WorldWideScience

Sample records for compressed air storage power plants

  1. Combined compressed air storage-low BTU coal gasification power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartsounes, George T.; Sather, Norman F.

    1979-01-01

    An electrical generating power plant includes a Compressed Air Energy Storage System (CAES) fueled with low BTU coal gas generated in a continuously operating high pressure coal gasifier system. This system is used in coordination with a continuously operating main power generating plant to store excess power generated during off-peak hours from the power generating plant, and to return the stored energy as peak power to the power generating plant when needed. The excess coal gas which is produced by the coal gasifier during off-peak hours is stored in a coal gas reservoir. During peak hours the stored coal gas is combined with the output of the coal gasifier to fuel the gas turbines and ultimately supply electrical power to the base power plant.

  2. Power-to-heat in adiabatic compressed air energy storage power plants for cost reduction and increased flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreißigacker, Volker

    2018-04-01

    The development of new technologies for large-scale electricity storage is a key element in future flexible electricity transmission systems. Electricity storage in adiabatic compressed air energy storage (A-CAES) power plants offers the prospect of making a substantial contribution to reach this goal. This concept allows efficient, local zero-emission electricity storage on the basis of compressed air in underground caverns. The compression and expansion of air in turbomachinery help to balance power generation peaks that are not demand-driven on the one hand and consumption-induced load peaks on the other. For further improvements in cost efficiencies and flexibility, system modifications are necessary. Therefore, a novel concept regarding the integration of an electrical heating component is investigated. This modification allows increased power plant flexibilities and decreasing component sizes due to the generated high temperature heat with simultaneously decreasing total round trip efficiencies. For an exemplarily A-CAES case simulation studies regarding the electrical heating power and thermal energy storage sizes were conducted to identify the potentials in cost reduction of the central power plant components and the loss in round trip efficiency.

  3. Compressed air storage with humidification (CASH) coal gasification power plant investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakhamkin, M.; Patel, M.

    1991-08-01

    A study was performed to investigate and develop a hybrid coal gasification concept which utilizes an air saturator (AS) with an integrated coal gasification/compressed air energy storage (CGS/CAES) plant. This potentially attractive concept is designated as AS/CGS/CAES. In this concept, the coal gasification system provides fuel for the combustors of the CAES reheat turbomachinery train. Motive air from underground storage is humidified by saturators and thereby provides increased power production without additional air consumption. The heat for generating the hot water utilized in the saturators is extracted from waste heat within the overall plant. Multiple alternatives were considered and parametrically analyzed in the study in order to select the most thermodynamically and economically attractive concepts. The major alternatives were differentiated by the type of gasifier, type of CAES turbomachinery, mode of operation, and utilization of waste heat. The results of the study indicate that the use of the air saturation in AS/CGS/CAES plants might reduce capital costs of coal gasification based power used in intermediate load generation by $300 to $400 per kilowatt. Furthermore, heat rates might also be reduced by almost 1.5 cents per kilowatt hour, a major reduction. The major cause of the reduction in electricity costs is a 50% reduction in the required gasification capacity per net kW. In addition to being a load management tool, AS/CGS/CAES concepts provide a method to operate the CGS and turbomachinery in a continuous mode, improving the operation and potentially the life expectancy of both components. 3 refs., 18 figs., 4 tabs

  4. Compressed air energy storage system reservoir size for a wind energy baseload power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavallo, A.J.

    1996-12-31

    Wind generated electricity can be transformed from an intermittent to a baseload resource using an oversized wind farm in conjunction with a compressed air energy storage (CAES) system. The size of the storage reservoir for the CAES system (solution mined salt cavern or porous media) as a function of the wind speed autocorrelation time (C) has been examined using a Monte Carlo simulation for a wind class 4 (wind power density 450 W m{sup -2} at 50 m hub height) wind regime with a Weibull k factor of 2.5. For values of C typically found for winds over the US Great Plains, the storage reservoir must have a 60 to 80 hour capacity. Since underground reservoirs account for only a small fraction of total system cost, this larger storage reservoir has a negligible effect on the cost of energy from the wind energy baseload system. 7 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Compressed air energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Frederick W.; Kartsounes, George T.

    1981-01-01

    An internal combustion reciprocating engine is operable as a compressor during slack demand periods utilizing excess power from a power grid to charge air into an air storage reservoir and as an expander during peak demand periods to feed power into the power grid utilizing air obtained from the air storage reservoir together with combustible fuel. Preferably the internal combustion reciprocating engine is operated at high pressure and a low pressure turbine and compressor are also employed for air compression and power generation.

  6. Performance of a hydraulic air compressor for use in compressed air energy storage power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berghmans, J. A.; Ahrens, F. W.

    1978-01-01

    A fluid mechanical analysis of a hydraulic air compression system for Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) application is presented. With this compression concept, air is charged into an underground reservoir, for later use in power generation, by entraining bubbles into a downward flow of water from a surface reservoir. Upon releasing the air in the underground reservoir, the water is pumped back to the surface. The analytical model delineated is used to predict the hydraulic compressor performance characteristics (pumping power, pump head, compression efficiency) as a function of water flow rate and system geometrical parameters. The results indicate that, although large water pumps are needed, efficiencies as high as 90% (relative to ideal isothermal compression) can be expected. This should result in lower compression power than for conventional compressor systems, while eliminating the need for the usual intercoolers and aftercooler.

  7. Electric power generating plant having direct-coupled steam and compressed-air cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drost, M.K.

    1981-01-07

    An electric power generating plant is provided with a Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) system which is directly coupled to the steam cycle of the generating plant. The CAES system is charged by the steam boiler during off peak hours, and drives a separate generator during peak load hours. The steam boiler load is thereby levelized throughout an operating day.

  8. Electric power generating plant having direct coupled steam and compressed air cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drost, Monte K.

    1982-01-01

    An electric power generating plant is provided with a Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) system which is directly coupled to the steam cycle of the generating plant. The CAES system is charged by the steam boiler during off peak hours, and drives a separate generator during peak load hours. The steam boiler load is thereby levelized throughout an operating day.

  9. Technology assessment report for the Soyland Power Cooperative, Inc. compressed air energy storage system (CAES)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    The design and operational features of compressed air energy storage systems (CAES) in general and, specifically, of a proposed 220 MW plant being planned by the Soyland Power Cooperative, Inc. in Illinois are described. This technology assessment discusses the need for peaking capacity, CAES requirements for land, fuel, water, and storage caverns, and compares the costs, environmental impacts and licensing requirements of CAES with those of power plants using simple cycle or combined cycle combustion turbines. It is concluded that during the initial two years of CAES operation, the CAES would cost more than a combustion turbine or combined cycle facility, but thereafter the CAES would have a increasing economic advantage; the overall environmental impact of a CAES plant is minimal, and that there should be no great difficulties with CAES licensing. (LCL)

  10. Evaluation of turbine systems for compressed air energy storage plants. Final report for FY 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kartsounes, G.T.

    1976-10-01

    Compressed air energy storage plants for electric utility peak-shaving applications comprise four subsystems: a turbine system, compressor system, an underground air storage reservoir, and a motor/generator. Proposed plant designs use turbines that are derived from available gas and steam turbines with proven reliability. The study examines proposed turbine systems and presents an evaluation of possible systems that may reduce capital cost and/or improve performance. Six new turbine systems are identified for further economic evaluation.

  11. Design and Analysis of a Solar-Powered Compressed Air Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    sized PV panel arrays. Kim et al. [49] and Manfrida et al. [50] proposed that a SS-AA- CAES system using COTS parts could be made more economical by...directly improve system efficiency. Furthermore, the power formulas derived using this approach can easily be used to both size the compressor based on...48] Villela, D., Kasinathan, V., De Valle, S., 2010, “Compressed-Air Energy Storage Systems for Stand-Alone Off-Grid Photovoltaic Modules

  12. The investigation on compressed air quality analysis results of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, K. B.; Kim, H. K.; Kim, W. S.

    2000-01-01

    The compressed air system of nuclear power plants provides pneumatic power for both operation and control of various plant equipment, tools, and instrumentation. Included in the air supply systems are the compressors, coolers, moisture separators, dryers, filters and air receiver tanks that make up the major items of equipment. The service air system provides oil-free compressed air for general plant and maintenance use and the instrument air system provides dry, oil-free, compressed air for both nonessential and essential components and instruments. NRC recommended the periodic checks on GL88-14 'Instrument air supply system problems affecting safety-related equipment'. To ensure that the quality of the instrument air is equivalent to or exceeds the requirement s of ISA-S7.3(1975), air samples are taken at every refueling outage and analyzed for moisture, oil and particulate content. The over all results are satisfied the requirements of ISA-S7.3

  13. Economics of compressed air energy storage to integrate wind power: A case study in ERCOT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fertig, Emily, E-mail: efertig@andrew.cmu.ed [Carnegie Mellon Electricity Industry Center, Department of Engineering and Public Policy and Tepper School of Business, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Apt, Jay [Carnegie Mellon Electricity Industry Center, Department of Engineering and Public Policy and Tepper School of Business, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Compressed air energy storage (CAES) could be paired with a wind farm to provide firm, dispatchable baseload power, or serve as a peaking plant and capture upswings in electricity prices. We present a firm-level engineering-economic analysis of a wind/CAES system with a wind farm in central Texas, load in either Dallas or Houston, and a CAES plant whose location is profit-optimized. With 2008 hourly prices and load in Houston, the economically optimal CAES expander capacity is unrealistically large - 24 GW - and dispatches for only a few hours per week when prices are highest; a price cap and capacity payment likewise results in a large (17 GW) profit-maximizing CAES expander. Under all other scenarios considered the CAES plant is unprofitable. Using 2008 data, a baseload wind/CAES system is less profitable than a natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) plant at carbon prices less than $56/tCO{sub 2} ($15/MMBTU gas) to $230/tCO{sub 2} ($5/MMBTU gas). Entering regulation markets raises profit only slightly. Social benefits of CAES paired with wind include avoided construction of new generation capacity, improved air quality during peak times, and increased economic surplus, but may not outweigh the private cost of the CAES system nor justify a subsidy. - Research highlights: {yields} Sizes of CAES and transmission paired with a Texas wind farm are optimized for profit. {yields} A profit-maximizing wind farm owner would not invest in a dedicated CAES system. {yields} The social benefit of a wind/CAES system is unlikely to outweigh private cost. {yields} CAES cannot cost-effectively smooth wind power with plausible imminent carbon prices.

  14. Economics of compressed air energy storage to integrate wind power: A case study in ERCOT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fertig, Emily; Apt, Jay

    2011-01-01

    Compressed air energy storage (CAES) could be paired with a wind farm to provide firm, dispatchable baseload power, or serve as a peaking plant and capture upswings in electricity prices. We present a firm-level engineering-economic analysis of a wind/CAES system with a wind farm in central Texas, load in either Dallas or Houston, and a CAES plant whose location is profit-optimized. With 2008 hourly prices and load in Houston, the economically optimal CAES expander capacity is unrealistically large - 24 GW - and dispatches for only a few hours per week when prices are highest; a price cap and capacity payment likewise results in a large (17 GW) profit-maximizing CAES expander. Under all other scenarios considered the CAES plant is unprofitable. Using 2008 data, a baseload wind/CAES system is less profitable than a natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) plant at carbon prices less than $56/tCO 2 ($15/MMBTU gas) to $230/tCO 2 ($5/MMBTU gas). Entering regulation markets raises profit only slightly. Social benefits of CAES paired with wind include avoided construction of new generation capacity, improved air quality during peak times, and increased economic surplus, but may not outweigh the private cost of the CAES system nor justify a subsidy. - Research highlights: → Sizes of CAES and transmission paired with a Texas wind farm are optimized for profit. → A profit-maximizing wind farm owner would not invest in a dedicated CAES system. → The social benefit of a wind/CAES system is unlikely to outweigh private cost. → CAES cannot cost-effectively smooth wind power with plausible imminent carbon prices.

  15. Simulation and analysis of different adiabatic Compressed Air Energy Storage plant configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, Niklas; Vöhringer, O.; Kruck, C.; Eltrop, L.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We modeled several configurations of an adiabatic Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) plant. ► We analyzed changes in efficiency of these configurations under varying operating conditions. ► The efficiency of the adiabatic CAES plant can reach about 70% for the isentropic configuration. ► In the polytropic case, the efficiency is about 10% lower (at about 60%) than in the isentropic configuration. ► The efficiency is highest for a two-stage CAES configuration and highly dependent on the cooling and heating demand. - Abstract: In this paper, the efficiency of one full charging and discharging cycle of several adiabatic Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) configurations are analyzed with the help of an energy balance. In the second step main driving factors for the efficiency of the CAES configurations are examined with the help of sensitivity analysis. The results show that the efficiency of the polytropic configuration is about 60%, which is considerable lower than literature values of an adiabatic CAES of about 70%. The high value of 70% is only reached for the isentropic (ideal) configuration. Key element to improve the efficiency is to develop high temperature thermal storages (>600 °C) and temperature resistant materials for compressors. The highest efficiency is delivered by the two-stage adiabatic CAES configuration. In this case the efficiency varies between 52% and 62%, depending on the cooling and heating demand. If the cooling is achieved by natural sources (such as a river), a realistic estimation of the efficiency of adiabatic Compressed Air Energy Storages (without any greenhouse gas emissions due to fuel consumption) is about 60%.

  16. Compressed Air Quality, A Case Study In Paiton Coal Fired Power Plant Unit 1 And 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indah, Nur; Kusuma, Yuriadi; Mardani

    2018-03-01

    The compressed air system becomes part of a very important utility system in a Plant, including the Steam Power Plant. In PLN’S coal fired power plant, Paiton units 1 and 2, there are four Centrifugal air compressor types, which produce compressed air as much as 5.652 cfm and with electric power capacity of 1200 kW. Electricity consumption to operate centrifugal compressor is 7.104.117 kWh per year. Compressed air generation is not only sufficient in quantity (flow rate) but also meets the required air quality standards. compressed air at Steam Power Plant is used for; service air, Instrument air, and for fly Ash. This study aims to measure some important parameters related to air quality, followed by potential disturbance analysis, equipment breakdown or reduction of energy consumption from existing compressed air conditions. These measurements include counting the number of dust particles, moisture content, relative humidity, and also compressed air pressure. From the measurements, the compressed air pressure generated by the compressor is about 8.4 barg and decreased to 7.7 barg at the furthest point, so the pressure drop is 0.63 barg, this number satisfies the needs in the end user. The measurement of the number of particles contained in compressed air, for particle of 0.3 micron reaches 170,752 particles, while for the particle size 0.5 micron reaches 45,245 particles. Measurements of particles conducted at several points of measurement. For some point measurements the number of dust particle exceeds the standard set by ISO 8573.1-2010 and also NACE Code, so it needs to be improved on the air treatment process. To see the amount of moisture content in compressed air, it is done by measuring pressure dew point temperature (PDP). Measurements were made at several points with results ranging from -28.4 to 30.9 °C. The recommendation of improving compressed air quality in steam power plant, Paiton unit 1 and 2 has the potential to extend the life of

  17. Impacts of compressed air energy storage plant on an electricity market with a large renewable energy portfolio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, A.; Díaz Lobera, I.

    2013-01-01

    Renewable energy generation is expected to continue to increase globally due to renewable energy targets and obligations to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Some renewable energy sources are variable power sources, for example wind, wave and solar. Energy storage technologies can manage the issues associated with variable renewable generation and align non-dispatchable renewable energy generation with load demands. Energy storage technologies can play different roles in each of the step of the electric power supply chain. Moreover, large scale energy storage systems can act as renewable energy integrators by smoothing the variability. Compressed air energy storage is one such technology. This paper examines the impacts of a compressed air energy storage facility in a pool based wholesale electricity market in a power system with a large renewable energy portfolio

  18. Automated control of a solar microgrid-powered air compressor for use in a small-scale compressed air energy storage system

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Joshua N.

    2017-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited As part of the Office of Naval Research's study of advanced energy technologies, this research examined the development and implementation of a control system for the compression phase of a small-scale compressed air energy storage system, using a solar-powered microgrid to store energy as compressed air for later use. The compression system is composed of numerous commercial-off-the-shelf components wherever possible. All electronic c...

  19. Compressed Air Energy Storage in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salgi, Georges Garabeth; Lund, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    is analysed with regard to the Danish energy system. In Denmark, wind power supplies 20% of the electricity demand and 50% is produced by combined heat and power (CHP). The operation of CAES requires high electricity price volatility. However, in the Nordic region, large hydro capacities have so far kept......Compressed air energy storage system (CAES) is a technology which can be used for integrating more fluctuating renewable energy sources into the electricity supply system. On a utility scale, CAES has a high feasibility potential compared to other storage technologies. Here, the technology...

  20. Seneca Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-11-30

    This document provides specifications for the process air compressor for a compressed air storage project, requests a budgetary quote, and provides supporting information, including compressor data, site specific data, water analysis, and Seneca CAES value drivers.

  1. Compressed-air and backup nitrogen systems in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, E.W.

    1982-07-01

    This report reviews and evaluates the performance of the compressed-air and pressurized-nitrogen gas systems in commercial nuclear power units. The information was collected from readily available operating experiences, licensee event reports, system designs in safety analysis reports, and regulatory documents. The results are collated and analyzed for significance and impact on power plant safety performance. Under certain circumstances, the fail-safe philosophy for a piece of equipment or subsystem of the compressed-air systems initiated a series of actions culminating in reactor transient or unit scram. However, based on this study of prevailing operating experiences, reclassifying the compressed-gas systems to a higher safety level will neither prevent (nor mitigate) the reoccurrences of such happenings nor alleviate nuclear power plant problems caused by inadequate maintenance, operating procedures, and/or practices. Conversely, because most of the problems were derived from the sources listed previously, upgrading of both maintenance and operating procedures will not only result in substantial improvement in the performance and availability of the compressed-air (and backup nitrogen) systems but in improved overall plant performance

  2. Optimal design of compressed air energy storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahrens, F. W.; Sharma, A.; Ragsdell, K. M.

    1979-01-01

    Compressed air energy storage (CAES) power systems are currently being considered by various electric utilities for load-leveling applications. Models of CAES systems which employ natural underground aquifer formations, and present an optimal design methodology which demonstrates their economic viability are developed. This approach is based upon a decomposition of the CAES plant and utility grid system into three partially-decoupled subsystems. Numerical results are given for a plant employing the Media, Illinois Galesville aquifer formation.

  3. Efficiency of Compressed Air Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmegaard, Brian; Brix, Wiebke

    2011-01-01

    The simplest type of a Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) facility would be an adiabatic process consisting only of a compressor, a storage and a turbine, compressing air into a container when storing and expanding when producing. This type of CAES would be adiabatic and would if the machines...... were reversible have a storage efficiency of 100%. However, due to the specific capacity of the storage and the construction materials the air is cooled during and after compression in practice, making the CAES process diabatic. The cooling involves exergy losses and thus lowers the efficiency...... of the storage significantly. The efficiency of CAES as an electricity storage may be defined in several ways, we discuss these and find that the exergetic efficiency of compression, storage and production together determine the efficiency of CAES. In the paper we find that the efficiency of the practical CAES...

  4. Adiabatic liquid piston compressed air energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, Tage [Danish Technological Institute, Aarhus (Denmark); Elmegaard, B. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Mechanical Engineering, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Schroeder Pedersen, A. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Energy Conversion, Risoe Campus, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2013-01-15

    This project investigates the potential of a Compressed Air Energy Storage system (CAES system). CAES systems are used to store mechanical energy in the form of compressed air. The systems use electricity to drive the compressor at times of low electricity demand with the purpose of converting the mechanical energy into electricity at times of high electricity demand. Two such systems are currently in operation; one in Germany (Huntorf) and one in the USA (Macintosh, Alabama). In both cases, an underground cavern is used as a pressure vessel for the storage of the compressed air. Both systems are in the range of 100 MW electrical power output with several hours of production stored as compressed air. In this range, enormous volumes are required, which make underground caverns the only economical way to design the pressure vessel. Both systems use axial turbine compressors to compress air when charging the system. The compression leads to a significant increase in temperature, and the heat generated is dumped into the ambient. This energy loss results in a low efficiency of the system, and when expanding the air, the expansion leads to a temperature drop reducing the mechanical output of the expansion turbines. To overcome this, fuel is burned to heat up the air prior to expansion. The fuel consumption causes a significant cost for the storage. Several suggestions have been made to store compression heat for later use during expansion and thereby avoid the use of fuel (so called Adiabatic CAES units), but no such units are in operation at present. The CAES system investigated in this project uses a different approach to avoid compression heat loss. The system uses a pre-compressed pressure vessel full of air. A liquid is pumped into the bottom of the vessel when charging and the same liquid is withdrawn through a turbine when discharging. In this case, the liquid works effectively as a piston compressing the gas in the vessel, hence the name &apos

  5. Multi-objective optimization and exergoeconomic analysis of a combined cooling, heating and power based compressed air energy storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Erren; Wang, Huanran; Wang, Ligang; Xi, Guang; Maréchal, François

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel tri-generation based compressed air energy storage system. • Trade-off between efficiency and cost to highlight the best compromise solution. • Components with largest irreversibility and potential improvements highlighted. - Abstract: Compressed air energy storage technologies can improve the supply capacity and stability of the electricity grid, particularly when fluctuating renewable energies are massively connected. While incorporating the combined cooling, heating and power systems into compressed air energy storage could achieve stable operation as well as efficient energy utilization. In this paper, a novel combined cooling, heating and power based compressed air energy storage system is proposed. The system combines a gas engine, supplemental heat exchangers and an ammonia-water absorption refrigeration system. The design trade-off between the thermodynamic and economic objectives, i.e., the overall exergy efficiency and the total specific cost of product, is investigated by an evolutionary multi-objective algorithm for the proposed combined system. It is found that, with an increase in the exergy efficiency, the total product unit cost is less affected in the beginning, while rises substantially afterwards. The best trade-off solution is selected with an overall exergy efficiency of 53.04% and a total product unit cost of 20.54 cent/kWh, respectively. The variation of decision variables with the exergy efficiency indicates that the compressor, turbine and heat exchanger preheating the inlet air of turbine are the key equipment to cost-effectively pursuit a higher exergy efficiency. It is also revealed by an exergoeconomic analysis that, for the best trade-off solution, the investment costs of the compressor and the two heat exchangers recovering compression heat and heating up compressed air for expansion should be reduced (particularly the latter), while the thermodynamic performance of the gas engine need to be improved

  6. University of Arizona Compressed Air Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, Joseph [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Muralidharan, Krishna [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2012-12-31

    Boiled down to its essentials, the grant’s purpose was to develop and demonstrate the viability of compressed air energy storage (CAES) for use in renewable energy development. While everyone agrees that energy storage is the key component to enable widespread adoption of renewable energy sources, the development of a viable scalable technology has been missing. The Department of Energy has focused on expanded battery research and improved forecasting, and the utilities have deployed renewable energy resources only to the extent of satisfying Renewable Portfolio Standards. The lack of dispatchability of solar and wind-based electricity generation has drastically increased the cost of operation with these components. It is now clear that energy storage coupled with accurate solar and wind forecasting make up the only combination that can succeed in dispatchable renewable energy resources. Conventional batteries scale linearly in size, so the price becomes a barrier for large systems. Flow batteries scale sub-linearly and promise to be useful if their performance can be shown to provide sufficient support for solar and wind-base electricity generation resources. Compressed air energy storage provides the most desirable answer in terms of scalability and performance in all areas except efficiency. With the support of the DOE, Tucson Electric Power and Science Foundation Arizona, the Arizona Research Institute for Solar Energy (AzRISE) at the University of Arizona has had the opportunity to investigate CAES as a potential energy storage resource.

  7. Siting-selection study for the Soyland Power Cooperative, Inc. , compressed-air energy-storage system (CAES)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    A method used for siting a compressed air energy storage (CAES) system using geotechnical and environmental criteria is explained using the siting of a proposed 220 MW water-compensated CAES plant in Illinois as an example. Information is included on the identification and comparative ranking of 28 geotechnically and environmental sites in Illinois, the examination of fatal flaws, e.g., mitigation, intensive studies, costly studies, permit denials, at 7 sites; and the selection of 3 sites for further geological surveying. (LCL)

  8. Saline Cavern Adiabatic Compressed Air Energy Storage Using Sand as Heat Storage Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Haemmerle

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Adiabatic compressed air energy storage systems offer large energy storage capacities and power outputs beyond 100MWel. Salt production in Austria produces large caverns which are able to hold pressure up to 100 bar, thus providing low cost pressurized air storage reservoirs for adiabatic compressed air energy storage plants. In this paper the results of a feasibility study is presented, which was financed by the Austrian Research Promotion Agency, with the objective to determine the adiabatic compressed air energy storage potential of Austria’s salt caverns. The study contains designs of realisable plants with capacities between 10 and 50 MWel, applying a high temperature energy storage system currently developed at the Institute for Energy Systems and Thermodynamics in Vienna. It could be shown that the overall storage potential of Austria’s salt caverns exceeds a total of 4GWhel in the year 2030 and, assuming an adequate performance of the heat exchanger, that a 10MWel adiabatic compressed air energy storage plant in Upper Austria is currently feasible using state of the art thermal turbomachinery which is able to provide a compressor discharge temperature of 400 °C.

  9. Economic and technical feasibility study of compressed air storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-03-01

    The results of a study of the economic and technical feasibility of compressed air energy storage (CAES) are presented. The study, which concentrated primarily on the application of underground air storage with combustion turbines, consisted of two phases. In the first phase a general assessment of the technical alternatives, economic characteristics and the institutional constraints associated with underground storage of compressed air for utility peaking application was carried out. The goal of this assessment was to identify potential barrier problems and to define the incentive for the implementation of compressed air storage. In the second phase, the general conclusions of the assessment were tested by carrying out the conceptual design of a CAES plant at two specific sites, and a program of further work indicated by the assessment study was formulated. The conceptual design of a CAES plant employing storage in an aquifer and that of a plant employing storage in a conventionally excavated cavern employing a water leg to maintain constant pressure are shown. Recommendations for further work, as well as directions of future turbo-machinery development, are made. It is concluded that compressed air storage is technically feasible for off-peak energy storage, and, depending on site conditions, CAES plants may be favored over simple cycle turbine plants to meet peak demands. (LCL)

  10. Economic Modeling of Compressed Air Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Bo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to the variable nature of wind resources, the increasing penetration level of wind power will have a significant impact on the operation and planning of the electric power system. Energy storage systems are considered an effective way to compensate for the variability of wind generation. This paper presents a detailed production cost simulation model to evaluate the economic value of compressed air energy storage (CAES in systems with large-scale wind power generation. The co-optimization of energy and ancillary services markets is implemented in order to analyze the impacts of CAES, not only on energy supply, but also on system operating reserves. Both hourly and 5-minute simulations are considered to capture the economic performance of CAES in the day-ahead (DA and real-time (RT markets. The generalized network flow formulation is used to model the characteristics of CAES in detail. The proposed model is applied on a modified IEEE 24-bus reliability test system. The numerical example shows that besides the economic benefits gained through energy arbitrage in the DA market, CAES can also generate significant profits by providing reserves, compensating for wind forecast errors and intra-hour fluctuation, and participating in the RT market.

  11. Seneca Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2012-11-30

    Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) is a hybrid energy storage and generation concept that has many potential benefits especially in a location with increasing percentages of intermittent wind energy generation. The objectives of the NYSEG Seneca CAES Project included: for Phase 1, development of a Front End Engineering Design for a 130MW to 210 MW utility-owned facility including capital costs; project financials based on the engineering design and forecasts of energy market revenues; design of the salt cavern to be used for air storage; draft environmental permit filings; and draft NYISO interconnection filing; for Phase 2, objectives included plant construction with a target in-service date of mid-2016; and for Phase 3, objectives included commercial demonstration, testing, and two-years of performance reporting. This Final Report is presented now at the end of Phase 1 because NYSEG has concluded that the economics of the project are not favorable for development in the current economic environment in New York State. The proposed site is located in NYSEG’s service territory in the Town of Reading, New York, at the southern end of Seneca Lake, in New York State’s Finger Lakes region. The landowner of the proposed site is Inergy, a company that owns the salt solution mining facility at this property. Inergy would have developed a new air storage cavern facility to be designed for NYSEG specifically for the Seneca CAES project. A large volume, natural gas storage facility owned and operated by Inergy is also located near this site and would have provided a source of high pressure pipeline quality natural gas for use in the CAES plant. The site has an electrical take-away capability of 210 MW via two NYSEG 115 kV circuits located approximately one half mile from the plant site. Cooling tower make-up water would have been supplied from Seneca Lake. NYSEG’s engineering consultant WorleyParsons Group thoroughly evaluated three CAES designs and concluded that any

  12. Researches on the CAES (Compressed Air Energy Storage) system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin Hee Soon; Kang, Sang Soo; Kwon, Kwang Soo [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)] [and others

    1998-12-01

    CAES which is called as a compressed air energy storage was firstly developed at Huntorf, German in 1978. The capacity of that system was 290 MW, and it can be treated as a first commercial power plant. CAES has a lot of merits, such as saving the unit price of power generation, averaging the peak demand, improvement of maintenance, enlarging the benefit of dynamic use. According to the literature survey, the unlined rock cavern should be proposed to be a reasonable storing style as a method of compressed air storage in Korea. In this study, the most important techniques were evaluated through the investigation of the foreign construction case studies, especially on the unlined rock caverns in hard rock mass. We decided the hill of the Korea Institute of Geology, Mining and materials as CAES site. If we construct the underground spaces in this site, the demand for electricity nearby Taejon should be considered. So we could determine the capacity of the power plant as a 350 MW. This capacity needs a underground space of 200,000 m{sup 3}, and we can conclude 4 parallel tunnels through the numerical studies. Design parameters were achieved from 300 m depth boring job and image processing job. Moreover the techniques for determination of joint characteristics from the images could be obtained. Blasting pattern was designed on the underground spaces, and automatic gas control system and thermomechanical characteristics on caverns were also studied. (author). 51 refs., 79 tabs., 114 figs.

  13. Anti-seismic analysis for air storage tank used in the nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua Jun; Ren Xin; Feng Ping

    2011-01-01

    This text calculates and analyses the structure of the air storage tank used for the SBO diesel generator set of Taishan nuclear power plant through finite element method, and simply introduces the mechanical modeling, loading condition and seismic response spectrum analyzing method for the structure, then get the natural frequency, vibration mode and response under seismic load of the structure through calculation. Evaluate the stress under the combined load such as gravity, internal stress, earthquake of the structure according to RCCM. The result shows that the structure intensity of the air storage tank meets the requirements of the specification. The calculating result gives the accordance for the seismic design of the air storage tank. (authors)

  14. Preliminary feasibility evalution of compressed air storage power systems. Volume II. Appendices, period June 1975--December 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-12-01

    Interest in compressed air storage has been developing in Sweden, Finland, Denmark, England, and France, as well as the United States. One commercial unit is under construction in Huntorf, West Germany. Compressed air for peak power can be stored either in natural or man-made caverns. Only new excavations in hard rock down to depths of about 2500 feet are considered in this report. In 1974, conditions for underground storage were discussed in a Geological Survey of Potential Cavern Areas in New England, referred to as the CAINE report. In this survey of the northeast region, the rest of the corridor between Washington and Boston has been added. The rock formations in the entire area of about 45,000 square miles are evaluated. The physical properties of rocks and criteria for their evaluation in underground openings are discussed. Methods of rock excavation and the basis for selecting areas are considered. Information on bedrock units along the corridor is reviewed. A list of favorable rock formations is included.

  15. Legal and regulatory issues affecting compressed air energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, P.L.

    1981-07-01

    Several regulatory and legal issues that can potentially affect implementation of a compressed air energy storage (CAES) system are discussed. This technology involves the compression of air using base load electric power for storage in an underground storage medium. The air is subsequently released and allowed to pass through a turbine to generate electricity during periods of peak demand. The storage media considered most feasible are a mined hard rock cavern, a solution-mined cavern in a salt deposit, and a porous geologic formation (normally an aquifer) of suitable structure. The issues are discussed in four categories: regulatory issues common to most CAES facilities regardless of storage medium, regulatory issues applicable to particular CAES reservoir media, issues related to possible liability from CAES operations, and issues related to acquisition of appropriate property rights for CAES implementation. The focus is on selected federal regulation. Lesser attention is given to state and local regulation. (WHK)

  16. A new compressed air energy storage refrigeration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shenglong; Chen Guangming; Fang Ming; Wang Qin

    2006-01-01

    In this study, a new compressed air energy storage (CAES) refrigeration system is proposed for electrical power load shifting application. It is a combination of a gas refrigeration cycle and a vapor compression refrigeration cycle. Thermodynamic calculations are conducted to investigate the performance of this system. Economic analysis is performed to study the operating cost of the system, and comparison is made with a vapor compression refrigeration system and an ice storage refrigeration system. The results indicate that the CAES refrigeration system has the advantages of simple structure, high efficiency and low operating cost

  17. Trigenerative micro compressed air energy storage: Concept and thermodynamic assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facci, Andrea L.; Sánchez, David; Jannelli, Elio; Ubertini, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The trigenerative-CAES concept is introduced. • The thermodynamic feasibility of the trigenerative-CAES is assessed. • The effects of the relevant parameter on the system performances are dissected. • Technological issues on the trigenerative-CAES are highlighted. - Abstract: Energy storage is a cutting edge front for renewable and sustainable energy research. In fact, a massive exploitation of intermittent renewable sources, such as wind and sun, requires the introduction of effective mechanical energy storage systems. In this paper we introduce the concept of a trigenerative energy storage based on a compressed air system. The plant in study is a simplified design of the adiabatic compressed air energy storage and accumulates mechanical and thermal (both hot and cold) energy at the same time. We envisage the possibility to realize a relatively small size trigenerative compressed air energy storage to be placed close to the energy demand, according to the distributed generation paradigm. Here, we describe the plant concept and we identify all the relevant parameters influencing its thermodynamic behavior. Their effects are dissected through an accurate thermodynamic model. The most relevant technological issues, such as the guidelines for a proper choice of the compressor, expander and heat exchangers are also addressed. Our results show that T-CAES may have an interesting potential as a distributed system that combines electricity storage with heat and cooling energy production. We also show that the performances are significantly influenced by some operating and design parameters, whose feasibility in real applications must be considered.

  18. Seneca Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2012-11-30

    This report provides a review and an analysis of potential environmental justice areas that could be affected by the New York State Electric & Gas (NYSEG) compress air energy storage (CAES) project and identifies existing environmental burden conditions on the area and evaluates additional burden of any significant adverse environmental impact. The review assesses the socioeconomic and demographic conditions of the area surrounding the proposed CAES facility in Schuyler County, New York. Schuyler County is one of 62 counties in New York. Schuyler County’s 2010 population of 18,343 makes it one of the least populated counties in the State (U.S. Census Bureau, 2010). This report was prepared for WorleyParsons by ERM and describes the study area investigated, methods and criteria used to evaluate this area, and the findings and conclusions from the evaluation.

  19. Present situation of the electric power storage technology and its future outlook. IV. ; Compressed air energy storage. Denryoku Chozo gijutsu no genjo to shorai tenbo ni tsuibe. IV. ; Asshuku kuki chozo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadoyu, M. (Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-03-20

    The compressed air energy storage gas turbine power generation system is paid attetion to as a load levelling power source in view of the recent increase in electric power demand. The paper describes features, cavern construction technology, economy and future expansion of the system. In this system compressed air made by use of cheap night-time electric power is stored in underground spaces or underwater facilities. Burning the fuel together with this compressed air in the daytime, the gas turbine power generation is conducted. Several examples overseas of this system are reported including a 290,000KW class in Germany. A key technology of the system is how safely and cheaply a large amount of hih-pressure air can be stored. In Europe and America, caverns of hundreds of thousand m {sub 3} are constructed in the rock salt cavern which can be excavated by a water jet. In consideration of storing it in rock beds in Japan where there are no rock salt caverns, NEDO started 1990 a 9-year construction plan of a 35,000 KW class pilot plant at Kamisunagawa, Hokkaido. 2 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Control System Development for Power Generation from Small-Scale Compressed Air Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    35  Figure 26  Control Program Flowchart ...Figure 26 Control Program Flowchart 1. Resetting Variables The Micro850 has internal memory that stores the last state of variables when power is...Research, Energy Systems Technology Evaluation Program (ESTEP), under the technical monitoring of Stacey Curtis, Marissa Brand and Richard Carlin 10

  1. Adiabatic Liquid Piston Compressed Air Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Tage; Elmegaard, Brian; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder

    the system. The compression leads to a significant increase in temperature, and the heat generated is dumped into the ambient. This energy loss results in a low efficiency of the system, and when expanding the air, the expansion leads to a temperature drop reducing the mechanical output of the expansion......), but no such units are in operation at present. The CAES system investigated in this project uses a different approach to avoid compression heat loss. The system uses a pre-compressed pressure vessel full of air. A liquid is pumped into the bottom of the vessel when charging and the same liquid is withdrawn through......-CAES system is significantly higher than existing CAES systems due to a low or nearly absent compression heat loss. Furthermore, pumps/turbines, which use a liquid as a medium, are more efficient than air/gas compressors/turbines. In addition, the demand for fuel during expansion does not occur. •The energy...

  2. Energy storage by compressed air. [using windpowered pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szego, G. C.

    1973-01-01

    The feasibility of windpower energy storage by compressed air is considered. The system is comprised of a compressor, a motor, and a pump turbine to store air in caverns or aquifiers. It is proposed that storage of several days worth of compressed air up to 650 pounds per square inch can be used to push the aquifier up closer to the container dome and thus initiate piston action by simply compressing air more and more. More energy can be put into it by pressure increase or pushing back the water in the aquifier. This storage system concept has reheat flexibility and lowest cost effectiveness.

  3. Coal-fuelled systems for peaking power with 100% CO2 capture through integration of solid oxide fuel cells with compressed air energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nease, Jake; Adams, Thomas A.

    2014-04-01

    In this study, a coal-fuelled integrated solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and compressed air energy storage (CAES) system in a load-following power production scenario is discussed. Sixteen SOFC-based plants with optional carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) and syngas shifting steps are simulated and compared to a state-of-the-art supercritical pulverised coal (SCPC) plant. Simulations are performed using a combination of MATLAB and Aspen Plus v7.3. It was found that adding CAES to a SOFC-based plant can provide load-following capabilities with relatively small effects on efficiencies (1-2% HHV depending on the system configuration) and levelized costs of electricity (∼0.35 ¢ kW-1 h-1). The load-following capabilities, as measured by least-squares metrics, show that this system may utilize coal and achieve excellent load-tracking that is not adversely affected by the inclusion of CCS. Adding CCS to the SOFC/CAES system reduces measurable direct CO2 emission to zero. A seasonal partial plant shutdown schedule is found to reduce fuel consumption by 9.5% while allowing for cleaning and maintenance windows for the SOFC stacks without significantly affecting the performance of the system (∼1% HHV reduction in efficiency). The SOFC-based systems with CCS are found to become economically attractive relative to SCPC above carbon taxes of 22 ton-1.

  4. Economics of compressed air energy storage employing thermal energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulte, S.C.; Reilly, R.W.

    1979-11-01

    The approach taken in this study is to adopt system design and capital cost estimates from three independent CAES studies (eight total designs) and, by supplying a common set of fuel/energy costs and economic assumptions in conjunction with a common methodology, to arrive at a series of levelized energy costs over the system's lifetime. In addition, some analyses are provided to gauge the sensitivity of these levelized energy costs to fuel and compression energy costs and to system capacity factors. The systems chosen for comparison are of four generic types: conventional CAES, hybrid CAES, adiabatic CAES, and an advanced-design gas turbine (GT). In conventional CAES systems the heat of compression generated during the storage operation is rejected to the environment, and later, during the energy-generation phase, turbine fuel must be burned to reheat the compressed air. In the hybrid systems some of the heat of compression is stored and reapplied later during the generation phase, thereby reducing turbine fuel requirements. The adiabatic systems store adequate thermal energy to eliminate the need for turbine fuel entirely. The gas turbine is included within the report for comparison purposes; it is an advanced-design turbine, one that is expected to be available by 1985.

  5. Geothermally Coupled Well-Based Compressed Air Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, C L [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bearden, Mark D [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Horner, Jacob A [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Appriou, Delphine [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McGrail, B Peter [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Previous work by McGrail et al. (2013, 2015) has evaluated the possibility of pairing compressed air energy storage with geothermal resources in lieu of a fossil-fired power generation component, and suggests that such applications may be cost competitive where geology is favorable to siting both the geothermal and CAES components of such a system. Those studies also note that the collocation of subsurface resources that meet both sets of requirements are difficult to find in areas that also offer infrastructure and near- to mid-term market demand for energy storage. This study examines a novel application for the compressed air storage portion of the project by evaluating the potential to store compressed air in disused wells by amending well casings to serve as subsurface pressure vessels. Because the wells themselves would function in lieu of a geologic storage reservoir for the CAES element of the project, siting could focus on locations with suitable geothermal resources, as long as there was also existing wellfield infrastructure that could be repurposed for air storage. Existing wellfields abound in the United States, and with current low energy prices, many recently productive fields are now shut in. Should energy prices remain stagnant, these idle fields will be prime candidates for decommissioning unless they can be transitioned to other uses, such as redevelopment for energy storage. In addition to the nation’s ubiquitous oil and gas fields, geothermal fields, because of their phased production lifetimes, also may offer many abandoned wellbores that could be used for other purposes, often near currently productive geothermal resources. These existing fields offer an opportunity to decrease exploration and development uncertainty by leveraging data developed during prior field characterization, drilling, and production. They may also offer lower-cost deployment options for hybrid geothermal systems via redevelopment of existing well-field infrastructure

  6. Geothermally Coupled Well-Based Compressed Air Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, Casie L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bearden, Mark D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Horner, Jacob A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cabe, James E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Appriou, Delphine [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McGrail, B. Peter [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-20

    Previous work by McGrail et al. (2013, 2015) has evaluated the possibility of pairing compressed air energy storage with geothermal resources in lieu of a fossil-fired power generation component, and suggests that such applications may be cost competitive where geology is favorable to siting both the geothermal and CAES components of such a system. Those studies also note that the collocation of subsurface resources that meet both sets of requirements are difficult to find in areas that also offer infrastructure and near- to mid-term market demand for energy storage. This study examines a novel application for the compressed air storage portion of the project by evaluating the potential to store compressed air in disused wells by amending well casings to serve as subsurface pressure vessels. Because the wells themselves would function in lieu of a geologic storage reservoir for the CAES element of the project, siting could focus on locations with suitable geothermal resources, as long as there was also existing wellfield infrastructure that could be repurposed for air storage. Existing wellfields abound in the United States, and with current low energy prices, many recently productive fields are now shut in. Should energy prices remain stagnant, these idle fields will be prime candidates for decommissioning unless they can be transitioned to other uses, such as redevelopment for energy storage. In addition to the nation’s ubiquitous oil and gas fields, geothermal fields, because of their phased production lifetimes, also may offer many abandoned wellbores that could be used for other purposes, often near currently productive geothermal resources. These existing fields offer an opportunity to decrease exploration and development uncertainty by leveraging data developed during prior field characterization, drilling, and production. They may also offer lower-cost deployment options for hybrid geothermal systems via redevelopment of existing well-field infrastructure

  7. Technical and economic assessment of fluidized bed augmented compressed air energy storage system. Volume III. Preconceptual design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giramonti, A.J.; Lessard, R.D.; Merrick, D.; Hobson, M.J.

    1981-09-01

    A technical and economic assessment of fluidized bed combustion augmented compressed air energy storage systems is presented. The results of this assessment effort are presented in three volumes. Volume III - Preconceptual Design contains the system analysis which led to the identification of a preferred component configuration for a fluidized bed combustion augmented compressed air energy storage system, the results of the effort which transformed the preferred configuration into preconceptual power plant design, and an introductory evaluation of the performance of the power plant system during part-load operation and while load following.

  8. Design and thermodynamic analysis of a hybrid energy storage system based on A-CAES (adiabatic compressed air energy storage) and FESS (flywheel energy storage system) for wind power application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Pan; Dai, Yiping; Wang, Jiangfeng

    2014-01-01

    Electricity generated from renewable wind sources is highly erratic due to the intermittent nature of wind. This uncertainty of wind power can lead to challenges regarding power system operation and dispatch. Energy storage system in conjunction with wind energy system can offset these effects, making the wind power controllable. Moreover, the power spectrum of wind power exhibits that the fluctuations of wind power include various components with different frequencies and amplitudes. Thus, the hybrid energy storage system is more suitable for smoothing out the wind power fluctuations effectively rather than the independent energy storage system. A hybrid energy storage system consisting of adiabatic compressed air energy storage (A-CAES) system and flywheel energy storage system (FESS) is proposed for wind energy application. The design of the proposed system is laid out firstly. The A-CAES system operates in variable cavern pressure, constant turbine inlet pressure mode, whereas the FESS is controlled by constant power strategy. Then, the off-design analysis of the proposed system is carried out. Meanwhile, a parametric analysis is also performed to investigate the effects of several parameters on the system performance, including the ambient conditions, inlet temperature of compressor, storage cavern temperature, maximum and minimum pressures of storage cavern. - Highlights: • A wind-hybrid energy storage system composed of A-CAES and FESS is proposed. • The design of the proposed hybrid energy storage system is laid out. • The off-design analysis of the proposed system is carried out. • A parametric analysis is conducted to examine the system performance

  9. Use of compressed-air storage systems; Einsatz von Druckluftspeichersystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cyphely, I.; Rufer, A.; Brueckmann, Ph.; Menhardt, W.; Reller, A.

    2004-07-01

    This final report issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) looks at the use of compressed air as a means of storing energy. Historical aspects are listed and compressed-air storage as an alternative to current ideas that use electrolysis and hydrogen storage is discussed. The storage efficiency advantages of compressed-air storage is stressed and the possibilities it offers for compensating the stochastic nature of electricity production from renewable energy sources are discussed. The so-called BOP (Battery with Oil-hydraulics and Pneumatics) principle for the storage of electricity is discussed and its function is described. The advantages offered by such a system are listed and the development focus necessary is discussed.

  10. Air ejector augmented compressed air energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, F.W.; Kartsounes, G.T.

    Energy is stored in slack demand periods by charging a plurality of underground reservoirs with air to the same peak storage pressure, during peak demand periods throttling the air from one storage reservoir into a gas turbine system at a constant inlet pressure until the air presure in the reservoir falls to said constant inlet pressure, thereupon permitting air in a second reservoir to flow into said gas turbine system while drawing air from the first reservoir through a variable geometry air ejector and adjusting said variable geometry air ejector, said air flow being essentially at the constant inlet pressure of the gas turbine system.

  11. Exergy analysis of an adiabatic compressed air energy storage system using a cascade of phase change materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tessier, Michael J.; Floros, Michael C.; Bouzidi, Laziz; Narine, Suresh S.

    2016-01-01

    Adiabatic compressed air energy storage is an emerging energy storage technology with excellent power and storage capacities. Currently, efficiencies are approximately 70%, in part due to the issue of heat loss during the compression stage. An exergy analysis is presented on a novel adiabatic compressed air energy storage system design utilizing a cascade of PCMs (phase change materials) for waste heat storage and recovery. The melting temperatures and enthalpies of the PCMs were optimized for this system and were shown to be dependent on the number of PCMs, the number of compression stages, and the maximum compression ratio. Efficiencies of storage and recovery using this approach are predicted to be as high as 85%, a 15% increase over current designs which do not incorporate PCMs. - Highlights: • A compressed air energy storage plant using phase change materials is proposed. • Increasing number of phase change materials increases roundtrip exergy efficiency. • A thermodynamic model allows melting points and latent heats required to be predicted.

  12. Evaluation of thermal energy storage materials for advanced compressed air energy storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaloudek, F.R.; Wheeler, K.R.; Marksberry, L.

    1983-03-01

    Advanced Compressed-Air Energy Storage (ACAS) plants have the near-term potential to reduce the fuel consumption of compressed-air plants from 33 to 100%, depending upon their design. Fuel is saved by storing some or all of the heat of compression as sensible heat which is subsequently used to reheat the compressed air prior to expansion in the turbine generator. The thermal storage media required for this application must be low cost and durable. The objective of this project was to screen thermal store materials based on their thermal cycle durability, particulate formation and corrosion resistant characteristics. The materials investigated were iron oxide pellets, Denstone pebbles, cast-iron balls, and Dresser basalt rock. The study specifically addressed the problems of particle formation and thermal ratcheting of the materials during thermal cycling and the chemical attack on the materials by the high temperature and moist environment in an ACAS heat storage bed. The results indicate that from the durability standpoint Denstone, cast iron containing 27% or more chromium, and crushed Dresser basalt would possibly stand up to ACAS conditions. If costs are considered in addition to durability and performance, the crushed Dresser basalt would probably be the most desirable heat storage material for adiabatic and hybrid ACAS plants, and more in-depth longer term thermal cycling and materials testing of Dresser basalt is recommended. Also recommended is the redesign and costing analysis of both the hybrid and adiabatic ACAS facilities based upon the use of Dresser basalt as the thermal store material.

  13. Thermal reservoir sizing for adiabatic compressed air energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kere, Amelie; Goetz, Vincent; Py, Xavier; Olives, Regis; Sadiki, Najim [Perpignan Univ. (France). PROMES CNRS UPR 8521; Mercier-Allart, Eric [EDF R et D, Chatou (France)

    2012-07-01

    Despite the operation of the two existing industrial facilities to McIntosh (Alabama), and for more than thirty years, Huntorf (Germany), electricity storage in the form of compressed air in underground cavern (CAES) has not seen the development that was expected in the 80s. The efficiency of this form of storage was with the first generation CAES, less than 50%. The evolving context technique can significantly alter this situation. The new generation so-called Adiabatic CAES (A-CAES) is to retrieve the heat produced by the compression via thermal storage, thus eliminating the necessity of gas to burn and would allow consideration efficiency overall energy of the order of 70%. To date, there is no existing installation of A-CAES. Many studies describe the principal and the general working mode of storage systems by adiabatic compression of air. So, efficiencies of different configurations of adiabatic compression process were analyzed. The aim of this paper is to simulate and analyze the performances of a thermal storage reservoir integrated in the system and adapted to the working conditions of a CAES.

  14. Assessment of market potential of compressed air energy storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, D. W.; Buckley, O. E.; Clark, C. E., Jr.

    1983-12-01

    This report describes an assessment of potential roles that EPRI might take to facilitate the commercial acceptance of compressed air energy storage (CAES) systems. The assessment is based on (1) detailed analyses of the market potential of utility storage technologies, (2) interviews with representatives of key participants in the CAES market, and (3) a decision analysis synthesizing much of the information about market and technology status. The results indicate a large potential market for CAES systems if the overall business environment for utilities improves. In addition, it appears that EPRI can have a valuable incremental impact in ensuring that utilities realize the potential of CAES by (1) continuing an aggressive information dissemination and technology transfer program, (2) working to ensure the success of the first United States CAES installation at Soyland Power Cooperative, (3) developing planning methods to allow utilities to evaluate CAES and other storage options more effectively and more realistically, and (4) supporting R and D to resolve residual uncertainties in first-generation CAES cost and performance characteristics. Previously announced in STAR as N83-25121

  15. Subcooled compressed air energy storage system for coproduction of heat, cooling and electricity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arabkoohsar, A.; Dremark-Larsen, M.; Lorentzen, R.; Andresen, G. B.

    2017-01-01

    Various configurations of compressed air energy storage technology have received attention over the last years due to the advantages that this technology offers relative to other power storage technologies. This work proposes a new configuration of this technology aiming at cogeneration of

  16. A Novel Hybrid-Fuel Storage System of Compressed Air Energy for China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyi Liu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Compressed air energy storage (CAES is a large-scale technology that provides long-duration energy storage. It is promising for balancing the large-scale penetration of intermittent and dispersed sources of power, such as wind and solar power, into electric grids. The existing CAES plants utilize natural gas (NG as fuel. However, China is rich in coal but is deficient in NG; therefore, a hybrid-fuel CAES is proposed and analyzed in this study. Based on the existing CAES plants, the hybrid-fuel CAES incorporates an external combustion heater into the power generation subsystem to heat the air from the recuperator and the air from the high-pressure air turbine. Coal is the fuel for the external combustion heater. The overall efficiency and exergy efficiency of the hybrid-fuel CAES are 61.18% and 59.84%, respectively. Given the same parameters, the cost of electricity (COE of the hybrid-fuel CAES, which requires less NG, is $5.48/MW∙h less than that of the gas-fuel CAES. Although the proposed CAES requires a relatively high investment in the current electricity system in North China, the proposed CAES will be likely to become competitive in the market, provided that the energy supplies are improved and the large scale grid-connection of wind power is realized.

  17. Compressed air energy storage technology program. Annual report for 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loscutoff, W.V.

    1980-06-01

    The objectives of the Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) program are to establish stability criteria for large underground reservoirs in salt domes, hard rock, and porous rock used for air storage in utility applications, and to develop second-generation CAES technologies that have minimal or no dependence on petroleum fuels. During the year reported reports have been issued on field studies on CAES on aquifers and in salt, stability, and design criteria for CAES and for pumped hydro-storage caverns, laboratory studies of CAES in porous rock reservoris have continued. Research has continued on combined CAES/Thermal Energy Storage, CAES/Solar systems, coal-fired fluidized bed combustors for CAES, and two-reservoir advanced CAES concepts. (LCL)

  18. A Novel Pumped Hydro Combined with Compressed Air Energy Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erren Yao

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel pumped hydro combined with compressed air energy storage (PHCA system is proposed in this paper to resolve the problems of bulk energy storage in the wind power generation industry over an area in China, which is characterised by drought and water shortages. Thermodynamic analysis of the energy storage system, which focuses on the pre-set pressure, storage volume capacity, water air volume ratio, pump performance, and water turbine performance of the storage system, is also presented. This paper discovers how such parameters affect the performance of the whole system. The ideal performance of this novel system has the following advantages: a simple, highly effective and low cost structure, which is comparable to the efficiency of a traditional pumped hydro storage system. Research results show a great solution to the current storage constraints encountered in the development of the wind power industry in China, which have been widely recognised as a bottleneck in the wind energy storage industry.

  19. Preliminary engineering design and cost of Advanced Compressed-Air Storage (ACAS) A-5 hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosnowicz, E. J.; Blackman, J.; Woodhull, A. S.; Zaugg, P.

    1981-08-01

    The advanced compressed air energy (ACAS) plant investiated operates on a partial adiabatic, partial fuel fired cycle. Only a limited advancement in state-of-the-art technology is projected for this hybrid arrangement. The A-5 hybrid systems stores the heat of compression from the low pressure and intermediate pressure compressors in a thermal energy store (TES). The heat collected in the TES is available for preheating the air from the storage cavern prior to its entering the low pressure turbine combustor. This reduces the amount of fuel consumed during power generation. The fuel heat rate for the hybrid cycle is 2660 Btu/kWh as compared to approximately 4000 Btu/kWh for a conventional CAES plant. A virtual stand-off between the hybrid plant and a conventional CAES plant at 235 mills/kWh in 1990 dollars is shown. With a lower cost and increased fuel cost projections, the hybrid system operating cost is less than that for a conventional CAES plant.

  20. Compressed air energy storage technology program. Annual report for 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannberg, L.D.

    1981-06-01

    All of the major research funded under the Compressed Air Energy Storage Technology Program during the period March 1980 to March 1981 is described. This annual report is divided into two segments: Reservoir Stability Studies and Second-Generation Concepts Studies. The first represents research performed to establish stability criteria for CAES reservoirs while the second reports progress on research performed on second-generation CAES concepts. The report consists of project reports authored by research engineers and scientists from PNL and numerous subcontractors including universities, architect-engineering, and other private firms.

  1. Technical and economic assessment of fluidized-bed-augmented compressed-air energy-storage system. Volume I. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giramonti, A.J.; Lessard, R.D.; Merrick, D.; Hobson, M.J.

    1981-09-01

    An energy storage system which could be attractive for future electric utility peak-load applications is a modified gas turbine power system utilizing underground storage of very high pressure air. The compressed air energy storage (CAES) concept involves using off-peak electricity generated from indigenous coal or nuclear sources to compress air, storing the air in large underground facilities, and withdrawing the air during peak-load periods when it would be heated by combustion and expanded through gas turbines to generate power. The attractiveness of the CAES concept is based upon its potential to supply competitively priced peaking energy, to reduce peak-load power plant dependence on petroleum-based fuels, and to provide a means for leveling the utility system load demand. Therefore, a technical and economic assessment of coal-fired fluidized bed (FBC) combustor/compressed air energy storage (FBC/CAES) systems was performed and is described. The conclusions drawn from the FBC/CAES study program are encouraging. They indicate that pressurized FBC/CAES power plants should be technologically feasible, provide good performance, and be economically competitive. Specifically, it is concluded that: coal-fired FBC/CAES systems should be technically feasible in the near future and potentially attractive for peak-load power generation; and an open-bed PFBC/CAES configuration would provide the best candidate for early commercialization. It has relatively low risk combined with moderate cost and reasonable round-trip heat rate. It also has the potential for future growth options which tend to reduce costs and lower fuel consumption.

  2. Compressed air energy storage (CAES) - possibilities in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmegaard, Brian; Szameitat, Nicklas; Brix, Wiebke

    2005-01-01

    Through a systematic development of the Danish electrical supply system with wind power and CHP, problems with stability and electricity surplus have appeared. Therefore, the possibilities for profitably implementing a CAES plant for energy storage, peak shaving and electricity surplus reduction...... are investigated. Based on existing plants and the latest technology a simulation model of a 360 MW plant with an efficiency of 35 % has been developed and optimized to Danish conditions. An analysis of the economics in the plant, operating under market conditions, shows a growing potential, but the allocated...

  3. Modeling of Single and Dual Reservoir Porous Media Compressed Gas (Air and CO2) Storage Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenburg, C. M.; Liu, H.; Borgia, A.; Pan, L.

    2017-12-01

    Intermittent renewable energy sources are causing increasing demand for energy storage. The deep subsurface offers promising opportunities for energy storage because it can safely contain high-pressure gases. Porous media compressed air energy storage (PM-CAES) is one approach, although the only facilities in operation are in caverns (C-CAES) rather than porous media. Just like in C-CAES, PM-CAES operates generally by injecting working gas (air) through well(s) into the reservoir compressing the cushion gas (existing air in the reservoir). During energy recovery, high-pressure air from the reservoir is mixed with fuel in a combustion turbine to produce electricity, thereby reducing compression costs. Unlike in C-CAES, the storage of energy in PM-CAES occurs variably across pressure gradients in the formation, while the solid grains of the matrix can release/store heat. Because air is the working gas, PM-CAES has fairly low thermal efficiency and low energy storage density. To improve the energy storage density, we have conceived and modeled a closed-loop two-reservoir compressed CO2 energy storage system. One reservoir is the low-pressure reservoir, and the other is the high-pressure reservoir. CO2 is cycled back and forth between reservoirs depending on whether energy needs to be stored or recovered. We have carried out thermodynamic and parametric analyses of the performance of an idealized two-reservoir CO2 energy storage system under supercritical and transcritical conditions for CO2 using a steady-state model. Results show that the transcritical compressed CO2 energy storage system has higher round-trip efficiency and exergy efficiency, and larger energy storage density than the supercritical compressed CO2 energy storage. However, the configuration of supercritical compressed CO2 energy storage is simpler, and the energy storage densities of the two systems are both higher than that of PM-CAES, which is advantageous in terms of storage volume for a given

  4. Sensitivity analysis for the energy performance assessment of hybrid compressed air energy storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briola, Stefano; Di Marco, Paolo; Gabbrielli, Roberto; Riccardi, Juri

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •A sensitivity analysis and DOE of the complete hybrid CAES are carried out. •The influence of the storage site volume on performance indicators is negligible. •The performances increase with the decrease of the compressor outlet pressure. •The performances are correlated for each temperature increase in combustion chamber. •Hybridization of Huntorf implies a significant increase of its first law efficiency. -- Abstract: A detailed mathematical model was developed for the complete Hybrid Compressed Air Energy Storage (H-CAES) configuration with underground storage site and liquid thermal energy storage, operating with a sequence of processes (charging, holding and discharging with respective duration) in arbitrary order. A sensitivity analysis was carried out in order to calculate several performance indicators of the complete H-CAES configuration, in relation to the simultaneous change of several process parameters. The methodology “Design of Experiments” was applied to the results of the sensitivity analysis in order to calculate the main effects of each process parameter on each performance indicator. The influence of the storage site volume on each performance indicator is negligible. The reduction of the compressor group outlet pressure and of the turbine group power allows a more effective thermodynamic utilization both of the energy stored by the compressors and of the overall energy supplied to the plant. Furthermore, the former utilization is more effective by an increase of the gas temperature in the combustion chambers, whereas the latter utilization is worsened. Moreover, as case study, the existing diabatic CAES plant of Huntorf was modified by introducing a diathermic oil thermal storage. This plant is suitable to operate according to a partial hybrid configuration by the deactivation of the heat exchanger located upstream of the low pressure turbine. The thermodynamic utilization of the overall energy supplied to the plant

  5. Claw-pole Synchronous Generator for Compressed Air Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAVEL Valentina

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a claw-poles generator for compressed air energy storage systems. It is presented the structure of such a system used for compensating of the intermittency of a small wind energy system. For equipping of this system it is chosen the permanent magnet claw pole synchronous generator obtained by using ring NdFeB permanentmagnets instead of excitation coil. In such a way the complexity of the scheme is reduced and the generator become maintenance free. The new magnetic flux density in the air-gap is calculated by magneticreluctance method and by FEM method and the results are compared with measured values in the old and new generator.

  6. Investigation on wind energy-compressed air power system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Guang-Zheng; Wang, Xuan-Yin; Wu, Gen-Mao

    2004-03-01

    Wind energy is a pollution free and renewable resource widely distributed over China. Aimed at protecting the environment and enlarging application of wind energy, a new approach to application of wind energy by using compressed air power to some extent instead of electricity put forward. This includes: explaining the working principles and characteristics of the wind energy-compressed air power system; discussing the compatibility of wind energy and compressor capacity; presenting the theoretical model and computational simulation of the system. The obtained compressor capacity vs wind power relationship in certain wind velocity range can be helpful in the designing of the wind power-compressed air system. Results of investigations on the application of high-pressure compressed air for pressure reduction led to conclusion that pressure reduction with expander is better than the throttle regulator in energy saving.

  7. Corrosion of well casings in compressed air energy storage environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmore, R.P.; Stottlemyre, J.A.

    1980-10-01

    The goal of this study was to determine corrosive effects of compressed air energy storage (CAES) environments on several well casing materials to aid in material selections. A literature search on corrosion behavior of well casing material in similar environments revealed that corrosion rates of 0.20 to 0.25 mm/y might be expected. This information was employed in designing the laboratory study. Unstressed electrically isolate samples of various carbon steels were autoclaved at varying humidities, temperatures, and exposure durations to simulate anticipated environments in the well bore during CAES operation. All compressed air tests were run at 12.1 MPa. Temperatures varied from 323/sup 0/K to 573/sup 0/K, and humidity varied from 100% to completely dry air. The effects of salts in the humidified air were also studied. Results indicated that typical well casings of carbon steel as used in oil, gas, and water production wells adequately withstand the anticipated CAES reservoir environment. An acceptable corrosion rate arrived at by these laboratory simulations was between 0.0015 and 0.15 mm/y. Corrosion was caused by metal oxidation that formed a protective scale of iron oxide. Higher temperatures, humidity rates, or salinity content of the humid air increased corrosion. Corrosion also increased on a metal coupon in contact with a sandstone sample, possibly due to crevice corrosion. For each of these factors either singularly or collectively, the increased corrosion rates were still acceptable with the maximum measured at 0.15 mm/y. When coupons were reused in an identical test, the corrosion rates increased beyond the anticipated values that had been determined by extrapolation from one-time runs. Fine cracking of the protective scale probably occurred due to thermal variations, resulting in increased corrosion rates and a greater potential for particulates, which could plug the reservoir.

  8. Economic analysis of using above ground gas storage devices for compressed air energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinchao; Zhang, Xinjing; Xu, Yujie; Chen, Zongyan; Chen, Haisheng; Tan, Chunqing

    2014-12-01

    Above ground gas storage devices for compressed air energy storage (CAES) have three types: air storage tanks, gas cylinders, and gas storage pipelines. A cost model of these gas storage devices is established on the basis of whole life cycle cost (LCC) analysis. The optimum parameters of the three types are determined by calculating the theoretical metallic raw material consumption of these three devices and considering the difficulties in manufacture and the influence of gas storage device number. The LCCs of the three types are comprehensively analyzed and compared. The result reveal that the cost of the gas storage pipeline type is lower than that of the other two types. This study may serve as a reference for designing large-scale CAES systems.

  9. Demonstration of Isothermal Compressed Air Energy Storage to Support Renewable Energy Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollinger, Benjamin [Sustainx, Incorporated, Seabrook, NH (United States)

    2015-01-02

    This project develops and demonstrates a megawatt (MW)-scale Energy Storage System that employs compressed air as the storage medium. An isothermal compressed air energy storage (ICAESTM) system rated for 1 MW or more will be demonstrated in a full-scale prototype unit. Breakthrough cost-effectiveness will be achieved through the use of proprietary methods for isothermal gas cycling and staged gas expansion implemented using industrially mature, readily-available components.The ICAES approach uses an electrically driven mechanical system to raise air to high pressure for storage in low-cost pressure vessels, pipeline, or lined-rock cavern (LRC). This air is later expanded through the same mechanical system to drive the electric motor as a generator. The approach incorporates two key efficiency-enhancing innovations: (1) isothermal (constant temperature) gas cycling, which is achieved by mixing liquid with air (via spray or foam) to exchange heat with air undergoing compression or expansion; and (2) a novel, staged gas-expansion scheme that allows the drivetrain to operate at constant power while still allowing the stored gas to work over its entire pressure range. The ICAES system will be scalable, non-toxic, and cost-effective, making it suitable for firming renewables and for other grid applications.

  10. Operational design and pressure response of large-scale compressed air energy storage in porous formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Bauer, Sebastian

    2017-04-01

    With the rapid growth of energy production from intermittent renewable sources like wind and solar power plants, large-scale energy storage options are required to compensate for fluctuating power generation on different time scales. Compressed air energy storage (CAES) in porous formations is seen as a promising option for balancing short-term diurnal fluctuations. CAES is a power-to-power energy storage, which converts electricity to mechanical energy, i.e. highly pressurized air, and stores it in the subsurface. This study aims at designing the storage setup and quantifying the pressure response of a large-scale CAES operation in a porous sandstone formation, thus assessing the feasibility of this storage option. For this, numerical modelling of a synthetic site and a synthetic operational cycle is applied. A hypothetic CAES scenario using a typical anticline structure in northern Germany was investigated. The top of the storage formation is at 700 m depth and the thickness is 20 m. The porosity and permeability were assumed to have a homogenous distribution with a value of 0.35 and 500 mD, respectively. According to the specifications of the Huntorf CAES power plant, a gas turbine producing 321 MW power with a minimum inlet pressure of 43 bars at an air mass flowrate of 417 kg/s was assumed. Pressure loss in the gas wells was accounted for using an analytical solution, which defines a minimum bottom hole pressure of 47 bars. Two daily extraction cycles of 6 hours each were set to the early morning and the late afternoon in order to bypass the massive solar energy production around noon. A two-year initial filling of the reservoir with air and ten years of daily cyclic operation were numerically simulated using the Eclipse E300 reservoir simulator. The simulation results show that using 12 wells the storage formation with a permeability of 500 mD can support the required 6-hour continuous power output of 321MW, which corresponds an energy output of 3852 MWh per

  11. Automated Control of a Solar Microgrid-Powered Air Compressor for Use in a Small-Scale Compressed Air Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    26 xii Figure 21. Simplified Control Program Flowchart .....................................................30 Figure 22...for manual operation. Figure 21 shows the overall control program flowchart . The details of the PLC and the HMI programs are contained in Appendix C...Figure 21. Simplified Control Program Flowchart 31 3. Solar Power Production Status Since the air compressor cannot function without

  12. System behaviour of compressed-air energy-storage in Denmark with a high penetration of renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salgi, Georges; Lund, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    In 2005, wind power supplied 19% of the 36 TWh annual electricity demand in Denmark, while 50% was produced at combined heat-and-power plants (CHP). The installed wind-turbine capacity in Western Denmark exceeds the local demand at certain points in time. So far, excess production has been exported to neighbouring countries. However, plans to expand wind power both in Denmark and in its neighbouring countries could restrain the export option and create transmission congestion challenges. This results in a need to increase the flexibility of the local electricity-system. Compressed-Air Energy-Storage (CAES) has been proposed as a potential solution for levelling fluctuating wind-power production and maintaining a system balance. This paper analyses the energy-balance effects of adding CAES to the Western Danish energy-system. Results show that even with an unlimited CAES plant capacity, excess power production is not eliminated because of the high percentage of CHP production. The optimal wind-power penetration for maximum CAES operation is found to be around 55%. The minimum storage size for CAES to fully eliminate condensing power plants operation in the optimized system is over 500 GWh, which corresponds to a cavern volume of around 234 Mm 3 at an average pressure of 60 bar. Such a storage size would be technically and economically unfeasible. The analysis, however, did not include the potential role of a CAES plant in regulating the power services. (author)

  13. Pumped Storage Hydro Power Plant Cierny Vah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regula, E.

    1998-01-01

    In this leaflet the pump-storage power plant Cierny Vah is presented. A Cierny Vah pumped storage power plant (PSP) has been designed and built for providing the reliable and quality electric energy supply and for covering load changes of an electrification system. (ES). It is mainly the pumped storage hydro power plants plants which in our conditions are the sources operatively covering the sudden changes of the ES load from the ecological, economic but mainly from the operational point of view. The electric energy generation volume is not the primary standpoint but especially their control functions in the ES. During the building of the Cierny Vah PSP the peak operation with the daily accumulation, participation in frequency control and output in ES and the compensation function in ES were to be its main tasks. After putting it into operation by especially after its becoming independent of the Slovak ES in 1994 the static functions (energy generation from pumping, balance output reserves, daily control, ...) gave way to dynamic functions which gained greater importance. After interconnection of the ES with the UCPTE West European Association in which there are besides other things, the strict criteria for observing balance outputs, the main functions of PSPs are as follows: (1) Dynamic services for ES; (2) Dispatching reserve for the fall out of the greatest ES block; (3) Observing the foreign cooperation balance agreed; (4) Compensation of peaks and also of sudden daily load diagram reductions. Technical parameters of the upper and lower reservoir are described. The hydro power plant is a body lower reservoir. In it there are six vertical pumping aggregates in the three machine layout: the motor-generator - the turbine - the pump. Between the turbine and the pump there is a hydraulically controlled claw clutch engaging at rest and disengaging also during the aggregate operation. During pumping air is involved inside the turbine. The Francis turbines have a

  14. Compressed air energy storage with waste heat export: An Alberta case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safaei, Hossein; Keith, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Export of compression waste heat from CAES facilities for municipal heating can be profitable. • D-CAES concept has a negative abatement cost of −$40/tCO 2 e under the studied circumstances. • Economic viability of D-CAES highly depends on distance between air storage site and heat load. - Abstract: Interest in compressed air energy storage (CAES) technology has been renewed driven by the need to manage variability form rapidly growing wind and solar capacity. Distributed CAES (D-CAES) design aims to improve the efficiency of conventional CAES through locating the compressor near concentrated heating loads so capturing additional revenue through sales of compression waste heat. A pipeline transports compressed air to the storage facility and expander, co-located at some distance from the compressor. The economics of CAES are strongly dependant on electricity and gas markets in which they are embedded. As a case study, we evaluated the economics of two hypothetical merchant CAES and D-CAES facilities performing energy arbitrage in Alberta, Canada using market data from 2002 to 2011. The annual profit of the D-CAES plant was $1.3 million more on average at a distance of 50 km between the heat load and air storage sites. Superior economic and environmental performance of D-CAES led to a negative abatement cost of −$40/tCO 2 e. We performed a suite of sensitivity analyses to evaluate the impact of size of heat load, size of air storage, ratio of expander to compressor size, and length of pipeline on the economic feasibility of D-CAES

  15. Subcooled compressed air energy storage system for coproduction of heat, cooling and electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arabkoohsar, A.; Dremark-Larsen, M.; Lorentzen, R.; Andresen, G.B.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •A new configuration of compressed air energy storage system is proposed and analyzed. •This system, so-called subcooled-CAES, offers cogeneration of electricity, heat and cooling. •A pseudo-dynamic energy, exergy and economic analysis of the system for an entire year is presented. •The annual power, cooling and heat efficiencies of the system are around 31%, 32% and 92%. •The overall energy and exergy performance coefficients of the system are 1.55 and 0.48, respectively. -- Abstract: Various configurations of compressed air energy storage technology have received attention over the last years due to the advantages that this technology offers relative to other power storage technologies. This work proposes a new configuration of this technology aiming at cogeneration of electricity, heat and cooling. The new system may be very advantageous for locations with high penetration of renewable energy in the electricity grid as well as high heating and cooling demands. The latter would typically be locations with district heating and cooling networks. A thorough design, sizing and thermodynamic analysis of the system for a typical wind farm with 300 MW capacity in Denmark is presented. The results show a great potential of the system to support the local district heating and cooling networks and reserve services in electricity market. The values of power-to-power, power-to-cooling and power-to-heat efficiencies of this system are 30.6%, 32.3% and 92.4%, respectively. The exergy efficiency values are 30.6%, 2.5% and 14.4% for power, cooling and heat productions. A techno-economic comparison of this system with two of the most efficient previous designs of compressed air energy storage system proves the firm superiority of the new concept.

  16. A Novel Constant-Pressure Pumped Hydro Combined with Compressed Air Energy Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erren Yao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available As intermittent renewable energy is receiving increasing attention, the combination of intermittent renewable energy with large-scale energy storage technology is considered as an important technological approach for the wider application of wind power and solar energy. Pumped hydro combined with compressed air energy storage system (PHCA is one of the energy storage systems that not only integrates the advantages but also overcomes the disadvantages of compressed air energy storage (CAES systems and pumped hydro energy storage systems to solve the problem of energy storage in China’s arid regions. Aiming at the variable working conditions of PHCA system technology, this study proposes a new constant-pressure PHCA. The most significant characteristics of this system were that the water pump and hydroturbine work under stable conditions and this improves the working efficiency of the equipment without incurring an energy loss. In addition, the constant-pressure PHCA system was subjected to energy and exergy analysis, in expectation of exploring an attractive solution for the large-scale storage of existing intermittent renewable energy.

  17. Preliminary analytical study on the feasibility of using reinforced concrete pile foundations for renewable energy storage by compressed air energy storage technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulebekova, S.; Saliyev, D.; Zhang, D.; Kim, J. R.; Karabay, A.; Turlybek, A.; Kazybayeva, L.

    2017-11-01

    Compressed air energy storage technology is one of the promising methods that have high reliability, economic feasibility and low environmental impact. Current applications of the technology are mainly limited to energy storage for power plants using large scale underground caverns. This paper explores the possibility of making use of reinforced concrete pile foundations to store renewable energy generated from solar panels or windmills attached to building structures. The energy will be stored inside the pile foundation with hollow sections via compressed air. Given the relatively small volume of storage provided by the foundation, the required storage pressure is expected to be higher than that in the large-scale underground cavern. The high air pressure typically associated with large temperature increase, combined with structural loads, will make the pile foundation in a complicated loading condition, which might cause issues in the structural and geotechnical safety. This paper presents a preliminary analytical study on the performance of the pile foundation subjected to high pressure, large temperature increase and structural loads. Finite element analyses on pile foundation models, which are built from selected prototype structures, have been conducted. The analytical study identifies maximum stresses in the concrete of the pile foundation under combined pressure, temperature change and structural loads. Recommendations have been made for the use of reinforced concrete pile foundations for renewable energy storage.

  18. Power plant including an exhaust gas recirculation system for injecting recirculated exhaust gases in the fuel and compressed air of a gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Nagarjuna Reddy, Thirumala Reddy; Shaffer, Jason Brian; York, William David

    2014-05-13

    A power plant is provided and includes a gas turbine engine having a combustor in which compressed gas and fuel are mixed and combusted, first and second supply lines respectively coupled to the combustor and respectively configured to supply the compressed gas and the fuel to the combustor and an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system to re-circulate exhaust gas produced by the gas turbine engine toward the combustor. The EGR system is coupled to the first and second supply lines and configured to combine first and second portions of the re-circulated exhaust gas with the compressed gas and the fuel at the first and second supply lines, respectively.

  19. Technical and economic assessment of fluidized-bed-augmented compressed-air energy-storage system: system load following capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lessard, R.D.; Blecher, W.A.; Merrick, D.

    1981-09-01

    The load-following capability of fluidized bed combustion-augmented compressed air energy storage systems was evaluated. The results are presented in two parts. The first part is an Executive Summary which provides a concise overview of all major elements of the study including the conclusions, and, second, a detailed technical report describing the part-load and load following capability of both the pressurized fluid bed combustor and the entire pressurized fluid bed combustor/compressed air energy storage system. The specific tasks in this investigation were to: define the steady-state, part-load operation of the CAES open-bed PFBC; estimate the steady-state, part-load performance of the PFBC/CAES system and evaluate any possible operational constraints; simulate the performance of the PFBC/CAES system during transient operation and assess the load following capability of the system; and establish a start-up procedure for the open-bed PFBC and evaluate the impact of this procedure. The conclusions are encouraging and indicate that the open-bed PFBC/CAES power plant should provide good part-load and transient performance, and should have no major equipment-related constraints, specifically, no major problems associated with the performance or design of either the open-end PFBC or the PFBC/CAES power plant in steady-state, part-load operation are envisioned. The open-bed PFBC/CAES power plant would have a load following capability which would be responsive to electric utility requirements for a peak-load power plant. The open-bed PFBC could be brought to full operating conditions within 15 min after routine shutdown, by employing a hot-start mode of operation. The PFBC/CAES system would be capable of rapid changes in output power (12% of design load per minute) over a wide output power range (25% to 100% of design output). (LCL)

  20. Thermal System Analysis and Optimization of Large-Scale Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongguang Fu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available As an important solution to issues regarding peak load and renewable energy resources on grids, large-scale compressed air energy storage (CAES power generation technology has recently become a popular research topic in the area of large-scale industrial energy storage. At present, the combination of high-expansion ratio turbines with advanced gas turbine technology is an important breakthrough in energy storage technology. In this study, a new gas turbine power generation system is coupled with current CAES technology. Moreover, a thermodynamic cycle system is optimized by calculating for the parameters of a thermodynamic system. Results show that the thermal efficiency of the new system increases by at least 5% over that of the existing system.

  1. Preliminary long-term stability criteria for compressed air energy storage caverns in salt domes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoms, R.L.; Martinez, J.D.

    1978-08-01

    Air storage caverns, which are an essential and integral component of a CAES plant, should be designed and operated so as to perform satisfactorily over the intended life of the overall facility. It follows that the long-term ''stability'' of air storage caverns must be considered as a primary concern in projecting the satisfactory operation of CAES facilities. As used in the report, ''stability'' of a storage cavern implies the extent to which an acceptable amount of cavern storage volume can be utilized with routine maintenance for a specified time interval, e.g., 35 years. In this context, cavern stability is relative to both planned utilization and time interval of operation. The objective of the study was to review the existing literature and consult knowledgeable workers in the storage industry, and then report state-of-the-art findings relative to long-term stability of compressed air energy storage caverns in salt domes. Further, preliminary cavern stability criteria were to be presented in a form consistent with the amount of information available on cavern performance in salt domes. Another objective of the study was to outline a methodology for determining the long-term stability of site-specific CAES cavern systems in salt domes.

  2. Design of a compressed air energy storage system for hydrostatic wind turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar E. Ali

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Integration of Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES system with a wind turbine is critical in optimally harvesting wind energy given the fluctuating nature of power demands. Here we consider the design of a CAES for a wind turbine with hydrostatic powertrain. The design parameters of the CAES are determined based on simulation of the integrated system model for a combination of these parameter values, namely the compression ratios of the air compressors and the expanders and the air tank size. The results of the simulations were used to choose the best design parameters, which would produce the best stable performance through increased energy output of the integrated CAES and wind turbine based on the intermittent wind profile. Simulation results for a 600 kW rated power wind turbine with integrated CAES indicate that increasing the tank size and compression ratio will improve the overall power quality through increased energy output up to a limit beyond which the power quality exhibits only marginal improvement.

  3. Thermodynamic analysis of a novel hybrid wind-solar-compressed air energy storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Wei; Zhou, Yuan; Sun, Yu; Zhang, Wu; An, Baolin; Wang, Junjie

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • We present a novel hybrid wind-solar-compressed air energy storage system. • Wind and solar power are transformed into stable electric energy and hot water. • The system output electric power is 8053 kWh with an exergy efficiency of 65.4%. • Parametric sensitivity analysis is presented to optimize system performance. - Abstract: Wind and solar power have embraced a strong development in recent years due to the energy crisis in China. However, owing to their nature of fluctuation and intermittency, some power grid management problems can be caused. Therefore a novel hybrid wind-solar-compressed air energy storage (WS-CAES) system was proposed to solve the problems. The WS-CAES system can store unstable wind and solar power for a stable output of electric energy and hot water. Also, combined with organic Rankin cycle (ORC), the cascade utilization of energy with different qualities was achieved in the WS-CAES system. Aiming to obtain the optimum performance, the analysis of energy, exergy and parametric sensitivity were all conducted for this system. Furthermore, exergy destruction ratio of each component in the WS-CAES system was presented. The results show that the electric energy storage efficiency, round trip efficiency and exergy efficiency can reach 87.7%, 61.2% and 65.4%, respectively. Meanwhile, the parameters analysis demonstrates that the increase of ambient temperature has a negative effect on the system performance, while the increase of turbine inlet temperature has a positive effect. However, when the air turbine inlet pressure varies, there is a tradeoff between the system performance and the energy storage density.

  4. Energy Efficiency Analysis of Discharge Modes of an Adiabatic Compressed Air Energy Storage System

    OpenAIRE

    Shane D. Inder; Mehrdad Khamooshi

    2017-01-01

    Efficient energy storage is a crucial factor in facilitating the uptake of renewable energy resources. Among the many options available for energy storage systems required to balance imbalanced supply and demand cycles, compressed air energy storage (CAES) is a proven technology in grid-scale applications. This paper reviews the current state of micro scale CAES technology and describes a micro-scale advanced adiabatic CAES (A-CAES) system, where heat generated during compression is stored fo...

  5. A low-cost hybrid drivetrain concept based on compressed air energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, T.L.; Atluri, V.P.; Schmiedeler, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A new pneumatic hybrid concept is introduced. • A proof-of-concept prototype system is built and tested. • The experimental system has a round-trip efficiency of just under 10%. • A thermodynamics model is used to predict the performance of modified designs. • An efficiency of nearly 50% is possible with reasonable design changes. - Abstract: This paper introduces a new low-cost hybrid drivetrain concept based on compressed air energy storage. In contrast to most contemporary approaches to pneumatic hybridization, which require modification to the primary power plant, this concept is based on a stand-alone pneumatic system that could be readily integrated with existing vehicles. The pneumatic system consists of an air tank and a compressor–expander that is coupled to the rest of the drivetrain via an infinitely variable transmission. Rather than incorporating more expensive technologies such as variable valve timing or a variable compression ratio compressor, a fixed valve system consisting of a rotary valve and passive check valves is optimized to operate efficiently over a range of tank pressures. The feasibility of this approach is established by thermodynamic modeling and the construction of a proof-of-concept prototype, which is also used to fine tune model parameters. While the proof-of-concept system shows a round trip efficiency of just under 10%, modeling shows that a round trip efficiency of 26% is possible with a revised design. If waste heat from the engine is used to maintain an elevated tank temperature, efficiencies of nearly 50% may be possible, indicating that the concept could be effective for practical hybridization of passenger vehicles

  6. Study and design of a hybrid wind-diesel-compressed air energy storage system for remote areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, H.; Younes, R.; Ilinca, A.; Dimitrova, M.; Perron, J.

    2010-01-01

    Remote areas around the world predominantly rely on diesel-powered generators for their electricity supply, a relatively expensive and inefficient technology that is responsible for the emission of 1.2 million tons of greenhouse gas (GHG) annually, only in Canada . Wind-diesel hybrid systems (WDS) with various penetration rates have been experimented to reduce diesel consumption of the generators. After having experimented wind-diesel hybrid systems (WDS) that used various penetration rates, we turned our focus to that the re-engineering of existing diesel power plants can be achieved most efficiently, in terms of cost and diesel consumption, through the introduction of high penetration wind systems combined with compressed air energy storage (CAES). This article compares the available technical alternatives to supercharge the diesel that was used in this high penetration wind-diesel system with compressed air storage (WDCAS), in order to identify the one that optimizes its cost and performances. The technical characteristics and performances of the best candidate technology are subsequently assessed at different working regimes in order to evaluate the varying effects on the system. Finally, a specific WDCAS system with diesel engine downsizing is explored. This proposed design, that requires the repowering of existing facilities, leads to heightened diesel power output, increased engine lifetime and efficiency and to the reduction of fuel consumption and GHG emissions, in addition to savings on maintenance and replacement cost.

  7. Optimization of diesel engine performances for a hybrid wind-diesel system with compressed air energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, H.; Younes, R.; Basbous, T.; Ilinca, A.; Dimitrova, M.

    2011-01-01

    Electricity supply in remote areas around the world is mostly guaranteed by diesel generators. This relatively inefficient and expensive method is responsible for 1.2 million tons of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission in Canada annually. Some low- and high-penetration wind-diesel hybrid systems (WDS) have been experimented in order to reduce the diesel consumption. We explore the re-engineering of current diesel power plants with the introduction of high-penetration wind systems together with compressed air energy storage (CAES). This is a viable alternative to major the overall percentage of renewable energy and reduce the cost of electricity. In this paper, we present the operative principle of this hybrid system, its economic benefits and advantages and we finally propose a numerical model of each of its components. Moreover, we are demonstrating the energy efficiency of the system, particularly in terms of the increase of the engine performance and the reduction of its fuel consumption illustrated and supported by a village in northern Quebec. -- Highlights: → The Wind-Diesel-Compressed Air Storage System (WDCAS) has a very important commercial potential for remote areas. → The WDCAS is conceived like the adaptation of the existing engines at the level of the intake system. → A wind turbine and an air compression and storage system are added on the diesel plant. → This study demonstrates the potential of WDCAS to reduce fuel consumption and increase the efficiency of the diesel engine. → This study demonstrates that we can expect savings which can reach 50%.

  8. Large-site air-storage gas-turbine plants in electricity networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbst, H C

    1980-08-01

    The article gives a detailed description of the construction and the operation of the 290 MW air-storage gas-turbine power station at the town of Huntorf. The cavities of a 300,000 cbm storage capacity needed for accomodating compressed air have been solution-mined in a salt dome at a depth of c. 700 m. The air-mass-flow-controlled gas turbine consists of a 6-stage HP part and a 5-stage LP part with a combustion chamber each. The turbine is used to cover peak loads, whereas slack periods are covered by the generator which drives to air compressors connected in series to refill the underground compressed-air stores. Since December 1978, the plant has been in operation. As a gas turbine, it has attained a high level of start frequency, indeed, with its 400 starts within the first 5 months. Energy cost of this power station range within the optimum (between half and full load) at about 70% of the energy cost required by a conventionally natural-gas-fired turbine.

  9. Exergy and exergoeconomic analysis of a Compressed Air Energy Storage combined with a district energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagdanavicius, Audrius; Jenkins, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • CAES and CAES with thermal storage systems were investigated. • The potential for using heat generated during the compression stage was analysed. • CAES-TS has the potential to be used both as energy storage and heat source. • CAES-TS could be a useful tool for balancing overall energy demand and supply. - Abstract: The potential for using heat generated during the compression stage of a Compressed Air Energy Storage system was investigated using exergy and exergoeconomic analysis. Two Compressed Air Energy Storage systems were analysed: Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) and Compressed Air Energy Storage combined with Thermal Storage (CAES-TS) connected to a district heating network. The maximum output of the CAES was 100 MWe and the output of the CAES-TS was 100 MWe and 105 MWth. The study shows that 308 GW h/year of electricity and 466 GW h/year of fuel are used to generate 375 GW h/year of electricity. During the compression of air 289 GW h/year of heat is generated, which is wasted in the CAES and used for district heating in the CAES-TS system. Energy efficiency of the CAES system was around 48% and the efficiency of CAES-TS was 86%. Exergoeconomic analysis shows that the exergy cost of electricity generated in the CAES was 13.89 ¢/kW h, and the exergy cost of electricity generated in the CAES-TS was 11.20 ¢/kW h. The exergy cost of heat was 22.24 ¢/kW h in the CAES-TS system. The study shows that CAES-TS has the potential to be used both as energy storage and heat source and could be a useful tool for balancing overall energy demand and supply

  10. Modelling studies for influence factors of gas bubble in compressed air energy storage in aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Chaobin; Zhang, Keni; Li, Cai; Wang, Xiaoyu

    2016-01-01

    CAES (Compressed air energy storage) is credited with its potential ability for large-scale energy storage. Generally, it is more convenient using deep aquifers than employing underground caverns for energy storage, because of extensive presence of aquifers. During the first stage in a typical process of CAESA (compressed air energy storage in aquifers), a large amount of compressed air is injected into the target aquifer to develop an initial space (a gas bubble) for energy storage. In this study, numerical simulations were conducted to investigate the influence of aquifer's permeability, geological structure and operation parameters on the formation of gas bubble and the sustainability for the later cycling operation. The SCT (system cycle times) was designed as a parameter to evaluate the reservoir performance and the effect of operation parameters. Simulation results for pressure and gas saturation results of basic model confirm the feasibility of compressed air energy storage in aquifers. The results of different permeability cases show that, for a certain scale of CAESA system, there is an optimum permeability range for a candidate aquifer. An aquifer within this permeability range will not only satisfy the injectivity requirement but also have the best energy efficiency. Structural impact analysis indicates that the anticline structure has the best performance to hold the bubble under the same daily cycling schedule with the same initial injected air mass. In addition, our results indicate that the SCT shows a logarithmic growth as the injected air mass increase. During the formation of gas bubble, compressed air should be injected into aquifers with moderate rate and the injection can be done in several stages with different injection rate to avoid onset pressure. - Highlights: • Impact of permeability, geological structure, operation parameters was investigated. • With certain air production rate, an optimum permeability exists for performance.

  11. Pumped storage hydroelectric power plant Cierny Vah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This leaflet describes the Enterprise Cierny Vah Pumped storage hydropower plants of the joint stock company Slovenske elektrarne, a.s. (Cierny Vah PSHP). Cierny Vah PSHP has been designed and built for providing the reliable and quality electric energy supply and for covering load changes of an electrification system (ES). It is mainly the pumped storage hydro power plants which in our conditions are the sources operatively covering the sudden changes of the ES load from the ecological, economic but mainly from the operational point of view. The electric energy generation volume is not the primary standpoint but especially their control functions in the ES. During the building of the Cierny Vah PSP the peak operation with the daily accumulation, participation in frequency control and output in ES and the compensation function in ES were to be its main tasks. After putting it into operation but especially after its becoming independent of the Slovak ES in 1994 the static functions (energy generation from pumping, balance output reserves, daily control,...) gave way to dynamic functions which gained greater importance (sudden load changes control of ES, immediate meeting of the daily load diagram, frequency control and outputs given in ES, etc.) After interconnection of our ES with the UCPTE West European association in which there are besides other things, the strict criteria for observing balance of outputs, the main functions of PSPs are as follows: 1. Dynamic services for ES 2. Dispatching reserve for the fall out of the greatest ES block 3. Observing the foreign cooperation balance agreed 4. Compensation of peaks and also of sudden daily load diagram reductions. All the work is divided into four parts from the building point of view: The upper reservoir is an artificial one without the natural water inflow, built by excavation and slope on an Unknown elevation more than 1.150 m above sea level. A leading slope with a gradient 1:2 and a bottom of the reservoir

  12. Site specific comparison of H2, CH4 and compressed air energy storage in porous formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmann Pfeiffer, Wolf; Wang, Bo; Bauer, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    The supply of energy from renewable sources like wind or solar power is subject to fluctuations determined by the climatic and weather conditions, and shortage periods can be expected on the order of days to weeks. Energy storage is thus required if renewable energy dominates the total energy production and has to compensate the shortages. Porous formations in the subsurface could provide large storage capacities for various energy carriers, such as hydrogen (H2), synthetic methane (CH4) or compressed air (CAES). All three energy storage options have similar requirements regarding the storage site characteristics and consequently compete for suitable subsurface structures. The aim of this work is to compare the individual storage methods for an individual storage site regarding the storage capacity as well as the achievable delivery rates. This objective is pursued using numerical simulation of the individual storage operations. In a first step, a synthetic anticline with a radius of 4 km, a drop of 900 m and a formation thickness of 20 m is used to compare the individual storage methods. The storage operations are carried out using -depending on the energy carrier- 5 to 13 wells placed in the top of the structure. A homogeneous parameter distribution is assumed with permeability, porosity and residual water saturation being 500 mD, 0.35 and 0.2, respectively. N2 is used as a cushion gas in the H2 storage simulations. In case of compressed air energy storage, a high discharge rate of 400 kg/s equating to 28.8 mio. m³/d at surface conditions is required to produce 320 MW of power. Using 13 wells the storage is capable of supplying the specified gas flow rate for a period of 31 hours. Two cases using 5 and 9 wells were simulated for both the H2 and the CH4 storage operation. The target withdrawal rates of 1 mio. sm³/d are maintained for the whole extraction period of one week in all simulations. However, the power output differs with the 5 well scenario producing

  13. Compressed Air Energy Storage System Control and Performance Assessment Using Energy Harvested Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanif SedighNejad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new concept for control and performance assessment of compressed air energy storage (CAES systems in a hybrid energy system is introduced. The proposed criterion, based on the concept of energy harvest index (HEI, measures the capability of a storage system to capture renewable energy. The overall efficiency of the CAES system and optimum control and design from the technical and economic point of view is presented. A possible application of this idea is an isolated community with significant wind energy resource. A case study reveals the usefulness of the proposed criterion in design, control and implementation of a small CAES system in a hybrid power system (HPM for an isolated community. Energy harvested index and its effectiveness in increasing the wind penetration rate in the total energy production is discussed.

  14. Compressed air energy storage: preliminary design and site development program in an aquifer. Final draft, Task 2: Volume 2 of 3. Characterize and explore potential sites and prepare research and development plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-12-01

    The characteristics of sites in Indiana and Illinois which are being investigated as potential sites for compressed air energy storage power plants are documented. These characteristics include geological considerations, economic factors, and environmental considerations. Extensive data are presented for 14 specific sites and a relative rating on the desirability of each site is derived. (LCL)

  15. Compressed Natural Gas Technology for Alternative Fuel Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujotomo, Isworo

    2018-02-01

    Gas has great potential to be converted into electrical energy. Indonesia has natural gas reserves up to 50 years in the future, but the optimization of the gas to be converted into electricity is low and unable to compete with coal. Gas is converted into electricity has low electrical efficiency (25%), and the raw materials are more expensive than coal. Steam from a lot of wasted gas turbine, thus the need for utilizing exhaust gas results from gas turbine units. Combined cycle technology (Gas and Steam Power Plant) be a solution to improve the efficiency of electricity. Among other Thermal Units, Steam Power Plant (Combined Cycle Power Plant) has a high electrical efficiency (45%). Weakness of the current Gas and Steam Power Plant peak burden still using fuel oil. Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Technology may be used to accommodate the gas with little land use. CNG gas stored in the circumstances of great pressure up to 250 bar, in contrast to gas directly converted into electricity in a power plant only 27 bar pressure. Stored in CNG gas used as a fuel to replace load bearing peak. Lawyer System on CNG conversion as well as the power plant is generally only used compressed gas with greater pressure and a bit of land.

  16. Pneumatic hybridization of a diesel engine using compressed air storage for wind-diesel energy generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basbous, Tammam; Younes, Rafic; Ilinca, Adrian; Perron, Jean

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we are studying an innovative solution to reduce fuel consumption and production cost for electricity production by Diesel generators. The solution is particularly suitable for remote areas where the cost of energy is very high not only because of inherent cost of technology but also due to transportation costs. It has significant environmental benefits as the use of fossil fuels for electricity generation is a significant source of GHG (Greenhouse Gas) emissions. The use of hybrid systems that combine renewable sources, especially wind, and Diesel generators, reduces fuel consumption and operation cost and has environmental benefits. Adding a storage element to the hybrid system increases the penetration level of the renewable sources, that is the percentage of renewable energy in the overall production, and further improves fuel savings. In a previous work, we demonstrated that CAES (Compressed Air Energy Storage) has numerous advantages for hybrid wind-diesel systems due to its low cost, high power density and reliability. The pneumatic hybridization of the Diesel engine consists to introduce the CAES through the admission valve. We have proven that we can improve the combustion efficiency and therefore the fuel consumption by optimizing Air/Fuel ratio thanks to the CAES assistance. As a continuation of these previous analyses, we studied the effect of the intake pressure and temperature and the exhaust pressure on the thermodynamic cycle of the diesel engine and determined the values of these parameters that will optimize fuel consumption. -- Highlights: ► Fuel economy analysis of a simple pneumatic hybridization of the Diesel engine using stored compressed air. ► Thermodynamic analysis of the pneumatic hybridization of diesel engines for hybrid wind-diesel energy systems. ► Analysis of intake pressure and temperature of compressed air and exhaust pressure on pressure/temperature during Diesel thermodynamic cycle. ► Direct admission of

  17. Compressed-air power tools in orthopaedic surgery: exhaust air is a potential source of contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagi, H C; DiPasquale, Thomas; Sanders, Roy; Herscovici, Dolfi

    2002-01-01

    To determine if the exhaust from surgical compressed-air power tools contains bacteria and if the exhaust leads to contamination of sterile surfaces. Bacteriologic study of orthopaedic power tools. Level I trauma center operative theater. None. Part I. Exhaust from two sterile compact air drills was sampled directly at the exhaust port. Part II. Exhaust from the drills was directed at sterile agar plates from varying distances. The agar plates represented sterile surfaces within the operative field. Part III. Control cultures. A battery-powered drill was operated over open agar plates in similar fashion as the compressed-air drills. Agar plates left open in the operative theater served as controls to rule out atmospheric contamination. Random cultures were taken from agar plates, gloves, drills, and hoses. Incidence of positive cultures. In Part I, all filters from both compressed-air drill exhausts were culture negative ( = 0.008). In Part II, the incidence of positive cultures for air drills number one and number two was 73% and 82%, respectively. The most commonly encountered organisms were, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, and Micrococcus species. All control cultures from agar plates, battery-powered drill, gloves, and hoses were negative ( compressed-air power tools in orthopaedic surgery may contribute to the dissemination of bacteria onto the surgical field. We do not recommend the use of compressed-air power tools that do not have a contained exhaust.

  18. Compressed gas fuel storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, John J.; Tiller, Dale B.; Wienhold, Paul D.; Hildebrand, Richard J.

    2001-01-01

    A compressed gas vehicle fuel storage system comprised of a plurality of compressed gas pressure cells supported by shock-absorbing foam positioned within a shape-conforming container. The container is dimensioned relative to the compressed gas pressure cells whereby a radial air gap surrounds each compressed gas pressure cell. The radial air gap allows pressure-induced expansion of the pressure cells without resulting in the application of pressure to adjacent pressure cells or physical pressure to the container. The pressure cells are interconnected by a gas control assembly including a thermally activated pressure relief device, a manual safety shut-off valve, and means for connecting the fuel storage system to a vehicle power source and a refueling adapter. The gas control assembly is enclosed by a protective cover attached to the container. The system is attached to the vehicle with straps to enable the chassis to deform as intended in a high-speed collision.

  19. Transmission Congestion Management using a Wind Integrated Compressed Air Energy Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gope

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Transmission congestion is a vital problem in the power system security and reliability sector. To ensure the stable operation of the system, a congestion free power network is desirable. In this paper, a new Congestion Management (CM technique, the Wind integrated Compressed Air Energy Storage (WCAES system is used to alleviate transmission congestion and to minimize congestion mitigation cost. The CM problem has been solved by using the Generator Sensitivity Factor (GSF and the Bus Sensitivity Factor (BSF. BSF is used for finding the optimal location of WCAES in the system. GSF with a Moth Flame Optimization (MFO algorithm is used for rescheduling the generators to alleviate congestion and to minimize congestion cost by improving security margin. The impact of the WCAES system is tested with a 39 bus system. To validate this approach, the same problem has been solved with a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO algorithm and the obtained results are compared with the ones from the MFO algorithm.

  20. Thermodynamic Analysis of Three Compressed Air Energy Storage Systems: Conventional, Adiabatic, and Hydrogen-Fueled

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Safaei

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We present analyses of three families of compressed air energy storage (CAES systems: conventional CAES, in which the heat released during air compression is not stored and natural gas is combusted to provide heat during discharge; adiabatic CAES, in which the compression heat is stored; and CAES in which the compression heat is used to assist water electrolysis for hydrogen storage. The latter two methods involve no fossil fuel combustion. We modeled both a low-temperature and a high-temperature electrolysis process for hydrogen production. Adiabatic CAES (A-CAES with physical storage of heat is the most efficient option with an exergy efficiency of 69.5% for energy storage. The exergy efficiency of the conventional CAES system is estimated to be 54.3%. Both high-temperature and low-temperature electrolysis CAES systems result in similar exergy efficiencies (35.6% and 34.2%, partly due to low efficiency of the electrolyzer cell. CAES with high-temperature electrolysis has the highest energy storage density (7.9 kWh per m3 of air storage volume, followed by A-CAES (5.2 kWh/m3. Conventional CAES and CAES with low-temperature electrolysis have similar energy densities of 3.1 kWh/m3.

  1. Preliminary Investigation of an Underwater Ramjet Powered by Compressed Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottard, Elmo J.; Shoemaker, Charles J.

    1961-01-01

    Part I contains the results of a preliminary experimental investigation of a particular design of an underwater ramjet or hydroduct powered by compressed air. The hydroduct is a propulsion device in which the energy of an expanding gas imparts additional momentum to a stream of water through mixing. The hydroduct model had a fineness ratio of 5.9, a maximum diameter of 3.2 inches, and a ratio of inlet area to frontal area of 0.32. The model was towed at a depth of 1 inch at forward speeds between 20 and 60 feet per second for airflow rates from 0.1 to 0.3 pound per second. Longitudinal force and pressures at the inlet and in the mixing chamber were determined. The hydroduct produced a positive thrust-minus-drag force at every test speed. The force and pressure coefficients were functions primarily of the ratio of weight airflow to free-stream velocity. The maximum propulsive efficiency based on the net internal thrust and an isothermal expansion of the air was approximately 53 percent at a thrust coefficient of 0.10. The performance of the test model may have been influenced by choking of the exit flow. Part II is a theoretical development of an underwater ramjet using air as "fuel." The basic assumption of the theoretical analysis is that a mixture of water and air can be treated as a compressible gas. More information on the properties of air-water mixtures is required to confirm this assumption or to suggest another approach. A method is suggested from which a more complete theoretical development, with the effects of choking included, may be obtained. An exploratory computation, in which this suggested method was used, indicated that the effect of choked flow on the thrust coefficient was minor.

  2. Adiabatic Compressed Air Energy Storage with packed bed thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbour, Edward; Mignard, Dimitri; Ding, Yulong; Li, Yongliang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The paper presents a thermodynamic analysis of A-CAES using packed bed regenerators. • The packed beds are used to store the compression heat. • A numerical model is developed, validated and used to simulate system operation. • The simulated efficiencies are between 70.5% and 71.1% for continuous operation. • Heat build-up in the beds reduces continuous cycle efficiency slightly. - Abstract: The majority of articles on Adiabatic Compressed Air Energy Storage (A-CAES) so far have focussed on the use of indirect-contact heat exchangers and a thermal fluid in which to store the compression heat. While packed beds have been suggested, a detailed analysis of A-CAES with packed beds is lacking in the available literature. This paper presents such an analysis. We develop a numerical model of an A-CAES system with packed beds and validate it against analytical solutions. Our results suggest that an efficiency in excess of 70% should be achievable, which is higher than many of the previous estimates for A-CAES systems using indirect-contact heat exchangers. We carry out an exergy analysis for a single charge–storage–discharge cycle to see where the main losses are likely to transpire and we find that the main losses occur in the compressors and expanders (accounting for nearly 20% of the work input) rather than in the packed beds. The system is then simulated for continuous cycling and it is found that the build-up of leftover heat from previous cycles in the packed beds results in higher steady state temperature profiles of the packed beds. This leads to a small reduction (<0.5%) in efficiency for continuous operation

  3. Feasibility study of a hybrid wind turbine system – Integration with compressed air energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Hao; Luo, Xing; Wang, Jihong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new hybrid wind turbine system is proposed and feasibility study if conducted. • A complete mathematical model is developed and implemented in a software environment. • Multi-mode control strategy is investigated to ensure the system work smoothly and efficiently. • A prototype for implementing the proposed mechanism is built and tested as proof of the concept. • The proposed system is proved to be technically feasible with energy efficiency around 50%. - Abstract: Wind has been recognized as one of major realistic clean energy sources for power generation to meet the continuously increased energy demand and to achieve the carbon emission reduction targets. However, the utilisation of wind energy encounters an inevitable challenge resulting from the nature of wind intermittency. To address this, the paper presents the recent research work at Warwick on the feasibility study of a new hybrid system by integrating a wind turbine with compressed air energy storage. A mechanical transmission mechanism is designed and implemented for power integration within the hybrid system. A scroll expander is adopted to serve as an “air-machinery energy converter”, which can transmit additional driving power generalized from the stored compressed air to the turbine shaft for smoothing the wind power fluctuation. A mathematical model for the complete hybrid process is developed and the control strategy is investigated for corresponding cooperative operations. A prototype test rig for implementing the proposed mechanism is built for proof of the concept. From the simulated and experimental studies, the energy conversion efficiency analysis is conducted while the system experiences different operation conditions and modes. It is proved that the proposed hybrid wind turbine system is feasible technically

  4. Potential hazards of compressed air energy storage in depleted natural gas reservoirs.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, Paul W.; Grubelich, Mark Charles; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2011-09-01

    This report is a preliminary assessment of the ignition and explosion potential in a depleted hydrocarbon reservoir from air cycling associated with compressed air energy storage (CAES) in geologic media. The study identifies issues associated with this phenomenon as well as possible mitigating measures that should be considered. Compressed air energy storage (CAES) in geologic media has been proposed to help supplement renewable energy sources (e.g., wind and solar) by providing a means to store energy when excess energy is available, and to provide an energy source during non-productive or low productivity renewable energy time periods. Presently, salt caverns represent the only proven underground storage used for CAES. Depleted natural gas reservoirs represent another potential underground storage vessel for CAES because they have demonstrated their container function and may have the requisite porosity and permeability; however reservoirs have yet to be demonstrated as a functional/operational storage media for compressed air. Specifically, air introduced into a depleted natural gas reservoir presents a situation where an ignition and explosion potential may exist. This report presents the results of an initial study identifying issues associated with this phenomena as well as possible mitigating measures that should be considered.

  5. Analysis of an integrated packed bed thermal energy storage system for heat recovery in compressed air energy storage technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega-Fernández, Iñigo; Zavattoni, Simone A.; Rodríguez-Aseguinolaza, Javier; D'Aguanno, Bruno; Barbato, Maurizio C.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •A packed bed TES system is proposed for heat recovery in CAES technology. •A CFD-based approach has been developed to evaluate the behaviour of the TES unit. •TES system enhancement and improvement alternatives are also demonstrated. •TES performance evaluated according to the first and second law of thermodynamics. -- Abstract: Compressed air energy storage (CAES) represents a very attracting option to grid electric energy storage. Although this technology is mature and well established, its overall electricity-to-electricity cycle efficiency is lower with respect to other alternatives such as pumped hydroelectric energy storage. A meager heat management strategy in the CAES technology is among the main reasons of this gap of efficiency. In current CAES plants, during the compression stage, a large amount of thermal energy is produced and wasted. On the other hand, during the electricity generation stage, an extensive heat supply is required, currently provided by burning natural gas. In this work, the coupling of both CAES stages through a thermal energy storage (TES) unit is introduced as an effective solution to achieve a noticeable increase of the overall CAES cycle efficiency. In this frame, the thermal energy produced in the compression stage is stored in a TES unit for its subsequent deployment during the expansion stage, realizing an Adiabatic-CAES plant. The present study addresses the conceptual design of a TES system based on a packed bed of gravel to be integrated in an Adiabatic-CAES plant. With this objective, a complete thermo-fluid dynamics model has been developed, including the implications derived from the TES operating under variable-pressure conditions. The formulation and treatment of the high pressure conditions were found being particularly relevant issues. Finally, the model provided a detailed performance and efficiency analysis of the TES system under charge/discharge cyclic conditions including a realistic operative

  6. Factors affecting storage of compressed air in porous-rock reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, R.D.; Doherty, T.J.; Erikson, R.L.; Wiles, L.E.

    1983-05-01

    This report documents a review and evaluation of the geotechnical aspects of porous medium (aquifer) storage. These aspects include geologic, petrologic, geophysical, hydrologic, and geochemical characteristics of porous rock masses and their interactions with compressed air energy storage (CAES) operations. The primary objective is to present criteria categories for the design and stability of CAES in porous media (aquifers). The document will also describe analytical, laboratory, and field-scale investigations that have been conducted.

  7. Numerical Investigation of the Influences of Wellbore Flow on Compressed Air Energy Storage in Aquifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the blossoming of intermittent energy, compressed air energy storage (CAES has attracted much attention as a potential large-scale energy storage technology. Compared with caverns as storage vessels, compressed air energy storage in aquifers (CAESA has the advantages of wide availability and lower costs. The wellbore can play an important role as the energy transfer mechanism between the surroundings and the air in CAESA system. In this paper, we investigated the influences of the well screen length on CAESA system performance using an integrated wellbore-reservoir simulator (T2WELL/EOS3. The results showed that the well screen length can affect the distribution of the initial gas bubble and that a system with a fully penetrating wellbore can obtain acceptably stable pressurized air and better energy efficiencies. Subsequently, we investigated the impact of the energy storage scale and the target aquifer depth on the performance of a CAESA system using a fully penetrating wellbore. The simulation results demonstrated that larger energy storage scales exhibit better performances of CAESA systems. In addition, deeper target aquifer systems, which could decrease the energy loss by larger storage density and higher temperature in surrounding formation, can obtain better energy efficiencies.

  8. Modelling and analysis of a novel compressed air energy storage system for trigeneration based on electrical energy peak load shifting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv, Song; He, Wei; Zhang, Aifeng; Li, Guiqiang; Luo, Bingqing; Liu, Xianghua

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A new CAES system for trigeneration based on electrical peak load shifting is proposed. • The theoretical models and the thermodynamics process are established and analyzed. • The relevant parameters influencing its performance have been discussed and optimized. • A novel energy and economic evaluation methods is proposed to evaluate the performance of the system. - Abstract: The compressed air energy storage (CAES) has made great contribution to both electricity and renewable energy. In the pursuit of reduced energy consumption and relieving power utility pressure effectively, a novel trigeneration system based on CAES for cooling, heating and electricity generation by electrical energy peak load shifting is proposed in this paper. The cooling power is generated by the direct expansion of compressed air, and the heating power is recovered in the process of compression and storage. Based on the working principle of the typical CAES, the theoretical analysis of the thermodynamic system models are established and the characteristics of the system are analyzed. A novel method used to evaluate energy and economic performance is proposed. A case study is conducted, and the economic-social and technical feasibility of the proposed system are discussed. The results show that the trigeneration system works efficiently at relatively low pressure, and the efficiency is expected to reach about 76.3% when air is compressed and released by 15 bar. The annual monetary cost saving annually is about 53.9%. Moreover, general considerations about the proposed system are also presented.

  9. Compressed-air energy storage: Commercialization potential and EPRI roles in the commercialization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, D. W.; Buckley, O. E.; Clark, C. E.

    1982-12-01

    This report describes an assessment of potential roles that EPRI might take to facilitate the commercial acceptance of compressed air energy storage (CAES) systems. The assessment is based on (1) detailed analyses of the market potential of utility storage technologies, (2) interviews with representatives of key participants in the CAES market, and (3) a decision analysis synthesizing much of the information about market and technology status. The results indicate a large potential market for CAES systems if the overall business environment for utilities improves. In addition, it appears that EPRI can have a valuable incremental impact in ensuring that utilities realize the potential of CAES by (1) continuing an aggressive information dissemination and technology transfer program, (2) working to ensure the success of the first United States CAES installation at Soyland Power Cooperative, (3) developing planning methods to allow utilities to evaluate CAES and other storage options more effectively and more realistically, and (4) supporting R and D to resolve residual uncertainties in first-generation CAES cost and performance characteristics.

  10. Porous media experience applicable to field evaluation for compressed air energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, R.D.; Gutknecht, P.J.

    1980-06-01

    A survey is presented of porous media field experience that may aid in the development of a compressed air energy storage field demonstration. Work done at PNL and experience of other groups and related industries is reviewed. An overall view of porous media experience in the underground storage of fluids is presented. CAES experience consists of site evaluation and selection processes used by groups in California, Kansas, and Indiana. Reservoir design and field evaluation of example sites are reported. The studies raised questions about compatibility with depleted oil and gas reservoirs, storage space rights, and compressed air regulations. Related experience embraces technologies of natural gas, thermal energy, and geothermal and hydrogen storage. Natural gas storage technology lends the most toward compressed air storage development, keeping in mind the respective differences between stored fluids, physical conditions, and cycling frequencies. Both fluids are injected under pressure into an aquifer to form a storage bubble confined between a suitable caprock structure and partially displaced ground water. State-of-the-art information is summarized as the necessary foundation material for field planning. Preliminary design criteria are given as recommendations for basic reservoir characteristics. These include geometric dimensions and storage matrix properties such as permeability. Suggested ranges are given for injection air temperature and reservoir pressure. The second step in developmental research is numerical modeling. Results have aided preliminary design by analyzing injection effects upon reservoir pressure, temperature and humidity profiles. Results are reported from laboratory experiments on candidate sandstones and caprocks. Conclusions are drawn, but further verification must be done in the field.

  11. Numerical investigation of a joint approach to thermal energy storage and compressed air energy storage in aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Chaobin; Zhang, Keni; Pan, Lehua; Cai, Zuansi; Li, Cai; Li, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •One wellbore-reservoir numerical model was built to study the impact of ATES on CAESA. •With high injection temperature, the joint of ATES can improve CAESA performance. •The considerable utilization of geothermal occurs only at the beginning of operations. •Combination of CAESA and ATES can be achieved in common aquifers. -- Abstract: Different from conventional compressed air energy storage (CAES) systems, the advanced adiabatic compressed air energy storage (AA-CAES) system can store the compression heat which can be used to reheat air during the electricity generation stage. Thus, AA-CAES system can achieve a higher energy storage efficiency. Similar to the AA-CAES system, a compressed air energy storage in aquifers (CAESA) system, which is integrated with an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) could possibly achieve the same objective. In order to investigate the impact of ATES on the performance of CAESA, different injection air temperature schemes are designed and analyzed by using numerical simulations. Key parameters relative to energy recovery efficiencies of the different injection schemes, such as pressure distribution and temperature variation within the aquifers as well as energy flow rate in the injection well, are also investigated in this study. The simulations show that, although different injection schemes have a similar overall energy recovery efficiency (∼97%) as well as a thermal energy recovery efficiency (∼79.2%), the higher injection air temperature has a higher energy storage capability. Our results show the total energy storage for the injection air temperature at 80 °C is about 10% greater than the base model scheme at 40 °C. Sensitivity analysis reveal that permeability of the reservoir boundary could have significant impact on the system performance. However, other hydrodynamic and thermodynamic properties, such as the storage reservoir permeability, thermal conductivity, rock grain specific heat and rock

  12. Use of phase change materials during compressed air expansion for isothermal CAES plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellani, B.; Presciutti, A.; Morini, E.; Filipponi, M.; Nicolini, A.; Rossi, F.

    2017-11-01

    Compressed air energy storage (CAES) plants are designed to store compressed air into a vessel or in an underground cavern and to expand it in an expansion turbine when energy demand is high. An innovative CAES configuration recently proposed is the isothermal process. Several methods to implement isothermal CAES configuration are under investigation. In this framework, the present paper deals with the experimental testing of phase change materials (PCM) during compressed air expansion phase. The experimental investigation was carried out by means of an apparatus constituted by a compression section, a steel pressure vessel, to which an expansion valve is connected. The initial internal absolute pressure was equal to 5 bar to avoid moisture condensation and the experimental tests were carried out with two paraffin-based PCM amounts (0.05 kg and 0.1 kg). Results show that the temperature change during air expansion decreases with increasing the PCM amount inside the vessel. With the use of PCM during expansions an increase of the expansion work occurs. The increase is included in the range from 9.3% to 18.2%. In every test there is an approach to the isothermal values, which represent the maximum theoretical value of the obtainable expansion work.

  13. Thermodynamic analysis of a novel tri-generation system based on compressed air energy storage and pneumatic motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jin-Long; Wang, Jian-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Based on CAES (compressed air energy storage) and PM (pneumatic motor), a novel tri-generation system (heat energy, mechanical energy and cooling power) is proposed in this paper. Both the cheap electricity generated at night and the excess power from undelivered renewable energy due to instability, can be stored as compressed air and hot water by the proposed system. When energy is in great demand, the compressed air stored in this system is released to drive PM to generate mechanical power. The discharged air from PM can be further utilized as valuable cooling power. Compared to conventional CAES systems, the biggest characteristic of the proposed system is that the discharged air usually abandoned is used as cooling power. In order to study the performances of this system, a thermodynamic analysis and an experimental investigation are carried out. The thermodynamic model is validated by the experimental data. Using the validated thermodynamic model, the mechanical energy output, cooling capacity and temperature of discharged air, as well as the efficiency of the system are analyzed. The theoretical analysis indicates that the additional application of discharged air can improve total energy efficiency by 20–30%. Therefore, this system is very worthy of consideration and being popularized. - Highlights: • The proposed system can provide mechanical energy, heat energy and cooling power. • The exhaust air of pneumatic motor is used as cooling power instead of abandoned. • A thermodynamic model of the proposed system is constructed and validated. • The effects of several parameters on system performance are examined. • The proposed system can improve total energy efficiency of CAES system by 20–30%.

  14. Energy and Exergy Analysis of Ocean Compressed Air Energy Storage Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikram C. Patil

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimal utilization of renewable energy resources needs energy storage capability in integration with the electric grid. Ocean compressed air energy storage (OCAES can provide promising large-scale energy storage. In OCAES, energy is stored in the form of compressed air under the ocean. Underwater energy storage results in a constant-pressure storage system which has potential to show high efficiency compared to constant-volume energy storage. Various OCAES concepts, namely, diabatic, adiabatic, and isothermal OCAES, are possible based on the handling of heat in the system. These OCAES concepts are assessed using energy and exergy analysis in this paper. Roundtrip efficiency of liquid piston based OCAES is also investigated using an experimental liquid piston compressor. Further, the potential of improved efficiency of liquid piston based OCAES with use of various heat transfer enhancement techniques is investigated. Results show that adiabatic OCAES shows improved efficiency over diabatic OCAES by storing thermal exergy in thermal energy storage and isothermal OCAES shows significantly higher efficiency over adiabatic and diabatic OCAES. Liquid piston based OCAES is estimated to show roundtrip efficiency of about 45% and use of heat transfer enhancement in liquid piston has potential to improve roundtrip efficiency of liquid piston based OCAES up to 62%.

  15. Thermodynamic characteristics of a novel supercritical compressed air energy storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Huan; Xu, Yujie; Chen, Haisheng; Zhou, Xuezhi

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel supercritical compressed air energy storage system is proposed. • The energy density of SC-CAES is approximately 18 times larger than that of conventional CAES. • The characteristic of thermodynamics and exergy destruction is comprehensively analysed. • The corresponding optimum relationship between charging and discharging pressure is illustrated. • A turning point of efficiency is indicated because of the heat transfer of crossing the critical point. - Abstract: A novel supercritical compressed air energy storage (SC-CAES) system is proposed by our team to solve the problems of conventional CAES. The system eliminates the dependence on fossil fuel and large gas-storage cavern, as well as possesses the advantages of high efficiency by employing the special properties of supercritical air, which is significant for the development of electrical energy storage. The thermodynamic model of the SC-CAES system is built, and the thermodynamic characters are revealed. Through the exergy analysis of the system, the processes of the larger exergy destruction include compression, expansion, cold storage/heat exchange and throttle. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis shows that there is an optimal energy releasing pressure to make the system achieve the highest efficiency when energy storage pressure is constant. The efficiency of SC-CAES is expected to reach about 67.41% when energy storage pressure and energy releasing pressure are 120 bar and 95.01 bar, respectively. At the same time, the energy density is 18 times larger than that of conventional CAES. Sensitivity analysis also shows the change laws of system efficiency varying with other basic system parameters. The study provides support for the design and engineering of SC-CAES.

  16. Petrologic and petrophysical evaluation of the Dallas Center Structure, Iowa, for compressed air energy storage in the Mount Simon Sandstone.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heath, Jason E.; Bauer, Stephen J.; Broome, Scott Thomas; Dewers, Thomas A.; Rodriguez, Mark A

    2013-03-01

    The Iowa Stored Energy Plant Agency selected a geologic structure at Dallas Center, Iowa, for evaluation of subsurface compressed air energy storage. The site was rejected due to lower-than-expected and heterogeneous permeability of the target reservoir, lower-than-desired porosity, and small reservoir volume. In an initial feasibility study, permeability and porosity distributions of flow units for the nearby Redfield gas storage field were applied as analogue values for numerical modeling of the Dallas Center Structure. These reservoir data, coupled with an optimistic reservoir volume, produced favorable results. However, it was determined that the Dallas Center Structure cannot be simplified to four zones of high, uniform permeabilities. Updated modeling using field and core data for the site provided unfavorable results for air fill-up. This report presents Sandia National Laboratories petrologic and petrophysical analysis of the Dallas Center Structure that aids in understanding why the site was not suitable for gas storage.

  17. Safety implications associated with in-plant pressurized gas storage and distribution systems in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guymon, R.H.; Casto, W.R.; Compere, E.L.

    1985-05-01

    Storage and handling of compressed gases at nuclear power plants were studied to identify any potential safety hazards. Gases investigated were air, acetylene, carbon dioxide, chlorine, Halon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, propane, and sulfur hexaflouride. Physical properties of the gases were reviewed as were applicable industrial codes and standards. Incidents involving pressurized gases in general industry and in the nuclear industry were studied. In this report general hazards such as missiles from ruptures, rocketing of cylinders, pipe whipping, asphyxiation, and toxicity are discussed. Even though some serious injuries and deaths over the years have occurred in industries handling and using pressurized gases, the industrial codes, standards, practices, and procedures are very comprehensive. The most important safety consideration in handling gases is the serious enforcement of these well-known and established methods. Recommendations are made concerning compressed gas cylinder missiles, hydrogen line ruptures or leaks, and identification of lines and equipment

  18. Development of fundamental technigue of compressed air energy storage (CAES) gas turbine power generation and resistivity tomography. Asshuku kuki chozo (CAES) gas turbine hatsuden no kiban gijutsu no kaihatsu to hiteiko tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hibino, S; Suzuki, K [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1991-12-01

    Compressed air energy storage (CAES) has been studied as a promising storage system which has a good possibility of being put to practical use. Construction of the storage facility is required for CAES. For an economical construction of a storage facility, it is necessary to construct a storage facility by excavating, from the ground surface, a cavity in the ground. There is no case in Japan where rock storage is adopted with several tens of atmospheric pressure which is necessary for CAES. If highly pressurized air can be stored by the water sealing method, it is a very economical method in the case with hard rocks. As the first stem to verify the effectivity of the water sealing system, a water sealing experiment is performed in a boring hole. It is confirmed that water sealing can be possible up to about 40 atmospheres, and it is found that the resistivity, open joint distribution and coefficient of permeability of rocks have correlation as an investigating method for potential cracks in rocks and that resistivity tomography is effective for the investigation of cracks in rocks. 9 ref., 23 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Preliminary formation analysis for compressed air energy storage in depleted natural gas reservoirs :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, William Payton

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an engineering and operational understanding of CAES performance for a depleted natural gas reservoir by evaluation of relative permeability effects of air, water and natural gas in depleted natural gas reservoirs as a reservoir is initially depleted, an air bubble is created, and as air is initially cycled. The composition of produced gases will be evaluated as the three phase flow of methane, nitrogen and brine are modeled. The effects of a methane gas phase on the relative permeability of air in a formation are investigated and the composition of the produced fluid, which consists primarily of the amount of natural gas in the produced air are determined. Simulations of compressed air energy storage (CAES) in depleted natural gas reservoirs were carried out to assess the effect of formation permeability on the design of a simple CAES system. The injection of N2 (as a proxy to air), and the extraction of the resulting gas mixture in a depleted natural gas reservoir were modeled using the TOUGH2 reservoir simulator with the EOS7c equation of state. The optimal borehole spacing was determined as a function of the formation scale intrinsic permeability. Natural gas reservoir results are similar to those for an aquifer. Borehole spacing is dependent upon the intrinsic permeability of the formation. Higher permeability allows increased injection and extraction rates which is equivalent to more power per borehole for a given screen length. The number of boreholes per 100 MW for a given intrinsic permeability in a depleted natural gas reservoir is essentially identical to that determined for a simple aquifer of identical properties. During bubble formation methane is displaced and a sharp N2methane boundary is formed with an almost pure N2 gas phase in the bubble near the borehole. During cycling mixing of methane and air occurs along the boundary as the air bubble boundary moves. The extracted gas mixture changes as a

  20. Numerical simulation for the coupled thermo-mechanical performance of a lined rock cavern for underground compressed air energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shu-Wei; Xia, Cai-Chu; Zhao, Hai-Bin; Mei, Song-Hua; Zhou, Yu

    2017-12-01

    Compressed air energy storage (CAES) is a technology that uses compressed air to store surplus electricity generated from low power consumption time for use at peak times. This paper presents a thermo-mechanical modeling for the thermodynamic and mechanical responses of a lined rock cavern used for CAES. The simulation was accomplished in COMSOL Multiphysics and comparisons of the numerical simulation and some analytical solutions validated the thermo-mechanical modeling. Air pressure and temperatures in the sealing layer and concrete lining exhibited a similar trend of ‘up-down-down-up’ in one cycle. Significant temperature fluctuation occurred only in the concrete lining and sealing layer, and no strong fluctuation was observed in the host rock. In the case of steel sealing, principal stresses in the sealing layer were larger than those in the concrete and host rock. The maximum compressive stresses of the three layers and the displacement on the cavern surface increased with the increase of cycle number. However, the maximum tensile stresses exhibited the opposite trend. Polymer sealing achieved a relatively larger air temperature and pressure compared with steel and air-tight concrete sealing. For concrete layer thicknesses of 0 and 0.1 m and an initial air pressure of 4.5 MPa, the maximum rock temperature could reach 135 °C and 123 °C respectively in a 30 day simulation.

  1. Potential petrophysical and chemical property alterations in a compressed air energy storage porous rock reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stottlemyre, J.A.; Erikson, R.L.; Smith, R.P.

    1979-10-01

    Successful commercialization of Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) systems depends on long-term stability of the underground reservoirs subjected to somewhat unique operating conditions. Specifically, these conditions include elevated and time varying temperatures, effective stresses, and air humidities. To minimize the requirements for premium fuels, it may be desirable to retain the thermal energy of compression. Porous media, e.g., sandstone, may hold promise as elevated temperature reservoirs. In this study, a reservoir composed of clean quartz sandstone and injection air temperatures of 300 to 575/sup 0/K are assumed. Numerical modeling is used to estimate temperature, stress, and humidity conditions within this reference porous media reservoir. A discussion on relative importance to CAES of several potential porous media damage mechanisms is presented. In this context, damage is defined as a reduction in intrinsic permeability (measure of air transport capability), a decrease in effective porosity (measure of storage capability), or an increase in elastic and/or inelastic deformation of the porous material. The potential damage mechanisms presented include: (1) disaggregation, (2) particulate plugging, (3) boundary layer viscosity anomalies, (4) inelastic microstructural consolidation, (5) clay swelling and dispersion, (6) hydrothermal mineral alteration, (7) oxidation reactions, and (8) well casing corrosion. These mechanisms are placed in perspective with respect to anticipated CAES conditions and mechanisms suggested are: (1) of academic interest only, (2) readily identified and controlled via engineering, or (3) potential problem areas requiring additional investigation.

  2. The Fracture Influence on the Energy Loss of Compressed Air Energy Storage in Hard Rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hehua Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A coupled nonisothermal gas flow and geomechanical numerical modeling is conducted to study the influence of fractures (joints on the complex thermohydromechanical (THM performance of underground compressed air energy storage (CAES in hard rock caverns. The air-filled chamber is modeled as porous media with high porosity, high permeability, and high thermal conductivity. The present analysis focuses on the CAES in hard rock caverns at relatively shallow depth, that is, ≤100 m, and the pressure in carven is significantly higher than ambient pore pressure. The influence of one discrete crack and multiple crackson energy loss analysis of cavern in hard rock media are carried out. Two conditions are considered during each storage and release cycle, namely, gas injection and production mass being equal and additional gas injection supplemented after each cycle. The influence of the crack location, the crack length, and the crack open width on the energy loss is studied.

  3. Prediction of the thermohydraulic performance of porous-media reservoirs for compressed-air energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiles, L.E.; McCann, R.A.

    1981-09-01

    The numerical modeling capability that has been developed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the prediction of the thermohydraulic performance of porous media reservoirs for compressed air energy storage (CAES) is described. The capability of the numerical models was demonstrated by application to a variety of parametric analyses and the support analyses for the CAES porous media field demonstration program. The demonstration site analyses include calculations for the displacement of aquifer water to develop the air storage zone, the potential for water coning, thermal development in the reservoir, and the dehydration of the near-wellbore region. Unique features of the demonstration site reservoir that affect the thermohydraulic performance are identified and contrasted against the predicted performance for conditions that would be considered more typical of a commercial CAES site.

  4. Storage of compressed air. A possibility for an enhanced utilization of wind energy?; Druckluftspeicherung. Ein Weg zur verstaerkten Windenergienutzung?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kretschmer, Rutger [DREWAG - Stadtwerke Dresden GmbH, Dresden (Germany). Hauptabt. Vertrieb und Beschaffung

    2008-07-01

    The high prices for fossil energy sources are due to increasing demand, limited production quotas and exhaustion of strategically positioned deposits. Likewise the electricity prices increase to. High electricity tariffs improve the investment climate for renewable energies independently from the fuel costs. The positive development of the renewable energy is accompanied by serious disadvantages. Thus, the conditions for grid control and for the operation of fossil power stations deteriorate. The author of the contribution under consideration reports on the storage of compressed air as a possibility for the use of wind energy.

  5. Utilization and storage problems in wind power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molly, J P

    1977-01-01

    The energy yield of a power plant consisting of wind energy converter and storer is considerably influenced by the choice of specific characteristic values of both components. Boundary conditions of the optimization process are site, consumer behavior and a minimum demand of supply safety. If the costs of the power plant components are known, then one may determine the cheapest wind power plant taking account of the boundary conditions. The preconditions and way of calculation for optimum rotary number, the best specific rotor disk power and the necessary storage capacity for a certain supply safety are given.

  6. Fuel handling and storage systems in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The scope of this Guide includes the design of handling and storage facilities for fuel assemblies from the receipt of fuel into the nuclear power plant until the fuel departs from that plant. The unirradiated fuel considered in this Guide is assumed not to exhibit any significant level of radiation so that it can be handled without shielding or cooling. This Guide also gives limited consideration to the handling and storage of certain core components. While the general design and safety principles are discussed in Section 2 of this Guide, more specific design requirements for the handling and storage of fuel are given in detailed sections which follow the general design and safety principles. Further useful information is to be found in the IAEA Technical Reports Series No. 189 ''Storage, Handling and Movement of Fuel and Related Components at Nuclear Power Plants'' and No. 198 ''Guide to the Safe Handling of Radioactive Wastes at Nuclear Power Plants''. However, the scope of the Guide does not include consideration of the following: (1) The various reactor physics questions associated with fuel and absorber loading and unloading into the core; (2) The design aspects of preparation of the reactor for fuel loading (such as the removal of the pressure vessel head for a light water reactor) and restoration after loading; (3) The design of shipping casks; (4) Fuel storage of a long-term nature exceeding the design lifetime of the nuclear power plant; (5) Unirradiated fuel containing plutonium

  7. Geotechnical issues and guidelines for storage of compressed air in excavated hard rock caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, R.D.; Doherty, T.J.; Fossum, A.F.

    1982-04-01

    The results of a literature survey on the stability of excavated hard rock caverns are presented. The objective of the study was to develop geotechnical criteria for the design of compressed air energy storage (CAES) caverns in hard rock formations. These criteria involve geologic, hydrological, geochemical, geothermal, and in situ stress state characteristics of generic rock masses. Their relevance to CAES caverns, and the identification of required research areas, are identified throughout the text. This literature survey and analysis strongly suggests that the chief geotechnical issues for the development and operation of CAES caverns in hard rock are impermeability for containment, stability for sound openings, and hydrostatic balance.

  8. Thermophysical behavior of St. Peter sandstone: application to compressed air energy storage in an aquifer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erikson, R.L.

    1983-12-01

    The long-term stability of a sandstone reservoir is of primary importance to the success of compressed air energy storage (CAES) in aquifers. The purpose of this study was to: develop experimental techniques for the operation of the CAES Porous Media Flow Loop (PMFL), an apparatus designed to study the stability of porous media in subsurface geologic environments, conduct experiments in the PMFL designed to determine the effects of temperature, stress, and humidity on the stability of candidate CAES reservoir materials, provide support for the CAES field demonstration project in Pittsfield, Illinois, by characterizing the thermophysical stability of Pittsfield reservoir sandstone under simulated field conditions.

  9. A Coupled Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical Model of Jointed Hard Rock for Compressed Air Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoying Zhuang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy resources such as wind and solar are intermittent, which causes instability when being connected to utility grid of electricity. Compressed air energy storage (CAES provides an economic and technical viable solution to this problem by utilizing subsurface rock cavern to store the electricity generated by renewable energy in the form of compressed air. Though CAES has been used for over three decades, it is only restricted to salt rock or aquifers for air tightness reason. In this paper, the technical feasibility of utilizing hard rock for CAES is investigated by using a coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM modelling of nonisothermal gas flow. Governing equations are derived from the rules of energy balance, mass balance, and static equilibrium. Cyclic volumetric mass source and heat source models are applied to simulate the gas injection and production. Evaluation is carried out for intact rock and rock with discrete crack, respectively. In both cases, the heat and pressure losses using air mass control and supplementary air injection are compared.

  10. Pumped storage power plants in Denmark. Pumpekraftvaerker i Danmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-12-15

    In 1988 there are about 250 pumped storage power plants throughout the world, yet it is difficult to obtain data about them. They are usually situated in mountainous areas so that great differences in height can be obtained between the upper and lower water storage facilities. These plants consist of the power system (turbines, pumps, generators, motors, etc.) natural or artificial water storage facilities, and water routes, (in and outgoing constructions, pressure pipes, etc.). In Denmark, reversible pumping turbines are preferred, and here specific Danish products are examined (62.5MW and a 125 MW). Possible designs for water storage basins are analyzed in detail, also with regard to their comparative economic advantages. It has been considered reasonable to site this kind of power plant in Danish coastal regions, this would be the first case where the sea has been used for the lower water storage basin. Possible sites in Jutland and on the island of Als have been investigated. In a basin for a 250 MW pumped storage power plant with optimal production throughout 8 hours, a siting 60 m above sea level could cover power production for an area of about 100 hectars. Material for a dam surrounding the lower water storage system could be produced when digging out the basin. The dam should be about 20m higher than the surrounding terrain and the volume would be about 3,2 mio. m/sup 3/. The filled basin would contain 14.0 mio. m/sup 3/ water. The velocity and volume of outgoing water masses would be very considerable and would exact safety precautions to protect ships and bathers. A tentative cost benefit analysis is presented which indicates that the possible establishment of this type of power plant in Denmark could be of considerable interest. (AB). 15 refs.

  11. Power system stabilising features from wind power plants augmented with energy storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarnowski, Germán C.; Kjær, Philip C; Lærke, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a wind power plant augmented with energy storage, configured to provide ancillary services (primary reserve, inertial response, power oscillation damping) for enhancement of power system stability. Energy storage can complement wind power plants thus reducing the need for any...... overload or curtailment to allow active power modulation. A 12MW + 1.6MW augmented plant is used for demonstration of representative performance of the particular ancillary service control algorithms...

  12. Bidding Strategy of Virtual Power Plant with Energy Storage Power Station and Photovoltaic and Wind Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongfu Tan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available For the virtual power plants containing energy storage power stations and photovoltaic and wind power, the output of PV and wind power is uncertain and virtual power plants must consider this uncertainty when they participate in the auction in the electricity market. In this context, this paper studies the bidding strategy of the virtual power plant with photovoltaic and wind power. Assuming that the upper and lower limits of the combined output of photovoltaic and wind power are stochastically variable, the fluctuation range of the day-ahead energy market and capacity price is stochastically variable. If the capacity of the storage station is large enough to stabilize the fluctuation of the output of the wind and photovoltaic power, virtual power plants can participate in the electricity market bidding. This paper constructs a robust optimization model of virtual power plant bidding strategy in the electricity market, which considers the cost of charge and discharge of energy storage power station and transmission congestion. The model proposed in this paper is solved by CPLEX; the example results show that the model is reasonable and the method is valid.

  13. A review on the recent development of solar absorption and vapour compression based hybrid air conditioning with low temperature storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor D. N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional air conditioners or vapour compression systems are main contributors to energy consumption in modern buildings. There are common environmental issues emanating from vapour compression system such as greenhouse gas emission and heat wastage. These problems can be reduced by adaptation of solar energy components to vapour compression system. However, intermittence input of daily solar radiation was the main issue of solar energy system. This paper presents the recent studies on hybrid air conditioning system. In addition, the basic vapour compression system and components involved in the solar air conditioning system are discussed. Introduction of low temperature storage can be an interactive solution and improved economically which portray different modes of operating strategies. Yet, very few studies have examined on optimal operating strategies of the hybrid system. Finally, the findings of this review will help suggest optimization of solar absorption and vapour compression based hybrid air conditioning system for future work while considering both economic and environmental factors.

  14. Pumped Storage Power plants, Challenges and opportunities - Some conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viollet, Pierre-Louis; Roult, Didier; Mathex, Bruno; Ouaabi, Aziz; Louis, Frederic; Petitjean, Alain; Capuozzo, Vincent; Mazzouji, Farid; Prestat, Bruno; Nekrassov, Andrei; Caignaert, Guy; Vidil, Roland; Guilbaud, Claude; Metais, Olivier

    2011-11-01

    This document briefly synthesizes a conference which addressed the development of pumped storage power plants in the world, and social, economic, technical and scientific challenges related to this development which is closely related to the development of intermittent renewable energies (wind and solar energy). Current developments in different countries (Germany, Portugal, Switzerland, Norway, France and China) are evoked

  15. Modelling study, efficiency analysis and optimisation of large-scale Adiabatic Compressed Air Energy Storage systems with low-temperature thermal storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Xing; Wang, Jihong; Krupke, Christopher; Wang, Yue; Sheng, Yong; Li, Jian; Xu, Yujie; Wang, Dan; Miao, Shihong; Chen, Haisheng

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The paper presents an A-CAES system thermodynamic model with low temperature thermal energy storage integration. • The initial parameter value ranges for A-CAES system simulation are identified from the study of a CAES plant in operation. • The strategies of system efficiency improvement are investigated via a parametric study with a sensitivity analysis. • Various system configurations are discussed for analysing the efficiency improvement potentials. - Abstract: The key feature of Adiabatic Compressed Air Energy Storage (A-CAES) is the reuse of the heat generated from the air compression process at the stage of air expansion. This increases the complexity of the whole system since the heat exchange and thermal storage units must have the capacities and performance to match the air compression/expansion units. Thus it raises a strong demand in the whole system modelling and simulation tool for A-CAES system optimisation. The paper presents a new whole system mathematical model for A-CAES with simulation implementation and the model is developed with consideration of lowing capital cost of the system. The paper then focuses on the study of system efficiency improvement strategies via parametric analysis and system structure optimisation. The paper investigates how the system efficiency is affected by the system component performance and parameters. From the study, the key parameters are identified, which give dominant influences in improving the system efficiency. The study is extended onto optimal system configuration and the recommendations are made for achieving higher efficiency, which provides a useful guidance for A-CAES system design.

  16. Techno-economic assessment of the need for bulk energy storage in low-carbon electricity systems with a focus on compressed air storage (CAES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei Mohamadabadi, Hossein

    Increasing electrification of the economy while decarbonizing the electricity supply is among the most effective strategies for cutting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in order to abate climate change. This thesis offers insights into the role of bulk energy storage (BES) systems to cut GHG emissions from the electricity sector. Wind and solar energies can supply large volumes of low-carbon electricity. Nevertheless, large penetration of these resources poses serious reliability concerns to the grid, mainly because of their intermittency. This thesis evaluates the performance of BES systems - especially compressed air energy storage (CAES) technology - for integration of wind energy from engineering and economic aspects. Analytical thermodynamic analysis of Distributed CAES (D-CAES) and Adiabatic CAES (A-CAES) suggest high roundtrip storage efficiencies ( 80% and 70%) compared to conventional CAES ( 50%). Using hydrogen to fuel CAES plants - instead of natural gas - yields a low overall efficiency ( 35%), despite its negligible GHG emissions. The techno-economic study of D-CAES shows that exporting compression heat to low-temperature loads (e.g. space heating) can enhance both the economic and emissions performance of compressed air storage plants. A case study for Alberta, Canada reveals that the abatement cost of replacing a conventional CAES with D-CAES plant practicing electricity arbitrage can be negative (-$40 per tCO2e, when the heat load is 50 km away from the air storage site). A green-field simulation finds that reducing the capital cost of BES - even drastically below current levels - does not substantially impact the cost of low-carbon electricity. At a 70% reduction in the GHG emissions intensity of the grid, gas turbines remain three times more cost-efficient in managing the wind variability compared to BES (in the best case and with a 15-minute resolution). Wind and solar thus, do not need to wait for availability of cheap BES systems to cost

  17. Theoretical evaluation on the impact of heat exchanger in Advanced Adiabatic Compressed Air Energy Storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Ke; Zhang, Yuan; Li, Xuemei; Xu, Jianzhong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A multi-stage AA-CAES system model is established based on thermodynamic theory. • Four Cases about pressure loss and effectiveness of heat exchanger are investigated. • The impact of pressure loss on conversion of heat energy in TES is more sensitive. • The impact of heat exchanger effectiveness in charge process on system is stronger. • Pressure loss in heat exchanger affects the change trends of system efficiency. - Abstract: Advanced Adiabatic Compressed Air Energy Storage (AA-CAES) is a large-scale energy storage system based on gas turbine technology and thermal energy storage (TES). Electrical energy can be converted into internal energy of air and heat energy in TES during the charge process, while reverse energy conversion proceeds during discharge process. The performance of AA-CAES system requires further improvement in order to increase efficiency. In this paper, a multi-stage AA-CAES system model is established, and the influence of effectiveness and pressure loss in heat exchanger on energy conversion and utilization efficiency of AA-CAES system is analyzed theoretically based on the theory of thermodynamics. Four Cases about effectiveness and pressure loss of heat exchanger are investigated and compared with each other. It is found that effectiveness and pressure loss of heat exchanger are directly related to energy conversion and utilization in AA-CAES system. System efficiency changes with the variation of heat exchanger effectiveness and the impact of pressure loss on conversion of heat energy in TES is more sensitive than that of internal energy of air. Pressure loss can cause the complexity of system efficiency change. With appropriate selection of the values of heat exchanger effectiveness for both charge and discharge processes, an AA-CAES system with a higher efficiency could be expected

  18. Analysis of flexible fabric structures for large-scale subsea compressed air energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimm, A; Garvey, S

    2009-01-01

    The idea of storing compressed air in submerged flexible fabric structures anchored to the seabed is being investigated for its potential to be a clean, economically-attractive means of energy storage which could integrate well with offshore renewable energy conversion. In this paper a simple axisymmetric model of an inextensional pressurised bag is presented, along with its implementation in a constrained multidimensional optimization used to minimise the cost of the bag materials per unit of stored energy. Base pressure difference and circumferential stress are included in the optimization, and the effect of hanging ballast masses from the inside of the bag is also considered. Results are given for a zero pressure natural shape bag, a zero pressure bag with circumferential stress and hanging masses, and a nonzero pressure bag with circumferential stress and hanging masses.

  19. Dry spent fuel storage facility at Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goehring, R.; Stoev, M.; Davis, N.; Thomas, E.

    2004-01-01

    The Dry Spent Fuel Storage Facility (DSF) is financed by the Kozloduy International Decommissioning Support Fund (KIDSF) which is managed by European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD). On behalf of the Employer, the Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant, a Project Management Unit (KPMU) under lead of British Nuclear Group is managing the contract with a Joint Venture Consortium under lead of RWE NUKEM mbH. The scope of the contract includes design, manufacturing and construction, testing and commissioning of the new storage facility for 2800 VVER-440 spent fuel assemblies at the KNPP site (turn-key contract). The storage technology will be cask storage of CONSTOR type, a steel-concrete-steel container. The licensing process complies with the national Bulgarian regulations and international rules. (authors)

  20. Baseload wind energy: modeling the competition between gas turbines and compressed air energy storage for supplemental generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenblatt, Jeffery B.; Succar, Samir; Denkenberger, David C.; Williams, Robert H.; Socolow, Robert H.

    2007-01-01

    The economic viability of producing baseload wind energy was explored using a cost-optimization model to simulate two competing systems: wind energy supplemented by simple- and combined cycle natural gas turbines ('wind+gas'), and wind energy supplemented by compressed air energy storage ('wind+CAES'). Pure combined cycle natural gas turbines ('gas') were used as a proxy for conventional baseload generation. Long-distance electric transmission was integral to the analysis. Given the future uncertainty in both natural gas price and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions price, we introduced an effective fuel price, p NGeff , being the sum of the real natural gas price and the GHG price. Under the assumption of p NGeff =$5/GJ (lower heating value), 650 W/m 2 wind resource, 750 km transmission line, and a fixed 90% capacity factor, wind+CAES was the most expensive system at cents 6.0/kWh, and did not break even with the next most expensive wind+gas system until p NGeff =$9.0/GJ. However, under real market conditions, the system with the least dispatch cost (short-run marginal cost) is dispatched first, attaining the highest capacity factor and diminishing the capacity factors of competitors, raising their total cost. We estimate that the wind+CAES system, with a greenhouse gas (GHG) emission rate that is one-fourth of that for natural gas combined cycle plants and about one-tenth of that for pulverized coal plants, has the lowest dispatch cost of the alternatives considered (lower even than for coal power plants) above a GHG emissions price of $35/tC equiv. , with good prospects for realizing a higher capacity factor and a lower total cost of energy than all the competing technologies over a wide range of effective fuel costs. This ability to compete in economic dispatch greatly boosts the market penetration potential of wind energy and suggests a substantial growth opportunity for natural gas in providing baseload power via wind+CAES, even at high natural gas prices

  1. Structural analysis of porous rock reservoirs subjected to conditions of compressed air energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friley, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    Investigations are described which were performed to assess the structural behavior of porous rock compressed air energy storage (CAES) reservoirs subjected to loading conditions of temperature and pressure felt to be typical of such an operation. Analyses performed addressed not only the nominal or mean reservoir response but also the cyclic response due to charge/discharge operation. The analyses were carried out by assuming various geometrical and material related parameters of a generic site. The objective of this study was to determine the gross response of a generic porous reservoir. The site geometry for this study assumed a cylindrical model 122 m in dia and 57 m high including thicknesses for the cap, porous, and base rock formations. The central portion of the porous zone was assumed to be at a depth of 518 m and at an initial temperature of 20/sup 0/C. Cyclic loading conditions of compressed air consisted of pressure values in the range of 4.5 to 5.2 MPa and temperature values between 143 and 204/sup 0/C.Various modes of structural behavior were studied. These response modes were analyzed using loading conditions of temperature and pressure (in the porous zone) corresponding to various operational states during the first year of simulated site operation. The results of the structural analyses performed indicate that the most severely stressed region will likely be in the wellbore vicinity and hence highly dependent on the length of and placement technique utilized in the well production length. Analyses to address this specific areas are currently being pursued.

  2. New Clean Air Act complicates power plant operation, design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smock, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    In November the president signed into law the new Clean Air Act, ushering in a new era in the power generation industry. This paper reviews the six important sections of the Clean Air Act and their impact on power plant operation and design

  3. Dry cooling with night cool storage to enhance solar power plants performance in extreme conditions areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muñoz, J.; Martínez-Val, J.M.; Abbas, R.; Abánades, A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Solar thermo-electric power plants with thermal storage for condenser cooling. ► Technology to mitigate the negative effect on Rankine cycles of the day-time high temperatures in deserts. ► Electricity production augmentation in demand-peak hours by the use of day-night temperature difference. -- Abstract: Solar thermal power plants are usually installed in locations with high yearly average solar radiation, often deserts. In such conditions, cooling water required for thermodynamic cycles is rarely available. Moreover, when solar radiation is high, ambient temperature is very high as well; this leads to excessive condensation temperature, especially when air-condensers are used, and decreases the plant efficiency. However, temperature variation in deserts is often very high, which drives to relatively low temperatures during the night. This fact can be exploited with the use of a closed cooling system, so that the coolant (water) is chilled during the night and store. Chilled water is then used during peak temperature hours to cool the condenser (dry cooling), thus enhancing power output and efficiency. The present work analyzes the performance improvement achieved by night thermal cool storage, compared to its equivalent air cooled power plant. Dry cooling is proved to be energy-effective for moderately high day–night temperature differences (20 °C), often found in desert locations. The storage volume requirement for different power plant efficiencies has also been studied, resulting on an asymptotic tendency.

  4. Ventilation-air conditioner system in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Ryuji; Sugisaki, Toshihiko.

    1989-01-01

    This invention concerns a ventilation-air conditioner system which enables, upon occurrence of accidents in a nuclear power plant, continuous operation for other adjacent nuclear power plants with no effect of accidents. Air supply system and exhaust system are operated during usual operaiton. If loss of coolants accidents should occur in an adjacent nuclear power plants, operation is switched from ventilation operaiton to the operation of re-cycling system based on an AND logic of three signals, that is, a pressure HIGH signal for the reactor container, a water level LOW signal for the reactor and a radioactivity signal of the ventilation-air conditioner sytem on the side of air supply in the nuclear power plant. Thus, nuclear reactor buildings of the nuclear power plant are from the external atmosphere. Therefore, the radioactivity HIGH signal for switching to the emergency air conditioner system of the nuclear power plant is not actuated due to the loss of coolant accidents in the adjacent nuclear power plant. In addition, since the atmospheric temperature in the nuclear reactor building can be maintained by a cooling device disposed to the recycling system, reactor shutdown can be prevented. (I.S.)

  5. Multi-objective optimization of an underwater compressed air energy storage system using genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, Brian C.; Carriveau, Rupp; Ting, David S.K.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the findings from a multi-objective genetic algorithm optimization study on the design parameters of an underwater compressed air energy storage system (UWCAES). A 4 MWh UWCAES system was numerically simulated and its energy, exergy, and exergoeconomics were analysed. Optimal system configurations were determined that maximized the UWCAES system round-trip efficiency and operating profit, and minimized the cost rate of exergy destruction and capital expenditures. The optimal solutions obtained from the multi-objective optimization model formed a Pareto-optimal front, and a single preferred solution was selected using the pseudo-weight vector multi-criteria decision making approach. A sensitivity analysis was performed on interest rates to gauge its impact on preferred system designs. Results showed similar preferred system designs for all interest rates in the studied range. The round-trip efficiency and operating profit of the preferred system designs were approximately 68.5% and $53.5/cycle, respectively. The cost rate of the system increased with interest rates. - Highlights: • UWCAES system configurations were developed using multi-objective optimization. • System was optimized for energy efficiency, exergy, and exergoeconomics • Pareto-optimal solution surfaces were developed at different interest rates. • Similar preferred system configurations were found at all interest rates studied

  6. Modeling of coupled thermodynamic and geomechanical performance of underground compressed air energy storage in lined rock caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Kim, Hyung-Mok; Ryu, Dong-Woo; Synn, Joong-Ho; Song, Won-Kyong

    2012-06-01

    We applied coupled nonisothermal, multiphase fluid flow and geomechanical numerical modeling to study the coupled thermodynamic and geomechanical performance of underground compressed air energy storage (CAES) in concrete-lined rock caverns. The paper focuses on CAES in lined caverns at relatively shallow depth (e.g., 100 m depth) in which a typical CAES operational pressure of 5 to 8 MPa is significantly higher than both ambient fluid pressure and in situ stress. We simulated a storage operation that included cyclic compression and decompression of air in the cavern, and investigated how pressure, temperature and stress evolve over several months of operation. We analyzed two different lining options, both with a 50 cm thick low permeability concrete lining, but in one case with an internal synthetic seal such as steel or rubber. For our simulated CAES system, the thermodynamic analysis showed that 96.7% of the energy injected during compression could be recovered during subsequent decompression, while 3.3% of the energy was lost by heat conduction to the surrounding media. Our geomechanical analysis showed that tensile effective stresses as high as 8 MPa could develop in the lining as a result of the air pressure exerted on the inner surface of the lining, whereas thermal stresses were relatively smaller and compressive. With the option of an internal synthetic seal, the maximum effective tensile stress was reduced from 8 to 5 MPa, but was still in substantial tension. We performed one simulation in which the tensile tangential stresses resulted in radial cracks and air leakage though the lining. This air leakage, however, was minor (about 0.16% of the air mass loss from one daily compression) in terms of CAES operational efficiency, and did not significantly impact the overall energy balance of the system. However, despite being minor in terms of energy balance, the air leakage resulted in a distinct pressure increase in the surrounding rock that could be

  7. Water use at pulverized coal power plants with postcombustion carbon capture and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Haibo; Rubin, Edward S; Versteeg, Peter L

    2011-03-15

    Coal-fired power plants account for nearly 50% of U.S. electricity supply and about a third of U.S. emissions of CO(2), the major greenhouse gas (GHG) associated with global climate change. Thermal power plants also account for 39% of all freshwater withdrawals in the U.S. To reduce GHG emissions from coal-fired plants, postcombustion carbon capture and storage (CCS) systems are receiving considerable attention. Current commercial amine-based capture systems require water for cooling and other operations that add to power plant water requirements. This paper characterizes and quantifies water use at coal-burning power plants with and without CCS and investigates key parameters that influence water consumption. Analytical models are presented to quantify water use for major unit operations. Case study results show that, for power plants with conventional wet cooling towers, approximately 80% of total plant water withdrawals and 86% of plant water consumption is for cooling. The addition of an amine-based CCS system would approximately double the consumptive water use of the plant. Replacing wet towers with air-cooled condensers for dry cooling would reduce plant water use by about 80% (without CCS) to about 40% (with CCS). However, the cooling system capital cost would approximately triple, although costs are highly dependent on site-specific characteristics. The potential for water use reductions with CCS is explored via sensitivity analyses of plant efficiency and other key design parameters that affect water resource management for the electric power industry.

  8. Controllable and affordable utility-scale electricity from intermittent wind resources and compressed air energy storage (CAES)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavallo, Alfred

    2007-01-01

    World wind energy resources are substantial, and in many areas, such as the US and northern Europe, could in theory supply all of the electricity demand. However, the remote or challenging location (i.e. offshore) and especially the intermittent character of the wind resources present formidable barriers to utilization on the scale required by a modern industrial economy. All of these technical challenges can be overcome. Long distance transmission is well understood, while offshore wind technology is being developed rapidly. Intermittent wind power can be transformed to a controllable power source with hybrid wind/compressed air energy storage (CAES) systems. The cost of electricity from such hybrid systems (including transmission) is affordable, and comparable to what users in some modern industrial economies already pay for electricity. This approach to intermittent energy integration has many advantages compared to the current strategy of forcing utilities to cope with supply uncertainty and transmission costs. Above all, it places intermittent wind on an equal technical footing with every other generation technology, including nuclear power, its most important long-term competitor

  9. Commissioning and operating experience of compressed air system of a reprocessing plant (Paper No. 5.10)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, M.K.T.; Bajpai, D.D.; Mishra, A.K.; Kulkarni, H.B.; Raje, R.V.; Rajeshwar, S.

    1992-01-01

    Compressed air system is one of the most important utility systems, required in the continued operation of a radiochemical plant. Moisture and oil free compressed air is used in large scale for process control and process operations in reprocessing plants. Commissioning and operating experience of this system is described in detail, to indicate the importance of the system in the overall design and operation of such chemical plant. (author). 1 tab

  10. Modeling of air pollution from the power plant ash dumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksic, Nenad M.; Balać, Nedeljko

    A simple model of air pollution from power plant ash dumps is presented, with emission rates calculated from the Bagnold formula and transport simulated by the ATDL type model. Moisture effects are accounted for by assumption that there is no pollution on rain days. Annual mean daily sedimentation rates, calculated for the area around the 'Nikola Tesla' power plants near Belgrade for 1987, show reasonably good agreement with observations.

  11. Modeling of air pollution from the power plant ash dumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleksic, N M; Balac, N [Institute of Meteorology, Belgrade (Yugoslavia). College of Physics

    1991-01-01

    A simple model of air pollution from power plant ash dumps is presented, with emission rates calculated from the Bagnold formula and transport simulated by the ATDL (Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Laboratory) type model. Moisture effects are accounted for by assumption that there is no pollution on rain days. Annual mean daily sedimentation rates, calculated for the area around the Nikola Tesla power plants near Belgrade for 1987, show reasonably good agreement with observations. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Thermo-Economic Comparison and Parametric Optimizations among Two Compressed Air Energy Storage System Based on Kalina Cycle and ORC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruixiong Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The compressed air energy storage (CAES system, considered as one method for peaking shaving and load-levelling of the electricity system, has excellent characteristics of energy storage and utilization. However, due to the waste heat existing in compressed air during the charge stage and exhaust gas during the discharge stage, the efficient operation of the conventional CAES system has been greatly restricted. The Kalina cycle (KC and organic Rankine cycle (ORC have been proven to be two worthwhile technologies to fulfill the different residual heat recovery for energy systems. To capture and reuse the waste heat from the CAES system, two systems (the CAES system combined with KC and ORC, respectively are proposed in this paper. The sensitivity analysis shows the effect of the compression ratio and the temperature of the exhaust on the system performance: the KC-CAES system can achieve more efficient operation than the ORC-CAES system under the same temperature of exhaust gas; meanwhile, the larger compression ratio can lead to the higher efficiency for the KC-CAES system than that of ORC-CAES with the constant temperature of the exhaust gas. In addition, the evolutionary multi-objective algorithm is conducted between the thermodynamic and economic performances to find the optimal parameters of the two systems. The optimum results indicate that the solutions with an exergy efficiency of around 59.74% and 53.56% are promising for KC-CAES and ORC-CAES system practical designs, respectively.

  13. Phytomonitoring of air pollution around a thermal power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, M.; Agrawal, S. B.

    This study was undertaken in order to assess the impact of air pollutants on vegetation around Obra thermal power plant (1550 M W capacity) in the Mirzapur district of Uttar Pradesh. For this purpose, Mangifera indica, Citrus medico and Bouganvillaea spectabilis plants, most common at all sites, were selected as test plants. Five study sites were selected northeast (prevailing wind) of the thermal power plant. A control site was also selected at a distance of 30 km north of Obra. Responses of plants to pollutants in terms of presence of foliar injury symptoms and changes in chlorophyll, ascorbic acid and S content were measured. These changes were correlated with ambient SO 2 and suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentrations and the amount of dust settled on leaf surfaces. The SO 2 and SPM concentrations were quite high in the immediate vicinity of the power plant. There also exists a direct relationship between the concentration of SPM in air and amount of dust deposited on leaf surfaces. Maximum dust deposition was observed on M. indica plants. The levels of foliar injury, chlorophyll and ascorbic acid were found to decrease and that of S increase in plants around the power plant in comparison to those growing at a control site. The magnitude of such changes was maximum in M. indica and minimum in C. medica. A species specific direct relationship between the increase in the amount of S and decrease in chlorophyll content was observed. The study suggests that differential sensitivity of plants to SO 2 may be used in evaluating the air pollution impact around emission sources and M. indica plants can be used as an indicator plant for quantifying biological changes.

  14. Method for analysing the adequacy of electric power systems with wind power plants and energy storages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perzhabinsky Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, renewable energy sources and energy storage devices are actively introduced into electric power systems. We developed method to analyze the adequacy of these electric power systems. The method takes into account the uncertainty of electricity generation by wind power plants and the processes of energy storage. The method is based on the Monte Carlo method and allowed to use of long-term meteorological data in open access. The performed experimental research of electrical power system is constructed on the basis of the real technical and meteorological data. The method allows to estimate of effectiveness of introducing generators based on renewable energy sources and energy storages in electric power systems.

  15. Dynamic analysis of a pumped-storage hydropower plant with random power load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Chen, Diyi; Xu, Beibei; Patelli, Edoardo; Tolo, Silvia

    2018-02-01

    This paper analyzes the dynamic response of a pumped-storage hydropower plant in generating mode. Considering the elastic water column effects in the penstock, a linearized reduced order dynamic model of the pumped-storage hydropower plant is used in this paper. As the power load is always random, a set of random generator electric power output is introduced to research the dynamic behaviors of the pumped-storage hydropower plant. Then, the influences of the PI gains on the dynamic characteristics of the pumped-storage hydropower plant with the random power load are analyzed. In addition, the effects of initial power load and PI parameters on the stability of the pumped-storage hydropower plant are studied in depth. All of the above results will provide theoretical guidance for the study and analysis of the pumped-storage hydropower plant.

  16. Modernisation of compressed-air production in the heating power station of a university hospital; Modernisierung der Drucklufterzeugung im Heizkraftwerk eines Universitaetsklinikums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaser, H. [Landesregierung Schleswig-Holstein (Germany). Reaktorsciherheit

    2006-07-15

    Compressed air required for the power plant systems (flue gas desulphurisation system, high-pressure superheated steam boilers, gas turbine) and compressed air systems (pneumatic drives and control systems of the technical facilities) of Freiburg university hospital is produced in a large compressor station constructed in 1987, at the same time as the flue gas desulphurisation system of the combined heat and power station. The compressor station consisted of two uncontrolled screw compressors and was inadequate in terms of control, servicing and energy consumption cost. (orig.)

  17. Combined solar photovoltaic and hydroelectric pumped storage power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gzraryan, R.V.

    2009-01-01

    Combined model of solar photovoltaic and pumped storage stations aimed at power supply for 40 rural houses are considered. The electric circuits of station and their acting regularities are developed and submitted. The both generation curve of photovoltaic station and load curve of electrical customer are considered. The power of hydraulic unit, pumping unit and photovoltaic station are calculated

  18. Tritium concentration in ambient air around Kaiga Nuclear Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas S Kamath

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Tritium (3H is one of the important long-lived radioisotopes in the gaseous effluent from nuclear power plants. In this article, we present the results of 3H monitoring in ambient air samples around the Kaiga Nuclear Power Plant, on the West Coast of India. Air samples were collected by moisture condensation method and the 3H concentration was determined by liquid scintillation spectrometry. The 3H concentration in the 2.3–15 km zone of the power plant varied in the range of <0.04–6.64 Bq m−3 with a median of 0.67 Bq m−3. The samples collected from the 2.3–5 km zone of the power plant exhibit marginally higher concentration when compared to the 5–10 km and 10–15 km zones, which is as expected. The values observed in the present study for Kaiga region are similar to those reported from other nuclear power plants, both within India and other parts of the world.

  19. Optimisation of Storage for Concentrated Solar Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Cirocco

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The proliferation of non-scheduled generation from renewable electrical energy sources such concentrated solar power (CSP presents a need for enabling scheduled generation by incorporating energy storage; either via directly coupled Thermal Energy Storage (TES or Electrical Storage Systems (ESS distributed within the electrical network or grid. The challenges for 100% renewable energy generation are: to minimise capitalisation cost and to maximise energy dispatch capacity. The aims of this review article are twofold: to review storage technologies and to survey the most appropriate optimisation techniques to determine optimal operation and size of storage of a system to operate in the Australian National Energy Market (NEM. Storage technologies are reviewed to establish indicative characterisations of energy density, conversion efficiency, charge/discharge rates and costings. A partitioning of optimisation techniques based on methods most appropriate for various time scales is performed: from “whole of year”, seasonal, monthly, weekly and daily averaging to those best suited matching the NEM bid timing of five minute dispatch bidding, averaged on the half hour as the trading settlement spot price. Finally, a selection of the most promising research directions and methods to determine the optimal operation and sizing of storage for renewables in the grid is presented.

  20. The wet compression technology for gas turbine power plants: Thermodynamic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bracco, Stefano; Pierfederici, Alessandro; Trucco, Angela

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines from a thermodynamic point of view the effects of wet compression on gas turbine power plants, particularly analysing the influence of ambient conditions on the plant performance. The results of the mathematical model, implemented in 'Matlab' software, have been compared with the simulation results presented in literature and in particular the values of the 'evaporative rate', proposed in Araimo et al. [L. Araimo, A. Torelli, Thermodynamic analysis of the wet compression process in heavy duty gas turbine compressors, in: Proceedings of the 59th ATI Annual Congress, Genova, 2004, pp. 1249-1263; L. Araimo, A. Torelli, Wet compression technology applied to heavy duty gas turbines - GT power augmentation and efficiency upgrade, in: Proceedings of the 59th ATI Annual Congress, Genova, 2004, pp. 1265-1277] by 'Gas Turbines Department' of Ansaldo Energia S.p.A., have been taken into account to validate the model. The simulator permits to investigate the effects of the fogging and wet compression techniques and estimate the power and efficiency gain of heavy duty gas turbines operating in hot and arid conditions

  1. Influence of in-plant air pollution control measures on power plant and system operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurten, H.

    1990-01-01

    The burning of fossil fuels causes the emission of air pollutants which have harmful environmental impact. Consequently many nations have in the last few years established regulations for air pollution control and have initiated the development and deployment of air pollution control systems in power plants. The paper describes the methods used for reducing particulate, SO 2 and NO x emissions, their application as backfit systems and in new plants, the power plant capacity equipped with such systems in the Federal Republic of Germany and abroad and the additional investment and operating costs incurred. It is to be anticipated that advanced power plant designs will produce lower pollutant emissions and less waste at enhanced efficiency levels. A comparison with power generation in nuclear power plants completes the first part of the paper. This paper covers the impact of the above-mentioned air pollution control measures on unit commitment in daily operation

  2. Water coning in porous media reservoirs for compressed air energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiles, L.E.; McCann, R.A.

    1981-06-01

    The general purpose of this work is to define the hydrodynamic and thermodynamic response of a CAES porous media reservoir subjected to simulated air mass cycling. This research will assist in providing design guidelines for the efficient and stable operation of the air storage reservoir. This report presents the analysis and results for the two-phase (air-water), two-dimensional, numerical modeling of CAES porous media reservoirs. The effects of capillary pressure and relative permeability were included. The fluids were considered to be immisicible; there was no phase change; and the system was isothermal. The specific purpose of this analysis was to evaluate the reservoir parameters that were believed to be important to water coning. This phenomenon may occur in reservoirs in which water underlies the air storage zone. It involves the possible intrusion of water into the wellbore or near-wellbore region. The water movement is in response to pressure gradients created during a reservoir discharge cycle. Potential adverse effects due to this water movement are associated with the pressure response of the reservoir and the geochemical stability of the near-wellbore region. The results obtained for the simulated operation of a CAES reservoir suggest that water coning should not be a severe problem, due to the slow response of the water to the pressure gradients and the relatively short duration in which those gradients exist. However, water coning will depend on site-specific conditions, particularly the fluid distributions following bubble development, and, therefore, a water coning analysis should be included as part of site evaluation.

  3. Power Oscillation Damping Controller for Wind Power Plant Utilizing Wind Turbine Inertia as Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knüppel, Thyge; Nielsen, Jørgen Nygård; Jensen, Kim Høj

    2011-01-01

    For a wind power plant (WPP) the upper limit for active power output is bounded by the instantaneous wind conditions and therefore a WPP must curtail its power output when system services with active power are delivered. Here, a power oscillation damping controller (POD) for WPPs is presented...... that utilizes the stored kinetic energy in the wind turbine (WT) mechanical system as energy storage from which damping power can be exchanged. This eliminates the need for curtailed active power production. Results are presented using modal analysis and induced torque coefficients (ITC) to depict the torques...... induced on the synchronous generators from the POD. These are supplemented with nonlinear time domain simulations with and without an auxiliary POD for the WPP. The work is based on a nonlinear, dynamic model of the 3.6 MW Siemens Wind Power wind turbine....

  4. Exploring the concept of compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns at shallow depth: A modeling study of air tightness and energy balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung-Mok; Rutqvist, Jonny; Ryu, Dong-Woo; Choi, Byung-Hee; Sunwoo, Choon; Song, Won-Kyong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We carried out coupled thermodynamic, multiphase fluid flow and heat transport analysis. ► Coupled behavior associated with underground lined caverns for CAES was investigated. ► Air leakage could be reduced by controlling the permeability of concrete lining. ► Heat loss during compression would be gained back at subsequent decompression phase. -- Abstract: This paper presents a numerical modeling study of coupled thermodynamic, multiphase fluid flow and heat transport associated with underground compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns. Specifically, we explored the concept of using concrete lined caverns at a relatively shallow depth for which constructing and operation costs may be reduced if air tightness and stability can be assured. Our analysis showed that the key parameter to assure long-term air tightness in such a system was the permeability of both the concrete lining and the surrounding rock. The analysis also indicated that a concrete lining with a permeability of less than 1 × 10 −18 m 2 would result in an acceptable air leakage rate of less than 1%, with the operation pressure range between 5 and 8 MPa at a depth of 100 m. It was further noted that capillary retention properties and the initial liquid saturation of the lining were very important. Indeed, air leakage could be effectively prevented when the air-entry pressure of the concrete lining is higher than the operation air pressure and when the lining is kept at relatively high moisture content. Our subsequent energy-balance analysis demonstrated that the energy loss for a daily compression and decompression cycle is governed by the air-pressure loss, as well as heat loss by conduction to the concrete liner and surrounding rock. For a sufficiently tight system, i.e., for a concrete permeability of less than 1 × 10 −18 m 2 , heat loss by heat conduction tends to become proportionally more important. However, the energy loss by heat conduction can be

  5. Aging and service wear of air compressors and dryers in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moyers, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    Compressed air systems and their associated compressors and dryers as incorporated in LWR power plants usually are not classified as safety related systems and components because their continued operation is not required to bring the plant to a safe shutdown condition. However, control air is a vital requirement for maintaining stable plant operation and its loss often results in a reactor trip and, on occasion, the actuation of engineered safety feature systems. Concerns caused by repeated instances of failures in air systems resulted in the high-priority ranking of Generic Issue No. 43, ''Reliability of Air Systems'' by the NRC. In support of the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is carrying out a Phase I aging assessment of air compressors and dryers used in LWR power plants. The objectives of this study include: (1) determination of the types and ratings of equipment utilized in typical plants; (2) identification of aging and service wear stressors imposed on the machines; (3) evaluation of operating experience with the machines; (4) comparison of user and manufacturer-recommended inspection, surveillance, and monitoring (ISM) methods; and (5) the identification of any improved ISM methods that might lead to longer, more reliable, service. 2 refs

  6. Experiments on hydraulically-compensated Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) system using large-diameter vertical pipe two-phase flow test facility: test facility and test procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtsu, Iwao; Murata, Hideo; Kukita, Yutaka; Kumamaru, Hiroshige.

    1996-07-01

    JAERI, the University of Tokyo, the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry and Shimizu Corporation jointing performed and experimental study on two-phase flow in the hydraulically-compensated Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) system with a large-diameter vertical pipe two-phase flow test facility from 1993 to 1995. A hydraulically-compensated CAES system is a proposed, conceptual energy storage system where energy is stored in the form of compressed air in an underground cavern which is sealed by a deep (several hundred meters) water shaft. The shaft water head maintains a constant pressure in the cavern, of several mega Pascals, even during loading or unloading of the cavern with air. The dissolved air in the water, however, may create voids in the shaft when the water rises through the shaft during the loading, being forced by the air flow into the cavern. The voids may reduce the effective head of the shaft, and thus the seal may fail, if significant bubbling should occur in the shaft. This bubbling phenomenon (termed 'Champaign effect') and potential failure of the water seal ('blowout') are simulated in a scaled-height, scaled-diameter facility. Carbon dioxide is used to simulate high solubility of air in the full-height, full-pressure system. This report describes the expected and potential two-phase flow phenomena in a hydraulically-compensated CAES system, the test facility and the test procedure, a method to estimate quantities which are not directly measured by using measured quantities and hydrodynamic basic equations, and desirable additional instrumentation. (author)

  7. Thermodynamic analysis of a compressed carbon dioxide energy storage system using two saline aquifers at different depths as storage reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hui; He, Qing; Borgia, Andrea; Pan, Lehua; Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A compressed CO_2 energy storage system using two storage reservoirs is presented. • Compressed CO_2 energy storage density is higher than that of CAES. • The effects of storage reservoir pressure on the system performance are studied. - Abstract: Compressed air energy storage (CAES) is one of the leading large-scale energy storage technologies. However, low thermal efficiency and low energy storage density restrict its application. To improve the energy storage density, we propose a two-reservoir compressed CO_2 energy storage system. We present here thermodynamic and parametric analyses of the performance of an idealized two-reservoir CO_2 energy storage system under supercritical and transcritical conditions using a steady-state mathematical model. Results show that the transcritical compressed CO_2 energy storage system has higher round-trip efficiency and exergy efficiency, and larger energy storage density than the supercritical compressed CO_2 energy storage. However, the configuration of supercritical compressed CO_2 energy storage is simpler, and the energy storage densities of the two systems are both higher than that of CAES, which is advantageous in terms of storage volume for a given power rating.

  8. Cost-effective design of ringwall storage hybrid power plants: A real options analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weibel, Sebastian; Madlener, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Economic viability, optimal size, and siting of a hybrid ringwall hydro power plant. • Real options analysis for optimal investment timing and stochastic storage volumes. • Stochastic PV and solar power production affects optimal size of the storage device. • Monte Carlo simulation is used for wind/solar power, el. price, and investment cost. • Numerical computations for two different hybrid ringwall storage plant scenarios. - Abstract: We study the economic viability and optimal sizing and siting of a hybrid plant that combines a ringwall hydro storage system with wind and solar power plants (ringwall storage hybrid power plant, RSHPP). A real options model is introduced to analyze the economics of an onshore RSHPP, and in particular of the varying storage volume in light of the stochastic character of wind and solar power, as well as the optimal investment timing under uncertainty. In fact, many uncertainties arise in such a project. Energy production is determined by the stochastic character of wind and solar power, and affects the optimal size of the storage device. Monte Carlo simulation is performed to analyze the following sources of uncertainty: (i) wind intensity and solar irradiation; (ii) future electricity price; and (iii) investment costs. The results yield the optimal size of the storage device; the energy market on which the operator should sell the electricity generated; numerical examples for two different RSHPP scenarios; and a real options model for analyzing the opportunity to defer the project investment and thus to exploit the value of waiting

  9. Energy storage systems: power grid and energy market use cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komarnicki Przemysław

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Current power grid and market development, characterized by large growth of distributed energy sources in recent years, especially in Europa, are according energy storage systems an increasingly larger field of implementation. Existing storage technologies, e.g. pumped-storage power plants, have to be upgraded and extended by new but not yet commercially viable technologies (e.g. batteries or adiabatic compressed air energy storage that meet expected demands. Optimal sizing of storage systems and technically and economically optimal operating strategies are the major challenges to the integration of such systems in the future smart grid. This paper surveys firstly the literature on the latest niche applications. Then, potential new use case and operating scenarios for energy storage systems in smart grids, which have been field tested, are presented and discussed and subsequently assessed technically and economically.

  10. 78 FR 15753 - Maintenance, Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ...-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft...-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power Plants.'' The draft guide describes methods that the NRC staff..., testing, and replacement of vented lead-acid storage batteries in nuclear power plants. DATES: Submit...

  11. Exploring the concept of compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns at shallow depth: A modeling study of air tightness and energy balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H.-M.; Rutqvist, J.; Ryu, D.-W.; Choi, B.-H.; Sunwoo, C.; Song, W.-K.

    2011-07-15

    This paper presents a numerical modeling study of coupled thermodynamic, multiphase fluid flow and heat transport associated with underground compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns. Specifically, we explored the concept of using concrete lined caverns at a relatively shallow depth for which constructing and operational costs may be reduced if air tightness and stability can be assured. Our analysis showed that the key parameter to assure long-term air tightness in such a system was the permeability of both the concrete lining and the surrounding rock. The analysis also indicated that a concrete lining with a permeability of less than 1×10{sup -18} m{sup 2} would result in an acceptable air leakage rate of less than 1%, with the operational pressure range between 5 and 8 MPa at a depth of 100 m. It was further noted that capillary retention properties and the initial liquid saturation of the lining were very important. Indeed, air leakage could be effectively prevented when the air-entry pressure of the concrete lining is higher than the operational air pressure and when the lining is kept moist at a relatively high liquid saturation. Our subsequent energy-balance analysis demonstrated that the energy loss for a daily compression and decompression cycle is governed by the air-pressure loss, as well as heat loss by conduction to the concrete liner and surrounding rock. For a sufficiently tight system, i.e., for a concrete permeability off less than 1×10{sup -18} m{sup 2}, heat loss by heat conduction tends to become proportionally more important. However, the energy loss by heat conduction can be minimized by keeping the air-injection temperature of compressed air closer to the ambient temperature of the underground storage cavern. In such a case, almost all the heat loss during compression is gained back during subsequent decompression. Finally, our numerical simulation study showed that CAES in shallow rock caverns is feasible from a leakage

  12. Intervention in independent spent fuel storage facility license application proceedings for storage on the power plant site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, J.

    1992-01-01

    This presentation summarizes the intervention in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensing process for currently operating Independent Spent fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) projects at Carolina Power and Light's Company's H.B. Robinson, Duke Power Company's Oconee, and Virginia Power Company's Surry. In addition, intervention at dry storage facilities that are currently under development are also described. The utilities and reactors include Baltimore Gas and Electric Company's Calvert Cliffs, Public Service Company of Colorado's Fort St. Vrain plant, Northern States Power Company's Prairie Island, Wisconsin Electric Power Company's Point Beach, and Consumers Power Company's Palisades

  13. Storage of compressed air - Optimisation and measurement of an existing project example; Druckluftspeicherung: Optimierung / Ausmessung bestehendes Projektmuster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueckmann, P. [Brueckmann Elektronik, Davos Dorf (Switzerland); Cyphelly, I. [Cyphelly and Cie, Les Brenets (Switzerland)

    2007-06-15

    This short final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) deals with an additional project that augmented an earlier report on a compressed-air energy storage system. First tests are reported on that revealed that the chosen heat exchanger fulfils the thermal expectations with substantial reserves. Certain effects concerning the liquid piston system are described which showed that further development of the test infrastructure were required. This project was launched to further examine these problems. Difficulties with the liquids available which prohibited the intended exact series of measurements are commented on. The authors note that independent investigations by the Austrian company LINDE came to the same conclusions, thus confirming the function of the heat exchanger.

  14. Heat recovery from compressed air in sludge activation plants; Waermerueckgewinnung aus der Druckluft von Belebungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strunkheide, J.; Eckhardt, R.; Witte, H. [IWB Gemeinnuetziges Inst. Wasser und Boden e.V., Sankt Augustin (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    The Herdorf sewage system is presented as an example of heat recovery from compressed air of the activation stage. Consumption of externally supplied fuel (heating oil) was minimised, and full-scale power generation from sewage gas provided additional income. The key element of the heat recovery system is the air cooler with a matched double-shell heat exchanger. Temperatures and water volumes on the heating water side can be varied in order to ensure optimum heat supply to the air cooler at any time. The heat is used in the internal heating system to heat up the raw sludge in the fermentation process. [German] Die Waermerueckgewinnung aus der Druckluft von Belebungsanlagen kann einen wesentlichen Beitrag zum Waermehaushalt von Klaeranlagen liefern, wie hier am Beispiel der Klaeranlage Herdorf erlaeutert wurde. Hierdurch konnte zum einen der Einsatz von Fremdbrennstoffen (Heizoel) auf ein Minimum reduziert und zum anderen konnten zusaetzliche Ertraege aus der vollstaendigen Verstromung des Faulgases erzielt werden. Kernstueck der Waermerueckgewinnungsanlage bildet der Luftkuehler und der darauf abgestimmte Doppelmantelrohr-Waermeuebertrager. Von wesentlicher Bedeutung ist hierbei, dass auf der Heizkreiswasserseite mit variablen Heizwassermengen und korrespondierenden Temperaturen gefahren werden kann, um zu jedem Zeitpunkt die optimale Waerme durch den Luftkuehler bedarfsorientiert abgreifen zu koennen. Die Waerme dient zur Einspeisung in das Betriebs-Heizungssystem und damit zur Rohschlamm-Aufheizung im Faulungsprozess. (orig.)

  15. Vestas Power Plant Solutions Integrating Wind, Solar PV and Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lennart; Hesselbæk, Bo; Martinez, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    This paper addresses a value proposition and feasible system topologies for hybrid power plant solutions integrating wind, solar PV and energy storage and moreover provides insights into Vestas hybrid power plant projects. Seen from the perspective of a wind power plant developer, these hybrid...... solutions provide a number of benefits that could potentially reduce the Levelized Cost of Energy and enable entrance to new markets for wind power and facilitate the transition to a more sustainable energy mix. First, various system topologies are described in order to distinguish the generic concepts...... for the electrical infrastructure of hybrid power plants. Subsequently, the benefits of combining wind and solar PV power as well as the advantages of combining variable renewable energy sources with energy storage are elaborated. Finally, the world’s first utility-scale hybrid power plant combining wind, solar PV...

  16. Economic and environmental evaluation of compressed-air cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creutzig, Felix; Kammen, Daniel M; Papson, Andrew; Schipper, Lee

    2009-01-01

    Climate change and energy security require a reduction in travel demand, a modal shift, and technological innovation in the transport sector. Through a series of press releases and demonstrations, a car using energy stored in compressed air produced by a compressor has been suggested as an environmentally friendly vehicle of the future. We analyze the thermodynamic efficiency of a compressed-air car powered by a pneumatic engine and consider the merits of compressed air versus chemical storage of potential energy. Even under highly optimistic assumptions the compressed-air car is significantly less efficient than a battery electric vehicle and produces more greenhouse gas emissions than a conventional gas-powered car with a coal intensive power mix. However, a pneumatic-combustion hybrid is technologically feasible, inexpensive and could eventually compete with hybrid electric vehicles.

  17. Lessons from Iowa : development of a 270 megawatt compressed air energy storage project in midwest Independent System Operator : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holst, Kent (Iowa Stored Energy Plant Agency, Traer, IA); Huff, Georgianne; Schulte, Robert H. (Schulte Associates LLC, Northfield, MN); Critelli, Nicholas (Critelli Law Office PC, Des Moines, IA)

    2012-01-01

    The Iowa Stored Energy Park was an innovative, 270 Megawatt, $400 million compressed air energy storage (CAES) project proposed for in-service near Des Moines, Iowa, in 2015. After eight years in development the project was terminated because of site geological limitations. However, much was learned in the development process regarding what it takes to do a utility-scale, bulk energy storage facility and coordinate it with regional renewable wind energy resources in an Independent System Operator (ISO) marketplace. Lessons include the costs and long-term economics of a CAES facility compared to conventional natural gas-fired generation alternatives; market, legislative, and contract issues related to enabling energy storage in an ISO market; the importance of due diligence in project management; and community relations and marketing for siting of large energy projects. Although many of the lessons relate to CAES applications in particular, most of the lessons learned are independent of site location or geology, or even the particular energy storage technology involved.

  18. Load following generation in nuclear power plants by latent thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Yoshiyuki; Takahashi, Yoshio; Kamimoto, Masayuki; Sakamoto, Ryuji; Kanari, Katsuhiko; Ozawa, Takeo

    1985-01-01

    The recent increase in nuclear power plants and the growing difference between peak and off-peak demands imperatively need load following generation in nuclear power plants to meet the time-variant demands. One possible way to resolve the problem is, obviously, a prompt reaction conrol in the reactors. Alternatively, energy storage gives another sophisticated path to make load following generation in more effective manner. Latent thermal energy storage enjoys high storage density and allows thermal extraction at nearly constant temperature, i.e. phase change temperature. The present report is an attempt to evaluate the feasibility of load following electric power generation in nuclear plants (actually Pressurized Water Reactors) by latent thermal energy storage. In this concept, the excess thermal energy in the off-peak period is stored in molten salt latent thermal energy storage unit, and additional power output is generated in auxiliary generator in the peak demand duration using the stored thermal energy. The present evaluation gives encouraging results and shows the primary subject to be taken up at first is the compatibility of candidate storage materials with inexpensive structural metal materials. Chapter 1 denotes the background of the present report, and Chapter 2 reviews the previous studies on the peak load coverage by thermal energy storage. To figure out the concept of the storage systems, present power plant systems and possible constitution of storage systems are briefly shown in Chapter 3. The details of the evaluation of the candidate storage media, and the compilation of the materials' properties are presented in Chapter 4. In Chapter 5, the concept of the storage systems is depicted, and the economical feasibility of the systems is evaluated. The concluding remarks are summarized in Chapter 6. (author)

  19. Characterizing Excavation Damaged Zone and Stability of Pressurized Lined Rock Caverns for Underground Compressed Air Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung-Mok; Rutqvist, Jonny; Jeong, Ju-Hwan; Choi, Byung-Hee; Ryu, Dong-Woo; Song, Won-Kyong

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate the influence of the excavation damaged zone (EDZ) on the geomechanical performance of compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns. We conducted a detailed characterization of the EDZ in rock caverns that have been excavated for a Korean pilot test program on CAES in (concrete) lined rock caverns at shallow depth. The EDZ was characterized by measurements of P- and S-wave velocities and permeability across the EDZ and into undisturbed host rock. Moreover, we constructed an in situ concrete lining model and conducted permeability measurements in boreholes penetrating the concrete, through the EDZ and into the undisturbed host rock. Using the site-specific conditions and the results of the EDZ characterization, we carried out a model simulation to investigate the influence of the EDZ on the CAES performance, in particular related to geomechanical responses and stability. We used a modeling approach including coupled thermodynamic multiphase flow and geomechanics, which was proven to be useful in previous generic CAES studies. Our modeling results showed that the potential for inducing tensile fractures and air leakage through the concrete lining could be substantially reduced if the EDZ around the cavern could be minimized. Moreover, the results showed that the most favorable design for reducing the potential for tensile failure in the lining would be a relatively compliant concrete lining with a tight inner seal, and a relatively stiff (uncompliant) host rock with a minimized EDZ. Because EDZ compliance depends on its compressibility (or modulus) and thickness, care should be taken during drill and blast operations to minimize the damage to the cavern walls.

  20. 78 FR 58574 - Maintenance, Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ...-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION... for Nuclear Power Plants.'' The guide describes methods that the NRC staff considers acceptable for... replacement of vented lead-acid storage batteries in nuclear power plants. ADDRESSES: Please refer to Docket...

  1. Development of a Numerical Approach to Simulate Compressed Air Energy Storage Subjected to Cyclic Internal Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song-Hun Chong

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the long-term response of unlined energy storage located at shallow depth to improve the distance between a wind farm and storage. The numerical approach follows the hybrid scheme that combined a mechanical constitutive model to extract stress and strains at the first cycle and polynomial-type strain accumulation functions to track the progressive plastic deformation. In particular, the strain function includes the fundamental features that requires simulating the long-term response of geomaterials: volumetric strain (terminal void ratio and shear strain (shakedown and ratcheting, the strain accumulation rate, and stress obliquity. The model is tested with a triaxial strain boundary condition under different stress obliquities. The unlined storage subjected to cyclic internal stress is simulated with different storage geometries and stress amplitudes that play a crucial role in estimating the long-term mechanical stability of underground storage. The simulations present the evolution of ground surface, yet their incremental rate approaches towards a terminal void ratio. With regular and smooth displacement fields for the large number of cycles, the inflection point is estimated with the previous surface settlement model.

  2. Energy Conservation In Compressed Air Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusuf, I.Y.; Dewu, B.B.M.

    2004-01-01

    Compressed air is an essential utility that accounts for a substantial part of the electricity consumption (bill) in most industrial plants. Although the general saying Air is free of charge is not true for compressed air, the utility's cost is not accorded the rightful importance due to its by most industries. The paper will show that the cost of 1 unit of energy in the form of compressed air is at least 5 times the cost electricity (energy input) required to produce it. The paper will also provide energy conservation tips in compressed air systems

  3. Life cycle GHG assessment of fossil fuel power plants with carbon capture and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odeh, Naser A.; Cockerill, Timothy T.

    2008-01-01

    The evaluation of life cycle greenhouse gas emissions from power generation with carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a critical factor in energy and policy analysis. The current paper examines life cycle emissions from three types of fossil-fuel-based power plants, namely supercritical pulverized coal (super-PC), natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), with and without CCS. Results show that, for a 90% CO 2 capture efficiency, life cycle GHG emissions are reduced by 75-84% depending on what technology is used. With GHG emissions less than 170 g/kWh, IGCC technology is found to be favorable to NGCC with CCS. Sensitivity analysis reveals that, for coal power plants, varying the CO 2 capture efficiency and the coal transport distance has a more pronounced effect on life cycle GHG emissions than changing the length of CO 2 transport pipeline. Finally, it is concluded from the current study that while the global warming potential is reduced when MEA-based CO 2 capture is employed, the increase in other air pollutants such as NO x and NH 3 leads to higher eutrophication and acidification potentials

  4. Optimal operation strategies of compressed air energy storage (CAES) on electricity spot markets with fluctuating prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Salgi, Georges; Elmegaard, Brian

    2009-01-01

    on electricity spot markets by storing energy when electricity prices are low and producing electricity when prices are high. In order to make a profit on such markets, CAES plant operators have to identify proper strategies to decide when to sell and when to buy electricity. This paper describes three...... plants will not be able to achieve such optimal operation, since the fluctuations of spot market prices in the coming hours and days are not known. Consequently, two simple practical strategies have been identified and compared to the results of the optimal strategy. This comparison shows that...... independent computer-based methodologies which may be used for identifying the optimal operation strategy for a given CAES plant, on a given spot market and in a given year. The optimal strategy is identified as the one which provides the best business-economic net earnings for the plant. In practice, CAES...

  5. A Study on the Air Vent Valve of the Hydraulic Servo Actuator for Steam Control of Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Bum; Lee, Jong Jik

    2016-01-01

    To produce adequate electricity in nuclear and thermal power plants, an optimal amount of steam should be supplied to a generator connected to high- and low-pressure steam turbines. A turbine output control device, which is a special steam valve employed to supply or interrupt the steam to the turbine, is operated using a hydraulic servo actuator. In power plants, the performance of servo actuators is degraded by the air generated from the hydraulic system, or causes frequent failures owing to an increase in the wear of the seal. This is due to the seal being burnt as generated heat using the produced compressed air. Some power plants have exhausted air using a fixed orifice, and thus they encounter power loss due to mass flow exhaust. Failures are generated in hydraulic pumps, electric motors, and valves, which are frequently operated. In this study, we perform modeling and analysis of the load-sensing air-exhaust valves, which can be passed through very fine flow under normal use conditions, and exhaust mass flow air at the beginning stage as with existing fixed orifices. Then, we propose a method to prevent failures due to the compressed air, and to ensure the control accuracy of hydraulic servo actuators.

  6. A Study on the Air Vent Valve of the Hydraulic Servo Actuator for Steam Control of Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Bum; Lee, Jong Jik [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    To produce adequate electricity in nuclear and thermal power plants, an optimal amount of steam should be supplied to a generator connected to high- and low-pressure steam turbines. A turbine output control device, which is a special steam valve employed to supply or interrupt the steam to the turbine, is operated using a hydraulic servo actuator. In power plants, the performance of servo actuators is degraded by the air generated from the hydraulic system, or causes frequent failures owing to an increase in the wear of the seal. This is due to the seal being burnt as generated heat using the produced compressed air. Some power plants have exhausted air using a fixed orifice, and thus they encounter power loss due to mass flow exhaust. Failures are generated in hydraulic pumps, electric motors, and valves, which are frequently operated. In this study, we perform modeling and analysis of the load-sensing air-exhaust valves, which can be passed through very fine flow under normal use conditions, and exhaust mass flow air at the beginning stage as with existing fixed orifices. Then, we propose a method to prevent failures due to the compressed air, and to ensure the control accuracy of hydraulic servo actuators.

  7. Photovoltaic power systems energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buldini, P.L.

    1991-01-01

    Basically, the solar photovoltaic power system consists of: Array of solar panels; Charge/voltage stabilizer; Blocking diode and Storage device. The storage device is a very important part of the system due to the necessity to harmonize the inevitable time shift between energy supply and demand. As energy storage, different devices can be utilized, such as hydropumping, air or other gas compression, flywheel, superconducting magnet, hydrogen generation and so on, but actually secondary (rechargeable) electrochemical cells appear to be the best storage device, due to the direct use for recharge of the d.c. current provided by the solar panels, without any intermediate step of energy transformation and its consequent loss of efficiency

  8. Operation and sizing of energy storage for wind power plants in a market system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korpaas, M.; Holen, A.T.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a method for the scheduling and operation of energy storage for wind power plants in electricity markets. A dynamic programming algorithm is employed to determine the optimal energy exchange with the market for a specified scheduling period, taking into account transmission constraints. During operation, the energy storage is used to smooth variations in wind power production in order to follow the scheduling plan. The method is suitable for any type of energy storage and is also useful for other intermittent energy resources than wind. An application of the method to a case study is also presented, where the impact of energy storage sizing and wind forecasting accuracy on system operation and economics are emphasized. Simulation results show that energy storage makes it possible for owners of wind power plants to take advantage of variations in the spot price, by thus increasing the value of wind power in electricity markets. With present price estimates, energy storage devices such as reversible fuel cells are likely to be a more expensive alternative than grid expansions for the siting of wind farms in weak networks. However, for areas where grid expansions lead to unwanted interference with the local environment, energy storage should be considered as a reasonable way to increase the penetration of wind power. (author)

  9. A novel technology for control of variable speed pumped storage power plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seyed Mohammad Hassan Hosseini; Mohammad Reza Semsar

    2016-01-01

    Variable speed pumped storage machines are used extensively in wind power plant and pumped storage power plant. This paper presents direct torque and flux control (DTFC) of a variable speed pumped storage power plant (VSPSP). By this method both torque and flux have been applied to control the VSPSP. The comparison between VSPSP’s control strategies is studied. At the first, a wind turbine with the capacity 2.2 kW and DTFC control strategies simulated then a 250 MW VSPSP is simulated with all of its parts (including electrical, mechanical, hydraulic and its control system) by MATLAB software. In all of simulations, both converters including two-level voltage source converter (2LVSC) and three-level voltage source converter (3LVSC) are applied. The results of applying 2LVSC and 3LVSC are the rapid dynamic responses with better efficiency, reducing the total harmonic distortion (THD) and ripple of rotor torque and flux.

  10. Detailed partial load investigation of a thermal energy storage concept for solar thermal power plants with direct steam generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, M.; Hübner, S.; Johnson, M.

    2016-05-01

    Direct steam generation enables the implementation of a higher steam temperature for parabolic trough concentrated solar power plants. This leads to much better cycle efficiencies and lower electricity generating costs. For a flexible and more economic operation of such a power plant, it is necessary to develop thermal energy storage systems for the extension of the production time of the power plant. In the case of steam as the heat transfer fluid, it is important to use a storage material that uses latent heat for the storage process. This leads to a minimum of exergy losses during the storage process. In the case of a concentrating solar power plant, superheated steam is needed during the discharging process. This steam cannot be superheated by the latent heat storage system. Therefore, a sensible molten salt storage system is used for this task. In contrast to the state-of-the-art thermal energy storages within the concentrating solar power area of application, a storage system for a direct steam generation plant consists of a latent and a sensible storage part. Thus far, no partial load behaviors of sensible and latent heat storage systems have been analyzed in detail. In this work, an optimized fin structure was developed in order to minimize the costs of the latent heat storage. A complete system simulation of the power plant process, including the solar field, power block and sensible and latent heat energy storage calculates the interaction between the solar field, the power block and the thermal energy storage system.

  11. Transport, acceptance, storage and handling of the itens of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The norm aiming to establish the requirements applied to workers or organizations which participate of the activities of transport, acceptance, storage and handling of important itens for safety of nuclear power plants, is presented. The established requirements treat of protection and control necessary to assure that the quality of important itens for safety be it preserved from the end of fabrication until their incorporation to nuclear power plant. (M.C.K.) [pt

  12. A review on compressed air energy storage - a pathway for smart grid and polygeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Venkataramani, Gayathri; Parankusam, Prasanna; Ramalingam, Velraj; Wang, Jihong

    2016-01-01

    The increase in energy demand and reduction in resources for conventional energy production along with various environmental impacts, promote the use of renewable energy for electricity generation and other energy-need applications around the world. Wind power has emerged as the biggest renewable energy source in the world, whose potential, when employed properly serves to provide the best power output. In order to achieve self-sustenance in energy supply and to match the critical needs of im...

  13. Study, Evaluation and Implementation of Improvement in a Compressed Air Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Altafini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of a compressed air generation system in a bus manufacturer, being evaluated the operation of the compressors to identify the electric energy consumption. A maintenance plan is elaborated to correct the air system leaks and also proposes the reuse of thermal energy generated by the compressors. Initially, as for the purpose of this paper, a revision of fundamentals related to thermodynamics transformation is presented. Afterwards, some important electric energy concepts will lead to the understanding of the energy consumption of the compressors. Then, an overview about compressed air generation systems will be showed with the goal of understanding techniques of energetic efficiency. The tools used in this study for collecting data were the software of a compressor manufacturer with pressure transducers and an energy analyzer. The basic concepts and their uses will be shown along this paper. The proposal of electric energy consumption reduction was achieved with the installation of compressor operation managers and yields a reduction about 60,600 kWh per month, which provided a monthly saving of R$19,400.00, validating the collected data. For heat recovery from the cooling air compressors, externally finned coils were sized to heat water up to 55◦C and used in a process of heating rubber gaskets. For air leakage reduction, a working methodology to perform the corrective and preventive maintenance has been prepared, and a control system in the form of internal audit. The obtained air leakage reduction was about 50%.

  14. Retrofitting a Geothermal Plant with Solar and Storage to Increase Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Guangdong [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McTigue, Joshua Dominic P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Turchi, Craig S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Castro, Jose [Coso Operating Co.; Mungas, Greg [Hyperlight Energy; Kramer, Nick [Hyperlight Energy; King, John [Hyperlight Energy

    2017-10-04

    Solar hybridization using concentrating solar power (CSP) can be an effective approach to augment the power generation and power cycle efficiency of a geothermal power plant with a declining resource. Thermal storage can further increase the dispatchability of a geothermal/solar hybrid system, which is particularly valued for a national grid with high renewable penetration. In this paper, a hybrid plant design with thermal storage is proposed based on the requirements of the Coso geothermal field in China Lake, California. The objective is to increase the power production by 4 MWe. In this system, a portion of the injection brine is recirculated through a heat exchanger with the solar heat transfer fluid, before being mixed with the production well brine. In the solar heating loop the brine should be heated to at least 155 degrees C to increase the net power. The solar field and storage were sized based on solar data for China Lake. Thermal storage is used to store excess power at the high-solar-irradiation hours and generate additional power during the evenings. The solar field size, the type and capacity of thermal storage and the operating temperatures are critical factors in determining the most economic hybrid system. Further investigations are required to optimize the hybrid system and evaluate its economic feasibility.

  15. Feasibility study for the partial conversion of a hydropower plant into a pumped-storage power plant: a case study of hydroelectric power plant La Barca (Asturias, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Antuña Yudego

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy sources have reported an unprecedented increase of global installed renewable power capacity. Against the advantages provided by this renewable power generation technology it should be taken into account an important issue: these intermittent energy sources supply a fluctuating output which is difficult to manage. Pumped-storage hydro power plants reappear in these circumstances as an efficient form of energy storage which allows to use reserves when necessary, enabling power generation output to cover continuously this energy demand. The present paper shows a simplified feasibility study of the partial conversion of hydropower plant La Barca, in Asturias, into a reversible storage through the development of an algorithm to simulate its operation according to electricity market prices. For this purpose, the operation in the deviation management market is considered and the technical modifications required for the conversion are shown. The estimation of costs and incomes present a feasible scenario.

  16. Power requirements of biogas upgrading by water scrubbing and biomethane compression: Comparative analysis of various plant configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budzianowski, Wojciech M.; Wylock, Christophe E.; Marciniak, Przemysław A.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Insights into power requirements of biomethane production from biogas are provided. • Process model is constructed, validated and simulated. • High-pressure and low-pressure plant operation in different configurations is compared. - Abstract: Biogas upgrading by water scrubbing followed by biomethane compression is an environmentally benign process. It may be achieved using various plant configurations characterised by various power requirements with associated effects on biomethane sustainability. Therefore, the current study has been undertaken to systematically investigate the power requirements of a range of water scrubbing options. Two groups of water scrubbing are analysed: (1) high pressure water scrubbing (HPWS) and (2) near-atmospheric pressure water scrubbing (NAPWS). A water scrubbing plant model is constructed, experimentally validated and simulated for seven upgrading plant configurations. Simulation results show that the power requirement of biogas upgrading in HPWS plants is mainly associated with biogas compression. In contrast, in NAPWS plants the main power is required for water pumping. In both plants the compression of the biomethane from atmosphereic pressure to 20 MPa also contributes remarkably. It is observed that the lowest specific power requirement can be obtained for a NAPWS plant without water regeneration (0.24 kW h/Nm"3 raw biogas) but this plant requires cheap water supply, e.g. outlet water from a sewage treatment plant or river. The second is HPWS without flash (0.29 kW h/Nm"3 raw biogas). All other HPWS with flash and NAPWS with water regeneration plants have specific power requirements between 0.30 and 0.33 kW h/Nm"3 raw biogas. Biogas compression without upgrading requires about 0.29 kW h/Nm"3 raw biogas. The thermodynamic efficiency of biogas upgrading is between 2.2% and 9.8% depending on the plant configuration while biomethane compression efficiency is higher, about 55%. This result implies that the

  17. Normal and compact spent fuel storage in light water reactor power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuenel, R.R.

    1978-01-01

    The compact storage of light water reactor spent fuel is a safe, cheap and reliable contribution towards overcoming the momentarily existing shortage in spent fuel reprocessing. The technical concept is described and physical behaviour discussed. The introduction of compact storage racks in nuclear power plants increases the capacity from 100 to about 240 %. The increase in decay heat is not more than about 14%, the increase in activity inventory and hazard potential does not exceed 20%. In most cases the existing power plant equipment fulfils the new requirements. (author)

  18. Dustfall design of open coal yard in the power plant-a case study on the closed reconstruction project of coal storage yard in shengli power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kunpeng; Ji, Weidong; Zhang, Feifei; Yu, Wei; Zheng, Runqing

    2018-02-01

    This thesis, based on the closed reconstruction project of the coal storage yard of Shengli Power Plant which is affiliated to Sinopec Shengli Petroleum Administration, first makes an analysis on the significance of current dustfall reconstruction of open coal yard, then summarizes the methods widely adopted in the dustfall of large-scale open coal storage yard of current thermal power plant as well as their advantages and disadvantages, and finally focuses on this project, aiming at providing some reference and assistance to the future closed reconstruction project of open coal storage yard in thermal power plant.

  19. 30 CFR 77.412 - Compressed air systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compressed air systems. 77.412 Section 77.412... for Mechanical Equipment § 77.412 Compressed air systems. (a) Compressors and compressed-air receivers... involving the pressure system of compressors, receivers, or compressed-air-powered equipment shall not be...

  20. Prediction of concrete compressive strength considering humidity and temperature in the construction of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Seung Hee; Jang, Kyung Pil [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Myongji University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Bang, Jin-Wook [Department of Civil Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jang Hwa [Structural Engineering Research Division, Korea Institute of Construction Technology (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yun Yong, E-mail: yunkim@cnu.ac.kr [Structural Engineering Research Division, Korea Institute of Construction Technology (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Compressive strength tests for three concrete mixes were performed. • The parameters of the humidity-adjusted maturity function were determined. • Strength can be predicted considering temperature and relative humidity. - Abstract: This study proposes a method for predicting compressive strength developments in the early ages of concretes used in the construction of nuclear power plants. Three representative mixes with strengths of 6000 psi (41.4 MPa), 4500 psi (31.0 MPa), and 4000 psi (27.6 MPa) were selected and tested under various curing conditions; the temperature ranged from 10 to 40 °C, and the relative humidity from 40 to 100%. In order to consider not only the effect of the temperature but also that of humidity, an existing model, i.e. the humidity-adjusted maturity function, was adopted and the parameters used in the function were determined from the test results. A series of tests were also performed in the curing condition of a variable temperature and constant humidity, and a comparison between the measured and predicted strengths were made for the verification.

  1. Corrosion resistance of tank material for flock storage in the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, Yuichi; Anbai, Hiromu; Takeuchi, Masayuki; Ogino, Hideki; Koizumi, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    The installation of the storage tank made of SS400 is under planning in the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant for the flock which was generated in the coagulation process for radioactive contaminated water. The flock contains the seawater and has a possibility to make a crevice and local corrosion on the surface of the tank. Air agitation will be applied in the storage tank to prevent the accumulation of the flock and hydrogen generated by radiolysis, which will increase the diffusion of oxygen and the corrosion of SS400. In addition, the effect of radiation from the flock on the corrosion should be considered. In this study, we investigated the corrosion behavior of SS400 in the flock under the aeration-agitation condition with γ-ray irradiation. Based on the flock storage condition announced by Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO), immersion tests were performed with SS400 coupons under several conditions and corrosion rates were estimated by the weight loss of the coupons. After the immersion tests, the surfaces of the coupons were observed by microscopy for evaluating the local corrosion. To evaluate corrosion mechanism in detail, electrochemical tests were also carried out. In all of these tests, the non-radioactive flock as a surrogate and artificial seawater were used. Corrosion rates of SS400 increased significantly with aeration flow rates in the seawater with/without the flock, but this tendency was weaker in the seawater with the flock, especially under the condition where coupons were buried in the flock. The electrochemical tests indicated the suppression of the cathodic reaction, i.e. dissolved oxygen reduction, in the seawater with the flock. The effect of γ-ray irradiation on the corrosion rates was not remarkable under the assumed dose rate. Microscopic analysis of the immersed coupons showed no severe corrosion including local corrosion occurred. The corrosion rate could be decreased effectively by suppressing the dissolved oxygen reduction

  2. Hydro-engineering structure and Liptovska Mara Pumped Storage Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regula, E.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper thirty years history of the Hydro-engineering structure and Liptovska Mara Pumped Storage Power Plant (PSPP) is presented. In 1975 year the Liptovska Mara PSPP was commissioned. There are 2 Kaplan turbines and 2 Derezias reversible turbines with a total installed power 198 MW. The average annual output is 134.5 GWh. As a part of this hydro-engineering structure is Besenova Small-scale power plants with 2 turbines and with installed power 4.64 MW. The average annual output consists 18.3 GWh. There up to end of 2004 year 3,620.172 MWh of electricity was produced. Environmental effects are discussed

  3. Technical Feasibility Study of Thermal Energy Storage Integration into the Conventional Power Plant Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek D. Wojcik

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The current load balance in the grid is managed mainly through peaking fossil-fuelled power plants that respond passively to the load changes. Intermittency, which comes from renewable energy sources, imposes additional requirements for even more flexible and faster responses from conventional power plants. A major challenge is to keep conventional generation running closest to the design condition with higher load factors and to avoid switching off periods if possible. Thermal energy storage (TES integration into the power plant process cycle is considered as a possible solution for this issue. In this article, a technical feasibility study of TES integration into a 375-MW subcritical oil-fired conventional power plant is presented. Retrofitting is considered in order to avoid major changes in the power plant process cycle. The concept is tested based on the complete power plant model implemented in the ProTRAX software environment. Steam and water parameters are assessed for different TES integration scenarios as a function of the plant load level. The best candidate points for heat extraction in the TES charging and discharging processes are evaluated. The results demonstrate that the integration of TES with power plant cycle is feasible and provide a provisional guidance for the design of the TES system that will result in the minimal influence on the power plant cycle.

  4. Spent fuel storage rack for atomic power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, Tatemitsu.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To flexibly cope with the changes in the size and shape of spent fuel storage containers by placing a number of independently-constructed rack cells in a rack frame in such a manner that the guide support members of the storage rack, mounted on each rack cell may be replaced. Constitution: Independently-constructed rack cells are inserted from above into a rack frame rigidly installed on the bottom of a water pool. Each cell is produced by welding, has a handling head mounted at the top, and guide support members made of three replaceable guide tubes are mounted with bolts. If the size and the shape of the containers are altered, this configuration can easily cope with the new container shape by merely having the guide tubes replaced, without adversely affecting other cells and without necessitating draining of the water in the pool. (Yoshino, Y.)

  5. Research and development of methods and technologies for CO2 capture in fossil fuel power plants and storage in geological formations in the Czech Republic, stage 1.6. Research into methods and technologies for CO2 treatment and compression. Revision 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupal, Tomas

    2010-12-01

    Czech brown coal contain many components which complicate the technological process of CO 2 separation a treatment. A system coping with this problem is proposed. The following topics are treated: Specification of the flue gas at the boiler outlet; Requirements for CO 2 purity; Purification of the flue gases (Denitrificatio; Dust removal; Flue gas fan; Desuphurisation; Flue gas condenser); CO 2 purification and compression; Expected purification process; and Effect of the purification on the power plant unit. (P.A.)

  6. Thermodynamic evaluation of supercritical oxy-type power plant with high-temperature three-end membrane for air separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotowicz Janusz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Among the technologies which allow to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, mainly of carbon dioxide, special attention deserves the idea of ‘zero-emission’ technology based on boilers working in oxy-combustion technology. In the paper a thermodynamic analysis of supercritical power plant fed by lignite was made. Power plant consists of: 600 MW steam power unit with live steam parameters of 650 °C/30 MPa and reheated steam parameters of 670 °C/6 MPa; circulating fluidized bed boiler working in oxy-combustion technology; air separation unit and installation of the carbon dioxide compression. Air separation unit is based on high temperature membrane working in three-end technology. Models of steam cycle, circulation fluidized bed boiler, air separation unit and carbon capture installation were made using commercial software. After integration of these models the net electricity generation efficiency as a function of the degree of oxygen recovery in high temperature membrane was analyzed.

  7. Methodology for the economic optimisation of energy storage systems for frequency support in wind power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, Lewis; Díaz-González, Francisco; Gomis-Bellmunt, Oriol; Corchero-García, Cristina; Cruz-Zambrano, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Optimisation of energy storage system with wind power plant for frequency response. • Energy storage option considered could be economically viable. • For a 50 MW wind farm, an energy storage system of 5.3 MW and 3 MW h was found. - Abstract: This paper proposes a methodology for the economic optimisation of the sizing of Energy Storage Systems (ESSs) whilst enhancing the participation of Wind Power Plants (WPP) in network primary frequency control support. The methodology was designed flexibly, so it can be applied to different energy markets and to include different ESS technologies. The methodology includes the formulation and solving of a Linear Programming (LP) problem. The methodology was applied to the particular case of a 50 MW WPP, equipped with a Vanadium Redox Flow battery (VRB) in the UK energy market. Analysis is performed considering real data on the UK regular energy market and the UK frequency response market. Data for wind power generation and energy storage costs are estimated from literature. Results suggest that, under certain assumptions, ESSs can be profitable for the operator of a WPP that is providing frequency response. The ESS provides power reserves such that the WPP can generate close to the maximum energy available. The solution of the optimisation problem establishes that an ESS with a power rating of 5.3 MW and energy capacity of about 3 MW h would be enough to provide such service whilst maximising the incomes for the WPP operator considering the regular and frequency regulation UK markets

  8. Storage, handling and internal transport of radioactive materials (fuel elements excepted) in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-06-01

    The rule applies to storage and handling as well as to transport within the plant and to the exchange of - solid radioactive wastes, - liquid radioactive wastes, except for those covered by the rule KTA 3603, - radioactive components and parts which are planned to be mounted and dismounted until shutdown of the plant, - radioactive-contaminated tools and appliances, - radioactive preparations. The rule is to be applied within the fenced-in sites of stationary nuclear power plants with LWR or HTR including their transport load halls, as fas as these are situated so as to be approachable from the nuclear power station by local transport systems. (orig./HP) [de

  9. Effects of air blast on power plant structures and components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kot, C.A.; Valentin, R.A.; McLennan, D.A.; Turula, P.

    1978-10-01

    The effects of air blast from high explosives detonation on selected power plant structures and components are investigated analytically. Relying on a synthesis of state of the art methods estimates of structural response are obtained. Similarly blast loadings are determined from compilations of experimental data reported in the literature. Plastic-yield line analysis is employed to determine the response of both concrete and steel flat walls (plates) under impulsive loading. Linear elastic theory is used to investigate the spalling of concrete walls and mode analysis methods predict the deflection of piping. The specific problems considered are: the gross deformation of reinforced concrete shield and containment structures due to blast impulse, the spalling of concrete walls, the interaction or impact of concrete debris with steel containments and liners, and the response of exposed piping to blast impulse. It is found that for sufficiently close-in detonations and/or large explosive charge weights severe damage or destruction will result. This is particularly true for structures or components directly exposed to blast impulse

  10. Compact spent fuel storage at the Atucha I nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonaccio, Carlos; Conde, Alberto; Flores, Alexis; Masciotra, Humberto; Sala, Guillermo; Zanni, Pablo

    2000-01-01

    The object of this report is to verify the possibility to increase the available storage of irradiated fuel assemblies, placed in the spent fuel pools of the Atucha I nuclear power plant. There is intends the realization of structural modifications in the storage bracket-suspension beam (single and double) for the upper and lower level of the four spent fuel pools. With these modifications that increase the storage capacity 25%, would arrive until the year 2014, it dates dear for the limit of the commercial operation of nuclear power plant. The increase of the capacity in function of the permissible stress for the supports of the bracket-suspension beam. They should be carried out 5000 re-accommodations of irradiated fuel assemblies. The task would demand approximately 3 years. (author)

  11. Storage of intermittent energies. From self-consumption to huge photovoltaic power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrin, Marion; Martin, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Power grids are evolving rapidly due to an increased use of decentralized power units, mostly based on intermittent renewable energy resources and due also to new ways of consuming energy (e.g. electrical vehicles). In the same time, the performance increase of new technologies such as telecommunications and storage systems could provide solutions for optimizing the electrical system. In this context, we are more and more talking about the 'smart-grids concept' because in parallel to the power interconnection, we also create communication networks which allow knowing in real time the status of the power grid, and so that the power flows can be controlled in an optimal way. In this article, we investigate challenges and opportunities for managing intermittent energy sources by using energy storage systems, from the consumer level to the grid operator. First we describe how the feed-in tariff could evolve in order to improve grid integration of large solar plants. We showed that behind the constraints due to the coupling of the power plants with a storage system, we could imagine lots of opportunities to diversify the business model. Then we evaluate the medium size PV with storage installation at the community level. For this purpose, we describe the local problems induced by the PV integration before proposing new ways to manage these systems. Finally, the self-consumption business model is investigated in terms of performance for the consumer and for the grid operator. (authors)

  12. Thermoeconomic cost analysis of CO_2 compression and purification unit in oxy-combustion power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Bo; Zhao, Haibo; Zheng, Chuguang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermoeconomic cost analysis for CO_2 compression and purification unit is conducted. • Exergy cost and thermoeconomic cost occur in flash separation and mixing processes. • Unit exergy costs for flash separator and multi-stream heat exchanger are identical. • Multi-stage CO_2 compressor contributes to the minimum unit exergy cost. • Thermoeconomic performance for optimized CPU is enhanced. - Abstract: High CO_2 purity products can be obtained from oxy-combustion power plants through CO_2 compression and purification unit (CPU) based on phase separation method. To identify cost formation process and potential energy savings for CPU, detailed thermoeconomic cost analysis based on structure theory of thermoeconomics is applied to an optimized CPU (with double flash separators). It is found that the largest unit exergy cost occurs in the first separation process while the multi-stage CO_2 compressor contributes to the minimum unit exergy cost. In two flash separation processes, unit exergy costs for the flash separator and multi-stream heat exchanger are identical but their unit thermoeconomic costs are different once monetary cost for each device is considered. For cost inefficiency occurring in CPU, it mainly derives from large exergy costs and thermoeconomic costs in the flash separation and mixing processes. When compared with an unoptimized CPU, thermoeconomic performance for the optimized CPU is enhanced and the maximum reduction of 5.18% for thermoeconomic cost is attained. To achieve cost effective operation, measures should be taken to improve operations of the flash separation and mixing processes.

  13. The optimization of spent fuel assembly storage racks in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yan

    2005-01-01

    This paper gives an evaluation of the spent fuel assembly storage racks in the nuclear power plants at home and abroad, focusing on the characteristics of the high density storage racks and the aseismatic design. It mainly discusses structures and characteristics of the spent fuel assembly storage racks in the Qinshan nuclear power phase II project. Concluding the crucial technical difficulties of the high density spent fuel assembly storage racks: the neutron-absorbing materials, the structural aseismatic design technology and the security analysis technology, this paper firstly generalizes several important neutron-absorbing materials, then introduces the evolution of the aseismatic design of the spent fuel assembly storage racks . In the last part, it describes the advanced aseismatic analysis technology in the Qinshan nuclear power phase II project. Through calculation and analysis for such storage racks, the author concludes several main factors that could have an influence on the aseismatic performance and thus gives the key points and methods for designing the optimal racks and provides some references for the design of advanced spent fuel assembly storage racks in the future. (authors)

  14. Reservoir characterization and final pre-test analysis in support of the compressed-air-energy-storage Pittsfield aquifer field test in Pike County, Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiles, L.E.; McCann, R.A.

    1983-06-01

    The work reported is part of a field experimental program to demonstrate and evaluate compressed air energy storage in a porous media aquifer reservoir near Pittsfield, Illinois. The reservoir is described. Numerical modeling of the reservoir was performed concurrently with site development. The numerical models were applied to predict the thermohydraulic performance of the porous media reservoir. This reservoir characterization and pre-test analysis made use of evaluation of bubble development, water coning, thermal development, and near-wellbore desaturation. The work was undertaken to define the time required to develop an air storage bubble of adequate size, to assess the specification of instrumentation and above-ground equipment, and to develop and evaluate operational strategies for air cycling. A parametric analysis was performed for the field test reservoir. (LEW)

  15. A Preliminary Assessment of the Initial Compression Power Requirement in CO2 Pipeline “Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS Technologies”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdussalam El-Suleiman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available CO2 captured from fossil-fueled power generation plants is said to be economically transported via pipelines over long distances. The CO2 must be compressed to pipeline specifications using compressors and pumps that are driven by gas turbine (GT or other prime movers. This paper presents the evaluation of actual work transfer or required prime power by modeling the governing equations of compression using the Peng–Robinson equation of state (PR-EOS. A computer code was developed to carry out the modeling and subsequent simulation of the compression power requirement. The simulation of prime mover power was carried out for different technology (head per stage of the compressor ranging from 10-staged compression to double stage compression. The results show that the current technology of the centrifugal compressor could require as much as 23MW of prime mover power to compress 1.5 million tonnes per year of CO2—a projected equivalent CO2 released from a 530MW combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT power generation plant.

  16. Thermodynamic analysis of energy conversion and transfer in hybrid system consisting of wind turbine and advanced adiabatic compressed air energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yuan; Yang, Ke; Li, Xuemei; Xu, Jianzhong

    2014-01-01

    A simulation model consisting of wind speed, wind turbine and AA-CAES (advanced adiabatic compressed air energy storage) system is developed in this paper, and thermodynamic analysis on energy conversion and transfer in hybrid system is carried out. The impacts of stable wind speed and unstable wind speed on the hybrid system are analyzed and compared from the viewpoint of energy conversion and system efficiency. Besides, energy conversion relationship between wind turbine and AA-CAES system is investigated on the basis of process analysis. The results show that there are several different forms of energy in hybrid system, which have distinct conversion relationship. As to wind turbine, power coefficient determines wind energy utilization efficiency, and in AA-CAES system, it is compressor efficiency that mainly affects energy conversion efficiencies of other components. The strength and fluctuation of wind speed have a direct impact on energy conversion efficiencies of components of hybrid system, and within proper wind speed scope, the maximum of system efficiency could be expected. - Highlights: • A hybrid system consisting of wind, wind turbine and AA-CAES system is established. • Energy conversion in hybrid system with stable and unstable wind speed is analyzed. • Maximum efficiency of hybrid system can be reached within proper wind speed scope. • Thermal energy change in hybrid system is more sensitive to wind speed change. • Compressor efficiency can affect other efficiencies in AA-CAES system

  17. Lithium ion battery energy storage system for augmented wind power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef

    with Battery Energy Storage Systems (BESSs) into the so called Virtual Power Plants (VPP). Relatively new energy storage technologies based on Lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries are constantly improving their performance and are becoming attractive for stationary energy storage applications due...... to their characteristics such as high power, high efficiency, low self-discharge, and long lifetime. The family of the Li-ion batteries is wide and the selection of the most appropriate Liion chemistries for VPPs is one of the topics of this thesis, where different chemistries are compared and the most suitable ones...... if the batteries are able to meet several performance requirements, which are application dependent. Furthermore, for the VPP, the degradation or failure of the interconnected BESS can lead to costly downtime. Thus, an accurate estimation of the battery cells lifetime becomes mandatory. However, lifetime...

  18. Impact of Storage Technologies upon Power System Losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DULAU Lucian Ioan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the main characteristics of storage technologies. The most important storage technologies are the batteries, hydrogen, pumped hydro, flywheels, compressed air, super-capacitors and superconducting magnetic devices. The storage technologies can be classified based on the function principle into electrochemical, mechanical and electromagnetic devices. The storage systems can also be classified based on their capacity to store power into short and long term devices. A power flow analysis is performed for the situation with and without a storage unit. The storage unit is inserted into the IEEE 14 bus test system.

  19. Advanced techniques for storage and disposal of spent fuel from commercial nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weh, R.; Sowa, W.

    1999-01-01

    Electricity generation using fossil fuel at comparatively low costs forces nuclear energy to explore all economic potentials. The cost advantage of direct disposal of spent nuclear fuel compared to reprocessing gives reason enough to follow that path more and more. The present paper describes components and facilities for long-term storage as well as packaging strategies, developed and implemented under the responsibility of the German utilities operating nuclear power plants. A proposal is made to complement or even to replace the POLLUX cask concept by a system using BSK 3 fuel rod containers together with LB 21 storage casks. (author)

  20. Evaluation of different operating strategies to integrate storage in a linear Fresnel ORC power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoschke, Theda; Seubert, Bernhard; Fluri, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    An existing linear Fresnel power plant with ORC process located in Ben Guerir, Morocco, is retrofitted with a thermal energy storage system and additional collector loops. Two different plant configurations are investigated in this paper. In the first configuration two separate solar fields are built and only the minor one can charge the storage. In the second configuration, there is only one large solar field which offers more flexibility. Two different control strategies are assessed by comparing simulation results. It shows that the simulations of the systems with two solar fields results in higher energy yields throughout the year, but the power production of the system with one solar field is much more flexible and demand oriented. Also it offers great potential for improvement when it comes to weather forecasting.

  1. Heat recovery from the compressed air of activation tanks at Herdorf sewage plant. Final report; Waermerueckgewinnung aus der Druckluft von Belebungsanlagen am Beispiel der Verbandsklaeranlage Herdorf. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witte, H.; Strunkheide, J.; Eckhardt, R.

    2001-01-01

    Heat is removed from the compressed air of the activation tanks via a separate air cooler installed in the compressed-air line leading to the activation tank. The heat recovered will heat up the sludge in the digestion tank or will be fed into the heating system of the plant. The following goals are defined: Savings of heating oil; Saving of digestion gas as completely as possible; Power generation from the saved gas in a cogeneration unit; Power supply to the public grid. [German] Zielsetzung des Pilotprojektes ist die Nutzung der Druckluftwaerme von Belebungsanlagen als eine Moeglichkeit der Energieeinsparung auf Klaeranlagen. Die Nutzung der Verlustwaerme soll durch Abgriff der Waerme ueber einen separaten Luftkuehler erfolgen, der direkt in der Druckluftleitung zum Belebungsbecken installiert ist. Die auf diese Weise zurueckgewonnene Waerme soll zur Rohschlammaufheizung im Faulungsprozess dienen bzw. in das Betriebsheizungssystem eingespeist werden. Somit koennen folgende Ziele der Waermerueckgewinnungsanlage ins Auge gefasst werden: - Einsparung von Heizoel zu Heizzwecken in den Betriebsanlagen der Klaeranlage - Moeglichst komplette Einsparung von Faulgas im Heizkessel daraus folgend: - Mehrverstromung der im Heizkessel weniger verbrauchten Gasmengen im Blockheizkraftwerk (BHKW) mit dem Ergebnis: - Wirtschaftlicher Ertrag durch Einspeisung dieser Mehrmengen an Strom in das oeffentliche Versorgungsnetz. (orig.)

  2. Cost and performance of fossil fuel power plants with CO2 capture and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, Edward S.; Chen, Chao; Rao, Anand B.

    2007-01-01

    CO 2 capture and storage (CCS) is receiving considerable attention as a potential greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation option for fossil fuel power plants. Cost and performance estimates for CCS are critical factors in energy and policy analysis. CCS cost studies necessarily employ a host of technical and economic assumptions that can dramatically affect results. Thus, particular studies often are of limited value to analysts, researchers, and industry personnel seeking results for alternative cases. In this paper, we use a generalized modeling tool to estimate and compare the emissions, efficiency, resource requirements and current costs of fossil fuel power plants with CCS on a systematic basis. This plant-level analysis explores a broader range of key assumptions than found in recent studies we reviewed for three major plant types: pulverized coal (PC) plants, natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) plants, and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems using coal. In particular, we examine the effects of recent increases in capital costs and natural gas prices, as well as effects of differential plant utilization rates, IGCC financing and operating assumptions, variations in plant size, and differences in fuel quality, including bituminous, sub-bituminous and lignite coals. Our results show higher power plant and CCS costs than prior studies as a consequence of recent escalations in capital and operating costs. The broader range of cases also reveals differences not previously reported in the relative costs of PC, NGCC and IGCC plants with and without CCS. While CCS can significantly reduce power plant emissions of CO 2 (typically by 85-90%), the impacts of CCS energy requirements on plant-level resource requirements and multi-media environmental emissions also are found to be significant, with increases of approximately 15-30% for current CCS systems. To characterize such impacts, an alternative definition of the 'energy penalty' is proposed in lieu of the

  3. Energy Management of an Off-Grid Hybrid Power Plant with Multiple Energy Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Tribioli

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an off-grid hybrid power plant with multiple storage systems for an artificial island is designed and two possible strategies for the management of the stored energy are proposed. Renewable power sources (wind/solar technologies are used as primary power suppliers. A lead-acid battery pack (BAT and a reversible polymer electrolyte fuel cell are employed to fulfill the power demand and to absorb extra power. The reversible fuel cell allows reducing costs and occupied space and the fuel cell can be fed by the pure hydrogen produced by means of its reversible operation as an electrolyzer. A diesel engine is employed as backup system. While HOMER Pro® has been employed for a full-factorial-based optimization of the sizes of the renewable sources and the BAT, Matlab/Simulink® has been later used for simulating the plant operation and compare two possible power management control strategies. For the reversible fuel cell sizing, a sensitivity analysis has been carried out varying stack and hydrogen tank sizes. The final choice for plant configuration and power management control strategy has been made on the basis of a comparative analysis of the results, aimed at minimizing fossil fuel consumption and CO2 emissions, battery aging rate and at maximizing the power plant overall efficiency. The obtained results demonstrate the possibility of realizing a renewable power plant, able to match the needs of electrical power in a remote area, by achieving a good integration of different energy sources and facing the intermittent nature of renewable power sources, with very low use of fossil fuels.

  4. Microbiological contamination of compressed air used in dentistry: an investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, M; Lynch, R M; Robson, M G

    2001-11-01

    The purpose of this preliminary investigation was twofold: 1) to examine the possibility of cross-contamination between a dental-evacuation system and the compressed air used in dental operatories and 2) to capture and identify the most common microflora in the compressed-air supply. The investigation used swab, water, and air sampling that was designed to track microorganisms from the evacuation system, through the air of the mechanical room, into the compressed-air system, and back to the patient. Samples taken in the vacuum system, the air space in the mechanical room, and the compressed-air storage tank had significantly higher total concentrations of bacteria than the outside air sampled. Samples of the compressed air returning to the operatory were found to match the outside air sample in total bacteria. It was concluded that the air dryer may have played a significant role in the elimination of microorganisms from the dental compressed-air supply.

  5. Long-term storage of compressed radioactive krypton in cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niephaus, D.; Nommensen, O.; Bruecher, H.

    1982-01-01

    The recommendations of the German Radiation Protection Commission necessitate the separation of the radioactive noble gas krypton-85 (Kr-85) produced in large LWR reprocessing plants from the dissolver off-gas. A possible method of removal is a long-term storage of the compressed noble gas above ground in cylinders. The aim of the present study is to develop such a storage concept and evaluate its feasibility under the aspects of safety and cost. After having been filled, the gas cylinders are placed separately into transport racks serving to protect the cylinders. Following this, the cylinders are transferred out of the filling station in a transport cask, conveyed to the storage building and stored there. The storage building protects the gas cylinders against external impacts. The storage cells constitute a second barrier against the release of Kr-85. The heat produced during decay of the Kr-85 in the gas cylinders is carried off by natural convection of the air circulating in the storage cells. To study possible corrosion attack on special steels due to rubidium, experiments were conducted at 200 0 C during test periods up to 3500h. In order to compare properties at elevated temperatures, corrosion experiments were conducted at 500 0 C, which is far above the maximum licensed storage temperature of 200 0 C. Experiments were conducted concerning the adsorption of krypton on various adsorbents, thus reducing the pressure inside the gas cylinder during storage. A cost estimate based on 1980 prices

  6. Ideal Operation of a Photovoltaic Power Plant Equipped with an Energy Storage System on Electricity Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markku Järvelä

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available There is no natural inertia in a photovoltaic (PV generator and changes in irradiation can be seen immediately at the output power. Moving cloud shadows are the dominant reason for fast PV power fluctuations taking place typically within a minute between 20 to 100% of the clear sky value roughly 100 times a day, on average. Therefore, operating a utility scale grid connected PV power plant is challenging. Currently, in many regions, renewable energy sources such as solar and wind receive feed-in tariffs that ensure a certain price for the energy. On the other hand, electricity markets operate on a supply-demand principle and a typical imbalance settlement period is one hour. This paper presents the energy, power and corresponding requirements for an energy storage system in a solar PV power plant to feed the power to the grid meeting the electricity spot markets practices. An ideal PV energy production forecast is assumed to be available to define reference powers of the system for the studied imbalance settlement periods. The analysis is done for three different PV system sizes using the existing irradiance measurements of the Tampere University of Technology solar PV power station research plant.

  7. Particulars in design of the electrical part of the Kiev Pumped-Storage Electric Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brimerberg, V P

    1976-01-01

    The Kiev Pumped-Storage Electric Power Plant is the first such installation in the Soviet Union. The power capacity of the plant is 225 MW. There are six vertical hydraulic generators: three are connected to vertical pump-turbines and operate as motor-generators; the other three are connected to vertical radial-axial hydraulic turbines and operate as generators only. Each generator is a type SVO 733/130-36 with power of 45.6 MVA. The active power load is 83.5 MW, reactive--75.1, and total--112.5 MVA. The installation can be used for 500 h/yr at maximum power, producing 110 million kWh. During the high-water period, the plant is used daily for about 100 days, covering the peak of the load schedule of the southern power system. During the low-water period the plant is used as needed. During the slack hours at night the system operates in the pump mode for about 1400 h/yr, using 160 million kWh. During the remainder of the day the generators work as synchronous compensators with a total load on each of 36,500 kvar. Electrical circuits and a cross section of the generator are given. An explanation is also given of the grounding precautions taken to ensure an equipotential field at all points of the installation where personnel may be located.

  8. Compressed Air/Vacuum Transportation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Shyamal

    2011-03-01

    General theory of compressed air/vacuum transportation will be presented. In this transportation, a vehicle (such as an automobile or a rail car) is powered either by compressed air or by air at near vacuum pressure. Four version of such transportation is feasible. In all versions, a ``c-shaped'' plastic or ceramic pipe lies buried a few inches under the ground surface. This pipe carries compressed air or air at near vacuum pressure. In type I transportation, a vehicle draws compressed air (or vacuum) from this buried pipe. Using turbine or reciprocating air cylinder, mechanical power is generated from compressed air (or from vacuum). This mechanical power transferred to the wheels of an automobile (or a rail car) drives the vehicle. In type II-IV transportation techniques, a horizontal force is generated inside the plastic (or ceramic) pipe. A set of vertical and horizontal steel bars is used to transmit this force to the automobile on the road (or to a rail car on rail track). The proposed transportation system has following merits: virtually accident free; highly energy efficient; pollution free and it will not contribute to carbon dioxide emission. Some developmental work on this transportation will be needed before it can be used by the traveling public. The entire transportation system could be computer controlled.

  9. Air toxics evaluation for a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokey, D.; Orr, W.

    1994-01-01

    An emission inventory of nonradiological hazardous air pollutants (HAP) was prepared for TVA's Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant (BFN). The purpose of this effort was to determine whether BFN is a major HAP emission source. About 40 specific HAP were identified in products used at FBN. HAP emission totals from BFN were estimated at 6 T/Y, well below the major-source cutoff. Off-site waste disposal reduced gross emission estimates by about 8 percent. HAP emission evaluation by product categories showed the largest portion due to paints and coatings, followed by cleaning compounds. HAP emission breakdown by chemical species showed xylene to be the predominate HAP emitted, followed by methyl ethyl ketone

  10. Techno-economic analysis of oxy-combustion coal-fired power plant with cryogenic oxygen storage

    OpenAIRE

    Hanak, Dawid Piotr; Manovic, Vasilije

    2017-01-01

    Around 43% of the cumulative CO2 emissions from the power sector between 2012 and 2050 could be mitigated through implementation of carbon capture and storage, and utilisation of renewable energy sources. Energy storage technologies can increase the efficiency of energy utilisation and thus should be widely deployed along with low-emission technologies. This study evaluates the techno-economic performance of cryogenic O2 storage implemented in an oxy-combustion coal-fired power plant as a mea...

  11. Final Report-- A Novel Storage Method for Concentrating Solar Power Plants Allowing Storage at High Temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, Jeffrey F.

    2014-09-29

    The main objective of the proposed work was the development and testing of a storage method that has the potential to fundamentally change the solar thermal industry. The development of a mathematical model that describes the phenomena involved in the heat storage and recovery was also a main objective of this work. Therefore, the goal was to prepare a design package allowing reliable scale-up and optimization of design.

  12. Tri-generation based hybrid power plant scheduling for renewable resources rich area with energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazheri, F.R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Involves scheduling of the tri-generation based hybrid power plant. • Utilization of renewable energy through energy storage is discussed. • Benefits of the proposed model are illustrated. • Energy efficient and environmental friendly dispatch is analyzed. • Modeled scheduling problem is applicable to any fuel enriched area. - Abstract: Solving power system scheduling is crucial to ensure smooth operations of the electric power industry. Effective utilization of available conventional and renewable energy sources (RES) by tri-generation and with the aid of energy storage facilities (ESF) can ensure clean and energy efficient power generation. Such power generation can play an important role in countries, like Saudi Arabia, where abundant fossil fuels (FF) and renewable energy sources (RES) are available. Hence, effective modeling of such hybrid power systems scheduling is essential in such countries based on the available fuel resources. The intent of this paper is to present a simple model for tri-generation based hybrid power system scheduling for energy resources rich area in presence of ESF, to ensure optimum fuel utilization and minimum pollutant emissions while meeting the power demand. This research points an effective operation strategy which ensure a clean and energy efficient power scheduling by exploiting available energy resources effectively. Hence, it has an important role in current and future power generation. In order to illustrate the benefits of the presented approach a clean and energy efficient hybrid power supply scheme for King Saud University (KSU), Saudi Arabia, is proposed and analyzed here. Results show that the proposed approach is very suitable for KSU since adequate solar power is available during its peak demand periods

  13. Information on the feasibility study for the reracking in the fuel storage pools of the Juragua Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, J.M.; Rodriguez, I.; Lopez, D.; Guerra, R.; Rodriguez, M.; Garcia, F.

    1995-01-01

    During 1993, in the Juragua Nuclear Power Plants as engineering evaluation programme was initiated in the storage area of irradiated nuclear fuel, where work in order to determine the feasibility of capacity increase for storage of irradiated nuclear fuel at the fuel storage pools using poisoned compact close racks instead of the originally designed racks. The feasibility study is a fundamental activity of this programme for the 1994-1995 period. According to this study the prospects of assimilation of compact storage conditions in the fuel storage pools in unit number one and prolonged fuel storage pool are investigated

  14. Engineered-safety-feature air-cleaning systems for commercial light-water-cooled nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burchsted, C.A.

    1975-01-01

    Substantial improvement has been observed in the design and construction of ESF air cleaning systems in some of the newer power plants, as compared to earlier practice, but there is still much to be done. Adequate space must be provided for these facilities in the earliest containment and building layout, and system designers, equipment designers, and building layout engineers must give adequate consideration to easy access to facilitate maintenance and testing. Finally, constructors and utilities must provide for proper storage of critical components such as HEPA filters and adsorber cells during construction and during the period awaiting startup of the plant. (U.S.)

  15. Thermocline thermal storage systems for concentrated solar power plants: One-dimensional numerical model and comparative analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modi, Anish; Pérez-Segarra, Carlos David

    2014-01-01

    Concentrated solar power plants have attracted increasing interest from researchers and governments all over the world in recent years. An important part of these plants is the storage system which improves dispatchability and makes the plant more reliable. In this paper, a one-dimensional transi...

  16. Technique for Selecting Optimum Fan Compression Ratio based on the Effective Power Plant Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Kondrashov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, civilian aircrafts occupy the major share of global aviation industry market. As to medium and long - haul aircrafts, turbofans with separate exhaust streams are widely used. Here, fuel efficiency is the main criterion of this engine. The paper presents the research results of the mutual influence of fan pressure ratio and bypass ratio on the effective specific fuel consumption. Shows the increasing bypass ratio to be a rational step for reducing the fuel consumption. Also considers the basic features of engines with a high bypass ratio. Among the other working process parameters, fan pressure ratio and bypass ratio are the most relevant for consideration as they are the most structural variables at a given level of technical excellence. The paper presents the dependence of the nacelle drag coefficient on the engine bypass ratio. For computation were adopted the projected parameters of prospective turbofans to be used in the power plant of the 180-seat medium-haul aircraft. Computation of the engine cycle was performed in Mathcad using these data, with fan pressure ratio and bypass ratio being varied. The combustion chamber gas temperature, the overall pressure ratio and engine thrust remained constant. Pressure loss coefficients, the efficiency of the engine components and the amount of air taken for cooling also remained constant. The optimal parameters corresponding to the minimum effective specific fuel consumption were found as the result of computation. The paper gives recommendations for adjusting optimal parameters, depending on the considered external factors, such as weight of engine and required fuel reserve. The obtained data can be used to estimate parameters of future turbofan engines with high bypass ratio.

  17. A concept of an electricity storage system with 50 MWh storage capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Paska

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Electricity storage devices can be divided into indirect storage technology devices (involving electricity conversion into another form of energy, and direct storage (in an electric or magnetic fi eld. Electricity storage technologies include: pumped-storage power plants, BES Battery Energy Storage, CAES Compressed Air Energy Storage, Supercapacitors, FES Flywheel Energy Storage, SMES Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage, FC Fuel Cells reverse or operated in systems with electrolysers and hydrogen storage. These technologies have diff erent technical characteristics and economic parameters that determine their usability. This paper presents two concepts of an electricity storage tank with a storage capacity of at least 50 MWh, using the BES battery energy storage and CAES compressed air energy storage technologies.

  18. Air quality implications associated with the selection of power plants in the Pacific Northwest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baechler, M.C.; Glantz, C.S.; Edelmen, P.C.

    1993-11-01

    This assessment models emission inventories and pollutant emission rates for fossil fuel power plants. Ground-level air concentration of nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide and TSP are predicted. Pollutant deposition, non-acidic deposition, acidic deposition, ozone impacts, and visibility attenuation are considered. Human health effects, wildlife effects, effects on plants and crops, and residual environmental impacts are estimated from predicted emissions

  19. Energy recovery during expansion of compressed gas using power plant low-quality heat sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochs, Thomas L [Albany, OR; O'Connor, William K [Lebanon, OR

    2006-03-07

    A method of recovering energy from a cool compressed gas, compressed liquid, vapor, or supercritical fluid is disclosed which includes incrementally expanding the compressed gas, compressed liquid, vapor, or supercritical fluid through a plurality of expansion engines and heating the gas, vapor, compressed liquid, or supercritical fluid entering at least one of the expansion engines with a low quality heat source. Expansion engines such as turbines and multiple expansions with heating are disclosed.

  20. Survey of Thermal Storage for Parabolic Trough Power Plants; Period of Performance: September 13, 1999 - June 12, 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilkington Solar International GmbH

    2000-09-29

    The purpose of this report is to identify and selectively review previous work done on the evaluation and use of thermal energy storage systems applied to parabolic trough power plants. Appropriate storage concepts and technical options are first discussed, followed by a review of previous work.

  1. Bacterial communities in an ultrapure water containing storage tank of a power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohus, Veronika; Kéki, Zsuzsa; Márialigeti, Károly; Baranyi, Krisztián; Patek, Gábor; Schunk, János; Tóth, Erika M

    2011-12-01

    Ultrapure waters (UPWs) containing low levels of organic and inorganic compounds provide extreme environment. On contrary to that microbes occur in such waters and form biofilms on surfaces, thus may induce corrosion processes in many industrial applications. In our study, refined saltless water (UPW) produced for the boiler of a Hungarian power plant was examined before and after storage (sampling the inlet [TKE] and outlet [TKU] waters of a storage tank) with cultivation and culture independent methods. Our results showed increased CFU and direct cell counts after the storage. Cultivation results showed the dominance of aerobic, chemoorganotrophic α-Proteobacteria in both samples. In case of TKU sample, a more complex bacterial community structure could be detected. The applied molecular method (T-RFLP) indicated the presence of a complex microbial community structure with changes in the taxon composition: while in the inlet water sample (TKE) α-Proteobacteria (Sphingomonas sp., Novosphingobium hassiacum) dominated, in the outlet water sample (TKU) the bacterial community shifted towards the dominance of α-Proteobacteria (Rhodoferax sp., Polynucleobacter sp., Sterolibacter sp.), CFB (Bacteroidetes, formerly Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides group) and Firmicutes. This shift to the direction of fermentative communities suggests that storage could help the development of communities with an increased tendency toward corrosion.

  2. Hydrogen storage for mixed wind-nuclear power plants in the context of a hydrogen economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taljan, Gregor; Fowler, Michael; Canizares, Claudio; Verbic, Gregor

    2008-01-01

    A novel methodology for the economic evaluation of hydrogen production and storage for a mixed wind-nuclear power plant considering some new aspects such as residual heat and oxygen utilization is applied in this work. This analysis is completed in the context of a hydrogen economy and competitive electricity markets. The simulation of the operation of a combined nuclear-wind-hydrogen system is discussed first, where the selling and buying of electricity, the selling of excess hydrogen and oxygen, and the selling of heat are optimized to maximize profit to the energy producer. The simulation is performed in two phases: in a pre-dispatch phase, the system model is optimized to obtain optimal hydrogen charge levels for the given operational horizons. In the second phase, a real-time dispatch is carried out on an hourly basis to optimize the operation of the system as to maximize profits, following the hydrogen storage levels of the pre-dispatch phase. Based on the operation planning and dispatch results, an economic evaluation is performed to determine the feasibility of the proposed scheme for investment purposes; this evaluation is based on calculations of modified internal rates of return and net present values for a realistic scenario. The results of the present studies demonstrate the feasibility of a hydrogen storage and production system with oxygen and heat utilization for existent nuclear and wind power generation facilities. (author)

  3. Combining plasma gasification and solid oxide cell technologies in advanced power plants for waste to energy and electric energy storage applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Alessandra; Minutillo, Mariagiovanna; Lubrano Lavadera, Antonio; Jannelli, Elio

    2018-03-01

    The waste to energy (WtE) facilities and the renewable energy storage systems have a strategic role in the promotion of the "eco-innovation", an emerging priority in the European Union. This paper aims to propose advanced plant configurations in which waste to energy plants and electric energy storage systems from intermittent renewable sources are combined for obtaining more efficient and clean energy solutions in accordance with the "eco-innovation" approach. The advanced plant configurations consist of an electric energy storage (EES) section based on a solid oxide electrolyzer (SOEC), a waste gasification section based on the plasma technology and a power generation section based on a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). The plant configurations differ for the utilization of electrolytic hydrogen and oxygen in the plasma gasification section and in the power generation section. In the first plant configuration IAPGFC (Integrated Air Plasma Gasification Fuel Cell), the renewable oxygen enriches the air stream, that is used as plasma gas in the gasification section, and the renewable hydrogen is used to enrich the anodic stream of the SOFC in the power generation section. In the second plant configuration IHPGFC (Integrated Hydrogen Plasma Gasification Fuel Cell) the renewable hydrogen is used as plasma gas in the plasma gasification section, and the renewable oxygen is used to enrich the cathodic stream of the SOFC in the power generation section. The analysis has been carried out by using numerical models for predicting and comparing the systems performances in terms of electric efficiency and capability in realizing the waste to energy and the electric energy storage of renewable sources. Results have highlighted that the electric efficiency is very high for all configurations (35-45%) and, thanks to the combination with the waste to energy technology, the storage efficiencies are very attractive (in the range 72-92%). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  4. 29 CFR 1917.154 - Compressed air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compressed air. 1917.154 Section 1917.154 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Related Terminal Operations and Equipment § 1917.154 Compressed air. Employees shall be... this part during cleaning with compressed air. Compressed air used for cleaning shall not exceed a...

  5. Suggestion on the safety classification of spent fuel dry storage in China’s pressurized water reactor nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Qu, Yunhuan; Meng, De; Zhang, Qiaoer; Lu, Xinhua

    2018-01-01

    China’s spent fuel storage in the pressurized water reactors(PWR) is stored with wet storage way. With the rapid development of nuclear power industry, China’s NPPs(NPPs) will not be able to meet the problem of the production of spent fuel. Currently the world’s major nuclear power countries use dry storage as a way of spent fuel storage, so in recent years, China study on additional spent fuel dry storage system mainly. Part of the PWR NPP is ready to apply for additional spent fuel dry storage system. It also need to safety classificate to spent fuel dry storage facilities in PWR, but there is no standard for safety classification of spent fuel dry storage facilities in China. Because the storage facilities of the spent fuel dry storage are not part of the NPP, the classification standard of China’s NPPs is not applicable. This paper proposes the safety classification suggestion of the spent fuel dry storage for China’s PWR NPP, through to the study on China’s safety classification principles of PWR NPP in “Classification for the items of pressurized water reactor nuclear power plants (GB/T 17569-2013)”, and safety classification about spent fuel dry storage system in NUREG/CR - 6407 in the United States.

  6. Rectal perforation by compressed air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Jin

    2017-07-01

    As the use of compressed air in industrial work has increased, so has the risk of associated pneumatic injury from its improper use. However, damage of large intestine caused by compressed air is uncommon. Herein a case of pneumatic rupture of the rectum is described. The patient was admitted to the Emergency Room complaining of abdominal pain and distension. His colleague triggered a compressed air nozzle over his buttock. On arrival, vital signs were stable but physical examination revealed peritoneal irritation and marked distension of the abdomen. Computed tomography showed a large volume of air in the peritoneal cavity and subcutaneous emphysema at the perineum. A rectal perforation was found at laparotomy and the Hartmann procedure was performed.

  7. Feasibility study of a Green Power Plant. Final report. [Offshore pumped hydro storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-15

    This project is a technical evaluation and a feasibility study of a concept called the Green Power Plant (GPP), developed by Seahorn Energy Aps. The Green Power Plant is an offshore pumped hydro storage facility constructed from prefabricated elements and with integrated renewable energy production. Pumped hydro storage is a known technology with a proven roundtrip energy storage efficiency of 80%. The focus of the GPP project is on simplifying and industrializing the construction of the reservoir wall, thereby achieving a cost efficient solution. The reservoir structure is dependent on the site on which the reservoir is established, thus Kriegers Flak in the Baltic Sea has been chosen as basis for the technical evaluation. As soil conditions vary, the technical evaluations have been based on a general soil profile. A water depth of 25m has been chosen as basis for the evaluation. A reservoir with a diameter of 2 km has been evaluated as baseline scenario. Feasibility of the GPP was evaluated based on the cost and income estimates. For the baseline scenario an internal rate of return of 6.6% was found for a period of 35 years. A sensitivity analysis reveals internal rates of return over 35 years varying from 4.9% to 10.9%. Especially larger reservoir diameters increase profitability of the GPP. The results from this project will be utilized in raising funds for further development of the GPP concept. Seahorn Energy Aps aims at optimizing the wind turbine integration, the steel pile wall structure and the pump-turbine integration in a future project towards construction of a demonstration facility. (LN)

  8. Sampling and preparation of air pollutants at the Coal Paiton Power Plant area Probolinggo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iswantoro; Sutanto, W.W

    2013-01-01

    Sampling has been conducted on April 8 th to 18 th, 2012 at the plant area of Paiton Coal Power Plant using e-sampler for particulated matter PM-2,5 and PM-10, high volume air sampler for total suspended particulate (TSP) at the three sampling locations as the representative pollution. Filter before and after sampling was weighed and extremely guarded contamination. Air filters stored in desiccator filter for 24 hours. Determination of concentration of ambient air pollutants conducted by gravimetric method derived from a reduction in weight the samples on the filter PM-2,5; PM-10 and TSP to the weight of the empty filter. (author)

  9. A preliminary study on the optimal configuration and operating range of a “microgrid scale” air liquefaction plant for Liquid Air Energy Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borri, E.; Tafone, A.; Romagnoli, A.; Comodi, G.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A liquefaction cycle for a microgrid scale Liquid Air Energy Storage is proposed. • Different liquefaction cycles are compared by means of parametric analysis. • The optimal configuration proposed is a Kapitza cycle with two stage compression. • The specific consumption of the optimal configuration is around 700 kW h/t. • Specific consumption reduces to 532 kW h/t if a pressurized phase separator is used. - Abstract: Liquid Air Energy Storage systems represent a sustainable solution to store energy. Although a lot of interest is dedicated to large scale systems (up to 300 tons per day), a small-scale Liquid Air Energy Storage can be used as energy storage as part of a microgrid and/or an energy distribution network. However, when scaling down the size of the system, the round trip efficiency decreases due to the low performance of the liquefaction process. In this paper a preliminary study on the optimal configuration for a microgrid scale liquefaction cycle (10 tons per 12 h) for a Liquid Air Energy Storage application is proposed in order to minimize the specific consumption. The Linde, Claude and Kapitza cycles are modelled and compared by means of a parametric analysis carried out with the software Aspen HYSYS. The results show that the two stages compression Kapitza cycle operating at 40 bar represents an optimal solution in terms of performance and cycle configuration resulting in a specific consumption of about 700 kW h/t. The analysis also shows that the implementation of a pressurized phase separator leads to a reduction of the specific consumption as high as 21% (≈550 kW h/t).

  10. A stochastic self-scheduling program for compressed air energy storage (CAES) of renewable energy sources (RESs) based on a demand response mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghalelou, Afshin Najafi; Fakhri, Alireza Pashaei; Nojavan, Sayyad; Majidi, Majid; Hatami, Hojat

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Optimal stochastic energy management of renewable energy sources (RESs) is proposed. • The compressed air energy storage (CAES) besides RESs is used in the presence of DRP. • Determination charge and discharge of CAES in order to reduce the expected operation cost. • Moreover, demand response program (DRP) is proposed to minimize the operation cost. • The uncertainty modeling of input data are considered in the proposed stochastic framework. - Abstract: In this paper, a stochastic self-scheduling of renewable energy sources (RESs) considering compressed air energy storage (CAES) in the presence of a demand response program (DRP) is proposed. RESs include wind turbine (WT) and photovoltaic (PV) system. Other energy sources are thermal units and CAES. The time-of-use (TOU) rate of DRP is considered in this paper. This DRP shifts the percentage of load from the expensive period to the cheap one in order to flatten the load curve and minimize the operation cost, consequently. The proposed objective function includes minimizing the operation costs of thermal unit and CAES, considering technical and physical constraints. The proposed model is formulated as mixed integer linear programming (MILP) and it is been solved using General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) optimization package. Furthermore, CAES and DRP are incorporated in the stochastic self-scheduling problem by a decision maker to reduce the expected operation cost. Meanwhile, the uncertainty models of market price, load, wind speed, temperature and irradiance are considered in the formulation. Finally, to assess the effects of DRP and CAES on self-scheduling problem, four case studies are utilized, and significant results were obtained, which indicate the validity of the proposed stochastic program.

  11. Optimal bidding in Turkey day ahead electricity market for wind energy and pumped storage hydro power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceyhun Yıldız

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In electrical grid; when the demand power increases energy prices increase, when the demand decreases energy prices decrease. For this reason; to increase the total daily income, it is required to shift generations to the hours that high demand power values occurred. Wind Power Plants (WPP have unstable and uncontrollable generation characteristic. For this reason, energy storage systems are needed to shift the generations of WPPs in time scale. In this study, four wind power plants (WPP which are tied to the Turkish interconnected grid and a pumped hydro storage power plant (PSPP that meets the energy storage requirement of these power plants are investigated in Turkey day ahead energy market. An optimization algorithm is developed using linear programming technique to maximize the day ahead market bids of these plants which are going to generate power together. When incomes and generations of the plants that are operated with optimization strategy is analyzed, it is seen that annual income increased by 2.737% compared with WPPs ‘s alone operation and generations are substantially shifted to the high demand power occurred hours.

  12. 30 CFR 75.1730 - Compressed air; general; compressed air systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compressed air; general; compressed air systems... Compressed air; general; compressed air systems. (a) All pressure vessels shall be constructed, installed... Safety and Health district office. (b) Compressors and compressed-air receivers shall be equipped with...

  13. A new self-scheduling strategy for integrated operation of wind and pumped-storage power plants in power markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varkani, Ali Karimi; Daraeepour, Ali; Monsef, Hassan

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A strategy for integrated operation of wind and pumped-storage plants is proposed. → Participation of both plants in energy and ancillary service markets is modeled. → The uncertainty of wind production is modeled by a novel probabilistic function. → The proposed strategy is tested on a real case in the Spanish electricity market. -- Abstract: Competitive structure of power markets causes various challenges for wind resources to participate in these markets. Indeed, production uncertainty is the main cause of their low income. Thus, they are usually supported by system operators, which is in contrast with the competitive paradigm of power markets. In this paper, a new strategy for increasing the profits of wind resources is proposed. In the suggested strategy, a Generation Company (GenCo), who owns both wind and pumped-storage plants, self-schedules the integrated operation of them regarding the uncertainty of wind power generation. For presenting an integrated self-schedule and obtaining a real added value of the strategy, participation of the GenCo in energy and ancillary service markets is modeled. The self-scheduling strategy is based on stochastic programming techniques. Outputs of the problem include generation offers in day-ahead energy market and ancillary service markets, including spinning and regulation reserve markets. A Neural Network (NN) based technique is used for modeling the uncertainty of wind power production. The proposed strategy is tested on a real wind farm in mainland, Spain. Moreover, added value of the strategy is presented in different conditions of the market.

  14. Measures against the adverse impact of natural wind on air-cooled condensers in power plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The natural wind plays disadvantageous roles in the operation of air-cooled steam condensers in power plant.It is of use to take various measures against the adverse effect of wind for the performance improvement of air-cooled condensers.Based on representative 2×600 MW direct air-cooled power plant,three ways that can arrange and optimize the flow field of cooling air thus enhance the heat transfer of air-cooled condensers were proposed.The physical and mathematical models of air-cooled condensers with various flow leading measures were presented and the flow and temperature fields of cooling air were obtained by CFD simulation.The back pressures of turbine were calculated for different measures on the basis of the heat transfer model of air-cooled condensers.The results show that the performance of air-cooled condensers is improved thus the back pressure of turbine is lowered to some extent by taking measures against the adverse impact of natural wind.

  15. Dosimetry Characterization of the Neutron Fields of the Intermediate Temporary Storage of the Trillo Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campo Blanco, X.

    2015-01-01

    The Neutron Standards Laboratory of CIEMAT, in collaboration with the Trillo Nuclear Power Plant, has conducted a detailed dosimetric and spectrometric characterization of the neutron fields at the Intermediate Temporary Storage of the Trillo Nuclear Power Plant, as well as the neutron fields of ENSA-DPT spent fuel casks. For neutron measurements, neutron monitors and a Bonner spheres spectrometry system have been used. In addition, a Monte Carlo model of the installation and the cask has been developed and validated.

  16. AIRMaster: Compressed air system audit software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, G.M.; Bessey, E.G.; McGill, R.D.; Vischer, K.

    1997-01-01

    The project goal was to develop a software tool, AIRMaster, and a methodology for performing compressed air system audits. AIRMaster and supporting manuals are designed for general auditors or plant personnel to evaluate compressed air system operation with simple instrumentation during a short-term audit. AIRMaster provides a systematic approach to compressed air system audits, analyzing collected data, and reporting results. AIRMaster focuses on inexpensive Operation and Maintenance (O and M) measures, such as fixing air leaks and improving controls that can significantly improve performance and reliability of the compressed air system, without significant risk to production. An experienced auditor can perform an audit, analyze collected data, and produce results in 2--3 days. AIRMaster reduces the cost of an audit, thus freeing funds to implement recommendations. The AIRMaster package includes an Audit Manual, Software and User's manual, Analysis Methodology Manual, and a Case Studies summary report. It also includes a Self-Guided Tour booklet to help users quickly screen a plant for efficiency improvement potentials, and an Industrial Compressed Air Systems Energy Efficiency Guidebook. AIRMaster proved to be a fast and effective audit tool. In sever audits AIRMaster identified energy savings of 4,056,000 kWh, or 49.2% of annual compressor energy use, for a cost savings of $152,000. Total implementation costs were $94,700 for a project payback period of 0.6 years. Available airflow increased between 11% and 51% of plant compressor capacity, leading to potential capital benefits from 40% to 230% of first year energy savings

  17. Recent advances in prediction of emission of hazardous air pollutants from coal-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senior, C.L.; Helble, J.J.; Sarofim, A.F.

    2000-01-01

    Coal-fired power plants are a primary source of mercury discharge into the atmosphere along with fine particulates containing arsenic, selenium, cadmium, and other hazardous air pollutants. Information regarding the speciation of these toxic metals is necessary to accurately predict their atmospheric transport and fate in the environment. New predictive tools have been developed to allow utilities to better estimate the emissions of toxic metals from coal-fired power plants. These prediction equations are based on fundamental physics and chemistry and can be applied to a wide variety of fuel types and combustion conditions. The models have significantly improved the ability to predict the emissions of air toxic metals in fine particulate and gas-phase mercury. In this study, the models were successfully tested using measured mercury speciation and mass balance information collected from coal-fired power plants

  18. Radiological impact of the storage of solid wastes from coal-fored power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugon, J.; Caries, J.C.; Patellis, A.; Roussel, S.

    1983-01-01

    Solid wastes from the coal-fired power plant of GARDANNE are stared in piles, outside near the unit. The coal contains a high proportion of sulfur, so the storage pile is a very reducing middle. The radium coming from the ore, which is mostly retained in the bottom ashes, could then be solubilized again, by physicochemical processes, leached by the rain and reach the nearest population through the food-chain pathways. Leaching-tests where made with three sampling series. The measurement datas show that only 15% of the 226 Ra can be solved and that the Ra 226 observed concentrations in vegetal samples come mostly from transportation of dust by the wind [fr

  19. Exergy analysis on the irreversibility of rotary air preheater in thermal power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hongyue; Zhao Lingling; Zhou Qiangtai; Xu Zhigao; Kim, Hyung Taek

    2008-01-01

    Energy recovery devices can have a substantial impact on process efficiency and their relevance to the problem of conservation of energy resources is generally recognized to be beyond dispute. One type of such a device, which is commonly used in thermal power plants and air conditioning systems, is the rotary air preheater. A major disadvantage of the rotary air preheater is that there is an unavoidable leakage due to carry over and pressure difference. There are gas streams involved in the heat transfer and mixing processes. There are also irreversibilities, or exergy destruction, due to mixing, pressure losses and temperature gradients. Therefore, the purpose of this research paper is based from the second law of thermodynamics, which is to build up the relationship between the efficiency of the thermal power plant and the total process of irreversibility in the rotary air preheater using exergy analysis. For this, the effects of the variation of the principal design parameters on the rotary air preheater efficiency, the exergy efficiency, and the efficiency of the thermal power plant are examined by changing a number of parameters of rotary air preheater. Furthermore, some conclusions are reached and recommendations are made so as to give insight on designing some optimal parameters

  20. Off-gas and air cleaning systems for accident conditions in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report surveys the design principles and strategies for mitigating the consequences of abnormal events in nuclear power plants by the use of air cleaning systems. Equipment intended for use in design basis accident and severe accident conditions is reviewed, with reference to designs used in IAEA Member States. 93 refs, 48 figs, 23 tabs

  1. Mechanical stability of a salt cavern submitted to rapid pressure variations: Application to the underground storage of natural gas, compressed air and hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djizanne-Djakeun, Hippolyte

    2014-01-01

    Salt caverns used for the underground storage of large volumes of natural gas are in high demand given the ever-increasing energy needs. The storage of renewable energy is also envisaged in these salt caverns for example, storage of compressed air and hydrogen mass storage. In both cases, salt caverns are more solicited than before because they are subject to rapid injection and withdrawal rates. These new operating modes raise new mechanical problems, illustrated in particular by sloughing, and falling of overhanging blocks at cavern wall. Indeed, to the purely mechanical stress related to changes in gas pressure variations, repeated dozens of degrees Celsius of temperature variation are superimposed; causes in particular during withdrawal, additional tensile stresses whom may lead to fractures at cavern wall; whose evolution could be dangerous. The mechanical behavior of rock salt is known: it is elasto-viscoplastic, nonlinear and highly thermo sensitive. The existing rock salt constitutive laws and failures and damages criteria have been used to analyze the behavior of caverns under the effects of these new loading. The study deals with the thermo mechanics of rocks and helps to analyze the effects of these new operations modes on the structural stability of salt caverns. The approach was to firstly design and validate a thermodynamic model of the behavior of gas in the cavern. This model was used to analyze blowout in gas salt cavern. Then, with the thermo mechanical coupling, to analyze the effects of rapid withdrawal, rapid injection and daily cycles on the structural stability of caverns. At the experimental level, we sought the optimal conditions to the occurrence and the development of cracks on a pastille and a block of rock salt. The creep behavior of rock salt specimens in triaxial extension also was analyzed. (author)

  2. Economic impact of latent heat thermal energy storage systems within direct steam generating solar thermal power plants with parabolic troughs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, M.; Johnson, M.; Hübner, S.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Integration of a latent heat thermal energy storage system into a solar direct steam generation power cycle. • Parametric study of solar field and storage size for determination of the optimal layout. • Evaluation of storage impact on the economic performance of the solar thermal power plant. • Economic comparison of new direct steam generation plant layout with state-of-the-art oil plant layout. - Abstract: One possible way to further reduce levelized costs of electricity of concentrated solar thermal energy is to directly use water/steam as the primary heat transfer fluid within a concentrated collector field. This so-called direct steam generation offers the opportunity of higher operating temperatures and better exergy efficiency. A technical challenge of the direct steam generation technology compared to oil-driven power cycles is a competitive storage technology for heat transfer fluids with a phase change. Latent heat thermal energy storages are suitable for storing heat at a constant temperature and can be used for direct steam generation power plants. The calculation of the economic impact of an economically optimized thermal energy storage system, based on a latent heat thermal energy storage system with phase change material, is the main focus of the presented work. To reach that goal, a thermal energy storage system for a direct steam generation power plant with parabolic troughs in the solar field was thermally designed to determine the boundary conditions. This paper discusses the economic impact of the designed thermal energy storage system based on the levelized costs of electricity results, provided via a wide parametric study. A state-of-the-art power cycle with a primary and a secondary heat transfer fluid and a two-tank thermal energy storage is used as a benchmark technology for electricity generation with solar thermal energy. The benchmark and direct steam generation systems are compared to each other, based respectively

  3. Thermal Integration of CO{sub 2} Compression Processes with Coal-Fired Power Plants Equipped with Carbon Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward Levy

    2012-06-29

    Coal-fired power plants, equipped either with oxycombustion or post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture, will require a CO{sub 2} compression system to increase the pressure of the CO{sub 2} to the level needed for sequestration. Most analyses show that CO{sub 2} compression will have a significant effect on parasitic load, will be a major capital cost, and will contribute significantly to reduced unit efficiency. This project used first principle engineering analyses and computer simulations to determine the effects of utilizing compressor waste heat to improve power plant efficiency and increase net power output of coal-fired power plants with carbon capture. This was done for units with post combustion solvent-based CO{sub 2} capture systems and for oxyfired power plants, firing bituminous, PRB and lignite coals. The thermal integration opportunities analyzed for oxycombustion capture are use of compressor waste heat to reheat recirculated flue gas, preheat boiler feedwater and predry high-moisture coals prior to pulverizing the coal. Among the thermal integration opportunities analyzed for post combustion capture systems are use of compressor waste heat and heat recovered from the stripper condenser to regenerate post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture solvent, preheat boiler feedwater and predry high-moisture coals. The overall conclusion from the oxyfuel simulations is that thermal integration of compressor heat has the potential to improve net unit heat rate by up to 8.4 percent, but the actual magnitude of the improvement will depend on the type of heat sink used and to a lesser extent, compressor design and coal rank. The simulations of a unit with a MEA post combustion capture system showed that thermal integration of either compressor heat or stripper condenser heat to preheat boiler feedwater would result in heat rate improvements from 1.20 percent to 4.19 percent. The MEA capture simulations further showed that partial drying of low rank coals, done in combination

  4. Optimization of fog inlet air cooling system for combined cycle power plants using genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehyaei, Mehdi A.; Tahani, Mojtaba; Ahmadi, Pouria; Esfandiari, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    In this research paper, a comprehensive thermodynamic modeling of a combined cycle power plant is first conducted and the effects of gas turbine inlet fogging system on the first and second law efficiencies and net power outputs of combined cycle power plants are investigated. The combined cycle power plant (CCPP) considered for this study consist of a double pressure heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) to utilize the energy of exhaust leaving the gas turbine and produce superheated steam to generate electricity in the Rankine cycle. In order to enhance understanding of this research and come up with optimum performance assessment of the plant, a complete optimization is using a genetic algorithm conducted. In order to achieve this goal, a new objective function is defined for the system optimization including social cost of air pollution for the power generation systems. The objective function is based on the first law efficiency, energy cost and the external social cost of air pollution for an operational system. It is concluded that using inlet air cooling system for the CCPP system and its optimization results in an increase in the average output power, first and second law efficiencies by 17.24%, 3.6% and 3.5%, respectively, for three warm months of year. - Highlights: • To model the combined cycle power plant equipped with fog inlet air cooling method. • To conduct both exergy and economic analyses for better understanding. • To conduct a complete optimization using a genetic algorithm to determine the optimal design parameters of the system

  5. Plant for compacting compressible radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baatz, H.; Rittscher, D.; Lueer, H.J.; Ambros, R.

    1983-01-01

    The waste is filled into auxiliary barrels made of sheet steel and compressed with the auxiliary barrels into steel jackets. These can be stacked in storage barrels. A hydraulic press is included in the plant, which has a horizontal compression chamber and a horizontal pressure piston, which works against a counter bearing slider. There is a filling and emptying device for the pressure chamber behind the counter bearing slider. The auxiliary barrels can be introduced into the compression chamber by the filling and emptying device. The pressure piston also pushes out the steel jackets formed, so that they are taken to the filling and emptying device. (orig./HP) [de

  6. Inventory of future power and heat production technologies. Partial report Energy storage; Inventering av framtidens el- och vaermeproduktionstekniker. Delrapport Energilagring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messing, Lars; Lindahl, Sture (Gothia Power AB, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    In this report a survey of different techniques for storage of electrical energy. The following alternatives are described regarding method, characteristics, potential and economy. Batteries; Capacitors; Flywheels; Pump storage hydro power plants; Hydrogen gas generation; Air compression. Regarding evaluation of methods for storage of electrical energy. Battery storage: The development of Lithium-ion batteries are of great interest. In the present situation it is however difficult of classify battery storage as a good alternation in applications with frequent re-charging cycles and re-charging of large energy volumes. The batteries have limited life length compared to other alternatives. Also the power is limited at charging and discharging. Energy storage in capacitors: 'Super-capacitors' having large power capacity is considered to be of interest in applications where fast control of power is necessary. The ongoing development of based on carbon-nanotubes will increase the energy storage capacity compared with the today existing super-capacitors. This can in the future be an alternative to battery storage. Of further interest is also the idea to combine battery and capacitor based storage to achieve longer life-time of the batteries and faster power control. Flywheel energy storage: The energy storage capacity is relatively limited but power control can be fast. This system can be an alternative to capacitor based energy storage. Pump-storage hydro power plant: This type of energy storage is well suited and proven for time frame up to some days. In the Swedish power system there is today not any large demand of energy storage in this time frame as there is a large capacity in conventional hydro power plants with storage capacity. Pump-storage can however be of interest in the southern part of Sweden. In some operation stages the grid is loaded up to its limit due to large power transmission from the north. The pump-storage can reduce this power transfer

  7. Inventory of future power and heat production technologies. Partial report Energy storage; Inventering av framtidens el- och vaermeproduktionstekniker. Delrapport Energilagring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messing, Lars; Lindahl, Sture [Gothia Power AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2008-12-15

    In this report a survey of different techniques for storage of electrical energy. The following alternatives are described regarding method, characteristics, potential and economy. Batteries; Capacitors; Flywheels; Pump storage hydro power plants; Hydrogen gas generation; Air compression. Regarding evaluation of methods for storage of electrical energy. Battery storage: The development of Lithium-ion batteries are of great interest. In the present situation it is however difficult of classify battery storage as a good alternation in applications with frequent re-charging cycles and re-charging of large energy volumes. The batteries have limited life length compared to other alternatives. Also the power is limited at charging and discharging. Energy storage in capacitors: 'Super-capacitors' having large power capacity is considered to be of interest in applications where fast control of power is necessary. The ongoing development of based on carbon-nanotubes will increase the energy storage capacity compared with the today existing super-capacitors. This can in the future be an alternative to battery storage. Of further interest is also the idea to combine battery and capacitor based storage to achieve longer life-time of the batteries and faster power control. Flywheel energy storage: The energy storage capacity is relatively limited but power control can be fast. This system can be an alternative to capacitor based energy storage. Pump-storage hydro power plant: This type of energy storage is well suited and proven for time frame up to some days. In the Swedish power system there is today not any large demand of energy storage in this time frame as there is a large capacity in conventional hydro power plants with storage capacity. Pump-storage can however be of interest in the southern part of Sweden. In some operation stages the grid is loaded up to its limit due to large power transmission from the north. The pump-storage can reduce this power transfer during

  8. A study of air-operated valves in U.S. nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothberg, O. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Khericha, S. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Watkins, J. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Holbrook, M. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2000-02-01

    A study of air-operated valves in nuclear power plant applications was conducted for the NRC Office of Research (the project was initiated by NRC/AEOD). The results of the study were based on visits to seven nuclear power plant sites, literature studies, and examinations of event records in databases available to the NRC. The purpose is to provide information to the NRC staff concerning capabilities and performance of air-operated valves (AOVs). Descriptions of air systems and AOVs were studied along with the support systems and equipment. Systems and equipment that contain AOVs and SOVs were studied to determine their dependencies. Applications of AOVs and SOVs were listed along with current NRC requirements.

  9. A study of air-operated valves in U.S. nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothberg, O.; Khericha, S.; Watkins, J.; Holbrook, M.

    2000-01-01

    A study of air-operated valves in nuclear power plant applications was conducted for the NRC Office of Research (the project was initiated by NRC/AEOD). The results of the study were based on visits to seven nuclear power plant sites, literature studies, and examinations of event records in databases available to the NRC. The purpose is to provide information to the NRC staff concerning capabilities and performance of air-operated valves (AOVs). Descriptions of air systems and AOVs were studied along with the support systems and equipment. Systems and equipment that contain AOVs and SOVs were studied to determine their dependencies. Applications of AOVs and SOVs were listed along with current NRC requirements.

  10. Hazardous air pollutants emission from coal and oil-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deepak Pudasainee; Jeong-Hun Kim; Sang-Hyeob Lee; Ju-Myon Park; Ha-Na Jang; Geum-Ju Song; Yong-Chil Seo [Yonsei University, Wonju (Republic of Korea). Department of Environmental Engineering

    2010-03-15

    Hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) emission characteristics from coal (anthracite, bituminous) and oil-fired power plants were studied in order to control pollutants by formulating US maximum achievable control technology (MACT)-like regulation in Korea. Sampling and analysis were carried out according to either Korean standard test method or US EPA method. Relatively lower levels of NOx and SOx were emitted from plants burning bituminous than the anthracite coal. Less dust was emitted from oil-fired power plants. Mercury, lead, and chromium were dominant in coal-fired power plants, following which, nickel and chromium were emitted from oil-fired power plants. The major volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from coal-fired plants were 1,2-dichloroethane, benzene, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, trichloro-ethylene. The emission of mercury and other heavy metals in flue gas was attributed to fuel types, operating conditions, residence time in the control devices and the type of air pollution control devices. After emission tests in the field and on analysis of the continuous emission monitoring data collected from facilities under operation and consideration of other various factors, management guidelines will be suggested with special reference to US MACT-like regulation.

  11. RWE clean coal programme - IGCC power plant with CO{sub 2} capture & storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, K.-J.; Ewers, J.; Renzenbrink, W. [RWE Power AG, Essen (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    In early 2006, RWE Power announced it was building a 450 MW gross commercial IGCC power plant with carbon capture. This paper sums up the key results of the project development phase concerning the IGCC power plant and shows the basis for the feasibility phase of the project. 10 figs.

  12. Modelling the dynamics of the cogeneration power plant gas-air duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Аnatoliy N. Bundyuk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducing into wide practice the cogeneration power plants (or CHP is one of promising directions of the Ukrainian small-scale power engineering development. Thermal and electric energy generation using the same fuel kind can increase the overall plant efficiency. That makes it appropriate to use CHPs at compact residential areas, isolated industrial enterprises constituting one complex with staff housing area, at sports complexes, etc. The gas-air duct of the cogeneration power plant has been considered as an object of the diesel-generator shaft velocity control. The developed GAD mathematical model, served to analyze the CHP dynamic characteristics as acceleration curves obtained under different external disturbances in the MathWorks MATLAB environment. According to the electric power generation technology requirements a convenient transition process type has been selected, with subsequent identification of the diesel-generator shaft rotation speed control law.

  13. Design of a Hydraulic Motor System Driven by Compressed Air

    OpenAIRE

    Shaw, Dein; Yu, Jyun-Jhe; Chieh, Cheng

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a highly efficient pneumatic motor system. The air engine is currently the most generally used device to convert potential energy of compressed air into mechanical energy. However, the efficiency of the air engines is too low to provide sufficient operating range for the vehicle. In this study, the energy contained in compressed air/pressurized hydraulic oil is transformed by a hydraulic motor to mechanical energy to enhance the efficiency of using air power....

  14. Optimal Operation and Value Evaluation of Pumped Storage Power Plants Considering Spot Market Trading and Uncertainty of Bilateral Demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kenta; Hara, Ryoichi; Kita, Hiroyuki; Hasegawa, Jun

    In recent years, as the deregulation in electric power industry has advanced in many countries, a spot market trading of electricity has been done. Generation companies are allowed to purchase the electricity through the electric power market and supply electric power for their bilateral customers. Under this circumstance, it is important for the generation companies to procure the required electricity with cheaper cost to increase their profit. The market price is volatile since it is determined by bidding between buyer and seller. The pumped storage power plant, one of the storage facilities is promising against such volatile market price since it can produce a profit by purchasing electricity with lower-price and selling it with higher-price. This paper discusses the optimal operation of the pumped storage power plants considering bidding strategy to an uncertain spot market. The volatilities in market price and demand are represented by the Vasicek model in our estimation. This paper also discusses the allocation of operational reserve to the pumped storage power plant.

  15. Conceptual design of an interim dry storage system for the Atucha nuclear power plant spent fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassini, Horacio E.P.; Fuenzalida Troyano, C.S.; Bevilacqua, Arturo M.; Bergallo, Juan E.

    2005-01-01

    The Atucha I nuclear power station, after completing the rearrangement and consolidation of the spent fuels in the two existing interim wet storage pools, will have enough room for the storage of spent fuel from the operation of the reactor till December 2014. If the operation is extended beyond 2014, or if the reactor is decommissioned, it will be necessary to empty both pools and to transfer the spent fuels to a dry storage facility. This paper shows the progress achieved in the conceptual design of a dry storage system for Atucha I spent fuels, which also has to be adequate, without modifications, for the storage of fuels from the second unity of the nuclear power station, Atucha II, that is now under construction. (author) [es

  16. Definition, analysis and experimental investigation of operation modes in hydrogen-renewable-based power plants incorporating hybrid energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valverde, L.; Pino, F.J.; Guerra, J.; Rosa, F.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A conceptual analysis of operation modes in energy storage plants is presented. • Key Performance Indicators to select operation modes are provided. • The approach has been applied to a laboratory hybrid power plant. • The methodology provides guidance for the operation of hybrid power plants. - Abstract: This paper is concerned with Operating Modes in hybrid renewable energy-based power plants with hydrogen as the intermediate energy storage medium. Six operation modes are defined according to plant topology and the possibility of operating electrolyzer and fuel cell at steady-power or partial load. A methodology for the evaluation of plant performance is presented throughout this paper. The approach includes a set of simulations over a fully validated model, which are run in order to compare the proposed operation modes in various weather conditions. Conclusions are drawn from the simulation stage using a set of Key Performance Indicators defined in this paper. This analysis yields the conclusion that certain modes are more appropriate from technical and practical standpoints when they are implemented in a real plant. From the results of the simulation assessment, selected operating modes are applied to an experimental hydrogen-based pilot plant to illustrate and validate the performance of the proposed operation modes. Experimental results confirmed the simulation study, pointing out the advantages and disadvantages of each operation mode in terms of performance and equipment durability.

  17. Compressed Air Production Using Vehicle Suspension

    OpenAIRE

    Ninad Arun Malpure; Sanket Nandlal Bhansali

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Generally compressed air is produced using different types of air compressors which consumes lot of electric energy and is noisy. In this paper an innovative idea is put forth for production of compressed air using movement of vehicle suspension which normal is wasted. The conversion of the force energy into the compressed air is carried out by the mechanism which consists of the vehicle suspension system hydraulic cylinder Non-return valve air compressor and air receiver. We are co...

  18. Analysis of combustion turbine inlet air cooling systems applied to an operating cogeneration power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacartegui, R.; Jimenez-Espadafor, F.; Sanchez, D.; Sanchez, T.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, combustion turbine inlet air cooling (CTIAC) systems are analyzed from an economic outlook, their effects on the global performance parameters and the economic results of the power plant. The study has been carried out on a combined cogeneration system, composed of a General Electric PG 6541 gas turbine and a heat recovery steam generator. The work has been divided into three parts. First, a revision of the present CTIAC technologies is shown, their effects on power plant performance and evaluation of the associated investment and maintenance costs. In a second phase of the work, the cogeneration plant was modelled with the objective of evaluating the power increase and the effects on the generated steam and the thermal oil. The cogeneration power plant model was developed, departing from the recorded operational data of the plant in 2005 and the gas turbine model offered by General Electric, to take into consideration that, in 2000, the gas turbine had been remodelled and the original performance curves should be corrected. The final objective of this model was to express the power plant main variables as a function of the gas turbine intake temperature, pressure and relative humidity. Finally, this model was applied to analyze the economic interest of different intake cooling systems, in different operative ranges and with different cooling capacities

  19. Improving compressed air system performance: A sourcebook for industry

    OpenAIRE

    Mckane, Aimee T.

    2003-01-01

    Compressed air is used widely throughout industry and is often considered the "fourth utility" at many facilities. Almost every industrial plant, from a small machine shop to an immense pulp and paper mill, has some type of compressed air system. In many cases, the compressed air system is so vital that the facility cannot operate without it. Plant air compressor systems can vary in size from a small unit of 5 horsepower (hp) to huge systems with more than 50,000 hp. In many industrial facili...

  20. Interim spent-fuel storage options at commercial nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakkar, A.R.; Hylko, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    Although spent fuel can be stored safely in waterfilled pools at reactor sites, some utilities may not possess sufficient space for life-of-plant storage capability. In-pool storage capability may be increased by reracking assemblies, rod consolidation, double tiering spent-fuel racks, and by shipping spent fuel to other utility-owned facilities. Long-term on-site storage capability for spent fuel may be provided by installing (dry-type) metal casks, storage and transportation casks, concrete casks, horizontal concrete modules, modular concrete vaults, or by constructing additional (pool-type) storage installations. Experience to date has provided valuable information regarding dry-type or pool-type installations, cask handling and staffing requirements, security features, decommissioning activities, and radiological issues

  1. Hydroelectric Power Plants Dobsina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majercak, V.; Srenkelova, Z.; Kristak, J.G.

    1997-01-01

    In this brochure the Hydroelectric Power Plants Dobsina, (VED), subsidiary of the utility Slovenske Elektrarne, a.s. (Slovak Electric, plc. Bratislava) are presented. VED is mainly aimed at generating peak-load electrical energy and maintenance of operational equipment. Reaching its goals, company is first of all focused on reliability of production, economy and effectiveness, keeping principles of work safety and industry safety standards and also ecology. VED operates eight hydroelectric power plants, from which PVE Ruzin I and PVE Dobsina I are pump storage ones and they are controlled directly by the Slovak Energy Dispatch Centre located in Zilina thought the system LS 3200. Those power plants participate in secondary regulation of electrical network of Slovakia. They are used to compensate balance in reference to foreign electrical networks and they are put into operation independently from VED. Activity of the branch is focused mainly on support of fulfilment of such an important aim as electric network regulation. Beginnings of the subsidiary Hydroelectric Power Plants Dobsina are related to the year of 1948. After commissioning of the pump storage Hydroelectric Power Plants Dobsina in 1953, the plant started to carry out its mission. Since that time the subsidiary has been enlarged by other seven power plants, through which it is fulfilling its missions nowadays. The characteristics of these hydroelectric power plants (The pump-storage power plant Dobsina, Small hydroelectric power plant Dobsina II, Small hydroelectric power plant Rakovec, Small hydroelectric power plant Svedlar, Hydroelectric power plant Domasa, The pump-storage power plant Ruzin, and Small hydroelectric power plant Krompachy) are described in detail. Employees welfare and public relations are presented

  2. Economic study on compressed energy storage cogeneration system in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Youji

    1991-01-01

    Due to the concentration of functions into cities and the spread of room cooling facilities, the energy demand in cities increased rapidly especially in summer season. The improvement of load factor of electric power has become an important subject for electric power companies, and as the technology for positively improving it, there is electric power storage. As for compressed air energy storage (CAES) system, its introduction, has been investigated as the electric power storage technology for the future in electric power business, but since it is also gas turbine technology, it becomes a cogeneration system. If the waste heat of gas turbines and compressors can be utilized effectively, not only the load factor of electric power is improved, but also it contributes to the improvement of overall energy efficiency and the improvement of environmental problems. This research is to study on the feasibility of compressed air energy storage centering around its economical efficiency when it is installed in customer side as the cogeneration system in cities. The features of CAES, the tendency of the development in Japan and foreign countries, the introduction of CAES in new town districts and the economy are described. (K.I.)

  3. Ventilation and air-conditioning system for PWR nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmoto, Kenji

    1987-01-01

    This report outlines the ventilation and air conditioning facilities for PWR nuclear power plant as well as design re-evaluation and optimization of ventilation and air-conditioning. The primary PWR installations are generally housed in the nuclear reactor building, auxiliary buildings and control building, which are equipped with their own ventilation and air-conditioning systems to serve for their specific purposes. A ventilation/air-conditioning system should be able to work effectively not only for maintaining the ordinary reactor operation but also for controlling the environmental temperature in the event of an accident. Designing of a ventilation/air-conditioning system relied on empirical data in the past, but currently it is performed based on information obtained from various analyses to optimize the system configuration and ventilation capacity. Design re-evaluation of ventilation/air-conditioning systems are conducted widely in various areas, aiming at the integration of safety systems, optimum combination of air-cooling and water-cooling systems, and optimization of the ventilation rate for controlling the concentrations of radioactive substances in the atmosphere in the facilities. It is pointed out that performance evaluation of ventilation/air-conditioning systems, which has been conducted rather macroscopically, should be carried out more in detal in the future to determine optimum air streams and temperature distribution. (Nogami, K.)

  4. Economic Optimization of a Concentrating Solar Power Plant with Molten-salt Thermocline Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Flueckiger, S. M.; Iverson, B. D.; Garimella, S V

    2014-01-01

    System-level simulation of a molten-salt thermocline tank is undertaken in response to year-long historical weather data and corresponding plant control. Such a simulation is enabled by combining a finite-volume model of the tank that includes a sufficiently faithful representation at low computation cost with a system-level power tower plant model. Annual plant performance of a 100 MWe molten-salt power tower plant is optimized as a function of the thermocline tank size and the plant solar m...

  5. Determination of technical and economic parameters of an ionic transport membrane air separation unit working in a supercritical power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotowicz Janusz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an air separation unit was analyzed. The unit consisted of: an ionic transport membrane contained in a four-end type module, an air compressor, an expander fed by gas that remains after oxygen separation and heat exchangers which heat the air and recirculated flue gas to the membrane operating temperature (850 °C. The air separation unit works in a power plant with electrical power equal to 600 MW. This power plant additionally consists of: an oxy-type pulverized-fuel boiler, a steam turbine unit and a carbon dioxide capture unit. Life steam parameters are 30 MPa/650 °C and reheated steam parameters are 6 MPa/670 °C. The listed units were analyzed. For constant electrical power of the power plant technical parameters of the air separation unit for two oxygen recovery rate (65% and 95% were determined. One of such parameters is ionic membrane surface area. In this paper the formulated equation is presented. The remaining technical parameters of the air separation unit are, among others: heat exchange surface area, power of the air compressor, power of the expander and auxiliary power. Using the listed quantities, the economic parameters, such as costs of air separation unit and of individual components were determined. These quantities allowed to determine investment costs of construction of the air separation unit. In addition, they were compared with investment costs for the entire oxy-type power plant.

  6. An Experimental Investigation On Minimum Compressive Strength Of Early Age Concrete To Prevent Frost Damage For Nuclear Power Plant Structures In Cold Climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Kyungtaek; Kim, Dogyeum; Park, Chunjin; Ryu, Gumsung; Park, Jungjun; Lee, Janghwa

    2013-01-01

    Concrete undergoing early frost damage in cold weather will experience significant loss of not only strength, but also of permeability and durability. Accordingly, concrete codes like ACI-306R prescribe a minimum compressive strength and duration of curing to prevent frost damage at an early age and secure the quality of concrete. Such minimum compressive strength and duration of curing are mostly defined based on the strength development of concrete. However, concrete subjected to frost damage at early age may not show a consistent relationship between its strength and durability. Especially, since durability of concrete is of utmost importance in nuclear power plant structures, this relationship should be imperatively clarified. Therefore, this study verifies the feasibility of the minimum compressive strength specified in the codes like ACI-306R by evaluating the strength development and the durability preventing the frost damage of early age concrete for nuclear power plant. The results indicate that the value of 5 MPa specified by the concrete standards like ACI-306R as the minimum compressive strength to prevent the early frost damage is reasonable in terms of the strength development, but seems to be inappropriate in the viewpoint of the resistance to chloride ion penetration and freeze-thaw. Consequently, it is recommended to propose a minimum compressive strength preventing early frost damage in terms of not only the strength development, but also in terms of the durability to secure the quality of concrete for nuclear power plants in cold climates

  7. An Experimental Investigation On Minimum Compressive Strength Of Early Age Concrete To Prevent Frost Damage For Nuclear Power Plant Structures In Cold Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Kyungtaek; Kim, Dogyeum; Park, Chunjin; Ryu, Gumsung; Park, Jungjun; Lee, Janghwa [Korea Institute Construction Technology, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    Concrete undergoing early frost damage in cold weather will experience significant loss of not only strength, but also of permeability and durability. Accordingly, concrete codes like ACI-306R prescribe a minimum compressive strength and duration of curing to prevent frost damage at an early age and secure the quality of concrete. Such minimum compressive strength and duration of curing are mostly defined based on the strength development of concrete. However, concrete subjected to frost damage at early age may not show a consistent relationship between its strength and durability. Especially, since durability of concrete is of utmost importance in nuclear power plant structures, this relationship should be imperatively clarified. Therefore, this study verifies the feasibility of the minimum compressive strength specified in the codes like ACI-306R by evaluating the strength development and the durability preventing the frost damage of early age concrete for nuclear power plant. The results indicate that the value of 5 MPa specified by the concrete standards like ACI-306R as the minimum compressive strength to prevent the early frost damage is reasonable in terms of the strength development, but seems to be inappropriate in the viewpoint of the resistance to chloride ion penetration and freeze-thaw. Consequently, it is recommended to propose a minimum compressive strength preventing early frost damage in terms of not only the strength development, but also in terms of the durability to secure the quality of concrete for nuclear power plants in cold climates.

  8. A contribution to water hammer analysis in pumped-storage power plants; Ein Beitrag zur Druckstossberechnung von Pumpspeicheranlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeller, Stefan; Jaberg, Helmut [TU Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Hydraulische Stroemungsmaschinen

    2013-03-01

    The operation of pumped-storage power plants induces a highly transient fluid flow in the penstock of high head water power plants. In the planning phase a reliable prediction of the transient plant behaviour in unsteady load cases such as e.g. machine start or switching load cases is necessary. Numerical simulation methods provide a tool to calculate the occurring pressure pulsations or mass oscillations as well as for the optimization of the transient behaviour. Commercial software-packages for water hammer simulations usually do not provide numerical models for a realistic calculation of complex components like surge tanks, turbines or emergency closing valves in a high head water power plant. But especially these components need to be modelled correctly in order to get a significant and reliable solution. This article shows the practice ofthe development of a custom-designed numerical model on the example of a pump turbine. (orig.)

  9. The use of historical data storage and retrieval systems at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langen, P.A.

    1984-01-01

    In order to assist the nuclear plant operator in the assessment of useful historical plant information, C-E has developed the Historical Data Storage and Retrieval (HDSR) system, which will record, store, recall, and display historical information as it is needed by plant personnel. The system has been designed to respond to the user's needs under a variety of situations. The user is offered the choice of viewing historical data on color video displays as groups or on computer printouts as logs. The graphical representation is based upon a sectoring concept that provides a zoom-in enlargement of sections of the HDSR graphs

  10. Storage the electric power: yes, it is indispensable and it is possible. Why, where, how

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This document describes the main characteristics of various electric power storage methods and their application domains. The large-scale storages include the hydraulic systems, those using compressed air, the batteries or those implementing a thermal way. The small-scale storages are electrochemical as the accumulators, the super-capacitors, mechanical as the flywheel, magnetic or also by the hydrogen use. The first part presents the necessity of the electric power storage, the second part the places of these storage. The third part details the forms of storage. (A.L.B.)

  11. Strategies for Financing Large-scale Carbon Capture and Storage Power Plants in China

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, X.; Liu, H.; Reiner, D.

    2014-01-01

    Building on previous stakeholder consultations from 2006 to 2010, we conduct a financial analysis for a generic CCS power plant in China. In comparison with conventional thermal generation technologies, a coal-fired power plant with CCS requires either a 70% higher on-grid electricity tariff or carbon price support of approximately US$50/tonne CO2 in the absence of any other incentive mechanisms or financing strategies. Given the difficulties of relying on any one single measure to finance a ...

  12. Working characteristics of variable intake valve in compressed air engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qihui; Shi, Yan; Cai, Maolin

    2014-01-01

    A new camless compressed air engine is proposed, which can make the compressed air energy reasonably distributed. Through analysis of the camless compressed air engine, a mathematical model of the working processes was set up. Using the software MATLAB/Simulink for simulation, the pressure, temperature, and air mass of the cylinder were obtained. In order to verify the accuracy of the mathematical model, the experiments were conducted. Moreover, performance analysis was introduced to design compressed air engine. Results show that, firstly, the simulation results have good consistency with the experimental results. Secondly, under different intake pressures, the highest output power is obtained when the crank speed reaches 500 rpm, which also provides the maximum output torque. Finally, higher energy utilization efficiency can be obtained at the lower speed, intake pressure, and valve duration angle. This research can refer to the design of the camless valve of compressed air engine.

  13. Working Characteristics of Variable Intake Valve in Compressed Air Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qihui; Shi, Yan; Cai, Maolin

    2014-01-01

    A new camless compressed air engine is proposed, which can make the compressed air energy reasonably distributed. Through analysis of the camless compressed air engine, a mathematical model of the working processes was set up. Using the software MATLAB/Simulink for simulation, the pressure, temperature, and air mass of the cylinder were obtained. In order to verify the accuracy of the mathematical model, the experiments were conducted. Moreover, performance analysis was introduced to design compressed air engine. Results show that, firstly, the simulation results have good consistency with the experimental results. Secondly, under different intake pressures, the highest output power is obtained when the crank speed reaches 500 rpm, which also provides the maximum output torque. Finally, higher energy utilization efficiency can be obtained at the lower speed, intake pressure, and valve duration angle. This research can refer to the design of the camless valve of compressed air engine. PMID:25379536

  14. Working Characteristics of Variable Intake Valve in Compressed Air Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qihui Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new camless compressed air engine is proposed, which can make the compressed air energy reasonably distributed. Through analysis of the camless compressed air engine, a mathematical model of the working processes was set up. Using the software MATLAB/Simulink for simulation, the pressure, temperature, and air mass of the cylinder were obtained. In order to verify the accuracy of the mathematical model, the experiments were conducted. Moreover, performance analysis was introduced to design compressed air engine. Results show that, firstly, the simulation results have good consistency with the experimental results. Secondly, under different intake pressures, the highest output power is obtained when the crank speed reaches 500 rpm, which also provides the maximum output torque. Finally, higher energy utilization efficiency can be obtained at the lower speed, intake pressure, and valve duration angle. This research can refer to the design of the camless valve of compressed air engine.

  15. Integration optimisation of elevated pressure air separation unit with gas turbine in an IGCC power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Long; Deng, Guangyi; Li, Zheng; Wang, Qinhui; Ileleji, Klein E.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • IGCC thermodynamic model was setup carefully. • Simulations focus on integration between an elevated pressure ASU with gas turbine. • Different recommended solutions from those of low pressure ASUs are figured out. • Full N 2 injection and 80% air extraction was suggested as the optimum integration. - Abstract: The integration optimisation between an elevated pressure air separation unit (EP-ASU) and gas turbine is beneficial to promote net efficiency of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant. This study sets up the thermodynamic model for a 400 MW plant specially coupled with an EP-ASU, aiming to examine system performances under different integrations and acquire the optimum solution. Influences of air extraction rate at conditions of without, partial and full N 2 injection, as well as the effects of N 2 injection rate when adopting separate ASU, partial and full integrated ASU were both analysed. Special attention has been paid to performance differences between utilising an EP-ASU and a low pressure unit. Results indicated that integration solution with a separate EP-ASU or without N 2 injection would not be reasonable. Among various recommended solutions for different integration conditions, N 2 injection rate increased with the growth of air extraction rate. The integration with an air extraction rate of 80% and full N 2 injection was suggested as the optimum solution. It is concluded that the optimum integration solution when adopting an EP-ASU is different from that using a low pressure one.

  16. Heat Transfer and Latent Heat Storage in Inorganic Molten Salts for Concentrating Solar Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathur, Anoop [Terrafore Inc.

    2013-08-14

    A key technological issue facing the success of future Concentrating Solar Thermal Power (CSP) plants is creating an economical Thermal Energy Storage (TES) system. Current TES systems use either sensible heat in fluids such as oil, or molten salts, or use thermal stratification in a dual-media consisting of a solid and a heat-transfer fluid. However, utilizing the heat of fusion in inorganic molten salt mixtures in addition to sensible heat , as in a Phase change material (PCM)-based TES, can significantly increase the energy density of storage requiring less salt and smaller containers. A major issue that is preventing the commercial use of PCM-based TES is that it is difficult to discharge the latent heat stored in the PCM melt. This is because when heat is extracted, the melt solidifies onto the heat exchanger surface decreasing the heat transfer. Even a few millimeters of thickness of solid material on heat transfer surface results in a large drop in heat transfer due to the low thermal conductivity of solid PCM. Thus, to maintain the desired heat rate, the heat exchange area must be large which increases cost. This project demonstrated that the heat transfer coefficient can be increase ten-fold by using forced convection by pumping a hyper-eutectic salt mixture over specially coated heat exchanger tubes. However,only 15% of the latent heat is used against a goal of 40% resulting in a projected cost savings of only 17% against a goal of 30%. Based on the failure mode effect analysis and experience with pumping salt at near freezing point significant care must be used during operation which can increase the operating costs. Therefore, we conclude the savings are marginal to justify using this concept for PCM-TES over a two-tank TES. The report documents the specialty coatings, the composition and morphology of hypereutectic salt mixtures and the results from the experiment conducted with the active heat exchanger along with the lessons learnt during

  17. Ideal Operation of a Photovoltaic Power Plant Equipped with an Energy Storage System on Electricity Market

    OpenAIRE

    Markku Järvelä; Seppo Valkealahti

    2017-01-01

    There is no natural inertia in a photovoltaic (PV) generator and changes in irradiation can be seen immediately at the output power. Moving cloud shadows are the dominant reason for fast PV power fluctuations taking place typically within a minute between 20 to 100% of the clear sky value roughly 100 times a day, on average. Therefore, operating a utility scale grid connected PV power plant is challenging. Currently, in many regions, renewable energy sources such as solar and wind receive fee...

  18. Thermodynamic analysis of a combined-cycle solar thermal power plant with manganese oxide-based thermochemical energy storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Qi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We explore the thermodynamic efficiency of a solar-driven combined cycle power system with manganese oxide-based thermochemical energy storage system. Manganese oxide particles are reduced during the day in an oxygen-lean atmosphere obtained with a fluidized-bed reactor at temperatures in the range of 750–1600°C using concentrated solar energy. Reduced hot particles are stored and re-oxidized during night-time to achieve continuous power plant operation. The steady-state mass and energy conservation equations are solved for all system components to calculate the thermodynamic properties and mass flow rates at all state points in the system, taking into account component irreversibilities. The net power block and overall solar-to-electric energy conversion efficiencies, and the required storage volumes for solids and gases in the storage system are predicted. Preliminary results for a system with 100 MW nominal solar power input at a solar concentration ratio of 3000, designed for constant round-the-clock operation with 8 hours of on-sun and 16 hours of off-sun operation and with manganese oxide particles cycled between 750 and 1600°C yield a net power block efficiency of 60.0% and an overall energy conversion efficiency of 41.3%. Required storage tank sizes for the solids are estimated to be approx. 5–6 times smaller than those of state-of-the-art molten salt systems.

  19. Thermodynamic analysis of a combined-cycle solar thermal power plant with manganese oxide-based thermochemical energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Qi; Bader, Roman; Kreider, Peter; Lovegrove, Keith; Lipiński, Wojciech

    2017-11-01

    We explore the thermodynamic efficiency of a solar-driven combined cycle power system with manganese oxide-based thermochemical energy storage system. Manganese oxide particles are reduced during the day in an oxygen-lean atmosphere obtained with a fluidized-bed reactor at temperatures in the range of 750-1600°C using concentrated solar energy. Reduced hot particles are stored and re-oxidized during night-time to achieve continuous power plant operation. The steady-state mass and energy conservation equations are solved for all system components to calculate the thermodynamic properties and mass flow rates at all state points in the system, taking into account component irreversibilities. The net power block and overall solar-to-electric energy conversion efficiencies, and the required storage volumes for solids and gases in the storage system are predicted. Preliminary results for a system with 100 MW nominal solar power input at a solar concentration ratio of 3000, designed for constant round-the-clock operation with 8 hours of on-sun and 16 hours of off-sun operation and with manganese oxide particles cycled between 750 and 1600°C yield a net power block efficiency of 60.0% and an overall energy conversion efficiency of 41.3%. Required storage tank sizes for the solids are estimated to be approx. 5-6 times smaller than those of state-of-the-art molten salt systems.

  20. Advanced compressed hydrogen fuel storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeary, B.

    2000-01-01

    Dynetek was established in 1991 by a group of private investors, and since that time efforts have been focused on designing, improving, manufacturing and marketing advanced compressed fuel storage systems. The primary market for Dynetek fuel systems has been Natural Gas, however as the automotive industry investigates the possibility of using hydrogen as the fuel source solution in Alternative Energy Vehicles, there is a growing demand for hydrogen storage on -board. Dynetek is striving to meet the needs of the industry, by working towards developing a fuel storage system that will be efficient, economical, lightweight and eventually capable of storing enough hydrogen to match the driving range of the current gasoline fueled vehicles

  1. Hybrid Power Forecasting Model for Photovoltaic Plants Based on Neural Network with Air Quality Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idris Khan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has increased dependency on photovoltaic (PV power, but its random nature poses a challenge for system operators to precisely predict and forecast PV power. The conventional forecasting methods were accurate for clean weather. But when the PV plants worked under heavy haze, the radiation is negatively impacted and thus reducing PV power; therefore, to deal with haze weather, Air Quality Index (AQI is introduced as a parameter to predict PV power. AQI, which is an indication of how polluted the air is, has been known to have a strong correlation with power generated by the PV panels. In this paper, a hybrid method based on the model of conventional back propagation (BP neural network for clear weather and BP AQI model for haze weather is used to forecast PV power with conventional parameters like temperature, wind speed, humidity, solar radiation, and an extra parameter of AQI as input. The results show that the proposed method has less error under haze condition as compared to conventional model of neural network.

  2. [Experimental study on spectra of compressed air microwave plasma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong-Xi; Zhang, Gui-Xin; Wang, Qiang; Hou, Ling-Yun

    2013-03-01

    Using a microwave plasma generator, compressed air microwave plasma was excited under 1 - 5 atm pressures. Under different pressures and different incident microwave power, the emission spectra of compressed air microwave plasma were studied with a spectra measuring system. The results show that continuum is significant at atmospheric pressure and the characteristic will be weakened as the pressure increases. The band spectra intensity will be reduced with the falling of the incident microwave power and the band spectra were still significant. The experimental results are valuable to studying the characteristics of compressed air microwave plasma and the generating conditions of NO active groups.

  3. Mathematical modeling of compression processes in air-driven boosters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zeyu; Zhao Yuanyang; Li Liansheng; Shu Pengcheng

    2007-01-01

    The compressed air in normal pressure is used as the source of power of the air-driven booster. The continuous working of air-driven boosters relies on the difference of surface area between driven piston and driving piston, i.e., the different forces acting on the pistons. When the working surface area of the driving piston for providing power is greater than that of the driven piston for compressing gas, the gas in compression chamber will be compressed. On the basis of the first law of thermodynamics, the motion regulation of piston is analyzed and the mathematical model of compression processes is set up. Giving a calculating example, the vary trends of gas pressure and pistons' move in working process of booster have been gotten. The change of parameters at different working conditions is also calculated and compared. And the corresponding results can be referred in the design of air-driven boosters

  4. Lower operating cost due to compressed-air recirculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schauwecker, F

    1979-01-01

    Compressed air containing dirt and aggressive substances may cause damage in pipelines and pneumatic tools, equipment and systems. In consequence, operating costs can be greatly reduced by cleaning and recirculation of compressed air. Compressed-air driers are among the most common systems used for this purpose. Most of these driers are refrigeration driers; adsorption driers are less common. Refrigeration driers consist of a heat exchanger system, a separation system, and a power-controlled refrigerator. The water vapour concentration is proportional to the air temperature; for this reason, the pressure dew point should be as low as possible, i.e. about 1.5/sup 0/C.

  5. New materials for thermal energy storage in concentrated solar power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, Luis; Collares-Pereira, Manuel

    2016-05-01

    Solar Thermal Electricity (STE) is an important alternative to PV electricity production, not only because it is getting more cost competitive with the continuous growth in installed capacity, engineering and associated innovations, but also, because of its unique dispatch ability advantage as a result of the already well established 2-tank energy storage using molten salts (MS). In recent years, research has been performed, on direct MS systems, to which features like modularity and combinations with other (solid) thermal storage materials are considered with the goal of achieving lower investment cost. Several alternative materials and systems have been studied. In this research, storage materials were identified with thermo-physical data being presented for different rocks (e.g. quartzite), super concrete, and other appropriate solid materials. Among the new materials being proposed like rocks from old quarries, an interesting option is the incorporation of solid waste material from old mines belonging to the Iberian Pyritic Belt. These are currently handled as byproducts of past mine activity, and can potentially constitute an environmental hazard due to their chemical (metal) content. This paper presents these materials, as part of a broad study to improve the current concept of solar energy storage for STE plants, and additionally presents a potentially valuable solution for environmental protection related to re-use of mining waste.

  6. Properties of aerosol floating in the air in a nuclear power plant workplace environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasawa, H.; Funabashi, M.; Ito, M.

    1992-01-01

    An investigation was carried out on properties of radioactive aerosol floating in the air at several workplaces in nuclear power plant. The principal results are as follows: the aerosol particle size distributions consisted of two particle groups, whose aerodynamic diameters ranged from 4 to 7 microns and from 0.4 to 0.6 microns; the radioactive aerosol particle size distribution were unimodal. The mean activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) was 6 microns, with geometric standard deviation microns; and, the average density of the aerosol was about 2.2g/cm 3 . (author)

  7. Licensing of a substantial modification of a nuclear power plant (compact storage)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    1. On the right of the nuclear power plant owners who had been invited to attend and who partly lost in the first instance to appeal (application according to paragraph 5 of sect. 80 of the rules of administrative courts). 2. On the security and economy of power supplies constituting public and private interests which may be brought forward in the appeal by the parties invited to attend. 3. External effects caused by a plane crash, residual risk. (orig.) [de

  8. Air pollution response to changing weather and power plant emissions in the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomer, Bryan Jaye

    Air pollution in the eastern United States causes human sickness and death as well as damage to crops and materials. NOX emission reduction is observed to improve air quality. Effectively reducing pollution in the future requires understanding the connections between smog, precursor emissions, weather, and climate change. Numerical models predict global warming will exacerbate smog over the next 50 years. My analysis of 21 years of CASTNET observations quantifies a climate change penalty. I calculate, for data collected prior to 2002, a climate penalty factor of ˜3.3 ppb O3/°C across the power plant dominated receptor regions in the rural, eastern U.S. Recent reductions in NOX emissions decreased the climate penalty factor to ˜2.2 ppb O3/°C. Prior to 1995, power plant emissions of CO2, SO2, and NOX were estimated with fuel sampling and analysis methods. Currently, emissions are measured with continuous monitoring equipment (CEMS) installed directly in stacks. My comparison of the two methods show CO 2 and SO2 emissions are ˜5% lower when inferred from fuel sampling; greater differences are found for NOX emissions. CEMS are the method of choice for emission inventories and commodity trading and should be the standard against which other methods are evaluated for global greenhouse gas trading policies. I used CEMS data and applied chemistry transport modeling to evaluate improvements in air quality observed by aircraft during the North American electrical blackout of 2003. An air quality model produced substantial reductions in O3, but not as much as observed. The study highlights weaknesses in the model as commonly used for evaluating a single day event and suggests areas for further investigation. A new analysis and visualization method quantifies local-daily to hemispheric-seasonal scale relationships between weather and air pollution, confirming improved air quality despite increasing temperatures across the eastern U.S. Climate penalty factors indicate

  9. Technico-economic evaluation of abatement systems applying to air pollution resulting from coal-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mounier, Marc.

    1981-09-01

    The aim of this study is to contribute to the analysis of the health care policies which could be considered in coal-fired power plants, in the comparative framework of the radiation protection in nuclear power plants. After a recall of the typical parameters of the air pollution due to the normal operation of a coal-fired power plant, we develop a heuristic model which allows, after having quantified the releases, to determine the theoretical health effects associated to a one-year operation of the power plant. The comparison of the various protection policies has been done with the help of a cost-effectiveness analysis. An examination of the results shows that the policy presently implemented forms a part of the cost-effective options. Nevertheless, it can be seen that the marginal protection cost is higher in nuclear power plants than in coal-fired power plants [fr

  10. Analysis to the criticality the storage and containers to the Juragua Nuclear Power Plant Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra Valdes, R.

    1998-01-01

    Presently analysis the criticality the warehouses and containers the nuclear fuels in Juragua nuclear power plant the property multiplicity determined in these system and it is verified that for the geometry and operation conditions defined in the design as well as in accidents situations, the arrangement the fuel stays subcritical with an appropriate margin

  11. Perfecting on floating roof tanks, especially to storage tanks in a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquet, A.

    1987-01-01

    In this invention, the liquid reservoir has a floating roof with a tight connection to its wall by a flexible membrane, forming a space for counterbalancing liquid, and a pressure relief valve for the liquid within the reservoir opening above the counterbalancing liquid. Application for tanks used in nuclear power plant [fr

  12. Comparison of Iran Power Plants Air Pollutants Before and After Shifting to Natural Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ghiasseddin

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available In a three years period, 24 fossil fueled thermal power plants located in different parts of the country were extensively examined for discharge of pollutants into the environment and their potential effects on surrounding. During this investigation emission to air, discharge to receiving waters and land as well as electromagnetic fields were measured using relevant standard methods. This paper will focus on air pollution emissions and recent reinvestigation that was done after shifting the fuel from residual oil to natural gas. In our first studies that most of the plants were consuming residual oil, high level of SO2 emission in some areas was the main cause of losses to vegetations and fruit gardens. It was concluded that a serious problem threats the environment and health of people living near these areas. Based on the results some mitigation plans were recommended to the authorities, and after some times they started to shift to natural gas consumption. Our recent investigation that was after this action, showed a good improvement of air pollution reduction. This was almost 100% for SO2 and from 32 to 73% for NOx.

  13. On-site storage of spent nuclear fuel assemblies in German nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banck, J.

    1999-01-01

    The selection of back-end strategies for spent fuel assemblies is influenced by a number of different factors depending on the given situation in any specific country. In Germany, the back-end strategy implemented in the past was almost exclusively reprocessing. This strategy was required by the German Atomic Energy Act. Since 1994, when the Atomic Energy Act was amended, the option of direct final disposal has been granted the equivalent status by law to that afforded to reprocessing (and reuse of valuable materials). As a result, German utilities may now choose between these two alternatives. Another important condition for optimizing the back-end policy is the fact that fuel cycle costs in Germany are directly dependent on spent fuel volumes (in contrast to the US, for example, such costs are related to the amount of power generated). Another boundary condition for German utilities with respect to spent fuel management is posed by the problems with militant opponents of nuclear energy during transportation of spent fuel to interim storage sites. These facts have given rise to a reconsideration of the fuel cycle back-end, which has resulted in a change in strategy by most German utilities in favour of the following: Preference for long-term storage and maximized use of on-site storage capacity; Reduction in the amount of spent fuel by increasing burnup as much as possible. These decisions have also been driven by the deregulation of energy markets in Europe, where utilities are now permitted to sell electric power to consumers beyond their original supply network and must therefore offer electric power on a very cost competitive basis. (author)

  14. The potential role of natural gas power plants with carbon capture and storage as a bridge to a low-carbon future

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset represents the data underlying the figures presented in the manuscript "The potential role of natural gas power plants with carbon capture and storage...

  15. Numerical Modeling of the Effect of Thawing of Soil in the Area of Placing Tanks for Storage Fuel of Thermal Power Plants and Boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polovnikov V.Yu.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the numerical modeling of heat transfer in the area placing of the tank for storage fuel of thermal power plant and boiler with considering the influence of thawing of the soil. We have established that the thawing of the soil in the area of placing of the tank for storage fuel of thermal power plant and boiler have little effect on the change of heat loss.

  16. Thermal Mode of Tanks for Storage Fuel of Thermal Power Plants and Boiler with the Influence of Engineering Facilities in the Area of their Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polovnikov, V. Yu.; Makhsutbek, F. T.; Ozhikenova, Zh. F.

    2016-02-01

    This paper describes the numerical modeling of heat transfer in the area placing of the tank for storage fuel of thermal power plant and boiler with the influence of engineering construction. We have established that the presence of engineering structures in the area of placing of the tank for storage fuel of thermal power plant and boiler have little effect on the change of heat loss.

  17. Recoil Experiments Using a Compressed Air Cannon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Brett

    2006-01-01

    Ping-Pong vacuum cannons, potato guns, and compressed air cannons are popular and dramatic demonstrations for lecture and lab. Students enjoy them for the spectacle, but they can also be used effectively to teach physics. Recently we have used a student-built compressed air cannon as a laboratory activity to investigate impulse, conservation of…

  18. Rupture of esophagus by compressed air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jie; Tan, Yuyong; Huo, Jirong

    2016-11-01

    Currently, beverages containing compressed air such as cola and champagne are widely used in our daily life. Improper ways to unscrew the bottle, usually by teeth, could lead to an injury, even a rupture of the esophagus. This letter to editor describes a case of esophageal rupture caused by compressed air.

  19. Estimate for interstage water injection in air compressor incorporated into gas-turbine cycles and combined power plants cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kler, A. M.; Zakharov, Yu. B.; Potanina, Yu. M.

    2017-05-01

    The objects of study are the gas turbine (GT) plant and combined cycle power plant (CCPP) with opportunity for injection between the stages of air compressor. The objective of this paper is technical and economy optimization calculations for these classes of plants with water interstage injection. The integrated development environment "System of machine building program" was a tool for creating the mathematic models for these classes of power plants. Optimization calculations with the criterion of minimum for specific capital investment as a function of the unit efficiency have been carried out. For a gas-turbine plant, the economic gain from water injection exists for entire range of power efficiency. For the combined cycle plant, the economic benefit was observed only for a certain range of plant's power efficiency.

  20. A Three-Part Electricity Price Mechanism for Photovoltaic-Battery Energy Storage Power Plants Considering the Power Quality and Ancillary Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajing Gao

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available To solve the problem of solar abandoning, which is accompanied by the rapid development of photovoltaic (PV power generation, a demonstration of a photovoltaic-battery energy storage system (PV-BESS power plant has been constructed in Qinghai province in China. However, it is difficult for the PV-BESS power plant to survive and develop with the current electricity price mechanism and subsidy policy. In this paper, a three-part electricity price mechanism is proposed based on a deep analysis of the construction and operation costs and economic income. The on-grid electricity price is divided into three parts: the capacity price, graded electricity price, and ancillary service price. First, to ensure that the investment of the PV-BESS power plant would achieve the industry benchmark income, the capacity price and benchmark electricity price are calculated using the discounted cash flow method. Then, the graded electricity price is calculated according to the grade of the quality of grid-connected power. Finally, the ancillary service price is calculated based on the graded electricity price and ancillary service compensation. The case studies verify the validity of the three-part electricity price mechanism. The verification shows that the three-part electricity price mechanism can help PV-BESS power plants to obtain good economic returns, which can promote the development of PV-BESS power plants.

  1. Flexible operation of thermal plants with integrated energy storage technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koytsoumpa, Efthymia Ioanna; Bergins, Christian; Kakaras, Emmanouil

    2017-08-01

    The energy system in the EU requires today as well as towards 2030 to 2050 significant amounts of thermal power plants in combination with the continuously increasing share of Renewables Energy Sources (RES) to assure the grid stability and to secure electricity supply as well as to provide heat. The operation of the conventional fleet should be harmonised with the fluctuating renewable energy sources and their intermittent electricity production. Flexible thermal plants should be able to reach their lowest minimum load capabilities while keeping the efficiency drop moderate as well as to increase their ramp up and down rates. A novel approach for integrating energy storage as an evolutionary measure to overcome many of the challenges, which arise from increasing RES and balancing with thermal power is presented. Energy storage technologies such as Power to Fuel, Liquid Air Energy Storage and Batteries are investigated in conjunction with flexible power plants.

  2. Pumping station design for a pumped-storage wind-hydro power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anagnostopoulos, John S.; Papantonis, Dimitris E.

    2007-01-01

    This work presents a numerical study of the optimum sizing and design of a pumping station unit in a hybrid wind-hydro plant. The standard design that consists of a number of identical pumps operating in parallel is examined in comparison with two other configurations, using one variable-speed pump or an additional set of smaller jockey pumps. The aim is to reduce the amount of the wind generated energy that cannot be transformed to hydraulic energy due to power operation limits of the pumps and the resulting step-wise operation of the pumping station. The plant operation for a period of one year is simulated by a comprehensive evaluation algorithm, which also performs a detailed economic analysis of the plant using dynamic evaluation methods. A preliminary study of the entire plant sizing is carried out at first using an optimization tool based on evolutionary algorithms. The performance of the three examined pumping station units is then computed and analyzed in a comparative study. The results reveal that the use of a variable-speed pump constitutes the most effective and profitable solution, and its superiority is more pronounced for less dispersed wind power potential

  3. Energy storage, compression, and switching. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nardi, V.; Bostick, W.H.; Sahlin, H.

    1983-01-01

    This book is a compilation of papers presented at the Second International Conference on Energy Storage, Compression, and Switching, which was held in order to assemble active researchers with a major interest in plasma physics, electron beams, electric and magnetic energy storage systems, high voltage and high current switches, free-electron lasers, and pellet implosion plasma focus. Topics covered include: Slow systems: 50-60 Hz machinery, homopolar generators, slow capacitors, inductors, and solid state switches; Intermediate systems: fast capacitor banks; superconducting storage and switching; gas, vacuum, and dielectric switching; nonlinear (magnetic) switching; imploding liners capacitors; explosive generators; and fuses; and Fast systems: Marx, Blumlein, oil, water, and pressurized water dielectrics; switches; magnetic insulation; electron beams; and plasmas

  4. Effect of air ingress on the energy performance of coal fired thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddhartha Bhatt, M.

    2007-01-01

    Ingress of air in boilers leads to drops in energy efficiency. This paper presents the effects of air ingress in the combustion zone, post-combustion zone and air pre-heater (APH) on the energy efficiency and loading capacity of a coal fired thermal power plant operating on fuel with high ash (35-45%). The optimal O 2 in the flue gas for a pulverized coal fired system is 3.5% (corresponding to 20% excess air). The operating values are in the range of 4.2-6.0% in membrane type boilers and up to 10% in refractory type boilers (after sustained periods of operation). The leakage rate of boilers (up to the entrance of the APH) is designed at 0.2% while the average operating values are 7.25% for membrane type enclosures and 33.61% for refractory enclosures. The leakage rate of the APH is designed at 5.0% while the operating values range from 13.66% to 20.13% for rotary and tubular APHs. When the O 2 in the combustion zone varies from 3.5% to 8.0%, efficiency drops of 2.0% points are experienced in the boiler and turbine separately, and the gross overall efficiency drop is ∼3.0% points. The units do not experience any capacity drop up to an O 2 in the flue gas of 6.0% before the APH. At an O 2 in the flue gas (before APH) of 7.2%, a mild limitation on the unit capacity of around 2-3% is experienced. When O 2 in the flue gas (before APH) reaches a level of 9.0%, 20% capacity drop of the unit is experienced due to which the plant load cannot be raised higher than 80%. Beyond the level of 9.0% (rare occurrence), the unit is quite difficult to operate and has to be taken off for overhaul

  5. Aging of control and service air compressors and dryers used in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moyers, J.C.

    1990-07-01

    This report was produced under the Detection of Defects and Degradation Monitoring of Nuclear Plant Safety Equipment element of the Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program. This element includes the identification of practical and cost-effective methods for detecting, monitoring, and assessing the severity of time-dependent degradation (aging) of control and service air compressors and dryers in nuclear power plants. These methods are to provide capabilities for establishing degradation trends prior to failure and developing guidance for effective maintenance. The topics of this Phase 1 assessment report are failure modes and causes resulting from aging, manufacturer--recommended maintenance and surveillance practices, and measurable parameters (including functional indicators) for use in assessing operational readiness, establishing degradation trends, and detecting incipient failure. the results presented are based on information derived from operating experience records, manufacturer-supplied information, and input from plant operators. For each failure mode, failure causes are listed by subcomponent, and parameters potentially useful for detecting degradation that could lead to failure are identified. 13 refs., 9 figs., 16 tabs

  6. Reducing the Cost of Thermal Energy Storage for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawlik, Keith

    2013-06-25

    Thermal energy storage systems using phase change materials were evaluated for trough systems that use oil, steam, and high temperature salts as heat transfer fluids. A variety of eutectic salts and metal alloys were considered as phase change materials in a cascaded arrangement. Literature values of specific heat, latent heat, density, and other thermophysical properties were used in initial analyses. Testing laboratories were contracted to measure properties for candidate materials for comparison to the literature and for updating the models. A TRNSYS model from Phase 1 was further developed for optimizing the system, including a novel control algorithm. A concept for increasing the bulk thermal conductivity of the phase change system was developed using expanded metal sheets. Outside companies were contracted to design and cost systems using platecoil heat exchangers immersed in the phase change material. Laboratory evaluations of the one-dimensional and three-dimensional behavior of expanded metal sheets in a low conductivity medium were used to optimize the amount of thermal conductivity enhancement. The thermal energy storage systems were compared to baseline conventional systems. The best phase change system found in this project, which was for the high temperature plant, had a projected cost of $25.2 per kWhth, The best system also had a cost that was similar to the base case, a direct two-tank molten salt system.

  7. Numerical analysis of temperature and flow effects in a dry, two-dimensional, porous-media reservoir used for compressed air energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiles, L.E.

    1979-10-01

    The purpose of the work is to define the hydrodynamic and thermodynamic response of a CAES dry porous media reservoir subjected to simulated air mass cycling. The knowledge gained will provide, or will assist in providing, design guidelines for the efficient and stable operation of the air storage reservoir. The analysis and results obtained by two-dimensional modeling of dry reservoirs are presented. While the fluid/thermal response of the underground system is dependent on many parameters, the two-dimensional model was applied only to those parameters that entered the analysis by virtue of inclusion of the vertical dimension. In particular, the parameters or responses that were quantified or characterized include wellbore heat transfer, heat losses to the vertical boundaries of the porous zone, gravitationally induced flows, producing length of the wellbore, and the effects of nonuniform permeability. The analysis of the wellbore heat transfer included consideration of insulation, preheating (bubble development with heated air), and air mass flow rate.

  8. Design of a DCS Based Model for Continuous Leakage Monitoring System of Rotary Air Preheater of a Thermal Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madan BHOWMICK

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The leakage in rotary air preheater makes a considerable contribution to the reduced overall efficiency of fossil-fuel-fired thermal power plants and increase the effect on environment. Since it is normal phenomenon, continuous monitoring of leakage is generally omitted in most power plants. But for accurate analysis of the operation of the thermal power plant, this leakage monitoring plays a vital role. In the present paper, design of a DCS based model for continuous leakages monitoring of rotary air preheater has been described. In the proposed model, the existing DCS based instrumentation system has been modified and online leakage monitoring system has been developed. This model has been installed in a captive power plant with high capacity boilers and very much satisfactory operation of this system has been observed. The observed online data along with their analysis results are presented in this paper.

  9. Soft energy/seawater pumped-storage power plant in Okinawa; Sofuto energy/Okinawa kaisui yosui hatsuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsutsui, S. [Univ. of Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-11-15

    A demonstration seawater pumped-storage power plant which is the first one in the world is under construction in the northern area of Okinawa. The pumped-storage power generation is an electricity recycling system in which the surplus electricity during the night is utilized to pump up water to an upper reservoir to discharge water for power generation during the daytime when demand for electricity increases. It is scheduled that main civil engineering structures are constructed during the year of 1995 to be subjected to trial operation in the following year. Countermeasures to be taken for natural environmental protection during the plant construction are introduced. Countermeasures are devised for environment assessment, muddy water treatment, and prevention of seawater at the upper reservoir. Salinity in the atmosphere is to be measured during the construction work and the demonstration test to evaluate the effects of scattering of salt from the upper reservoir into the atmosphere on the vegetation in the peripheral area and the salt-resistance of vegetation. Sufficient consideration is given to the protection of the existing vegetation and coral, and to the protection of small living creatures. Participants in the construction work are requested to report, for the purpose of taking proper steps, sites, peripheral conditions, and others when precious animals are found. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  10. A Wind Power Plant with Thermal Energy Storage for Improving the Utilization of Wind Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of the wind energy industry is seriously restricted by grid connection issues and wind energy generation rejections introduced by the intermittent nature of wind energy sources. As a solution of these problems, a wind power system integrating with a thermal energy storage (TES system for district heating (DH is designed to make best use of the wind power in the present work. The operation and control of the system are described in detail. A one-dimensional system model of the system is developed based on a generic model library using the object-oriented language Modelica for system modeling. Validations of the main components of the TES module are conducted against experimental results and indicate that the models can be used to simulate the operation of the system. The daily performance of the integrated system is analyzed based on a seven-day operation. And the influences of system configurations on the performance of the integrated system are analyzed. The numerical results show that the integrated system can effectively improve the utilization of total wind energy under great wind power rejection.

  11. Interim storage of spent fuel elements in the Paks Nuclear Power Plant, Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, B.

    1998-01-01

    The interim storage of spent fuel cassettes of the Paks NPP provides storage for 50 years at the Paks NPP site. The modular dry storage technology is presented. The technological design and the licensing of the facility has been made by the GEC Alsthom ESL firm. This storage facility can accommodate 450 fuel cassettes until their final disposal. (R.P.)

  12. Design of off-gas and air cleaning systems at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The primary purpose of this report is to describe the current design of air and process off-gas cleaning technologies used in nuclear power plants (NPPs). Because of the large inventory of fission products that are produced in the fuel (i.e. in the range of 5x10 19 Bq per GW(e)·a) and the highly restrictive airborne radionuclide release limits being established by Member States, air and process off-gas cleaning technologies are constantly being improved to provide higher airborne radionuclide recovery efficiencies and a smaller probability of malfunction. For various technologies considered an attempt has been made to provide the following information: (a) Process description in terms of principles of off-gas and air cleaning, operating parameters and system performance; (b) Design for normal and accident situations; (c) Design of components with regard to construction materials, size, shape and geometry of the system, resistance to chemical and physical degradation from the operational environment, safety and quality assurance requirements

  13. Environmental safety aspects of the new solid radioactive waste management and storage facility at the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragaisis, Valdas; Poskas, Povilas; Simonis, Vytautas; Adomaitis, Jonas Erdvilas [Lithuanian Energy Institute, Kaunas (Lithuania). Nuclear Engineering Lab.

    2011-11-15

    New solid radioactive waste management and interim storage facilities will be constructed for the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant to support ongoing decommissioning activities, including removal and treatment of operational waste from the existing storage buildings. The paper presents approach and methods that have been used to assess radiological impacts to the general public potentially arising under normal operation and accident conditions and to demonstrate compliance with regulations in force. The assessment of impacts from normal operation includes evaluation of exposure arising from release of airborne radioactive material and from facilities and packages containing radioactive material. In addition, radiological impacts from other nearby operating and planned nuclear facilities are taken into consideration. The assessment of impacts under accident conditions includes evaluation of exposure arising from the selected design and beyond design basis accidents. (orig.)

  14. Comparative Study of Electric Energy Storages and Thermal Energy Auxiliaries for Improving Wind Power Integration in the Cogeneration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjuan Yu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In regards to the cogeneration system in Northern China, mainly supported by combined heat and power (CHP plants, it usually offers limited operation flexibility due to the joint production of electric and thermal power. For that large-scale wind farms included in the cogeneration system, a large amount of wind energy may have to be wasted. To solve this issue, the utilization of the electric energy storages and the thermal energy auxiliaries are recommended, including pumped hydro storage (PHS, compressed air energy storage (CAES, hydrogen-based energy storage (HES, heat storage (HS, electric boilers (EB, and heat pumps (HP. This paper proposes a general evaluation method to compare the performance of these six different approaches for promoting wind power integration. In consideration of saving coal consumption, reducing CO2 emissions, and increasing investment cost, the comprehensive benefit is defined as the evaluation index. Specifically, a wind-thermal conflicting expression (WTCE is put forward to simplify the formulation of the comprehensive benefit. Further, according to the cogeneration system of the West Inner Mongolia (WIM power grid, a test system is modelled to perform the comparison of the six different approaches. The results show that introducing the electric energy storages and the thermal energy auxiliaries can both contribute to facilitating wind power integration, and the HP can provide the best comprehensive benefit.

  15. Problems in creation of modern air inlet filters of power gas turbine plants in Russia and methods of their solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhaylov, V. E.; Khomenok, L. A.; Sherapov, V. V.

    2016-08-01

    The main problems in creation and operation of modern air inlet paths of gas turbine plants installed as part of combined-cycle plants in Russia are presented. It is noted that design features of air inlet filters shall be formed at the stage of the technical assignment not only considering the requirements of gas turbine plant manufacturer but also climatic conditions, local atmospheric air dustiness, and a number of other factors. The recommendations on completing of filtration system for air inlet filter of power gas turbine plants depending on the facility location are given, specific defects in design and experience in operation of imported air inlet paths are analyzed, and influence of cycle air preparation quality for gas turbine plant on value of operating expenses and cost of repair works is noted. Air treatment equipment of various manufacturers, influence of aerodynamic characteristics on operation of air inlet filters, features of filtration system operation, anti-icing system, weather canopies, and other elements of air inlet paths are considered. It is shown that nonuniformity of air flow velocity fields in clean air chamber has a negative effect on capacity and aerodynamic resistance of air inlet filter. Besides, the necessity in installation of a sufficient number of differential pressure transmitters allowing controlling state of each treatment stage not being limited to one measurement of total differential pressure in the filtration system is noted in the article. According to the results of the analysis trends and methods for modernization of available equipment for air inlet path, the importance of creation and implementation of new technologies for manufacturing of filtering elements on sites of Russia within the limits of import substitution are given, and measures on reliability improvement and energy efficiency for air inlet filter are considered.

  16. A risk-based review of Instrument Air systems at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMoss, G.; Lofgren, E.; Rothleder, B.; Villeran, M.; Ruger, C.

    1990-01-01

    The broad objective of this analysis was to provide risk-based information to help focus regulatory actions related to Instrument Air (IA) systems at operating nuclear power plants. We first created an extensive data base of summarized and characterized IA-related events that gave a qualitative indication of the nature and severity of these events. Additionally, this data base was used to calculate the frequencies of certain events, which were used in the risk analysis. The risk analysis consisted of reviewing published PRAs and NRC Accident Sequence Precursor reports for IA-initiated accident sequences, IA interactions with frontline systems, and IA-related risk significant events. Sensitivity calculations were performed when possible. Generically, IA was found to contribute less to total risk than many safety systems; however, specific design weaknesses in safety systems, non-safety systems, and the IA system were found to be significant in risk. 22 refs., 13 figs., 24 tabs

  17. Research and development of CO2 Capture and Storage Technologies in Fossil Fuel Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Pilař

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a research project on the suitability of post-combustion CCS technology in the Czech Republic. It describes the ammonia CO2 separation method and its advantages and disadvantages. The paper evaluates its impact on the recent technology of a 250 MWe lignite coal fired power plant. The main result is a decrease in electric efficiency by 11 percentage points, a decrease in net electricity production by 62 MWe, and an increase in the amount of waste water. In addition, more consumables are needed.

  18. Compressed Air Production Using Vehicle Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninad Arun Malpure

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Generally compressed air is produced using different types of air compressors which consumes lot of electric energy and is noisy. In this paper an innovative idea is put forth for production of compressed air using movement of vehicle suspension which normal is wasted. The conversion of the force energy into the compressed air is carried out by the mechanism which consists of the vehicle suspension system hydraulic cylinder Non-return valve air compressor and air receiver. We are collecting air in the cylinder and store this energy into the tank by simply driving the vehicle. This method is non-conventional as no fuel input is required and is least polluting.

  19. Survived ileocecal blowout from compressed air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Marco; Kolbus, Frank; Dressler, Jan; Lessig, Rüdiger

    2011-03-01

    Industrial accidents with compressed air entering the gastro-intestinal tract often run fatally. The pressures usually over-exceed those used by medical applications such as colonoscopy and lead to vast injuries of the intestines with high mortality. The case described in this report is of a 26-year-old man who was harmed by compressed air that entered through the anus. He survived because of fast emergency operation. This case underlines necessity of explicit instruction considering hazards handling compressed air devices to maintain safety at work. Further, our observations support the hypothesis that the mucosa is the most elastic layer of the intestine wall.

  20. Ice storage facilities are worthwhile for the operation of power plants. Load management with jet pumps; Eisspeicher zahlen sich fuer Kraftwerksbetrieb aus. Lastmanagement mit Strahlpumpen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerhold, Richard

    2012-12-15

    The significantly better alternative to hot water tanks in thermal power plants are ice storage tanks and steam jet refrigeration plants. These facilities form ice, supply district heating and produce heat from the environment. Furthermore, these facilities produce additional peak load electricity nearly daily, so that several large power plants become dispensable. How this is possible in a simple and low-cost manner, is described in the contribution under consideration.

  1. System approach for evaluation of air pollution toxic compounds in the 30-km area of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevtsova, O.V.; Zhigunova, L.N.; Makovskaya, N.A.; Pavlovich, E.L.

    2012-01-01

    The article shows the importance of a systematic approach to address environmental problems that arise during the construction of nuclear power plants, and identified the need to consider the transformation and biotransformation of primary pollutants and monitoring secondary pollutants. The basic pathways of pollutants in the air a 30-km zone of nuclear power plants established. The content of primary and secondary air pollutants identified. The evaluation of general toxic risk from primary pollutant and the calculation of the carcinogenic risk of secondary pollutants entering the body by inhalation are carried out. (authors)

  2. Multi-fuel multi-product operation of IGCC power plants with carbon capture and storage (CCS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cormos, Ana-Maria; Dinca, Cristian; Cormos, Calin-Cristian

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates multi-fuel multi-product operation of IGCC plants with carbon capture and storage (CCS). The investigated plant designs co-process coal with different sorts of biomass (e.g. sawdust) and solid wastes, through gasification, leading to different decarbonised energy vectors (power, hydrogen, heat, substitute natural gas etc.) simultaneous with carbon capture. Co-gasification of coal with different renewable energy sources coupled with carbon capture will pave the way towards zero emissions power plants. The energy conversions investigated in the paper were simulated using commercial process flow modelling package (ChemCAD) in order to produce mass and energy balances necessary for the proposed evaluation. As illustrative cases, hydrogen and power co-generation and Fischer–Tropsch fuel synthesis (both with carbon capture), were presented. The case studies investigated in the paper produce a flexible ratio between power and hydrogen (in the range of 400–600 MW net electricity and 0–200 MW th hydrogen considering the lower heating value) with at least 90% carbon capture rate. Special emphasis were given to fuel selection criteria for optimisation of gasification performances (fuel blending), to the selection criteria for gasification reactor in a multi-fuel multi-product operation scenario, modelling and simulation of whole process, to thermal and power integration of processes, flexibility analysis of the energy conversion processes, in-depth techno-economic and environmental assessment etc. - Highlights: • Assessment of IGCC-based energy vectors poly-generation systems with CCS. • Optimisation of gasification performances and CO 2 emissions by fuel blending. • Multi-fuel multi-product operation of gasification plants

  3. Evaluating the Technical and Economic Performance of PV Plus Storage Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, Paul L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eichman, Joshua D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-17

    The decreasing costs of both PV and energy storage technologies have raised interest in the creation of combined PV plus storage systems to provide dispatchable energy and reliable capacity. In this study, we examine the tradeoffs among various PV plus storage configurations and quantify the impact of configuration on system net value.

  4. Evaluating the Technical and Economic Performance of PV Plus Storage Power Plants: Report Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, Paul L. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert M. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eichman, Joshua D. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-28

    The decreasing costs of both PV and energy storage technologies have raised interest in the creation of combined PV plus storage systems to provide dispatchable energy and reliable capacity. In this study, we examine the tradeoffs among various PV plus storage configurations and quantify the impact of configuration on system net value.

  5. Design Fabrication And Partial-Analysis Of A 2-Wheeler Prototype That Runs On Compressed Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Vinay

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The primary objective of the project is to create a prototype of a purely air powered motorcycle by retrofitting its internal combustion engine to run on compressed air. Firstly the conventional spark plug was replaced with a solenoid valve. The solenoid valve was initially actuated using a reed switch and magnet duo but then later replaced with an optical crank position sensor circuit due to reasons that include lack of control over the amount of air injected during each stroke and also for more precise control over the opening and closing of the valve. The torque brake power indicated power air consumption rate of the engine under load are calculated. Separate mounts for the modified engine and the cylindrical storage unit are designed and analysed using Catia v4. Also possible ways of future scope of the prototype are mentioned.

  6. Thermal analysis of near-isothermal compressed gas energy storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odukomaiya, Adewale; Abu-Heiba, Ahmad; Gluesenkamp, Kyle R.; Abdelaziz, Omar; Jackson, Roderick K.; Daniel, Claus; Graham, Samuel; Momen, Ayyoub M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel, high-efficiency, scalable, near-isothermal, energy storage system is introduced. • A comprehensive analytical physics-based model for the system is presented. • Efficiency improvement is achieved via heat transfer enhancement and use of waste heat. • Energy storage roundtrip efficiency (RTE) of 82% and energy density of 3.59 MJ/m"3 is shown. - Abstract: Due to the increasing generation capacity of intermittent renewable electricity sources and an electrical grid ill-equipped to handle the mismatch between electricity generation and use, the need for advanced energy storage technologies will continue to grow. Currently, pumped-storage hydroelectricity and compressed air energy storage are used for grid-scale energy storage, and batteries are used at smaller scales. However, prospects for expansion of these technologies suffer from geographic limitations (pumped-storage hydroelectricity and compressed air energy storage), low roundtrip efficiency (compressed air energy storage), and high cost (batteries). Furthermore, pumped-storage hydroelectricity and compressed air energy storage are challenging to scale-down, while batteries are challenging to scale-up. In 2015, a novel compressed gas energy storage prototype system was developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In this paper, a near-isothermal modification to the system is proposed. In common with compressed air energy storage, the novel storage technology described in this paper is based on air compression/expansion. However, several novel features lead to near-isothermal processes, higher efficiency, greater system scalability, and the ability to site a system anywhere. The enabling features are utilization of hydraulic machines for expansion/compression, above-ground pressure vessels as the storage medium, spray cooling/heating, and waste-heat utilization. The base configuration of the novel storage system was introduced in a previous paper. This paper describes the results

  7. Solar-Enhanced Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers for Geothermal Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Hooman

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the optimization of a Solar-Enhanced Natural-Draft Dry-Cooling Tower (SENDDCT, originally designed by the Queensland Geothermal Energy Centre of Excellence (QGECE, as the air-cooled condenser of a geothermal power plant. The conventional method of heat transfer augmentation through fin-assisted area extension is compared with a metal foam-wrapped tube bundle. Both lead to heat-transfer enhancement, albeit at the expense of a higher pressure drop when compared to the bare tube bundle as our reference case. An optimal design is obtained through the use of a simplified analytical model and existing correlations by maximizing the heat transfer rate with a minimum pressure drop goal as the constraint. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to investigate the effect of sunroof diameter, as well as tube bundle layouts and tube spacing, on the overall performance of the system. Aiming to minimize the flow and thermal resistances for a SENDDCT, an optimum design is presented for an existing tower to be equipped with solar panels to afterheat the air leaving the heat exchanger bundles, which are arranged vertically around the tower skirt. Finally, correlations are proposed to predict the total pressure drop and heat transfer of the extended surfaces considered here.

  8. Air quality impact of two power plants using a sub-grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drevet, Jerome; Musson-Genon, Luc

    2012-01-01

    Modeling point source emissions of air pollutants with regional Eulerian models is likely to lead to errors because a 3D Eulerian model is not able to correctly reproduce the evolution of a plume near its source. To overcome these difficulties, we applied a Gaussian puff model - imbedded within a 3D Eulerian model - for an impact assessment of EDF fossil fuel-fired power plants of Porcheville and Vitry, Ile-de-France. We simulated an entire year of atmospheric processes for an area covering the Paris region with the Polyphemus platform with which we conducted various scenarios with or without a Gaussian puff model, referred as Plume-in-grid, to independently handle 'with major point source emissions in Ile-de-France. Our study focuses on four chemical compounds (NO, NO 2 , SO 2 and O 3 ). The use of a Gaussian model is important, particularly for primary compounds with low reactivity such as SO, especially as industrial stacks are the major source of its emissions. SO 2 concentrations simulated using Plume-in-grid tare closer to the concentrations measured by the stations of the air quality agencies (Associations Agreees de Surveillance de la Qualite de l'Air, AASQA), although they remain largely overestimated. The use of a Gaussian model increases the concentrations near the source and lowers background levels of various chemical species (except O 3 ). The simulated concentrations may vary by over 30 % depending on whether we consider the Gaussian model for primary compounds such as SO 2 and NO, and around 2 % for secondary compounds such as NO 2 and O 3 . Regarding the impact of fossil fuel-fired power plants, simulated concentrations are increased by about 1 μg/m 3 approximately for SO 2 annual averages close to the Porcheville stack and are lowered by about 0.5 μg/m 3 far from the sources, highlighting the less diffusive character of the Gaussian model by comparison with the Eulerian model. The integration of a sub-grid Gaussian model offers the advantage of

  9. Power plant fuel switching and air quality in a tropical, forested environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Adan S. S.; Calderaro, Gisele; Guimarães, Patricia C.; Magalhaes, Mateus R.; Morais, Marcos V. B.; Rafee, Sameh A. A.; Ribeiro, Igor O.; Andreoli, Rita V.; Martins, Jorge A.; Martins, Leila D.; Martin, Scot T.; Souza, Rodrigo A. F.

    2017-07-01

    How a changing energy matrix for electricity production affects air quality is considered for an urban region in a tropical, forested environment. Manaus, the largest city in the central Amazon Basin of Brazil, is in the process of changing its energy matrix for electricity production from fuel oil and diesel to natural gas over an approximately 10-year period, with a minor contribution by hydropower. Three scenarios of urban air quality, specifically afternoon ozone concentrations, were simulated using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-Chem) model. The first scenario used fuel oil and diesel for electricity production, which was the reality in 2008. The second scenario was based on the fuel mix from 2014, the most current year for which data were available. The third scenario considered nearly complete use of natural gas for electricity production, which is the anticipated future, possibly for 2018. For each case, inventories of anthropogenic emissions were based on electricity generation, refinery operations, and transportation. Transportation and refinery operations were held constant across the three scenarios to focus on effects of power plant fuel switching in a tropical context. The simulated NOx and CO emissions for the urban region decrease by 89 and 55 %, respectively, after the complete change in the energy matrix. The results of the simulations indicate that a change to natural gas significantly decreases maximum afternoon ozone concentrations over the population center, reducing ozone by > 70 % for the most polluted days. The sensitivity of ozone concentrations to the fuel switchover is consistent with a NOx-limited regime, as expected for a tropical forest having high emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds, high water vapor concentrations, and abundant solar radiation. There are key differences in a shifting energy matrix in a tropical, forested environment compared to other world environments. Policies favoring the burning of

  10. Solar thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnatbaum, L.

    2009-01-01

    The solar thermal power plant technology, the opportunities it presents and the developments in the market are outlined. The focus is on the technology of parabolic trough power plants, a proven technology for solar power generation on a large scale. In a parabolic trough power plant, trough-shaped mirrors concentrate the solar irradiation onto a pipe in the focal line of the collector. The thermal energy thus generated is used for electricity generation in a steam turbine. Parabolic trough plants can be combined with thermal storage and fossil or biomass fired heat exchangers to generate electricity even when the sun is not shining. Solar Millennium AG in Erlangen has developed the first power plant of this kind in Europe. After two years of construction the plant started operation in Southern Spain in 2008. This one and its sister projects are important steps leading the way for the whole market. The paper also covers the technological challenges, the key components used and the research and development activities concerning this technology. Solar thermal power plants are ideal for covering peak and medium loads in power grids. In hybrid operation they can also cover base-load. The Solar Chimney power plant, another striking technology for the conversion of solar into electric energy, is described briefly. The paper concludes with a look at the future - the import of solar energy from the deserts of North Africa to central Europe. (author)

  11. Sustainability Assessment of Coal-Fired Power Plants with Carbon Capture and Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Butner, R. Scott; Elliott, Michael L.; Freeman, Charles J.

    2011-11-30

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) has the ability to dramatically reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from power production. Most studies find the potential for 70 to 80 percent reductions in CO2 emissions on a life-cycle basis, depending on the technology. Because of this potential, utilities and policymakers are considering the wide-spread implementation of CCS technology on new and existing coal plants to dramatically curb greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the power generation sector. However, the implementation of CCS systems will have many other social, economic, and environmental impacts beyond curbing GHG emissions that must be considered to achieve sustainable energy generation. For example, emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur oxides (SOx), and particulate matter (PM) are also important environmental concerns for coal-fired power plants. For example, several studies have shown that eutrophication is expected to double and acidification would increase due to increases in NOx emissions for a coal plant with CCS provided by monoethanolamine (MEA) scrubbing. Potential for human health risks is also expected to increase due to increased heavy metals in water from increased coal mining and MEA hazardous waste, although there is currently not enough information to relate this potential to actual realized health impacts. In addition to environmental and human health impacts, supply chain impacts and other social, economic, or strategic impacts will be important to consider. A thorough review of the literature for life-cycle analyses of power generation processes using CCS technology via the MEA absorption process, and other energy generation technologies as applicable, yielded large variability in methods and core metrics. Nonetheless, a few key areas of impact for CCS were developed from the studies that we reviewed. These are: the impact of MEA generation on increased eutrophication and acidification from ammonia emissions and increased toxicity

  12. LNG plant combined with power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, I; Kikkawa, Y [Chiyoda Chemical Engineering and Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-06-01

    The LNG plant consumers a lot of power of natural gas cooling and liquefaction. In some LNG plant location, a rapid growth of electric power demand is expected due to the modernization of area and/or the country. The electric power demand will have a peak in day time and low consumption in night time, while the power demand of the LNG plant is almost constant due to its nature. Combining the LNG plant with power plant will contribute an improvement the thermal efficiency of the power plant by keeping higher average load of the power plant, which will lead to a reduction of electrical power generation cost. The sweet fuel gas to the power plant can be extracted from the LNG plant, which will be favorable from view point of clean air of the area. (Author). 5 figs.

  13. LNG plant combined with power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, I.; Kikkawa, Y.

    1997-01-01

    The LNG plant consumers a lot of power of natural gas cooling and liquefaction. In some LNG plant location, a rapid growth of electric power demand is expected due to the modernization of area and/or the country. The electric power demand will have a peak in day time and low consumption in night time, while the power demand of the LNG plant is almost constant due to its nature. Combining the LNG plant with power plant will contribute an improvement the thermal efficiency of the power plant by keeping higher average load of the power plant, which will lead to a reduction of electrical power generation cost. The sweet fuel gas to the power plant can be extracted from the LNG plant, which will be favorable from view point of clean air of the area. (Author). 5 figs

  14. Compressed air production with waste heat utilization in industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolting, E.

    1984-06-01

    The centralized power-heat coupling (PHC) technique using block heating power stations, is presented. Compressed air production in PHC technique with internal combustion engine drive achieves a high degree of primary energy utilization. Cost savings of 50% are reached compared to conventional production. The simultaneous utilization of compressed air and heat is especially interesting. A speed regulated drive via an internal combustion motor gives a further saving of 10% to 20% compared to intermittent operation. The high fuel utilization efficiency ( 80%) leads to a pay off after two years for operation times of 3000 hr.

  15. Power plants 2010. Lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The proceedings include the following lectures: Facing the challenges - new structures for electricity production. Renewable energies in Europe - chances and challenges. Nuclear outlook in the UK. Sustainable energy for Europe. Requirements of the market and the grid operator at the electricity production companies. Perspectives for the future energy production. Pumped storage plants - status and perspectives. Nuclear power/renewable energies -partners or opponents? New fossil fired power stations in Europe - status and perspectives. Nuclear energy: outlook for new build and lifetime extension in Europe. Biomass in the future European energy market - experiences for dong energy. Meeting the EU 20:20 renewable energy targets: the offshore challenges. DESERTEC: sustainable electricity for Europe, Middle East and North Africa. New power plants in Europe - a challenge for project and quality management. Consideration of safely in new build activities of power plants. Challenges to an integrated development in Maasvlakte, Netherlands. Power enhancement in EnBW power plants. Operational experiences of CCS pilot plants worldwide. Two years of operational experiences with Vattenfall's oxyfuel pilot plant. Pre-conditions for CCS. Storage technologies for a volatile generation. Overview: new generation of gas turbines.

  16. Features of adsorbed chemical elements and their isotopes distribution in iodine air filters AU-1500 of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neklyudov, I.M.; Dovbnya, A.N.; Dikiy, N.P.; Ledenyov, O.P.; Lyashko, Yu.V.

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of research is to investigate the physical features of spatial distribution of the adsorbed chemical elements and their isotopes in the granular filtering medium in the iodine air filters of the type of AU-1500 in the forced-exhaust ventilation at the nuclear power plant. The ?-activation analysis method is applied to accurately characterize the distribution of the adsorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the granular filtering medium in the AU-1500 iodine air filter after its long term operation at the nuclear power plant. The typical spectrum of the detected chemical elements and their isotopes in the AU-1500 iodine air filter, which was exposed by the irradiation of bremsstrahlung gamma-quantum producing by the accelerating electrons in the tantalum target, are obtained. The spatial distributions of the detected chemical element 127 I and some other chemical elements and their isotopes in the layer of absorber, which was made of the cylindrical coal granules of the type of SKT-3, in the AU-1500 iodine air filter are also researched. The possible influences by the standing wave of air pressure in the iodine air filter on the spatial distribution of the chemical elements and their isotopes in the iodine air filter are discussed. The comprehensive analysis of obtained research results on the distribution of the adsorbed chemical elements and their isotopes in the absorber of iodine air filter is performed.

  17. Air conditioning device for pool facilities in nuclear power plant buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taruishi, Yoshiaki; Ishida, Seiji.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the temperature and humidity conditions for the working circumstance, prevent condensations on the wall surface and enable the reduction in the irradiation exposure to workers. Constitution: Air intake ports are provided on the side wall of a fuel storage pool or an equipment installation pool above the water level and connected by way of their exhaust ducts to the exhaust ducts of an air ventilation system. While on the other hand, air feed ducts having horizontally opened blowing ports and air exhaust ducts having horizontally opened exhaust ports above and in adjacent to the air feed ducts are provided on the side walls of the pool buildings at the height near the floor level. With this structure, fresh outdoor airs blown out horizontally from the blowing ports provided near the floor level can improve the temperature and humidity conditions of the working circumstance for the workers working on the floor. Further, an air clean up device is provided to the feed and exhaust systems for clean up the feed and exhaust airs. (Furukawa, Y.)

  18. 30 CFR 57.13020 - Use of compressed air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of compressed air. 57.13020 Section 57... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 57.13020 Use of compressed air. At no time shall compressed air be directed toward a...

  19. 30 CFR 56.13020 - Use of compressed air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of compressed air. 56.13020 Section 56... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 56.13020 Use of compressed air. At no time shall compressed air be directed toward a person...

  20. Compressed air system audit in a chemical company

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radgen, P. [Fraunhofer ISI, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    This paper describes the results achieved during a compressed air system audit at a chemical company in Switzerland. The aim of the audit conducted in Muttenz at the site of Clariant Schweiz AG was to analyse the installed compressed air system and its operation in order to identify energy and cost saving potentials. Because there was measurement equipment already installed, it was not necessary to install a new meter. Instead the existing data had to be extracted from the controlled system and regrouped for the analysis. Aggregated data for 2003 and 2004 and a set of detailed data acquired in the course of one week were used for the analysis. The audit identified a number of measures to improve the compressed air system, but had to conclude that the saving potentials at this site are below average. The audit included the compressors, the air treatment and air distribution up to production or storage buildings. The saving potential identified was quantified as about 300 000 kWh/a, or 13.3% of the compressed air energy demand. The cost savings were calculated to be around 41 852 Swiss Franks. (orig.)

  1. Options for the ultimate storage of low and medium level radioactive wastes produced at Laguna Verde nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emeterio, Miguel

    1991-01-01

    The devoted time and still to be expend in prepare, execute and teach permanent and safe solutions to the problem of the evaluation of radioactive wastes reflects the political, economic and environmental importance with respect to public health and safety invested in this task, as well as, its technological challenges. In the case of Laguna Verde nuclear power plant, its low and medium level radioactive wastes are stored in the beginning in a temporal store with a capacity of 2000 m 3 sufficient to four years of normal operation; according to what it is necessary to select one of different ways of waste storage. Different technologies has been evaluated and the preliminary conclusion is that for Mexico the more feasible way to store radioactive wastes is in tumulus (Author)

  2. Probabilistic reconstruction of internal exposure for nuclear power plant workers using air concentration measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linkov, I.; Burmistrov, D.

    2000-01-01

    Air surveys, whole-body counting, bioassays or combination of these measurements can be utilized for purposes or assessing internal doses to determine compliance with occupational dose equivalent limits. Air sampling with a little support provided by whole body counting and/or bioassays was often relied on in dose calculations. The utility of air sampling for internal dose reconstruction is addressed in this paper through the probabilistic analysis of environmental factors and their impact on dose estimates. In this paper we attempt to reconstruct an internal dose due to inhalation of beta + gamma emitting radionuclides for a contractual electrician, Mr. X. The data available for reconstruction of internal dose for Mr. X was found to be highly variable and uncertain. Uncertainty describes a lack of knowledge about a parameter, this lack of knowledge theoretically can be reduced, e.g., if more measurements were to be taken (for example, estimated activities for alpha-emitting radionuclides are uncertain due to the influence of naturally-occurring alpha-emitters). Variability describes the existence of different values that represent different environmental conditions (for example, the air concentrations of radionuclides may vary over time because of the different tasks performed by workers in the area). Variability can not be reduced by additional data collection because the varying values reflect the variable nature of the environment, not a lack of data. The high variability in measured air concentrations in the restricted areas of a LWR nuclear power plant where he worked do not allow adequate reconstruction of his individual internal dose using deterministic methods and therefore probabilistic methods are desirable. The guidance for probabilistic assessment developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency as well as recommendations of the National Council of Radiation Protection provide an adequate framework for probabilistic reconstruction of

  3. Deriving Optimal End of Day Storage for Pumped-Storage Power Plants in the Joint Energy and Reserve Day-Ahead Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Chazarra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new methodology to maximise the income and derive the optimal end of day storage of closed-loop and daily-cycle pumped-storage hydropower plants. The plants participate in the day-ahead energy market as a price-taker and in the secondary regulation reserve market as a price-maker, in the context of the Iberian electricity system. The real-time use of the committed reserves is considered in the model formulation. The operation of the plants with the proposed methodology is compared to the ones that use an end of day storage of an empty reservoir or half of the storage capacity. Results show that the proposed methodology increases the maximum theoretical income in all the plants analysed both if they only participate in the day-ahead energy market and if they also participate in the secondary regulation service. It is also shown that the increase in the maximum theoretical income strongly depends on the size of the plant. In addition, it is proven that the end of day storages change notably in the new reserve-driven strategies of pumped-storage hydropower plants and that the proposed methodology is even more recommended if the secondary regulation service is considered.

  4. Mega akku in the Alps. Pumped-storage power plant Limberg II in Kaprun; Mega-Akku in den Alpen. Pumpspeicherwerk Limberg II in Kaprun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steyrer, Peter [POEYRY Energy GmbH, Salzburg (Austria). Konstruktiver Wasserbau

    2011-05-15

    Since the 1920ies, the Kaprun valley and the area around the Grossglockner are a subject for project planning of hydropower plants. The power plant group Glockner-Kaprun with upper and main stage was completed in 1955. Since 1970, various options for expansion were examined by a pumped storage plant. The result of these investigations is the project Limberg II, which is realized since 2007 and completed this year.

  5. Sampling of power plant stacks for air toxic emissions: Final report for Phases 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-28

    A test program to collect and analyze size-fractionated stack gas particulate samples for selected inorganic hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) was conducted . Specific goals of the program are (1) the collection of one-gram quantities of size-fractionated stack gas particulate matter for bulk (total) and surface chemical characterization, and (2) the determination of the relationship between particle size, bulk and surface (leachable) composition, and unit load. The information obtained from this program identifies the effects of unit load, particle size, and wet FGD system operation on the relative toxicological effects of exposure to particulate emissions. Field testing was conducted in two phases. The Phase I field program was performed over the period of August 24 through September 20, 1992, at the Tennessee Valley Authority Widows Creek Unit 8 Power Station, located near Stevenson (Jackson County), Alabama, on the Tennessee River. Sampling activities for Phase II were conducted from September 11 through October 14, 1993. Widows Creek Unit 8 is a 575-megawatt plant that uses bituminous coal averaging 3.7% sulfur and 13% ash. Downstream of the boiler, a venture wet scrubbing system is used for control of both sulfur dioxide and particulate emissions. There is no electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in this system. This system is atypical and represents only about 5% of the US utility industry. However, this site was chosen for this study because of the lack of information available for this particulate emission control system.

  6. Investigations on forecast-based operating strategies for solar thermal power plants with integrated storage capacity; Untersuchungen zu vorhersagebasierten Betriebsstrategien fuer solarthermische Kraftwerke mit integrierter Speicherkapazitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittmann, Michael Karl

    2012-07-01

    This publication describes a method for scheduling the operation of a power plant storage. The purpose of operation scheduling is to determine the economically optimum yield achievable in the course of daily power plant operation. The optimum operation schedule for the storage is determined based on Dynamic Programming Algorithms. Besides its focus on operation scheduling the publication investigates the effects of imperfect weather and price forecasts on electricity production and thus on the operator's economic results. It assesses the current Spanish legislation as well as other incentive scenarios in terms of their impact on operators' feed-in behaviour.

  7. Design of a Hydraulic Motor System Driven by Compressed Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyun-Jhe Yu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of a highly efficient pneumatic motor system. The air engine is currently the most generally used device to convert potential energy of compressed air into mechanical energy. However, the efficiency of the air engines is too low to provide sufficient operating range for the vehicle. In this study, the energy contained in compressed air/pressurized hydraulic oil is transformed by a hydraulic motor to mechanical energy to enhance the efficiency of using air power. To evaluate the theoretical efficiency, the principle of balance of energy is applied. The theoretical efficiency of converting air into hydraulic energy is found to be a function of pressure; thus, the maximum converting efficiency can be determined. To confirm the theoretical evaluation, a prototype of the pneumatic hydraulic system is built. The experiment verifies that the theoretical evaluation of the system efficiency is reasonable, and that the layout of the system is determined by the results of theoretical evaluation.

  8. Audit helps power saving during generation of compressed air; Audit hilft Strom sparen bei der Erzeugung von Druckluft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherff, R. [Atlas Copco Kompressoren und Drucklufttechnik GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    2008-02-25

    Speed regulated compressors lower energy cost even in case of increasing air demand. When changing on oil-free working compressors further cost advantages are achievable e.g. no oil-contaminated products. (GL)

  9. Developing a dynamic control system for mine compressed air networks

    OpenAIRE

    Van Heerden, S.W.; Pelzer, R.; Marais, J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Mines in general, make use of compressed air systems for daily operational activities. Compressed air on mines is traditionally distributed via compressed air ring networks where multiple shafts are supplied with compressed air from an integral system. These compressed air networks make use of a number of compressors feeding the ring from various locations in the network. While these mines have sophisticated control systems to control these compressors, they are not dynamic systems. Compresso...

  10. Experience with compressed air system of Dhruva and Cirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelar, V.G.; Patil, U.D.; Singh, V.K.; Zope, A.K.; Kharpate, A.V.

    2006-01-01

    Dhruva and Cirus reactors have independent compressed air plants with provision for sharing. Dhruva has the reciprocating oil free air compressors where as Cirus has oil lubricated compressors. Over the years, several improvements have been done in the equipments to combat various problems, among these noise mitigation in Dhruva and measures to extend life of compressors in Cirus and also incidence of discharge header catching fire are interesting. This paper details these experiences. (author)

  11. Power plant fuel switching and air quality in a tropical, forested environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. S. Medeiros

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available How a changing energy matrix for electricity production affects air quality is considered for an urban region in a tropical, forested environment. Manaus, the largest city in the central Amazon Basin of Brazil, is in the process of changing its energy matrix for electricity production from fuel oil and diesel to natural gas over an approximately 10-year period, with a minor contribution by hydropower. Three scenarios of urban air quality, specifically afternoon ozone concentrations, were simulated using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-Chem model. The first scenario used fuel oil and diesel for electricity production, which was the reality in 2008. The second scenario was based on the fuel mix from 2014, the most current year for which data were available. The third scenario considered nearly complete use of natural gas for electricity production, which is the anticipated future, possibly for 2018. For each case, inventories of anthropogenic emissions were based on electricity generation, refinery operations, and transportation. Transportation and refinery operations were held constant across the three scenarios to focus on effects of power plant fuel switching in a tropical context. The simulated NOx and CO emissions for the urban region decrease by 89 and 55 %, respectively, after the complete change in the energy matrix. The results of the simulations indicate that a change to natural gas significantly decreases maximum afternoon ozone concentrations over the population center, reducing ozone by > 70 % for the most polluted days. The sensitivity of ozone concentrations to the fuel switchover is consistent with a NOx-limited regime, as expected for a tropical forest having high emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds, high water vapor concentrations, and abundant solar radiation. There are key differences in a shifting energy matrix in a tropical, forested environment compared to other world environments. Policies

  12. Waste Feed Delivery Raw Water and Potable Water and Compressed Air Capacity Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MAY, T.H.

    2000-01-01

    This study evaluated the ability of the Raw Water, Potable Water, and Compressed Air systems to support safe storage as well as the first phase of the Waste Feed Delivery. Several recommendations are made to improve the system

  13. Treatment and storage of radioactive waste at a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The guide gives the general principles that shall be followed when planning and implementing the treatment, storing, transfer, activity monitoring and record keeping of radioactive wastes. The guide does not include provisions for spent fuel or for treatment and discharges of liquids or gases containing radioactive substances. Neither does the guide include any detailed design criteria for treatment facilities or storages. (4 refs.)

  14. 46 CFR 112.50-7 - Compressed air starting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compressed air starting. 112.50-7 Section 112.50-7... air starting. A compressed air starting system must meet the following: (a) The starting, charging... air compressors addressed in paragraph (c)(3)(i) of this section. (b) The compressed air starting...

  15. Power generation plants with carbon capture and storage: A techno-economic comparison between coal combustion and gasification technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tola, Vittorio; Pettinau, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Techno-economic performance of coal-fired power plants (without and with CCS). • Without CCS system, USC is more efficient and cost-competitive than IGCC. • CCS energy penalties are more relevant for USC than IGCC. • Higher SNOX system costs are partially compensated by better USC performance. • CCS technologies cannot be profitable without adequate policies and incentives. - Abstract: Worldwide energy production requirements could not be fully satisfied by nuclear and renewables sources. Therefore a sustainable use of fossil fuels (coal in particular) will be required for several decades. In this scenario, carbon capture and storage (CCS) represents a key solution to control the global warming reducing carbon dioxide emissions. The integration between CCS technologies and power generation plants currently needs a demonstration at commercial scale to reduce both technological risks and high capital and operating cost. This paper compares, from the technical and economic points of view, the performance of three coal-fired power generation technologies: (i) ultra-supercritical (USC) plant equipped with a conventional flue gas treatment (CGT) process, (ii) USC plant equipped with SNOX technology for a combined removal of sulphur and nitrogen oxides and (iii) integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant based on a slurry-feed entrained-flow gasifier. Each technology was analysed in its configurations without and with CO 2 capture, referring to a commercial-scale of 1000 MW th . Technical assessment was carried out by using simulation models implemented through Aspen Plus and Gate-Cycle tools, whereas economic assessment was performed through a properly developed simulation model. USC equipped with CGT systems shows an overall efficiency (43.7%) comparable to IGCC (43.9%), whereas introduction of SNOX technology increases USC efficiency up to 44.8%. Being the CCS energy penalties significantly higher for USC (about 10.5% points vs. about 8

  16. Air pollutants conversion study of combustion gas generating by oil fueled thermoelectric power plant to fertilizer byproduct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, Omar Fernandes

    2001-01-01

    This study concerns the development and application of a SO 2 and NO x simultaneous gas treatment through a 135 MW electron beam flue gas treatment demonstration plant at Piratininga Power Plant located at Sao Paulo, the biggest city in Brazil, around 16 million inhabitants, with serious problems concerning air pollution. This power plant belongs to a service electric utility necessary for the supply of energy to more than 5,800,000 customers, covering an area of 21,168 km 2 where approximately 20,2 million people live. This plant is a 470 MW, 2x100 MW built in 1954 and 2x135 MW erected in 1960, oil fueled (at full load, 2,800 ton per day). The oil is low sulfur content 3 /h for 135 MW generated by the plant. This process aims to reduce SO 2 and NO x gas pollutant emissions attending the Brazilian environmental laws including the expecting future law for NO x levels. The process consists in high energy electron beam irradiation (above 0,8 MeV) of burning gas from the plant at ammonia presence forming as reaction product ammonium sulfate and nitrate that are collecting as dry dust at an electrostatic precipitator. This is economically useful to the plant and to Brazil, a mainly agricultural country. The Feasibility Study for a 135 MW pilot plant installation at Piratininga Power Plant allows the data collection to optimize and to develop this process, the operation and maintenance costs evaluation for the country . After the process implementation, the human resources training aiming the all plant extension of this process and also the technology know how transfer to another industrial process plants like coal fired thermoelectrical power plants, siderurgical , incinerators and chemical industries. (author)

  17. Power Watch - A global, open database of power plants that supports research on climate, water and air pollution impact of the global power sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, J.; Kressig, A.; Van Groenou, S.; McCormick, C.

    2017-12-01

    Challenge The lack of transparent, accessible, and centralized power sector data inhibits the ability to research the impact of the global power sector. information gaps for citizens, analysts, and decision makers worldwide create barriers to sustainable development efforts. The need for transparent, accessible, and centralized information is especially important to enhance the commitments outlined in the recently adopted Paris Agreement and Sustainable Development Goals. Offer Power Watch will address this challenge by creating a comprehensive, open-source platform on the world's power systems. The platform hosts data on 85% of global installed electrical capacity and for each power plant will include data points on installed capacity, fuel type, annual generation, commissioning year, with more characteristics like emissions, particulate matter, annual water demand and more added over time. Most of the data is reported from national level sources, but annual generation and other operational characteristiscs are estimated via Machine Learning modeling and remotely sensed data when not officially reported. In addition, Power Watch plans to provide a suite of tools that address specific decision maker needs, such as water risk assessments and air pollution modeling. Impact Through open data, the platform and its tools will allow reserachers to do more analysis of power sector impacts and perform energy modeling. It will help catalyze accountability for policy makers, businesses, and investors and will inform and drive the transition to a clean energy future while reaching development targets.

  18. Highest manageable level of radioactivity in the waste storage facilities of power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkert, J.; Lennartsson, R.

    1991-01-01

    This project presents and discusses an investigation of the highest level of radioactivity possible to handle in the waste storage facilities. The amount of radioactivity, about 0.1% of the fuel inventory, is the same in both of the cases but the amount of water is very different. The hypothetical accident was supposed to be damage of the reactor fuel caused by loss of coolant. (K.A.E.)

  19. An introduction to the design, commissioning and operation of nuclear air cleaning systems for Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xinliang Chen; Jiangang Qu; Minqi Shi [Shanghai Nuclear Engineering Research and Design Institute (China)] [and others

    1995-02-01

    This paper introduces the design evolution, system schemes and design and construction of main nuclear air cleaning components such as HEPA filter, charcoal adsorber and concrete housing etc. for Qinshan 300MW PWR Nuclear Power Plant (QNPP), the first indigenously designed and constructed nuclear power plant in China. The field test results and in-service test results, since the air cleaning systems were put into operation 18 months ago, are presented and evaluated. These results demonstrate that the design and construction of the air cleaning systems and equipment manufacturing for QNPP are successful and the American codes and standards invoked in design, construction and testing of nuclear air cleaning systems for QNPP are applicable in China. The paper explains that the leakage rate of concrete air cleaning housings can also be assured if sealing measures are taken properly and embedded parts are designed carefully in the penetration areas of the housing and that the uniformity of the airflow distribution upstream the HEPA filters can be achieved generally no matter how inlet and outlet ducts of air cleaning unit are arranged.

  20. Criticality and shielding calculations of an interim dry storage system for the spent fuel from Atucha I Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, M

    2006-01-01

    The Atucha I Nuclear Power Plant (CNA-I) has enough room to store its spent fuel (SF) in damp in its two pool houses until the middle of 2015.Before that date there is the need to have an interim dry storage system for spent fuel that would make possible to empty at least one of the pools, whether to keep the plant operating if its useful life is extended, or to be able to empty the reactor core in case of decommissioning.Nucleolectrica Argentina S.A. (NA-SA) and the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), due to their joint responsibility in the management of the SF, have proposed interim dry storage systems.These systems have to be evaluated in order to choose one of them by the end of 2006.In this work the Monte Carlo code MCNP was used to make the criticality and shielding calculations corresponding to the model proposed by CNEA.This model suggests the store of sealed containers with 36 or 37 SF in concrete modules.Each one of the containers is filled in the pool houses and transported to the module in a transference cask with lead walls.The results of the criticality calculations indicates that the solutions of SF proposed have widely fulfilled the requirements of subcriticality, even in supposed extreme accidental situations.Regarding the transference cask, the SF dose rate estimations allow us to make a feedback for the design aiming to the geometry and shielding improvements.Regarding the store modules, thicknesses ranges of concrete walls are suggested in order to fulfill the dose requirements stated by the Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear Argentina [es

  1. Does regulation stimulate productivity? The effect of air quality policies on the efficiency of US power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleishman, Rachel; Alexander, Rob; Bretschneider, Stuart; Popp, David

    2009-01-01

    This research examines the effect of air quality regulations on the productivity of US power plants based on both economic and environmental outputs. Using data envelopment analysis (DEA) to estimate an efficiency measure incorporating both economic and environmental outcomes, we look at changes in efficiency in US power plants over an eleven-year time period (1994-2004) during which several different regulations were implemented for the control of nitrogen oxides (NO x ) and sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ). The paper then models how estimated efficiency behaves over time as a function of regulatory changes. Findings suggest mixed effects of regulations on power plant efficiency when pollution abatement and electricity generation are both included as outputs.

  2. Roofbolters with compressed-air rotators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantsevich, MA; Repin Klishin, AA, VI; Kokoulin, DI

    2018-03-01

    The specifications of the most popular roofbolters of domestic and foreign manufacture currently in operation in coal mines are discussed. Compressed-air roofbolters SAP and SAP2 designed at the Institute of Mining are capable of drilling in hard rocks. The authors describe the compressed-air rotator of SAP2 roofbolter with alternate motion rotors. From the comparative analysis of characteristics of SAP and SAP 2 roofbolters, the combination of high-frequency axial and rotary impacts on a drilling tool in SAP2 ensure efficient drilling in rocks with the strength up to 160 MPa.

  3. Oil drilling rig diesel power-plant fuel efficiency improvement potentials through rule-based generator scheduling and utilization of battery energy storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavković, Danijel; Sedić, Almir; Guzović, Zvonimir

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Isolated oil drilling rig microgrid power flows are analyzed over 30 days. • Rule-based diesel generator scheduling is proposed to reduce fuel consumption. • A battery energy storage is parameterized and used for peak load leveling. • The effectiveness of proposed hybrid microgrid is verified by simulations. • Return-of-investment might be expected within 20% of battery system lifetime. - Abstract: This paper presents the development of a rule-based energy management control strategy suitable for isolated diesel power-plants equipped with a battery energy storage system for peak load shaving. The proposed control strategy includes the generator scheduling strategy and peak load leveling scheme based on current microgrid active and reactive power requirements. In order to investigate the potentials for fuel expenditure reduction, 30 days-worth of microgrid power flow data has been collected on an isolated land-based oil drilling rig powered by a diesel generator power-plant, characterized by highly-variable active and reactive load profiles due to intermittent engagements and disengagements of high-power electric machinery such as top-drive, draw-works and mud-pump motors. The analysis has indicated that by avoiding the low-power operation of individual generators and by providing the peak power requirements (peak shaving) from a dedicated energy storage system, the power-plant fuel efficiency may be notably improved. An averaged power flow simulation model has been built, comprising the proposed rule-based power flow control strategy and the averaged model of a suitably sized battery energy storage system equipped with grid-tied power converter and state-of-charge control system. The effectiveness of the proposed rule-based strategy has been evaluated by means of computer simulation analysis based on drilling rig microgrid active and reactive power data recorded during the 30 day period. The analysis has indicated that fuel consumption of

  4. Leaching of Major and Minor Elements during the Transport and Storage of Coal Ash Obtained in Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rada Krgović

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In power plant, coal ash obtained by combustion is mixed with river water and transported to the dump. Sequential extraction was used in order to assess pollution caused by leaching of elements during ash transport through the pipeline and in the storage (cassettes. A total of 80 samples of filter ash as well as the ash from active (currently filled and passive (previously filled cassettes were studied. Samples were extracted with distilled water, ammonium acetate, ammonium oxalate/oxalic acid, acidic solution of hydrogen-peroxide, and a hydrochloric acid. Concentrations of the several elements (Al, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Fe, Ba, Ca, Mg, Ni, Pb, and Zn in all extracts were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. Pattern recognition method was carried out in order to provide better understanding of the nature of distribution of elements according to their origins. Results indicate possible leaching of As, Ca, Cd, Cu, Zn, and Pb. Among these elements As, Cd, and Pb are toxicologically the most important but they were not present in the first two phases with the exception of As. The leaching could be destructive and cause negative effects on plants, water pollution, and damage to some life forms.

  5. Advances in the valorization of waste and by-product materials as thermal energy storage (TES) materials

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez, Andrea; Miró, Laia; Gil, Antoni; Rodríguez Aseguinolaza, Javier; Barreneche Güerisoli, Camila; Calvet, Nicolas; Py, Xavier; Fernández Renna, Ana Inés; Grágeda, Mario; Ushak, Svetlana; Cabeza, Luisa F.

    2016-01-01

    Today, one of the biggest challenges our society must face is the satisfactory supply, dispatchability and management of the energy. Thermal Energy Storage (TES) has been identified as a breakthrough concept in industrial heat recovery applications and development of renewable technologies such as concentrated solar power (CSP) plants or compressed air energy storage (CAES). A wide variety of potential heat storage materials has been identified depending on the implemented TES method: sensibl...

  6. Opportunities for Decarbonizing Existing U.S. Coal-Fired Power Plants via CO2 Capture, Utilization and Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Haibo; Ou, Yang; Rubin, Edward S

    2015-07-07

    This study employs a power plant modeling tool to explore the feasibility of reducing unit-level emission rates of CO2 by 30% by retrofitting carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) to existing U.S. coal-fired electric generating units (EGUs). Our goal is to identify feasible EGUs and their key attributes. The results indicate that for about 60 gigawatts of the existing coal-fired capacity, the implementation of partial CO2 capture appears feasible, though its cost is highly dependent on the unit characteristics and fuel prices. Auxiliary gas-fired boilers can be employed to power a carbon capture process without significant increases in the cost of electricity generation. A complementary CO2 emission trading program can provide additional economic incentives for the deployment of CCS with 90% CO2 capture. Selling and utilizing the captured CO2 product for enhanced oil recovery can further accelerate CCUS deployment and also help reinforce a CO2 emission trading market. These efforts would allow existing coal-fired EGUs to continue to provide a significant share of the U.S. electricity demand.

  7. Pumped Storage Power plants, Challenges and opportunities - Some conclusions; Stockage d'energie par pompage, defis et opportunites - Quelques conclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viollet, Pierre-Louis; Roult, Didier; Mathex, Bruno; Ouaabi, Aziz; Louis, Frederic; Petitjean, Alain; Capuozzo, Vincent; Mazzouji, Farid; Prestat, Bruno; Nekrassov, Andrei; Caignaert, Guy; Vidil, Roland; Guilbaud, Claude; Metais, Olivier

    2011-11-15

    This document briefly synthesizes a conference which addressed the development of pumped storage power plants in the world, and social, economic, technical and scientific challenges related to this development which is closely related to the development of intermittent renewable energies (wind and solar energy). Current developments in different countries (Germany, Portugal, Switzerland, Norway, France and China) are evoked

  8. The atmospheric corrosion: an important technical-economic and nuclear safety factor during storage in the construction of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, R.; Rodriguez, J.; Diaz, J.; Gomez, J.; Galeano, N.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to show the results of the research performed to determine the atmospheric corrosion in the region of Juragua nuclear power plant and to offer some practical recommendations to increase the efficiency during the storage of materials, considering technical-economic and nuclear safety aspects

  9. Free-beam soliton self-compression in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronin, A. A.; Mitrofanov, A. V.; Sidorov-Biryukov, D. A.; Fedotov, A. B.; Pugžlys, A.; Panchenko, V. Ya; Shumakova, V.; Ališauskas, S.; Baltuška, A.; Zheltikov, A. M.

    2018-02-01

    We identify a physical scenario whereby soliton transients generated in freely propagating laser beams within the regions of anomalous dispersion in air can be compressed as a part of their free-beam spatiotemporal evolution to yield few-cycle mid- and long-wavelength-infrared field waveforms, whose peak power is substantially higher than the peak power of the input pulses. We show that this free-beam soliton self-compression scenario does not require ionization or laser-induced filamentation, enabling high-throughput self-compression of mid- and long-wavelength-infrared laser pulses within a broad range of peak powers from tens of gigawatts up to the terawatt level. We also demonstrate that this method of pulse compression can be extended to long-range propagation, providing self-compression of high-peak-power laser pulses in atmospheric air within propagation ranges as long as hundreds of meters, suggesting new ways towards longer-range standoff detection and remote sensing.

  10. Safety implications associated with in-plant pressurized gas storage and distribution systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guymon, R.H.

    1986-01-01

    Storage and handling of compressed gases at nuclear power plants were studied to identify any potential safety hazards. Gases investigated were air, acetylene, carbon dioxide, chlorine, Halon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, propane, and sulfur hexafluoride. Physical properties of gases were reviewed, as were applicable industrial codes and standards. Incidents involving pressurized gases in general industry and in the nuclear industry were studied. In this report general hazards, such as missiles from ruptures, rocketing of cylinders, fires, explosions, asphyxiation, and toxicity, are discussed. Even though some serious injuries and deaths have occurred over the years in industries handling and using pressurized gases, the industrial codes, standards, practices, and procedures are very comprehensive. The most important step one can take to ensure the safe handling of gases is to enforce these well-known and established methods

  11. The collection, storage and use of equipment performance data for the safety and reliability assessment of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fothergill, C.D.H.

    1975-01-01

    It has been characteristic of the Nuclear Industry that it should grow up in an atmosphere where reliability and operational safety considerations have been of vital importance. Consequently all aspects of Nuclear Power Reactor design, construction and operation (in the U.K.A.E.A.) are subjected to rigorous reliability assessments, beginning with the automatic protective devices and the safety shut-down systems. This has resulted in the setting up of large and small private data stores to support this upsurgence of Safety and Reliability assessment work. Unfortunately, much of the information being stored and published falls short of the minimum requirements of Safety Assessors and Reliability Analysts who need to make use of it. That there is still an urgent need for more work to be done in the Reliability Data field is universally acknowledged. The characteristics which make up good quality reliability data must be defined and achievable minimum standards must be set for its identification, collection, storage and retrieval. To this end the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority have set up the Systems Reliability Service Data Bank. This includes a computerized storage facility comprised of two principal data stores: (i) Reliability Data Store, (ii) Event Data Store. The figures available in the Reliability Data Store range from those relating to the lifetimes of minute components to those obtained from the assessment of whole plants and complete assemblies. These data have been accumulated from many reliable sources both inside and outside the Nuclear Industry, including the transfer of 'live' data generated from the results of reliability surveillance exercises associated with Event Data collection. Computer techniques developed specifically for the Reliability Data Store enable further 'processing' of these data to be carried out. The Event Data Store consists of three discrete computerized data stores, each one providing the necessary storage, retrieval and

  12. Air temperature determination inside residual heat removal pump room of Angra-1 nuclear power plant after a design basic accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siniscalchi, Marcio Rezende

    2005-01-01

    This work develops heat transfer theoretical models for determination of air temperature inside the Residual Heat Removal Pump Room of Angra 1 Nuclear Power Plant after a Design Basis Accident without forced ventilation. Two models had been developed. The differential equations are solved by analytical methods. A software in FORTRAN language are developed for simulations of temperature inside rooms for different geometries and materials. (author)

  13. Compressibility of air in fibrous materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarnow, Viggo

    1996-01-01

    The dynamic compressibility of air in fibrous materials has been computed for two assumed configurations of fibers which are close to the geometry of real fiber materials. Models with parallel cylinders placed in a regular square lattice and placed randomly are treated. For these models...... the compressibility is computed approximately from the diameter and mean distances between cylinders. This requires calculation of the air temperature, which is calculated for cylinders in a regular lattive by the Wigner-Seitz cell approximation. In the case of random placement, the calculation is done by a summation...... over thermal waves from all fibers, and by a self-consistent procedure. Figuren of the compressibility in the frequency range 10-100 000 Hz, are given for diameter of the cylinders of 6.8 µm, and mean distances between them from 50 to 110 µm, which corresponds to glass wool with a density of 40 to 16...

  14. Safety considerations for compressed hydrogen storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleason, D.

    2006-01-01

    An overview of the safety considerations for various hydrogen storage options, including stationary, vehicle storage, and mobile refueling technologies. Indications of some of the challenges facing the industry as the demand for hydrogen fuel storage systems increases. (author)

  15. Efficiency at Sorting Cards in Compressed Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulton, E. C.; Catton, M. J.; Carpenter, A.

    1964-01-01

    At a site where compressed air was being used in the construction of a tunnel, 34 men sorted cards twice, once at normal atmospheric pressure and once at 3½, 2½, or 2 atmospheres absolute pressure. An additional six men sorted cards twice at normal atmospheric pressure. When the task was carried out for the first time, all the groups of men performing at raised pressure were found to yield a reliably greater proportion of very slow responses than the group of men performing at normal pressure. There was reliably more variability in timing at 3½ and 2½ atmospheres absolute than at normal pressure. At 3½ atmospheres absolute the average performance was also reliably slower. When the task was carried out for the second time, exposure to 3½ atmospheres absolute pressure had no reliable effect. Thus compressed air affected performance only while the task was being learnt; it had little effect after practice. No reliable differences were found related to age, to length of experience in compressed air, or to the duration of the exposure to compressed air, which was never less than 10 minutes at 3½ atmospheres absolute pressure. PMID:14180485

  16. Modelling the thermodynamic performance of a concentrated solar power plant with a novel modular air-cooled condenser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, J.; Grimes, R.; Walsh, E.; O'Donovan, A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims at developing a novel air-cooled condenser for concentrated solar power plants. The condenser offers two significant advantages over the existing state-of-the-art. Firstly, it can be installed in a modular format where pre-assembled condenser modules reduce installation costs. Secondly, instead of using large fixed speed fans, smaller speed controlled fans are incorporated into the individual modules. This facility allows the operating point of the condenser to change and continuously maximise plant efficiency. A thorough experimental analysis was performed on a number of prototype condenser designs. This analysis investigated the validly and accuracy of correlations from literature in predicting the thermal and aerodynamic characteristics of different designs. These measurements were used to develop a thermodynamic model to predict the performance of a 50 MW CSP (Concentrated Solar Power) plant with various condenser designs installed. In order to compare different designs with respect to the specific plant capital cost, a techno-economic analysis was performed which identified the optimum size of each condenser. The results show that a single row plate finned tube design, a four row, and a two row circular finned tube design are all similar in terms of their techno-economic performance and offer significant savings over other designs. - Highlights: • A novel air cooled condenser for CSP (Concentrated Solar Power) applications is proposed. • A thorough experimental analysis of various condenser designs was performed. • Heat transfer and flow friction correlations validated for fan generated air flow. • A thermodynamic model to calculate CSP plant output is presented. • Results show the proposed condenser design can continually optimise plant output

  17. Capturing low-carbon power system dynamics : Interactions between intermittent renewables and power plants with CO2 capture and storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Anne-Sjoerd

    2015-01-01

    Low-carbon power systems are needed by the year 2050 to meet climate change mitigation targets. This dissertation investigates the operational and economic feasibility of such future low-carbon power systems by simulating the Dutch and European power systems. Particular attention is paid to the

  18. Distributed energy systems with wind power and energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korpaas, Magnus

    2004-07-01

    wind power prediction tools makes it possible to take advantage of varying electricity prices as well as reduce imbalance costs. Simulation results show that the imbalance costs of wind power and the electricity price variations must be relatively high to justify the installation of a costly energy storage system. Energy storage is beneficial for wind power integration in power systems with high-cost regulating units, as well as in areas with weak grid connection. Hydrogen can become an economically viable energy carrier and storage medium for wind energy if hydrogen is introduced into the transportation sector. It is emphasized that seasonal wind speed variations lead to high storage costs if compressed hydrogen tanks are used for long-term storage. Simulation results indicate that reductions in hydrogen storage costs are more important than obtaining low-cost and high-efficient fuel cells and electrolyzers. Furthermore, it will be important to make use of the flexibility that the hydrogen alternative offers regarding sizing, operation and possibly the utilization of oxygen and heat as by-products. The main scientific contributions from this thesis are the development of - a simulation model for estimating the cost and energy efficiency of wind-hydrogen systems, - a probabilistic model for predicting the performance of a grid connected wind power plant with energy storage, - optimization models for increasing the value of wind power in electricity markets by the use of hydrogen storage and other energy storage solutions and the system knowledge about wind energy and energy storage that has been obtained by the use of these models (author) (ml)

  19. Investigation of solar parabolic trough power plants with and without integrated TES (thermal energy storage) and FBS (fuel backup system) using thermic oil and solar salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boukelia, T.E.; Mecibah, M.S.; Kumar, B.N.; Reddy, K.S.

    2015-01-01

    Thermodynamic, economic and environmental analyses of concentrating solar power plants assist in identifying an effective and viable configuration. In this paper, a 4E (energy-exergy-environmental-economic) comparative study of 8 different configurations of parabolic trough solar thermal power plants with two different working fluids (Therminol VP-1 -oil and molten solar salt), with and without integrated thermal energy storage or/and backup fuel system is presented. The results of the comparative study indicate relevant differences among the 8 configurations. The molten solar salt configuration with integrated thermal energy storage and fossil fuel backup system exhibits the highest overall energy efficiency (18.48%) compared to other configurations. Whereas, the highest overall exergy efficiency (21.77%), capacity factor (38.20%) and annual energy generation (114 GWh) are found for the oil based configuration with integrated thermal energy storage and fossil fuel backup system. The results indicate that the configurations based on molten salt are better in terms of environmental and economical parameters. The configurations with integrated thermal energy storage and fossil fuel backup system are found to be techno-economical, but on the other hand are less environment friendly. A detailed comparison of these plants after optimization must be performed before drawing a final conclusion about the best configuration to be adopted in parabolic trough solar thermal power plant. - Highlights: • 4E comparative study of 8 configurations of PTSTPP with two different fluids. • Comparison of the configurations with and without integrated TES (thermal energy storage) and FBS (fuel backup system). • The overall energy efficiency of the salt plant with TES and FBS is the highest. • The overall exergy efficiency of the oil plant with TES and FBS is the highest. • The salt plants are the best configurations in terms of environ–eco parameters

  20. Storage, handling and movement of fuel and related components at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The report describes in general terms the various operations involved in the handling of fresh fuel, irradiated fuel, and core components such as control rods, neutron sources, burnable poisons and removable instruments. It outlines the principal safety problems in these operations and provides the broad safety criteria which must be observed in the design, operation and maintenance of equipment and facilities for handling, transferring, and storing nuclear fuel and core components at nuclear power reactor sites

  1. Smart power management algorithm in microgrid consisting of photovoltaic, diesel, and battery storage plants considering variations in sunlight, temperature, and load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koohi-Kamali, Sam; Rahim, N.A.; Mokhlis, H.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel power management algorithm is developed. • An effective power smoothing index is derived. • Application of battery storage in smoothing the power fluctuations is investigated. • An applicable battery sizing and designing algorithm is proposed. • An efficient battery current control algorithm is designed. - Abstract: Integration of utility scaled solar electricity generator into power networks can negatively affect the performance of next generation smartgrid. Rapidly changing output power of this kind is unpredictable and thus one solution is to mitigate it by short-term to mid-term electrical storage systems like battery. The main objective of this paper is to propose a power management system (PMS) which is capable of suppressing these adverse impacts on the main supply. A smart microgrid (MG) including diesel, battery storage, and solar plants has been suggested for this purpose. MG is able to supply its local load based on operator decision and decline the power oscillations caused by solar system together with variable loads. A guideline algorithm is also proposed which helps to precisely design the battery plant. A novel application of time domain signal processing approach to filter oscillating output power of the solar plant is presented as well. In this case, a power smoothing index (PSI) is formulated, which considers both load and generation, and used to dispatch the battery plant. A droop reference estimator to schedule generation is also introduced where diesel plant can share the local load with grid. A current control algorithm is designed as well which adjusts for PSI to ensure battery current magnitude is allowable. MG along with its communication platform and PMS are simulated using PSCAD software. PMS is tested under different scenarios using real load profiles and environmental data in Malaysia to verify the operational abilities of proposed MG. The results indicate that PMS can effectively control the MG

  2. Thermal energy storage in rock chambers - a complement to nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margen, P.H.

    1971-01-01

    Within about a decade from now, the nuclear capacity on several generation systems will have become larger than the night load, thus increasing the incentive to exploit cheap night energy for daily storage schemes. In Sweden, energy storage schemes using rock cavities have been studied for a number of years. These include pumped storage schemes with lower magazines well below ground surface and gas turbine schemes with compressed air magazines. Recently preliminary studies have been made of a third form - that of storing hot high pressure water in rock cavities with a simple thermal insulation. One method of utilizing this water is as feed water for a nuclear power station, the water in the store being heated from about 73 ° C to 21 7°C at night, and the stored hot water being fed directly to the Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) during the day. An increase in turbine output by about 25% can then be achieved at peak periods due to the elimination of the h.p. steam bleeding for unchanged reactor power. About 35 kWh of electricity can be recovered per m 3 of storage volume, i.e. 30 times as much as if one m 3 of cold water had been allowed to descend 450 m under gravity to the lower magazine of a pumped storage plant. This illustrates how much more effective hot water storage utilizes the space of a rock cavity than does cold water storage for a pumped storage plant even at very great depths. The paper describes the circuit proposed and the design of the accumulator to meet the requirements concerning thermal insulation (to avoid exposing the rock walls to daily temperature cycles), avoidance of risk of leakage of slightly active feed water to the surrounding ground water even under severe accident conditions such as pipe and tank ruptures, and water chemistry to avoid water containing impurities or dissolved gases from reaching the feed water circuit. A preliminary cost analysis is given which shows that the proposal allows the generation of additional blocks of

  3. Design of an ammonia closed-loop storage system in a CSP power plant with a power tower cavity receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdiwe, Ramadan; Haider, Markus

    2017-06-01

    In this study the thermochemical system using ammonia as energy storage carrier is investigated and a transient mathematical model using MATLAB software was developed to predict the behavior of the ammonia closed-loop storage system including but not limited to the ammonia solar reactor and the ammonia synthesis reactor. The MATLAB model contains transient mass and energy balances as well as chemical equilibrium model for each relevant system component. For the importance of the dissociation and formation processes in the system, a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation on the ammonia solar and synthesis reactors has been performed. The CFD commercial package FLUENT is used for the simulation study and all the important mechanisms for packed bed reactors are taken into account, such as momentum, heat and mass transfer, and chemical reactions. The FLUENT simulation reveals the profiles inside both reactors and compared them with the profiles from the MATLAB code.

  4. Study on a heat recovery system for the thermal power plant utilizing air cooling island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Jian; Fu, Lin; Sun, Fangtian; Zhang, Shigang

    2014-01-01

    A new heat recovery system for CHP (combined heat and power) systems named HRU (heat recovery unit) is presented, which could recover the low grade heat of exhausted steam from the turbine at the thermal power plant directly. Heat recovery of exhausted steam is often accomplished by recovering the heat of cooling water in current systems. Therefore, two processes of heat transfer is needed at least. However, exhausted steam could be condensed in the evaporator of HRU directly, which reduce one process of heat transfer. A special evaporator is designed condense the exhausted steam directly. Simulated results are compared to experiments, which could include the calculation of heat transfer coefficients of different parts of HRU. It is found that about 25Mw of exhausted steam is recovered by this system. HRU could be promising for conventional CHP systems, which could increase the total energy efficiency obviously and enlarge the heating capacity of a built CHP system. - Highlights: • A new heat recovery system for thermal power plant is presented. • A mathematical model including heat transfer coefficients calculation is given. • This heat recovery system is experimented at a thermal power plant. • Performances of this system under different working conditions are simulated

  5. Criticality Calculations of Fresh LEU and MOX Assemblies for Transport and Storage at the Balakovo Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goluoglu, S.

    2001-01-11

    Transportation of low-enriched uranium (LEU) and mixed-oxide (MOX) assemblies to and within the VVER-1000-type Balakovo Nuclear Power Plant is investigated. Effective multiplication factors for fresh fuel assemblies on the railroad platform, fresh fuel assemblies in the fuel transportation vehicle, and fresh fuel assemblies in the spent fuel storage pool are calculated. If there is no absorber between the units, the configurations with all MOX assemblies result in higher effective multiplication factors than the configurations with all LEU assemblies when the system is dry. When the system is flooded, the configurations with all LEU assemblies result in higher effective multiplication factors. For normal operating conditions, effective multiplication factors for all configurations are below the presumed upper subcritical limit of 0.95. For an accident condition of a fully loaded fuel transportation vehicle that is flooded with low-density water (possibly from a fire suppression system), the presumed upper subcritical limit is exceeded by configurations containing LEU assemblies.

  6. Offshore atomic power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    Various merits of offshore atomic power plants are illustrated, and their systems are assessed. The planning of the offshore atomic power plants in USA is reviewed, and the construction costs of the offshore plant in Japan were estimated. Air pollution problem may be solved by the offshore atomic power plants remarkably. Deep water at low temperature may be advantageously used as cooling water for condensers. Marine resources may be bred by building artificial habitats and by providing spring-up equipments. In the case of floating plants, the plant design can be standardized so that the construction costs may be reduced. The offshore plants can be classified into three systems, namely artificial island system, floating system and sea bottom-based system. The island system may be realized with the present level of civil engineering, but requires the development of technology for the resistance of base against earthquake and its calculation means. The floating system may be constructed with conventional power plant engineering and shipbuilding engineering, but the aseismatic stability of breakwater may be a problem to be solved. Deep water floating system and deep water submerging system are conceivable, but its realization may be difficult. The sea bottom-based system with large caissons can be realized by the present civil engineering, but the construction of the caissons, stability against earthquake and resistance to waves may be problems to be solved. The technical prediction and assessment of new plant sites for nuclear power plants have been reported by Science and Technology Agency in 1974. The construction costs of an offshore plant has been estimated by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry to be yen71,026/kW as of 1985. (Iwakiri, K.)

  7. Final Deliverable W6, D6.4: Coal power plants with carbon capture and storage – A sustainability assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramirez, C.A.; Schakel, W.B.; Wood, R.; Grytli, T.

    2013-01-01

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is increasingly gaining attention as a strategy for the abatement of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. CCS includes the capture of CO2 emissions from electricity generation plants and/or industrial processes, its transport (by pipeline or ships) and sequestration in

  8. Testing of adsorbents used in nuclear power plant air cleaning systems using the open-quotes Newclose quotes standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, W.P.

    1993-01-01

    Ever since the publication of the NRC Information Notice No. 87-32: Deficiencies in the Testing of Nuclear-Grade Activated Charcoal, nuclear power facilities in the US have struggled in their efforts to open-quotes...review the information for applicability to their facilities and consider action, if appropriate ...close quotes as stated in the notice. The encouragement of resident NRC inspectors at some nuclear power facilities has prompted a variety of responses ranging from no change at all in testing requirements to contemplated changes in plant technical specifications. This confusion is the result of a couple factors. The first factor is the lack of a current revision to NRC Regulatory Guide 1.52, the basic document used in nuclear power plant technical specifications for the testing of engineered-safety feature (ESF) post accident air cleaning systems. The second factor is the standards that have been written since the last revision of Reg. Guide 1.52 which include two revision of ANSI N509 and N510, two revisions of RDT M16-1T, two version of ASTM D3803, two versions of ASTM D4069, and three versions of an SME code AG-1. Few of the standards and codes listed above are commensurate with each other and, thus, present a nearly insolvable maze to the HVAC engineer asked to upgrade adsorbent testing requirements following the standards. This paper describes the authors experience with a number of nuclear power facilities in their efforts to meet the requirements of the new standards of testing adsorbents from nuclear power plant air cleaning systems. The existing standards are discussed in light of the current state of the art for adsorbent testing of adsorbent media from nuclear air treatment systems. Test results are presented showing the impact of new test requirements on acceptance criteria when compared to the old test requirements and recommendations are offered for solution of this testing problem in the future. 12 refs., 5 tabs

  9. Modeling and numerical simulation of a novel solar-powered absorption air conditioning system driven by a bubble pump with energy storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Jia; LIANG Jian; CHEN GuangMing; DU RuXu

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a novel solar-powered absorption air conditioning system driven by a bubble pump with energy storage. It solves the problem of unreliable solar energy supply by storing the working fluids and hence, functions 24 h per day. First, the working principles are described and the dynamic models for the primary energy storage components are developed. Then, the system is evaluated based on a numerical simulation. Based on the meteorological data of a typical day in a subtropical area, with the area of a solar collector being set at 19.15 m2, whilst the initial charging mass, mass fraction and temperature of the solution are respectively set at 379.5 kg, 54.16% and 34.5 ℃, it is found that the respective coefficients of performance (COP) of the air conditioning system and the en-tire system (including the solar panel) are 0.7771 and 0.4372. In particular, the energy storage density of the system is 206.69 MJ/m3 which is much greater than those of chilled water or hot water storage systems under comparable conditions. This makes the new system much more compact and efficient. Finally, an automatic control strategy is given to achieve the highest COP when solar energy fluctuates.

  10. Nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Data concerning the existing nuclear power plants in the world are presented. The data was retrieved from the SIEN (Nuclear and Energetic Information System) data bank. The information are organized in table forms as follows: nuclear plants, its status and type; installed nuclear power plants by country; nuclear power plants under construction by country; planned nuclear power plants by country; cancelled nuclear power plants by country; shut-down nuclear power plants by country. (E.G.) [pt

  11. Study of Compressive Strength of Concrete with Coal Power Plant Fly Ash as Partial Replacement of Cement and Fine Aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAREED AHMED MEMON

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This research study comprises of concrete cubes made with Ordinary Portland Cement and with different configurations of fly ash by replacing cement and fine aggregate. To achieve the aim of this study, total 81 concrete cubes were cast. Among 81 cubes, 9 cubes were made with normal concrete, 36 cubes were made by replacing 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of fine aggregate with fly ash and 36 cubes were made by replacing 10%, 25%, 50%, and 75% of cement with fly ash. The cubes were 6\\" x 6\\" in cross-section, and the mix design was aimed for 5000 psi. After proper curing of all 81 cubes, they were tested at 3, 7 and 28 days curing age. The cubes were tested in Forney Universal Testing Machine. By analyzing the test results of all the concrete cubes, the following main findings have been drawn. The compressive strength of concrete cubes made by replacing 100 % fine aggregate by fly ash was higher than the concrete cubes made with Ordinary Portland Cement at all 3, 7 and 28 days curing ages. On the other hand, the compressive strength of concrete cubes made by replacing 10 % and 25 % cement by fly ash was slightly lower than the concrete cubes made with Ordinary Portland Cement at all curing ages, whereas, the compressive strength of concrete cubes made by replacing 50 % and 75 % of cement by fly ash were quite lower than the concrete cubes made with Ordinary Portland Cement at all curing ages.

  12. Applications Guide for Compressed Air Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lin, Mike

    2001-01-01

    .... Although CA systems are a very convenient power source, they are not cheap to operate. However, nearly all industrial plants can realize from 25 to 40 percent savings on the power costs for the CA system without additional capital expenditures...

  13. Modelling and dynamics of an air separation rectification column as part of an IGCC power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seliger, B.; Hanke-Rauschenbach, R.; Hannemann, F.; Sundmacher, K. [Otto Von Guericke University, Magdeburg (Germany)

    2006-04-15

    An Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle plant (IGCC) opens the well-proven and highly efficient combined cycle process to fossil fuels, like coal or heavy refinery residues. Such a plant thereby possesses a novel linkage of typical energy engineering related units, e.g. a gas turbine and typical process engineering parts, which in the present case is an air separation plant. Different responses from the connected components can cause undesired mass flow fluctuations within the system especially during changing load demands. The cryogenic rectification column, as the core of the air separation plant, strongly affects the system's transient behaviour. The upper part of such a heat-integrated double column, a packed column with structured packing, has therefore been more closely investigated in the present paper. For this purpose, a dynamic model of such a column has been developed which is also able to describe the pressure dynamics supposedly responsible for these mass flow fluctuations. The transient behaviour of the uncontrolled column is analysed and discussed with special regard to pressure dynamics. The column pressure responds to disturbances on two different time scales. The short-term response, which is in the range of 100-200 s, is governed by the transient behaviour of the fluid dynamics and is discussed in detail. The long-term response is dominated by the nonlinear dynamics of the concentration profiles. The time constant of this response depends strongly on the direction and intensity of the disturbance and takes from 10,000 up to several 100,000 s.

  14. Flux compression generators as plasma compression power sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, C.M.; Caird, R.S.; Erickson, D.J.; Freeman, B.L.; Thomson, D.B.; Garn, W.B.

    1979-01-01

    A survey is made of applications where explosive-driven magnetic flux compression generators have been or can be used to directly power devices that produce dense plasmas. Representative examples are discussed that are specific to the theta pinch, the plasma gun, the dense plasma focus and the Z pinch. These examples are used to illustrate the high energy and power capabilities of explosive generators. An application employing a rocket-borne, generator-powered plasma gun emphasizes the size and weight potential of flux compression power supplies. Recent results from a local effort to drive a dense plasma focus are provided. Imploding liners ae discussed in the context of both the theta and Z pinches

  15. Hygienic assessment of asbestos containing dust in the air of the working zone at thermal power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshkovskiy V.E.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Asbestos and artificial mineral fibers were used actively at thermal power plants (TPP as heat insulation of pipes, seal plates, electrical insulation, etc. But content of asbestos fibers in the air of working zone at TPP was not registered to date. Therefore, aim of the work was to assess asbestos containing dust in the air of working zone at steam turbine and gas turbine TPP in the east region of the country. It was found that old insulation at TPP is mixture of asbestoses that contains chrysotile asbestos and traces of amphibole asbestoses – crocidolite and anthophyllite. In the majority of investigated workplaces at the steam turbine TPP significant dust generation with exceed of maximum one-time exposure limits (2 mg/m3 was observed. Concentration of respirable fibers in the air of working zone in all workplaces did not exceed actual hygienic standard (1 fiber/cm3.

  16. Preliminary results of measurements of air pollution caused by sulfur compounds near the Polaniec power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dziewanski, J; Kasina, S; Lewinska, J; Piorek, S

    1976-01-01

    In the past investigations of the negative impact of power stations on the natural environment have been restricted to measuring sulfur dioxide content in the air. A method of determining complex influence of sulfur compounds on the natural environment is proposed. The following indexes are used: content of sulfur dioxide in the air, dust content (determined by means of the West-Gaeke method), content of sulphate ions in precipitation and pH value of precipitation. Methods used to determine each of the indexes are described. Location of measuring stations in the area where the power station is being constructed is evaluated, taking into account prevailing wind direction and atmospheric conditions (15 measuring points out of which 10 stations measure sulfur content in precipitation and pH value of precipitation, and 5 stations measure the mean daily concentration of sulfur dioxide and dust content). Results are presented in 3 maps, 1 table and 2 pictures. Variations in sulfur dioxide content, dust content, and pH value of precipitation depending on direction of wind, atmospheric conditions and season are analyzed. The results of the investigation will be compared with results of investigations carried out when the power station is in operation. (15 refs.)

  17. 41 CFR 50-204.8 - Use of compressed air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Use of compressed air. 50-204.8 Section 50-204.8 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public... General Safety and Health Standards § 50-204.8 Use of compressed air. Compressed air shall not be used for...

  18. Kansas Power Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Power Plants database depicts, as point features, the locations of the various types of power plant locations in Kansas. The locations of the power plants...

  19. Air supersaturation, release of wooden fibres and upstream migration of Atlantic salmon at Rygene power plant in the River Nidelva, Aust Agder county

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorstad, Eva B.; Kroglund, Frode; Oekland, Finn; Heggberget, Tor G.

    1997-01-01

    Incidents of dead fish have been reported in connection with a power plant at Rygene on the River Nidelva in the Aust-Agder county, Norway. Air supersaturation has been used in a bypass construction of the power plant tunnel system. In addition, wooden fibres from a fabric have been released into the water of the tunnel. Results from relevant studies concerning air saturation, wooden fibres and upstream migration are summarised in this report. 148 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Air pollution effects on forest vegetation: Effects of Vado Ligure (Italy) power plant on soil acidification (evaluation method validation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naviglio, L.; Angelone, M.; Velletti, A.R.

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this work was to verify possible soil acidification due to atmospheric pollution caused by the emission of a thermoelectric power plant (coal and fuel oil fired) at Vado Ligure (Savona, Liguria) with a method used in many European stations by Prof. R. Wittig and other authors. The obtained data did not show high differences between the more and lesser exposed stations. This can be due to many reasons: no real difference of air quality between the two localities, the stations are still too close to the power plants and emissions have no sufficient time to be chemically transformed to produce acid effects; the method is not available in those soil types. More experiments in other localities will be carried out to better understand the observed data

  1. Compressed-air flow control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bong, Ki Wan; Chapin, Stephen C; Pregibon, Daniel C; Baah, David; Floyd-Smith, Tamara M; Doyle, Patrick S

    2011-02-21

    We present the construction and operation of a compressed-air driven flow system that can be used for a variety of microfluidic applications that require rapid dynamic response and precise control of multiple inlet streams. With the use of inexpensive and readily available parts, we describe how to assemble this versatile control system and further explore its utility in continuous- and pulsed-flow microfluidic procedures for the synthesis and analysis of microparticles.

  2. A Survey on the effective role of nuclear power plants in decreasing air pollution and its relevant hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi, A.

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays air pollution, consequent reduction of Ozone layer's thickness and increase of UV radiations are included as the hazardous phenomenon, which confronts mankind with fundamental challenges. Increase of population, use of high living standards together with the consumption of fossil fuels for generations of electrical energy have increases air pollution at the global. scale. According to the carried out studies carried out in the three latest decades, alteration of atmospheric gases such as Ozone, dioxide azoth, dioxide sulphur, dioxide carbon, Methane, monoxide carbon and hydrocarbons have caused the appearance of water and air new forms of pollutions all over the world the harmful side effects resulted from air pollution on the respiratory systems and other cordial and blood vessels are well documented. Due to the air and water uncommon pollutions resulted from fossil fuels consumptions, use of nuclear power plants as a safe option can prevent several pollutants such as gases, poisoning metals and suspended elements or downpour of acidic rains in environment. In this article, it is tried difficulties and hazardous results of air pollution and resulted from consumption of fossil fuels, and discusses the effective role of nuclear energy studies in reduction of such pollutions

  3. Numerical study of the thermo-flow performances of novel finned tubes for air-cooled condensers in power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yonghong; Du, Xiaoze; Yang, Lijun

    2018-02-01

    Air-cooled condenser is the main equipment of the direct dry cooling system in a power plant, which rejects heat of the exhaust steam with the finned tube bundles. Therefore, the thermo-flow performances of the finned tubes have an important effect on the optimal operation of the direct dry cooling system. In this paper, the flow and heat transfer characteristics of the single row finned tubes with the conventional flat fins and novel jagged fins are investigated by numerical method. The flow and temperature fields of cooling air for the finned tubes are obtained. Moreover, the variations of the flow resistance and average convection heat transfer coefficient under different frontal velocity of air and jag number are presented. Finally, the correlating equations of the friction factor and Nusselt number versus the Reynolds number are fitted. The results show that with increasing the frontal velocity of air, the heat transfer performances of the finned tubes are enhanced but the pressure drop will increase accordingly, resulting in the average convection heat transfer coefficient and friction factor increasing. Meanwhile, with increasing the number of fin jag, the heat transfer performance is intensified. The present studies provide a reference in optimal designing for the air-cooled condenser of direct air cooling system.

  4. Pulse power applications of flux compression generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, C.M.; Caird, R.S.; Erickson, D.J.; Freeman, B.L.

    1981-01-01

    Characteristics are presented for two different types of explosive driven flux compression generators and a megavolt pulse transformer. Status reports are given for rail gun and plasma focus programs for which the generators serve as power sources

  5. Techno-Economic Assessment of Heat Transfer Fluid Buffering for Thermal Energy Storage in the Solar Field of Parabolic Trough Solar Thermal Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge M. Llamas

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently, operating parabolic trough (PT solar thermal power plants, either solar-only or with thermal storage block, use the solar field as a heat transfer fluid (HTF thermal storage system to provide extra thermal capacity when it is needed. This is done by circulating heat transfer fluid into the solar field piping in order to create a heat fluid buffer. In the same way, by oversizing the solar field, it can work as an alternative thermal energy storage (TES system to the traditionally applied methods. This paper presents a solar field TES model for a standard solar field from a 50-MWe solar power plant. An oversized solar model is analyzed to increase the capacity storage system (HTF buffering. A mathematical model has been developed and different simulations have been carried out over a cycle of one year with six different solar multiples considered to represent the different oversized solar field configurations. Annual electricity generation and levelized cost of energy (LCOE are calculated to find the solar multiple (SM which makes the highest solar field thermal storage capacity possible within the minimum LCOE.

  6. Heat pipe air preheater for gas-/oil-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, D.P.

    1993-02-01

    With the rising costs of fuel, utilities are constantly looking for ways to improve the net plant heat rate of new and existing units. Significant heat rate improvements can be obtained by reducing the exit stack flue gas temperature. This project evaluated two technologies to reduce flue gas temperatures: heat pipes and liquid-coupled heat exchangers. The specific unit chosen for evaluating these systems was Pacific Gas ampersand Electric's 750 MW Moss Landing Power Plant, Unit 7. Both natural gas and low sulfur (0.5%) fuel oil are fired at this plant. Accordingly, the heat exchangers were required to operate on both fuels. This study investigated the heat recovery installation through the preliminary engineering level of detail. At the conclusion of this effort, the results indicated that neither concept was economically attractive for the retrofit situation involved. In addition, several major technical questions remained unresolved concerning the design of a single heat-exchange device capable of operating on gas (sulfur-free) and oil (sulfur-containing) environments over the full normal operating load range. While the technologies this study reviewed have been installed in actual power plant applications, the site-specific aspects of Moss Landing Unit 7 significantly influenced the estimated costs and performance of each alternative. Using more cost-effective and corrosion-resistant materials may help reduce costs. The following conditions would further enhance the viability of lowering exit gas temperatures: Higher capacity factors; rising fuel costs; greater use of sulfur-free fuels, such as natural gas; lower manufacturing costs for heat exchanger technologies; or new unit application

  7. Chapter 22: Compressed Air Evaluation Protocol. The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Benton, Nathanael [Nexant, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Burns, Patrick [Nexant, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2017-10-18

    Compressed-air systems are used widely throughout industry for many operations, including pneumatic tools, packaging and automation equipment, conveyors, and other industrial process operations. Compressed-air systems are defined as a group of subsystems composed of air compressors, air treatment equipment, controls, piping, pneumatic tools, pneumatically powered machinery, and process applications using compressed air. A compressed-air system has three primary functional subsystems: supply, distribution, and demand. Air compressors are the primary energy consumers in a compressed-air system and are the primary focus of this protocol. The two compressed-air energy efficiency measures specifically addressed in this protocol are: High-efficiency/variable speed drive (VSD) compressor replacing modulating, load/unload, or constant-speed compressor; and Compressed-air leak survey and repairs. This protocol provides direction on how to reliably verify savings from these two measures using a consistent approach for each.

  8. Auditing of sampling methods for air toxics at coal-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agbede, R.O.; Clements, J.L.; Grunebach, M.G.

    1995-01-01

    Advanced Technology Systems, Inc. (ATS) with subcontract assistance from international Technology Corporation (IT) has provided external audit activities for Phase II of the Department of Energy-Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center's air emission test program. The objective of the audits is to help ensure that the data obtained from the emission tests are precise, accurate, representative, scientifically sound and legally defensible. This paper presents the criteria that were used to perform the external audits of the emission test program. It also describes the approach used by ATS and It in performing their audits. Examples of findings of the audits along with the actions take to correct problems and the subsequent effect of those actions on the test data are presented. The results of audit spikes performed at the Plant 1 test site are also discussed

  9. Auditing of sampling methods for air toxics at coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agbede, R.O.; Clements, J.L.; Grunebach, M.G. [Advanced Technology Systems, Inc., Monroeville, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    Advanced Technology Systems, Inc. (ATS) with subcontract assistance from international Technology Corporation (IT) has provided external audit activities for Phase II of the Department of Energy-Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center`s air emission test program. The objective of the audits is to help ensure that the data obtained from the emission tests are precise, accurate, representative, scientifically sound and legally defensible. This paper presents the criteria that were used to perform the external audits of the emission test program. It also describes the approach used by ATS and It in performing their audits. Examples of findings of the audits along with the actions take to correct problems and the subsequent effect of those actions on the test data are presented. The results of audit spikes performed at the Plant 1 test site are also discussed.

  10. The 10 MWe Solar Thermal Central Receiver Pilot Plant: Solar facilities design integration. Pilot-plant station manual (RADL Item 2-1). Volume 1: System description

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    The complete Barstow Solar Pilot Plant is described. The plant requirements and general description are presented, the mechanical, electric power, and control and instrumentation systems as well as civil engineering and structural aspects and the station buildings are described. Included in the mechanical systems are the heliostats, receiver, thermal storage system, beam characterization system, steam, water, nitrogen, and compressed air systems, chemical feed system, fire protection system, drains, sumps and the waste disposal systems, and heating, ventilating, and air conditioning systems.

  11. Pulsed power inductive energy storage in the microsecond range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rix, W.; Miller, A.R.; Thompson, J.; Waisman, E.; Wilkinson, M.; Wilson, A.

    1993-01-01

    During the past five years Maxwell has developed a series of inductive energy storage (IES) pulsed power generators; ACE 1, ACE 2, ACE 3, and ACE 4, to drive electron-beam loads. They are all based on a plasma opening switch (POS) contained in a single vacuum envelope operating at conduction times of around one microsecond. They all employ fast capacitor bank technology to match this conduction time without intermediate power conditioning. Oil or air filled transmission lines transfer capacitor bank energy to a vacuum section where the final pulse compression is accomplished. Development of the ACE series is described, emphasizing capacitor bank and the opening switch technology for delivering high voltage, multimegampere pulses to electron beam loads

  12. Optimal operation of a pumped-storage hydro plant that compensates the imbalances of a wind power producer

    OpenAIRE

    Duque, Álvaro Jaramillo; Castronuovo, Edgardo D.; Sánchez, Ismael; Usaola, Julio

    2011-01-01

    The participation of wind energy in electricity markets requires providing a forecast for future energy production of a wind generator, whose value will be its scheduled energy. Deviations from this schedule because of prediction errors could imply the payment of imbalance costs. In order to decrease these costs, a joint operation between a wind farm and a hydro-pump plant is proposed; the hydro-pump plant changes its production to compensate wind power prediction errors. In order to optimize...

  13. Performance analysis of a bio-gasification based combined cycle power plant employing indirectly heated humid air turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, S., E-mail: sankha.deepp@gmail.com; Mondal, P., E-mail: mondal.pradip87@gmail.com; Ghosh, S., E-mail: sudipghosh.becollege@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur, Howrah – 711103, West Bengal (India)

    2016-07-12

    Rapid depletion of fossil fuel has forced mankind to look into alternative fuel resources. In this context, biomass based power generation employing gas turbine appears to be a popular choice. Bio-gasification based combined cycle provides a feasible solution as far as grid-independent power generation is concerned for rural electrification projects. Indirectly heated gas turbine cycles are promising alternatives as they avoid downstream gas cleaning systems. Advanced thermodynamic cycles have become an interesting area of study to improve plant efficiency. Water injected system is one of the most attractive options in this field of applications. This paper presents a theoretical model of a biomass gasification based combined cycle that employs an indirectly heated humid air turbine (HAT) in the topping cycle. Maximum overall electrical efficiency is found to be around 41%. Gas turbine specific air consumption by mass is minimum when pressure ratio is 6. The study reveals that, incorporation of the humidification process helps to improve the overall performance of the plant.

  14. Geothermal Power Generation Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Tonya [Oregon Inst. of Technology, Klamath Falls, OR (United States). Geo-Heat Center

    2013-12-01

    Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT) drilled a deep geothermal well on campus (to 5,300 feet deep) which produced 196°F resource as part of the 2008 OIT Congressionally Directed Project. OIT will construct a geothermal power plant (estimated at 1.75 MWe gross output). The plant would provide 50 to 75 percent of the electricity demand on campus. Technical support for construction and operations will be provided by OIT’s Geo-Heat Center. The power plant will be housed adjacent to the existing heat exchange building on the south east corner of campus near the existing geothermal production wells used for heating campus. Cooling water will be supplied from the nearby cold water wells to a cooling tower or air cooling may be used, depending upon the type of plant selected. Using the flow obtained from the deep well, not only can energy be generated from the power plant, but the “waste” water will also be used to supplement space heating on campus. A pipeline will be construction from the well to the heat exchanger building, and then a discharge line will be construction around the east and north side of campus for anticipated use of the “waste” water by facilities in an adjacent sustainable energy park. An injection well will need to be drilled to handle the flow, as the campus existing injection wells are limited in capacity.

  15. Aging and service wear of air-operated valves used in safety-related systems at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, D.F.; McElhaney, K.L.; Staunton, R.H.

    1995-05-01

    Air-operated valves (AOVs) are used in a variety of safety-related applications at nuclear power plants. They are often used where rapid stroke times are required or precise control of the valve obturator is required. They can be designed to operate automatically upon loss of power, which is often desirable when selecting components for response to design basis conditions. The purpose of this report is to examine the reported failures of AOVs and determine whether there are identifiable trends in the failures related to predictable causes. This report examines the specific components that comprise a typical AOV, how those components fail, when they fail, and how such failures are discovered. It also examines whether current testing frequencies and methods are effective in predicting such failures

  16. Power plants 2009. Lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Within the Annual Conference 2009 of the VGB PowerTech e.V. (Essen, Federal Republic of Germany) from 23rd to 25th May, 2009, in Lyon (France) the following lectures were held: (1) Electricity demand, consequences of the financial and economic crisis - Current overview 2020 for the EU-27 (Hans ten Berge); (2) Status and perspectives of the electricity generation mix in France (Bernard Dupraz); (3) European electricity grid - status and perspective (Dominique Maillard); (4) Technologies and acceptance in the European energy market (Gordon MacKerran); (5) EPR construction in Finland, China, France, (Claude Jaouen); (6) EPR Flamanville 3: A project on the path towards nuclear revival (Jacques Alary); (7) Worldwide nuclear Revival and acceptance (Luc Geraets); (8) An overview on the status of final disposal of radioactive wastes worldwide (Piet Zuidema); (9) Who needs pumped storage plants? PSP are partner to grid stability and renewable energies (Hans-Christoph Funke); (10) Sustainable use of water resources to generate electricity safely and efficiently (Patrick Tourasse); (11) The growth strategy of RWE Innogy - Role of RES in RWE strategy (Fritz Vahrenholt); (12) Solar technologies towards grid parity - key factors and timeframe (G. Gigliucci); (13) Overview on CCS technologies and results of Vattenfalls oxyfuel pilot plant (Philippe Paelinck); (14) Development perspectives of lignite-based IGCC-plants with CCS (Dietmar Keller); (15) Post combustion capture plants - concept and plant integration (Wolfgang Schreier); (16) CCS fossil power generation in a carbon constraint world (Daniel Hofmann); (17) CEZ group strategy in Central and South Eastern Europe (Jan Zizka); (18) Strategy and projects of DONG Energy (Jens Erik Pedersen); (19) E.ON coal-based power generation of the future - The highly efficient power plant and downstream separation of carbon dioxide (Gerhard Seibel); (20) Final sage of first supercritical 460 MW e l. CFB Boiler construction - firs

  17. The level of air pollution in the impact zone of coal-fired power plant (Karaganda City) using the data of geochemical snow survey (Republic of Kazakhstan)

    OpenAIRE

    Adil'bayeva, Т. E.; Talovskaya, Anna Valerievna; Yazikov, Yegor (Egor) Grigoryevich; Matveenko, Irina Alekseevna

    2016-01-01

    Coal-fired power plants emissions impact the air quality and human health. Of great significance is assessment of solid airborne particles emissions from those plants and distance of their transportation. The article presents the results of air pollution assessment in the zone of coal-fired power plant (Karaganda City) using snow survey. Based on the mass of solid airborne particles deposited in snow, time of their deposition on snow at the distance from 0.5 to 4.5 km a value of dust load has...

  18. A systematic approach to find the best road map for enhancement of a power plant with dew point inlet air pre-cooling of the air compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohani, Ali; Farasati, Yashar; Sayyaadi, Hoseyn

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Dew-point cooler was proposed in order to enhance a power plant. • A systematic method to find the best road map was offered. • Investigation was done considering four optimization scenarios and different investment plans. • Payback period of the final plan was 2.67 years. • Annual net power and steam generation’s capability were improved 6.02% and 8.92%. - Abstract: Dimensional characteristics and operating parameters of the optimized Maisotsenko indirect evaporative cooler for pre-cooling of the compressor’s inlet air and consequently enhancement of the gas-turbine power generation system as well as the best investment strategy for it were found for an in-operation combined cycle power plant through a systematic approach. Four optimization scenarios were proposed considering different combinations of annual average of net power of the gas-turbine power generation system, payback period time and enthalpy difference of exhaust gases compared to the reference state of each gas-turbine power generation system as objective functions. In each scenario, optimization was conducted for different possible percentages of investment allocated to the research and development of the project. After that, analytical hierarchy process was used to find the best percentage of investment allocated to the research and development of the project of each scenario and the final selected one. Having introduced the approach, it was implemented for Montazer-Ghaem combined cycle power plant in Iran. The results showed for that case study, the analytical hierarchy process selected an optimization scenario in which the annual average of the net power and the enthalpy difference of the exhaust gases compared to the reference state were the objective functions and 15% of the total profit of the gas-turbine power generation system sold electricity was dedicated to the improvement project. This optimization had the payback period time of 2.67 years and it also improved

  19. Compressed Air System Modifications Improve Efficiency at a Plastics Blow Molding Plant (Southeastern Container Plant): Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) BestPractices Technical Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wogsland, J.

    2001-06-18

    This case study is one in a series on industrial firms who are implementing energy efficient technologies and system improvements into their manufacturing processes. This case study documents the activities, savings, and lessons learned on the plastics blow molding plant project.

  20. A Techno-Economic Assessment of Hybrid Cooling Systems for Coal- and Natural-Gas-Fired Power Plants with and without Carbon Capture and Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Haibo; Rubin, Edward S

    2016-04-05

    Advanced cooling systems can be deployed to enhance the resilience of thermoelectric power generation systems. This study developed and applied a new power plant modeling option for a hybrid cooling system at coal- or natural-gas-fired power plants with and without amine-based carbon capture and storage (CCS) systems. The results of the plant-level analyses show that the performance and cost of hybrid cooling systems are affected by a range of environmental, technical, and economic parameters. In general, when hot periods last the entire summer, the wet unit of a hybrid cooling system needs to share about 30% of the total plant cooling load in order to minimize the overall system cost. CCS deployment can lead to a significant increase in the water use of hybrid cooling systems, depending on the level of CO2 capture. Compared to wet cooling systems, widespread applications of hybrid cooling systems can substantially reduce water use in the electric power sector with only a moderate increase in the plant-level cost of electricity generation.

  1. Fragility Analysis Methodology for Degraded Structures and Passive Components in Nuclear Power Plants - Illustrated using a Condensate Storage Tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nie, J.; Braverman, J.; Hofmayer, C.; Choun, Y.; Kim, M.; Choi, I.

    2010-06-30

    The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is conducting a five-year research project to develop a realistic seismic risk evaluation system which includes the consideration of aging of structures and components in nuclear power plants (NPPs). The KAERI research project includes three specific areas that are essential to seismic probabilistic risk assessment (PRA): (1) probabilistic seismic hazard analysis, (2) seismic fragility analysis including the effects of aging, and (3) a plant seismic risk analysis. Since 2007, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has entered into a collaboration agreement with KAERI to support its development of seismic capability evaluation technology for degraded structures and components. The collaborative research effort is intended to continue over a five year period. The goal of this collaboration endeavor is to assist KAERI to develop seismic fragility analysis methods that consider the potential effects of age-related degradation of structures, systems, and components (SSCs). The research results of this multi-year collaboration will be utilized as input to seismic PRAs. In the Year 1 scope of work, BNL collected and reviewed degradation occurrences in US NPPs and identified important aging characteristics needed for the seismic capability evaluations. This information is presented in the Annual Report for the Year 1 Task, identified as BNL Report-81741-2008 and also designated as KAERI/RR-2931/2008. The report presents results of the statistical and trending analysis of this data and compares the results to prior aging studies. In addition, the report provides a description of U.S. current regulatory requirements, regulatory guidance documents, generic communications, industry standards and guidance, and past research related to aging degradation of SSCs. In the Year 2 scope of work, BNL carried out a research effort to identify and assess degradation models for the long-term behavior of dominant materials that are

  2. Microfluidic pressure sensing using trapped air compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Nimisha; Burns, Mark A

    2007-05-01

    We have developed a microfluidic method for measuring the fluid pressure head experienced at any location inside a microchannel. The principal component is a microfabricated sealed chamber with a single inlet and no exit; the entrance to the single inlet is positioned at the location where pressure is to be measured. The pressure measurement is then based on monitoring the movement of a liquid-air interface as it compresses air trapped inside the microfabricated sealed chamber and calculating the pressure using the ideal gas law. The method has been used to measure the pressure of the air stream and continuous liquid flow inside microfluidic channels (d approximately 50 microm). Further, a pressure drop has also been measured using multiple microfabricated sealed chambers. For air pressure, a resolution of 700 Pa within a full-scale range of 700-100 kPa was obtained. For liquids, pressure drops as low as 70 Pa were obtained in an operating range from 70 Pa to 10 kPa. Since the method primarily uses a microfluidic sealed chamber, it does not require additional fabrication steps and may easily be incorporated in several lab-on-a-chip fluidic applications for laminar as well as turbulent flow conditions.

  3. Emission Facilities - Air Emission Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Represents the Primary Facility type Air Emission Plant (AEP) point features. Air Emissions Plant is a DEP primary facility type related to the Air Quality Program....

  4. Compilation of data on the release of radioactive substances in the vent air of nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany in 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkelmann, I.; Endrulat, H.J.; Haubelt, R.; Westpfahl, U.

    1976-04-01

    The present compilation of data on the release of radioactive substances in the vent air of nuclear power plants in the FRG is a continuation of a report series on aerosol filter and iodine filter samples from the exhaust air control systems of the nuclear power plants Gundremmingen, Obrigheim, Wuergassen, Stade, Lingen and Biblis A. The reports have been issued by the Federal public health office since 1972. This report is supplemented by annual release values on radioactive noble gases, on short- and long-lived aerosols, and on gaseous 131 I, supplied by the individual nuclear power plants as in previous years on uniform questionnaires. Data on the release of tritium are also available from some nuclear power plants. (orig.) [de

  5. Selection and Performance-Degradation Modeling of LiMO2/Li4Ti5O12 and LiFePO4/C Battery Cells as Suitable Energy Storage Systems for Grid Integration With Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Stan, Ana-Irina

    2014-01-01

    Advances in the development of energy storage technologies are making them attractive for grid integration together with wind power plants. Thus, the new system, the virtual power plant, is able to emulate the characteristics of today’s conventional power plants. However, at present, energy stora......-degradation models were developed for the two most suitable Li–ion chemistries for the primary frequency regulation service: LiMO2 /Li4Ti5O12 and LiFePO4/C....

  6. Could a geological storage of the CO2 emissions from Romanian power plants become a joint implementation project?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matei, Magdalena; Ene, Simona; Necula, Catalina; Matei, Lucian; Marinescu, Mihai

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Emissions trading is a solution that is most compatible with deregulated electricity markets. The Directive 2003/87/CE referring to CO 2 emission trading within Europe entered into force and till 31 March 2004 all the countries had to present to the Commission their national plan to comply with Directive's rules. Recent predictions of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change indicate that global warming will accelerate within this century. CO 2 emitted by the burning of fossil fuels is thought to be a main driving factor of climate change. With the potential to produce power without releasing CO 2 into the atmosphere, CO 2 capturing may become an important part of the post- Kyoto strategies of many countries. Underground storage of CO 2 seems to be one of the most attractive alternative. Potential targets for CO 2 injection are: - depleted oil reservoirs, possibly in combination with enhanced oil recovery - former gas fields, possibly with additional gas production - deep aquifers containing saline, non-drinkable water - deep and unminable coal seams (exchange of absorbed methane by CO 2 with simultaneous gas production) - geothermal wells, after heat extraction from the aquifers - residual volumes of former deep coal and salt mines. An environmental political decision about the option of CO 2 underground storage has to consider forecasts about developments of global climate, societies, and economics. Due to the forthcoming emission trading there is a growing interest in underground storage options for CO 2 in Europe now. Flexible mechanisms agreed by Kyoto Protocol, namely the Project-based Joint Implementation (Art. 6) and the Emission Trading (Art. 17) could help Romania to attract investment with a long term impact on emissions reduction. The brief identification of major CO 2 emissions sources and of possible CO 2 geological storage capacities (coal mines, aquifers, geothermal wells, oil and gas fields) shows that it is very probable to

  7. Expertise on the Goesgen-Daeniken nuclear power plant on the granting of a licence for the construction and operation of a water storage pool for fuel assemblies at the site of the power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-04-01

    On June 26, 2002, the Goesgen-Daeniken AG nuclear power plant (KKG) delivered a request to the Swiss Federal Council for the granting of a licence for the construction and operation of a water storage pool for the on-site storage of the power plant's fuel assemblies. The present report contains the results of the examination of the request by the Federal Agency for the Safety of Nuclear Installations (HSK), to check that the projected storage pool satisfies the legal requirements from the point of view of nuclear safety and protection against radioactivity. A water storage pool already exists in the reactor building of KKG. It was conceived for a fuel cycle based on the reprocessing of the spent fuel assemblies. Its capacity is not sufficient when the spent fuel assemblies are no longer reprocessed but have to be transferred and stored in the Central Intermediate Storage Facility (ZWILAG) in Wuerenlingen because their heat production is too high. The capacity of the actual water pool allows a maximum cooling time of 5-6 years, while 7-10 years are required before transfer to ZWILAG. The projected new water storage pool has to be aircraft crash and earthquake proof, in the same way that the reactor building itself has to be. It can store a maximum of 1008 fuel assemblies. The water in the pool as well as the pool walls shield the radiation from of the fuel assemblies almost completely. Each fuel assembly is put into a square steel channel. The channel walls are lined with 6.11 mg/cm 2 of the neutron absorbing nuclide B-10, which guaranties the subcriticality of the water pool even if the storage pool would be entirely filled with non-irradiated fuel assemblies with the maximal allowed enrichment or the maximal allowed content of Plutonium in case of MOX fuel assemblies, which is a very conservative assumption. The heat released by decay in the spent fuel assemblies is transferred to the pool water. Storage pool cooling is carried out by natural circulation through

  8. A methodology to assess the economic impact of power storage technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ghandour, Laila; Johnson, Timothy C

    2017-08-13

    We present a methodology for assessing the economic impact of power storage technologies. The methodology is founded on classical approaches to the optimal stopping of stochastic processes but involves an innovation that circumvents the need to, ex ante , identify the form of a driving process and works directly on observed data, avoiding model risks. Power storage is regarded as a complement to the intermittent output of renewable energy generators and is therefore important in contributing to the reduction of carbon-intensive power generation. Our aim is to present a methodology suitable for use by policy makers that is simple to maintain, adaptable to different technologies and easy to interpret. The methodology has benefits over current techniques and is able to value, by identifying a viable optimal operational strategy, a conceived storage facility based on compressed air technology operating in the UK.This article is part of the themed issue 'Energy management: flexibility, risk and optimization'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  9. Phenomenology of deflagration and detonation of hydrogen-air mixtures in water cooled nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombardi, G.

    1984-01-01

    This paper summarizes fundamentals of the flammability of the hydrogen-air mixtures and hydrogen-air containing added steam or other inerting agent. The flammability behaviour of such gaseous mixtures is described with reference to physical and chemical conditions close enough to those expected in the containment of a nuclear reactor during a LOCA

  10. Enhancing mercury removal across air pollution control devices for coal-fired power plants by desulfurization wastewater evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin, Hu; Yang, Yi; Cai, Liang; Yang, Linjun; Roszak, Szczepan

    2017-10-09

    Desulfurization wastewater evaporation technology is used to enhance the removal of gaseous mercury (Hg) in conventional air pollution control devices (APCDs) for coal-fired power plants. Studies have affirmed that gaseous Hg is oxidized and removed by selective catalytic reduction (SCR), an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) in a coal-fired thermal experiment platform with WFGD wastewater evaporation. Effects of desulfurization wastewater evaporation position, evaporation temperature and chlorine ion concentration on Hg oxidation were studied as well. The Hg 0 oxidation efficiency was increased ranging from 30% to 60%, and the gaseous Hg removal efficiency was 62.16% in APCDs when wastewater evaporated before SCR. However, the Hg 0 oxidation efficiency was 18.99% and the gaseous Hg removal efficiency was 40.19% in APCDs when wastewater evaporated before ESP. The results show that WFGD wastewater evaporation before SCR is beneficial to improve the efficiency of Hg oxidized and removed in APCDs. Because Hg 2+ can be easily removed in ACPDs and WFGD wastewater in power plants is enriched with chlorine ions, this method realizes WFGD wastewater zero discharge and simultaneously enhances Hg removal in APCDs.

  11. THERMOCHEMICAL HEAT STORAGE FOR CONCENTRATED SOLAR POWER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PROJECT STAFF

    2011-10-31

    Thermal energy storage (TES) is an integral part of a concentrated solar power (CSP) system. It enables plant operators to generate electricity beyond on sun hours and supply power to the grid to meet peak demand. Current CSP sensible heat storage systems employ molten salts as both the heat transfer fluid and the heat storage media. These systems have an upper operating temperature limit of around 400 C. Future TES systems are expected to operate at temperatures between 600 C to 1000 C for higher thermal efficiencies which should result in lower electricity cost. To meet future operating temperature and electricity cost requirements, a TES concept utilizing thermochemical cycles (TCs) based on multivalent solid oxides was proposed. The system employs a pair of reduction and oxidation (REDOX) reactions to store and release heat. In the storage step, hot air from the solar receiver is used to reduce the oxidation state of an oxide cation, e.g. Fe3+ to Fe2+. Heat energy is thus stored as chemical bonds and the oxide is charged. To discharge the stored energy, the reduced oxide is re-oxidized in air and heat is released. Air is used as both the heat transfer fluid and reactant and no storage of fluid is needed. This project investigated the engineering and economic feasibility of this proposed TES concept. The DOE storage cost and LCOE targets are $15/kWh and $0.09/kWh respectively. Sixteen pure oxide cycles were identified through thermodynamic calculations and literature information. Data showed the kinetics of re-oxidation of the various oxides to be a key barrier to implementing the proposed concept. A down selection was carried out based on operating temperature, materials costs and preliminary laboratory measurements. Cobalt oxide, manganese oxide and barium oxide were selected for developmental studies to improve their REDOX reaction kinetics. A novel approach utilizing mixed oxides to improve the REDOX kinetics of the selected oxides was proposed. It partially

  12. AND THERMAL POWER PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alduhov Oleg Aleksandrovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of the atmospheric dispersion as part of the process of selection of sites to accommodate nuclear and thermal power plants is performed to identify concentration fields of emissions and to assess the anthropogenic impact produced on the landscape components and human beings. Scattering properties of the atmospheric boundary layer are mainly determined by the turbulence intensity and the wind field. In its turn, the turbulence intensity is associated with the thermal stratification of the boundary layer. Therefore, research of the atmospheric dispersion is reduced to the study of temperature and wind patterns of the boundary layer. Statistical processing and analysis of the upper-air data involves the input of the data collected by upper-air stations. Until recently, the upper-air data covering the standard period between 1961 and 1970 were applied for these purposes, although these data cannot assure sufficient reliability of assessments in terms of the properties of the atmospheric dispersion. However, recent scientific and technological developments make it possible to substantially increase the data coverage by adding the upper-air data collected within the period between 1964 and 2010. The article has a brief overview of BL_PROGS, a specialized software package designated for the processing of the above data. The software package analyzes the principal properties of the atmospheric dispersion. The use of the proposed software package requires preliminary development of a database that has the information collected by an upper-air station. The software package is noteworthy for the absence of any substantial limitations imposed onto the amount of the input data that may go up in proportion to the amount of the upper-air data collected by upper-air stations.

  13. Atmospheric Tracer Depletion Testing for Unfiltered Air In-Leakage Determination at the Wolf Creek Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, T. M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wilke, R. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Roberts, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Vignato, G. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Atmospheric Tracer Depletion tests were conducted at the Wolf Creek Nuclear Power Plant to quantify the unfiltered in-leakage (UI) into the Control Room (CR), Control Building (CB), and Equipment Rooms (ER) at the Wolf Creek Nuclear Power Plant. Wolf Creek has two independent charcoal filter Emergency Ventilation Systems (EVS) that can be used to purify air entering the control building and control room. The Bravo System contains a filtration system in Room 1501 in the Auxiliary Building for the Control Room and another filtration system (FGK02B) on Elevation 2016 for the Control Building. The Alpha system contains a filtration system in Room 1512 in the Auxiliary Building for the Control Room and another filtration system (FGK02A) on Elevation 2016 for the Control Building. The Atmospheric Tracer Depletion (ATD) test is a technique to measure in-leakage using the concentration of perfluorocarbon compounds that have a constant atmospheric background. These levels are present in the Control Room and Control Building under normal operating conditions. When air is supplied by either of the EVS, most of the PFTS are removed by the charcoal filters. If the concentrations of the PFTs measured in protected areas are the same as the levels at the output of the EVS, the in-leakage of outside air into the protected area would be zero. If the concentration is higher in the protected area than at the output of the filter system, there is in-leakage and the in-leakage can be quantified by the difference. Sampling was performed using state-of-the-art Brookhaven Atmospheric Tracer Samplers (BATS) air sampling equipment and analysis performed on Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) dedicated PFT analytical systems. In the Alpha test two tracers PMCH and mcPDCH were used to determine in-leakage into the control building. The analytical system was tuned to maximize sensitivity after initial analysis of the Alpha test. The increased sensitivity permitted accurate quantification of

  14. Atmospheric Tracer Depletion Testing for Unfiltered Air In-Leakage Determination at the Wolf Creek Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, T. M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wilke, R. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Roberts, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Vignato, G. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Atmospheric Tracer Depletion tests were conducted at the Wolf Creek Nuclear Power Plant to quantify the unfiltered in-leakage (UI) into the Control Room (CR), Control Building (CB), and Equipment Rooms (ER) at the Wolf Creek Nuclear Power Plant. Wolf Creek has two independent charcoal filter Emergency Ventilation Systems (EVS) that can be used to purify air entering the control building and control room. The Bravo System contains a filtration system in Room 1501 in the Auxiliary Building for the Control Room and another filtration system (FGK02B) on Elevation 2016 for the Control Building. The Alpha system contains a filtration system in Room 1512 in the Auxiliary Building for the Control Room and another filtration system (FGK02A) on Elevation 2016 for the Control Building.The Atmospheric Tracer Depletion (ATD) test is a technique to measure in-leakage using the concentration of perfluorocarbon compounds that have a constant atmospheric background. These levels are present in the Control Room and Control Building under normal operating conditions. When air is supplied by either of the EVS, most of the PFTS are removed by the charcoal filters. If the concentrations of the PFTs measured in protected areas are the same as the levels at the output of the EVS, the in-leakage of outside air into the protected area would be zero. If the concentration is higher in the protected area than at the output of the filter system, there is in-leakage and the in-leakage can be quantified by the difference.Sampling was performed using state-of-the-art Brookhaven Atmospheric Tracer Samplers (BATS) air sampling equipment and analysis performed on Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) dedicated PFT analytical systems. In the Alpha test two tracers PMCH and mcPDCH were used to determine in-leakage into the control building. The analytical system was tuned to maximize sensitivity after initial analysis of the Alpha test. The increased sensitivity permitted accurate quantification of five

  15. Report on ANSI/ASME nuclear air and gas treatment standards for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fish, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    Original N Committee, N45-8, has completed and published through the approved American National Standards Institute process two Standards, N-509 and N-510. This committee has been dissolved and replaced by ASME Committee on Nuclear Air and Gas Treatment with expanded scope to cover not only air cleaning, but thermal treatment equipment. Current efforts are directed to produce Code documents rather than Standards type publications. This report summarizes changed scope, current organization and sub-committee coverage areas

  16. Mobile power plant units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radtke, R

    1979-10-05

    Diesel engines of the MaK line 282 AK/332 with a cylinder power up to 160 kW are used, either as 6-cylinder or 8-cylinder in-line engine or as 12-cylinder V engine. Fuel consumption is between 207 and 212 g/kW. The engine is mounted on a frame, together with a generator. The fuel reserve in the tank will last for 8 hours. The lubricating system, the cooling water and starting air system, the switchboard system, and the frame are described. The switchboard plant is mounted either on a skid undercarriage or on the undercarriage. The plant can be operated independently or parallel to the network. The unit can be remote-controlled via push buttons or control knobs. A picture is presented of a mobile diesel aggregate which is in service in Libya.

  17. Development of an Integrated Air Quality Management System for the Large-Capacity Coal-fired Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Wuk Hee; Kim, Yung Bae; Chun, Sung Nam; Kim, Hyun Yong [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Kil Choo; Ghim, Young Sung; Shim, Sang Gyu; Kim, Yong Pyo; Kim, Jin Young [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    The main purpose of this study was to construct an integrated air pollution monitoring network(APMN) at the Boryong Thermal Power Plant site. For siting the air pollution monitoring stations(APMS) and determining appropriate numbers of them, four different approaches were applied : extensive field survey, meteorological data analysis dispersion modelling and wind tunnel experiment. After analyzing those results obtained from such different disciplines, 9 APMS sites were selected and facilities of ambient air pollution and meteorological measurements were installed at each site. In addition to the 9 APMS, a doppler meter(SODAR, sound detection and ranging) was installed in order to continuously monitor the wind direction and speed upto 1500 meter from the ground. Ambient air pollution and meteorological data and source emission data were transmitted to the central computer and processed by the computer. Many obstacles such as difficulties of negotiating with the local people who own the lands for APMS installation and getting the land use permits from the local government, delay of import and installation of TMS facilities, and frequent malfunctions of many accessory devices during APMS construction and test operation, particularly in the data transmission and data acquisition system part, had made the construction work quite longer than the period it was planned at the planning stage of this project. However, all the hurdles were finally overcome and after several months test period the system seems to work as originally planned. In the presenting report, these all efforts devoted for constructing and test operating the advanced APMN system were described and the manuals and guidelines of APMN construction and operation were included. (author). 43 figs.

  18. Development of an Integrated Air Quality Management System for the Large-Capacity Coal-fired Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Wuk Hee; Kim, Yung Bae; Chun, Sung Nam; Kim, Hyun Yong [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Kil Choo; Ghim, Young Sung; Shim, Sang Gyu; Kim, Yong Pyo; Kim, Jin Young [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    The main purpose of this study was to construct an integrated air pollution monitoring network(APMN) at the Boryong Thermal Power Plant site. For siting the air pollution monitoring stations(APMS) and determining appropriate numbers of them, four different approaches were applied : extensive field survey, meteorological data analysis dispersion modelling and wind tunnel experiment. After analyzing those results obtained from such different disciplines, 9 APMS sites were selected and facilities of ambient air pollution and meteorological measurements were installed at each site. In addition to the 9 APMS, a doppler meter(SODAR, sound detection and ranging) was installed in order to continuously monitor the wind direction and speed upto 1500 meter from the ground. Ambient air pollution and meteorological data and source emission data were transmitted to the central computer and processed by the computer. Many obstacles such as difficulties of negotiating with the local people who own the lands for APMS installation and getting the land use permits from the local government, delay of import and installation of TMS facilities, and frequent malfunctions of many accessory devices during APMS construction and test operation, particularly in the data transmission and data acquisition system part, had made the construction work quite longer than the period it was planned at the planning stage of this project. However, all the hurdles were finally overcome and after several months test period the system seems to work as originally planned. In the presenting report, these all efforts devoted for constructing and test operating the advanced APMN system were described and the manuals and guidelines of APMN construction and operation were included. (author). 43 figs.

  19. Activities on condensation in the presence of air and simulations of innovative nuclear power plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanrikut, A.; Aglar, F.; Guenduez, Oe; Yesin, O.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear energy is one of the options presently available to cope with energy needs along the forthcoming century. This challenge is requiring a tremendous effort to assure nuclear energy competence in terms of economics and safety with respect to the other potential sources of energy. In the case of water cooled power reactors, new advanced designs have been proposed of either an evolutionary or a passive type, the latter being particularly appealing for using natural forces to carry out safety functions under the most adverse conditions posed by hypothetical accidents. In this regard containment of passive reactors is to be equipped with what has been called Passive Containment Cooling Systems (PCCS). PCCS's features depend on specific designs. However, most of them share their reliance on steam condensation to mitigate long-term pressure rise in containment. New boundary conditions and device geometries prompted renewed to investigate steam condensation to eventually demonstrate PCCS's capability to meet their goals. As a result, experimental and analytical programs were launched worldwide, often on the basis of a fruitful international co-operation . Concepts of passive safety systems with no active components have been investigated for new generation light water reactors . The primary objectives of the passive design features are to simplify the design, which assures the minimized demand on operator, and to improve plant safety. To accomplish these features the operating principles of passive safety systems should be well understood by an experimental validation program. Such validation programs are also important for the assessment of advanced computer codes, which are currently used for design and licensing. In an application, the proposed advanced passive boiling water reactor design, simplified boiling water reactor (SBWR), utilizes as a main component of the passive containment cooling systems (PCCS) the isolation condenser (IC). The function of the IC is

  20. Self contained compressed air breathing apparatus to facilitate personnel decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, C W [Radiological and Safety Division, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1963-11-15

    This report describes the modification of a Self Contained Compressed Air Breathing Apparatus to provide extended respiratory protection to grossly contaminated personnel during a decontamination period which may exceed the duration of the Breathing Apparatus air supply. (author)

  1. Self contained compressed air breathing apparatus to facilitate personnel decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, C.W.

    1963-11-01

    This report describes the modification of a Self Contained Compressed Air Breathing Apparatus to provide extended respiratory protection to grossly contaminated personnel during a decontamination period which may exceed the duration of the Breathing Apparatus air supply. (author)

  2. 1999 Annual report: compression + power + service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Enerflex manufactures, services and leases compression systems for the production and processing of natural gas and gas-fueled power generation systems. Design, engineering, project management, financing, installation commissioning and after-sales service are also part of Enerflex's arsenal of tools to ensure innovation, and high standards of quality and service. In 1999, Enerflex suffered an 18 per cent decline in revenues from $315 million in 1998 to $257 million in 1999, entirely due to lower sales of big ticket compression equipment in Canada. At the same time, revenues from international sales and service increased to $ 61.8 million in 1999, from $ 53 million in 1998. The company successfully completed the move to a new 328,000 sq. ft state-of-the-art manufacturing facility, and made its first significant sale to the United States in 1999 in the form of delivering a coal bed methane project in the Powder River area of Wyoming, and power generation equipment to Massachusetts. Although in the short term unusually warm average temperatures, industry cash flows, and access to capital may determine demand for the company's products and services, the long-term fundamentals are positive and demand for compression equipment and power generation systems is likely to grow. Indeed, in the fourth quarter of 1999, market conditions improved significantly and the company recorded its highest quarterly revenues and earnings during the last quarter. The annual review provides further details about the operations of the company's various divisions, (Compression and Power Systems, Parts and Compression Services, Leasing and Financing), management's review of the company's overall operations and finances, audited financial statements, and shareholders' information

  3. Recommended radiological air sampling and internal contamination control at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rich, B.L.; Ritter, P.D.; Martz, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    It has long been recognized by the NRC Technical Staffs that estimating the quantity of radioactivity inhaled by an individual worker involved large uncertainties. General air samples usually produce concentrations lower than those in the workers Breathing Zone (BZ). NRC guides have recognized this problem by specifying air monitoring programs which sample the Breathing Zone or concentrations known to be higher than that actually inhaled. In addition the availability of suitable samplers to obtain BZ samples and the practicality of requiring their use was somewhat in question to the NRC technical staff. AN NRC development contract was issued to provide a detailed review of the technical aspects of the problems and recommendations for practical upgrade of federal guidance. This project accomplished a review of the nuclear industry experience and knowledge through a literature search, site visits to representative licensed facilities, telephone surveys of many others, laboratory testing of personal air samplers (lapel samplers) and aerosol diffusion experiments to verify key conclusions and assumptions

  4. Assessment of air quality benefits from the national pollution control policy of thermal power plants in China: A numerical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhanshan; Pan, Libo; Li, Yunting; Zhang, Dawei; Ma, Jin; Sun, Feng; Xu, Wenshuai; Wang, Xingrun

    2015-04-01

    In 2010, an emission inventory of air pollutants in China was created using the Chinese Bulletin of the Environment, the INTEX-B program, the First National Pollution Source Census, the National Generator Set Manual, and domestic and international research studies. Two emission scenarios, the standard failed emission scenario (S1) and the standard successful emission scenario (S2), were constructed based upon the Instructions for the Preparation of Emission Standards for Air Pollutants from Thermal Power Plants (second draft). The Fifth-Generation NCAR/Penn State Mesoscale Model (MM5) and the U.S. EPA Models-3 Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model were applied to China to study the air quality benefits from Emission Standards for Air Pollutants from Thermal Power Plants GB13223-2011. The performance of MM5 and CMAQ was evaluated with meteorological data from Global Surface Data from the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) and the daily Air Pollution Index (API) reported by Chinese local governments. The results showed that the implementation of the new standards could reduce the concentration of air pollutants and acid deposition in China by varying degrees. The new standards could reduce NO2 pollution in China. By 2020, for the scenario S2, the area with an NO2 concentration higher than the second-level emission standard, and the average NO2 concentration in 31 selected provinces would be reduced by 55.2% and 24.3%, respectively. The new standards could further reduce the concentration of declining SO2 in China. By 2020, for S2, the area with an SO2 concentration higher than the second-level emission standard and the average SO2 concentration in the 31 selected provinces would be reduced by 40.0% and 31.6%, respectively. The new standards could also reduce PM2.5 pollution in China. By 2020, for S2, the area with a PM2.5 concentration higher than the second-level emission standard and the average concentration of PM2.5 in the 31 selected provinces would be

  5. Monitoring heat and humid air emissions in the environment of large power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haessler, G.

    1976-01-01

    Environmental monitoring systems are installed for site evaluation purposes, the confirmation of predictions, to secure evidence, assess damage, for research and development purposes and in order to evaluate plant performance. (orig./RW) [de

  6. Storage the electric power: yes, it is indispensable and it is possible. Why, where, how; Stocker l'electricite: oui, c'est indispensable, et c'est possible. Pourquoi, ou, comment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This document describes the main characteristics of various electric power storage methods and their application domains. The large-scale storages include the hydraulic systems, those using compressed air, the batteries or those implementing a thermal way. The small-scale storages are electrochemical as the accumulators, the super-capacitors, mechanical as the flywheel, magnetic or also by the hydrogen use. The first part presents the necessity of the electric power storage, the second part the places of these storage. The third part details the forms of storage. (A.L.B.)

  7. 17506 - Order of 20 july 1989 on the storage period for fuel elements for spanish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-07-01

    The Order was made in furtherance of Decree No. 813/1988 amending a Decree of 1985 on the reorganisation of activities in the nuclear fuel cycle. It establishes new requirements regarding fuel elements for PWRs and BWRs, namely by providing that their operators should stock enough fuel elements for one load at least two months prior to the planned loading. Other plants should have the number of fuel elements necessary for their continuous operation for four months at 80 per cent of their nominal power [fr

  8. Compressed Air Energy Storage in Offshore Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Sascha Thorsten; Crotogino, Fritz; Donadei, Sabine

    2011-01-01

    management framework is used as the basis for identifying key challenges and opportunities to enhance the integration of climate change adaptation in energy planning and decision-making. Given its importance for raising awareness and for stimulating action by planners and decision-makers, emphasis is placed......Energy systems are significantly vulnerable to current climate variability and extreme events. As climate change becomes more pronounced, the risks and vulnerabilities will be exacerbated. To date, energy sector adaptation issues have received very limited attention. In this paper, a climate risk...... barriers to integration of climate risks and adaptive responses in energy planning and decision making. Both detailed assessments of the costs and benefits of integrating adaptation measures and rougher ‘order of magnitude’ estimates would enhance awareness raising and momentum for action....

  9. Combined Heat and Power: Coal-Fired Air Turbine (CAT)-Cycle Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee Recca

    1999-01-01

    By combining an integrated system with a gas turbine, coal-fired air turbine cycle technology can produce energy at an efficiency rate of over 40%, with capital and operating costs below those of competing conventional systems. Read this fact sheet to discover the additional benefits of this exciting new technology

  10. Wind tunnel experimental study on effect of inland nuclear power plant cooling tower on air flow and dispersion of pollutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao Qingdang; Yao Rentai; Guo Zhanjie; Wang Ruiying; Fan Dan; Guo Dongping; Hou Xiaofei; Wen Yunchao

    2011-01-01

    A wind tunnel experiment for the effect of the cooling tower at Taohuajiang nuclear power plant on air flow and dispersion of pollutant was introduced in paper. Measurements of air mean flow and turbulence structure in different directions of cooling tower and other buildings were made by using an X-array hot wire probe. The effects of the cooling tower and its drift on dispersion of pollutant from the stack were investigated through tracer experiments. The results show that the effect of cooling tower on flow and dispersion obviously depends on the relative position of stack to cooling towers, especially significant for the cooling tower parallel to stack along wind direction. The variation law of normalized maximum velocity deficit and perturbations in longitudinal turbulent intensity in cooling tower wake was highly in accordance with the result of isolated mountain measured by Arya and Gadiyaram. Dispersion of pollutant in near field is significantly enhanced and plume trajectory is changed due to the cooling towers and its drift. Meanwhile, the effect of cooling tower on dispersion of pollutant depends on the height of release. (authors)

  11. Enhanced air dispersion modelling at a typical Chinese nuclear power plant site: Coupling RIMPUFF with two advanced diagnostic wind models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun; Li, Hong; Sun, Sida; Fang, Sheng

    2017-09-01

    An enhanced air dispersion modelling scheme is proposed to cope with the building layout and complex terrain of a typical Chinese nuclear power plant (NPP) site. In this modelling, the California Meteorological Model (CALMET) and the Stationary Wind Fit and Turbulence (SWIFT) are coupled with the Risø Mesoscale PUFF model (RIMPUFF) for refined wind field calculation. The near-field diffusion coefficient correction scheme of the Atmospheric Relative Concentrations in the Building Wakes Computer Code (ARCON96) is adopted to characterize dispersion in building arrays. The proposed method is evaluated by a wind tunnel experiment that replicates the typical Chinese NPP site. For both wind speed/direction and air concentration, the enhanced modelling predictions agree well with the observations. The fraction of the predictions within a factor of 2 and 5 of observations exceeds 55% and 82% respectively in the building area and the complex terrain area. This demonstrates the feasibility of the new enhanced modelling for typical Chinese NPP sites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 30 CFR 77.411 - Compressed air and boilers; general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compressed air and boilers; general. 77.411 Section 77.411 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.411 Compressed air and boilers; general. All...

  13. Compressing Control System Data for Efficient Storage and Retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christopher Larrieu

    2003-01-01

    The controls group at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab), acquires multiple terabytes of EPICS control system data per year via CZAR, its new archiving system. By heuristically applying a combination of rudimentary compression techniques, in conjunction with several specialized data transformations and algorithms, the CZAR storage engine reduces the size of this data by approximately 88 percent, without any loss of information. While the compression process requires significant memory and processor time, the decompression routine suffers only slightly in this regard

  14. Air blast effects on nuclear power plants from vapor cloud explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedermann, A.H.; Eichler, T.V.; Kot, C.A.

    1981-01-01

    To assess the hazards arising from the explosion of a large flammable vapor cloud a method was developed for estimating the air blast field assuming a detonation wave is established. The actual 'pancake' like geometry typical for negatively buoyant vapor clouds is taken into account. The cloud height and other characteristics are generated by a global cloud dynamics model for negatively buoyant clouds. This model provides the cloud height as a function of fuel vapor concentration and other pertinent variables. A two-dimensional Eulerian shock hydrodynamic computer code is utilized to compute the blast environment in the neighborhood of the end of the cloud. The initial field is taken to be a quasi-steady explosion field calculated by the method of characteristics for a thin Prandtl-Meyer expansion wave, and the upward driven air shock representing the combustion and pressure relief processes inherent in the pancake geometry. This initial fields is established in the 2-D hydrocode at a time corresponding to the arrival of the detonation front at the cloud edge. It is to be noted that the local blast environment scales with respect to the cloud height. The computational results indicate that it is essential to include the influence of cloud geometry for the realistic prediction of the air blast hazard arising from the explosion of a negatively buoyant vapor cloud. (orig./HP)

  15. Assessing health benefits of controlling air pollution from power generation: the case of a lignite-fired power plant in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, B D; Lefevre, T

    2001-02-01

    The impact pathway approach (IPA) is used to estimate quantitatively the level of health effects caused by particulate matter (PM10) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission from a lignite-fired power plant located in the Mae Moh area in northern region of Thailand. Health benefits are then assessed by comparing the levels of estimated health impacts without and with the installation of the flue gas desulfurization (FGD) equipment. The US EPA industrial source complex model is used to model air pollution dispersion at the local scale, and the sector average limited mixing meso-scale model is used to model air pollution transport at the regional scale. The quantification of the health end points in physical terms is carried out using the dose-response functions established recently for the population in Bangkok, Thailand. Monetarization of these effects is based on the benefit transfer method with appropriate adjustment. Finally, it has been found that the installation of the FGD to control SO2 emission at Mae Moh significantly reduces adverse health effects not only on the population living near the power plant but also all over the country. A FGD unit installed at the 300-MW power unit can result, on average, in 16 fewer cases of acute mortality, 12 fewer cases of respiratory and cardiac hospital admissions, and almost 354,000 fewer days with acute respiratory symptoms annually. In monetary terms this benefit is equivalent to US $18.2 million (1995 prices) per annum. This benefit is much higher than the annualized investment and operation costs of FGD (US $7.4 million/yr). Copyright 2001 Springer-Verlag

  16. Air condensation plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelp, F.; Pohl, H.H.

    1978-01-01

    In this plant the steam is distributed by a ventilator from the bottom to symmetrically fixed, inclined cooling elements with tubes. The upper part of the current side of the cooling elements as well as the bottom part of the outflow side can be covered by cover plates via a control circuit. This way, part of the air amount is deviated and in case of unfavourable atmospheric conditions (cold) the air is heated. This heating is enough to prevent freezing of the condensate on the cooling tubes. (DG) [de

  17. Fuzzy logic speed control for the engine of an air-powered vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Qihui Yu; Yan Shi; Maolin Cai; Weiqing Xu

    2016-01-01

    To improve the condition of air and eliminate exhaust gas pollution, this article proposes a compressed air power system. Instead of an internal combustion engine, the automobile is equipped with a compressed air engine, which transforms the energy of compressed air into mechanical motion energy. A prototype was built, and the compressed air engine was tested on an experimental platform. The output torque and energy efficiency were obtained from experimental results. When the supply pressure ...

  18. Foreign programs for the storage of spent nuclear power plant fuels, high-level waste canisters and transuranic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmon, K.M.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.

    1984-04-01

    The various national programs for developing and applying technology for the interim storage of spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, and TRU wastes are summarized. Primary emphasis of the report is on dry storage techniques for uranium dioxide fuels, but data are also provided concerning pool storage

  19. An optimization model for carbon capture & storage/utilization vs. carbon trading: A case study of fossil-fired power plants in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ağralı, Semra; Üçtuğ, Fehmi Görkem; Türkmen, Burçin Atılgan

    2018-06-01

    We consider fossil-fired power plants that operate in an environment where a cap and trade system is in operation. These plants need to choose between carbon capture and storage (CCS), carbon capture and utilization (CCU), or carbon trading in order to obey emissions limits enforced by the government. We develop a mixed-integer programming model that decides on the capacities of carbon capture units, if it is optimal to install them, the transportation network that needs to be built for transporting the carbon captured, and the locations of storage sites, if they are decided to be built. Main restrictions on the system are the minimum and maximum capacities of the different parts of the pipeline network, the amount of carbon that can be sold to companies for utilization, and the capacities on the storage sites. Under these restrictions, the model aims to minimize the net present value of the sum of the costs associated with installation and operation of the carbon capture unit and the transportation of carbon, the storage cost in case of CCS, the cost (or revenue) that results from the emissions trading system, and finally the negative revenue of selling the carbon to other entities for utilization. We implement the model on General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) by using data associated with two coal-fired power plants located in different regions of Turkey. We choose enhanced oil recovery (EOR) as the process in which carbon would be utilized. The results show that CCU is preferable to CCS as long as there is sufficient demand in the EOR market. The distance between the location of emission and location of utilization/storage, and the capacity limits on the pipes are an important factor in deciding between carbon capture and carbon trading. At carbon prices over $15/ton, carbon capture becomes preferable to carbon trading. These results show that as far as Turkey is concerned, CCU should be prioritized as a means of reducing nation-wide carbon emissions in an