear matter with a pseudo-particle model: static bulk and surface properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idier, D. (Lab. de Physique Nucleaire CNRS/IN2P3, Univ. de Nantes (France)); Benhassine, B. (Lab. de Physique Nucleaire CNRS/IN2P3, Univ. de Nantes (France)); Farine, M. (Lab. de Physique Nucleaire CNRS/IN2P3, Univ. de Nantes (France)); Remaud, B. (Lab. de Physique Nucleaire CNRS/IN2P3, Univ. de Nantes (France)); Sebille, F. (Lab. de Physique Nucleaire CNRS/IN2P3, Univ. de Nantes (France))

    1993-11-15

    Direct calculations of cold and hot nuclear matter (bulk and surface properties) are carried out within the frame of a pseudo-particle model using a gaussian decomposition of the distribution function. Comparisons with Hartree-Fock calculations, for a large class of effective interactions, show that such a model is reliable to reproduce accurately the equation of state of nuclear matter for large ranges of densities and temperatures. The number of gaussians per nucleon and the gaussian widths are critical parameters in that semi-classical model. (orig.)

  16. The effect of compressive stress on the Young's modulus of unirradiated and irradiated nuclear graphites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oku, T.; Usui, T.; Ero, M.; Fukuda, Y.

    1977-01-01

    The Young's moduli of unirradiated and high temperature (800 to 1000 0 C) irradiated graphites for HTGR were measured by the ultrasonic method in the direction of applied compressive stress during and after stressing. The Young's moduli of all the tested graphites decreased with increasing compressive stress both during and after stressing. In order to investigate the reason for the decrease in Young's modulus by applying compressive stress, the mercury pore diameter distributions of a part of the unirradiated and irradiated specimens were measured. The change in pore distribution is believed to be associated with structural changes produced by irradiation and compressive stressing. The residual strain, after removing the compressive stress, showed a good correlation with the decrease in Young's modulus caused by the compressive stress. The decrease in Young's modulus by applying compressive stress was considered to be due to the increase in the mobile dislocation density and the growth or formation of cracks. The results suggest, however, that the mechanism giving the larger contribution depends on the brand of graphite, and in anisotropic graphite it depends on the direction of applied stress and the irradiation conditions. (author)

  17. Hyperons in nuclear matter from SU(3) chiral effective field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petschauer, Stefan; Kaiser, Norbert [Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Haidenbauer, Johann [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany); Meissner, Ulf G. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany); Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Weise, Wolfram [Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); ECT, Trento (Italy)

    2016-07-01

    Brueckner theory is used to investigate the properties of hyperons in nuclear matter. The hyperon-nucleon interaction is taken from chiral effective field theory at next-to-leading order with SU(3) symmetric low-energy constants. Furthermore, the underlying nucleon-nucleon interaction is also derived within chiral effective field theory. We present the single-particle potentials of Λ and Σ hyperons in symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter computed with the continuous choice for intermediate spectra. The results are in good agreement with the empirical information. In particular, our calculation gives a repulsive Σ-nuclear potential and a weak Λ-nuclear spin-orbit force. The splittings among the Σ{sup +}, Σ{sup 0} and Σ{sup -} potentials have a non-linear dependence on the isospin asymmetry which goes beyond the usual parametrization in terms of an isovector Lane potential.

  18. Relativistic and non-relativistic studies of nuclear matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banerjee, MK; Tjon, JA

    2002-01-01

    We point out that the differences between the results of the non-relativistic lowest order Brueckner theory (LOBT) and the relativistic Dirac-Brueckner analysis predominantly arise from two sources. Besides effects from a nucleon mass modification M* in nuclear medium we have in a relativistic

  19. Pinning down nuclear. To the core of the matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeck, Helmut; Gerstmayr, Michael; Radde, Eileen

    2014-01-01

    The nuclear disaster in Fukushima shocked the world tremendously. The call to pull out of nuclear energy is getting louder - and more often than not by politicians trying to lure the favour of voters. Through the media there are half-truths and false information floating about the global consequences of the disaster and sensational prognoses for the future, all of which are in turn unsettling for the general public. Are the opposers to nuclear energy playing with the fear of the public or is the threat real? This book tells, in a captivating manner - authenticated with examples and incidents not known by many - what the threat for the area actually looks like. They confront the level of truth in the frightening scenarios and inform about the situation in case of emergency. Furthermore, they examine factors that preceded the disaster and broach the subject of the incredible hunger for energy, which dominates the world and continues to drive the commercial use of nuclear energy. Also the ghost of Chernobyl and its aftermath, which has been dismissed from our minds, is re-examined based on current knowledge. The book impresses with insider know-how, latest detailed knowledge, amazing facts and an entertaining narrative style.

  20. Fluctuation effects on bubble growth in hot nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santiago, A.J.; Chung, K.C.

    1991-01-01

    The evolution of bubbles with arbitrary density in an infinite nuclear system is studied in a simplified treatment. Kinetic pressure fluctuations on the bubble surface are considered. The critical radius, evolution time and probability for bubble expansion are shown to depend significantly on the initial bubble density. (author)

  1. Pinning down nuclear. To the core of the matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeck, Helmut; Gerstmayr, Michael [Technische Univ., Vienna (Austria); International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Radde, Eileen [Nuclear Engineering Seibersdorf GmbH (Austria); International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-07-01

    The nuclear disaster in Fukushima shocked the world tremendously. The call to pull out of nuclear energy is getting louder - and more often than not by politicians trying to lure the favour of voters. Through the media there are half-truths and false information floating about the global consequences of the disaster and sensational prognoses for the future, all of which are in turn unsettling for the general public. Are the opposers to nuclear energy playing with the fear of the public or is the threat real? This book tells, in a captivating manner - authenticated with examples and incidents not known by many - what the threat for the area actually looks like. They confront the level of truth in the frightening scenarios and inform about the situation in case of emergency. Furthermore, they examine factors that preceded the disaster and broach the subject of the incredible hunger for energy, which dominates the world and continues to drive the commercial use of nuclear energy. Also the ghost of Chernobyl and its aftermath, which has been dismissed from our minds, is re-examined based on current knowledge. The book impresses with insider know-how, latest detailed knowledge, amazing facts and an entertaining narrative style.

  2. 77 FR 11168 - In the Matter of Exelon Corporation; Constellation Energy Group, Inc.; Nine Mile Nuclear Station...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... and NPF-69] In the Matter of Exelon Corporation; Constellation Energy Group, Inc.; Nine Mile Nuclear..., LLC (Exelon Ventures), and Constellation Energy Nuclear Group, LLC (CENG), acting on behalf of itself... Nuclear Advisory Committee of Constellation Energy Nuclear Group, LLC, shall prepare an Annual Report...

  3. Isospin-dependent properties of asymmetric nuclear matter in relativistic mean-field models

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Lie-Wen; Ko, Che Ming; Li, Bao-An

    2007-01-01

    Using various relativistic mean-field models, including the nonlinear ones with meson field self-interactions, those with density-dependent meson-nucleon couplings, and the point-coupling models without meson fields, we have studied the isospin-dependent bulk and single-particle properties of asymmetric nuclear matter. In particular, we have determined the density dependence of nuclear symmetry energy from these different relativistic mean-field models and compare the results with the constra...

  4. Wigner-Kirkwood expansion of the phase-space density for half infinite nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, M.; Schuck, P.

    1987-01-01

    The phase space distribution of half infinite nuclear matter is expanded in a ℎ-series analogous to the low temperature expansion of the Fermi function. Besides the usual Wigner-Kirkwood expansion, oscillatory terms are derived. In the case of a Woods-Saxon potential, a smallness parameter is defined, which determines the convergence of the series and explains the very rapid convergence of the Wigner-Kirkwood expansion for average (nuclear) binding energies

  5. Halftime - a balance in matters nuclear of the grand coalition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2007-01-01

    On November 11, 2005, the coalition partners, CDU/CSU and SPD, signed the agreement establishing a coalition in the German federal parliament under the heading of ''Together for Germany''. Among other things, this raised the question of what would happen in the fields of energy policy and nuclear power. After 2 years of a grand coalition, it is time to draw some interim conclusions. The coalition agreement contains statements to the effect that energy policy means fundamental economic, structural and climate policies, and that secure, low-cost, non-polluting energy supplies are elementary prerequisites of a modern, capable national economy. A sustainable overall energy policy concept should be based on a balanced energy mix. This overall concept, one of the results of ''energy summit'' talks with Federal Chancellor Merkel, was announced for the end of 2007. The 3 energy summit discussions with Federal Chancellor Merkel deliberately avoided the subject of nuclear power. There is no debate about the implications of nuclear energy. This in no way improved the status of nuclear power in Germany. What remains is hope for the second half of this government's term of office. The beginning of that term is marked by the McKinsey study, initiated by the Federation of German Industries (BDI), on ''Cost and Potential of Avoiding Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Germany,'' which says that operating German nuclear power plants for 60 or even 45 years would result in a CO2 avoidance potential for 2020 which would be approximately 90 million tons higher, and in avoidance costs lower by 4.5 billion euro per year. (orig.)

  6. Density and permeability of a loess soil: long-term organic matter effect and the response to compressive stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Schjønning, Per; Møldrup, Per

    2013-01-01

    to compressive stress, undisturbed soil cores were collected from a long-term fertilisation experiment in Bad Lauchstädt in Germany, including combinations of animal manure and mineral fertilisers. The cores were drained to -100 hPa matric potential and exposed to uniaxial confined compression (200k......Pa). Investigated indicators for compression resistance included compression index, precompression stress, and resistance and resilience indices based on measured soil physical properties (bulk density, air-filled porosity, air permeability, and void ratio). Soil resilience was assessed following exposure...... but the correlation was not significant. However, initial bulk density (ρbi) and initial gravimetric water content (wi) were significantly positively correlated to the indices of soil compression resistance, with the effect of ρbi being significantly stronger. Significant recovery of airfilled porosity and air...

  7. The 132Sn giant dipole resonance as a constraint on nuclear matter properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Brandon; Bonasera, Giacomo; Shlomo, Shalom

    2015-10-01

    Nuclear giant resonances provide a sensitive method for constraining the properties of nuclear matter (NM) - many of which have large uncertainties - and thereby improve the nuclear energy-density functional. In this work, self-consistent Hartree-Fock random-phase approximation (HF-RPA) theory was employed to calculate the strength function and energy of the isovector giant dipole resonance (IVGDR) in the doubly-magic 132Sn nucleus. Several (17) commonly-used Skyrme-type interactions were employed. The correlations between the IVGDR centroid energy and each nuclear matter property were explored, as were correlations between the nuclear matter properties and the 132Sn neutron skin thickness rn -rp . Experimental data for the IVGDR centroid energy was used to constrain the symmetry energy density, the symmetry energy, and its first and second derivatives, respectively, of NM. Further investigation, particularly of nuclides far from stability, will be needed to extend the nuclear energy-density functional to the extremes of density and neutron abundance found in neutron stars and astrophysical nucleosynthesis environments.

  8. ERK5 and cell proliferation: nuclear localization is what matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestor Gomez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available ERK5, the last MAP kinase family member discovered, is activated by the upstream kinase MEK5 in response to growth factors and stress stimulation. MEK5-ERK5 pathway has been associated to different cellular processes, playing a crucial role in cell proliferation in normal and cancer cells by mechanisms that are both dependent and independent of its kinase activity. Thus, nuclear ERK5 activates transcription factors by either direct phosphorylation or acting as co-activator thanks to a unique transcriptional activation TAD domain located at its C-terminal tail. Consequently, ERK5 has been proposed as an interesting target to tackle different cancers, and either inhibitors of ERK5 activity or silencing the protein have shown antiproliferative activity in cancer cells and to block tumour growth in animal models. Here, we review the different mechanisms involved in ERK5 nuclear translocation and their consequences. Inactive ERK5 resides in the cytosol, forming a complex with Hsp90-Cdc37 superchaperone. In a canonical mechanism, MEK5-dependent activation results in ERK5 C-terminal autophosphorylation, Hsp90 dissociation and nuclear translocation. This mechanism integrates signals such as growth factors and stresses that activate the MEK5-ERK5 pathway. Importantly, two other mechanisms, MEK5-independent, have been recently described. These mechanisms allow nuclear shuttling of kinase-inactive forms of ERK5. Although lacking kinase activity, these forms activate transcription by interacting with transcription factors through the TAD domain. Both mechanisms also require Hsp90 dissociation previous to nuclear translocation. One mechanism involves phosphorylation of the C-terminal tail of ERK5 by kinases that are activated during mitosis, such as Cyclin-dependent kinase-1. The second mechanism involves overexpression of chaperone Cdc37, an oncogene that is overexpressed in cancers such as prostate adenocarcinoma, where it collaborates with ERK5 to promote

  9. Theory of dressed bosons and nuclear matter distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomaselli, M.; Liu, L.C.; Tanihata, I.

    2002-09-01

    The structure of nuclei with large neutron or proton-neutron excess, i.e., with large isospin components, is investigated in the Boson Dynamic Correlation Model where the valence particle pairs are dressed by their interactions with the microscopic clusters of the core. The mixed-mode states of the model are the eigenstates of a set of nonlinear equations. We solve these equations in terms of the cluster factorizations that are introduced to compute the n-boson matrix elements. Our calculation of the energy levels of 18 O reveals a strong mixing between the valence and core clusters which leads to a large reduction of the spectroscopic factors as calculated in Shell-Model approximations. The coupling of valence- to core-clusters gives a new insight into the halo formation in neutron-rich nuclei, namely, the halo is also a consequence of the excitation of the core protons. The calculated matter distributions of 6 He and 6 Li exhibit strong similarities, which indicate that halo formation in nuclei with proton-neutron excess must be postulated. The matter distributions of these two isotopes reproduce well the differential cross sections obtained in the proton elastic scattering experiments performed at GSI in inverse kinematics at an energy of 0.7 GeV/u. (orig.)

  10. Historical trend of nuclear matter calculation and its recent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohno, Michio

    2006-01-01

    He guide line to understand nuclear properties on the basis of nuclear force was started in the 1950's by the Brueckner theory. The theory established the fundamental framework to formulate the picture to consider both the two nucleon and tensor correlations as well as Pauli effect inside the nuclei. In the 1960's the theory was developed to obtain ground state energy on the perturbation many-body theory. The growth and refinement of the Brueckner theory in the 1970's and after are overviewed and the computer code developments in the 1980's are mentioned. Concerning the many-body correlation problem Italian group has calculated up to three-body correlations in the Brueckner theory. At present, effective interaction nuclear theory is coming into a new level and actively studied by the introduction of low momentum interaction based on the renormalization group theory, by full application of the coupled cluster method, by the application of Skyrme Hartree-Fock method in wide range and by the reconsideration of the energy density functional method in relation to the relativistic mean field method. Owing to the recent remarkable progress of computers, calculations which were impossible to be executed in old days are now done rather easily. (S. Funahashi)

  11. The effects of the tensor coupling term in the Zimanyi-Moszkowski model for unpolarized nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ru-Keng Su; Li Li; Hong-Qiu Song

    1998-01-01

    The effects of the tensor coupling term on nuclear matter in the Zimanyi-Moszkowki (ZM) model are investigated. It is shown that the tensor coupling term in the ZM model leaves the thermodynamical properties of nuclear matter almost unchanged. The corrections of tensor coupling to the critical point of the liquid-gas phase transition are given. (author)

  12. Self-consistent green function calculations for isospin asymmetric nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, Hesham; Gad, Khalaf; Hassaneen, Khaled S.A.

    2010-01-01

    The one-body potentials for protons and neutrons are obtained from the self-consistent Green-function calculations of asymmetric nuclear matter, in particular their dependence on the degree of proton/neutron asymmetry. Results of the binding energy per nucleon as a function of the density and asymmetry parameter are presented for the self-consistent Green function approach using the CD-Bonn potential. For the sake of comparison, the same calculations are performed using the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approximation. The contribution of the hole-hole terms leads to a repulsive contribution to the energy per nucleon which increases with the nuclear density. The incompressibility for asymmetric nuclear matter has been also investigated in the framework of the self-consistent Green-function approach using the CD-Bonn potential. The behavior of the incompressibility is studied for different values of the nuclear density and the neutron excess parameter. The nuclear symmetry potential at fixed nuclear density is also calculated and its value decreases with increasing the nucleon energy. In particular, the nuclear symmetry potential at saturation density changes from positive to negative values at nucleon kinetic energy of about 200 MeV. For the sake of comparison, the same calculations are performed using the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approximation. The proton/neutron effective mass splitting in neutron-rich matter has been studied. The predicted isospin splitting of the proton/neutron effective mass splitting in neutron-rich matter is such that m n * ≥ m p * . (author)

  13. Computational methods for the nuclear and neutron matter problems. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalos, M.H.

    1979-01-01

    A brief report is given of progress on the development of Monte Carlo methods for the treatment of both simplified and realistic models of extensive neutron and nuclear matter and, eventually, of finite nuclei. A wide class of algorithms that may allow the efficient sampling of the integrands required in calculating the energy expectations with useful trial wave functions was devised

  14. Single Particle Potential of a Σ Hyperon in Nuclear Matter. II Rearrangement Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabrowski, J.

    2000-01-01

    The rearrangement contribution to the real part of the single particle potential of a Σ hyperon in nuclear matter, U Σ , is investigated. The isospin and spin dependent parts of U Σ are considered. Results obtained for four models of the Nijmegen baryon-baryon interaction are presented and discussed. (author)

  15. Extension of Hartree-Fock theory including tensor correlation in nuclear matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jinniu; Toki, Hiroshi; Ogawa, Yoko

    2013-10-01

    We study the properties of nuclear matter in the extension of Hartree-Fock theory including tensor correlation using a realistic nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction. The nuclear wave function consists of the Hartree-Fock and two-particle-two-hole (2p-2h) states, following the concept of the tensor-optimized shell model (TOSM) for light nuclei. The short range repulsion and strong tensor force of realistic NN interaction provide high momentum components, which are taken into account in a many-body framework by introducing 2p-2h states. Single particle states are determined by the variational principle of the total energy with respect to 2p-2h amplitudes and Hartree-Fock (HF) single-particle states. The resulting differential equation is almost identical with that of Brueckner-Hartree-Fock (BHF) theory by taking two-body scattering terms only. We calculate the equation of state (EOS) of nuclear matter in this framework with the Bonn potential as a realistic NN interaction. We found similar results to BHF theory with slightly repulsive effects in the total energy. The relativistic effect is discussed for the EOSs of nuclear matter in both non-relativistic and relativistic frameworks. The momentum distribution has large components at high momenta due to 2p-2h excitations. We also obtain the EOSs of pure neutron matter, where the tensor effect is small in the iso-vector channel.

  16. Evidences for a new state of the nuclear matter: quark gluon plasma in liquid phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jipa, Alexandru

    2005-01-01

    The experimental results obtained in the last years at the RHIC BNL (USA) allowed to obtain an important experimental result, namely the observation of the quark gluon plasma formation in nucleus-nucleus collisions at 200 A GeV in CMS. Evidences for this new state of nuclear matter are presented in this work. The results of the BRAHMS Experiment are detailed. (author)

  17. Time scales for spinodal decomposition in nuclear matter with pseudo-particle model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idier, D.; Benhassine, B.; Farine, M.; Remaud, B.; Sebille, F.

    1993-12-31

    Dynamical instabilities arising from fluctuations in the spinodal zone for nuclear matter are studied using a large variety of zero range interactions in the frame of a pseudo-particle model. Scale times for spinodal decomposition are extracted and a possible link with decomposition in real heavy-ion collisions is discussed. (author) 12 refs.; 6 figs.; 1 tab.

  18. Time scales for spinodal decomposition in nuclear matter with pseudo-particle model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idier, D.; Benhassine, B.; Farine, M.; Remaud, B.; Sebille, F.

    1993-01-01

    Dynamical instabilities arising from fluctuations in the spinodal zone for nuclear matter are studied using a large variety of zero range interactions in the frame of a pseudo-particle model. Scale times for spinodal decomposition are extracted and a possible link with decomposition in real heavy-ion collisions is discussed. (author) 12 refs.; 6 figs.; 1 tab

  19. Time scales for spinodal decomposition in nuclear matter with pseudoparticle models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idier, D.; Benhassine, B.; Farine, M.; Remaud, B.; Sebille, F.

    1993-01-01

    Dynamical instabilities arising from fluctuations in the spinodal zone for nuclear matter are studied using a large variety of zero range interactions in the frame of a pseudoparticle model. Scale times for spinodal decomposition are extracted and a possible link with decomposition in real heavy-ion collisions is discussed

  20. Time scales for spinodal decomposition in nuclear matter with pseudoparticle models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idier, D.; Benhassine, B.; Farine, M.; Remaud, B.; Sebille, F. (Laboratoire de Physique Nucleaire CNRS/IN2P3, Universite de Nantes, 2, rue de la Houssiniere, 44072 Nantes (France))

    1993-08-01

    Dynamical instabilities arising from fluctuations in the spinodal zone for nuclear matter are studied using a large variety of zero range interactions in the frame of a pseudoparticle model. Scale times for spinodal decomposition are extracted and a possible link with decomposition in real heavy-ion collisions is discussed.

  1. Nuclear recoil energy scale in liquid xenon with application to the direct detection of dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorensen, Peter; Dahl, Carl Eric

    2011-01-01

    We show for the first time that the quenching of electronic excitation from nuclear recoils in liquid xenon is well-described by Lindhard theory, if the nuclear recoil energy is reconstructed using the combined (scintillation and ionization) energy scale proposed by Shutt et al. We argue for the adoption of this perspective in favor of the existing preference for reconstructing nuclear recoil energy solely from primary scintillation. We show that signal partitioning into scintillation and ionization is well described by the Thomas-Imel box model. We discuss the implications for liquid xenon detectors aimed at the direct detection of dark matter.

  2. QCD evolution equations for high energy partons in nuclear matter

    CERN Document Server

    Kinder-Geiger, Klaus; Geiger, Klaus; Mueller, Berndt

    1994-01-01

    We derive a generalized form of Altarelli-Parisi equations to decribe the time evolution of parton distributions in a nuclear medium. In the framework of the leading logarithmic approximation, we obtain a set of coupled integro- differential equations for the parton distribution functions and equations for the virtuality (``age'') distribution of partons. In addition to parton branching processes, we take into account fusion and scattering processes that are specific to QCD in medium. Detailed balance between gain and loss terms in the resulting evolution equations correctly accounts for both real and virtual contributions which yields a natural cancellation of infrared divergences.

  3. Nuclear matter at high density: Phase transitions, multiquark states, and supernova outbursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivoruchenko, M. I.; Nadyozhin, D. K.; Rasinkova, T. L.; Simonov, Yu. A.; Trusov, M. A.; Yudin, A. V.

    2011-01-01

    Phase transition from hadronic matter to quark-gluon matter is discussed for various regimes of temperature and baryon number density. For small and medium densities, the phase transition is accurately described in the framework of the Field Correlation Method, whereas at high density predictions are less certain and leave room for the phenomenological models. We study formation of multiquark states (MQS) at zero temperature and high density. Relevant MQS components of the nuclear matter can be described using a previously developed formalism of the quark compound bags (QCB). Partialwave analysis of nucleon-nucleon scattering indicates the existence of 6QS which manifest themselves as poles of P matrix. In the framework of the QCB model, we formulate a self-consistent system of coupled equations for the nucleon and 6QS propagators in nuclear matter and the G matrix. The approach provides a link between high-density nuclear matter with the MQS components and the cumulative effect observed in reactions on the nuclei, which requires the admixture of MQS in the wave functions of nuclei kinematically. 6QS determines the natural scale of the density for a possible phase transition into theMQS phase of nuclear matter. Such a phase transition can lead to dynamic instability of newly born protoneutron stars and dramatically affect the dynamics of supernovae. Numerical simulations show that the phase transition may be a good remedy for the triggering supernova explosions in the spherically symmetric supernovamodels. A specific signature of the phase transition is an additional neutrino peak in the neutrino light curve. For a Galactic core-collapse supernova, such a peak could be resolved by the present neutrino detectors. The possibility of extracting the parameters of the phase of transition from observation of the neutrino signal is discussed also.

  4. Nuclear matter at high density: Phase transitions, multiquark states, and supernova outbursts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krivoruchenko, M. I.; Nadyozhin, D. K.; Rasinkova, T. L.; Simonov, Yu. A.; Trusov, M. A., E-mail: trusov@itep.ru; Yudin, A. V. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (Russian Federation)

    2011-03-15

    Phase transition from hadronic matter to quark-gluon matter is discussed for various regimes of temperature and baryon number density. For small and medium densities, the phase transition is accurately described in the framework of the Field Correlation Method, whereas at high density predictions are less certain and leave room for the phenomenological models. We study formation of multiquark states (MQS) at zero temperature and high density. Relevant MQS components of the nuclear matter can be described using a previously developed formalism of the quark compound bags (QCB). Partialwave analysis of nucleon-nucleon scattering indicates the existence of 6QS which manifest themselves as poles of P matrix. In the framework of the QCB model, we formulate a self-consistent system of coupled equations for the nucleon and 6QS propagators in nuclear matter and the G matrix. The approach provides a link between high-density nuclear matter with the MQS components and the cumulative effect observed in reactions on the nuclei, which requires the admixture of MQS in the wave functions of nuclei kinematically. 6QS determines the natural scale of the density for a possible phase transition into theMQS phase of nuclear matter. Such a phase transition can lead to dynamic instability of newly born protoneutron stars and dramatically affect the dynamics of supernovae. Numerical simulations show that the phase transition may be a good remedy for the triggering supernova explosions in the spherically symmetric supernovamodels. A specific signature of the phase transition is an additional neutrino peak in the neutrino light curve. For a Galactic core-collapse supernova, such a peak could be resolved by the present neutrino detectors. The possibility of extracting the parameters of the phase of transition from observation of the neutrino signal is discussed also.

  5. Nuclear ``pasta'' structures in low-density nuclear matter and properties of the neutron-star crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Minoru; Maruyama, Toshiki; Yabana, Kazuhiro; Tatsumi, Toshitaka

    2013-08-01

    In the neutron-star crust, nonuniform structure of nuclear matter—called the “pasta” structure—is expected. From recent studies of giant flares in magnetars, these structures might be related to some observables and physical quantities of the neutron-star crust. To investigate the above quantities, we numerically explore the pasta structure with a fully three-dimensional geometry and study the properties of low-density nuclear matter, based on the relativistic mean-field model and the Thomas-Fermi approximation. We observe typical pasta structures for fixed proton number fraction and two of them for cold catalyzed matter. We also discuss the crystalline configuration of “pasta.”

  6. Equation of state of asymmetric nuclear matter using re-projected nucleon–nucleon potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi Aghbolaghi, Z.; Bigdeli, M.

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, we have calculated the equation of state of asymmetric nuclear matter using the lowest order constrained variational approach and Argonne family potentials with and without three-nucleon interaction (TNI) contribution. In particular, we have used the AV18 potential and the re-projected potentials, AV8‧, and AV6‧. We have also calculated the saturation properties of symmetric nuclear matter, and the nuclear symmetry energy using AV18+TNI, AV8‧+TNI and AV6‧+TNI potentials. The inclusion of TNI has modified the agreement with experiment. We have also made a comparison between our results and those of other many-body calculations.

  7. Cold Nuclear Matter Effects on J/psi Production: Intrinsic and Extrinsic Transverse Momentum Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreiro, E.G.; /Santiago de Compostela U.; Fleuret, F.; /Ecole Polytechnique; Lansberg, J.P.; /Heidelberg U.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; /SPhN, DAPNIA, Saclay

    2010-08-26

    Cold nuclear matter effects on J/{psi} production in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions are evaluated taking into account the specific J/{psi}-production kinematics at the partonic level, the shadowing of the initial parton distributions and the absorption in the nuclear matter. We consider two different parton processes for the c{bar c}-pair production: one with collinear gluons and a recoiling gluon in the final state and the other with initial gluons carrying intrinsic transverse momentum. Our results are compared to RHIC observables. The smaller values of the nuclear modification factor R{sub AA} in the forward rapidity region (with respect to the mid rapidity region) are partially explained, therefore potentially reducing the need for recombination effects.

  8. Hadron structure in a simple model of quark/nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, C.J.; Moniz, E.J.; Negele, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    We study a simple model for one-dimensional hadron matter with many of the essential features needed for examining the transition from nuclear to quark matter and the limitations of models based upon hadron rather than quark degrees of freedom. The dynamics are generated entirely by the quark confining force and exchange symmetry. Using Monte Carlo techniques, the ground-state energy, single-quark momentum distribution, and quark correlation function are calculated for uniform matter as a function of density. The quark confinement scale in the medium increases substantially with increasing density. This change is evident in the correlation function and momentum distribution, in qualitative agreement with the changes observed in deep-inelastic lepton scattering. Nevertheless, the ground-state energy is smooth throughout the transition to quark matter and is described remarkably well by an effective hadron theory based on a phenomenological hadron-hadron potential

  9. Intrinsic neutron background of nuclear emulsions for directional Dark Matter searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, A.; Asada, T.; Buonaura, A.; Consiglio, L.; D'Ambrosio, N.; De Lellis, G.; Di Crescenzo, A.; Di Marco, N.; Di Vacri, M. L.; Furuya, S.; Galati, G.; Gentile, V.; Katsuragawa, T.; Laubenstein, M.; Lauria, A.; Loverre, P. F.; Machii, S.; Monacelli, P.; Montesi, M. C.; Naka, T.; Pupilli, F.; Rosa, G.; Sato, O.; Strolin, P.; Tioukov, V.; Umemoto, A.; Yoshimoto, M.

    2016-07-01

    Recent developments of the nuclear emulsion technology led to the production of films with nanometric silver halide grains suitable to track low energy nuclear recoils with submicrometric length. This improvement opens the way to a directional Dark Matter detection, thus providing an innovative and complementary approach to the on-going WIMP searches. An important background source for these searches is represented by neutron-induced nuclear recoils that can mimic the WIMP signal. In this paper we provide an estimation of the contribution to this background from the intrinsic radioactive contamination of nuclear emulsions. We also report the neutron-induced background as a function of the read-out threshold, by using a GEANT4 simulation of the nuclear emulsion, showing that it amounts to about 0.06 per year per kilogram, fully compatible with the design of a 10 kg × year exposure.

  10. Hyperon interaction in free space and nuclear matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhar, Madhumita [Justus-Liebig University Giessen (Germany); Lenske, Horst [Justus-Liebig University Giessen (Germany); GSI, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    A new approach to the SU(3) flavour symmetric meson-exchange model is introduced to describe free space baryon-baryon interaction. The Bethe-Salpeter equations are solved in a 3-D reduction scheme. The coupling of the various channels of total strangeness S and conserved total charge Q is studied in detail. Special attention is paid to the physical thresholds. The derived vacuum interaction has then been used to derive nuclear medium effect by employing the Pauli projector operator in 3-D reduced Bethe-Salpeter equation. The in-medium properties of the interaction are clearly seen in the variation of the in-medium low-energy parameters as a function of density.

  11. Method and device for the powerful compression of laser-produced plasmas for nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hora, H.

    1975-01-01

    According to the invention, more than 10% of the laser energy are converted into mechanical energy of compression, in that the compression is produced by non-linear excessive radiation pressure. The time and local spectral and intensity distribution of the laser pulse must be controlled. The focussed laser beams must increase to over 10 15 W/cm 2 in less than 10 -9 seconds and the time variation of the intensities must be carried out so that the dynamic absorption of the outer plasma corona by rippling consumes less than 90% of the laser energy. (GG) [de

  12. SIGNATURES OF DARK MATTER BURNING IN NUCLEAR STAR CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casanellas, Jordi; Lopes, IlIdio

    2011-01-01

    In order to characterize how dark matter (DM) annihilation inside stars changes the aspect of a stellar cluster, we computed the evolution until the ignition of the He burning of stars from 0.7 M sun to 3.5 M sun within halos of DM with different characteristics. We found that, when a cluster is surrounded by a dense DM halo, the positions of the cluster' stars in the H-R diagram have a brighter and hotter turnoff point than in the classical scenario without DM, therefore giving the cluster a younger appearance. The high DM densities required to produce these effects are expected only in very specific locations, such as near the center of our Galaxy. In particular, if DM is formed by the 8 GeV weakly interacting massive particles recently invoked to reconcile the results from direct detection experiments, then this signature is predicted for halos of DM with a density ρ χ = 3 x 10 5 GeV cm -3 . A DM density gradient inside the stellar cluster would result in a broader main sequence, turnoff, and red giant branch regions. Moreover, we found that for very high DM halo densities the bottom of the isochrones in the H-R diagram rises to higher luminosities, leading to a characteristic signature on the stellar cluster. We argue that this signature could be used to indirectly probe the presence of DM particles in the location of a cluster.

  13. Determination of the equation of state of asymmetric nuclear matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsang, Manyee Betty [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2016-12-30

    A new Time Projection Chamber (TPC), called the SπRIT (SAMURAI pion Reconstruction Ion Tracker) TPC was constructed and used successfully in two experiments with the SAMURAI spectrometer at RIKEN, Japan to study the equation of state of neutron rich matter. As a result of the project, the SπRIT collaboration, an international collaboration consisting of groups from US, Japan, Korea, Poland, China and Germany, has been formed to pursue the science opportunities provided by the SπRIT TPC. After completion of the TPC and the two experiments, the collaboration continues to develop the software to analyze the SπRIT experiments and extract constraints of symmetry energy at supra-saturation densities. Over 250 TB of data have been obtained in the last SπRIT TPC experimental campaign. Construction of the TPC provided opportunities for the scientists to develop new designs for the light-weight and thin-walled field cage for the large pad plane and for the gating grid. Two PhD students (1 US and 1 Korea) graduated in 2016 based on their research on the TPC. At least four more doctoral theses (2 US, 1 Japan and 1 Korea) based on physics from the SπRIT experiments are expected.

  14. Methods of investigation of nuclear matter under the conditions characteristics for transition to quark-gluon plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Leksin, G A

    2002-01-01

    Features of deep inelastic nuclear reactions proceeding on dense fluctuations of nuclear matter (fluctons) are briefly considered. Fluctons, which can be many-quark bags or drops of quark-gluon plasma, are studied. Their properties are discussed, viz., characteristic parameters of nuclear matter inside a flucton - temperature and density close to the critical values for a phase transition. These values can be reached or exceeded if the flucton-flucton collision events are separated. The separation method is discussed

  15. Particle production in hot and dense nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eklund, A.

    1992-08-01

    The charged particle production in heavy ion reactions at 200 A GeV has been studied for projectiles of 16 O and 32 S on targets of Al, Cu, Ag and Au. Up to 700 charged particles are measured in the pseudorapidity region -1.7 32 S+Au. The measured particle density is used to estimate the energy density attained in central collisions and gives a values of ≅2 GeV/fm 3 . This is close to the energy density predicted for the phase transition from hadronic matter to a quark-gluon plasma. To measure the large number of charged particle produced, finely granulated detector systems are employed. Streamer tube detectors with pad readout and large area, multi-step avalanche chambers with optical readout have been developed for the measurements. The widths of the pseudorapidity distributions of charged particles increase with decreasing centrality of the collision as well as with increasing mass of the target nucleus. This behaviour is assumed to be due to the target fragmentation. The Monte-Carlo model for nucleus-nucleus collisions, VENUS 3.11, which includes rescattering, is in reasonable agreement with the data. The yield of charged particles for central collisions of the heavy targets with 33 S is found to be proportional to the target mass, A, at target rapidity. At midrapidity it is approximately proportional to A 0.3 . At midrapidity the charged particle measurements are supplemented by measurements of the transverse energy. The dimensionless, normalized variances of the multiplicity and transverse energy distributions are, to a large extent, governed by the collision geometry. The change in the normalized variance when studying the charged particle distribution in a narrow angular region is explained as being of statistical nature. (au)

  16. Neutron optical potentials in unstable nuclei and the equation of state of asymmetric nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyamatsu, K.; Iida, K.

    2003-01-01

    Neutron single particle potential is one of the basic macroscopic properties to describe structure and reactions of nuclei in nuclear reactors and in the universe. However, the potential is quite uncertain for unstable nuclei primarily because the equation of state (EOS) of asymmetric nuclear matter is not known well. The present authors studied systematically the empirical EOS of asymmetric nuclear matter using a macroscopic nuclear model; about two hundred EOS's having empirically allowed values of L (symmetry energy density derivative coefficient) and K 0 (incompressibility) were obtained from the fittings to masses and radii of stable nuclei. It was suggested that the L value could be determined from global (Z, A) dependence of nuclear radii. In the present study, the single particle potential is examined assuming kinetic energies of non-interacting Fermi gases. The potential in a nucleus can be calculated easily, once the density distribution is solved using the effective nuclear interaction (EOS). Neutron and proton single particle potentials are calculated systematically for 80 Ni using the two hundred EOS's. It is found that the neutron-proton potential difference has clear and appreciable L dependence, while the potential for each species does not show such simple dependence on L. (author)

  17. Nuclear-Recoil Energy Scale in CDMS II Silicon Dark-Matter Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnese, R.; et al.

    2018-03-07

    The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS II) experiment aims to detect dark matter particles that elastically scatter from nuclei in semiconductor detectors. The resulting nuclear-recoil energy depositions are detected by ionization and phonon sensors. Neutrons produce a similar spectrum of low-energy nuclear recoils in such detectors, while most other backgrounds produce electron recoils. The absolute energy scale for nuclear recoils is necessary to interpret results correctly. The energy scale can be determined in CDMS II silicon detectors using neutrons incident from a broad-spectrum $^{252}$Cf source, taking advantage of a prominent resonance in the neutron elastic scattering cross section of silicon at a recoil (neutron) energy near 20 (182) keV. Results indicate that the phonon collection efficiency for nuclear recoils is $4.8^{+0.7}_{-0.9}$% lower than for electron recoils of the same energy. Comparisons of the ionization signals for nuclear recoils to those measured previously by other groups at higher electric fields indicate that the ionization collection efficiency for CDMS II silicon detectors operated at $\\sim$4 V/cm is consistent with 100% for nuclear recoils below 20 keV and gradually decreases for larger energies to $\\sim$75% at 100 keV. The impact of these measurements on previously published CDMS II silicon results is small.

  18. Nuclear pasta in hot dense matter and its implications for neutrino scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roggero, Alessandro; Margueron, Jérôme; Roberts, Luke F.; Reddy, Sanjay

    2018-04-01

    The abundance of large clusters of nucleons in neutron-rich matter at subnuclear density is found to be greatly reduced by finite-temperature effects when matter is close to β equilibrium, compared to the case where the electron fraction is fixed at Ye>0.1 , as often considered in the literature. Large nuclei and exotic nonspherical nuclear configurations called pasta, favored in the vicinity of the transition to uniform matter at T =0 , dissolve at a relatively low temperature Tu as protons leak out of nuclei and pasta. For matter at β equilibrium with a negligible neutrino chemical potential we find that Tuβ≃4 ±1 MeV for realistic equations of state. This is lower than the maximum temperature Tmaxβ≃9 ±1 MeV at which nuclei can coexist with a gas of nucleons and can be explained by a change in the nature of the transition to uniform matter called retrograde condensation. An important new finding is that coherent neutrino scattering from nuclei and pasta makes a modest contribution to the opacity under the conditions encountered in supernovas and neutron star mergers. This is because large nuclear clusters dissolve at most relevant temperatures, and at lower temperatures, when clusters are present, Coulomb correlations between them suppress coherent neutrino scattering off individual clusters. Implications for neutrino signals from galactic supernovas are briefly discussed.

  19. Effects of isospin and momentum dependent interactions on thermal properties of asymmetric nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Jun; Ma Hongru; Chen Liewen; Li Baoan

    2008-01-01

    Thermal properties of asymmetric nuclear matter are studied within a self-consistent thermal model using an isospin and momentum-dependent interaction (MDI) constrained by the isospin diffusion data in heavy-ion collisions, a momentum-independent interaction (MID), and an isoscalar momentum-dependent interaction (eMDYI). In particular, we study the temperature dependence of the isospin-dependent bulk and single-particle properties, the mechanical and chemical instabilities, and liquid-gas phase transition in hot asymmetric nuclear matter. Our results indicate that the temperature dependence of the equation of state and the symmetry energy are not so sensitive to the momentum dependence of the interaction. The symmetry energy at fixed density is found to generally decrease with temperature and for the MDI interaction the decrement is essentially due to the potential part. It is further shown that only the low momentum part of the single-particle potential and the nucleon effective mass increases significantly with temperature for the momentum-dependent interactions. For the MDI interaction, the low momentum part of the symmetry potential is significantly reduced with increasing temperature. For the mechanical and chemical instabilities as well as the liquid-gas phase transition in hot asymmetric nuclear matter, our results indicate that the boundaries of these instabilities and the phase-coexistence region generally shrink with increasing temperature and are sensitive to the density dependence of the symmetry energy and the isospin and momentum dependence of the nuclear interaction, especially at higher temperatures

  20. Description of a nucleon in nuclear matter using the chiral bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunatyan, G.G.

    1990-01-01

    The chiral bag (cloudy bag) model, which contains an essentially nonlinear interaction of quarks with both the classical and quantum pion field, is extended for description of a nucleon in nuclear matter. The dependence on the density and temperature of the medium is studied. The pion field in nuclear matter differs considerably from the free field, and this leads to a modification of the nucleon bag. Increase of the density ρ and temperature T causes strengthening of the pion field and growth of its thermodynamic fluctuations. At sufficiently high densities ρ approx-gt ρ CB and temperatures T≥T cr this leads to instability of the three-quark nucleon bag. Under such conditions nuclear matter cannot be composed only of nucleons, and one should expect the appearance of a different, non-nucleon, phase. Estimates of the critical density and temperature are obtained: ρ CB ∼ (1.5-2)ρ 0 and T cr ∼ 200 MeV (where ρ 0 is the conventional nuclear density)

  1. Chiral approach to nuclear matter: Role of explicit short-range NN-terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsch, S.; Kaiser, N.

    2004-01-01

    We extend a recent chiral approach to nuclear matter by including the most general (momentum-independent) NN-contact interaction. Iterating this two-parameter contact vertex with itself and with one-pion exchange the emerging energy per particle exhausts all terms possible up to and including fourth order in the small momentum expansion. Two (isospin-dependent) cut-offs Λ 0,1 are introduced to regularize the (linear) divergences of some three-loop in-medium diagrams. The equation of state of pure neutron matter, anti E n (k n ), can be reproduced very well up to quite high neutron densities of ρ n =0.5 fm -3 by adjusting the strength of a repulsive nn-contact interaction. Binding and saturation of isospin-symmetric nuclear matter is a generic feature of our perturbative calculation. Fixing the maximum binding energy per particle to - anti E(k f0 )=15.3 MeV we find that any possible equilibrium density ρ 0 lies below ρ 0 max =0.191 fm -3 . The additional constraint from the neutron matter equation of state leads however to a somewhat too low saturation density of ρ 0 =0.134 fm -3 . We also investigate the effects of the NN-contact interaction on the complex single-particle potential U(p,k f )+iW(p,k f ). We find that the effective nucleon mass at the Fermi surface is bounded from below by M * (k f0 ) ≥1.4 M. This property keeps the critical temperature of the liquid-gas phase transition at somewhat too high values T c ≥21 MeV. The downward bending of the asymmetry energy A(k f ) above nuclear-matter saturation density is a generic feature of the approximation to fourth order. We furthermore investigate the effects of the NN-contact interaction on the (vector-∇ρ) 2 -term in the nuclear energy density functional E[ρ,τ]. Altogether, there is within this complete fourth-order calculation no ''magic'' set of adjustable short-range parameters with which one could reproduce simultaneously and accurately all semi-empirical properties of nuclear matter. In

  2. Phase transition in dense nuclear matter with quark and gluon condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.; Kapusta, J.I.; Olive, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear matter is expected to modify the expectation values of the quark and gluon condensates. We utilize the chiral and scale symmetries of QCD to describe the interaction between these condensates and hadrons. We solve the resulting equations self-consistently in the relativistic mean field approximation. In order that these QCD condensates be driven towards zero at high density their coupling to sigma and vector mesons must be such that the masses of these mesons do not decrease with density. In this case a physically sensible phase transition to quark matter ensures. (orig.)

  3. 75 FR 74750 - In the Matter of Toshiba America Nuclear Energy Corporation and All Other Persons Who Seek or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [EA-10-152; Project No. 52-0001; NRC-2010-0368] In the Matter of Toshiba America Nuclear Energy Corporation and All Other Persons Who Seek or Obtain Access to Safeguards... protect SGI (73 FR 63546). The NRC is issuing this Order to Toshiba America Nuclear Energy Corporation...

  4. 76 FR 11522 - In the Matter of Progress Energy Florida, Inc. (Combined License Application, Levy County Nuclear...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket Nos. 52-029-COL, 52-030-COL] In the Matter of Progress Energy Florida, Inc. (Combined License Application, Levy County Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2... by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff in this case. Mr. Dehmel has not previously performed any...

  5. 78 FR 14361 - In the Matter of Luminant Generation Company LLC, Comanche Peak Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2012-0310; Docket Nos. 50-445 and 50-446; License Nos. NPF-87 and NPF-89] In the Matter of Luminant Generation Company LLC, Comanche Peak Nuclear Power Plant, Units... Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2 (CPNPP), and its Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation Facility...

  6. Probing the nuclear matter at high baryon and isospin density with heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Toro, M.; Colonna, M.; Ferini, G.

    2010-01-01

    Heavy Ion Collisions (HIC) represent a unique tool to probe the in-medium nuclear interaction in regions away from saturation. High Energy Collisions are studied in order to access nuclear matter properties at high density. Particular attention is devoted to the selection of observables sensitive to the poorly known symmetry energy at high baryon density, of large fundamental interest, even for the astrophysics implications. Using fully consistent covariant transport simulations built on effective field theories we are testing isospin observables ranging from nucleon/cluster emissions, collective flows (in particular the elliptic, squeeze out, part) and meson production. The possibility to shed light on the controversial neutron/proton effective mass splitting in asymmetric matter is also stressed. The "symmetry" repulsion at high baryon density will also lead to an "earlier" hadron-deconfinement transition in n-rich matter. The phase transition of hadronic to quark matter at high baryon and isospin density is analyzed. Nonlinear relativistic mean field models are used to describe hadronic matter, and the MIT bag model is adopted for quark matter. The boundaries of the mixed phase and the related critical points for symmetric and asymmetric matter are obtained. Isospin effects appear to be rather significant. The binodal transition line of the (T,ρ B ) diagram is lowered in a region accessible to heavy ion collisions in the energy range of the new planned FAIR/NICA facilities. Some observable effects of the mixed phase are suggested, in particular a neutron distillation mechanism. Theoretically a very important problem appears to be the suitable treatment of the isovector part of the interaction in effective QCD lagrangian approaches. (author)

  7. International Conference on Extreme States in Nuclear Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arlt, R.; Kuehn, B.

    1979-12-01

    The abstracts of contributed papers are arranged under the following headings: (1) nuclear matter, incl. elementary interactions, phase transitions, compression of nuclear matter; (2) heavy ion reactions, incl. nucleus-nucleus potential, mechanism of heavy ion reactions, role of non-equilibrium processes, nuclear quasimolecules, superheavy nuclei; (3) high spin states and nuclear structure; and (4) relativistic nuclear physics, incl. heavy ion reactions, particle production, role of nucleon associations. (author)

  8. Risk assessment model for nuclear accident emergency protection countermeasure based on fuzzy matter-element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xin Jing; Tang Huaqing; Zhang Yinghua; Zhang Limin

    2009-01-01

    A risk assessment model of nuclear accident emergency protection countermeasure based on fuzzy matter-element analysis and Euclid approach degree is proposed in the paper. The weight of assessed index is determined by information entropy and the scoring by experts, which could not only make full use of the inherent information of the indexes adequately, but reduce subjective assumption in the course of assessment effectively. The applied result shows that it is reasonable that the model is adopted to make risk assessment for nuclear accident emergency protective countermeasure,and it could be a kind of effective analytical method and decision making basis to choose the optimum protection countermeasure. (authors)

  9. From meson- and photon-nucleon scattering to vector mesons in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, Gy.; Lutz, M.F.M.; Friman, B.

    2003-01-01

    A relativistic and unitary approach to pion- and photon-nucleon scattering taking into account the πN, ρN, ωN, ηN, πΔ, KΛ and KΣ channels is presented. The scheme dynamically generates the s- and d-wave baryon resonances N(1535), N(1650), N(1520) and N(1700) and as well as Δ(1620) and Δ(1700) in terms of quasi-local two-body interaction terms. A fair description of the experimental data relevant to the properties of slow vector mesons in nuclear matter is obtained. The resulting s-wave ρ- and ω-meson-nucleon scattering amplitudes which define the leading density modification of the ρ- and ω-meson spectral functions in nuclear matter are presented. (author)

  10. Inhomogeneous condensates in dilute nuclear matter and BCS-BEC crossovers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, Martin; Sedrakian, Armen; Huang, Xu-Guang; Clark, John W; Röpke, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    We report on recent progress in understanding pairing phenomena in low-density nuclear matter at small and moderate isospin asymmetry. A rich phase diagram has been found comprising various superfluid phases that include a homogeneous and phase-separated BEC phase of deuterons at low density and a homogeneous BCS phase, an inhomogeneous LOFF phase, and a phase-separated BCS phase at higher densities. The transition from the BEC phases to the BCS phases is characterized in terms of the evolution, from strong to weak coupling, of the condensate wavefunction and the second moment of its density distribution in r-space. We briefly discuss approaches to higher-order clustering in low-density nuclear matter.

  11. Two-loop corrections for nuclear matter in the Walecka model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furnstahl, R.J.; Perry, R.J.; Serot, B.D.; Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210; Physics Department and Nuclear Theory Center, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405)

    1989-01-01

    Two-loop corrections for nuclear matter, including vacuum polarization, are calculated in the Walecka model to study the loop expansion as an approximation scheme for quantum hadrodynamics. Criteria for useful approximation schemes are discussed, and the concepts of strong and weak convergence are introduced. The two-loop corrections are evaluated first with one-loop parameters and mean fields and then by minimizing the total energy density with respect to the scalar field and refitting parameters to empirical nuclear matter saturation properties. The size and nature of the corrections indicate that the loop expansion is not convergent at two-loop order in either the strong or weak sense. Prospects for alternative approximation schemes are discussed

  12. Mean free paths for high energy hadron collisions in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugalski, Z.

    1983-01-01

    The mean free paths for various collisions of high energy pion in nuclear matter are determined experimentally using pion-xenon nucleus collision events at 3.5 GeV/c momentum. The relation between the mean free path lambdasub(i) for hadron-nucleon particle producing collisions in nuclear matter and corresponding cross section σsub(i) for particle producing collisions of this hadron with free nucleon is derived and discussed. This relation is lambdasub(i)=k/σsub(i), where lambdasub(i) is in nucleons per fm 2 and σ sub(i) - in fm 2 per nucleon, correspondingly, k=3.00+-0.26 is a coefficient accounting for the display of the nucleon inner structure in hadron-nucleus collisions

  13. Relativistic mean-field approximation with density-dependent screening meson masses in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Baoxi; Lu, Xiaofu; Shen, Pengnian; Zhao, Enguang

    2003-01-01

    The Debye screening masses of the σ, ω and neutral ρ mesons and the photon are calculated in the relativistic mean-field approximation. As the density of the nucleon increases, all the screening masses of mesons increase. A different result with Brown–Rho scaling is shown, which implies a reduction in the mass of all the mesons in the nuclear matter, except the pion. Replacing the masses of the mesons with their corresponding screening masses in the Walecka-1 model, five saturation properties of the nuclear matter are fixed reasonably, and then a density-dependent relativistic mean-field model is proposed without introducing the nonlinear self-coupling terms of mesons. (author)

  14. Analysis of the doubly heavy baryons in the nuclear matter with the QCD sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhi-Gang

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we study the doubly heavy baryon states Ξ cc , Ω cc , Ξ bb and Ω bb in the nuclear matter using the QCD sum rules, and derive three coupled QCD sum rules for the masses, vector self-energies and pole residues. The predictions for the mass-shifts in the nuclear matter ΔM Ξ cc =-1.11simGeV, ΔM Ω cc =-0.33∝GeV, ΔM Ξ bb =-3.37∝GeV and ΔM Ω bb =-1.05∝GeV can be confronted with experimental data in the future. (orig.)

  15. NDM06: 2. symposium on neutrinos and dark matter in nuclear physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akerib, D; Arnold, R; Balantekin, A; Barabash, A; Barnabe, H; Baroni, S; Baussan, E; Bellini, F; Bobisut, F; Bongrand, M; Brofferio, Ch; Capolupo, A; Enrico, Carrara; Caurier, E; Cermak, P; Chardin, G; Civitarese, O; Couchot, F; Kerret, H de; Heros, C de los; Detwiler, J; Dracos, M; Drexlin, G; Efremenko, Y; Ejiri, H; Falchini, E; Fatemi-Ghomi, N; Finger, M Ch; Finger Miroslav, Ch; Fiorillo, G; Fiorini, E; Fracasso, S; Frekers, D; Fushimi, K I; Gascon, J; Genest, M H; Georgadze, A; Giuliani, A; Goeger-Neff, M; Gomez-Cadenas, J J; Greenfield, M; H de Jesus, J; Hallin, A; Hannestad, St; Hirai, Sh; Hoessl, J; Ianni, A; Ieva, M B; Ishihara, N; Jullian, S; Kaim, S; Kajino, T; Kayser, B; Kochetov, O; Kopylov, A; Kortelainen, M; Kroeninger, K; Lachenmaier, T; Lalanne, D; Lanfranchi, J C; Lazauskas, R; Lemrani, A R; Li, J; Mansoulie, B; Marquet, Ch; Martinez, J; Mirizzi, A; Morfin Jorge, G; Motz, H; Murphy, A; Navas, S; Niedermeier, L; Nishiura, H; Nomachi, M; Nones, C.; Ogawa, H; Ogawa, I; Ohsumi, H; Palladino, V; Paniccia, M; Perotto, L; Petcov, S; Pfister, S; Piquemal, F; Poves, A; Praet, Ch; Raffelt, G; Ramberg, E; Rashba, T; Regnault, N; Ricol, J St; Rodejohann, W; Rodin, V; Ruz, J; Sander, Ch; Sarazin, X; Scholberg, K; Sigl, G; Simkovic, F; Sousa, A; Stanev, T; Strolger, L; Suekane, F; Thomas, J; Titov, N; Toivanen, J; Torrente-Lujan, E; Tytler, D; Vala, L; Vignaud, D; Vitiello, G; Vogel, P; Volkov, G; Volpe, C; Wong, H; Yilmazer, A

    2006-07-01

    This second symposium on neutrinos and dark matter is aimed at discussing research frontiers and perspectives on currently developing subjects. It has been organized around 6 topics: 1) double beta decays, theory and experiments (particularly: GERDA, MOON, SuperNEMO, CUORE, CANDLES, EXO, and DCBA), 2) neutrinos and nuclear physics, 3) single beta decays and nu-responses, 4) neutrino astrophysics, 5) solar neutrino review, and 6) neutrino oscillations. This document is made up of the slides of the presentations.

  16. Observation of Δ+→pπ0 decay in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matulewicz, T.; Aphecetche, L.; Charbonnier, Y.; Delagrange, H.; Martinez, G.; Schutz, Y.; Marques, F.M.

    1997-01-01

    The Δ baryonic resonances production and decay in nuclear matter have been studied. The heavy ion reaction of 180 A MeV Ar beam on Ca target was used to create the Δ resonances (at SIS GSI Darmstadt). The decay of Δ was measured by means of neutral pion π 0 decay product, two gamma quanta, registration. The Δ resonance invariant mass distribution has been determined

  17. NDM06: 2. symposium on neutrinos and dark matter in nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akerib, D.; Arnold, R.; Balantekin, A.; Barabash, A.; Barnabe, H.; Baroni, S.; Baussan, E.; Bellini, F.; Bobisut, F.; Bongrand, M.; Brofferio, Ch.; Capolupo, A.; Carrara Enrico; Caurier, E.; Cermak, P.; Chardin, G.; Civitarese, O.; Couchot, F.; Kerret, H. de; Heros, C. de los; Detwiler, J.; Dracos, M.; Drexlin, G.; Efremenko, Y.; Ejiri, H.; Falchini, E.; Fatemi-Ghomi, N.; Finger, M.Ch.; Finger Miroslav, Ch.; Fiorillo, G.; Fiorini, E.; Fracasso, S.; Frekers, D.; Fushimi, K.I.; Gascon, J.; Genest, M.H.; Georgadze, A.; Giuliani, A.; Goeger-Neff, M.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.J.; Greenfield, M.; H de Jesus, J.; Hallin, A.; Hannestad, St.; Hirai, Sh.; Hoessl, J.; Ianni, A.; Ieva, M.B.; Ishihara, N.; Jullian, S.; Kaim, S.; Kajino, T.; Kayser, B.; Kochetov, O.; Kopylov, A.; Kortelainen, M.; Kroeninger, K.; Lachenmaier, T.; Lalanne, D.; Lanfranchi, J.C.; Lazauskas, R.; Lemrani, A.R.; Li, J.; Mansoulie, B.; Marquet, Ch.; Martinez, J.; Mirizzi, A.; Morfin Jorge, G.; Motz, H.; Murphy, A.; Navas, S.; Niedermeier, L.; Nishiura, H.; Nomachi, M.; Nones, C.; Ogawa, H.; Ogawa, I.; Ohsumi, H.; Palladino, V.; Paniccia, M.; Perotto, L.; Petcov, S.; Pfister, S.; Piquemal, F.; Poves, A.; Praet, Ch.; Raffelt, G.; Ramberg, E.; Rashba, T.; Regnault, N.; Ricol, J.St.; Rodejohann, W.; Rodin, V.; Ruz, J.; Sander, Ch.; Sarazin, X.; Scholberg, K.; Sigl, G.; Simkovic, F.; Sousa, A.; Stanev, T.; Strolger, L.; Suekane, F.; Thomas, J.; Titov, N.; Toivanen, J.; Torrente-Lujan, E.; Tytler, D.; Vala, L.; Vignaud, D.; Vitiello, G.; Vogel, P.; Volkov, G.; Volpe, C.; Wong, H.; Yilmazer, A.

    2006-01-01

    This second symposium on neutrinos and dark matter is aimed at discussing research frontiers and perspectives on currently developing subjects. It has been organized around 6 topics: 1) double beta decays, theory and experiments (particularly: GERDA, MOON, SuperNEMO, CUORE, CANDLES, EXO, and DCBA), 2) neutrinos and nuclear physics, 3) single beta decays and nu-responses, 4) neutrino astrophysics, 5) solar neutrino review, and 6) neutrino oscillations. This document is made up of the slides of the presentations

  18. Hot metastable state of abnormal matter in relativistic nuclear field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glendenning, N.K.

    1987-01-01

    Because of their non-linearity, the field equations of relativistic nuclear field theory admit of additional solutions besides the normal state of matter. One of these is a finite-temperature abnormal phase. Over a narrow range in temperature, matter can exist in the abnormal phase at zero pressure. This is a hot metastable state, for which there is a barrier against decay, because the field configuration is different than in the normal state, the baryon masses are far removed from their vacuum masses, there is an abundance of pairs also far removed from their vacuum masses, and a correspondingly high entropy. The abundance of baryon-antibaryon pairs is the glue that holds this matter together. The signals associated with this novel state are quite unusual. A fragment of such matter will cool by emitting a spectrum of black-body radiation, consisting principally of photons, lepton pairs and pions, rather than by baryon emission, because the latter are far removed from their vacuum masses. If produced at the upper end of its temperature range, a large fraction of the original energy, more than half in the examples studied here, is radiated in this way. The baryons and light elements produced in the eventual decay, after the abnormal matter has cooled to a domain where its pressure becomes positive, will account for only a fraction of the original energy. The energy domain of this state depends sensitively on the coupling constants, and within a reasonable range as determined by nuclear matter properties, can lie in the range of GeV to tens of GeV per nucleon. (orig.)

  19. Global security and the impacts in nuclear matter control: Nuclear Security Summit 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Martonio Mont’Alverne Barreto; Barreto, Midred Cavalcante

    2017-01-01

    Due to the current international security instability, especially resulting from traffic and nuclear terrorism threat proliferation, the Nuclear Security Summits were conceived with the objective of increasing the cooperation between States, institutions and international organisms, as well as conducting a global community in following the guidelines and action plans which have produced curious results such as the reduction and the removal of enriched uranium in some countries, the reinforcement of safeguard installations that store radioactive materials and the establishment of Excellence Centers, qualification, training and technological development in the fight against nuclear weaponry traffic. (author)

  20. Global security and the impacts in nuclear matter control: Nuclear Security Summit 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Martonio Mont’Alverne Barreto; Barreto, Midred Cavalcante, E-mail: barreto@unifor.br, E-mail: midredcb@hotmail.com [Universidade de Fortaleza (UNIFOR), CE (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Due to the current international security instability, especially resulting from traffic and nuclear terrorism threat proliferation, the Nuclear Security Summits were conceived with the objective of increasing the cooperation between States, institutions and international organisms, as well as conducting a global community in following the guidelines and action plans which have produced curious results such as the reduction and the removal of enriched uranium in some countries, the reinforcement of safeguard installations that store radioactive materials and the establishment of Excellence Centers, qualification, training and technological development in the fight against nuclear weaponry traffic. (author)

  1. Saturation properties of asymmetric nuclear matter to be obtained from unstable nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyamatsu, Kazuhiro [Aichi Shukutoku Univ., Dept. of Media Production and Theories, Nagakute, Aichi (Japan); Iida, Kei [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Wako, Saitama (Japan)

    2002-09-01

    We examine relations among the parameters characterizing the phenomenological equation of state (EOS) of nearly symmetric, uniform nuclear matter near the saturation density from experimental data on radii and masses of stable nuclei. The EOS parameters of interest are the symmetry energy S{sub 0}, the symmetry energy density-derivative coefficient L and the incompressibility K{sub 0} at the normal nuclear density. The calculations of the nuclear properties were performed with a simplified Thomas-Fermi model. We find a constraint on (K{sub 0}, L) values from the slope of the saturation line (the line joining the saturation points of asymmetric matter EOS with fixed proton abundance). A strong correlation between S{sub 0} and L, which was discussed in the Skyrme Hartree-Fock theory for relatively small L values, is found to hold for such larger values as a relativistic mean field theory predicts. In the light of the uncertainties in the (K{sub 0}, L) values, we calculate radii of unstable nuclei as expected to be produced in future facilities. We find that the matter radii depend strongly on L almost independently of K{sub 0}, and that systematic detection of the radii of such nuclei will help to determine the L value. (author)

  2. Effects of Brown-Rho scalings in nuclear matter, neutron stars and finite nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, T. T. S.; Dong, Huan

    2011-01-01

    We have carried out calculations for nuclear matter, neutron stars and finite nuclei using NN potentials with and without the medium-dependent modifications based on the Brown-Rho (BR) scalings. Using the Vlow-k low-momentum interactions derived from such potentials, the equations of state (EOS) for symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter, for densities up to ~ 5ρ0, are calculated using a RPA method where the particle-particle hole-hole ring diagrams are summed to all orders. The medium effects from both a linear BR scaling (BR1) and a non-linear one (BR2) are considered, and they both are essential for our EOSs to reproduce the nuclear matter saturation properties. For densities ρ below ρ0, results from BR1 and BR2 are close to each other. For higher densities, the EOS given by BR2 is more desirable and is well reproduced by that given by the interaction (Vlow-k+TBF) where Vlow-k is the unsealed low-momentum interaction and TBF is an empirical Skyrme three-body force. The moment of inertia of neutron stars is ~ 60 and ~ 25Modotkm2 respectively with and without the inclusion of the above BR2 medium effects. Effects from the BR scaling are important for the long half-life, ~ 5000yrs, of the 14C - 14N β-decay.

  3. The single-particle potential of nuclear matter in the LOCV framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modarres, M., E-mail: mmodares@ut.ac.ir [Physics Department, University of Tehran, North-Kargar Ave., 1439955961 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rajabi, A. [Physics Department, Shahid Rajaei Teacher Training University, Lavizan, 16788 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-10-01

    The density and momentum dependence of single-particle potential (SPP) and effective mass of symmetric nuclear matter are studied in the framework of lowest order constrained variational (LOCV) method. The Reid68, the Reid68-{Delta} and the Av{sub 18} interactions are considered as the input nucleon-nucleon potentials. It is shown that the SPP of nuclear matter, at fixed density, is an increasing function of nucleon momentum, and it has different behavior for the Reid type potentials with respect to Av{sub 18} interaction. We find good agreements between our LOCV SPP and those coming from others many-body techniques such as the (Dirac-)Brueckner-Hartree-Foch ((D)BHF), the fermion hypernetted chain (FHNC), mean field (MF), etc. On the other hand SPP dramatically depends on the density at low and high nucleon momentums. While the effective mass of nuclear matter increases as we increase the nucleon momentum, it decreases at the Fermi surface. Again, good agreements are observed between our calculated effective mass and those coming from the methods mentioned above.

  4. Effective interactions and mean field theory: from nuclear matter to nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochet, B.

    2005-07-01

    The Skyrme force is a zero-range force that allows the construction of the mean field inside the nucleus in a simple way. Skyrme forces are reasonably predictive but some features of the infinite nuclear matter or the mass of heavy nuclei are not well computed. The aim of this work is to propose an expanded parametrization of the Skyrme force in order to improve its predictive power. The first part is dedicated to the construction of the expansion of the parametrization. We recall how the effective forces are linked to the nucleon-nucleon interaction then we show the limits of the standard Skyrme forces and we propose a relatively natural improvements based on the integration of spin and isospin instabilities. The second part deals with the validation of the model, first by describing infinite nuclear matter then by studying β-balanced nuclear matter which has enabled us to reproduce some features of neutron stars like mass and radius. The computation of properties of nuclei like binding energy, mass, radii depends strongly on the adjustment procedure. (A.C.)

  5. Tensor Fermi liquid parameters in nuclear matter from chiral effective field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, J. W.; Kaiser, N.; Whitehead, T. R.

    2018-05-01

    We compute from chiral two- and three-body forces the complete quasiparticle interaction in symmetric nuclear matter up to twice nuclear matter saturation density. Second-order perturbative contributions that account for Pauli blocking and medium polarization are included, allowing for an exploration of the full set of central and noncentral operator structures permitted by symmetries and the long-wavelength limit. At the Hartree-Fock level, the next-to-next-to-leading order three-nucleon force contributes to all noncentral interactions, and their strengths grow approximately linearly with the nucleon density up to that of saturated nuclear matter. Three-body forces are shown to enhance the already strong proton-neutron effective tensor interaction, while the corresponding like-particle tensor force remains small. We also find a large isovector cross-vector interaction but small center-of-mass tensor interactions in the isoscalar and isovector channels. The convergence of the expansion of the noncentral quasiparticle interaction in Landau parameters and Legendre polynomials is studied in detail.

  6. Quark-Meson-Coupling (QMC) model for finite nuclei, nuclear matter and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guichon, P. A. M.; Stone, J. R.; Thomas, A. W.

    2018-05-01

    The Quark-Meson-Coupling model, which self-consistently relates the dynamics of the internal quark structure of a hadron to the relativistic mean fields arising in nuclear matter, provides a natural explanation to many open questions in low energy nuclear physics, including the origin of many-body nuclear forces and their saturation, the spin-orbit interaction and properties of hadronic matter at a wide range of densities up to those occurring in the cores of neutron stars. Here we focus on four aspects of the model (i) a full comprehensive survey of the theory, including the latest developments, (ii) extensive application of the model to ground state properties of finite nuclei and hypernuclei, with a discussion of similarities and differences between the QMC and Skyrme energy density functionals, (iii) equilibrium conditions and composition of hadronic matter in cold and warm neutron stars and their comparison with the outcome of relativistic mean-field theories and, (iv) tests of the fundamental idea that hadron structure changes in-medium.

  7. Finite size effects in liquid-gas phase transition of asymmetric nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawlowski, P.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Since the nuclear equation of state has been studied in astrophysical context as an element of neutron star or super-nova theories - a call for an evidence was produced in experimental nuclear physics. Heavy-ion collisions became a tool of study on thermodynamic properties of nuclear matter. A particular interest has been inspired here by critical behavior of nuclear systems, as a phase transition of liquid-gas type. A lot of efforts was put to obtain an experimental evidence of such a phenomenon in heavy-ion collisions. With the use of radioactive beams and high performance identification systems in a near future it will be possible to extend experimental investigation to asymmetric nuclear systems, where neutron-to-proton ratio is far from the stability line. This experimental development needs a corresponding extension of theoretical studies. To obtain a complete theory of the liquid-gas phase transition in small nuclear systems, produced in violent heavy-ion collisions, one should take into account two facts. First, that the nuclear matter forming nuclei is composed of protons and neutrons; this complicates the formalism of phase transitions because one has to deal with two separate, proton and neutron, densities and chemical potentials. The second and more important is that the surface effects are very strong in a system composed of a few hundreds of nucleons. This point is especially difficult to hold, because surface becomes an additional, independent state parameter, depending strongly on the geometrical configuration of the system, and introducing a non-local term in the equation of state. In this presentation we follow the recent calculation by Lee and Mekjian on the finite-size effects in small (A = 10 2 -10 3 ) asymmetric nuclear systems. A zero-range isospin-dependent Skyrme force is used to obtain a density and isospin dependent potential. The potential is then completed by additional terms giving contributions from surface and Coulomb

  8. Measurement of Quark Energy Loss in Cold Nuclear Matter at Fermilab E906/SeaQuest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Po-Ju [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Parton energy loss is a process within QCD that draws considerable interest. The measurement of parton energy loss can provide valuable information for other hard-scattering processes in nuclei, and also serves as an important tool for exploring the properties of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP). Quantifying the energy loss in cold nuclear matter will help to set a baseline relative to energy loss in the QGP. With the Drell-Yan process, the energy loss of incoming quarks in cold nuclear matter can be ideally investigated since the final state interaction is expected to be minimal. E906/SeaQuest is a fixed-target experiment using the 120 GeV proton beam from the Fermilab Main Injector and has been collecting data from p+p, p+d, p+C, p+Fe, and p+W collisions. Within the E906 kinematic coverage of Drell-Yan production via the dimuon channel, the quark energy loss can be measured in a regime where other nuclear effects are expected to be small. In this thesis, the study of quark ener gy loss from different cold nuclear targets is presented.

  9. Nuclear matter studies with density-dependent meson-nucleon coupling constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, M.K.; Tjon, J.A.; Banerjee, M.K.; Tjon, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    Due to the internal structure of the nucleon, we should expect, in general, that the effective meson nucleon parameters may change in nuclear medium. We study such changes by using a chiral confining model of the nucleon. We use density-dependent masses for all mesons except the pion. Within a Dirac-Brueckner analysis, based on the relativistic covariant structure of the NN amplitude, we show that the effect of such a density dependence in the NN interaction on the saturation properties of nuclear matter, while not large, is quite significant. Due to the density dependence of the g σNN , as predicted by the chiral confining model, we find, in particular, a looping behavior of the binding energy at saturation as a function of the saturation density. A simple model is described, which exhibits looping and which is shown to be mainly caused by the presence of a peak in the density dependence of the medium modified σN coupling constant at low density. The effect of density dependence of the coupling constants and the meson masses tends to improve the results for E/A and density of nuclear matter at saturation. From the present study we see that the relationship between binding energy and saturation density may not be as universal as found in nonrelativistic studies and that more model dependence is exhibited once medium modifications of the basic nuclear interactions are considered. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  10. An Experimental Investigation On Minimum Compressive Strength Of Early Age Concrete To Prevent Frost Damage For Nuclear Power Plant Structures In Cold Climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Kyungtaek; Kim, Dogyeum; Park, Chunjin; Ryu, Gumsung; Park, Jungjun; Lee, Janghwa

    2013-01-01

    Concrete undergoing early frost damage in cold weather will experience significant loss of not only strength, but also of permeability and durability. Accordingly, concrete codes like ACI-306R prescribe a minimum compressive strength and duration of curing to prevent frost damage at an early age and secure the quality of concrete. Such minimum compressive strength and duration of curing are mostly defined based on the strength development of concrete. However, concrete subjected to frost damage at early age may not show a consistent relationship between its strength and durability. Especially, since durability of concrete is of utmost importance in nuclear power plant structures, this relationship should be imperatively clarified. Therefore, this study verifies the feasibility of the minimum compressive strength specified in the codes like ACI-306R by evaluating the strength development and the durability preventing the frost damage of early age concrete for nuclear power plant. The results indicate that the value of 5 MPa specified by the concrete standards like ACI-306R as the minimum compressive strength to prevent the early frost damage is reasonable in terms of the strength development, but seems to be inappropriate in the viewpoint of the resistance to chloride ion penetration and freeze-thaw. Consequently, it is recommended to propose a minimum compressive strength preventing early frost damage in terms of not only the strength development, but also in terms of the durability to secure the quality of concrete for nuclear power plants in cold climates

  11. An Experimental Investigation On Minimum Compressive Strength Of Early Age Concrete To Prevent Frost Damage For Nuclear Power Plant Structures In Cold Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Kyungtaek; Kim, Dogyeum; Park, Chunjin; Ryu, Gumsung; Park, Jungjun; Lee, Janghwa [Korea Institute Construction Technology, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    Concrete undergoing early frost damage in cold weather will experience significant loss of not only strength, but also of permeability and durability. Accordingly, concrete codes like ACI-306R prescribe a minimum compressive strength and duration of curing to prevent frost damage at an early age and secure the quality of concrete. Such minimum compressive strength and duration of curing are mostly defined based on the strength development of concrete. However, concrete subjected to frost damage at early age may not show a consistent relationship between its strength and durability. Especially, since durability of concrete is of utmost importance in nuclear power plant structures, this relationship should be imperatively clarified. Therefore, this study verifies the feasibility of the minimum compressive strength specified in the codes like ACI-306R by evaluating the strength development and the durability preventing the frost damage of early age concrete for nuclear power plant. The results indicate that the value of 5 MPa specified by the concrete standards like ACI-306R as the minimum compressive strength to prevent the early frost damage is reasonable in terms of the strength development, but seems to be inappropriate in the viewpoint of the resistance to chloride ion penetration and freeze-thaw. Consequently, it is recommended to propose a minimum compressive strength preventing early frost damage in terms of not only the strength development, but also in terms of the durability to secure the quality of concrete for nuclear power plants in cold climates.

  12. Molecular dynamics for dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Toshiki; Chiba, Satoshi; Watanabe, Gentaro

    2012-01-01

    We review a molecular dynamics method for nucleon many-body systems called quantum molecular dynamics (QMD), and our studies using this method. These studies address the structure and the dynamics of nuclear matter relevant to neutron star crusts, supernova cores, and heavy-ion collisions. A key advantage of QMD is that we can study dynamical processes of nucleon many-body systems without any assumptions about the nuclear structure. First, we focus on the inhomogeneous structures of low-density nuclear matter consisting not only of spherical nuclei but also of nuclear “pasta”, i.e., rod-like and slab-like nuclei. We show that pasta phases can appear in the ground and equilibrium states of nuclear matter without assuming nuclear shape. Next, we show our simulation of compression of nuclear matter which corresponds to the collapsing stage of supernovae. With the increase in density, a crystalline solid of spherical nuclei changes to a triangular lattice of rods by connecting neighboring nuclei. Finally, we discuss fragment formation in expanding nuclear matter. Our results suggest that a generally accepted scenario based on the liquid–gas phase transition is not plausible at lower temperatures. (author)

  13. Molecular dynamics for dense matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Toshiki; Watanabe, Gentaro; Chiba, Satoshi

    2012-08-01

    We review a molecular dynamics method for nucleon many-body systems called quantum molecular dynamics (QMD), and our studies using this method. These studies address the structure and the dynamics of nuclear matter relevant to neutron star crusts, supernova cores, and heavy-ion collisions. A key advantage of QMD is that we can study dynamical processes of nucleon many-body systems without any assumptions about the nuclear structure. First, we focus on the inhomogeneous structures of low-density nuclear matter consisting not only of spherical nuclei but also of nuclear "pasta", i.e., rod-like and slab-like nuclei. We show that pasta phases can appear in the ground and equilibrium states of nuclear matter without assuming nuclear shape. Next, we show our simulation of compression of nuclear matter which corresponds to the collapsing stage of supernovae. With the increase in density, a crystalline solid of spherical nuclei changes to a triangular lattice of rods by connecting neighboring nuclei. Finally, we discuss fragment formation in expanding nuclear matter. Our results suggest that a generally accepted scenario based on the liquid-gas phase transition is not plausible at lower temperatures.

  14. General aspects of the nucleon-nucleon interaction and nuclear matter properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plohl, Oliver

    2008-07-25

    The subject of the present thesis is at first the investigation of model independent properties of the nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction in the vacuum concerning the relativistic structure and the implications for nuclear matter properties. Relativistic and non-relativistic meson-exchange potentials, phenomenological potentials s well as potentials based on effective field theory (EFT) are therefore mapped on a relativistic operator basis given by the Clifford Algebra. This allows to compare the various approaches at the level of covariant amplitudes where a remarkable agreement is found. Furthermore, the relativistic self-energy is determined in the Hartree-Fock (HF) approximation. The appearance of a scalar and vector field of several hundred MeV magnitude is a general feature of relativistic descriptions of nuclear matter. Within QCD sum rules these fields arise due to the density dependence of chiral condensates. We find that independent of the applied NN interaction large scalar and vector fields are generated when the symmetries of the Lorentz group are restored. In the framework of chiral EFT (chEFT) it is shown, that these fields are generated by short-range next-to-leading order (NLO) contact terms, which are connected to the spin-orbit interaction. To estimate the effect arising from NN correlations the equation of state of nuclear and neutron matter is calculated in the Brueckner-HF (BHF) approximation applying chEFT. Although, as expected, a clear over-binding is found (at NLO a saturating behavior is observed), the symmetry energy shows realistic properties when compared to phenomenological potentials (within the same approximation) and other approaches. The investigation of the pion mass dependence within chEFT at NLO shows that the magnitude of the scalar and vector fields persists in the chiral limit - nuclear matter is still bound. In contrast to the case of a pion mass larger than the physical one the binding energy and saturation density are

  15. General aspects of the nucleon-nucleon interaction and nuclear matter properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plohl, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    The subject of the present thesis is at first the investigation of model independent properties of the nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction in the vacuum concerning the relativistic structure and the implications for nuclear matter properties. Relativistic and non-relativistic meson-exchange potentials, phenomenological potentials s well as potentials based on effective field theory (EFT) are therefore mapped on a relativistic operator basis given by the Clifford Algebra. This allows to compare the various approaches at the level of covariant amplitudes where a remarkable agreement is found. Furthermore, the relativistic self-energy is determined in the Hartree-Fock (HF) approximation. The appearance of a scalar and vector field of several hundred MeV magnitude is a general feature of relativistic descriptions of nuclear matter. Within QCD sum rules these fields arise due to the density dependence of chiral condensates. We find that independent of the applied NN interaction large scalar and vector fields are generated when the symmetries of the Lorentz group are restored. In the framework of chiral EFT (chEFT) it is shown, that these fields are generated by short-range next-to-leading order (NLO) contact terms, which are connected to the spin-orbit interaction. To estimate the effect arising from NN correlations the equation of state of nuclear and neutron matter is calculated in the Brueckner-HF (BHF) approximation applying chEFT. Although, as expected, a clear over-binding is found (at NLO a saturating behavior is observed), the symmetry energy shows realistic properties when compared to phenomenological potentials (within the same approximation) and other approaches. The investigation of the pion mass dependence within chEFT at NLO shows that the magnitude of the scalar and vector fields persists in the chiral limit - nuclear matter is still bound. In contrast to the case of a pion mass larger than the physical one the binding energy and saturation density are

  16. Di-nucleon structures in homogeneous nuclear matter based on two- and three-nucleon interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arellano, Hugo F. [University of Chile, Department of Physics - FCFM, Santiago (Chile); CEA, DAM, DIF, Arpajon (France); Isaule, Felipe [University of Chile, Department of Physics - FCFM, Santiago (Chile); Rios, Arnau [University of Surrey, Department of Physics, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Guildford (United Kingdom)

    2016-09-15

    We investigate homogeneous nuclear matter within the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock (BHF) approach in the limits of isospin-symmetric nuclear matter (SNM) as well as pure neutron matter at zero temperature. The study is based on realistic representations of the internucleon interaction as given by Argonne v{sub 18}, Paris, Nijmegen I and II potentials, in addition to chiral N{sup 3}LO interactions, including three-nucleon forces up to N{sup 2}LO. Particular attention is paid to the presence of di-nucleon bound states structures in {sup 1}S{sub 0} and {sup 3}SD{sub 1} channels, whose explicit account becomes crucial for the stability of self-consistent solutions at low densities. A characterization of these solutions and associated bound states is discussed. We confirm that coexisting BHF single-particle solutions in SNM, at Fermi momenta in the range 0.13-0.3 fm{sup -1}, is a robust feature under the choice of realistic internucleon potentials. (orig.)

  17. Equation of state of neutron-rich nuclear matter from chiral effective field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, Norbert; Strohmeier, Susanne [Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Based on chiral effective field theory, the equation of state of neutron-rich nuclear matter is investigated systematically. The contributing diagrams include one- and two-pion exchange together with three-body terms arising from virtual Δ(1232)-isobar excitations. The proper expansion of the energy per particle, anti E(k{sub f},δ) = anti E{sub n}(k{sub f}) + δB{sub 1}(k{sub f}) + δ{sup 5/3}B{sub 5/3}(k{sub f}) + δ{sup 2}B{sub 2}(k{sub f}) +.., for the system with neutron density ρ{sub n} = k{sub f}{sup 3}(1-δ)/3π{sup 2} and proton density ρ{sub p} = k{sub f}{sup 3}δ/3π{sup 2} is performed analytically for the various interaction contributions. One observes essential structural differences to the commonly used quadratic approximation. The density dependent coefficient B{sub 1}(k{sub f}) turns out to be unrelated to the isospin-asymmetry of nuclear matter. The coefficient B{sub 5/3}(k{sub f}) of the non-analytical δ{sup 5/3}-term receives contributions from the proton kinetic energy and from the one- and two-pion exchange interactions. The physical consequences for neutron star matter are studied.

  18. Influence of the equation of state of matter and ion beam characteristics on target heating and compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Tahir

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available The subject of high-energy density (HED in matter is of considerable interest to many branches of physics. Intense beams of energetic heavy ions are a promising tool for creating large samples of HED matter which can be used to study the equation-of-state properties of such exotic states of matter experimentally. The Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (GSI, Darmstadt, is a unique laboratory worldwide which has a heavy ion synchrotron facility, SIS18 (with a magnetic rigidity of 18 Tm, that delivers intense heavy ion beams. Using the beams generated at this present facility, interesting experimental work has been carried out in the field of HED matter [D. H. H. Hoffmann et al., Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. B 161–162, 9 (2000]. The GSI is planning to significantly expand its accelerator capabilities with construction of a new synchrotron ring, SIS100, which will have a magnetic rigidity of 100 Tm. This new facility will deliver a uranium beam which will have orders of magnitude higher intensity than the existing facility and will also have the possibility of multibeam acceleration. This paper presents two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of different target geometries including solid as well as hollow cylinders that are irradiated with beams having different shapes of the focal spot which will be available at the SIS100 facility. These include a circular focal spot, an annular focal spot, and an elliptic focal spot, respectively. The purpose of this study is to determine the region of the physical parameters including density, temperature, and pressure that can be accessed using the SIS100 beam. This information, we hope, will be useful for designing experiments on the studies of thermophysical properties of matter including the designing of appropriate diagnostic tools.

  19. Nonstatic, self-consistent πN t matrix in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Orden, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    In a recent paper, a calculation of the self-consistent πN t matrix in nuclear matter was presented. In this calculation the driving term of the self-consistent equation was chosen to be a static approximation to the free πN t matrix. In the present work, the earlier calculation is extended by using a nonstatic, fully-off-shell free πN t matrix as a starting point. Right-hand pole and cut contributions to the P-wave πN amplitudes are derived using a Low expansion and include effects due to recoil of the interacting πN system as well as the transformation from the πN c.m. frame to the nuclear rest frame. The self-consistent t-matrix equation is rewritten as two integral equations which modify the pole and cut contributions to the t matrix separately. The self-consistent πN t matrix is calculated in nuclear matter and a nonlocal optical potential is constructed from it. The resonant contribution to the optical potential is found to be broadened by 20% to 50% depending on pion momentum and is shifted upward in energy by approximately 10 MeV in comparison to the first-order optical potential. Modifications to the nucleon pole contribution are found to be negligible

  20. Dark matter RNA: an intelligent scaffold for the dynamic regulation of the nuclear information landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Laurent, Georges; Savva, Yiannis A.; Kapranov, Philipp

    2012-01-01

    Perhaps no other topic in contemporary genomics has inspired such diverse viewpoints as the 95+% of the genome, previously known as “junk DNA,” that does not code for proteins. Here, we present a theory in which dark matter RNA plays a role in the generation of a landscape of spatial micro-domains coupled to the information signaling matrix of the nuclear landscape. Within and between these micro-domains, dark matter RNAs additionally function to tether RNA interacting proteins and complexes of many different types, and by doing so, allow for a higher performance of the various processes requiring them at ultra-fast rates. This improves signal to noise characteristics of RNA processing, trafficking, and epigenetic signaling, where competition and differential RNA binding among proteins drives the computational decisions inherent in regulatory events. PMID:22539933

  1. Towards Dense Nuclear Matter in A Modified Sakai-Sugimoto Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rho Mannque

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available As a part of the attempt to address dense baryonic matter, we first review holographic approaches to QCD. The big advantage of the holographic approaches is that they render strongly coupled 4D gauge theories as duals of certain weakly coupled string/supergravity that are well understood. Its relevance to real QCD is one of the central problems in hadron/nuclear physics as well as in the context of applied string theory. None of the models based on these holographic approaches presently available can adequately describe the system we are interested in, namely dense baryonic matter. Nevertheless, some aspects of the holographic approach are found to describe certain processes both in vacuum and in medium. In this talk we only present the structure of a model that appears to be closest to QCD, and has the potential to address the problem.

  2. Progress in the Development of Compressible, Multiphase Flow Modeling Capability for Nuclear Reactor Flow Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. A. Berry; R. Saurel; F. Petitpas; E. Daniel; O. Le Metayer; S. Gavrilyuk; N. Dovetta

    2008-10-01

    In nuclear reactor safety and optimization there are key issues that rely on in-depth understanding of basic two-phase flow phenomena with heat and mass transfer. Within the context of multiphase flows, two bubble-dynamic phenomena – boiling (heterogeneous) and flashing or cavitation (homogeneous boiling), with bubble collapse, are technologically very important to nuclear reactor systems. The main difference between boiling and flashing is that bubble growth (and collapse) in boiling is inhibited by limitations on the heat transfer at the interface, whereas bubble growth (and collapse) in flashing is limited primarily by inertial effects in the surrounding liquid. The flashing process tends to be far more explosive (and implosive), and is more violent and damaging (at least in the near term) than the bubble dynamics of boiling. However, other problematic phenomena, such as crud deposition, appear to be intimately connecting with the boiling process. In reality, these two processes share many details.

  3. Neutron star properties and the relativistic nuclear equation of state of many-baryon matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, F.; Weigel, M.K.

    1989-01-01

    A relativistic model of baryons interacting via the exchange of σ-, ω-, π- and ρ-mesons (scalar-vector-isovector (SVI) theory) is used to describe the properties of both dense and superdense matter. For the theoretical frame, we used the temperature-dependent Green's function formalism. The equation of state (EOS) is calculated for nuclear as well as neutron matter in the Hartree (H) and Hartree-Fock (HF) approximation. The existence of phase transitions has been investigated. The isotherms of pressure as a function of density show for nuclear matter a critical temperature of about T c HF =16.6 MeV. (As in the usual scalar-vector (SV) theory, the phase transition is absent for neutron matter. A phase transition of both many-baryon systems in the high-pressure and high-density region, which has been found within the SV many-baryon theory, appears in the SVI theory too. The calculated maximum stable masses of neutron stars depend on 1. the underlying parameter set and/or 2. on the chosen approximation (i.e., H, HF; SV-, SVI theory, respectively). Hartree calculations lead to a mass stability limit of M max H ≤2.87 M sun (M max H ≤2.44 M sun when hyperons are taken into account). For the HF calculations we obtained M max HF ≤3.00 M sun (M max HF ≤2.85 M sun ). The corresponding maximum radii are (same notation as above) R H ≤13.2 km (R H ≤11.8 km), R HF ≤14.0 km (R HF ≤13.94 km).) The influence of the approximations, parameter sets and hyperons on the neutron star's moment of inertia is exhibited. (orig.)

  4. On superconductivity of matter at hight density and the effects of inducing nuclear chirality in molecular structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Providëncia, J.; Jalkanen, Karl J.; Bohr, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    relativistic fluid of elementary particles is studied. We find that the magnetic field of spin polarized matter with densities of 2 to 30, where 0 is the equilibrium density of nuclear matter, is rather huge, of the order of 1017 Gauss. Finally we look at the chiral nature of nuclear forces and interactions...... as they possibly relate to chirality of nuclei (atoms) in molecules as a source of chirality in amino acids and hence in life. Previous works have not investigated the nuclear forces as a possible bias which initiated the bias towards L-amino acids as the building blocks on proteins, and later life....

  5. Measurements of cold nuclear matter effects on J/ψ in the PHENIX experiment via deuteron-gold collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cianciolo, Vince

    2008-01-01

    A new calculation of R dAu has been performed using the 2003 d+Au data and the higher-statistics 2005 p+p data. These nuclear modification factors are compared to calculations using nuclear-modified PDFs and a J/ψ breakup cross section is extracted. These values are then used to project the cold nuclear matter effects in Au+Au collisions. Additionally, a more data-driven projection is performed

  6. Liquid-gas phase transition in asymmetric nuclear matter at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Toshiki; Tatsumi, Toshitaka; Chiba, Satoshi

    2010-01-01

    Liquid-gas phase transition is discussed in warm asymmetric nuclear matter. Some peculiar features are figured out from the viewpoint of the basic thermodynamics about the phase equilibrium. We treat the mixed phase of the binary system based on the Gibbs conditions. When the Coulomb interaction is included, the mixed phase is no more uniform and the sequence of the pasta structures appears. Comparing the results with those given by the simple bulk calculation without the Coulomb interaction, we extract specific features of the pasta structures at finite temperature.

  7. Liquid-gas phase transition in asymmetric nuclear matter at finite temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Toshiki; Tatsumi, Toshitaka; Chiba, Satoshi

    2010-03-01

    Liquid-gas phase transition is discussed in warm asymmetric nuclear matter. Some peculiar features are figured out from the viewpoint of the basic thermodynamics about the phase equilibrium. We treat the mixed phase of the binary system based on the Gibbs conditions. When the Coulomb interaction is included, the mixed phase is no more uniform and the sequence of the pasta structures appears. Comparing the results with those given by the simple bulk calculation without the Coulomb interaction, we extract specific features of the pasta structures at finite temperature.

  8. Self consistent and covariant propagation of pions, nucleon and isobar resonances in cold nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korpa, C.L.; Lutz, M.F.M.; Technische Univ. Darmstadt

    2003-06-01

    We evaluate the in-medium spectral functions for pions, nucleon and isobar resonances in a self consistent and covariant manner. The calculations are based on a recently developed formulation which leads to predictions in terms of the pion-nucleon scattering phase shifts and a set of Migdal parameters describing important short range correlation effects. We do not observe any significant softening of pion modes if we insist on reasonable isobar resonance properties but predict a considerable broadening of the N(1440) and N(1520) resonances in nuclear matter. (orig.)

  9. Two-body tensor interactions in the nuclear matter response function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besprosvany, J.

    1997-01-01

    The inclusive scattering response of nuclear matter is studied in the regime of large momentum transfer q, and around the quasielastic peak. We review interaction corrections to free propagation as embodied in the impulse approximation. Calculations of the two-body and many-body corrections within an eikonal approach are presented. These use an approximated two-body density matrix which takes account of spin and isospin degrees of freedom. Both calculations give similar and sizable corrections at q = 550 MeV and reproduce data extrapolated from finite nuclei; this indicates the relevance of two-body tensor contributions in this regime. (Author)

  10. Upper-bound nature of the Brueckner energy of nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, M.

    1993-01-01

    A trial wavefunction is constructed for nuclear matter in terms of the reaction matrix. The trial function includes only two-particle excitations and the resulting energy expectation value for two-nucleon forces with a state-independent repulsive core of Yukawa shape approaches in the thermodynamic limit the energy given by the lowest order Brueckner theory with standard dispersion. Evaluation of the energy expectation value is carried out in a systematic way by use of an identity that holds between the Hamiltonians and reaction matrix. (Author)

  11. Baryonic forces and hyperons in nuclear matter from SU(3) chiral effective field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petschauer, Stefan Karl

    2016-02-12

    In this work the baryon-baryon interaction is studied at next-to-leading order in SU(3) chiral effective field theory and applied to hyperon-nucleon scattering. The properties of hyperons in isospin-symmetric as well as asymmetric nuclear matter are calculated within the Bruecker-Hartree-Fock formalism. Moreover, the leading three-baryon interaction is derived and its low-energy constants are estimated from decuplet intermediate states. We conclude, that chiral effective field theory is a well-suited tool to describe the baryonic forces.

  12. Nuclear matter kinetic coefficients and damping of finite nuclear collective modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledo Piza, A.F.R. de.

    1986-06-01

    By carrying the general description of one-body observables beyond the mean-field approximation, those correlation terms responsible for Kinetic phenomena and those involved in the renormalization of the G-matrix mean-field in finite nuclei are identified. A Kinetic equation for the one-body density is obtained. Estimates for transport coefficients and for the damping of zero sound are obtained which point to the inadequacy of hydrodynamical descriptions of collective nuclear modes and indicate that collisional damping in large nuclei may account for one or a few tenths of the observed widths. (S.D.) [pt

  13. Detailed Characterization of Nuclear Recoil Pulse Shape Discrimination in the Darkside-50 Direct Dark Matter Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludert, Erin Edkins

    While evidence of non-baryonic dark matter has been accumulating for decades, its exact nature continues to remain a mystery. Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) are a well motivated candidate which appear in certain extensions of the Standard Model, independently of dark matter theory. If such particles exist, they should occasionally interact with particles of normal matter, producing a signal which may be detected. The DarkSide-50 direct dark matter experiment aims to detect the energy of recoiling argon atoms due to the elastic scattering of postulated WIMPs. In order to make such a discovery, a clear understanding of both the background and signal region is essential. This understanding requires a careful study of the detector's response to radioactive sources, which in turn requires such sources may be safely introduced into or near the detector volume and reliably removed. The CALibration Insertaion System (CALIS) was designed and built for this purpose in a joint effort between Fermi National Laboratory and the University of Hawaii. This work describes the design and testing of CALIS, its installation and commissioning at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) and the multiple calibration campaigns which have successfully employed it. As nuclear recoils produced by WIMPs are indistinguishable from those produced by neutrons, radiogenic neutrons are both the most dangerous class of background and a vital calibration source for the study of the potential WIMP signal. Prior to the calibration of DarkSide-50 with radioactive neutron sources, the acceptance region was determined by the extrapolation of nuclear recoil data from a separate, dedicated experiment, ScENE, which measured the distribution of the pulse shape discrimination parameter, f 90, for nuclear recoils of known energies. This work demonstrates the validity of the extrapolation of ScENE values to DarkSide-50, by direct comparison of the f90 distribution of nuclear recoils from Sc

  14. Correlations between the nuclear matter symmetry energy, its slope, and curvature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, B M; Delfino, A; Dutra, M; Lourenço, O

    2015-01-01

    By using point-coupling versions of finite range nuclear relativistic mean field models containing cubic and quartic self interactionsin the scalar field σ, a nonrelativistic limit is achieved. This approach allows for an analytical expression for the symmetry energy (J) as a function of its slope (L) in a unified form, namely, L = 3J + f(m*, ρ o , B o , K o ), where the quantities m*, p o , B o and K o are bulk parameters at the nuclear matter saturation density ρ o . This result establishes a linear correlation between L and J which is reinforced by exact relativistic calculations we have performed. An analogous analytical correlation can also be found for J, L and the symmetry energy curvature (K sym ). Based on these results, we propose a graphic constraint in L × J plane which finite range models should satisfy. (paper)

  15. Studying Cold Nuclear Matter with the MPC-EX of PHENIX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, Nathan; Phenix Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    Highly asymmetric collision systems, such as d+Au, provide a unique environment to study cold nuclear matter. Potential measurements range from pinning down the modification of the nuclear wave function, i.e. saturation, to studying final state interactions, i.e. energy loss. The PHENIX experiment has enhanced the muon piston calorimeter (MPC) with a silicon-tungsten preshower, the MPC-EX. With its fine segmentation the MPC-EX extends the photon detection capability at 3 < | η | < 3.8. In this talk we review the current status of the detector, its calibration, and its identification capabilities using the 2016 d+Au dataset. We also discuss the specific physics observables the MPC-EX can measure.

  16. Transverse energy production in high energy nuclear collisions and the equation of state of nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doss, K.G.R.; Gustafsson, H.A.; Gutbrod, H.H.; Kolb, B.; Ludewigt, B.; Poskanzer, A.M.; Ritter, H.G.; Schmidt, H.R.; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA; Kampert, K.H.; Loehner, H.

    1987-08-01

    In nuclear collisions of AU+Au, Nb+Nb and Ca+Ca at bombarding energies between 150 and 800 MeV per nucleon transverse energy and transverse momenta of light particles are studied event by event at θ = 90 0 in the center of mass system. At all energies a rise of the mean transverse energy per nucleon is observed with increasing charged particle multiplicity. Particularly large values of E perpendicular to have been found for 3 He-fragments. The hydrodynamical picture is discussed for a possible separation of the collective flow and the thermal parts of the E perpendicular to -spectrum. From this, evidence for a rather stiff equation of state is found. (orig.)

  17. Low mass dielectrons radiated off cold nuclear matter measured with HADES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenz M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The High Acceptance DiElectron Spectrometer HADES [1] is installed at the Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung (GSI accelerator facility in Darmstadt. It investigates dielectron emission and strangeness production in the 1-3 AGeV regime. A recent experiment series focusses on medium-modifications of light vector mesons in cold nuclear matter. In two runs, p+p and p+Nb reactions were investigated at 3.5 GeV beam energy; about 9·109 events have been registered. In contrast to other experiments the high acceptance of the HADES allows for a detailed analysis of electron pairs with low momenta relative to nuclear matter, where modifications of the spectral functions of vector mesons are predicted to be most prominent. Comparing these low momentum electron pairs to the reference measurement in the elementary p+p reaction, we find in fact a strong modification of the spectral distribution in the whole vector meson region.

  18. Properties of nuclear and neutron matter in a relativistic Hartree-Fock theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, C.J.; Serot, B.D.

    1983-01-01

    Relativistic-Hartree-Fock (HF) equations are derived for an infinite system of mesons and baryons in the framework of a renormalizable relativistic quantum field theory. The derivation is based on a diagrammatic approach and Dyson's equation for the baryon propagator. The result is a set of coupled, nonlinear integral equations for the baryon self-energy with a self-consistency condition on the single-particle spectrum. The HF equations are solved for nuclear and neutron matter in the Walecka model, which contains neutral scalar and vector mesons. After renormalizing model parameters to reproduce nuclear matter saturation properties, HF results at low to moderate densities are similar to those in the mean-field (Hartree) approximation. Self-consistent exchange corrections to the Hartree equation of state become negligible at high densities. Rho- and pi-meson exchanges are incorporated using a renormalizable gauge-theory model. A chiral transformation of the lagrangian is used to replace the pseudoscalar πN coupling with a pseudovector coupling, for which one-pion exchange is a reasonable first approximation. This transformation maintains the model's renormalizability so that corrections may be evaluated. Pion exchange has a small effect on the HF results of the Walecka model and brings HF results in closer in closer agreement with the mean-field theory. The diagrammatic techniques used here retain the mesonic degrees of freedom and are simple enough to be extended to more refined self-consistent approximations. (orig.)

  19. Hot nuclear matter in the modified quark-meson coupling model with quark-quark correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakout, I.; Jaqaman, H.R.

    2000-01-01

    Short-range quark-quark correlations in hot nuclear matter are examined within the modified quark-meson coupling (MQMC) model by adding repulsive scalar and vector quark-quark interactions. Without these correlations, the bag radius increases with the baryon density. However, when the correlations are introduced the bag size shrinks as the bags overlap. Also as the strength of the scalar quark-quark correlation is increased, the decrease of the effective nucleon mass M* N with the baryonic density is slowed down and tends to saturate at high densities. Within this model we study the phase transition from the baryon-meson phase to the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) phase with the latter modelled as an ideal gas of quarks and gluons inside a bag. Two models for the QGP bag parameter are considered. In one case, the bag is taken to be medium-independent and the phase transition from the hadron phase to QGP is found to occur at five to eight times ordinary nuclear matter density for temperatures less than 60 MeV. For lower densities, the transition takes place at a higher temperature, reaching up to 130 MeV at zero density. In the second case, the QGP bag parameter is considered to be medium-dependent as in the MQMC model for the hadronic phase. In this case, it is found that the phase transition occurs at much lower densities. (author)

  20. Exploring the Quark-Gluon Content of Hadrons: From Mesons to Nuclear Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrayr Matevosyan

    2007-01-01

    Even though Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) was formulated over three decades ago, it poses enormous challenges for describing the properties of hadrons from the underlying quark-gluon degrees of freedom. Moreover, the problem of describing the nuclear force from its quark-gluon origin is still open. While a direct solution of QCD to describe the hadrons and nuclear force is not possible at this time, we explore a variety of developed approaches ranging from phenomenology to first principle calculations at one or other level of approximation in linking the nuclear force to QCD. The Dyson Schwinger formulation (DSE) of coupled integral equations for the QCD Green's functions allows a non-perturbative approach to describe hadronic properties, starting from the level of QCD n-point functions. A significant approximation in this method is the employment of a finite truncation of the system of DSEs, that might distort the physical picture. In this work we explore the effects of including a more complete truncation of the quark-gluon vertex function on the resulting solutions for the quark 2-point functions as well as the pseudoscalar and vector meson masses. The exploration showed strong indications of possibly large contributions from the explicit inclusion of the gluon 3- and 4-point functions that are omitted in this and previous analyses. We then explore the possibility of extrapolating state of the art lattice QCD calculations of nucleon form factors to the physical regime using phenomenological models of nucleon structure. Finally, we further developed the Quark Meson Coupling model for describing atomic nuclei and nuclear matter, where the quark-gluon structure of nucleons is modeled by the MIT bag model and the nucleon many body interaction is mediated by the exchange of scalar and vector mesons. This approach allows us to formulate a fully relativistic theory, which can be expanded in the nonrelativistic limit to reproduce the well known phenomenological Skyrme

  1. Relativistic mean field theory with density dependent coupling constants for nuclear matter and finite nuclei with large charge asymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Typel, S; Wolter, H H [Sektion Physik, Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany)

    1998-06-01

    Nuclear matter and ground state properties for (proton and neutron) semi-closed shell nuclei are described in relativistic mean field theory with coupling constants which depend on the vector density. The parametrization of the density dependence for {sigma}-, {omega}- and {rho}-mesons is obtained by fitting to properties of nuclear matter and some finite nuclei. The equation of state for symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter is discussed. Finite nuclei are described in Hartree approximation, including a charge and an improved center-of-mass correction. Pairing is considered in the BCS approximation. Special attention is directed to the predictions for properties at the neutron and proton driplines, e.g. for separation energies, spin-orbit splittings and density distributions. (orig.)

  2. Isotopic Tracing of Particulate Matter from a Compression Ignition Engine Fueled with Ethanol-in-Diesel Blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, A.S.; Dibble, R.W.; Buchholz, B.

    1999-01-01

    Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) was used to investigate the relative contribution to diesel engine particulate matter (PM) from the ethanol and diesel fractions of blended fuels. Four test fuels along with a diesel fuel baseline were investigated. The test fuels were comprised of 14 C depleted diesel fuel mixed with contemporary grain ethanol (>400 the 14 C concentration of diesel). An emulsifier (Span 85) or cosolvent (butyl alcohol) was used to facilitate mixing. The experimental test engine was a 1993 Cummins B5.9 diesel rated at 175 hp at 2500 rpm. Test fuels were run at steady-state conditions of 1600 rpm and 210 ft-lbs, and PM samples were collected on quartz filters following dilution of engine exhaust in a mini-dilution tunnel. AMS analysis of the filter samples showed that the ethanol contributed less to PM relative to its fraction in the fuel blend. For the emulsified blends, 6.4% and 10.3% contributions to PM were observed for 11.5% and 23.0% ethanol fuels, respectively. For the cosolvent blends, even lower contributions were observed (3.8% and 6.3% contributions to PM for 12.5% and 25.0% ethanol fuels, respectively)

  3. Chiral approach to nuclear matter: Role of two-pion exchange with virtual delta-isobar excitation

    OpenAIRE

    Fritsch, S.; Kaiser, N.; Weise, W.

    2004-01-01

    We extend a recent three-loop calculation of nuclear matter in chiral perturbation theory by including the effects from two-pion exchange with single and double virtual $\\Delta(1232)$-isobar excitation. Regularization dependent short-range contributions from pion-loops are encoded in a few NN-contact coupling constants. The empirical saturation point of isospin-symmetric nuclear matter, $\\bar E_0 = -16 $MeV, $\\rho_0 = 0.16 $fm$^{-3}$, can be well reproduced by adjusting the strength of a two-...

  4. Measurement of Nuclear Recoils in the CDMS II Dark Matter Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallows, Scott M.

    The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment is designed to directly detect elastic scatters of weakly-interacting massive dark matter particles (WIMPs), on target nuclei in semiconductor crystals composed of Si and Ge. These scatters would occur very rarely, in an overwhelming background composed primarily of electron recoils from photons and electrons, as well as a smaller but non-negligible background of WIMP-like nuclear recoils from neutrons. The CDMS~II generation of detectors simultaneously measure ionization and athermal phonon signals from each scatter, allowing discrimination against virtually all electron recoils in the detector bulk. Pulse-shape timing analysis allows discrimination against nearly all remaining electron recoils taking place near detector surfaces. Along with carefully limited neutron backgrounds, this experimental program allowed for "background-free'' operation of CDMS~II at Soudan, with less than one background event expected in each WIMP-search analysis. As a result, exclusionary upper-limits on WIMP-nucleon interaction cross section were placed over a wide range of candidate WIMP masses, ruling out large new regions of parameter space. These results, like any others, are subject to a variety of systematic effects that may alter their final interpretations. A primary focus of this dissertation will be difficulties in precisely calibrating the energy scale for nuclear recoil events like those from WIMPs. Nuclear recoils have suppressed ionization signals relative to electron recoils of the same recoil energy, so the response of the detectors is calibrated differently for each recoil type. The overall normalization and linearity of the energy scale for electron recoils in CDMS~II detectors is clearly established by peaks of known gamma energy in the ionization spectrum of calibration data from a 133Ba source. This electron-equivalent keVee) energy scale enables calibration of the total phonon signal (keVt) by enforcing unity

  5. Considerations concerning the physics of nuclear matter under extreme conditions and an accelerator for relativistic heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasche, K.; Bock, R.; Franzke, B.; Greiner, W.; Gutbrod, H.H.; Povh, B.; Schmelzer, C.; Stock, R.

    1977-01-01

    The future problems of heavy-ion physics in the 10 GeV/U range are dealt with: the dynamics of relativistic nuclear collisions, phase transitions, nuclear matter, quantum electrodynamics of extremely strong fields, and astrophysical aspects. In the second part, the project of a heavy-ion accelerator in the 10 GeV/U range to be coupled to the present GSI UNILAC accelerator is discussed. (WL) [de

  6. Recent Progress in Constraining the Equation of State of Dense Neutron-Rich Nuclear Matter with Heavy-Ion Reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Baoan; Chen Liewen; Wen Dehua; Xiao Zhigang; Xu Chang; Yong Gaochan; Zhang Ming

    2010-01-01

    The nuclear symmetry energy E sym (ρ) is the most uncertain part of the Equation of State (EOS) of dense neutron-rich nuclear matter. In this talk, we discuss the underlying physics responsible for the uncertain E sym (ρ) especially at supra-saturation densities, the circumstantial evidence for a super-soft E sym (ρ) from analyzing π - /π + ratio in relativistic heavy-ion collisions and its impacts on astrophysics and cosmology.

  7. Squeeze-out of nuclear matter as a function of projectile energy and mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutbrod, H.H.; Kampert, K.H.; Kolb, B.; Poskanzer, A.M.; Ritter, H.G.; Schicker, R.; Schmidt, H.R.

    1990-01-01

    Squeeze-out, a component of the collective flow of nuclear matter, is the preferential emission of particles out of the reaction plane. Using the sphericity method the out-of-plane/in-plane ratio of the kinetic energy flow has been analyzed as a function of multiplicity and beam energy for Ca+Ca, Nb+Nb, and Au+Au collisions measured with the Plastic Ball detector at the Bevalac. Also, azimuthal distribution of the particles around the flow axis are presented together with the extracted out-of-plane/in-plane ratios. Finally, the rapidity dependence of the out-of-plane/in-plane ratio has been investigated with a new method using the transverse momentum components of the particles

  8. Surface behaviour of the pairing gap in a slab of nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldo, M.; Farine, M.; Lombardo, U.; Saperstein, E.E.; Zverev, M.V.; Schuck, P.

    2003-01-01

    The surface behavior of the pairing gap previously studied for semi-infinite nuclear matter is analyzed in the slab geometry. The gap-shape function is calculated in two cases: a) pairing with the Gogny force in a hard-wall potential and b) pairing with the separable Paris interaction in a Saxon-Woods mean-field potential. It is shown that the surface features are preserved in the case of slab geometry, being almost independent of the width of the slab. It is also demonstrated that the surface enhancement is strengthened as the absolute value of chemical potential vertical stroke μvertical stroke decreases which simulates the approach to the nucleon drip line. (orig.)

  9. Phase diagram of dilute nuclear matter: Unconventional pairing and the BCS-BEC crossover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Martin; Sedrakian, Armen [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2013-07-01

    We report on a comprehensive study of the phase structure of cold, dilute nuclear matter featuring a {sup 3}S{sub 1}-{sup 3}D{sub 1} condensate at non-zero isospin asymmetry, within wide ranges of temperatures and densities. We find a rich phase diagram comprising three superfluid phases, namely a LOFF phase, the ordinary BCS phase, and a heterogeneous, phase-separated BCS phase, with associated crossovers from the latter two phases to a homogeneous or phase-separated Bose-Einstein condensate of deuterons. The phase diagram contains two tri-critical points (one a Lifshitz point), which may degenerate into a single tetra-critical point for some degree of isospin asymmetry.

  10. Correlation effects on the nonmesonic weak decay of the Λ hyperon in nuclear matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, N. J.; Dickhoff, W. H.

    2005-08-01

    The nonmesonic weak decay of a Λ hyperon is studied in nuclear matter. Special emphasis is placed on a consistent treatment of correlations introduced by the strong interaction on its weak counterpart. The latter is described by the exchange of mesons between the initial ΛN state and the final NN one. The weak decay is studied in terms of the weak self-energy, which allows a systematic evaluation of short-range and tensor correlation effects that are determined by a realistic hyperon-nucleon interaction. The admixture of ΣN components through the strong interaction is also included in the calculation of the Λ decay properties. Calculations for the ratio of the neutron-induced partial width to the corresponding proton-induced one, Γn/Γp, are discussed in connection with recent experimental results.

  11. Toward the Limits of Matter: Ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Schukraft, Jurgen

    2015-01-01

    Strongly interacting matter as described by the thermodynamics of QCD undergoes a phase transition, from a low temperature hadronic medium to a high temperature quark-gluon plasma state. In the early universe this transition occurred during the early microsecond era. It can be investigated in the laboratory, in collisions of nuclei at relativistic energy, which create "fireballs" of sufficient energy density to cross the QCD Phase boundary. We describe 3 decades of work at CERN, devoted to the study of the QCD plasma and the phase transition. From modest beginnings at the SPS, ultra-relativistic heavy ion physics has evolved today into a central pillar of contemporary nuclear physics and forms a significant part of the LHC program.

  12. Non-Markovian effects on the dynamics of bubble growth in hot asymmetric nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolomietz, V.M.; Sanzhur, A.I.; Shlomo, S.

    2003-01-01

    We study the conditions for the generation and the dynamical evolution of embryonic overcritical vapor bubbles in an overheated asymmetric nuclear matter. We show that the Fermi-surface distortion and memory effects significantly hinder the growth of the bubbles. Moreover, the growth of the bubble is accompanied by characteristic oscillations of its radius R. The characteristic energy E, the damping parameter Γ, and the instability growth rate parameter ζ, depend on the relaxation time τ. The characteristic oscillations disappear in the short relaxation time limit τ→0. Our approach ignores the fluctuations of the particle numbers in the bubble region and the finite diffuse layer of the bubble. The minimum size of the critical radius R * for which our approach applies is determined by the condition a/R * <<1, where a=0.5-1 fm is the temperature-dependent surface thickness of the bubble

  13. Effective mass of a #betta#-particle in nuclear matter and OBE #betta#-n interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bando, Hiroharu; Nagata, Sinobu.

    1982-01-01

    The effective mass of a lambda particle (M sub( lambda )*) in nuclear matter is investigated within the framework of the lowest-order Brueckner theory by employing the Nijmegen OBE lambda -N interaction model D and F. The non-locality mass (M tilde sub( lamda )) and the energy mass (anti M sub( lambda )) are evaluated and discussed in the light of the characteristics of the two models. In comparison with the model D, the model F yields smaller anti M sub( lambda ) and larger anti M sub( lamb da ) reflecting the stronger Majorana exchange force and the stronger lambda N- sigma N coupling tensor force. Final results of M sub( lambda )*/M sub( lambda ) are 0.85 for D and 0.79 for F. In view of the effective lambda mass inferred from observed properties of the single particle potential for lambda , the model D interaction seems to be more adequate. (author)

  14. Low mass dilepton production at the SPS probing hot and dense nuclear matter

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez de los Heros, C; Baur, R; Breskin, Amos; Chechik, R; Drees, A; Jacob, C; Faschingbauer, U; Fisher, P H; Fraenkel, Zeev; Fuchs, C; Gatti, E; Glässel, P; Günzel, T F; Hess, F; Irmscher, D; Lenkeit, B C; Olsen, L H; Panebratsev, Yu A; Pfeiffer, A; Ravinovich, I; Rehak, P; Schön, A; Schükraft, Jürgen; Sampietro, M; Shimansky, S S; Shor, A; Specht, H J; Steiner, V; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tel-Zur, G; Tserruya, Itzhak; Ullrich, T S; Wurm, J P; Yurevich, V I

    1996-01-01

    CERES and HELIOS-3 have detected a significant enhancement of low--mass dileptons in nuclear collisions at 200 GeV/nucleon with respect to the expected ``conventional'' sources. The onset of the excess, starting at a mass of $\\sim2m_{\\pi}$, and the possibility of a quadratic dependence on the event multiplicity suggest the opening of the $\\pi^+\\pi^-\\rightarrow e^+e^-(\\mu^+\\mu^-)$ annihilation channel. This would be the first observation of thermal radiation from dense hadronic matter. Possible interpretations of these results are presented, including the reduction of the $\\rho$ mass due to partial restoration of chiral symmetry in the dense fireball formed in the collision.

  15. Effects of isospin and momentum-dependent interactions on thermal properties of nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Jun; Ma Hongru; Chen Liewen; Li Baoan

    2009-01-01

    In this article, three models with different isospin and momentum dependence are used to study the thermodynamical properties of asymmetric nuclear matter. They are isospin and momentum-dependent MDI interaction constrained by the isospin diffusion data of heavy ion collision, the momentum-independent MID interaction and the isoscalar momentum-dependent eMDYI interaction. Temperature effects of symmetry energy, mechanical and chemical instability and liquid-gas phase transition are analyzed. It is found that for MDI model the temperature effects of the symmetry energy attribute from both the kinetic and potential energy, while only potential part contributes to the decreasing of the symmetry energy for MID and eMDYI models. We also find that the mechanical instability, chemical instability and liquid-gas phase transition are all sensitive to the isospin and momentum dependence and the density dependence of the symmetry energy. (authors)

  16. New relativistic effective interaction for finite nuclei, infinite nuclear matter, and neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Bharat; Patra, S. K.; Agrawal, B. K.

    2018-04-01

    We carry out the study of finite nuclei, infinite nuclear matter, and neutron star properties with the newly developed relativistic force, the Institute of Physics Bhubaneswar-I (IOPB-I). Using this force, we calculate the binding energies, charge radii, and neutron-skin thickness for some selected nuclei. From the ground-state properties of superheavy nuclei (Z =120 ), it is noticed that considerable shell gaps appear at neutron numbers N =172 , 184, and 198, manifesting the magicity at these numbers. The low-density behavior of the equation of state for pure neutron matter is compatible with other microscopic models. Along with the nuclear symmetry energy, its slope and curvature parameters at the saturation density are consistent with those extracted from various experimental data. We calculate the neutron star properties with the equation of state composed of nucleons and leptons in β -equilibrium, which are in good agreement with the x-ray observations by Steiner [Astrophys. J. 722, 33 (2010), 10.1088/0004-637X/722/1/33] and Nättilä [Astron. Astrophys. 591, A25 (2016), 10.1051/0004-6361/201527416]. Based on the recent observation of GW170817 with a quasi-universal relation, Rezzolla et al. [Astrophys. J. Lett. 852, L25 (2018), 10.3847/2041-8213/aaa401] have set a limit for the maximum mass that can be supported against gravity by a nonrotating neutron star in the range 2.01 ±0.04 ≲M (M⊙)≲2.16 ±0.03 . We find that the maximum mass of the neutron star for the IOPB-I parametrization is 2.15 M⊙ . The radius and tidal deformability of a canonical neutron star of mass 1.4 M⊙ are 13.2 km and 3.9 ×1036g cm2s2 , respectively.

  17. Thermodynamic coupling of heat and matter flows in near-field regions of nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnahan, C.L.

    1983-11-01

    In near-field regions of nuclear waste repositories, thermodynamically coupled flows of heat and matter can occur in addition to the independent flows in the presence of gradients of temperature, hydraulic potential, and composition. The following coupled effects can occur: thermal osmosis, thermal diffusion, chemical osmosis, thermal filtration, diffusion thermal effect, ultrafiltration, and coupled diffusion. Flows of heat and matter associated with these effects can modify the flows predictable from the direct effects, which are expressed by Fourier's law, Darcy's law, and Fick's law. The coupled effects can be treated quantitatively together with the direct effects by the methods of the thermodynamics of irreversible processes. The extent of departure of fully coupled flows from predictions based only on consideration of direct effects depends on the strengths of the gradients driving flows, and may be significant at early times in backfills and in near-field geologic environments of repositories. Approximate calculations using data from the literature and reasonable assumptions of repository conditions indicate that thermal-osmotic and chemical-osmotic flows of water in semipermeable backfills may exceed Darcian flows by two to three orders of magnitude, while flows of solutes may be reduced greatly by ultrafiltration and chemical osmosis, relative to the flows predicted by advection and diffusion alone. In permeable materials, thermal diffusion may contribute to solute flows to a smaller, but still significant, extent

  18. Measurement of Nuclear Recoils in the CDMS II Dark Matter Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallows, Scott Mathew [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment is designed to directly detect elastic scatters of weakly-interacting massive dark matter particles (WIMPs), on target nuclei in semiconductor crystals composed of Si and Ge. These scatters would occur very rarely, in an overwhelming background composed primarily of electron recoils from photons and electrons, as well as a smaller but non-negligible background of WIMP-like nuclear recoils from neutrons. The CDMS II generation of detectors simultaneously measure ionization and athermal phonon signals from each scatter, allowing discrimination against virtually all electron recoils in the detector bulk. Pulse-shape timing analysis allows discrimination against nearly all remaining electron recoils taking place near detector surfaces. Along with carefully limited neutron backgrounds, this experimental program allowed for \\background- free" operation of CDMS II at Soudan, with less than one background event expected in each WIMP-search analysis. As a result, exclusionary upper-limits on WIMP-nucleon interaction cross section were placed over a wide range of candidate WIMP masses, ruling out large new regions of parameter space.

  19. Propagation of neutrinos in nuclear matter; Effets du milieu sur la propagation des neutrinos dans la matiere nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margueron, J

    2001-07-01

    We study the elementary interactions between neutrinos and dense matter in a proto-neutron star. Equations of state obtained with different nuclear effective interactions (Skyrme, Gogny, Relativistic Lagrangians) are first discussed. Then, we characterize their stability in spin and isospin. We derive magnetic susceptibilities for all isospin asymmetry values as a function of Landau parameters G{sup {pi}}{sup {pi}}{sup '}{sub 0} (where {pi}, {pi}' = proton or neutron). From this work, we select a parametrization for each of the 3 effective forces: Sly230b,D1P,NL3. We calculate the pure neutron matter and asymmetric nuclear matter response functions with and without charge exchange, describing nuclear correlations in both approaches: non-relativistic (Hartree-Fock with Skyrme forces, then complete RPA) and relativistic (in the Hartree approximation). At the end, we calculate neutrino mean free paths neutral current and charged current reactions. Comparisons between relativistic and non-relativistic approaches allow us to identify relativistic effects in nuclear matter at densities as low as twice the saturation density. RPA correlations make the medium more transparent to neutrinos compared to free Fermi gas. The importance of the effective mass in mean free path calculations is also shown. (author)

  20. Relativistic approach to superfluidity in nuclear matter. Constructing effective pair wave function from relativistic mean field theory with a cutoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuzaki, M. [Fukuoka Univ. of Education, Dept. of Physics, Munakata, Fukuoka (Japan); Tanigawa, T.

    1999-08-01

    We propose a simple method to reproduce the {sup 1}S{sub 0} pairing properties of nuclear matter, which are obtained by a sophisticated model, by introducing a density-independent cutoff into the relativistic mean field model. This applies well to the physically relevant density range. (author)

  1. Measuring the strangeness content of the nucleon by observing the ϕ-meson mass shift in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubler, Philipp; Ohtani, Keisuke

    2015-01-01

    The modification of the ϕ-meson at finite density is studied by using QCD sum rules in combination with the maximum entropy method. As a result, it is found that the mass shift of the ϕ-meson is strongly correlated to the strangeness content of the nucleon, , which governs the depletion of the strange quark condensate in nuclear matter. (author)

  2. Hadronic energy spectra from nuclear collisions: Effects from collective transverse flow and the phase transition to quark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinz, U.

    1988-11-01

    I give an overview of the processes determining the shape of energy spectra of hadrons emitted in relativistic nuclear collisions, and discuss how one can extract from them information on the presence of collective transverse flow and on the transition to quark-gluon matter in such collisions. 6 refs., 3 figs

  3. Strategic field No.5 'the origin of matter and the universe'. Toward interdisciplinary researches in particle, nuclear and astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Shinya

    2011-01-01

    Four main research subjects in the strategic field No. 5 'The origin of matter and the universe', planned to be investigated on 'Kei' super computer, are explained in detail, by focusing on interdisciplinary aspect of researches among particle, nuclear and astrophysics. (author)

  4. 78 FR 29158 - In the Matter of Zion Solutions, LLC; Zion Nuclear Power Station, Units 1 and 2; Order Approving...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-17

    ... and DPR-48] In the Matter of Zion Solutions, LLC; Zion Nuclear Power Station, Units 1 and 2; Order... formed for the purpose of acquiring ES, Inc. and is held by certain investment fund entities organized by... Environmental Management Programs, in writing, of such receipt no later than one (1) business day prior to the...

  5. Nucleonics, and nuclear matter in 10-20 secs. before the close of open-quotes Big Bangclose quotes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayub, S.M.

    1995-01-01

    The Nuclear picture 10 -20 secs. after the thermonuclear creation of the Universe ∼8 Billion years ago (as also evidenced by Hubble Telescope) was published. Relativity concepts predict the Nuclear picture l0 -20 secs. before the open-quote G close-quote collapse of the Universe, by the progressive decline of expansion,and H. Constant. No double-nuclei, anymore. Only Neutrinos, as predicted by International Scientists, and fragments of Black Holes. Universe open-quote r close-quote=60 Billion Light-Years. At the Zero Point, N.Force,and 3 other Forces merging into Super-G. Time, Space, becoming identical, and all Physical Laws vanishing. The final will be Nuclear Matter compact of ∼ 10Km., open-quote r close-quote, P=10 15 -10 18 Temp. > 10 10 Deg. C. P> 10 18 will cause another thermonuclear Bang'. Super-computers, also, cannot predict beyond this point. There will be the Creator, and a compact of Nuclear Matter. In the absence of Physical Laws, there can be no further predictability. What initiated by the N. Force, has culminated into a compact of Nuclear Matter- - how interesting exclamation point

  6. Properties of ΣQ*, ΞQ* and ΩQ* heavy baryons in cold nuclear matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, K.; Er, N.

    2018-02-01

    The in-medium properties of the heavy spin-3/2 ΣQ*, ΞQ* and ΩQ* baryons with Q being b or c quark are investigated. The shifts in some spectroscopic parameters of these particles due to the saturated cold nuclear matter are calculated. The variations of those parameters with respect to the changes in the density of the cold nuclear medium are studied, as well. It is observed that the parameters of ΣQ* baryons are considerably affected by the nuclear matter compared to the ΞQ* and ΩQ* particles that roughly do not see the medium. The results obtained may be used in analyses of the data to be provided by the in-medium experiments like PANDA.

  7. Transition to Δ matter from hot, dense nuclear matter within a relativistic mean field formulation of the nonlinear σ and ω model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Z.; Zhuo, Y.; Li, Z.; Mao, G.; Zhuo, Y.; Mao, G.; Greiner, W.

    1997-01-01

    An investigation of the transition to Δ matter is performed based on a relativistic mean field formulation of the nonlinear σ and ω model. We demonstrate that in addition to the Δ-meson coupling, the occurrence of the baryon resonance isomer also depends on the nucleon-meson coupling. Our results show that for the favored phenomenological value of m * and K, the Δ isomer exists at baryon density ∼2 3ρ 0 if β=1.31 is adopted. For universal coupling of the nucleon and Δ, the Δ density at baryon density ∼2 3ρ 0 and temperature ∼0.4 0.5 fm -1 is about normal nuclear matter density, which is in accord with a recent experimental finding. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  8. Proceedings of the specialists' meeting on 'nuclear spectroscopy and condensed matter physics using short-lived nuclei'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Yoshio; Shibata, Michihiro; Ohkubo, Yoshitaka

    2016-02-01

    The research reactor at Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University is a very useful neutron generator, providing us neutron-rich unstable nuclei by bombarding nuclei with those neutrons. The produced unstable nuclei exhibit aspects distinct from those of stable ones. Nuclear structure studies on a variety of excited states reflecting dynamic nuclear properties are one of fascinating research subjects of physics. On the other hand, some radioactive nuclei can be used as useful probes for understanding interesting properties of condensed matters through studies of hyperfine interactions of static nuclear electromagnetic moments with extranuclear fields. Concerning these two research fields and related areas, the 2nd symposium under the title of 'Nuclear Spectroscopy and Condensed Matter Physics Using Short-lived Nuclei' was held at the Institute for two days on November 4 and 5 in 2015. We are pleased that many hot discussions were made. The talks were given on the followings: 1) Nuclear spectroscopic experiments, 2) TDPAC (time-differential perturbed angular correlation), 3) β-NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance), 4) Moessbauer spectroscopy, 5) muon, etc. This issue is the collection of 17 papers presented at the entitled meeting. The 6 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  9. The LOCV asymmetric nuclear matter two-body density distributions versus those of FHNC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafrihi, Azar

    2018-05-01

    The theoretical computations of the electron-nucleus scattering can be improved, by employing the asymmetric nuclear matter (ASM) two-body density distributions (TBDD) . But, due to the sophistications of the calculations, the TBDD with arbitrary isospin asymmetry have not yet been computed in the Fermi Hypernetted Chain (FHNC) or the Monte Carlo (MC) approaches. So, in the present work, we intend to find the ASM TBDD, in the states with isospin T, spin S and spin projection Sz, in the Lowest Order Constrained Variational (LOCV) method. It is demonstrated that, at small relative distances, independent of the proton to neutron ratio β, the state-dependent TBDD have a universal shape. Expectedly, it is observed that, at low (high) β values, the nucleons prefer to make a pair in the T = 1(0) states. In addition, the strength of the tensor-dependent correlations is investigated, using the ratio of the TBDD in the TSSz = 010 state with θ = π / 2 and that of θ = 0. The mentioned ratios peak at r ∼ 0 . 9 fm, considering different β values. It is hoped that, the present results could help a better reproduction of the experimental data of the electron-nucleus scattering.

  10. Effects of self-consistency in a Green's function description of saturation in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewulf, Y.; Neck, D. van; Waroquier, M.

    2002-01-01

    The binding energy in nuclear matter is evaluated within the framework of self-consistent Green's function theory, using a realistic nucleon-nucleon interaction. The two-body dynamics is solved at the level of summing particle-particle and hole-hole ladders. We go beyond the on-shell approximation and use intermediary propagators with a discrete-pole structure. A three-pole approximation is used, which provides a good representation of the quasiparticle excitations, as well as reproducing the zeroth- and first-order energy-weighted moments in both the nucleon removal and addition domains of the spectral function. Results for the binding energy are practically independent of the details of the discretization scheme. The main effect of the increased self-consistency is to introduce an additional density dependence, which causes a shift towards lower densities and smaller binding energies, as compared to a (continuous choice) Brueckner calculation with the same interaction. Particle number conservation and the Hugenholz-Van Hove theorem are satisfied with reasonable accuracy

  11. Asymmetric nuclear matter and neutron star properties within the extended Brueckner theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassaneen, Khaled S.A. [Sohag University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Sohag (Egypt); Taif University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Taif (Saudi Arabia)

    2017-01-15

    Microscopically, the equation of state (EOS) and other properties of asymmetric nuclear matter at zero temperature have been investigated extensively by adopting the non-relativistic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock (BHF) and the extended BHF approaches by using the self-consistent Green's function approach or by including a phenomenological three-body force. Once three-body forces are introduced, the phenomenological saturation point is reproduced and the theory is applied to the study of neutron star properties. We can calculate the total mass and radius for neutron stars using various equations of state at high densities in β-equilibrium without hyperons. A comparison with other microscopic predictions based on non-relativistic and density-dependent relativistic mean-field calculations has been done. It is found that relativistic EOS yields however larger mass and radius for neutron star than predictions based on non-relativistic approaches. Also the three-body force plays a crucial role to deduce the theoretical value of the maximum mass of neutron stars in agreement with recent measurements of the neutron star mass. (orig.)

  12. Composition and structure of natural organic matter through advanced nuclear magnetic resonance techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dainan Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Natural organic matter (NOM plays important roles in biological, chemical, and physical processes within the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem. Despite its importance, a clear and exhaustive knowledge on NOM chemistry still lacks. Aiming to prove that advanced solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR techniques may contribute to fill such a gap, in this paper we reported relevant examples of its applicability to NOM components, such as biomass, deposition material, sediments, and kerogen samples. It is found that nonhydrolyzable organic carbons (NHC, chars, and polymethylene carbons are important in the investigated samples. The structure of each of the NHC fractions is similar to that of kerogens, highlighting the importance of selective preservation of NOM to the kerogen origin in the investigated aquatic ecosystems. Moreover, during the artificial maturation experiments of kerogen, the chemical and structural characteristics such as protonated aromatic, nonprotonated carbons, and aromatic cluster size play important roles in the origin and variation of nanoporosity during kerogen maturation. Graphical abstract NMR parameters of thermally stimulated kerogens

  13. Unveiling the equation of state of nuclear matter with binary neutron stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galeazzi, F.; Rezzolla, L. [Frankfurt Univ., Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Inst. for Theoretical Physics

    2016-11-01

    the electromagnetic counterparts of these events, will shed some light on the engine that powers short gamma ray bursts. The properties of matter at the ultra high densities and low temperatures reached inside neutron stars cannot be observed in a conventional laboratory on Earth and for this reason accurate GW astronomy is a unique opportunity to constraint the current knowledge of the equation of state that describes these regimes. But GWs are not the only observable that can be linked to the equation of state of neutron star matter, during the violent merger of two neutron stars large amount of neutron rich material is ejected leading to the creation of heavy elements. While undergoing radioactive decay, these elements emit in near-infrared and optical bands of the electromagnetic spectrum. The characteristics of these emissions are strongly affected by the composition, temperature and total mass of the dynamically ejected material and for this reason we have developed a series of cutting-edge methods to simulate in full general relativity the inspiral, merger and collapse including relativistic hydrodynamics, the use of nuclear finite-temperature equations of state and an approximate treatment of neutrino emission and absorption. Such simulations require the use of computational facilities such as the one at LRZ where we make use of thousands of CPUs every week for each of our simulations and producing several terabytes of data. This data are processed in situ at the LRZ facility and, for a more detailed analysis, transferred to our local cluster in Frankfurt am Main (LOEWE).

  14. Ultra-dense neutron star matter, strange quark stars, and the nuclear equation of state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, F.; Meixner, M.; Negreiros, R.P.; Malheiro, M.

    2007-01-01

    With central densities way above the density of atomic nuclei, neutron stars contain matter in one of the densest forms found in the universe. Depending of the density reached in the cores of neutron stars, they may contain stable phases of exotic matter found nowhere else in space. This article gives a brief overview of the phases of ultra-dense matter predicted to exist deep inside neutron stars and discusses the equation of state (EoS) associated with such matter. (author)

  15. Constraining the EOS of Neutron-Rich Nuclear Matter and Properties of Neutron Stars with Heavy-Ion Reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Baoan; Worley, Aaron; Chen, L.-W.; Ko, Che Ming; Krastev, Plamen G.; Wen Dehua; Xiao Zhigang; Zhang Ming; Xu Jun; Yong Gaochan

    2009-01-01

    Heavy-ion reactions especially those induced by radioactive beams provide useful information about the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy, thus the Equation of State of neutron-rich nuclear matter, relevant for many astrophysical studies. The latest developments in constraining the symmetry energy at both sub- and supra-saturation densities from analyses of the isopsin diffusion and the π - /π + ratio in heavy-ion collisions using the IBUU04 transport model are discussed. Astrophysical ramifications of the partially constrained symmetry energy on properties of neutron star crusts, gravitational waves emitted by deformed pulsars and the w-mode oscillations of neutron stars are presented briefly.

  16. Kearns-Sayre syndrome with facial and white matter extensive involvement: a (mitochondrial and nuclear gene related? neurocristopathy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostino Berio

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Authors report on a patient with Kearns-Sayre syndrome, large mtDNA deletion (7/kb, facial abnormalities and severe central nervous system (CNS white matter radiological features, commonly attributed to spongy alterations. The common origin from neural crest cell (NCC of facial structures (cartilagineous, osseous, vascular and of the peripheral nervous system and of peripheral glia and partially of the CNS white matter are underlined and the facial and glial abnormalities are attributed to the abnormal reproduction/migration of NCC. In this view, the CNS spongy alterations in KSS may be not only a dystrophic process (leukodystrophy but also a dysplastic condition (leukodysplasia. The Authors hypothesize that the symptoms may be related to mtDNA mutations associated to NCC nuclear gene abnormality. SOX 10 gene may be a nuclear candidate gene, as reported in some case of Waardenburg IV syndrome.

  17. Bose-Einstein correlations and the equation of state of nuclear matter in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlei, B.R.

    1998-01-01

    Experimental spectra of the CERN/SPS experiments NA44 and NA49 are fitted while using four different equations of state of nuclear matter within a relativistic hydrodynamic framework. For the freeze-out temperatures, T f = 139 MeV and T f = 116 MeV, respectively, the corresponding freeze-out hypersurfaces and Bose-Einstein correlation functions for identical pion pairs are discussed. It is concluded, that the Bose-Einstein interferometry measures the relation between the temperature and the energy density in the equation of state of nuclear matter at the late hadronic stage of the fireball expansion. It is necessary, to use the detailed detector acceptances in the calculations for the Bose-Einstein correlations

  18. Combining the modified Skyrme-like model and the local density approximation to determine the symmetry energy of nuclear matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Ren, Zhongzhou; Xu, Chang

    2018-07-01

    Combining the modified Skyrme-like model and the local density approximation model, the slope parameter L of symmetry energy is extracted from the properties of finite nuclei with an improved iterative method. The calculations of the iterative method are performed within the framework of the spherical symmetry. By choosing 200 neutron rich nuclei on 25 isotopic chains as candidates, the slope parameter is constrained to be 50 MeV nuclear matter can be obtained together.

  19. I. Nuclear and neutron matter calculations with isobars. II. A model calculation of Fermi liquid parameters for liquid 3He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainsworth, T.L.

    1983-01-01

    The Δ(1232) plays an important role in determining the properties of nuclear and neutron matter. The effects of the Δ resonance are incorporated explicitly by using a coupled channel formalism. A method for constraining a lowest order variational calculation, appropriate when nucleon internal degrees of freedom are made explicity, is presented. Different N-N potentials were calculated and fit to phase shift data and deuteron properties. The potentials were constructed to test the relative importance of the Δ resonance on nuclear properties. The symmetry energy and incompressibility of nuclear matter are generally reproduced by this calculation. Neutron matter results lead to appealing neutron star models. Fermi liquid parameters for 3 He are calculated with a model that includes both direct and induced terms. A convenient form of the direct interaction is obtained in terms of the parameters. The form of the direct interaction ensures that the forward scattering sum rule (Pauli principle) is obeyed. The parameters are adjusted to fit the experimentally determined F 0 /sup s/, F 0 /sup a/, and F 1 /sup s/ Landau parameters. Higher order Landau parameters are calculated by the self-consistent solution of the equations; comparison to experiment is good. The model also leads to a preferred value for the effective mass of 3 He. Of the three parameters only one shows any dependence on pressure. An exact sum rule is derived relating this parameter to a specific summation of Landau parameters

  20. A matter of quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    Quarks are understood to interact through the 'colour' force, carried by gluons. Under normal conditions these quarks are confined - frozen together in 'colourless' states such as protons, neutrons and other strongly interacting particles. However if the quarks are compressed tightly together and/or are 'heated' by increasing their energy, they should eventually break loose from their colour bonds to form a new kind of matter – the so-called quark-gluon plasma. Although QGP has not yet been synthesized in the Laboratory, it was most likely the stuff of the Universe 10 -5 second after the Big Bang. Thus the search for this 'new' matter is attracting a growing number of physicists, theorists and experimenters from both the particle physics and nuclear physics fields

  1. A review on the relativistic effective field theory with parameterized couplings for nuclear matter and neutron stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcellos, C. A. Zen, E-mail: cesarzen@cesarzen.com [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, 91501-970, Porto Alegre (Brazil); International Center for Relativistic Astrophysics Network (ICRANet), Piazza della Repubblica 10, 65122 Pescara (Italy)

    2015-12-17

    Nuclear science has developed many excellent theoretical models for many-body systems in the domain of the baryon-meson strong interaction for the nucleus and nuclear matter at low, medium and high densities. However, a full microscopic understanding of nuclear systems in the extreme density domain of compact stars is still lacking. The aim of this contribution is to shed some light on open questions facing the nuclear many-body problem at the very high density domain. Here we focus our attention on the conceptual issue of naturalness and its role in shaping the baryon-meson phase space dynamics in the description of the equation of state (EoS) of nuclear matter and neutrons stars. In particular, in order to stimulate possible new directions of research, we discuss relevant aspects of a recently developed relativistic effective theory for nuclear matter within Quantum Hadrodynamics (QHD) with genuine many-body forces and derivative natural parametric couplings. Among other topics we discuss in this work the connection of this theory with other known effective QHD models of the literature and its potentiality in describing a new physics for dense matter. The model with parameterized couplings exhausts the whole fundamental baryon octet (n, p, Σ{sup −}, Σ{sup 0}, Σ{sup +}, Λ, Ξ{sup −}, Ξ{sup 0}) and simulates n-order corrections to the minimal Yukawa baryon couplings by considering nonlinear self-couplings of meson fields and meson-meson interaction terms coupled to the baryon fields involving scalar-isoscalar (σ, σ∗), vector-isoscalar (ω, Φ), vector-isovector (ϱ) and scalar-isovector (δ) virtual sectors. Following recent experimental results, we consider in our calculations the extreme case where the Σ{sup −} experiences such a strong repulsion that its influence in the nuclear structure of a neutron star is excluded at all. A few examples of calculations of properties of neutron stars are shown and prospects for the future are discussed.

  2. Study of nuclear matter in hard proton-nuclei and nuclei-nuclei collisions at the U70 accelerator (FLUKTON project proposal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonov, N. N.; Baldin, A. A.; Viktorov, V. A.; Gapienko, V. A.; Gapienko, G. S.; Gres, V. N.; Ilyushin, M. A.; Korotkov, V. A.; Mysnik, A. I.; Prudkoglyad, A. F.; Pryanikov, D. S.; Semak, A. A.; Stavinsky, A. V.; Terekhov, V. I.; Uglekov, V. Ya.; Ukhanov, M. N.; Chuiko, B. V.; Shimansky, S. S.

    2017-11-01

    A two-arm spectrometer FLUKTON for investigations in the field of relativistic nuclear physics at U70 energies is proposed to be constructed on base of the existing detector SPIN (IHEP, Protvino). The main objective is to obtain new data on clusters of cold superdense nuclear matter. Interaction of a high intensity proton beam with nuclear targets and an ion beam with liquid hydrogen and nuclear targets will be studied.

  3. DNABIT Compress - Genome compression algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajarajeswari, Pothuraju; Apparao, Allam

    2011-01-22

    Data compression is concerned with how information is organized in data. Efficient storage means removal of redundancy from the data being stored in the DNA molecule. Data compression algorithms remove redundancy and are used to understand biologically important molecules. We present a compression algorithm, "DNABIT Compress" for DNA sequences based on a novel algorithm of assigning binary bits for smaller segments of DNA bases to compress both repetitive and non repetitive DNA sequence. Our proposed algorithm achieves the best compression ratio for DNA sequences for larger genome. Significantly better compression results show that "DNABIT Compress" algorithm is the best among the remaining compression algorithms. While achieving the best compression ratios for DNA sequences (Genomes),our new DNABIT Compress algorithm significantly improves the running time of all previous DNA compression programs. Assigning binary bits (Unique BIT CODE) for (Exact Repeats, Reverse Repeats) fragments of DNA sequence is also a unique concept introduced in this algorithm for the first time in DNA compression. This proposed new algorithm could achieve the best compression ratio as much as 1.58 bits/bases where the existing best methods could not achieve a ratio less than 1.72 bits/bases.

  4. Hyperon interaction in free space and nuclear matter within a SU(3) based meson exchange model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhar, Madhumita

    2016-06-15

    To establish the connection between free space and in-medium hyperon-nucleon interactions is the central issue of this thesis. The guiding principle is flavor SU(3) symmetry which is exploited at various levels. In first step hyperon-nucleon and hyperon- hyperon interaction boson exchange potential in free space are introduced. A new parameter set applicable for the complete baryon octet has been derived leading to an updated one-boson- exchange model, utilizing SU(3) flavor symmetry, optimizing the number of free parameters involved, and revising the set of mesons included. The scalar, pseudoscalar, and vector SU(3) meson octets are taken into account. T-matrices are calculated by solving numerically coupled linear systems of Lippmann-Schwinger equations obtained from a 3-D reduced Bethe-Salpeter equation. Coupling constants were determined by χ{sup 2} fits to the world set of scattering data. A good description of the few available data is achieved within the imposed SU(3) constraints. Having at hand a consistently derived vacuum interaction we extend the approach next to investigations of the in-medium properties of hyperon interaction, avoiding any further adjustments. Medium effect in infinite nuclear matter are treated microscopically by recalculating T-matrices by an medium-modified system of Lippmann-Schwinger equations. A particular important role is played by the Pauli projector accounting for the exclusion principle. The presence of a background medium induces a weakening of the vacuum interaction amplitudes. Especially coupled channel mixing is found to be affected sensitively by medium. Investigation on scattering lengths and effective range parameters are revealing the density dependence of the interaction on a quantitative level.

  5. Compression stockings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Call your health insurance or prescription plan: Find out if they pay for compression stockings. Ask if your durable medical equipment benefit pays for compression stockings. Get a prescription from your doctor. Find a medical equipment store where they can ...

  6. Average Nuclear properties based on statistical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Jaick, L.J.

    1974-01-01

    The rough properties of nuclei were investigated by statistical model, in systems with the same and different number of protons and neutrons, separately, considering the Coulomb energy in the last system. Some average nuclear properties were calculated based on the energy density of nuclear matter, from Weizsscker-Beth mass semiempiric formulae, generalized for compressible nuclei. In the study of a s surface energy coefficient, the great influence exercised by Coulomb energy and nuclear compressibility was verified. For a good adjust of beta stability lines and mass excess, the surface symmetry energy were established. (M.C.K.) [pt

  7. The effect of organic matter in clay sealing materials on the performance of a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oscarson, D.W.; Stroes-Gascoyne, S.; Cheung, S.C.H.

    1986-12-01

    The potential effect of organic matter in clay sealing materials on the performance of a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault was examined. The available data indicate that the engineering properties of clays are not significantly affected by the relatively low levels of organic matter (< 1.2 wt.%) present in the clay sealing materials. Complexing of radionuclides by organic substances that are released from the clay sealing materials or produced by microorganisms will likely inhibit rather than promote radionuclide mobility in the compacted sealing materials because of the relatively large size of organic complexing species. Decreasing the level of organic matter in the clay sealing materials will not eliminate microorganisms, and perhaps not decrease their numbers significantly, because chemolithotrophic microorganisms (microorganisms that utilize inorganic forms of C) will be present in a disposal vault. Furthermore, an examination of the nutrient budget in a disposal vault indicates that N, rather than C, will likely be the limiting nutrient for microbial growth. Finally, there is not suitable, proven method for decreasing the level of organic matter in the large amounts of clay needed to seal a vault. It is concluded that the organic matter present in the clay sealing material will not adversely affect the performance of a disposal vault

  8. Dielectron spectroscopy in cold nuclear matter; Dielektronen-Spektroskopie in kalter Kernmaterie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Michael

    2011-02-18

    The subject of this thesis is the production of light mesons and baryonic resonances in p+Nb collisions at E{sub kin}=3.5 GeV via their decay in e{sup +}e{sup -} pairs and their kinematic observables. This reaction system in particular allows for the production of vector mesons in approximately cold nuclear matter and the study of expected in-medium effects. The experiment was conducted at the dielectron spectrometer HADES at GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH. In total, 64827{+-}294 signal pairs with an pair opening angle {alpha}{sub ee}>9 and e{sup +}/e{sup -} momenta 80 550 MeV/c{sup 2}). Inclusive e{sup +}e{sup -} production cross sections inside the HADES acceptance were calculated by analyzing the simultaneously measured charged pions and by comparing the obtained {pi}{sup -} yields to an independent data set. For the vector mesons one obtains {sigma}{sub {omega}}{sub ,acc}=(65.8{+-}4.6(stat){+-}18.4(sys)) nb and {sigma}{sub {phi}}{sub ,acc}=(7.8{+-}1.7(stat){+-}2.2 (sys)) nb. A comparison with cross sections in free p+p collisions at E{sub kin}=3.5 GeV results in the nuclear modification factors R{sub pA} as well as their scaling {alpha} with the nuclear mass number A and their dependence on the pair lab momenta p{sub ee}. While absorption is not important for the {phi} meson ({alpha}{sub {phi}} {approx}1), scaling factors {alpha} {approx}0.7 are established for the quasi free decay (p{sub ee}>800 MeV/c) of all other hadrons. From an adapted Glauber model calculation a minimal absorption >or similar 35% of all contributing hadrons in nuclei can be deduced. At smaller pair momenta different scaling factors are obtained. The {omega} meson is absorbed with a higher probability ({alpha}{sub {omega}}=0.62), but for all other sources above the {pi}{sup 0

  9. Search for dark matter and supersymmetry with a compressed mass spectrum in the vector boson fusion topology in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = $ 8 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Aşılar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Brondolin, Erica; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Flechl, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; König, Axel; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Matsushita, Takashi; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rad, Navid; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Strauss, Josef; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Lauwers, Jasper; Luyckx, Sten; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; De Bruyn, Isabelle; Deroover, Kevin; Heracleous, Natalie; Lowette, Steven; Moortgat, Seth; Moreels, Lieselotte; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Parijs, Isis; Brun, Hugues; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Delannoy, Hugo; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Goldouzian, Reza; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lenzi, Thomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Maerschalk, Thierry; Marinov, Andrey; Randle-conde, Aidan; Seva, Tomislav; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Yonamine, Ryo; Zenoni, Florian; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Cimmino, Anna; Dobur, Didar; Fagot, Alexis; Garcia, Guillaume; Gul, Muhammad; Mccartin, Joseph; Poyraz, Deniz; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Schöfbeck, Robert; Tytgat, Michael; Van Driessche, Ward; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Beluffi, Camille; Bondu, Olivier; Brochet, Sébastien; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; De Visscher, Simon; Delaere, Christophe; Delcourt, Martin; Forthomme, Laurent; Francois, Brieuc; Giammanco, Andrea; Jafari, Abideh; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Magitteri, Alessio; Mertens, Alexandre; Musich, Marco; Nuttens, Claude; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Wertz, Sébastien; Beliy, Nikita; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Fábio Lúcio; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Hensel, Carsten; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Huertas Guativa, Lina Milena; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ahuja, Sudha; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Moon, Chang-Seong; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Romero Abad, David; Ruiz Vargas, José Cupertino; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Fang, Wenxing; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Chen, Ye; Cheng, Tongguang; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Leggat, Duncan; Liu, Zhenan; Romeo, Francesco; Shaheen, Sarmad Masood; Spiezia, Aniello; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhao, Jingzhou; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Puljak, Ivica; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Ferencek, Dinko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Micanovic, Sasa; Sudic, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Carrera Jarrin, Edgar; Awad, Adel; Elgammal, Sherif; Mohamed, Amr; Salama, Elsayed; Calpas, Betty; Kadastik, Mario; Murumaa, Marion; Perrini, Lucia; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Veelken, Christian; Eerola, Paula; Pekkanen, Juska; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Peltola, Timo; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Talvitie, Joonas; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Favaro, Carlotta; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Ghosh, Saranya; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Machet, Martina; Malcles, Julie; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Zghiche, Amina; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Antropov, Iurii; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Cadamuro, Luca; Chapon, Emilien; Charlot, Claude; Davignon, Olivier; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Jo, Mihee; Lisniak, Stanislav; Miné, Philippe; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Ortona, Giacomo; Paganini, Pascal; Pigard, Philipp; Regnard, Simon; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Strebler, Thomas; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Aubin, Alexandre; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Buttignol, Michael; Chabert, Eric Christian; Chanon, Nicolas; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Coubez, Xavier; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Merlin, Jeremie Alexandre; Skovpen, Kirill; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Bernet, Colin; Boudoul, Gaelle; Bouvier, Elvire; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Courbon, Benoit; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fan, Jiawei; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Grenier, Gérald; Ille, Bernard; Lagarde, Francois; Laktineh, Imad Baptiste; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Pequegnot, Anne-Laure; Perries, Stephane; Popov, Andrey; Sabes, David; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Toriashvili, Tengizi; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Feld, Lutz; Heister, Arno; Kiesel, Maximilian Knut; Klein, Katja; Lipinski, Martin; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Preuten, Marius; Raupach, Frank; Schael, Stefan; Schomakers, Christian; Schulte, Jan-Frederik; Schulz, Johannes; Verlage, Tobias; Weber, Hendrik; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Brodski, Michael; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Endres, Matthias; Erdmann, Martin; Erdweg, Sören; Esch, Thomas; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Knutzen, Simon; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Mukherjee, Swagata; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Papacz, Paul; Pook, Tobias; Radziej, Markus; Reithler, Hans; Rieger, Marcel; Scheuch, Florian; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Künsken, Andreas; Lingemann, Joschka; Nehrkorn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Nugent, Ian Michael; Pistone, Claudia; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Asin, Ivan; Beernaert, Kelly; Behnke, Olaf; Behrens, Ulf; Bin Anuar, Afiq Aizuddin; Borras, Kerstin; Campbell, Alan; Connor, Patrick; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dolinska, Ganna; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Gallo, Elisabetta; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Gizhko, Andrii; Grados Luyando, Juan Manuel; Gunnellini, Paolo; Harb, Ali; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Jung, Hannes; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Karacheban, Olena; Kasemann, Matthias; Kieseler, Jan; Kleinwort, Claus; Korol, Ievgen; Lange, Wolfgang; Lelek, Aleksandra; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lobanov, Artur; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Ntomari, Eleni; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Roland, Benoit; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Saxena, Pooja; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Seitz, Claudia; Spannagel, Simon; Stefaniuk, Nazar; Trippkewitz, Karim Damun; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Draeger, Arne-Rasmus; Dreyer, Torben; Erfle, Joachim; Garutti, Erika; Goebel, Kristin; Gonzalez, Daniel; Görner, Martin; Haller, Johannes; Hoffmann, Malte; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Junkes, Alexandra; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Kovalchuk, Nataliia; Lapsien, Tobias; Lenz, Teresa; Marchesini, Ivan; Marconi, Daniele; Meyer, Mareike; Niedziela, Marek; Nowatschin, Dominik; Ott, Jochen; Pantaleo, Felice; Peiffer, Thomas; Perieanu, Adrian; Pietsch, Niklas; Poehlsen, Jennifer; Sander, Christian; Scharf, Christian; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Schumann, Svenja; Schwandt, Joern; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Stöver, Marc; Tholen, Heiner; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Vanhoefer, Annika; Vormwald, Benedikt; Barth, Christian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Butz, Erik; Chwalek, Thorsten; Colombo, Fabio; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Fink, Simon; Friese, Raphael; Giffels, Manuel; Gilbert, Andrew; Haitz, Dominik; Hartmann, Frank; Heindl, Stefan Michael; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Kornmayer, Andreas; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Maier, Benedikt; Mildner, Hannes; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Müller, Thomas; Plagge, Michael; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Röcker, Steffen; Roscher, Frank; Schröder, Matthias; Sieber, Georg; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weber, Marc; Weiler, Thomas; Williamson, Shawn; Wöhrmann, Clemens; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Agapitos, Antonis; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Tziaferi, Eirini; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Loukas, Nikitas; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Filipovic, Nicolas; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Molnar, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Bartók, Márton; Makovec, Alajos; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Bahinipati, Seema; Choudhury, Somnath; Mal, Prolay; Mandal, Koushik; Nayak, Aruna; Sahoo, Deepak Kumar; Sahoo, Niladribihari; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chawla, Ridhi; Gupta, Ruchi; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Anterpreet; Kaur, Manjit; Kumar, Ramandeep; Mehta, Ankita; Mittal, Monika; Singh, Jasbir; Walia, Genius; Kumar, Ashok; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Garg, Rocky Bala; Keshri, Sumit; Kumar, Ajay; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Nishu, Nishu; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Ramkrishna; Sharma, Varun; Bhattacharya, Rajarshi; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dey, Sourav; Dutt, Suneel; Dutta, Suchandra; Ghosh, Shamik; Majumdar, Nayana; Modak, Atanu; Mondal, Kuntal; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Nandan, Saswati; Purohit, Arnab; Roy, Ashim; Roy, Debarati; Roy Chowdhury, Suvankar; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Thakur, Shalini; Behera, Prafulla Kumar; Chudasama, Ruchi; Dutta, Dipanwita; Jha, Vishwajeet; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Netrakanti, Pawan Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Dugad, Shashikant; Ganguly, Sanmay; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Jain, Sandhya; Kole, Gouranga; Kumar, Sanjeev; Mahakud, Bibhuprasad; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mitra, Soureek; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sarkar, Tanmay; Sur, Nairit; Sutar, Bajrang; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Chauhan, Shubhanshu; Dube, Sourabh; Kapoor, Anshul; Kothekar, Kunal; Rane, Aditee; Sharma, Seema; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Behnamian, Hadi; Chenarani, Shirin; Eskandari Tadavani, Esmaeel; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Calabria, Cesare; Caputo, Claudio; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; Cristella, Leonardo; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Miniello, Giorgia; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Ranieri, Antonio; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Venditti, Rosamaria; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Battilana, Carlo; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Albergo, Sebastiano; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Gori, Valentina; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Viliani, Lorenzo; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Primavera, Federica; Calvelli, Valerio; Ferro, Fabrizio; Lo Vetere, Maurizio; Monge, Maria Roberta; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Brianza, Luca; Brivio, Francesco; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Marzocchi, Badder; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Pigazzini, Simone; Ragazzi, Stefano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; De Nardo, Guglielmo; Di Guida, Salvatore; Esposito, Marco; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lanza, Giuseppe; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Sciacca, Crisostomo; Thyssen, Filip; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Benato, Lisa; Bisello, Dario; Boletti, Alessio; Carlin, Roberto; Carvalho Antunes De Oliveira, Alexandra; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; De Castro Manzano, Pablo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Lacaprara, Stefano; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Zanetti, Marco; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zucchetta, Alberto; Zumerle, Gianni; Braghieri, Alessandro; Magnani, Alice; Montagna, Paolo; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vai, Ilaria; Vitulo, Paolo; Alunni Solestizi, Luisa; Bilei, Gian Mario; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Leonardi, Roberto; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Donato, Silvio; Fedi, Giacomo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Cipriani, Marco; D'imperio, Giulia; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Gelli, Simone; Jorda, Clara; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Meridiani, Paolo; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Preiato, Federico; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bartosik, Nazar; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Costa, Marco; Covarelli, Roberto; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Finco, Linda; Kiani, Bilal; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Monteil, Ennio; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Ravera, Fabio; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Sola, Valentina; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Traczyk, Piotr; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; La Licata, Chiara; Schizzi, Andrea; Zanetti, Anna; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Lee, Sangeun; Lee, Seh Wook; Oh, Young Do; Sekmen, Sezen; Son, Dong-Chul; Yang, Yu Chul; Kim, Hyunsoo; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Kim, Tae Jeong; Cho, Sungwoong; Choi, Suyong; Go, Yeonju; Gyun, Dooyeon; Ha, Seungkyu; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Youngkwon; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Kisoo; Lee, Kyong Sei; Lee, Songkyo; Lim, Jaehoon; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Almond, John; Kim, Junho; Seo, Seon-hee; Yang, Unki; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Yu, Geum Bong; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Hyunyong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jason Sang Hun; Park, Inkyu; Ryu, Geonmo; Ryu, Min Sang; Choi, Young-Il; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Donghyun; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Jongseok; Yu, Intae; Dudenas, Vytautas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Vaitkus, Juozas; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Mohamad Idris, Faridah; Wan Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin; Yusli, Mohd Nizam; Zolkapli, Zukhaimira; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-De La Cruz, Ivan; Hernandez-Almada, Alberto; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Mejia Guisao, Jhovanny; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Uribe Estrada, Cecilia; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Shoaib, Muhammad; Waqas, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Zalewski, Piotr; Bunkowski, Karol; Byszuk, Adrian; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michal; Walczak, Marek; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Di Francesco, Agostino; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Hollar, Jonathan; Leonardo, Nuno; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nemallapudi, Mythra Varun; Nguyen, Federico; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Seixas, Joao; Toldaiev, Oleksii; Vadruccio, Daniele; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Bunin, Pavel; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbounov, Nikolai; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Savina, Maria; Shmatov, Sergey; Shulha, Siarhei; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Voytishin, Nikolay; Zarubin, Anatoli; Chtchipounov, Leonid; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Sulimov, Valentin; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Karneyeu, Anton; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Pozdnyakov, Ivan; Safronov, Grigory; Spiridonov, Alexander; Toms, Maria; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Chistov, Ruslan; Danilov, Mikhail; Rusinov, Vladimir; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Rusakov, Sergey V; Terkulov, Adel; Baskakov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Miagkov, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Elumakhov, Dmitry; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Cirkovic, Predrag; Devetak, Damir; Milosevic, Jovan; Rekovic, Vladimir; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Senghi Soares, Mara; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Moran, Dermot; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Sanchez Cruz, Sergio; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Castiñeiras De Saa, Juan Ramon; Curras, Esteban; Fernandez, Marcos; Garcia-Ferrero, Juan; Gomez, Gervasio; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Trevisani, Nicolò; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Botta, Cristina; Camporesi, Tiziano; Castello, Roberto; Cepeda, Maria; Cerminara, Gianluca; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; Daponte, Vincenzo; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Gruttola, Michele; De Guio, Federico; De Roeck, Albert; Di Marco, Emanuele; Dobson, Marc; Dordevic, Milos; Dorney, Brian; Du Pree, Tristan; Duggan, Daniel; Dünser, Marc; Dupont, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Fartoukh, Stephane; Franzoni, Giovanni; Fulcher, Jonathan; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Girone, Maria; Glege, Frank; Gundacker, Stefan; Guthoff, Moritz; Hammer, Josef; Harris, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kirschenmann, Henning; Knünz, Valentin; Kortelainen, Matti J; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Krammer, Manfred; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Magini, Nicolo; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Martelli, Arabella; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moortgat, Filip; Morovic, Srecko; Mulders, Martijn; Neugebauer, Hannes; Orfanelli, Styliani; Orsini, Luciano; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuelle; Peruzzi, Marco; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Racz, Attila; Reis, Thomas; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Ruan, Manqi; Sakulin, Hannes; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Seidel, Markus; Sharma, Archana; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Steggemann, Jan; Stoye, Markus; Takahashi, Yuta; Treille, Daniel; Triossi, Andrea; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veckalns, Viesturs; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Wardle, Nicholas; Zagoździńska, Agnieszka; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Rohe, Tilman; Bachmair, Felix; Bäni, Lukas; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Casal, Bruno; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Eller, Philipp; Grab, Christoph; Heidegger, Constantin; Hits, Dmitry; Hoss, Jan; Kasieczka, Gregor; Lecomte, Pierre; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marionneau, Matthieu; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Masciovecchio, Mario; Meinhard, Maren Tabea; Meister, Daniel; Micheli, Francesco; Musella, Pasquale; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pata, Joosep; Pauss, Felicitas; Perrin, Gaël; Perrozzi, Luca; Quittnat, Milena; Rossini, Marco; Schönenberger, Myriam; Starodumov, Andrei; Takahashi, Maiko; Tavolaro, Vittorio Raoul; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Wallny, Rainer; Aarrestad, Thea Klaeboe; Amsler, Claude; Caminada, Lea; Canelli, Maria Florencia; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Cosa, Annapaola; Galloni, Camilla; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hreus, Tomas; Kilminster, Benjamin; Lange, Clemens; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Pinna, Deborah; Rauco, Giorgia; Robmann, Peter; Salerno, Daniel; Yang, Yong; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Doan, Thi Hien; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Konyushikhin, Maxim; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Lin, Willis; Lu, Yun-Ju; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Yu, Shin-Shan; Kumar, Arun; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Dietz, Charles; Fiori, Francesco; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Paganis, Efstathios; Tsai, Jui-fa; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Asavapibhop, Burin; Singh, Gurpreet; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Suwonjandee, Narumon; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Damarseckin, Serdal; Demiroglu, Zuhal Seyma; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Guler, Yalcin; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Zorbilmez, Caglar; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Isildak, Bora; Karapinar, Guler; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Yetkin, Elif Asli; Yetkin, Taylan; Cakir, Altan; Cankocak, Kerem; Sen, Sercan; Vardarlı, Fuat Ilkehan; Grynyov, Boris; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Aggleton, Robin; Ball, Fionn; Beck, Lana; Brooke, James John; Burns, Douglas; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Jacob, Jeson; Kreczko, Lukasz; Lucas, Chris; Meng, Zhaoxia; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Poll, Anthony; Sakuma, Tai; Seif El Nasr-storey, Sarah; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Dominic; Smith, Vincent J; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Calligaris, Luigi; Cieri, Davide; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Williams, Thomas; Baber, Mark; Bainbridge, Robert; Buchmuller, Oliver; Bundock, Aaron; Burton, Darren; Casasso, Stefano; Citron, Matthew; Colling, David; Corpe, Louie; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; De Wit, Adinda; Della Negra, Michel; Dunne, Patrick; Elwood, Adam; Futyan, David; Haddad, Yacine; Hall, Geoffrey; Iles, Gregory; Lane, Rebecca; Laner, Christian; Lucas, Robyn; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Malik, Sarah; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Pela, Joao; Penning, Bjoern; Pesaresi, Mark; Raymond, David Mark; Richards, Alexander; Rose, Andrew; Seez, Christopher; Tapper, Alexander; Uchida, Kirika; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leslie, Dawn; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Borzou, Ahmad; Call, Kenneth; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Pastika, Nathaniel; Charaf, Otman; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; Arcaro, Daniel; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Gastler, Daniel; Rankin, Dylan; Richardson, Clint; Rohlf, James; Sulak, Lawrence; Zou, David; Benelli, Gabriele; Berry, Edmund; Cutts, David; Ferapontov, Alexey; Garabedian, Alex; Hakala, John; Heintz, Ulrich; Jesus, Orduna; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Mao, Zaixing; Narain, Meenakshi; Piperov, Stefan; Sagir, Sinan; Spencer, Eric; Syarif, Rizki; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Burns, Dustin; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Flores, Chad; Funk, Garrett; Gardner, Michael; Ko, Winston; Lander, Richard; Mclean, Christine; Mulhearn, Michael; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Shalhout, Shalhout; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Stolp, Dustin; Tripathi, Mani; Wilbur, Scott; Yohay, Rachel; Cousins, Robert; Everaerts, Pieter; Florent, Alice; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Saltzberg, David; Takasugi, Eric; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Burt, Kira; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Hanson, Gail; Heilman, Jesse; Jandir, Pawandeep; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Lacroix, Florent; Long, Owen Rosser; Malberti, Martina; Olmedo Negrete, Manuel; Paneva, Mirena Ivova; Shrinivas, Amithabh; Wei, Hua; Wimpenny, Stephen; Yates, Brent; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Derdzinski, Mark; Gerosa, Raffaele; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Klein, Daniel; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Olivito, Dominick; Padhi, Sanjay; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tadel, Matevz; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Welke, Charles; Wood, John; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Zevi Della Porta, Giovanni; Bhandari, Rohan; Bradmiller-Feld, John; Campagnari, Claudio; Dishaw, Adam; Dutta, Valentina; Flowers, Kristen; Franco Sevilla, Manuel; Geffert, Paul; George, Christopher; Golf, Frank; Gouskos, Loukas; Gran, Jason; Heller, Ryan; Incandela, Joe; Mccoll, Nickolas; Mullin, Sam Daniel; Ovcharova, Ana; Richman, Jeffrey; Stuart, David; Suarez, Indara; West, Christopher; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Anderson, Dustin; Apresyan, Artur; Bendavid, Joshua; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Duarte, Javier; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Pena, Cristian; Spiropulu, Maria; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Xie, Si; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Andrews, Michael Benjamin; Azzolini, Virginia; Calamba, Aristotle; Carlson, Benjamin; Ferguson, Thomas; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Sun, Menglei; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Ford, William T; Jensen, Frank; Johnson, Andrew; Krohn, Michael; Mulholland, Troy; Stenson, Kevin; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Chaves, Jorge; Chu, Jennifer; Dittmer, Susan; Eggert, Nicholas; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Ryd, Anders; Skinnari, Louise; Sun, Werner; Tan, Shao Min; Tao, Zhengcheng; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Tucker, Jordan; Weng, Yao; Wittich, Peter; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Apollinari, Giorgio; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bolla, Gino; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Cremonesi, Matteo; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hare, Daryl; Harris, Robert M; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hirschauer, James; Hu, Zhen; Jayatilaka, Bodhitha; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Klima, Boaz; Kreis, Benjamin; Lammel, Stephan; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Tiehui; Lopes De Sá, Rafael; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Merkel, Petra; Mrenna, Stephen; Nahn, Steve; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Pedro, Kevin; Prokofyev, Oleg; Rakness, Gregory; Ristori, Luciano; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Stoynev, Stoyan; Strobbe, Nadja; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vernieri, Caterina; Verzocchi, Marco; Vidal, Richard; Wang, Michael; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Whitbeck, Andrew; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Carnes, Andrew; Carver, Matthew; Curry, David; Das, Souvik; Field, Richard D; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Ma, Peisen; Matchev, Konstantin; Mei, Hualin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Rank, Douglas; Shchutska, Lesya; Sperka, David; Thomas, Laurent; Wang, Jian; Wang, Sean-Jiun; Yelton, John; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Ackert, Andrew; Adams, Jordon Rowe; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bein, Samuel; Diamond, Brendan; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Khatiwada, Ajeeta; Prosper, Harrison; Santra, Arka; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Bhopatkar, Vallary; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Noonan, Daniel; Roy, Titas; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Kurt, Pelin; O'Brien, Christine; Sandoval Gonzalez, Irving Daniel; Turner, Paul; Varelas, Nikos; Wu, Zhenbin; Zakaria, Mohammed; Zhang, Jingyu; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Durgut, Süleyman; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Khristenko, Viktor; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Snyder, Christina; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yi, Kai; Anderson, Ian; Blumenfeld, Barry; Cocoros, Alice; Eminizer, Nicholas; Fehling, David; Feng, Lei; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Osherson, Marc; Roskes, Jeffrey; Sarica, Ulascan; Swartz, Morris; Xiao, Meng; Xin, Yongjie; You, Can; Al-bataineh, Ayman; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Bruner, Christopher; Castle, James; Kenny III, Raymond Patrick; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Majumder, Devdatta; Malek, Magdalena; Mcbrayer, William; Murray, Michael; Sanders, Stephen; Stringer, Robert; Wang, Quan; Ivanov, Andrew; Kaadze, Ketino; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Toda, Sachiko; Lange, David; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Anelli, Christopher; Baden, Drew; Baron, Owen; Belloni, Alberto; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ferraioli, Charles; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kellogg, Richard G; Kolberg, Ted; Kunkle, Joshua; Lu, Ying; Mignerey, Alice; Shin, Young Ho; Skuja, Andris; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Apyan, Aram; Barbieri, Richard; Baty, Austin; Bi, Ran; Bierwagen, Katharina; Brandt, Stephanie; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; Demiragli, Zeynep; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Gulhan, Doga; Hsu, Dylan; Iiyama, Yutaro; Innocenti, Gian Michele; Klute, Markus; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Krajczar, Krisztian; Lai, Yue Shi; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Mcginn, Christopher; Mironov, Camelia; Narayanan, Siddharth; Niu, Xinmei; Paus, Christoph; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Stephans, George; Sumorok, Konstanty; Tatar, Kaya; Varma, Mukund; Velicanu, Dragos; Veverka, Jan; Wang, Jing; Wang, Ta-Wei; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Zhukova, Victoria; Benvenuti, Alberto; Dahmes, Bryan; Evans, Andrew; Finkel, Alexey; Gude, Alexander; Hansen, Peter; Kalafut, Sean; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Lesko, Zachary; Mans, Jeremy; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rusack, Roger; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bartek, Rachel; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Fangmeier, Caleb; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kamalieddin, Rami; Knowlton, Dan; Kravchenko, Ilya; Meier, Frank; Monroy, Jose; Siado, Joaquin Emilo; Snow, Gregory R; Stieger, Benjamin; Alyari, Maral; Dolen, James; George, Jimin; Godshalk, Andrew; Harrington, Charles; Iashvili, Ia; Kaisen, Josh; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Parker, Ashley; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Roozbahani, Bahareh; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Hortiangtham, Apichart; Massironi, Andrea; Morse, David Michael; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Teixeira De Lima, Rafael; Trocino, Daniele; Wang, Ren-Jie; Wood, Darien; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kubik, Andrew; Low, Jia Fu; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Pollack, Brian; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Sung, Kevin; Trovato, Marco; Velasco, Mayda; Dev, Nabarun; Hildreth, Michael; Hurtado Anampa, Kenyi; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Lannon, Kevin; Marinelli, Nancy; Meng, Fanbo; Mueller, Charles; Musienko, Yuri; Planer, Michael; Reinsvold, Allison; Ruchti, Randy; Rupprecht, Nathaniel; Smith, Geoffrey; Taroni, Silvia; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Alimena, Juliette; Antonelli, Louis; Brinson, Jessica; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Francis, Brian; Hart, Andrew; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Ji, Weifeng; Liu, Bingxuan; Luo, Wuming; Puigh, Darren; Rodenburg, Marissa; Winer, Brian L; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Driga, Olga; Elmer, Peter; Hardenbrook, Joshua; Hebda, Philip; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Palmer, Christopher; Piroué, Pierre; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Zuranski, Andrzej; Malik, Sudhir; Barker, Anthony; Barnes, Virgil E; Benedetti, Daniele; Folgueras, Santiago; Gutay, Laszlo; Jha, Manoj; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Andreas Werner; Jung, Kurt; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shi, Xin; Sun, Jian; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Wang, Fuqiang; Xie, Wei; Xu, Lingshan; Parashar, Neeti; Stupak, John; Adair, Antony; Akgun, Bora; Chen, Zhenyu; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Guilbaud, Maxime; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Northup, Michael; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Rorie, Jamal; Tu, Zhoudunming; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Duh, Yi-ting; Eshaq, Yossof; Ferbel, Thomas; Galanti, Mario; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Han, Jiyeon; Hindrichs, Otto; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Lo, Kin Ho; Tan, Ping; Verzetti, Mauro; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Gershtein, Yuri; Gómez Espinosa, Tirso Alejandro; Halkiadakis, Eva; Heindl, Maximilian; Hidas, Dean; Hughes, Elliot; Kaplan, Steven; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, Raghav; Kyriacou, Savvas; Lath, Amitabh; Nash, Kevin; Saka, Halil; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Sheffield, David; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Foerster, Mark; Heideman, Joseph; Riley, Grant; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; Thapa, Krishna; Bouhali, Othmane; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo; Celik, Ali; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; De Mattia, Marco; Delgado, Andrea; Dildick, Sven; Eusebi, Ricardo; Flanagan, Will; Gilmore, Jason; Huang, Tao; Juska, Evaldas; Kamon, Teruki; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Mueller, Ryan; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Patel, Rishi; Perloff, Alexx; Perniè, Luca; Rathjens, Denis; Rose, Anthony; Safonov, Alexei; Tatarinov, Aysen; Ulmer, Keith; Akchurin, Nural; Cowden, Christopher; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Faulkner, James; Kunori, Shuichi; Lamichhane, Kamal; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Undleeb, Sonaina; Volobouev, Igor; Wang, Zhixing; Delannoy, Andrés G; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Janjam, Ravi; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Ni, Hong; Sheldon, Paul; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Xu, Qiao; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Barria, Patrizia; Cox, Bradley; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Neu, Christopher; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Sun, Xin; Wang, Yanchu; Wolfe, Evan; Xia, Fan; Clarke, Christopher; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Sturdy, Jared; Belknap, Donald; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Duric, Senka; Gomber, Bhawna; Grothe, Monika; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Levine, Aaron; Long, Kenneth; Loveless, Richard; Ojalvo, Isabel; Perry, Thomas; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Ruggles, Tyler; Savin, Alexander; Sharma, Archana; Smith, Nicholas; Smith, Wesley H; Taylor, Devin; Verwilligen, Piet; Woods, Nathaniel

    2017-01-12

    A first search for pair production of dark matter candidates through vector boson fusion in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = $ 8 TeV is performed with the CMS detector. The vector boson fusion topology enhances missing transverse momentum, providing a way to probe supersymmetry also in the case of a compressed mass spectrum. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 18.5 fb$^{-1}$ recorded by the CMS experiment. The observed dijet mass spectrum is consistent with the standard model expectation. In an effective field theory, dark matter masses are explored as a function of contact interaction strength. The most stringent limit on bottom squark production with mass below 315 GeV is also reported, assuming a 5 GeV mass difference with respect to the lightest neutralino.

  10. Experimental search for compression phenomena in fast nucleus--nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schopper, E.; Baumgardt, H.G.; Obst, E.

    1977-01-01

    The occurrence of compression phenomena and shock waves, connected with the increase of the density of the nuclear matter during the interpenetration of two fast nuclei, are discussed. Current experiments dealing with this problem are reviewed. Before considering the mechanism of the interpenetration of two fast nuclei it may be useful to look at more simple situations, i.e., proton-proton interactions, then to envelop them with nuclear matter, considering proton-nucleus interactions. Only very general features are described, which may give suggestions for the understanding of the nucleus-nucleus impact

  11. Characterization of clay minerals and organic matter in shales: Application to high-level nuclear waste isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gueven, N.; Landis, C.R.; Jacobs, G.K.

    1988-10-01

    The objective of the Sedimentary Rock Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is to conduct investigations to assess the potential for shale to serve as a host medium for the isolation of high-level nuclear wastes. The emphasis on shale is a result of screening major sedimentary rock types (shale, sandstone, carbonate , anhydrite, and chalk) for a variety of attributes that affect the performance of repositories. The retardation of radionuclides was recognized as one of the potentially favorable features of shale. Because shale contains both clay minerals and organic matter, phases that may provide significant sorption of radioelement, the characterization of these phases is essential. In addition, the organic matter in shale has been identified as a critical area for study because of its potential to play either a favorable (reductant) or deleterious (organic ligands) role in the performance of a repository sited in shale. 36 refs., 36 figs., 10 tabs

  12. Isospin effects on collective nuclear dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Di Toro, M; Baran, V; Larionov, A B

    1999-01-01

    We suggest several ways to study properties of the symmetry term in the nuclear equation of state, EOS, from collective modes in beta-unstable nuclei. After a general discussion on compressibility and saturation density in asymmetric nuclear matter we show some predictions on the collective response based on the solution of generalized Landau dispersion relations. Isoscalar-isovector coupling, disappearance of collectivity and possibility of new instabilities in low and high density regions are discussed with accent on their relation to the symmetry term of effective forces. The onset of chemical plus mechanical instabilities in a dilute asymmetric nuclear matter is discussed with reference to new features in fragmentation reactions.

  13. Critical temperature of liquid-gas phase transition for hot nuclear matter and three-body force effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo Wei; Lu Guangcheng; Li Zenghua; Luo Peiyan; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing

    2005-01-01

    The finite temperature Brueckner-Hartree-Fock (FTBHF) approach is extended by introducing a microscopic three-body force. Within the extended approach, the three-body force effects on the equation of state of hot nuclear matter and its temperature dependence have been investigated. The critical properties of the liquid-gas phase transition of hot nuclear matter have been calculated. It is shown that the three-body force provides a repulsive contribution to the equation of state of hot nuclear matter. The repulsive effect of the three-body force becomes more pronounced as the density and temperature increase and consequently inclusion of the three-body force contribution in the calculation reduces the predicted critical temperature from about 16 MeV to about 13 MeV. By separating the contribution originated from the 2σ-exchange process coupled to the virtual excitation of a nucleon-antinucleon pair from the full three-body force, the connection between the three-body force effect and the relativistic correction from the Dirac-Brueckner-Hartree-Fock has been explored. It turns out that the contribution of the 2σ-N(N-bar) part is more repulsive than that of the full three-body force and the calculated critical temperature is about 11 MeV if only the 2σ-N(N-bar) component of the three-body force is included which is lower than the value obtained in the case of including the full three-body force and is close to the value predicted by the Dirac-Brueckner-Hartree-Fock (DBHF) approach. Our result provides a reasonable explanation for the discrepancy between the values of critical temperature predicted from the FTBHF approach including the three-body force and the DBHF approach. (authors)

  14. The convergence of the binding energy expansion in the Brueckner-Bethe-Goldstone theory of nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grange, P.; Lejeune, A.

    1979-01-01

    Two, three- and four-body contributions to the binding energy of nuclear matter are evaluated in the framework of the Bethe-Brueckner expansion. Special attention is devoted to the choice of the auxillary single particle field and to the potential diagrams at the level of three- and four-hole lines present when such a field is different from zero. Two nucleon-nucleon interactions are used: a model interaction V 1 and the Reid soft-core interaction. For V 1 our results are compared with those obtained from variational calculations; this comparison supports the reliability of the perturbative expansion. (Auth.)

  15. Detailed Characterization of Nuclear Recoil Pulse Shape Discrimination in the DarkSide-50 Direct Dark Matter Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edkins, Erin Elisabeth [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2017-05-01

    While evidence of non-baryonic dark matter has been accumulating for decades, its exact nature continues to remain a mystery. Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) are a well motivated candidate which appear in certain extensions of the Standard Model, independently of dark matter theory. If such particles exist, they should occasionally interact with particles of normal matter, producing a signal which may be detected. The DarkSide-50 direct dark matter experiment aims to detect the energy of recoiling argon atoms due to the elastic scattering of postulated WIMPs. In order to make such a discovery, a clear understanding of both the background and signal region is essential. This understanding requires a careful study of the detector's response to radioactive sources, which in turn requires such sources may be safely introduced into or near the detector volume and reliably removed. The CALibration Insertaion System (CALIS) was designed and built for this purpose in a j oint effort between Fermi National Laboratory and the University of Hawaii. This work describes the design and testing of CALIS, its installation and commissioning at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) and the multiple calibration campaigns which have successfully employed it. As nuclear recoils produced by WIMPs are indistinguishable from those produced by neutrons, radiogenic neutrons are both the most dangerous class of background and a vital calibration source for the study of the potential WIMP signal. Prior to the calibration of DarkSide-50 with radioactive neutron sources, the acceptance region was determined by the extrapolation of nuclear recoil data from a separate, dedicated experiment, ScENE, which measured the distribution of the pulse shape discrimination parameter, $f_{90}$, for nuclear recoils of known energies. This work demonstrates the validity of the extrapolation of ScENE values to DarkSide-50, by direct comparison of the $f_{90}$ distributio n of nuclear

  16. Pasta phases in core-collapse supernova matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pais, Helena; Chiacchiera, Silvia; Providência, Constança

    2016-01-01

    The pasta phase in core-collapse supernova matter (finite temperatures and fixed proton fractions) is studied within relativistic mean field models. Three different calculations are used for comparison, the Thomas-Fermi (TF), the Coexisting Phases (CP) and the Compressible Liquid Drop (CLD) approximations. The effects of including light clusters in nuclear matter and the densities at which the transitions between pasta configurations and to uniform matter occur are also investigated. The free energy and pressure, in the space of particle number densities and temperatures expected to cover the pasta region, are calculated. Finally, a comparison with a finite temperature Skyrme-Hartree-Fock calculation is drawn. (paper)

  17. Dynamic electron-ion collisions and nuclear quantum effects in quantum simulation of warm dense matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dongdong; Dai, Jiayu

    2018-02-01

    The structural, thermodynamic and transport properties of warm dense matter (WDM) are crucial to the fields of astrophysics and planet science, as well as inertial confinement fusion. WDM refers to the states of matter in a regime of temperature and density between cold condensed matter and hot ideal plasmas, where the density is from near-solid up to ten times solid density, and the temperature between 0.1 and 100 eV. In the WDM regime, matter exhibits moderately or strongly coupled, partially degenerate properties. Therefore, the methods used to deal with condensed matter and isolated atoms need to be properly validated for WDM. It is therefore a big challenge to understand WDM within a unified theoretical description with reliable accuracy. Here, we review the progress in the theoretical study of WDM with state-of-the-art simulations, i.e. quantum Langevin molecular dynamics and first principles path integral molecular dynamics. The related applications for WDM are also included.

  18. Whole study of nuclear matter collective motion in central collisions of heavy ions of the FOPI detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bendarag, A.

    1999-01-01

    In this work we study the collective phenomena in the central collisions of heavy ions for the Au + Au, Xe + CsI and Ni + Ni systems at incident energies from 150 to 400 MeV/nucleon with the data of the FOPI detector. In order to describe completely the flow of the nuclear matter, we fit the double differential momentum distributions with two-dimensional Gaussian. We study the characteristic parameters of the collective flow (flow range, aspect ratios, flow parameter) versus the charge and the mass of the fragments as well as the incident energy and the centrality of the collisions. The transverse energy is used for selecting the central collisions. The method of the Gaussian fits requires also to reconstruct the reaction plane of the event. Then we correct the parameters for the finite number of particles effects and account for the influence of the acceptance of the detector. We confirm the importance of the thermal motion for the light charge or mass fragments and, conversely, the predominance of the collective motion for the heavy fragments. A common flow angle for all the types of particles is highlighted for the first time, demonstrating the power of the method of the Gaussian fits; The evolution of the other parameters confirms the observations done with other methods of flow analysis. These results should contribute to put constraints on the collision models and to enlarge our knowledge of the properties of the nuclear matter. (author)

  19. Neutron-Proton Mass Difference in Nuclear Matter and in Finite Nuclei and the Nolen-Schiffer Anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakhshiev U.T.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The neutron-proton mass difference in (isospin asymmetric nuclear matter and finite nuclei is studied in the framework of a medium-modified Skyrme model. The proposed effective Lagrangian incorporates both the medium influence of the surrounding nuclear environment on the single nucleon properties and an explicit isospin-breaking effect in the mesonic sector. Energy-dependent charged and neutral pion optical potentials in the s- and p-wave channels are included as well. The present approach predicts that the neutron-proton mass difference is mainly dictated by its strong part and that it markedly decreases in neutron matter. Furthermore, the possible interplay between the effective nucleon mass in finite nuclei and the Nolen-Schiffer anomaly is discussed. In particular, we find that a correct description of the properties of mirror nuclei leads to a stringent restriction of possible modifications of the nucleon’s effective mass in nuclei.

  20. Too costly to matter: Economics of nuclear power for Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Ali; Ramana, M.V.

    2014-01-01

    Saudi Arabia has ambitious plans for nuclear power. Given this context, this paper examines the economics of nuclear power and compares it to two other sources of electricity, natural gas and solar energy. It calculates the costs of electricity generation, water desalination and the opportunity cost associated with forgone oil and gas revenues. A sensitivity analysis is included to account for variations in important parameters within the comparative cost analysis. Our results suggest that for a large range of parameters, the economics of nuclear power are not favorable in comparison with natural gas, even if the currently low domestic natural gas prices in Saudi Arabia were to rise substantially. Further, electricity from solar plants has the potential to be cheaper than nuclear power within the next decade if the rapid decline in solar energy costs in the last decade continue, i.e., before the first planned nuclear power plant would be completed. However, unless the price of oil drops substantially below current values, it would be more economically optimal to export the oil than using it for generating electricity. - Highlights: • Future projections show nuclear power is not cost effective for Saudi Arabia. • A combination of solar and natural gas could largely meet future electricity demand. • There are multiple, non-economic, motivations for Saudi Arabia's nuclear program. • Saudi Arabia would economically benefit by not using oil for electricity generation

  1. Actions of the Cuban Nuclear Regulatory Authority in the adequate implementation of the legislation in matter of radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornet R, O.M.; Guillen C, A.; Betancourt H, L.A.

    2006-01-01

    The effectiveness of the regulatory activity in matter of safety and radiological protection it depends in great measure of the practical implementation level of the legislation in this matter. In our country this objective has been achieved through the one continuous improvement of the Hierarchical System of Nuclear Regulation, the reconciliation with specialists and national experts in each matter during the elaboration of the legal documents; the popularization and gratuitous distribution of it approved; the precision in the validation conditions of the authorizations of those main precepts applicable to the practices; the legal foundation of the deficiencies evidenced in the regulatory inspections; the development of a Safety Culture; the realization of Annual Regulatory Conferences and mainly in the training of the personnel related with the safety. Also, the constant analysis on the part of the specialists of the Regulatory Authority of the grade of implementation of this legislation, it discussion in national and international events and the actions recommended in these works. As a result of this focus, it is considered that the Regulatory Authority has impacted appropriately in the implementation of this legislation. (Author)

  2. Wavelet representation of the nuclear dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jouault, B.; Sebille, F.; Mota, V. de la

    1997-12-31

    The study of transport phenomena in nuclear matter is addressed in a new approach named DYWAN, based on the projection methods of statistical physics and on the mathematical theory of wavelets. Strongly compressed representations of the nuclear systems are obtained with an accurate description of the wave functions and of their antisymmetrization. The results of the approach are illustrated for the ground state description as well as for the dissipative dynamics of nuclei at intermediate energies. (K.A.). 52 refs.

  3. Wavelet representation of the nuclear dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouault, B.; Sebille, F.; Mota, V. de la.

    1997-01-01

    The study of transport phenomena in nuclear matter is addressed in a new approach named DYWAN, based on the projection methods of statistical physics and on the mathematical theory of wavelets. Strongly compressed representations of the nuclear systems are obtained with an accurate description of the wave functions and of their antisymmetrization. The results of the approach are illustrated for the ground state description as well as for the dissipative dynamics of nuclei at intermediate energies. (K.A.)

  4. Analytic solutions of QCD evolution equations for parton cascades inside nuclear matter at small x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geiger, K.

    1994-01-01

    An analytical method is presented to solve generalized QCD evolution equations for the time development of parton cascades in a nuclear environment. In addition to the usual parton branching processes in vacuum, these evolution equations provide a consistent description of interactions with the nuclear medium by accounting for stimulated branching processes, fusion, and scattering processes that are specific to QCD in a medium. Closed solutions for the spectra of produced partons with respect to the variables time, longitudinal momentum, and virtuality are obtained under some idealizing assumptions about the composition of the nuclear medium. Several characteristic features of the resulting parton distributions are discussed. One of the main conclusions is that the evolution of a parton shower in a medium is dilated as compared to free space and is accompanied by an enhancement of particle production. These effects become stronger with increasing nuclear density

  5. Nuclear sizes and intranuclear matter distribution -- from hadron-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugalska-Gola, E.; Strugalski, Z.

    1999-01-01

    The method of intranuclear matter studies by hadronic projectiles is found and worked out. It is tested on the pion-xenon nucleus collision events. Target-nucleus size and nucleon density distributions in it were estimated and described by formulas prompted experimentally

  6. Big Bang Nucleosynthesis: Impact of Nuclear Physics Uncertainties on Baryonic Matter Density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Michael Scott; Roberts, Luke F.; Hix, William Raphael; Bruner, Blake D.; Kozub, R.L.; Tytler, David; Fuller, George M.; Lingerfelt, Eric J.; Nesaraja, Caroline D

    2008-01-01

    We performed new Big Bang Nucleosynthesis simulations with the bigbangonline.org suite of codes to determine, from the nuclear physics perspective, the highest achievable precision of the constraint on the baryon-to-photo ratio η given current observational uncertainties. We also performed sensitivity studies to determine the impact that particular nuclear physics measurements would have on the uncertainties of predicted abundances and on the η constraint.

  7. Big Bang Nucleosynthesis: Impact of Nuclear Physics Uncertainties on Baryonic Matter Density Constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Michael S.; Roberts, Luke F.; Hix, W. Raphael; Bruner, Blake D.; Kozub, Raymond L.; Tytler, David; Fuller, George M.; Lingerfelt, Eric; Nesaraja, Caroline D.

    2008-01-01

    We performed new Big Bang Nucleosynthesis simulations with the bigbangonline.org suite of codes to determine, from the nuclear physics perspective, the highest achievable precision of the constraint on the baryon-to-photo ratio η given current observational uncertainties. We also performed sensitivity studies to determine the impact that particular nuclear physics measurements would have on the uncertainties of predicted abundances and on the η constraint

  8. Big Bang Nucleosynthesis: Impact of Nuclear Physics Uncertainties on Baryonic Matter Density Constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Michael Scott; Bruner, Blake D; KOZUB, RAYMOND L.; Roberts, Luke F.; Tytler, David; Fuller, George M.; Lingerfelt, Eric; Hix, William Raphael; Nesaraja, Caroline D

    2008-01-01

    We ran new Big Bang Nucleosynthesis simulations with the bigbangonline.org suite of codes to determine, from the nuclear physics perspective, the highest achievable precision of the constraint on the baryon-to-photo ratio eta given current observational uncertainties. We also ran sensitivity studies to determine the impact that particular nuclear physics measurements would have on the uncertainties of predicted abundances and on the eta constraint

  9. Collaboration within the United Nations system - General matters. Conventions concerning nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    The texts of the Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident (CENNA) and the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (CANARE) are preceded by brief remarks on their origin. The World Health Organization is bound to carry out the activities envisaged, by virtue or its constitutional responsibility for ''promoting, developing, assisting and coordinating international health work''. The Executive Board thus recommends that the WHO accede to both conventions

  10. The surface compression of nuclei in relativistic mean-field approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, M.M.

    1991-01-01

    The surface compression properties of nuclei have been studied in the framework of the relativistic non-linear σ-ω model. Using the Thomas-Fermi approximation for semi-infinite nuclear matter, it is shown that by varying the σ-meson mass one can change the surface compression as relative to the bulk compression. This fact is in contrast with the known properties of the phenomenological Skyrme interactions, where the ratio of the surface to the bulk incompressibility (-K S /K V ) is nearly 1 in the scaling mode of compression. The results suggest that the relativistic mean-field model may provide an interaction with the essential ingredients different from those of the Skyrme interactions. (author) 23 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  11. The breathing mode and the nuclear surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaizot, J.P.; Grammaticos, B.

    1981-01-01

    The role of nuclear surface in the breathing mode of nuclei is analyzed. We discuss a simple model in which the density varies according to a scaling of the coordinates. We show that this model reproduces accurately the results of microscopic calculations in heavy nuclei, and we use it to estimate the contribution of the surface to the effective compression modulus of semi-infinite nuclear matter. The calculation is performed in the framework of an extended Thomas-Fermi approximation and using several effective interactions. It is shown that the surface energy is maximum with respect to variations of the density around saturation density. The reduction of the effective compression modulus due to the surface turns to be proportional to the bulk compression modulus. The magnitude of the effect is compared with results of RPA calculations. Other contributions to the effective compressions modulus of finite nuclei are also discussed. (orig.)

  12. Temperature and density of nuclear matter in central CC interactions at P=4.2 GeV/c per nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didenko, L.A.; Grishin, V.G.; Kowalski, M.; Kuznetsov, A.A.

    1984-01-01

    An estimation of the temperature and density of nuclear matter in central carbon-carbon interactions at P/A=4.2 GeV/c is presented. It is shown that at energies of about 4 GeV per nucleon it is possible to reach the transitional region between hadronic matter and quark-gluon plasma. The results could be however more convincing if one uses heavier ions than carbon

  13. Development, simulation and test of transition radiation detector prototypes for the compressed baryonic matter experiment at the facility for antiproton and ion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergmann, Cyrano S.H.

    2014-07-01

    The focus of this thesis is the development of a Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) for the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at FAIR. The TRD sub-detector will contribute to the global particle identification and track reconstruction of charged particles. The technical design goal for the TRD is to identify 90% electrons with a maximum pion contamination of 1%. The TRD and Ring Image CHerenkov (RICH) detector should reach a common pion rejection of 10{sup 4}, in order to measure charmonium and low-mass vector mesons. The position resolution should be between 200 and 300 μm in the anode wire direction. The most demanding aspect of the CBM TRD design is the high interaction rate of up to 10{sup 7} Hz resulting in a charged particle rate of up to 100 kHz/cm{sup 2} in the central part of the detector planes at SIS300 conditions. It is crucial to find the optimal radiator detector combination with a minimum material budget to limit scattering and background due to conversions and at the same time reach a sufficient pion rejection and position resolution. In this thesis it is confirmed that a Multi-Wire Proportional Counter (MWPC) with a Xe/CO{sub 2} gas thickness of 12mm provides sufficient absorption probability for TR-photons in combination with self-supporting low density PE foam or micro-structured foil radiators. A continuous investigation aiming at an optimal wire and pad-plane geometry, as well as a minimization of the material budget between active gas and radiator has been presented in hard- and software. A minimum photon absorption cross-section of the entrance window was realized with a thermally stretched aluminized Kapton foil, glued to a G11 support grid support frame. This structure limits the mechanical deformation of the entire window to 1mm/mbar. All MWPC prototypes include two wire planes. A symmetric amplification region of 2 x (3, 3.5 or 4)mm is followed by a short drift region of 6, 5 or 4 mm. The drift region reduces the gain

  14. Development, simulation and test of transition radiation detector prototypes for the compressed baryonic matter experiment at the facility for antiproton and ion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, Cyrano S.H.

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this thesis is the development of a Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) for the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at FAIR. The TRD sub-detector will contribute to the global particle identification and track reconstruction of charged particles. The technical design goal for the TRD is to identify 90% electrons with a maximum pion contamination of 1%. The TRD and Ring Image CHerenkov (RICH) detector should reach a common pion rejection of 10 4 , in order to measure charmonium and low-mass vector mesons. The position resolution should be between 200 and 300 μm in the anode wire direction. The most demanding aspect of the CBM TRD design is the high interaction rate of up to 10 7 Hz resulting in a charged particle rate of up to 100 kHz/cm 2 in the central part of the detector planes at SIS300 conditions. It is crucial to find the optimal radiator detector combination with a minimum material budget to limit scattering and background due to conversions and at the same time reach a sufficient pion rejection and position resolution. In this thesis it is confirmed that a Multi-Wire Proportional Counter (MWPC) with a Xe/CO 2 gas thickness of 12mm provides sufficient absorption probability for TR-photons in combination with self-supporting low density PE foam or micro-structured foil radiators. A continuous investigation aiming at an optimal wire and pad-plane geometry, as well as a minimization of the material budget between active gas and radiator has been presented in hard- and software. A minimum photon absorption cross-section of the entrance window was realized with a thermally stretched aluminized Kapton foil, glued to a G11 support grid support frame. This structure limits the mechanical deformation of the entire window to 1mm/mbar. All MWPC prototypes include two wire planes. A symmetric amplification region of 2 x (3, 3.5 or 4)mm is followed by a short drift region of 6, 5 or 4 mm. The drift region reduces the gain variation due to

  15. Detection of nuclear recoils in prototype dark matter detectors, made from Al, Sn and Zn superheated superconducting granules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abplanalp, M.; Van den Brandt, B.; Konter, J.A.; Mango, S.

    1995-01-01

    This work is part of an ongoing project to develop a superheated superconducting granule (SSG) detector for cold dark matter and neutrinos. The response of SSG devices to nuclear recoils has been explored irradiating SSG detectors with a 70 MeV neutron beam. The aim of the experiment was to test the sensitivity of Sn, Al and Zn SSG detectors to nuclear recoil energies down to a few keV. The detector consisted of a hollow teflon cylinder (0.1 cm 3 inner volume) filled with tiny superconducting metastable granules embedded in a dielectric medium. The nuclear recoil energies deposited in the SSG were determined measuring the neutron scattering angles with a neutron hodoscope. Coincidences in time between the SSG and the hodoscope signals have been clearly established. In this paper the results of the neutron irradiation experiments at different SSG intrinsic thresholds are discussed and compared to Monte Carlo simulations. The results show that SSG are sensitive to recoil energies down to similar 1 keV. The limited angular resolution of the neutron hodoscope prevented us from measuring the SSG sensitivity to even lower recoil energies. (orig.)

  16. Behavior of the Energy Secretary in working matter: the case of workers exposed to nuclear energy (ionizing radiations)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez J, G.

    2006-01-01

    Mexico, as many other countries, it gives to this energy resource multiple uses in such activities as: the electric power generation in nuclear central, the industry, the medicine and the research. In the one acting of the referred activities intervenes individuals that, in reason of their work, they have contact with this energy type, which is potentially dangerous for the health in reason of the radioactivity flight. Although those workers are 'aided' for a series of relative standards to the observance of safety, hygiene and protection measures in the event of work risks, the technicity that is required to determine the potential risk that it is generated with the handling of radioactive products it makes that single specialized in the matter authorities can evaluate and, therefore, to watch over the safety conditions in those that work is developed. In that virtue, with this investigation it is sought to demonstrate that the Secretary of Energy, through a dis concentrated specialized organ and endowed with technical autonomy denominated National Commission of Nuclear Safety and Safeguards, it is a dependence that in their performance like Regulator Organ in the matter, intervenes in the labor relationships circles, being, therefore, an authority in work matter. By this way, the development of the present study is made in the following manner: In the first chapter indispensable aspects are approached to locate to the authorities inside the mark of the power exercise by the part of the State through their diverse organs; topics like jurisdiction and competition are treated for later to analyze the structure, according to the Mexican Administrative Law, of the Federal Executive Organ, referring a brief analysis of the application of work standards for diverse administrative authorities to determine of their multiple intervention and important performance in the labor relationships. In the second it is analyzed the structure of the National Commission of Nuclear

  17. Self-energy of the Δ-isobar in nuclear matter for the Paris and the Green-Niskanen-Sainio potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, J.; Abdul Matin, M.; Samanta, B.C.

    1985-11-01

    A coupled channel calculation, with the compensated Paris potential and the isobar transition potential due to Green, Niskanen and Sainio, yields the nucleon and isobar self-energies in nuclear matter. Unlike the Reid soft core, the Paris potential is found to bind the isobar at small momentum by a potential of the order of 10 MeV. The change in the binding energy and the wound integral in nuclear matter, due to the explicit treatment of isobar degrees of freedom, is small. (author)

  18. Was a new phase of nuclear matter observed at CERN SPS...?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odyniec, G.

    2001-01-01

    The enhanced production of strange particles, that was predicted as a consequence of the formation of quark-gluon plasma, was observed in CERN SPS heavy ion experiments. As data matured, the emphasis on theory and interpretation of experimental results has increased. In this presentation the hadronic yields and their ratios, as well as the role of strangeness production in the search for a new phase of matter, in both experiment and theory, are discussed. (author)

  19. Hadron properties in nuclear matter and the phase structure of a skyrmionic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakhshiev, Ulugbek; Kim, Hyun-Chul

    2010-01-01

    Hadron properties and their interactions in a nuclear environment are considered in the framework of the in-medium modified Skyrme model. Furthermore, the influence of the medium modifications of the single hadron properties and their interactions to the stability of the whole system is considered by using the variational method of the Hartree-Fock type. In addition to previous studies, we discuss the possible in-medium modifications of the stabilizing Skyrme term which can be related to the modifications of vector meson properties in a nuclear environment. (author)

  20. First measurement of proton-induced low-momentum dielectron radiation off cold nuclear matter

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Agakishiev, G.; Balanda, A.; Belyaev, A.; Finocchiaro, P.; Guber, F.; Karavicheva, T.; Krása, Antonín; Křížek, Filip; Kugler, Andrej; Markert, J.; Michel, J.; Pechenova, O.; Rustamov, A.; Sobolev, Yuri, G.; Strobele, H.; Tarantola, A.; Teilab, K.; Tlustý, Pavel; Wagner, Vladimír

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 715, 4-5 (2012), s. 304-309 ISSN 0370-2693 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC07050; GA AV ČR IAA100480803 Keywords : vector-mesons * Rho-meson * collisions Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 4.569, year: 2012