WorldWideScience

Sample records for comprehensive two-point analyses

  1. Analysing H(z) data using two-point diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf, Kyle; Melia, Fulvio

    2017-09-01

    Measurements of the Hubble constant H(z) are increasingly being used to test the expansion rate predicted by various cosmological models. But the recent application of two-point diagnostics, such as Om(zI, zj) and Omh2(zI, zj), has produced considerable tension between ΛCDM's predictions and several observations, with other models faring even worse. Part of this problem is attributable to the continued mixing of truly model-independent measurements using the cosmic-chronometer approach, and model-dependent data extracted from baryon acoustic oscillations. In this paper, we advance the use of two-point diagnostics beyond their current status, and introduce new variations, which we call Δh(zI, zj), that are more useful for model comparisons. But we restrict our analysis exclusively to cosmic-chronometer data, which are truly model independent. Even for these measurements, however, we confirm the conclusions drawn by earlier workers that the data have strongly non-Gaussian uncertainties, requiring the use of both 'median' and 'mean' statistical approaches. Our results reveal that previous analyses using two-point diagnostics greatly underestimated the errors, thereby misinterpreting the level of tension between theoretical predictions and H(z) data. Instead, we demonstrate that as of today, only Einstein-de Sitter is ruled out by the two-point diagnostics at a level of significance exceeding ˜3σ. The Rh = ct universe is slightly favoured over the remaining models, including Lambda cold dark matter and Chevalier-Polarski-Linder, though all of them (other than Einstein-de Sitter) are consistent to within 1σ with the measured mean of the Δh(zI, zj) diagnostics.

  2. Comparison of apparent diffusion coefficient calculation between two-point and multipoint B value analyses in prostate cancer and benign prostate tissue at 3 T: preliminary experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Yoon; Kim, Chan Kyo; Park, Byung Kwan; Kwon, Ghee Young

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to prospectively evaluate the reliability and variability of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) calculations between two-point and multipoint b value analyses in prostate cancer and benign prostate tissue. Forty-eight consecutive patients with suspected prostate cancer underwent diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) at 3 T followed by surgery. DWI was examined under different b values. ADC maps were generated by two different methods: two-point b values (0 and 1000 s/mm(2)) and multipoint b values (0, 100, 300, 700, and 1000 s/mm(2)). Two independent readers measured ADC in the cancers, benign peripheral zone and transition zone, and obturator internus muscle. Statistical analyses were performed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), correlation of variation (CV), Bland-Altman test, and paired Student t test. The intermethod ADC calculation revealed excellent reliability for all tissues in both readers: cancer (ICC = 0.979-0.981), transition zone (0.989-0.993), peripheral zone (0.990-0.994), and obturator internus muscle (0.967-0.975). In both readers, the variability of the intermethod ADC calculation was 2.90-3.09% CV in cancer, 1.16-1.48% CV in the transition zone, 1.03-1.29% CV in the peripheral zone, and 2.44-2.62% CV in the obturator internus muscle. For interreader variability, the CVs of ADC calculation for two-point versus multipoint b value analyses in all tissues were 7.21-9.65% versus 7.18-9.01%. For estimating ADC values on 3-T DWI of the prostate, two-point b value analysis seems to present excellent correlation with multipoint b value analysis, with little error in accuracy.

  3. A History of Rotorcraft Comprehensive Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wayne

    2013-01-01

    A history of the development of rotorcraft comprehensive analyses is presented. Comprehensive analyses are digital computer programs that calculate the aeromechanical behavior of the rotor and aircraft, bringing together the most advanced models of the geometry, structure, dynamics, and aerodynamics available in rotary wing technology. The development of the major codes of the last five decades from industry, government, and universities is described. A number of common themes observed in this history are discussed.

  4. Improving Climate Communication through Comprehensive Linguistic Analyses Using Computational Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gann, T. M.; Matlock, T.

    2014-12-01

    An important lesson on climate communication research is that there is no single way to reach out and inform the public. Different groups conceptualize climate issues in different ways and different groups have different values and assumptions. This variability makes it extremely difficult to effectively and objectively communicate climate information. One of the main challenges is the following: How do we acquire a better understanding of how values and assumptions vary across groups, including political groups? A necessary starting point is to pay close attention to the linguistic content of messages used across current popular media sources. Careful analyses of that information—including how it is realized in language for conservative and progressive media—may ultimately help climate scientists, government agency officials, journalists and others develop more effective messages. Past research has looked at partisan media coverage of climate change, but little attention has been given to the fine-grained linguistic content of such media. And when researchers have done detailed linguistic analyses, they have relied primarily on hand-coding, an approach that is costly, labor intensive, and time-consuming. Our project, building on recent work on partisan news media (Gann & Matlock, 2014; under review) uses high dimensional semantic analyses and other methods of automated classification techniques from the field of natural language processing to quantify how climate issues are characterized in media sources that differ according to political orientation. In addition to discussing varied linguistic patterns, we share new methods for improving climate communication for varied stakeholders, and for developing better assessments of their effectiveness.

  5. A comprehensive method for aeolian particle granulometry and micromorphology analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaady, E; Dody, A; Weiner, D; Barkai, D; Offer, Z Y

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to use a new approach to investigate aeolian particle granulometry and micromorphology. Taking total aeolian deposition into account, we used parameters such as, particle area, perimeter, shape analysis for particle roughness (area/perimeter) and elongation (long/short axis). These parameters were analyzed on temporal and spatial scales at four study sites in the eastern Negev Desert, Israel. The total collection of particles was sorted into three size groups based on particle area to facilitate comparison. The classic definition of particle size (equating particle length with particle diameter) produced relatively small variations among the three size classes (25-38.6%). Our proposed comprehensive method demonstrated significant variation among the three size classes (13.9-60.8%), e.g. the classic method placed 36.4% of the particles in size class two while the new method placed 60.8% of the particles in this size class; the differences were even more significant regarding size class 3 (38.6% vs. 13.9%, respectively). The classic method did not facilitate investigation of particle roughness and elongation. With this new approach, it was possible to clearly define the particles by size class, based on these characteristics. With roughness, the variation among size classes 2 and 3 was about 27%. With elongation, the variation among size classes two and three was about 21%. Applying similar investigation method to study the aeolian particle granulometry and micromorphology can better facilitate more detailed calculation of particle size distribution, roughness and elongation.

  6. Using a Comprehensive Sexuality Education Framework to Analyse the Contents of a Brazilian Adolescent Health Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobim Fischer, Vinicius; González-Jiménez, Antonio José

    2017-01-01

    This study set out to analyse the sexuality contents of the "Caderneta de Saúde do Adolescente," an adolescent health handbook developed for use in Brazil. Using content analysis, the adequacy of the document was assessed using an approach informed by the International Planned Parenthood Federations comprehensive sexuality education…

  7. Two-point orientation discrimination versus the traditional two-point test for tactile spatial acuity assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan eTong

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Two-point discrimination is widely used to measure tactile spatial acuity. The validity of the two-point threshold as a spatial acuity measure rests on the assumption that two points can be distinguished from one only when the two points are sufficiently separated to evoke spatially distinguishable foci of neural activity. However, some previous research has challenged this view, suggesting instead that two-point task performance benefits from an unintended non-spatial cue, allowing spuriously good performance at small tip separations. We compared the traditional two-point task to an equally convenient alternative task in which participants attempt to discern the orientation (vertical or horizontal of two points of contact. We used precision digital readout calipers to administer two-interval forced-choice versions of both tasks to 24 neurologically healthy adults, on the fingertip, finger base, palm, and forearm. We used Bayesian adaptive testing to estimate the participants’ psychometric functions on the two tasks. Traditional two-point performance remained significantly above chance levels even at zero point separation. In contrast, two-point orientation discrimination approached chance as point separation approached zero, as expected for a valid measure of tactile spatial acuity. Traditional two-point performance was so inflated at small point separations that 75%-correct thresholds could be determined on all tested sites for fewer than half of participants. The 95%-correct thresholds on the two tasks were similar, and correlated with receptive field spacing. In keeping with previous critiques, we conclude that the traditional two-point task provides an unintended non-spatial cue, resulting in spuriously good performance at small spatial separations. Unlike two-point discrimination, two-point orientation discrimination rigorously measures tactile spatial acuity. We recommend the use of two-point orientation discrimination for neurological

  8. Mobile Genome Express (MGE: A comprehensive automatic genetic analyses pipeline with a mobile device.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Hee Yoon

    Full Text Available The development of next-generation sequencing (NGS technology allows to sequence whole exomes or genome. However, data analysis is still the biggest bottleneck for its wide implementation. Most laboratories still depend on manual procedures for data handling and analyses, which translates into a delay and decreased efficiency in the delivery of NGS results to doctors and patients. Thus, there is high demand for developing an automatic and an easy-to-use NGS data analyses system. We developed comprehensive, automatic genetic analyses controller named Mobile Genome Express (MGE that works in smartphones or other mobile devices. MGE can handle all the steps for genetic analyses, such as: sample information submission, sequencing run quality check from the sequencer, secured data transfer and results review. We sequenced an Actrometrix control DNA containing multiple proven human mutations using a targeted sequencing panel, and the whole analysis was managed by MGE, and its data reviewing program called ELECTRO. All steps were processed automatically except for the final sequencing review procedure with ELECTRO to confirm mutations. The data analysis process was completed within several hours. We confirmed the mutations that we have identified were consistent with our previous results obtained by using multi-step, manual pipelines.

  9. Comparison of pressure perception of static and dynamic two point ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The study was carried out to compare the perception of Static and Dynamic two point discrimination sensibility in the index finger and investigate the influence of some demographic characteristics such as age, gender and limb dominance on two point discrimination sensibility. Methods: One hundred and ...

  10. Comprehensive and comparative transcription analyses of the complement pathway in rainbow trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köbis, Judith M; Rebl, Alexander; Kühn, Carsten; Korytář, Tomáš; Köllner, Bernd; Goldammer, Tom

    2015-01-01

    The complement system is one of the most ancient and most essential innate immune cascades throughout the animal kingdom. Survival of aquatic animals, such as rainbow trout, depends on this early inducible, efficient immune cascade. Despite increasing research on genes coding for complement components in bony fish, some complement-related genes are still unknown in salmonid fish. In the present study, we characterize the genes encoding complement factor D (CFD), CD93 molecule (CD93), and C-type lectin domain family 4, member M (CLEC4M) from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Subsequently, we performed comprehensive and comparative expression analyses of 36 complement genes including CFD, CD93, and CLEC4M and further putative complement-associated genes to obtain general information about the functional gene interaction within the complement pathway in fish. These quantification analyses were conducted in liver, spleen and gills of healthy fish of two rainbow trout strains, selected for survival (strain BORN) and growth (Import strain), respectively. The present expression study clearly confirms for rainbow trout that liver represents the primary site of complement expression. Spleen and gills also express most complement genes, although the mean transcript levels were generally lower than in liver. The transcription data suggest a contribution of spleen and gills to complement activity. The comparison of the two rainbow trout strains revealed a generally similar complement gene expression. However, a significantly lower expression of numerous genes especially in spleen seems characteristic for the BORN strain. This suggests a strain-specific complement pathway regulation under the selected rearing conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Comprehensive logic based analyses of Toll-like receptor 4 signal transduction pathway.

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    Mahesh Kumar Padwal

    Full Text Available Among the 13 TLRs in the vertebrate systems, only TLR4 utilizes both Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88 and Toll/Interleukin-1 receptor (TIR-domain-containing adapter interferon-β-inducing Factor (TRIF adaptors to transduce signals triggering host-protective immune responses. Earlier studies on the pathway combined various experimental data in the form of one comprehensive map of TLR signaling. But in the absence of adequate kinetic parameters quantitative mathematical models that reveal emerging systems level properties and dynamic inter-regulation among the kinases/phosphatases of the TLR4 network are not yet available. So, here we used reaction stoichiometry-based and parameter independent logical modeling formalism to build the TLR4 signaling network model that captured the feedback regulations, interdependencies between signaling kinases and phosphatases and the outcome of simulated infections. The analyses of the TLR4 signaling network revealed 360 feedback loops, 157 negative and 203 positive; of which, 334 loops had the phosphatase PP1 as an essential component. The network elements' interdependency (positive or negative dependencies in perturbation conditions such as the phosphatase knockout conditions revealed interdependencies between the dual-specific phosphatases MKP-1 and MKP-3 and the kinases in MAPK modules and the role of PP2A in the auto-regulation of Calmodulin kinase-II. Our simulations under the specific kinase or phosphatase gene-deficiency or inhibition conditions corroborated with several previously reported experimental data. The simulations to mimic Yersinia pestis and E. coli infections identified the key perturbation in the network and potential drug targets. Thus, our analyses of TLR4 signaling highlights the role of phosphatases as key regulatory factors in determining the global interdependencies among the network elements; uncovers novel signaling connections; identifies potential drug targets for

  12. Comprehensive research synopsis and systematic meta-analyses in Parkinson's disease genetics: The PDGene database.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M Lill

    Full Text Available More than 800 published genetic association studies have implicated dozens of potential risk loci in Parkinson's disease (PD. To facilitate the interpretation of these findings, we have created a dedicated online resource, PDGene, that comprehensively collects and meta-analyzes all published studies in the field. A systematic literature screen of -27,000 articles yielded 828 eligible articles from which relevant data were extracted. In addition, individual-level data from three publicly available genome-wide association studies (GWAS were obtained and subjected to genotype imputation and analysis. Overall, we performed meta-analyses on more than seven million polymorphisms originating either from GWAS datasets and/or from smaller scale PD association studies. Meta-analyses on 147 SNPs were supplemented by unpublished GWAS data from up to 16,452 PD cases and 48,810 controls. Eleven loci showed genome-wide significant (P < 5 × 10(-8 association with disease risk: BST1, CCDC62/HIP1R, DGKQ/GAK, GBA, LRRK2, MAPT, MCCC1/LAMP3, PARK16, SNCA, STK39, and SYT11/RAB25. In addition, we identified novel evidence for genome-wide significant association with a polymorphism in ITGA8 (rs7077361, OR 0.88, P  =  1.3 × 10(-8. All meta-analysis results are freely available on a dedicated online database (www.pdgene.org, which is cross-linked with a customized track on the UCSC Genome Browser. Our study provides an exhaustive and up-to-date summary of the status of PD genetics research that can be readily scaled to include the results of future large-scale genetics projects, including next-generation sequencing studies.

  13. Louisiana Barrier Island Comprehensive Monitoring (BICM) Program Summary Report: Data and Analyses 2006 through 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindinger, Jack G.; Buster, Noreen A.; Flocks, James G.; Bernier, Julie C.; Kulp, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    The Barrier Island Comprehensive Monitoring (BICM) program was implemented under the Louisiana Coastal Area Science and Technology (LCA S&T) office as a component of the System Wide Assessment and Monitoring (SWAMP) program. The BICM project was developed by the State of Louisiana (Coastal Protection Restoration Authority [CPRA], formerly Department of Natural Resources [DNR]) to complement other Louisiana coastal monitoring programs such as the Coastwide Reference Monitoring System-Wetlands (CRMS-Wetlands) and was a collaborative research effort by CPRA, University of New Orleans (UNO), and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The goal of the BICM program was to provide long-term data on the barrier islands of Louisiana that could be used to plan, design, evaluate, and maintain current and future barrier-island restoration projects. The BICM program used both historical and newly acquired (2006 to 2010) data to assess and monitor changes in the aerial and subaqueous extent of islands, habitat types, sediment texture and geotechnical properties, environmental processes, and vegetation composition. BICM datasets included aerial still and video photography (multiple time series) for shoreline positions, habitat mapping, and land loss; light detection and ranging (lidar) surveys for topographic elevations; single-beam and swath bathymetry; and sediment grab samples. Products produced using BICM data and analyses included (but were not limited to) storm-impact assessments, rate of shoreline and bathymetric change, shoreline-erosion and accretion maps, high-resolution elevation maps, coastal-shoreline and barrier-island habitat-classification maps, and coastal surficial-sediment characterization maps. Discussions in this report summarize the extensive data-collection efforts and present brief interpretive analyses for four coastal Louisiana geographic regions. In addition, several coastal-wide and topical themes were selected that integrate the data and analyses within a

  14. Cognitive correlates of pragmatic language comprehension in adult traumatic brain injury: A systematic review and meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Dane A; Rogish, Miles; Alexander, Timothy; Riggs, Kevin J

    2017-09-13

    Effective pragmatic comprehension of language is critical for successful communication and interaction, but this ability is routinely impaired following Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) (1,2). Individual studies have investigated the cognitive domains associated with impaired pragmatic comprehension, but there remains little understanding of the relative importance of these domains in contributing to pragmatic comprehension impairment following TBI. This paper presents a systematic meta-analytic review of the observed correlations between pragmatic comprehension and cognitive processes following TBI. Five meta-analyses were computed, which quantified the relationship between pragmatic comprehension and five key cognitive constructs (declarative memory; working memory; attention; executive functions; social cognition). Significant moderate-to-strong correlations were found between all cognitive measures and pragmatic comprehension, where declarative memory was the strongest correlate. Thus, our findings indicate that pragmatic comprehension in TBI is associated with an array of domain general cognitive processes, and as such deficits in these cognitive domains may underlie pragmatic comprehension difficulties following TBI. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  15. Direct approach for solving nonlinear evolution and two-point ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 81; Issue 6. Direct approach for solving nonlinear evolution and two-point ... demonstrate the use and computational efficiency of the method. This method can easily be applied to many nonlinear problems and is capable of reducing the size of computational work.

  16. Whole genome identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis vaccine candidates by comprehensive data mining and bioinformatic analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadoff Jerald C

    2008-05-01

    /reactivation/resuscitation classes; 30% belong to the Cell wall category; 13% are classical vaccine candidates; 9% are categorized Conserved hypotheticals, all potentially very potent T-cell antigens. Conclusion The comprehensive literature and in silico-based analyses allowed for the selection of a repertoire of 189 vaccine candidates, out of the whole-genome 3989 ORF products. This repertoire, which was ranked to generate a list of 45 top-hits antigens, is a platform for selection of genes covering all stages of M. tuberculosis infection, to be incorporated in rBCG or subunit-based vaccines.

  17. Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollenbach, Carolyn

    1986-01-01

    Teaching comprehension skills requires teaching to intuition with activities such as presenting puzzling situations to introduce a topic, using art to elicit latent feelings, using imagery and improvisations to enhance visualization, and using music and dance to encourage nonverbal expressions. (DB)

  18. Analyse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Bent

    2007-01-01

    Analyse i Politiken om frynsegoder med udgangspunkt i bogen Occupational Welfare - Winners and Losers publiceret på Edward Elgar......Analyse i Politiken om frynsegoder med udgangspunkt i bogen Occupational Welfare - Winners and Losers publiceret på Edward Elgar...

  19. Comprehensive investigation of tobacco leaves during natural early senescence via multi-platform metabolomics analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lili; Zhao, Jieyu; Zhao, Yanni; Lu, Xin; Zhou, Zhihui; Zhao, Chunxia; Xu, Guowang

    2016-11-01

    Senescence is the final stage of leaf growth and development. Many different physiological activities occur during this process. A comprehensive metabolomics analysis of tobacco middle leaves at 5 different developmental stages was implemented through multi-platform methods based on liquid chromatography, capillary electrophoresis and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. In total, 412 metabolites were identified, including pigments, sterols, lipids, amino acids, polyamines, sugars and secondary metabolites. Dramatic metabolic changes were observed. Firstly, membrane degradation and chlorophyll down-regulation occurred after the 50% flower bud stage. Levels of major membrane lipids decreased, including those of the glycolipids in chloroplast thylakoids and phospholipids in membrane envelopes. Clear decreases in free sterols and acylated sterol glucosides were detected along with the accumulation of sterol esters. The accumulation of alkaloids was found. The amino acid levels were significantly decreased, particularly those of N-rich amino acids (glutamine and asparagine), thus reflecting N translocation. Subsequently, the antioxidant system was activated. Sugar alcohols and polyphenols accumulated when the lower leaves turned yellow. These results comprehensively revealed the metabolic changes that occur during tobacco leaf development and senescence under natural conditions.

  20. Comprehensive Comparative Genomic and Transcriptomic Analyses of the Legume Genes Controlling the Nodulation Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Zhenzhen; Pingault, Lise; Nourbakhsh-Rey, Mehrnoush; Libault, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen is one of the most essential plant nutrients and one of the major factors limiting crop productivity. Having the goal to perform a more sustainable agriculture, there is a need to maximize biological nitrogen fixation, a feature of legumes. To enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling the interaction between legumes and rhizobia, the symbiotic partner fixing and assimilating the atmospheric nitrogen for the plant, researchers took advantage of genetic and genomic resources developed across different legume models (e.g., Medicago truncatula, Lotus japonicus, Glycine max, and Phaseolus vulgaris) to identify key regulatory protein coding genes of the nodulation process. In this study, we are presenting the results of a comprehensive comparative genomic analysis to highlight orthologous and paralogous relationships between the legume genes controlling nodulation. Mining large transcriptomic datasets, we also identified several orthologous and paralogous genes characterized by the induction of their expression during nodulation across legume plant species. This comprehensive study prompts new insights into the evolution of the nodulation process in legume plant and will benefit the scientific community interested in the transfer of functional genomic information between species.

  1. Comprehensive comparative genomic and transcriptomic analyses of the legume genes controlling the nodulation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenzhen eQiao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen is one of the most essential plant nutrients and one of the major factors limiting crop productivity. Having the goal to perform a more sustainable agriculture, there is a need to maximize biological nitrogen fixation, a feature of legumes. To enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling the interaction between legumes and rhizobia, the symbiotic partner fixing and assimilating the atmospheric nitrogen for the plant, researchers took advantage of genetic and genomic resources developed across different legume models (e.g. Medicago truncatula, Lotus japonicus, Glycine max and Phaseolous vulgaris to identify key regulatory genes of the nodulation process. In this study, we are presenting the results of a comprehensive comparative genomic analysis to highlight orthologous and paralogous relationships between the legume genes controlling nodulation. Mining large transcriptomic datasets, we also identified several orthologous and paralogous genes characterized by the induction of their expression during nodulation across legume plant species. This comprehensive study prompts new insights into the evolution of the nodulation process in legume plant and will benefit the scientific community interested in the transfer of functional genomic information between species.

  2. Fast and accurate computation of projected two-point functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasshorn Gebhardt, Henry S.; Jeong, Donghui

    2018-01-01

    We present the two-point function from the fast and accurate spherical Bessel transformation (2-FAST) algorithm1Our code is available at https://github.com/hsgg/twoFAST. for a fast and accurate computation of integrals involving one or two spherical Bessel functions. These types of integrals occur when projecting the galaxy power spectrum P (k ) onto the configuration space, ξℓν(r ), or spherical harmonic space, Cℓ(χ ,χ'). First, we employ the FFTLog transformation of the power spectrum to divide the calculation into P (k )-dependent coefficients and P (k )-independent integrations of basis functions multiplied by spherical Bessel functions. We find analytical expressions for the latter integrals in terms of special functions, for which recursion provides a fast and accurate evaluation. The algorithm, therefore, circumvents direct integration of highly oscillating spherical Bessel functions.

  3. Two-point Correlator Fits on HISQ Ensembles

    CERN Document Server

    Bazavov, A; Bouchard, C; DeTar, C; Du, D; El-Khadra, A X; Foley, J; Freeland, E D; Gamiz, E; Gottlieb, Steven; Heller, U M; Hetrick, J E; Kim, J; Kronfeld, A S; Laiho, J; Levkova, L; Lightman, M; Mackenzie, P B; Neil, E T; Oktay, M; Simone, J N; Sugar, R L; Toussaint, D; Van de Water, R S; Zhou, R

    2012-01-01

    We present our methods to fit the two point correlators for light, strange, and charmed pseudoscalar meson physics with the highly improved staggered quark (HISQ) action. We make use of the least-squares fit including the full covariance matrix of the correlators and including Gaussian constraints on some parameters. We fit the correlators on a variety of the HISQ ensembles. The lattice spacing ranges from 0.15 fm down to 0.06 fm. The light sea quark mass ranges from 0.2 times the strange quark mass down to the physical light quark mass. The HISQ ensembles also include lattices with different volumes and with unphysical values of the strange quark mass. We use the results from this work to obtain our preliminary results of $f_D$, $f_{D_s}$, $f_{D_s}/f_{D}$, and ratios of quark masses presented in another talk [1].

  4. Two-point density correlations of quasicondensates in free expansion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manz, S.; Bücker, R.; Betz, T.

    2010-01-01

    We measure the two-point density correlation function of freely expanding quasicondensates in the weakly interacting quasi-one-dimensional (1D) regime. While initially suppressed in the trap, density fluctuations emerge gradually during expansion as a result of initial phase fluctuations present...... in the trapped quasicondensate. Asymptotically, they are governed by the thermal coherence length of the system. Our measurements take place in an intermediate regime where density correlations are related to near-field diffraction effects and anomalous correlations play an important role. Comparison...... with a recent theoretical approach described by Imambekov yields good agreement with our experimental results and shows that density correlations can be used for thermometry of quasicondensates....

  5. Comprehensive analysis of alternative splicing in rice and comparative analyses with Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mount Stephen M

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, genomic sequencing efforts were finished for Oryza sativa (cultivated rice and Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis. Additionally, these two plant species have extensive cDNA and expressed sequence tag (EST libraries. We employed the Program to Assemble Spliced Alignments (PASA to identify and analyze alternatively spliced isoforms in both species. Results A comprehensive analysis of alternative splicing was performed in rice that started with >1.1 million publicly available spliced ESTs and over 30,000 full length cDNAs in conjunction with the newly enhanced PASA software. A parallel analysis was performed with Arabidopsis to compare and ascertain potential differences between monocots and dicots. Alternative splicing is a widespread phenomenon (observed in greater than 30% of the loci with transcript support and we have described nine alternative splicing variations. While alternative splicing has the potential to create many RNA isoforms from a single locus, the majority of loci generate only two or three isoforms and transcript support indicates that these isoforms are generally not rare events. For the alternate donor (AD and acceptor (AA classes, the distance between the splice sites for the majority of events was found to be less than 50 basepairs (bp. In both species, the most frequent distance between AA is 3 bp, consistent with reports in mammalian systems. Conversely, the most frequent distance between AD is 4 bp in both plant species, as previously observed in mouse. Most alternative splicing variations are localized to the protein coding sequence and are predicted to significantly alter the coding sequence. Conclusion Alternative splicing is widespread in both rice and Arabidopsis and these species share many common features. Interestingly, alternative splicing may play a role beyond creating novel combinations of transcripts that expand the proteome. Many isoforms will presumably have negative

  6. Comprehensive analyses of ventricular myocyte models identify targets exhibiting favorable rate dependence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan A Cummins

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Reverse rate dependence is a problematic property of antiarrhythmic drugs that prolong the cardiac action potential (AP. The prolongation caused by reverse rate dependent agents is greater at slow heart rates, resulting in both reduced arrhythmia suppression at fast rates and increased arrhythmia risk at slow rates. The opposite property, forward rate dependence, would theoretically overcome these parallel problems, yet forward rate dependent (FRD antiarrhythmics remain elusive. Moreover, there is evidence that reverse rate dependence is an intrinsic property of perturbations to the AP. We have addressed the possibility of forward rate dependence by performing a comprehensive analysis of 13 ventricular myocyte models. By simulating populations of myocytes with varying properties and analyzing population results statistically, we simultaneously predicted the rate-dependent effects of changes in multiple model parameters. An average of 40 parameters were tested in each model, and effects on AP duration were assessed at slow (0.2 Hz and fast (2 Hz rates. The analysis identified a variety of FRD ionic current perturbations and generated specific predictions regarding their mechanisms. For instance, an increase in L-type calcium current is FRD when this is accompanied by indirect, rate-dependent changes in slow delayed rectifier potassium current. A comparison of predictions across models identified inward rectifier potassium current and the sodium-potassium pump as the two targets most likely to produce FRD AP prolongation. Finally, a statistical analysis of results from the 13 models demonstrated that models displaying minimal rate-dependent changes in AP shape have little capacity for FRD perturbations, whereas models with large shape changes have considerable FRD potential. This can explain differences between species and between ventricular cell types. Overall, this study provides new insights, both specific and general, into the determinants of

  7. Comprehensive genomic analyses associate UGT8 variants with musical ability in a Mongolian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hansoo; Lee, Seungbok; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Ju, Young Seok; Shin, Jong-Yeon; Hong, Dongwan; von Grotthuss, Marcin; Lee, Dong-Sung; Park, Changho; Kim, Jennifer Hayeon; Kim, Boram; Yoo, Yun Joo; Cho, Sung-Il; Sung, Joohon; Lee, Charles; Kim, Jong-Il; Seo, Jeong-Sun

    2012-12-01

    Musical abilities such as recognising music and singing performance serve as means for communication and are instruments in sexual selection. Specific regions of the brain have been found to be activated by musical stimuli, but these have rarely been extended to the discovery of genes and molecules associated with musical ability. A total of 1008 individuals from 73 families were enrolled and a pitch-production accuracy test was applied to determine musical ability. To identify genetic loci and variants that contribute to musical ability, we conducted family-based linkage and association analyses, and incorporated the results with data from exome sequencing and array comparative genomic hybridisation analyses. We found significant evidence of linkage at 4q23 with the nearest marker D4S2986 (LOD=3.1), whose supporting interval overlaps a previous study in Finnish families, and identified an intergenic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (rs1251078, p = 8.4 × 10(-17)) near UGT8, a gene highly expressed in the central nervous system and known to act in brain organisation. In addition, a non-synonymous SNP in UGT8 was revealed to be highly associated with musical ability (rs4148254, p = 8.0 × 10(-17)), and a 6.2 kb copy number loss near UGT8 showed a plausible association with musical ability (p = 2.9 × 10(-6)). This study provides new insight into the genetics of musical ability, exemplifying a methodology to assign functional significance to synonymous and non-coding alleles by integrating multiple experimental methods.

  8. Identification and comprehensive analyses of the CBL and CIPK gene families in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tao; Wang, Yan; Wang, Meng; Li, Tingting; Zhou, Yi; Wang, Xiatian; Wei, Shuya; He, Guangyuan; Yang, Guangxiao

    2015-11-04

    Calcineurin B-like (CBL) proteins belong to a unique group of calcium sensors in plant that decode the Ca(2+) signature by interacting with CBL-interacting protein kinases (CIPKs). Although CBL-CIPK complexes have been shown to play important roles in the responses to various stresses in plants, little is known about their functions in wheat. A total of seven TaCBL and 20 TaCIPK genes were amplified from bread wheat, Triticum aestivum cv. Chinese Spring. Reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and in silico expression analyses showed that TaCBL and TaCIPK genes were expressed at different levels in different tissues, or maintained at nearly constant expression levels during the whole life cycle of the wheat plant. Some TaCBL and TaCIPK genes showed up- or down-regulated expressions during seed germination. Preferential interactions between TaCBLs and TaCIPKs were observed in yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation experiments. Analyses of a deletion series of TaCIPK proteins with amino acid variations at the C-terminus provided new insights into the specificity of the interactions between TaCIPKs and TaCBLs, and indicated that the TaCBL-TaCIPK signaling pathway is very complex in wheat because of its hexaploid genome. The expressions of many TaCBLs and TaCIPKs were responsive to abiotic stresses (salt, cold, and simulated drought) and abscisic acid treatment. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing TaCIPK24 exhibited improved salt tolerance through increased Na(+) efflux and an enhanced reactive oxygen species scavenging capacity. These results contribute to our understanding of the functions of CBL-CIPK complexes and provide the basis for selecting appropriate genes for in-depth functional studies of CBL-CIPK in wheat.

  9. Comprehensive whole genome sequence analyses yields novel genetic and structural insights for Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahir, Farah R; Mwenifumbo, Jill C; Chun, Hye-Jung E; Lim, Emilia L; Van Karnebeek, Clara D M; Couse, Madeline; Mungall, Karen L; Lee, Leora; Makela, Nancy; Armstrong, Linlea; Boerkoel, Cornelius F; Langlois, Sylvie L; McGillivray, Barbara M; Jones, Steven J M; Friedman, Jan M; Marra, Marco A

    2017-05-24

    Intellectual Disability (ID) is among the most common global disorders, yet etiology is unknown in ~30% of patients despite clinical assessment. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) is able to interrogate the entire genome, providing potential to diagnose idiopathic patients. We conducted WGS on eight children with idiopathic ID and brain structural defects, and their normal parents; carrying out an extensive data analyses, using standard and discovery approaches. We verified de novo pathogenic single nucleotide variants (SNV) in ARID1B c.1595delG and PHF6 c.820C > T, potentially causative de novo two base indels in SQSTM1 c.115_116delinsTA and UPF1 c.1576_1577delinsA, and de novo SNVs in CACNB3 c.1289G > A, and SPRY4 c.508 T > A, of uncertain significance. We report results from a large secondary control study of 2081 exomes probing the pathogenicity of the above genes. We analyzed structural variation by four different algorithms including de novo genome assembly. We confirmed a likely contributory 165 kb de novo heterozygous 1q43 microdeletion missed by clinical microarray. The de novo assembly resulted in unmasking hidden genome instability that was missed by standard re-alignment based algorithms. We also interrogated regulatory sequence variation for known and hypothesized ID genes and present useful strategies for WGS data analyses for non-coding variation. This study provides an extensive analysis of WGS in the context of ID, providing genetic and structural insights into ID and yielding diagnoses.

  10. Flow speed measurement using two-point collective light scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinemeier, N.P

    1998-09-01

    Measurements of turbulence in plasmas and fluids using the technique of collective light scattering have always been plagued by very poor spatial resolution. In 1994, a novel two-point collective light scattering system for the measurement of transport in a fusion plasma was proposed. This diagnostic method was design for a great improvement of the spatial resolution, without sacrificing accuracy in the velocity measurement. The system was installed at the W7-AS steallartor in Garching, Germany, in 1996, and has been operating since. This master thesis is an investigation of the possible application of this new method to the measurement of flow speeds in normal fluids, in particular air, although the results presented in this work have significance for the plasma measurements as well. The main goal of the project was the experimental verification of previous theoretical predictions. However, the theoretical considerations presented in the thesis show that the method can only be hoped to work for flows that are almost laminar and shearless, which makes it of very small practical interest. Furthermore, this result also implies that the diagnostic at W7-AS cannot be expected to give the results originally hoped for. (au) 1 tab., 51 ills., 29 refs.

  11. More comprehensive forensic genetic marker analyses for accurate human remains identification using massively parallel DNA sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angie D. Ambers

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the primary objective of forensic DNA analyses of unidentified human remains is positive identification, cases involving historical or archaeological skeletal remains often lack reference samples for comparison. Massively parallel sequencing (MPS offers an opportunity to provide biometric data in such cases, and these cases provide valuable data on the feasibility of applying MPS for characterization of modern forensic casework samples. In this study, MPS was used to characterize 140-year-old human skeletal remains discovered at a historical site in Deadwood, South Dakota, United States. The remains were in an unmarked grave and there were no records or other metadata available regarding the identity of the individual. Due to the high throughput of MPS, a variety of biometric markers could be typed using a single sample. Results Using MPS and suitable forensic genetic markers, more relevant information could be obtained from a limited quantity and quality sample. Results were obtained for 25/26 Y-STRs, 34/34 Y SNPs, 166/166 ancestry-informative SNPs, 24/24 phenotype-informative SNPs, 102/102 human identity SNPs, 27/29 autosomal STRs (plus amelogenin, and 4/8 X-STRs (as well as ten regions of mtDNA. The Y-chromosome (Y-STR, Y-SNP and mtDNA profiles of the unidentified skeletal remains are consistent with the R1b and H1 haplogroups, respectively. Both of these haplogroups are the most common haplogroups in Western Europe. Ancestry-informative SNP analysis also supported European ancestry. The genetic results are consistent with anthropological findings that the remains belong to a male of European ancestry (Caucasian. Phenotype-informative SNP data provided strong support that the individual had light red hair and brown eyes. Conclusions This study is among the first to genetically characterize historical human remains with forensic genetic marker kits specifically designed for MPS. The outcome demonstrates that

  12. More comprehensive forensic genetic marker analyses for accurate human remains identification using massively parallel DNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambers, Angie D; Churchill, Jennifer D; King, Jonathan L; Stoljarova, Monika; Gill-King, Harrell; Assidi, Mourad; Abu-Elmagd, Muhammad; Buhmeida, Abdelbaset; Al-Qahtani, Mohammed; Budowle, Bruce

    2016-10-17

    Although the primary objective of forensic DNA analyses of unidentified human remains is positive identification, cases involving historical or archaeological skeletal remains often lack reference samples for comparison. Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) offers an opportunity to provide biometric data in such cases, and these cases provide valuable data on the feasibility of applying MPS for characterization of modern forensic casework samples. In this study, MPS was used to characterize 140-year-old human skeletal remains discovered at a historical site in Deadwood, South Dakota, United States. The remains were in an unmarked grave and there were no records or other metadata available regarding the identity of the individual. Due to the high throughput of MPS, a variety of biometric markers could be typed using a single sample. Using MPS and suitable forensic genetic markers, more relevant information could be obtained from a limited quantity and quality sample. Results were obtained for 25/26 Y-STRs, 34/34 Y SNPs, 166/166 ancestry-informative SNPs, 24/24 phenotype-informative SNPs, 102/102 human identity SNPs, 27/29 autosomal STRs (plus amelogenin), and 4/8 X-STRs (as well as ten regions of mtDNA). The Y-chromosome (Y-STR, Y-SNP) and mtDNA profiles of the unidentified skeletal remains are consistent with the R1b and H1 haplogroups, respectively. Both of these haplogroups are the most common haplogroups in Western Europe. Ancestry-informative SNP analysis also supported European ancestry. The genetic results are consistent with anthropological findings that the remains belong to a male of European ancestry (Caucasian). Phenotype-informative SNP data provided strong support that the individual had light red hair and brown eyes. This study is among the first to genetically characterize historical human remains with forensic genetic marker kits specifically designed for MPS. The outcome demonstrates that substantially more genetic information can be obtained from

  13. Analyses of Total Alkaloid Extract of Corydalis yanhusuo by Comprehensive RP × RP Liquid Chromatography with pH Difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Wei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive two-dimensional (2D reverse phase (RP liquid chromatography (LC method is developed for alkaloid analysis. This offline comprehensive 2D method is developed using different pH values. With a pH value of 10.5, most alkaloids appear in the form of neutral molecules possessing high retention factors based on their polarity, while the alkaloid polarity order is changed when the pH value decreased to 3.0. The performance of pH modulated 2D LC is demonstrated with 8 alkaloid standards which resulted in orthogonal separation. The developed method is then applied to total alkaloid separation in Corydalis yanhusuo. The first-dimension separation is carried out using methanol and water containing 1.0% ammonium hydroxide and a strong base-resistant RP column, which afforded a peak capacity of 94. The second-dimension analysis is carried out with a surface positive charge column providing a peak capacity of 205 using a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and water with 0.15% formic acid. 2D analyses of total alkaloid extract from C. yanhusuo afford a total peak capacity of 9090. Sixteen compounds were tentatively identified based on their ultraviolet spectrum and MS/MS analyses. The proposed method provides an alternative approach to achieve high peak capacity for analysis of alkaloid extract.

  14. Circulating biomarkers for predicting cardiovascular disease risk; a systematic review and comprehensive overview of meta-analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thijs C van Holten

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is one of the major causes of death worldwide. Assessing the risk for cardiovascular disease is an important aspect in clinical decision making and setting a therapeutic strategy, and the use of serological biomarkers may improve this. Despite an overwhelming number of studies and meta-analyses on biomarkers and cardiovascular disease, there are no comprehensive studies comparing the relevance of each biomarker. We performed a systematic review of meta-analyses on levels of serological biomarkers for atherothrombosis to compare the relevance of the most commonly studied biomarkers. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Medline and Embase were screened on search terms that were related to "arterial ischemic events" and "meta-analyses". The meta-analyses were sorted by patient groups without pre-existing cardiovascular disease, with cardiovascular disease and heterogeneous groups concerning general populations, groups with and without cardiovascular disease, or miscellaneous. These were subsequently sorted by end-point for cardiovascular disease or stroke and summarized in tables. We have identified 85 relevant full text articles, with 214 meta-analyses. Markers for primary cardiovascular events include, from high to low result: C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, the apolipoprotein A/apolipoprotein B ratio, high density lipoprotein, and vitamin D. Markers for secondary cardiovascular events include, from high to low result: cardiac troponins I and T, C-reactive protein, serum creatinine, and cystatin C. For primary stroke, fibrinogen and serum uric acid are strong risk markers. Limitations reside in that there is no acknowledged search strategy for prognostic studies or meta-analyses. CONCLUSIONS: For primary cardiovascular events, markers with strong predictive potential are mainly associated with lipids. For secondary cardiovascular events, markers are more associated with ischemia. Fibrinogen is a

  15. Adult age differences in wrap-up during sentence comprehension: evidence from ex-Gaussian distributional analyses of reading time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Brennan R; Stine-Morrow, Elizabeth A L

    2014-06-01

    We report a secondary data analysis investigating age differences in the effects of clause and sentence wrap-up on reading time distributions during sentence comprehension. Residual word-by-word self-paced reading times were fit to the ex-Gaussian distribution to examine age differences in the effects of clause and sentence wrap-up on both the location and shape of participants' reaction time (RT) distributions. The ex-Gaussian distribution showed good fit to the data in both younger and older adults. Sentence wrap-up increased the central tendency, the variability, and the tail of the distribution, and these effects were exaggerated among the old. In contrast, clause wrap-up influenced the tail of the distribution only, and did so differentially for older adults. Effects were confirmed via nonparametric vincentile plots. Individual differences in visual acuity, working memory, speed of processing, and verbal ability were differentially related to ex-Gaussian parameters reflecting wrap-up effects on underlying reading time distributions. These findings argue against simple pause mechanisms to explain end-of-clause and end-of-sentence reading time patterns; rather, the findings are consistent with a cognitively effortful view of wrap-up and suggest that age and individual differences in attentional allocation to semantic integration during reading, as revealed by RT distribution analyses, play an important role in sentence understanding. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Up-to-constants bounds on the two-point Green's function for SLE curves

    OpenAIRE

    Lawler, Gregory F.; Rezaei, Mohammad A.

    2015-01-01

    The Green's function for the chordal Schramm-Loewner evolution $SLE_\\kappa$ for $0 < \\kappa < 8$, gives the normalized probability of getting near points. We give up-to-constant bounds for the two-point Green's function.

  17. Two-Point Discrimination Test in the Treatment of Right-handed Females with Lumbosacral Radiculopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Reza Saeidian

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-somatic causes of pain may aggravate painful complaints and complicate the conservative management of diseases such as lumbo-sacral disk root disease. The two-point discrimination test has been used for assessment of diseases, which change patients' skin sensation. This study aims to find out how applicable is two-point discrimination test in the conservative treatment of lumbo-sacral disk diseases. Twenty right-handed females suffering from unilateral lumbo-sacral disk disease were admitted for a conservative treatment from 2006 to 2009. The treatment con-sisted of a week bed rest, physiotherapy, and medication. They were subjected to straight leg raising tests, and their pains were evaluated using visual analog scale. The values of two-point discrimination test were obtained bilaterally for L4, L5 and S1 dermatomes. Changes between the involved and intact lower limbs as well as values of two-point discrimination test before and after the treatment were also compared. In addition, the correlation between the outcome of two-point discrimination, straight leg raising tests, or pain scores were evaluated. There was a significant (P<0.001 difference between the changes in the values of two-point discrimination test, pain scales, or straight leg raising tests in the involved and intact limbs before and after the treatment. However, correlation among variables did not reach statistical significance (P<0.94, r=0.017. The results indicated that although two-point discrimination test is a feasible and objective tool to evaluate patients' improvements during the conservative management of lumbo-sacral disk diseases, there were no strong correlations between two-point discrimination test and straight leg raising tests, or pain scale.

  18. Two-Point Discrimination Test in the Treatment of Right-handed Females with Lumbosacral Radiculopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeidian, Seyed Reza; Moghaddam, Hadi Fathi; Ahangarpour, Akram; Latifi, Seyed Mahmood

    2011-01-01

    Non-somatic causes of pain may aggravate painful complaints and complicate the conservative management of diseases such as lumbo-sacral disk root disease. The two-point discrimination test has been used for assessment of diseases, which change patients' skin sensation. This study aims to find out how applicable is two-point discrimination test in the conservative treatment of lumbo-sacral disk diseases. Twenty right-handed females suffering from unilateral lumbo-sacral disk disease were admitted for a conservative treatment from 2006 to 2009. The treatment consisted of a week bed rest, physiotherapy, and medication. They were subjected to straight leg raising tests, and their pains were evaluated using visual analog scale. The values of two-point discrimination test were obtained bilaterally for L4, L5 and S1 dermatomes. Changes between the involved and intact lower limbs as well as values of two-point discrimination test before and after the treatment were also compared. In addition, the correlation between the outcome of two-point discrimination, straight leg raising tests, or pain scores were evaluated. There was a significant (P<0.001) difference between the changes in the values of two-point discrimination test, pain scales, or straight leg raising tests in the involved and intact limbs before and after the treatment. However, correlation among variables did not reach statistical significance (P<0.94, r=0.017). The results indicated that although two-point discrimination test is a feasible and objective tool to evaluate patients' improvements during the conservative management of lumbo-sacral disk diseases, there were no strong correlations between two-point discrimination test and straight leg raising tests, or pain scale. PMID:23115415

  19. Comprehensive and quantitative proteomic analyses of zebrafish plasma reveals conserved protein profiles between genders and between zebrafish and human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Caixia; Tan, Xing Fei; Lim, Teck Kwang; Lin, Qingsong; Gong, Zhiyuan

    2016-01-01

    Omic approaches have been increasingly used in the zebrafish model for holistic understanding of molecular events and mechanisms of tissue functions. However, plasma is rarely used for omic profiling because of the technical challenges in collecting sufficient blood. In this study, we employed two mass spectrometric (MS) approaches for a comprehensive characterization of zebrafish plasma proteome, i.e. conventional shotgun liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for an overview study and quantitative SWATH (Sequential Window Acquisition of all THeoretical fragment-ion spectra) for comparison between genders. 959 proteins were identified in the shotgun profiling with estimated concentrations spanning almost five orders of magnitudes. Other than the presence of a few highly abundant female egg yolk precursor proteins (vitellogenins), the proteomic profiles of male and female plasmas were very similar in both number and abundance and there were basically no other highly gender-biased proteins. The types of plasma proteins based on IPA (Ingenuity Pathway Analysis) classification and tissue sources of production were also very similar. Furthermore, the zebrafish plasma proteome shares significant similarities with human plasma proteome, in particular in top abundant proteins including apolipoproteins and complements. Thus, the current study provided a valuable dataset for future evaluation of plasma proteins in zebrafish. PMID:27071722

  20. Mistakes and Pitfalls Associated with Two-Point Compression Ultrasound for Deep Vein Thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitek, Tony; Baydoun, Jamie; Yepez, Salvador; Forred, Wesley; Slattery, David E

    2016-03-01

    Two-point compression ultrasound is purportedly a simple and accurate means to diagnose proximal lower extremity deep vein thrombosis (DVT), but the pitfalls of this technique have not been fully elucidated. The objective of this study is to determine the accuracy of emergency medicine resident-performed two-point compression ultrasound, and to determine what technical errors are commonly made by novice ultrasonographers using this technique. This was a prospective diagnostic test assessment of a convenience sample of adult emergency department (ED) patients suspected of having a lower extremity DVT. After brief training on the technique, residents performed two-point compression ultrasounds on enrolled patients. Subsequently a radiology department ultrasound was performed and used as the gold standard. Residents were instructed to save videos of their ultrasounds for technical analysis. Overall, 288 two-point compression ultrasound studies were performed. There were 28 cases that were deemed to be positive for DVT by radiology ultrasound. Among these 28, 16 were identified by the residents with two-point compression. Among the 260 cases deemed to be negative for DVT by radiology ultrasound, 10 were thought to be positive by the residents using two-point compression. This led to a sensitivity of 57.1% (95% CI [38.8-75.5]) and a specificity of 96.1% (95% CI [93.8-98.5]) for resident-performed two-point compression ultrasound. This corresponds to a positive predictive value of 61.5% (95% CI [42.8-80.2]) and a negative predictive value of 95.4% (95% CI [92.9-98.0]). The positive likelihood ratio is 14.9 (95% CI [7.5-29.5]) and the negative likelihood ratio is 0.45 (95% CI [0.29-0.68]). Video analysis revealed that in four cases the resident did not identify a DVT because the thrombus was isolated to the superior femoral vein (SFV), which is not evaluated by two-point compression. Moreover, the video analysis revealed that the most common mistake made by the residents

  1. Mistakes and Pitfalls Associated with Two-Point Compression Ultrasound for Deep Vein Thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Zitek, MD

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Two-point compression ultrasound is purportedly a simple and accurate means to diagnose proximal lower extremity deep vein thrombosis (DVT, but the pitfalls of this technique have not been fully elucidated. The objective of this study is to determine the accuracy of emergency medicine resident-performed two-point compression ultrasound, and to determine what technical errors are commonly made by novice ultrasonographers using this technique. Methods: This was a prospective diagnostic test assessment of a convenience sample of adult emergency department (ED patients suspected of having a lower extremity DVT. After brief training on the technique, residents performed two-point compression ultrasounds on enrolled patients. Subsequently a radiology department ultrasound was performed and used as the gold standard. Residents were instructed to save videos of their ultrasounds for technical analysis. Results: Overall, 288 two-point compression ultrasound studies were performed. There were 28 cases that were deemed to be positive for DVT by radiology ultrasound. Among these 28, 16 were identified by the residents with two-point compression. Among the 260 cases deemed to be negative for DVT by radiology ultrasound, 10 were thought to be positive by the residents using two-point compression. This led to a sensitivity of 57.1% (95% CI [38.8-75.5] and a specificity of 96.1% (95% CI [93.8-98.5] for resident-performed two-point compression ultrasound. This corresponds to a positive predictive value of 61.5% (95% CI [42.8-80.2] and a negative predictive value of 95.4% (95% CI [92.9-98.0]. The positive likelihood ratio is 14.9 (95% CI [7.5-29.5] and the negative likelihood ratio is 0.45 (95% CI [0.29-0.68]. Video analysis revealed that in four cases the resident did not identify a DVT because the thrombus was isolated to the superior femoral vein (SFV, which is not evaluated by two-point compression. Moreover, the video analysis revealed that the

  2. Modeling the two-point correlation of the vector stream function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlack, M.; Rogers, M. M.; Reynolds, W. C.

    1994-01-01

    A new model for the two-point vector stream function correlation has been developed using tensor invariant arguments and evaluated by the comparison of model predictions with DNS data for incompressible homogeneous turbulent shear flow. This two-point vector stream function model correlation can then be used to calculate the two-point velocity correlation function and other quantities useful in turbulence modeling. The model assumes that the two-point vector stream function correlation can be written in terms of the separation vector and a new tensor function that depends only on the magnitude of the separation vector. The model has a single free model coefficient, which has been chosen by comparison with the DNS data. The relative error of the model predictions of the two-point vector stream function correlation is only a few percent for a broad range of the model coefficient. Predictions of the derivatives of this correlation, which are of interest in turbulence modeling, may not be this accurate.

  3. Comprehensive genomic analyses of a metastatic colon cancer to the lung by whole exome sequencing and gene expression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Li Tai; Lee, Sharon; Choi, Helen; Kim, Hong Kwan; Jew, Gregory; Kang, Hio Chung; Chen, Lin; Jablons, David; Kim, Il-Jin

    2014-01-01

    We performed whole exome sequencing and gene expression analysis on a metastatic colon cancer to the lung, along with the adjacent normal tissue of the lung. Whole exome sequencing uncovered 71 high-confidence non‑synonymous mutations. We selected 16 mutation candidates, and 13 out of 16 mutations were validated by targeted deep sequencing using the Ion Torrent PGM customized AmpliSeq panel. By integrating mutation, copy number and gene expression microarray data, we identified a JAZF1 mutation with a gain-of-copy, suggesting its oncogenic potential for the lung metastasis from colon cancer. Our pathway analyses showed that the identified mutations closely reflected characteristics of the metastatic site (lung) while mRNA gene expression patterns kept genetic information of its primary tumor (colon). The most significant gene expression network was the 'Colorectal Cancer Metastasis Signaling', containing 6 (ADCY2, ADCY9, APC, GNB5, K-ras and LRP6) out of the 71 mutated genes. Some of these mutated genes (ADCY9, ADCY2, GNB5, K-ras, HDAC6 and ARHGEF17) also belong to the 'Phospholipase C Signaling' network, which suggests that this pathway and its mutated genes may contribute to a lung metastasis from colon cancer.

  4. Comprehensive review of genetic association studies and meta-analyses on miRNA polymorphisms and cancer risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kshitij Srivastava

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small RNA molecules that regulate the expression of corresponding messenger RNAs (mRNAs. Variations in the level of expression of distinct miRNAs have been observed in the genesis, progression and prognosis of multiple human malignancies. The present study was aimed to investigate the association between four highly studied miRNA polymorphisms (mir-146a rs2910164, mir-196a2 rs11614913, mir-149 rs2292832 and mir-499 rs3746444 and cancer risk by using a two-sided meta-analytic approach.An updated meta-analysis based on 53 independent case-control studies consisting of 27573 cancer cases and 34791 controls was performed. Odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (95% CI were used to investigate the strength of the association.Overall, the pooled analysis showed that mir-196a2 rs11614913 was associated with a decreased cancer risk (OR = 0.846, P = 0.004, TT vs. CC while other miRNA SNPs showed no association with overall cancer risk. Subgroup analyses based on type of cancer and ethnicity were also performed, and results indicated that there was a strong association between miR-146a rs2910164 and overall cancer risk in Caucasian population under recessive model (OR = 1.274, 95%CI = 1.096-1.481, P = 0.002. Stratified analysis by cancer type also associated mir-196a2 rs11614913 with lung and colorectal cancer at allelic and genotypic level.The present meta-analysis suggests an important role of mir-196a2 rs11614913 polymorphism with overall cancer risk especially in Asian population. Further studies with large sample size are needed to evaluate and confirm this association.

  5. Comprehensive Metaproteomic Analyses of Urine in the Presence and Absence of Neutrophil-Associated Inflammation in the Urinary Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yanbao; Sikorski, Patricia; Smith, Madeline; Bowman-Gholston, Cynthia; Cacciabeve, Nicolas; Nelson, Karen E.; Pieper, Rembert

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation in the urinary tract results in a urinary proteome characterized by a high dynamic range of protein concentrations and high variability in protein content. This proteome encompasses plasma proteins not resorbed by renal tubular uptake, renal secretion products, proteins of immune cells and erythrocytes derived from trans-urothelial migration and vascular leakage, respectively, and exfoliating urothelial and squamous epithelial cells. We examined how such proteins partition into soluble urine (SU) and urinary pellet (UP) fractions by analyzing 33 urine specimens 12 of which were associated with a urinary tract infection (UTI). Using mass spectrometry-based metaproteomic approaches, we identified 5,327 non-redundant human proteins, 2,638 and 4,379 of which were associated with SU and UP fractions, respectively, and 1,206 non-redundant protein orthology groups derived from pathogenic and commensal organisms of the urogenital tract. Differences between the SU and UP proteomes were influenced by local inflammation, supported by respective comparisons with 12 healthy control urine proteomes. Clustering analyses showed that SU and UP fractions had proteomic signatures discerning UTIs, vascular injury, and epithelial cell exfoliation from the control group to varying degrees. Cases of UTI revealed clusters of proteins produced by activated neutrophils. Network analysis supported the central role of neutrophil effector proteins in the defense against invading pathogens associated with subsequent coagulation and wound repair processes. Our study expands the existing knowledge of the urinary proteome under perturbed conditions, and should be useful as reference dataset in the search of biomarkers. PMID:28042331

  6. Holographic two-point functions for 4d log-gravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johansson, Niklas; Naseh, Ali; Zojer, Thomas

    We compute holographic one- and two-point functions of critical higher-curvature gravity in four dimensions. The two most important operators are the stress tensor and its logarithmic partner, sourced by ordinary massless and by logarithmic non-normalisable gravitons, respectively. In addition, the

  7. Dexterity and two-point discrimination of the hand in school-aged children with dysgraphia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havaei, Naser; Rezaei, Mandana; Rostami, Hamid Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dysgraphia as a problem with handwriting, affects student's performance in school activities and participation. The purpose of the study was to compare dexterity and two-point discrimination of the hand between learning disabled students with dysgraphia and healthy students. Methods: Forty-three students with developmental dysgraphia and 55 normal students in grade two to four from special and regular schools participated in this study. Hand dexterity and static/dynamic discriminative touch were assessed via Purdue Pegboard and Two-Point Discriminator respectively. Results: Significant differences were found in Purdue Pegboard scores between two groups except in doing the test with the left hand (pdysgraphia compared to healthy children (p0.05). Static two-point discrimination of the thumb finger was significantly higher in children with dysgraphia (pdysgraphia. There were no correlations between two-point discrimination and Purdue Pegboard scores of children with dysgraphia. Intervention should focus on other aspects of dexterity rather than sensory components. Hand dominancy also may be a factor influencing hand performance in dysgraphia.

  8. Holographic two-point functions for Janus interfaces in the D1 /D5 CFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodaroli, Marco; Estes, John; Korovin, Yegor

    2017-04-01

    This paper investigates scalar perturbations in the top-down supersymmetric Janus solutions dual to conformal interfaces in the D1 /D5 CFT, finding analytic closed-form solutions. We obtain an explicit representation of the bulk-to-bulk propagator and extract the two-point correlation function of the dual operator with itself, whose form is not fixed by symmetry alone. We give an expression involving the sum of conformal blocks associated with the bulk-defect operator product expansion and briefly discuss finite-temperature extensions. To our knowledge, this is the first computation of a two-point function which is not completely determined by symmetry for a fully-backreacted, top-down holographic defect.

  9. Predicting aerodynamic sound utilizing a two-point, two-time turbulence theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, A. M.; Teske, M. E.; Bilanin, A. J.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of determining two-point, two-time turbulent velocity correlations based on extending closure models for one-point, one-time turbulence correlations is demonstrated. The procedure used is based on a spatial moment integral formulation of the governing equations using approximate, parameterized trial functions for the two-point, two-time velocity correlations. Solution of the equations is shown to give a set of anisotropic length scales and the separation-time-dependent decorrelation of the ensemble averaged turbulent velocities. The analysis is simplified using the assumption of homogeneous stationary turbulence and a constant shear, unidirectional mean flow. It is shown that the anisotropic behavior of measured turbulence correlations can be characterized through this technique.

  10. Successive Iteration of Positive Solutions for Fourth-Order Two-Point Boundary Value Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongping Sun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We are concerned with a fourth-order two-point boundary value problem. We prove the existence of positive solutions and establish iterative schemes for approximating the solutions. The interesting point of our method is that the nonlinear term is involved with all lower-order derivatives of unknown function, and the iterative scheme starts off with a known cubic function or the zero function. Finally we give two examples to verify the effectiveness of the main results.

  11. On one two-point BVP for the fourth order linear ordinary differential equation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mukhigulashvili, Sulkhan; Manjikashvili, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 2 (2017), s. 265-275 ISSN 1072-947X Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : fourth order linear ordinary differential equations * two-point boundary value problems Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.290, year: 2016 https://www.degruyter.com/view/j/gmj.2017.24.issue-2/gmj-2016-0077/gmj-2016-0077. xml

  12. Two-Point Correlators of Fermionic Currents in External Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrynina, Alexandra; Karabanov, Ilya; Parkhomenko, Alexander; Vassilevskaya, Lubov

    2017-10-01

    We study the two-point correlation functions under an influence of the constant homogeneous magnetic field. In addition to the correlators of scalar, pseudoscalar, vector and axial-vector fermionic currents, we calculate the non-diagonal one including the tensor and pseudoscalar currents. The tensor current is a fermionic part of the Pauli Lagrangian relevant for the electromagnetic interaction of fermions through the anomalous magnetic moment. Its contribution to the photon polarization operator is briefly discussed.

  13. Comparison of Optimization and Two-point Methods in Estimation of Soil Water Retention Curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbarian-Alavijeh, B.; Liaghat, A. M.; Huang, G.

    2009-04-01

    Soil water retention curve (SWRC) is one of the soil hydraulic properties in which its direct measurement is time consuming and expensive. Since, its measurement is unavoidable in study of environmental sciences i.e. investigation of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity and solute transport, in this study the attempt is to predict soil water retention curve from two measured points. By using Cresswell and Paydar (1996) method (two-point method) and an optimization method developed in this study on the basis of two points of SWRC, parameters of Tyler and Wheatcraft (1990) model (fractal dimension and air entry value) were estimated and then water content at different matric potentials were estimated and compared with their measured values (n=180). For each method, we used both 3 and 1500 kPa (case 1) and 33 and 1500 kPa (case 2) as two points of SWRC. The calculated RMSE values showed that in the Creswell and Paydar (1996) method, there exists no significant difference between case 1 and case 2. However, the calculated RMSE value in case 2 (2.35) was slightly less than case 1 (2.37). The results also showed that the developed optimization method in this study had significantly less RMSE values for cases 1 (1.63) and 2 (1.33) rather than Cresswell and Paydar (1996) method.

  14. Dark Energy Survey Year 1 Results: Methodology and Projections for Joint Analysis of Galaxy Clustering, Galaxy Lensing, and CMB Lensing Two-point Functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannantonio, T.; et al.

    2018-02-14

    Optical imaging surveys measure both the galaxy density and the gravitational lensing-induced shear fields across the sky. Recently, the Dark Energy Survey (DES) collaboration used a joint fit to two-point correlations between these observables to place tight constraints on cosmology (DES Collaboration et al. 2017). In this work, we develop the methodology to extend the DES Collaboration et al. (2017) analysis to include cross-correlations of the optical survey observables with gravitational lensing of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) as measured by the South Pole Telescope (SPT) and Planck. Using simulated analyses, we show how the resulting set of five two-point functions increases the robustness of the cosmological constraints to systematic errors in galaxy lensing shear calibration. Additionally, we show that contamination of the SPT+Planck CMB lensing map by the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect is a potentially large source of systematic error for two-point function analyses, but show that it can be reduced to acceptable levels in our analysis by masking clusters of galaxies and imposing angular scale cuts on the two-point functions. The methodology developed here will be applied to the analysis of data from the DES, the SPT, and Planck in a companion work.

  15. Use of Green's functions in the numerical solution of two-point boundary value problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallaher, L. J.; Perlin, I. E.

    1974-01-01

    This study investigates the use of Green's functions in the numerical solution of the two-point boundary value problem. The first part deals with the role of the Green's function in solving both linear and nonlinear second order ordinary differential equations with boundary conditions and systems of such equations. The second part describes procedures for numerical construction of Green's functions and considers briefly the conditions for their existence. Finally, there is a description of some numerical experiments using nonlinear problems for which the known existence, uniqueness or convergence theorems do not apply. Examples here include some problems in finding rendezvous orbits of the restricted three body system.

  16. Generalized higher order two-point moments in turbulent boundary layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiang; Marusic, Ivan; Meneveau, Charles

    2015-11-01

    Generalized higher order two-point moments such as uz'm (x) uz'n(x + r > 2 / (m + n) and uz'2 (x) -uz'2 (x + r) ] n > 1 / n (where z is the distance from the wall, r is the distance in the flow direction, and m and n are arbitrary integers) are examined using high Reynolds number experimental data in turbulent boundary layer flow. Logarithmic behaviors with respect to both s and z in such statistics are observed. Certain predictions for such generalized log laws can be made in the context of the attached eddy hypothesis. Particularly simple results can be obtained for the scaling if one considers the velocity fluctuations at some point x and height z being the outcome of a random additive process, e.g. uN' =∑i= 1 Nai , where Ndepends on the wall normal distance zas N ~log (δ / z) , and the ai's are identical independent random additives. Predictions can be made of the slopes in the generalized log laws and these can be compared to the experimental data. For instance, already for single point higher-order moments it was known that the model overpredicts some slopes, indicating a sub-Gaussian behavior in the statistics. Gaussian behavior is rooted in the assumption of independency in ai's. We discuss some variants that introduce correlations, and provide evidence that the generalized higher order two-point moments can help discriminate among various possible models.

  17. Asymptotic behaviour of two-point functions in multi-species models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol K. Kozlowski

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We extract the long-distance asymptotic behaviour of two-point correlation functions in massless quantum integrable models containing multi-species excitations. For such a purpose, we extend to these models the method of a large-distance regime re-summation of the form factor expansion of correlation functions. The key feature of our analysis is a technical hypothesis on the large-volume behaviour of the form factors of local operators in such models. We check the validity of this hypothesis on the example of the SU(3-invariant XXX magnet by means of the determinant representations for the form factors of local operators in this model. Our approach confirms the structure of the critical exponents obtained previously for numerous models solvable by the nested Bethe Ansatz.

  18. Implementation of the Two-Point Angular Correlation Function on a High-Performance Reconfigurable Computer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr V. Kindratenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a parallel implementation of an algorithm for calculating the two-point angular correlation function as applied in the field of computational cosmology. The algorithm has been specifically developed for a reconfigurable computer. Our implementation utilizes a microprocessor and two reconfigurable processors on a dual-MAP SRC-6 system. The two reconfigurable processors are used as two application-specific co-processors. Two independent computational kernels are simultaneously executed on the reconfigurable processors while data pre-fetching from disk and initial data pre-processing are executed on the microprocessor. The overall end-to-end algorithm execution speedup achieved by this implementation is over 90× as compared to a sequential implementation of the algorithm executed on a single 2.8 GHz Intel Xeon microprocessor.

  19. Fast Computation of the Two-Point Correlation Function in the Age of Big Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, Andrew; Timlin, John

    2018-01-01

    We present a new code which quickly computes the two-point correlation function for large sets of astronomical data. This code combines the ease of use of Python with the speed of parallel shared libraries written in C. We include the capability to compute the auto- and cross-correlation statistics, and allow the user to calculate the three-dimensional and angular correlation functions. Additionally, the code automatically divides the user-provided sky masks into contiguous subsamples of similar size, using the HEALPix pixelization scheme, for the purpose of resampling. Errors are computed using jackknife and bootstrap resampling in a way that adds negligible extra runtime, even with many subsamples. We demonstrate comparable speed with other clustering codes, and code accuracy compared to known and analytic results.

  20. Comparison of eigeninference based on one- and two-point Green's functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drogosz, Zbigniew; Jurkiewicz, Jerzy; Łukaszewski, Grzegorz; Nowak, Maciej A

    2015-08-01

    We compare two methods of eigeninference from large sets of data. Our analysis points at the superiority of our eigeninference method based on one-point Green's functions and Padé approximants over a method based on fluctuations and two-point Green's functions. The first method is orders of magnitude faster than the second one; moreover, we found a source of potential instability of the second method and identified it as arising from the spurious zero and negative modes of the estimator for the variance operator of a certain multidimensional Gaussian distribution, inherent for that method. We also present eigeninference based on spectral moments of negative orders, for strictly positive spectra. Finally, we compare the cases of eigeninference of real-valued and complex-valued correlated Wishart distributions, reinforcing our conclusions on the advantage of the one-point Green's function method.

  1. Inverted catenoid as a fluid membrane with two points pulled together.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Villarreal, Pavel; Guven, Jemal

    2007-07-01

    Under inversion in any (interior) point, a catenoid transforms into a deflated compact geometry which touches at two points (its poles). The catenoid is a minimal surface and, as such, is an equilibrium shape of a symmetric fluid membrane. The conformal symmetry of the Hamiltonian implies that inverted minimal surfaces are also equilibrium shapes. However, they will exhibit curvature singularities at their poles. Such singularities are the geometrical signature of the external forces required to pull the poles together. These forces will set up stresses in the inverted shapes. Tuning the force corresponds geometrically to the translation of the point of inversion. For any fixed surface area, there will be a maximum force. The associated shape is a symmetric discocyte. Lowering the external force will induce a transition from the discocyte to a cup-shaped stomatocyte.

  2. Two-point measurement of hot plasma structures in the magnetotail lobes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santolík, O.; Šafránková, J.; Němeček, Z.; Sauvaud, J.-A.; Fedorov, A.; Zastenker, G.

    1997-09-01

    The magnetotail lobes contain mainly a plasma of low density and energy. However, structures consisting of energetic plasma particles have been also previously reported in this region. The present contribution is devoted to a two-point analysis of such structures. We use the data collected by the recently launched INTERBALL project. Energy analyzers and Faraday's cups onboard the main satellite and the sub-satellite detect localized short duration fluxes of electrons at higher energies, surrounded by a regular lobe plasma. The size of these plasma structures is about 0.5 R_E and their velocity ranges from several km/s to several tens of km/s. We give examples of (1) plasma structures which change their position while the spatial profile of plasma characteristics remains approximately constant, (2) expanding plasma structures, and (3) structures which seem to flap over the satellite pair.

  3. Two-point paraxial traveltime formula for inhomogeneous isotropic and anisotropic media: Tests of accuracy

    KAUST Repository

    Waheed, Umair bin

    2013-09-01

    On several simple models of isotropic and anisotropic media, we have studied the accuracy of the two-point paraxial traveltime formula designed for the approximate calculation of the traveltime between points S\\' and R\\' located in the vicinity of points S and R on a reference ray. The reference ray may be situated in a 3D inhomogeneous isotropic or anisotropic medium with or without smooth curved interfaces. The twopoint paraxial traveltime formula has the form of the Taylor expansion of the two-point traveltime with respect to spatial Cartesian coordinates up to quadratic terms at points S and R on the reference ray. The constant term and the coefficients of the linear and quadratic terms are determined from quantities obtained from ray tracing and linear dynamic ray tracing along the reference ray. The use of linear dynamic ray tracing allows the evaluation of the quadratic terms in arbitrarily inhomogeneous media and, as shown by examples, it extends the region of accurate results around the reference ray between S and R (and even outside this interval) obtained with the linear terms only. Although the formula may be used for very general 3D models, we concentrated on simple 2D models of smoothly inhomogeneous isotropic and anisotropic (~8% and ~20% anisotropy) media only. On tests, in which we estimated twopoint traveltimes between a shifted source and a system of shifted receivers, we found that the formula may yield more accurate results than the numerical solution of an eikonal-based differential equation. The tests also indicated that the accuracy of the formula depends primarily on the length and the curvature of the reference ray and only weakly depends on anisotropy. The greater is the curvature of the reference ray, the narrower its vicinity, in which the formula yields accurate results.

  4. Uniform fat suppression in hands and feet through the use of two-point Dixon chemical shift MR imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, M.; Dijkstra, P. F.; Akkerman, E. M.

    1999-01-01

    To assess the potential of two-point Dixon chemical shift magnetic resonance imaging to achieve uniform fat suppression in the distal parts of the extremities. Two-point Dixon chemical shift imaging was performed in 31 consecutive patients clinically suspected to have bone marrow disease. In some

  5. Maximum Likelihood Analyses of 3,490 rbcL Sequences: Scalability of Comprehensive Inference versus Group-Specific Taxon Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatakis, Alexandros; Göker, Markus; Grimm, Guido W

    2010-05-24

    The constant accumulation of sequence data poses new computational and methodological challenges for phylogenetic inference, since multiple sequence alignments grow both in the horizontal (number of base pairs, phylogenomic alignments) as well as vertical (number of taxa) dimension. Put aside the ongoing controversial discussion about appropriate models, partitioning schemes, and assembly methods for phylogenomic alignments, coupled with the high computational cost to infer these, for many organismic groups, a sufficient number of taxa is often exclusively available from one or just a few genes (e.g., rbcL, matK, rDNA). In this paper we address scalability of Maximum-Likelihood-based phylogeny reconstruction with respect to the number of taxa by example of several large nested single-gene rbcL alignments comprising 400 up to 3,491 taxa. In order to test the effect of taxon sampling, we employ an appropriately adapted taxon jackknifing approach. In contrast to standard jackknifing, this taxon subsampling procedure is not conducted entirely at random, but based on drawing subsamples from empirical taxon-groups which can either be user-defined or determined by using taxonomic information from databases. Our results indicate that, despite an unfavorable number of sequences to number of base pairs ratio, i.e., many relatively short sequences, Maximum Likelihood tree searches and bootstrap analyses scale well on single-gene rbcL alignments with a dense taxon sampling up to several thousand sequences. Moreover, the newly implemented taxon subsampling procedure can be beneficial for inferring higher level relationships and interpreting bootstrap support from comprehensive analysis.

  6. An Attempt to Derive the epsilon Equation from a Two-Point Closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canuto, V. M.; Cheng, Y.; Howard, A. M.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to derive the equation for the turbulence dissipation rate epsilon for a shear-driven flow. In 1961, Davydov used a one-point closure model to derive the epsilon equation from first principles but the final result contained undetermined terms and thus lacked predictive power. Both in 1987 and in 2001, attempts were made to derive the epsilon equation from first principles using a two-point closure, but their methods relied on a phenomenological assumption. The standard practice has thus been to employ a heuristic form of the equation that contains three empirical ingredients: two constants, c(sub 1 epsilon), and c(sub 2 epsilon), and a diffusion term D(sub epsilon) In this work, a two-point closure is employed, yielding the following results: 1) the empirical constants get replaced by c(sub 1), c(sub 2), which are now functions of Kappa and epsilon; 2) c(sub 1) and c(sub 2) are not independent because a general relation between the two that are valid for any Kappa and epsilon are derived; 3) c(sub 1), c(sub 2) become constant with values close to the empirical values c(sub 1 epsilon), c(sub epsilon 2), (i.e., homogenous flows); and 4) the empirical form of the diffusion term D(sub epsilon) is no longer needed because it gets substituted by the Kappa-epsilon dependence of c(sub 1), c(sub 2), which plays the role of the diffusion, together with the diffusion of the turbulent kinetic energy D(sub Kappa), which now enters the new equation (i.e., inhomogeneous flows). Thus, the three empirical ingredients c(sub 1 epsilon), c(sub epsilon 2), D (sub epsilon)are replaced by a single function c(sub 1)(Kappa, epsilon ) or c(sub 2)(Kappa, epsilon ), plus a D(sub Kappa)term. Three tests of the new equation for epsilon are presented: one concerning channel flow and two concerning the shear-driven planetary boundary layer (PBL).

  7. Two-point velocity correlations in turbulent boundary layers and channel flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longmire, E. K.; Khalitov, D.; Ganapathisubramani, B.; Marusic, I.

    2002-11-01

    Fully developed channel flow and a turbulent boundary layer were investigated with planar and stereo PIV. Two point correlations were computed from vector fields in planes parallel to the wall. Near the wall, correlations (u, v and w are the streamwise, spanwise, and wall-normal components) are elongated in the streamwise direction and narrow in the spanwise direction in both flows due to the presence of dominant streamwise streaks. The correlation is stronger downstream than upstream. The streamwise asymmetry is caused by inward spanwise motion of fluid beneath hairpin legs and necks that feeds low speed zones upstream. In the boundary layer, shows dominant lobes indicating that inward spanwise motion is correlated also to upwash of fluid upstream. The lengths of the lobes are consistent with the existence of packets of hairpins inclined at an angle to and convecting fluid away from the wall. Further from the wall, the correlations become shorter and more symmetric in the streamwise direction in both flows. Details will be given in the presentation. Supported by NSF (ACI-9982774, CTS-9983933)

  8. Assessing Performance of Multipurpose Reservoir System Using Two-Point Linear Hedging Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasireka, K.; Neelakantan, T. R.

    2017-07-01

    Reservoir operation is the one of the important filed of water resource management. Innovative techniques in water resource management are focussed at optimizing the available water and in decreasing the environmental impact of water utilization on the natural environment. In the operation of multi reservoir system, efficient regulation of the release to satisfy the demand for various purpose like domestic, irrigation and hydropower can lead to increase the benefit from the reservoir as well as significantly reduces the damage due to floods. Hedging rule is one of the emerging techniques in reservoir operation, which reduce the severity of drought by accepting number of smaller shortages. The key objective of this paper is to maximize the minimum power production and improve the reliability of water supply for municipal and irrigation purpose by using hedging rule. In this paper, Type II two-point linear hedging rule is attempted to improve the operation of Bargi reservoir in the Narmada basin in India. The results obtained from simulation of hedging rule is compared with results from Standard Operating Policy, the result shows that the application of hedging rule significantly improved the reliability of water supply and reliability of irrigation release and firm power production.

  9. Covariant and infrared-free graviton two-point function in de Sitter spacetime II

    CERN Document Server

    Pejhan, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    The solution to the linearized Einstein equation in de Sitter (dS) spacetime and the corresponding two-point function are explicitly written down in a gauge with two parameters `$a$' and `$b$'. The quantization procedure, independent of the choice of the coordinate system, is based on a rigorous group theoretical approach. Our result takes the form of a universal spin-two (transverse-traceless) sector and a gauge-dependent spin-zero (pure-trace) sector. Scalar equations are derived for the structure functions of each part. We show that the spin-two sector can be written as the resulting action of a second-order differential operator (the spin-two projector) on a massless minimally coupled scalar field (the spin-two structure function). The operator plays the role of a symmetric rank-$2$ polarization tensor and has a spacetime dependence. The calculated spin-two projector grows logarithmically with distance and also no dS-invariant solution for either structure functions exist. We show that the logarithmically...

  10. Exosomes and Homeostatic Synaptic Plasticity Are Linked to Each other and to Huntington's, Parkinson's, and Other Neurodegenerative Diseases by Database-Enabled Analyses of Comprehensively Curated Datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, James K T; Langfelder, Peter; Horvath, Steve; Palazzolo, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive and autosomal dominant neurodegeneration caused by CAG expansion in the huntingtin gene ( HTT ), but the pathophysiological mechanism of mutant HTT (mHTT) remains unclear. To study HD using systems biological methodologies on all published data, we undertook the first comprehensive curation of two key PubMed HD datasets: perturbation genes that impact mHTT-driven endpoints and therefore are putatively linked causally to pathogenic mechanisms, and the protein interactome of HTT that reflects its biology. We perused PubMed articles containing co-citation of gene IDs and MeSH terms of interest to generate mechanistic gene sets for iterative enrichment analyses and rank ordering. The HD Perturbation database of 1,218 genes highly overlaps the HTT Interactome of 1,619 genes, suggesting links between normal HTT biology and mHTT pathology. These two HD datasets are enriched for protein networks of key genes underlying two mechanisms not previously implicated in HD nor in each other: exosome synaptic functions and homeostatic synaptic plasticity. Moreover, proteins, possibly including HTT, and miRNA detected in exosomes from a wide variety of sources also highly overlap the HD datasets, suggesting both mechanistic and biomarker links. Finally, the HTT Interactome highly intersects protein networks of pathogenic genes underlying Parkinson's, Alzheimer's and eight non-HD polyglutamine diseases, ALS, and spinal muscular atrophy. These protein networks in turn highly overlap the exosome and homeostatic synaptic plasticity gene sets. Thus, we hypothesize that HTT and other neurodegeneration pathogenic genes form a large interlocking protein network involved in exosome and homeostatic synaptic functions, particularly where the two mechanisms intersect. Mutant pathogenic proteins cause dysfunctions at distinct points in this network, each altering the two mechanisms in specific fashion that contributes to distinct disease pathologies

  11. Comparison of Acupressure Effect on Two Points, Sanyinjiao versus Tai Chong, on Primary Dysmenorrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Akhavan Amjadi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives : Primary dysmenorrhea (PD is a common gynecological problem in women. It is defined as a menstrual pain that occurs in absence of pelvic pathology. PD causes school absence and job restriction for many women and girls. Pain is the main complain of PD but other systemic symptoms like headache, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, fatigue, irritability and dizziness are common. Many chemical drugs have been used to manage dysmenorrhea, but most of them have side effects. Acupoint stimulation therapies, like acupressure, might be an effective intervention for primary dysmenorrhea. SP6 and Liv3 are two important acupoints to improve primary dysmenorrhea. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of acupressure in two points SP6 and Liv3 on primary dysmenorrhea.   Methods: This is a single-blind, randomized clinical trial study. Severity of pain and symptoms were assessed at baseline and also after two menstrual cycles of the investigation using validated questionnaires. 94 non-married women between 18-30 years old, who suffered from primary dysmenorrhea, completed the study (n=50 Liv3, n=44 SP6. The SP6 group received 20 min of acupressure during the initial intervention session and educated to perform the technique twice a day, from 3-5 days before to third days of their menstrual cycle, for two cycles. In contrast, the Liv3 group, performed this method but on Liv3 acupoint. Severity of dysmenorrhea was assessed with Andersch and Milsom verbal multidimensional scoring system. In order to analysis of data, Friedman test and GEE statistics test were used.   Results: In comparison with baseline, severity of pain in both treated groups decreased (p=0.001. But statistical significance was not observed between two groups.   Conclusion: It seems that acupressure on SP6 and Liv3, without any preference, is effective to decrease of severity of pain of dysmenorrhea.

  12. Investigation of large-scale coherence in a turbulent boundary layer using two-point correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganapathisubramani, B.; Hutchins, N.; Hambleton, W. T.; Longmire, E. K.; Marusic, I.

    2005-02-01

    Stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements are made in streamwise-spanwise and inclined cross-stream planes (inclined at 45° and 135° to the principal flow direction) of a turbulent boundary layer at moderate Reynolds number (Reτ˜ 1100). Two-point spatial velocity correlations computed using the PIV data reveal results that are consistent with an earlier study in which packets of hairpin vortices were identified by a feature-detection algorithm in the log region, but not in the outer wake region. Both streamwise-streamwise (Ruu) and streamwise-wall-normal (R_{uw}) correlations are significant for streamwise displacements of more than 1500 wall units. Zero crossing data for the streamwise fluctuating component u reveal that streamwise strips between zero crossings of 1500 wall units or longer occur more frequently for negative u than positive u, suggesting that long streamwise correlations in Ruu are dominated by slower streamwise structures. Additional analysis of R_{ww} correlations suggests that the long streamwise slow-moving regions contain discrete zones of strong upwash over extended streamwise distances, as might occur within packets of angled hairpin vortices. At a wall-normal location outside of the log region (z/δ = 0.5), the correlations are shorter in the streamwise direction and broader in the spanwise direction. Correlations in the inclined cross-stream plane data reveal good agreement with the streamwise-spanwise plane. Ruu in the 45° plane is more elongated along the in-plane wall-normal direction than in the 135° plane, which is consistent with the presence of hairpin packets with a low-speed region lifting away from the wall.

  13. The relationship of facial two-point discrimination to applied force under clinical test conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vriens, Jan P M; van der Glas, Hilbert W

    2002-03-01

    When an interside comparison is hampered, for example, in cases of bilateral trauma, normal threshold values of two-point discrimination from healthy subjects might be used to delineate abnormal from normal sensory function in patients. To determine threshold pin distances, two devices, the Disk-Criminator and the Aesthesiometer, have often been applied in a clinical setting. Because these devices are hand-operated, the force of applying a device might vary considerably. The general applicability of normal threshold values from the literature may therefore be questioned. Five subjects participated in experiments with two observers, in which a hand-operated device with a constant pin distance (5 or 10 mm) was pushed on a facial site, until the point at which blanching of the skin started, and the applied force was recorded. To that end, the devices were modified by providing them with force transducers. These recordings revealed a considerable variation in force variables (level, duration, and rate). Significant differences in mean force level, duration, and rate occurred, particularly between devices, pin distances, and/or sites (cheek, upper and lower lips, and mental region) and also in mean duration between observers (p variation of force level, using an interval of at least 1 week and both nonmodified devices. Because of invariance, normal values of threshold pin distance are generally applicable to any well-trained observer and are related to the density of afferent nerve fibers. In contrast, recently reported force thresholds determined at a constant pin distance might not be related to fiber density only. The findings regarding dependency on site and pin distance of the force level suggest that force thresholds will also be related to tissue stiffness and to the extent to which a pair of pins co-operate mechanically.

  14. Similarity, Clustering, and Scaling Analyses for the Foreign Exchange Market ---Comprehensive Analysis on States of Market Participants with High-Frequency Financial Data---

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, A.; Sakai, H.; Nishimura, M.; Holyst, J. A.

    This article proposes mathematical methods to quantify states of marketparticipants in the foreign exchange market (FX market) and conduct comprehensive analysis on behavior of market participants by means of high-frequency financial data. Based on econophysics tools and perspectives we study similarity measures for both rate movements and quotation activities among various currency pairs. We perform also clustering analysis on market states for observation days, and find scaling relationship between mean values of quotation activities and their standard deviations. Using these mathematical methods we can visualize states of the FX market comprehensively. Finally we conclude that states of market participants temporally vary due to both external and internal factors.

  15. Spin-k/2-spin-k/2 SU(2) two-point functions on the torus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirsch, Ingo [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Gruppe Theorie; Kucharski, Piotr [Warsaw Univ. (Poland). Inst. of Theoretical Physics

    2012-11-15

    We discuss a class of two-point functions on the torus of primary operators in the SU(2) Wess-Zumino-Witten model at integer level k. In particular, we construct an explicit expression for the current blocks of the spin-(k)/(2)-spin-(k)/(2) torus two-point functions for all k. We first examine the factorization limits of the proposed current blocks and test their monodromy properties. We then prove that the current blocks solve the corresponding Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov-like differential equations using the method of Mathur, Mukhi and Sen.

  16. The Two-Point Correlation Function of Rich Clusters of Galaxies: Results from an Extended APM Cluster Redshift Survey

    OpenAIRE

    G. B. Dalton; Croft, R. A. C.; Efstathiou, G.; Sutherland, W.J.; Maddox, S. J.; Davis, M.

    1994-01-01

    We present new estimates of the spatial two-point correlation function of rich clusters of galaxies selected from the APM Galaxy Survey. We have measured redshifts for a sample of $364$ clusters out to a depth of $\\sim 450\\hmpc$. The clusters have a mean space density of $\\bar{n} = 3.4\\times 10^{-5}\\hmpccc$. The two-point correlation function, $\\xi_{cc}$, for this sample is equal to unity at a pair-separation of $r_0 = 14.3\\pm1.75\\hmpc$ (2$\\sigma$ errors), consistent with our earlier results ...

  17. Effect of misspecification of gene frequency on the two-point LOD score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, D K; Durner, M; Greenberg, D A

    2001-11-01

    In this study, we used computer simulation of simple and complex models to ask: (1) What is the penalty in evidence for linkage when the assumed gene frequency is far from the true gene frequency? (2) If the assumed model for gene frequency and inheritance are misspecified in the analysis, can this lead to a higher maximum LOD score than that obtained under the true parameters? Linkage data simulated under simple dominant, recessive, dominant and recessive with reduced penetrance, and additive models, were analysed assuming a single locus with both the correct and incorrect dominance model and assuming a range of different gene frequencies. We found that misspecifying the analysis gene frequency led to little penalty in maximum LOD score in all models examined, especially if the assumed gene frequency was lower than the generating one. Analysing linkage data assuming a gene frequency of the order of 0.01 for a dominant gene, and 0.1 for a recessive gene, appears to be a reasonable tactic in the majority of realistic situations because underestimating the gene frequency, even when the true gene frequency is high, leads to little penalty in the LOD score.

  18. Comprehensive Analyses of Molecules with Altered Expression in the Brain of a Mouse Model of Down Syndrome for Identification of Pharmacotherapeutic Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Keiichi

    2017-01-01

    Down syndrome, caused by the triplication of human chromosome 21, is the most frequent genetic cause of mental retardation. Mice with a segmental trisomy for mouse chromosome 16, which is orthologous to human chromosome 21, exhibit abnormalities similar to those in individuals with Down syndrome and therefore offer the opportunity for a genotype-phenotype correlation. In the current review, I present several mouse lines with trisomic regions of various lengths and discuss their usefulness for elucidating the mechanisms underlying Down syndrome-associated developmental cognitive disabilities. In addition, our recent comprehensive study attempting to identify molecules with disturbed expression in the brain of a mouse model of Down syndrome in order to develop a pharmacologic therapy for Down syndrome is described.

  19. Comprehensive genomic analyses of the OM43 clade including a novel species from Red Sea indicate ecotype differentiation among marine methylotrophs

    KAUST Repository

    Jimenez Infante, Francy M.

    2015-12-11

    The OM43 clade within the family Methylophilaceae of Betaproteobacteria represents a group of methylotrophs playing important roles in the metabolism of C1 compounds in marine environments and other aquatic environments around the globe. Using dilution-to-extinction cultivation techniques, we successfully isolated a novel species of this clade (designated here as MBRS-H7) from the ultra-oligotrophic open ocean waters of the central Red Sea. Phylogenomic analyses indicate that MBRS-H7 is a novel species, which forms a distinct cluster together with isolate KB13 from Hawaii (H-RS cluster) that is separate from that represented by strain HTCC2181 (from the Oregon coast). Phylogenetic analyses using the robust 16S–23S internal transcribed spacer revealed a potential ecotype separation of the marine OM43 clade members, which was further confirmed by metagenomic fragment recruitment analyses that showed trends of higher abundance in low chlorophyll and/or high temperature provinces for the H-RS cluster, but a preference for colder, highly productive waters for the HTCC2181 cluster. This potential environmentally driven niche differentiation is also reflected in the metabolic gene inventories, which in the case of H-RS include those conferring resistance to high levels of UV irradiation, temperature, and salinity. Interestingly, we also found different energy conservation modules between these OM43 subclades, namely the existence of the NADH:quinone oxidoreductase NUO system in the H-RS and the non-homologous NQR system in HTCC2181, which might have implications on their overall energetic yields.

  20. A comprehensive study on characterization of elite Neem chemotypes through mycofloral, tissue-cultural, ecomorphological and molecular analyses using azadirachtin-A as a biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chary, Parvathi

    2011-03-01

    Azadirachtin-A (Aza-A), a tetranortriterpenoid, found in minuscule amounts in the Neem seed-kernels, has proved to be a potent biopesticide. Given the vast biodiversity of Azadirachta indica (Neem) in India, this study is an overview of four main aspects that corroborate with each other in identifying elite Neem chemotypes based on their Aza-A content. These biomarkers included mycofloral, tissue-cultural, ecomorphometrical and molecular analyses on accessions from five ecogeographically different regions in Andhra Pradesh, India, which high-lighted the characteristics of trees that yielded the highest Aza-A. In essence, extremely-arid-alkaline regions with maximum soil pH (8.05) yielded trees with the highest amount of this biopesticide. Likewise, both VAM and soil fungal diversity and frequency exhibited maximal values in their rhizosphere, whereas it exhibited the least values for percentage moisture and also for several micronutrients measured (P2O5, Zn, Fe and Cu). In vitro studies on seeds with high versus low Aza-A content gave sturdier seedlings in the former; with profusely coiled roots and fibirillar foliage in tissue-culture; in addition to these seeds being more viable. Furthermore, their cotyledons alone exhibited significant amount of Aza-A, as measured by HPLC. Besides this significant difference, the impact of growth factors culminated not only in the variations of several secondary metabolites, but also differences in DNA patterns from various parts of a single in vitro plant. Ecomorphometric analyses clearly indicated that at least eight parameters (seed diameter, soil pH, percentage moisture, K2O, P2O5, Zn, lower lobe serrations and upper-lobe-distance of leaves) were significantly related to the quantitative variations in Aza-A. Finally, PCR analyses exhibited a habitat-based molecular concordance of ISSR and FISSR profiles with Aza-A content among the Neem chemotypes. Their relatedness was based on dendrograms constructed by UPGMA algorithms

  1. Dynamical pairwise entanglement and two-point correlations in the three-ligand spin-star structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motamedifar, M.

    2017-10-01

    We consider the three-ligand spin-star structure through homogeneous Heisenberg interactions (XXX-3LSSS) in the framework of dynamical pairwise entanglement. It is shown that the time evolution of the central qubit ;one-particle; state (COPS) brings about the generation of quantum W states at periodical time instants. On the contrary, W states cannot be generated from the time evolution of a ligand ;one-particle; state (LOPS). We also investigate the dynamical behavior of two-point quantum correlations as well as the expectation values of the different spin-components for each element in the XXX-3LSSS. It is found that when a W state is generated, the same value of the concurrence between any two arbitrary qubits arises from the xx and yy two-point quantum correlations. On the opposite, zz quantum correlation between any two qubits vanishes at these time instants.

  2. Effects of Morphology and Geometry of Inclusions on Two-Point Correlation Statistics in Two Phase Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabei, Ali; Ahzi, Said; Li, Dongsheng; Lavender, Curt A.; Garmestani, Hamid

    2014-01-06

    A spectral form of the two-point correlation functions for two-phase composites is presented and the effects of secondary phase morphology, geometry and volume fraction on the coefficients of the corresponding series are studied. Initially, a principal component analysis is performed on the coefficients of the series and then, the effects of different morphological and geometrical parameters of the second phase inclusions on two-point correlation functions are examined. A direct linkage between the principal components of the coefficients with the morphological features (inclusion shape, aspect ratio and size) is established and the influence of preferred orientation of the anisotropic inclusions is also investigated. Finally a composite hull is constructed using the principal components of the coefficients in a three-dimensional space, which helps in determining the interrelation of properties and microstructures of any composite containing these types of inclusions.

  3. The mean density and two-point correlation function for the CfA redshift survey slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lapparent, Valerie; Geller, Margaret J.; Huchra, John P.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of large-scale inhomogeneities on the determination of the mean number density and the two-point spatial correlation function were investigated for two complete slices of the extension of the Center for Astrophysics (CfA) redshift survey (de Lapparent et al., 1986). It was found that the mean galaxy number density for the two strips is uncertain by 25 percent, more so than previously estimated. The large uncertainty in the mean density introduces substantial uncertainty in the determination of the two-point correlation function, particularly at large scale; thus, for the 12-deg slice of the CfA redshift survey, the amplitude of the correlation function at intermediate scales is uncertain by a factor of 2. The large uncertainties in the correlation functions might reflect the lack of a fair sample.

  4. High order expansion of the solution of two-point boundary value problems using differential algebra: applications to spacecraft dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Di Lizia, P.; Armellin, R.; Bernelli Zazzera, F; Berz, M.

    2008-01-01

    Two-point boundary value problems appear frequently in space trajectory design. A remarkable example is represented by the Lambert’s problem, where the conic arc linking two fixed positions in space in a given time is to be characterized in the frame of the two- body problem. However, a certain level of approximation always affects the dynamical models adopted to design the nominal trajectory of a spacecraft. Dynamical perturbations usually act on the spacecraft in real scenarios, deviating i...

  5. Existence and Uniqueness Theorems for Impulsive Fractional Differential Equations with the Two-Point and Integral Boundary Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardanov, M. J.; Mahmudov, N. I.; Sharifov, Y. A.

    2014-01-01

    We study a boundary value problem for the system of nonlinear impulsive fractional differential equations of order α (0 < α ≤ 1) involving the two-point and integral boundary conditions. Some new results on existence and uniqueness of a solution are established by using fixed point theorems. Some illustrative examples are also presented. We extend previous results even in the integer case α = 1. PMID:24782675

  6. A Comprehensive Mapping of High-Level Men’s Volleyball Gameplay through Social Network Analysis: Analysing Serve, Side-Out, Side-Out Transition and Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Loureiro

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A deeper understanding of the factors behind performance and their interactions is essential to promote better training practices. Notwithstanding, the focus often relies on the outcomes of players’ actions (e.g., efficacy rates, whereas the nature and variations of particular classes of actions remain largely unexplored. Our purpose was to conduct a systemic analysis of categorical game variables and their interactions using Social Network Analysis. Game actions were counted as nodes and their interactions as edges. Eigenvector centrality values were calculated for each node. Eight matches of the Men’s World Cup 2015 were analysed, composing a total of 27 sets (1,209 rallies. Four game complexes were considered: Complex 0 (Serve, Complex I (Side-out, Complex II (Side-out transition and Complex III (Transition. Results showed that teams frequently play in-system when in Complex I (i.e. under ideal conditions, but present reduced variation with regard to attack zones and tempos, whereas in Complex II teams most often play out-of-system. Based on these findings, it was concluded that practicing with non-ideal conditions is paramount for good performance in Complex II. Furthermore, most literature combines Complex II and Complex III as a single unit (counter-attack; however, our results reinforce the notion that these two game complexes differ and should be analysed separately.

  7. Sensory, olfactometry and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography analyses as appropriate tools to characterize the effects of vine management on wine aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolli, Karine P; Biasoto, Aline C T; Souza-Silva, Érica A; Guerra, Celito C; Dos Santos, Henrique P; Welke, Juliane E; Zini, Cláudia A

    2018-03-15

    For the first time, the influence of different vine management was evaluated in relation to volatile profile and sensory perception through GC×GC/TOFMS, QDA, GC-FID, GC/MS, and GC-O. GC×GC/TOFMS analyses and QDA have shown that a larger spacing between vine rows (2 rather than 1m), attachment of shoots upwards, and irrigation did not result in wine improvement. Conversely, wines elaborated with grapes from a vine with a lower bud load (20 per plant; sample M1) stood out among the other procedures, rendering the most promising wine aroma. GC×GC/TOFMS allowed identification of 220 compounds including 26 aroma active compounds also distinguished by GC-O. Among them, eight volatiles were important to differentiate M1 from other wines, and five out of those eight compounds could only be correctly identified and quantified after separation in second dimension. Higher levels of three volatiles may explain the relation of M1 wine with red and dry fruits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Comprehensive multi-stage linkage analyses identify a locus for adult height on chromosome 3p in a healthy Caucasian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Justine A; Scurrah, Katrina J; Duncan, Anna E; Lamantia, Angela; Byrnes, Graham B; Harrap, Stephen B

    2007-04-01

    There have been a number of genome-wide linkage studies for adult height in recent years. These studies have yielded few well-replicated loci, and none have been further confirmed by the identification of associated gene variants. The inconsistent results may be attributable to the fact that few studies have combined accurate phenotype measures with informative statistical modelling in healthy populations. We have performed a multi-stage genome-wide linkage analysis for height in 275 adult sibling pairs drawn randomly from the Victorian Family Heart Study (VFHS), a healthy population-based Caucasian cohort. Height was carefully measured in a standardised fashion on regularly calibrated equipment. Following genome-wide identification of a peak Z-score of 3.14 on chromosome 3 at 69 cM, we performed a fine-mapping analysis of this region in an extended sample of 392 two-generation families. We used a number of variance components models that incorporated assortative mating and shared environment effects, and we observed a peak LOD score of approximately 3.5 at 78 cM in four of the five models tested. We also demonstrated that the most prevalent model in the literature gave the worst fit, and the lowest LOD score (2.9) demonstrating the importance of appropriate modelling. The region identified in this study replicates the results of other genome-wide scans of height and bone-related phenotypes, strongly suggesting the presence of a gene important in bone growth on chromosome 3p. Association analyses of relevant candidate genes should identify the genetic variants responsible for the chromosome 3p linkage signal in our population.

  9. Surgical treatment of zygomatic bone fracture using two points fixation versus three point fixation-a randomised prospective clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The zygoma plays an important role in the facial contour for both cosmetic and functional reasons; therefore zygomatic bone injuries should be properly diagnosed and adequately treated. Comparison of various surgical approaches and their complications can only be done objectively using outcome measurements which in turn require protocol management and long-term follow up. The preference for open reduction and internal fixation of zygomatic fractures at three points has continued to grow in response to observations of inadequate results from two point and one point fixation techniques. The objectives of this study were to compare the efficacy of zygomatic bone after treatment with ORIF using 2 point fixation and ORIF using 3 point fixation and compare the outcome of two procedures. Methods 100 patients were randomly divided equally into two groups. In group A, 50 patients were treated by ORIF using two point fixation by miniplates and in group B, 50 patients were treated by ORIF using three point fixation by miniplates. They were evaluated for their complications during and after surgery with their advantages and disadvantages and the difference between the two groups was observed. Results A total of 100 fractures were sustained. We found that postoperative complication like decreased malar height and vertical dystopia was more common in those patients who were treated by two point fixation than those who were treated with three point fixation. Conclusions Based on this study open reduction and internal fixation using three point fixation by miniplates is the best available method for the treatment zygomatic bone fractures. PMID:22497773

  10. Two-point Stokes vector parameters of object field for diagnosis and differentiation of optically anisotropic biological tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubolazov, O. V.; Trifonyuk, L.; Marchuk, Yu.; Ushenko, Yu. O.; Zhytaryuk, V. G.; Prydiy, O. G.; Kushnerik, L.; Meglinskiy, I.

    2017-08-01

    A new method of Stokes correlometry of polarization-inhomogeneous images of biological layers is presented. Analytic relations are determined for the modulus of complex parameters of the Stokes vector. A technique for measuring the coordinate distributions of the magnitude of the two-point modulus of the Stokes vector is proposed. Objective criteria for differentiating the optical anisotropy of polycrystalline urine films of healthy donors and patients with albuminuria have been found. An excellent level of balanced accuracy of differential diagnostics has been achieved.

  11. Study of a novel agent for TCA precipitated proteins washing - comprehensive insights into the role of ethanol/HCl on molten globule state by multi-spectroscopic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddhif, Balkis; Lange, Justin; Guignard, Nadia; Batonneau, Yann; Clarhaut, Jonathan; Papot, Sébastien; Geffroy-Rodier, Claude; Poinot, Pauline

    2017-11-27

    -precipitated proteins, with the aim to produce high-quality protein extracts which can be directly analyzed by LC-MS. An opening study on standard solutions showed that ethanol/HCl led to reduced losses of proteins compared to usual solvents (i.e. acetone and ethanol). This reagent also enabled a better solubilization of proteins in aqueous buffer that is necessary for their direct trypsin digestion and LC-HRMS analysis. A mechanistic study, performed through several spectroscopic analyses (LC-HRMS, Raman, spectrofluorometry), showed that treatment with ethanol/HCl induced conformational changes of TCA-precipitated proteins. Finally, we compared the efficiency of ethanol/HCl to published protocols for the washing of protein extracts from three different complex samples (i.e. soil, biofilm, and mouse liver). Our results demonstrated that ethanol/HCl is a valuable alternative to previous protein washing methods and, therefore could become a useful tool in mass spectrometry-based proteomics workflows for various applications (e.g. clinical research, chemical biology, environmental metaproteomics…). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. New Modified Adomian Decomposition Recursion Schemes for Solving Certain Types of Nonlinear Fractional Two-Point Boundary Value Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekson Sirisubtawee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We apply new modified recursion schemes obtained by the Adomian decomposition method (ADM to analytically solve specific types of two-point boundary value problems for nonlinear fractional order ordinary and partial differential equations. The new modified recursion schemes, which sometimes utilize the technique of Duan’s convergence parameter, are derived using the Duan-Rach modified ADM. The Duan-Rach modified ADM employs all of the given boundary conditions to compute the remaining unknown constants of integration, which are then embedded in the integral solution form before constructing recursion schemes for the solution components. New modified recursion schemes obtained by the method are generated in order to analytically solve nonlinear fractional order boundary value problems with a variety of two-point boundary conditions such as Robin and separated boundary conditions. Some numerical examples of such problems are demonstrated graphically. In addition, the maximal errors (MEn or the error remainder functions (ERn(x of each problem are calculated.

  13. Exact two-point resistance, and the simple random walk on the complete graph minus N edges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chair, Noureddine, E-mail: n.chair@ju.edu.jo

    2012-12-15

    An analytical approach is developed to obtain the exact expressions for the two-point resistance and the total effective resistance of the complete graph minus N edges of the opposite vertices. These expressions are written in terms of certain numbers that we introduce, which we call the Bejaia and the Pisa numbers; these numbers are the natural generalizations of the bisected Fibonacci and Lucas numbers. The correspondence between random walks and the resistor networks is then used to obtain the exact expressions for the first passage and mean first passage times on this graph. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We obtain exact formulas for the two-point resistance of the complete graph minus N edges. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We obtain also the total effective resistance of this graph. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We modified Schwatt's formula on trigonometrical power sum to suit our computations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We introduced the generalized bisected Fibonacci and Lucas numbers: the Bejaia and the Pisa numbers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The first passage and mean first passage times of the random walks have exact expressions.

  14. Alien calculus and a Schwinger-Dyson equation: two-point function with a nonperturbative mass scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellon, Marc P.; Clavier, Pierre J.

    2017-10-01

    Starting from the Schwinger-Dyson equation and the renormalization group equation for the massless Wess-Zumino model, we compute the dominant nonperturbative contributions to the anomalous dimension of the theory, which are related by alien calculus to singularities of the Borel transform on integer points. The sum of these dominant contributions has an analytic expression. When applied to the two-point function, this analysis gives a tame evolution in the deep euclidean domain at this approximation level, making doubtful the arguments on the triviality of the quantum field theory with positive β -function. On the other side, we have a singularity of the propagator for timelike momenta of the order of the renormalization group invariant scale of the theory, which has a nonperturbative relationship with the renormalization point of the theory. All these results do not seem to have an interpretation in terms of semiclassical analysis of a Feynman path integral.

  15. Alien calculus and a Schwinger-Dyson equation: two-point function with a nonperturbative mass scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellon, Marc P.; Clavier, Pierre J.

    2018-02-01

    Starting from the Schwinger-Dyson equation and the renormalization group equation for the massless Wess-Zumino model, we compute the dominant nonperturbative contributions to the anomalous dimension of the theory, which are related by alien calculus to singularities of the Borel transform on integer points. The sum of these dominant contributions has an analytic expression. When applied to the two-point function, this analysis gives a tame evolution in the deep euclidean domain at this approximation level, making doubtful the arguments on the triviality of the quantum field theory with positive β -function. On the other side, we have a singularity of the propagator for timelike momenta of the order of the renormalization group invariant scale of the theory, which has a nonperturbative relationship with the renormalization point of the theory. All these results do not seem to have an interpretation in terms of semiclassical analysis of a Feynman path integral.

  16. Quantifying Baseline Fixed Charge Density in Healthy Human Cartilage Endplate: A Two-point Electrical Conductivity Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yongren; Cisewski, Sarah E; Sun, Yi; Damon, Brooke J; Sachs, Barton L; Pellegrini, Vincent D; Slate, Elizabeth H; Yao, Hai

    2017-09-01

    Regional measurements of fixed charge densities (FCDs) of healthy human cartilage endplate (CEP) using a two-point electrical conductivity approach. The aim of this study was to determine the FCDs at four different regions (central, lateral, anterior, and posterior) of human CEP, and correlate the FCDs with tissue biochemical composition. The CEP, a thin layer of hyaline cartilage on the cranial and caudal surfaces of the intervertebral disc, plays an irreplaceable role in maintaining the unique physiological mechano-electrochemical environment inside the disc. FCD, arising from the carboxyl and sulfate groups of the glycosaminoglycans (GAG) in the extracellular matrix of the disc, is a key regulator of the disc ionic and osmotic environment through physicochemical and electrokinetic effects. Although FCDs in the annulus fibrosus (AF) and nucleus pulposus (NP) have been reported, quantitative baseline FCD in healthy human CEP has not been reported. CEP specimens were regionally isolated from human lumbar spines. FCD and ion diffusivity were concurrently investigated using a two-point electrical conductivity method. Biochemical assays were used to quantify regional GAG and water content. FCD in healthy human CEP was region-dependent, with FCD lowest in the lateral region (P = 0.044). Cross-region FCD was 30% to 60% smaller than FCD in NP, but similar to the AF and articular cartilage (AC). CEP FCD (average: 0.12 ± 0.03 mEq/g wet tissue) was correlated with GAG content (average: 31.24 ± 5.06 μg/mg wet tissue) (P = 0.005). In addition, the cross-region ion diffusivity in healthy CEP (2.97 ± 1.00 × 10 cm/s) was much smaller than the AF and NP. Healthy human CEP acts as a biomechanical interface, distributing loads between the bony vertebral body and soft disc tissues and as a gateway impeding rapid solute diffusion through the disc. N/A.

  17. Multiple Positive Solutions for a Coupled System of p-Laplacian Fractional Order Two-Point Boundary Value Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. R. Prasad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper establishes the existence of at least three positive solutions for a coupled system of p-Laplacian fractional order two-point boundary value problems, D0+β1(ϕp(D0+α1u(t=f1(t,u(t,v(t, t∈(0,1, D0+β2(ϕp(D0+α2v(t=f2(t,u(t,v(t, t∈(0,1, u(0=D0+q1u(0=0, γu(1+δD0+q2u(1=0, D0+α1u(0=D0+α1u(1=0, v(0=D0+q1v(0=0, γv(1+δD0+q2v(1=0, D0+α2v(0=D0+α2v(1=0, by applying five functionals fixed point theorem.

  18. Differences in two-point discrimination and sensory threshold in the blind between braille and text reading: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Ji-Woong; Park, Byoung-Sun; Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Yang, Seung-Min; Lee, Won-Deok; Shin, Yong-Sub; Kang, Ji-Hye; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Young; Kim, Junghwan

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated two-point discrimination (TPD) and the electrical sensory threshold of the blind to define the effect of using Braille on the tactile and electrical senses. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight blind participants were divided equally into a text-reading and a Braille-reading group. We measured tactile sensory and electrical thresholds using the TPD method and a transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator. [Results] The left palm TPD values were significantly different between the groups. The values of the electrical sensory threshold in the left hand, the electrical pain threshold in the left hand, and the electrical pain threshold in the right hand were significantly lower in the Braille group than in the text group. [Conclusion] These findings make it difficult to explain the difference in tactility between groups, excluding both palms. However, our data show that using Braille can enhance development of the sensory median nerve in the blind, particularly in terms of the electrical sensory and pain thresholds.

  19. Two-Point Boundary-Value Problems over a Semi-Infinite Domain: A Coupled ABC and Spline Collocation Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibdah, H.; Khuri, S. A.; Sayfy, A.

    2014-09-01

    The ultimate purpose of this article is to introduce and describe a combined approach, based on asymptotic boundary conditions (ABCs) and a fourth order cubic B-spline collocation, for the numerical solution of a general class of two-point linear boundary-value problems (BVPs) over a semi-infinite interval that arises in various engineering applications. The scheme will be extended and then implemented to handle a system of BVPs. The idea of the proposed strategy is to first reduce the condition at infinity to an asymptotic boundary condition that approaches the specified value at infinity over a large finite interval. Then, the problem complimented with the resulting ABC is solved using a fourth-order spline collocation approach constructed over uniform meshes. The scheme is numerically verified to have a fourth order rate of convergence. The work is illustrated by considering a number of test examples that confirm the accuracy, efficient treatment of the boundary condition at infinity, and applicability of the approach. The computational results show that the scheme is reliable, converges fast, and compares very well with the existing analytic solutions.

  20. Method of B0 mapping with magnitude-based correction for bipolar two-point Dixon cardiac MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junmin; Peters, Dana C; Drangova, Maria

    2017-11-01

    The conventional two-point (2pt) Dixon technique explicitly estimates B0 map by performing phase unwrapping. When signal loss, phase singularity, artifacts, or spatially isolated regions corrupt the measured phase images, this unwrapping-based technique will face difficulty. This work aims to improve the reliability of B0 mapping by performing unwrapping error correction. To detect the unwrapping-caused phase errors, we determined a magnitude-based fat/water mask and used it as reference to identify pixels being mismatched by the phase-based mask, which was derived from the B0-corrected phase term of the Hermitian product between echoes. Then, we corrected the afore-determined phase error on a region-by-region basis. We tested the developed method with nine patients' data, and the results were compared with a well-established region-growing technique. By adding the step to correct unwrapping-caused error, we improved the robustness of B0 mapping, resulting in better fat-water separation when compared with the conventional 2pt and the phasor-based region-growing techniques. We showed the feasibility of B0 mapping with bipolar 2pt human cardiac data. The software is freely available to the scientific community. Magn Reson Med 78:1862-1869, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  1. Differences of Cutaneous Two-Point Discrimination Thresholds Among Students in Different Years of a Chiropractic Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, Andrew B; Teh, Elaine; Reckelhoff, Kenneth E; Ying, Pee Kui

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if there were differences in the two-point discrimination (2-PD) of fingers among students at different stages of a chiropractic program. This study measured 2-PD thresholds for the dominant and nondominant index finger and dominant and nondominant forearm in groups of students in a 4-year chiropractic program at the International Medical University in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Measurements were made using digital calipers mounted on a modified weighing scale. Group comparisons were made among students for each year of the program (years 1, 2, 3, and 4). Analysis of the 2-PD threshold for differences among the year groups was performed with analysis of variance. The mean 2-PD threshold of the index finger was higher in the students who were in the higher year groups. Dominant-hand mean values for year 1 were 2.93 ± 0.04 mm and 1.69 ± 0.02 mm in year 4. There were significant differences at finger sites (P < .05) among all year groups compared with year 1. There were no significant differences measured at the dominant forearm between any year groups (P = .08). The nondominant fingers of the year groups 1, 2, and 4 showed better 2-PD compared with the dominant finger. There was a significant difference (P = .005) between the nondominant (1.93 ± 1.15) and dominant (2.27 ± 1.14) fingers when all groups were combined (n = 104). The results of this study demonstrated that the finger 2-PD of the chiropractic students later in the program was more precise than that of students in the earlier program. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Comparison of modified two-point dixon and chemical shift encoded MRI water-fat separation methods for fetal fat quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giza, Stephanie A; Miller, Michael R; Parthasarathy, Prasiddha; de Vrijer, Barbra; McKenzie, Charles A

    2018-01-10

    Fetal fat is indicative of the energy balance within the fetus, which may be disrupted in pregnancy complications such as fetal growth restriction, macrosomia, and gestational diabetes. Water-fat separated MRI is a technique sensitive to tissue lipid content, measured as fat fraction (FF), and can be used to accurately measure fat volumes. Modified two-point Dixon and chemical shift encoded MRI (CSE-MRI) are water-fat separated MRI techniques that could be applied to imaging of fetal fat. Modified two-point Dixon has biases present that are corrected in CSE-MRI which may contribute to differences in the fat measurements. To compare the measurement of fetal fat volume and FF by modified two-point Dixon and CSE-MRI. Cross-sectional study for comparison of two MRI pulse sequences. Twenty-one pregnant women with singleton pregnancies. 1.5T, modified two-point Dixon and CSE-MRI. Manual segmentation of total fetal fat volume and mean FF from modified 2-point Dixon and CSE-MRI FF images. Reliability was assessed by calculating the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Agreement was assessed using a one-sample t-test on the fat measurements difference values (modified two-point Dixon - CSE-MRI). The difference scores were tested against a value of 0, which would indicate that the measurements were identical. The fat volume and FF measured by modified two-point Dixon and CSE-MRI had excellent reliability, demonstrated by ICCs of 0.93 (P < 0.001) and 0.90 (P < 0.001), respectively. They were not in agreement, with CSE-MRI giving mean fat volumes 180 mL greater and mean FF 3.0% smaller than modified two-point Dixon. The reliability between modified two-point Dixon and CSE-MRI indicates that either technique can be used to compare fetal fat measurements in different participants, but they are not in agreement possibly due to uncorrected biases in modified two-point Dixon. 4 Technical Efficacy: Stage 1 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2018. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic

  3. The Gaussian cell two-point 'energy-like' equation : application to large-scale galaxy redshift and peculiar motion surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaroubi, S; Branchini, E

    2005-01-01

    We introduce a simple linear equation relating the line-of-sight peculiar-velocity and density contrast correlation functions. The relation, which we call the Gaussian cell two-point 'energy-like' equation, is valid at the distant-observer limit and requires Gaussian smoothed fields. In the variance

  4. Mode-sum construction of the covariant graviton two-point function in the Poincar\\'e patch of de Sitter space

    CERN Document Server

    Fröb, Markus B; Lima, William C C

    2016-01-01

    We construct the graviton two-point function for a two-parameter family of linear covariant gauges in n-dimensional de Sitter space. The construction is performed via the mode-sum method in the Bunch-Davies vacuum in the Poincar\\'e patch, and a Fierz-Pauli mass term is introduced to regularize the infrared (IR) divergences. The resulting two-point function is de Sitter-invariant, and free of IR divergences in the massless limit (for a certain range of parameters) though analytic continuation with respect to the mass for the pure-gauge sector of the two-point function is necessary for this result. This general result agrees with the propagator obtained by analytic continuation from the sphere [Phys. Rev. D 34, 3670 (1986); Class. Quant. Grav. 18, 4317 (2001)]. However, if one starts with strictly zero mass theory, the IR divergences are absent only for a specific value of one of the two parameters, with the other parameter left generic. These findings agree with recent calculations in the Landau (exact) gauge ...

  5. An Estimation of the Likelihood of Significant Eruptions During 2000-2009 Using Poisson Statistics on Two-Point Moving Averages of the Volcanic Time Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    2001-01-01

    Since 1750, the number of cataclysmic volcanic eruptions (volcanic explosivity index (VEI)>=4) per decade spans 2-11, with 96 percent located in the tropics and extra-tropical Northern Hemisphere. A two-point moving average of the volcanic time series has higher values since the 1860's than before, being 8.00 in the 1910's (the highest value) and 6.50 in the 1980's, the highest since the 1910's peak. Because of the usual behavior of the first difference of the two-point moving averages, one infers that its value for the 1990's will measure approximately 6.50 +/- 1, implying that approximately 7 +/- 4 cataclysmic volcanic eruptions should be expected during the present decade (2000-2009). Because cataclysmic volcanic eruptions (especially those having VEI>=5) nearly always have been associated with short-term episodes of global cooling, the occurrence of even one might confuse our ability to assess the effects of global warming. Poisson probability distributions reveal that the probability of one or more events with a VEI>=4 within the next ten years is >99 percent. It is approximately 49 percent for an event with a VEI>=5, and 18 percent for an event with a VEI>=6. Hence, the likelihood that a climatically significant volcanic eruption will occur within the next ten years appears reasonably high.

  6. Automated two-point dixon screening for the evaluation of hepatic steatosis and siderosis: comparison with R2*-relaxometry and chemical shift-based sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henninger, B.; Rauch, S.; Schocke, M.; Jaschke, W.; Kremser, C. [Medical University of Innsbruck, Department of Radiology, Innsbruck (Austria); Zoller, H. [Medical University of Innsbruck, Department of Internal Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria); Kannengiesser, S. [Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, MR Applications Development, Erlangen (Germany); Zhong, X. [Siemens Healthcare, MR R and D Collaborations, Atlanta, GA (United States); Reiter, G. [Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, MR R and D Collaborations, Graz (Austria)

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the automated two-point Dixon screening sequence for the detection and estimated quantification of hepatic iron and fat compared with standard sequences as a reference. One hundred and two patients with suspected diffuse liver disease were included in this prospective study. The following MRI protocol was used: 3D-T1-weighted opposed- and in-phase gradient echo with two-point Dixon reconstruction and dual-ratio signal discrimination algorithm (''screening'' sequence); fat-saturated, multi-gradient-echo sequence with 12 echoes; gradient-echo T1 FLASH opposed- and in-phase. Bland-Altman plots were generated and correlation coefficients were calculated to compare the sequences. The screening sequence diagnosed fat in 33, iron in 35 and a combination of both in 4 patients. Correlation between R2* values of the screening sequence and the standard relaxometry was excellent (r = 0.988). A slightly lower correlation (r = 0.978) was found between the fat fraction of the screening sequence and the standard sequence. Bland-Altman revealed systematically lower R2* values obtained from the screening sequence and higher fat fraction values obtained with the standard sequence with a rather high variability in agreement. The screening sequence is a promising method with fast diagnosis of the predominant liver disease. It is capable of estimating the amount of hepatic fat and iron comparable to standard methods. (orig.)

  7. Reliability of the two-point measurement of the spatial correlation length from Gaussian-shaped fluctuating signals in fusion-grade plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Jaewook; Lampert, M; Ghim, Y -c

    2016-01-01

    A statistical method for the estimation of spatial correlation lengths of Gaussian-shaped fluctuating signals with two measurement points is examined to quantitatively evaluate its reliability (variance) and accuracy (bias error). The standard deviation of the correlation value is analytically derived for randomly distributed Gaussian shaped fluctuations satisfying stationarity and homogeneity, allowing us to evaluate, as a function of fluctuation-to-noise ratios, sizes of averaging time windows and ratios of the distance between the two measurement points to the true correlation length, the goodness of the two-point measurement for estimating the spatial correlation length. Analytic results are confirmed with numerically generated synthetic data and real experimental data obtained with the KSTAR beam emission spectroscopy diagnostic. Our results can be applied to Gaussian-shaped fluctuating signals where a correlation length must be measured with only two measurement points.

  8. Dynamics of single photon transport in a one-dimensional waveguide two-point coupled with a Jaynes-Cummings system

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yuwen

    2016-09-22

    We study the dynamics of an ultrafast single photon pulse in a one-dimensional waveguide two-point coupled with a Jaynes-Cummings system. We find that for any single photon input the transmissivity depends periodically on the separation between the two coupling points. For a pulse containing many plane wave components it is almost impossible to suppress transmission, especially when the width of the pulse is less than 20 times the period. In contrast to plane wave input, the waveform of the pulse can be modified by controlling the coupling between the waveguide and Jaynes-Cummings system. Tailoring of the waveform is important for single photon manipulation in quantum informatics. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. A comprehensive study of the toxicity of natural multi-contaminated sediments: New insights brought by the use of a combined approach using the medaka embryo-larval assay and physico-chemical analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barjhoux, Iris; Clérandeau, Christelle; Menach, Karyn Le; Anschutz, Pierre; Gonzalez, Patrice; Budzinski, Hélène; Morin, Bénédicte; Baudrimont, Magalie; Cachot, Jérôme

    2017-08-01

    Sediment compartment is a long term sink for pollutants and a secondary source of contamination for aquatic species. The abiotic factors controlling the bioavailability and thus the toxicity of complex mixtures of pollutants accumulated in sediments are poorly documented. To highlight the different factors influencing sediment toxicity, we identified and analyzed the physico-chemical properties, micro-pollutant contents, and toxicity level of six contrasted sediments in the Lot-Garonne continuum. Sediment toxicity was evaluated using the recently described Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) embryo-larval assay with direct exposure to whole sediment (MELAc). Multiple toxicity endpoints including embryotoxicity, developmental defects and DNA damage were analyzed in exposed embryos. Chemical analyses revealed significant variations in the nature and contamination profile of sediments, mainly impacted by metallic trace elements and, unexpectedly, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Exposure to sediments induced different toxic impacts on medaka early life stages when compared with the reference site. Principal component analysis showed that the toxic responses following exposure to sediments from the Lot River and its tributary were associated with micro-pollutant contamination: biometric measurements, hatching success, genotoxicity, craniofacial deformities and yolk sac malabsorption were specifically correlated to metallic and organic contaminants. Conversely, the main biological responses following exposure to the Garonne River sediments were more likely related to their physico-chemical properties than to their contamination level. Time to hatch, cardiovascular injuries and spinal deformities were correlated to organic matter content, fine particles and dissolved oxygen levels. These results emphasize the necessity of combining physico-chemical analysis of sediment with toxicity assessment to accurately evaluate the environmental risks associated with sediment

  10. Van der Waals like behavior and equal area law of two point correlation function of f(R) AdS black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Mo, Jie-Xiong; Lin, Ze-Tao; Zeng, Xiao-Xiong

    2016-01-01

    To gain holographic insight into critical phenomena of $f(R)$ AdS black holes, we investigate their two point correlation function, which are dual to the geodesic length in the bulk. We solve the equation of motion constrained by the boundary condition numerically and probe both the effect of boundary region size and $f(R)$ gravity. Moreover, we introduce an analogous specific heat related to $\\delta L$. It is shown in the $T-\\delta L$ graph for the case $Q

  11. On the two-point cross-correlation function of anisotropic, spatially homogeneous ambient noise in the ocean and its relationship to the Green's function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, Michael J

    2011-06-01

    It is well established that the free-space Green's function can be recovered from the two-point cross-correlation function of a random noise field if the noise is white and isotropic. Ambient noise in the ocean rarely satisfies either of these conditions. However, a non-uniform spectrum could be pre-whitened by the application of a suitable filter but anisotropy cannot be so readily eliminated. To investigate the effects of vertical anisotropy, three azimuthally uniform, spatially homogeneous noise fields are analyzed, two of which are idealized, while the third is representative of ambient noise in the deep ocean. In each case, the coherence function, the cross-correlation function, and the derivative of the latter with respect to the correlation delay, are derived for vertical and horizontal alignments of the sensor pair. With vertical sensors, any step-function discontinuity in the directional density function is mapped into a delta function at an appropriate time delay in the derivative (with respect to time delay) of the cross-correlation function. No such mapping occurs with horizontal sensors. In this case, only horizontally traveling noise can generate delta functions in the derivative of the cross-correlation function, and these always appear at the retarded time on either side of the origin. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  12. Cosmological constraints from the redshift dependence of the Alcock-Paczynski test and volume effect: galaxy two-point correlation function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Dong; Park, Changbom; Sabiu, Cristiano G.; Kim, Juhan

    2015-06-01

    We propose a method using the redshift dependence of the Alcock-Paczynski (AP) test and volume effect to measure the cosmic expansion history. The galaxy two-point correlation function as a function of angle, ξ(μ), is measured at different redshifts. Assuming an incorrect cosmological model to convert galaxy redshifts to distances, the shape of ξ(μ) appears anisotropic due to the AP effect, and the amplitude is shifted by the change in comoving volume. Due to the redshift dependence of the AP and volume effect, both the shape and amplitude of ξ(μ) exhibit redshift dependence. Similar to Li et al. (2014), we find that the redshift-space distortions (RSD) caused by galaxy peculiar velocities, although significantly distorting ξ(μ), exhibit much less redshift evolution compared to the AP and volume effects. By focusing on the redshift dependence of ξ(μ), we can correctly recover the cosmological parameters despite the contamination of RSD. The method is tested by using the Horizon Run 3 N-body simulation, from which we made a series of 1/8-sky mock surveys having eight million physically self-bound haloes and sampled to have roughly a uniform number density in z = 0-1.5. We find the AP effect results in tight, unbiased constraints on the density parameter and dark energy equation of state, with 68.3% CL intervals δΩm ˜ 0.03 and δw ˜ 0.1, and the volume effect leads to much tighter constraints of δΩm ˜ 0.007 and δw ˜ 0.035.

  13. Revisiting van der Waals like behavior of f(R AdS black holes via the two point correlation function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie-Xiong Mo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Van der Waals like behavior of f(R AdS black holes is revisited via two point correlation function, which is dual to the geodesic length in the bulk. The equation of motion constrained by the boundary condition is solved numerically and both the effect of boundary region size and f(R gravity are probed. Moreover, an analogous specific heat related to δL is introduced. It is shown that the T−δL graphs of f(R AdS black holes exhibit reverse van der Waals like behavior just as the T−S graphs do. Free energy analysis is carried out to determine the first order phase transition temperature T⁎ and the unstable branch in T−δL curve is removed by a bar T=T⁎. It is shown that the first order phase transition temperature is the same at least to the order of 10−10 for different choices of the parameter b although the values of free energy vary with b. Our result further supports the former finding that charged f(R AdS black holes behave much like RN-AdS black holes. We also check the analogous equal area law numerically and find that the relative errors for both the cases θ0=0.1 and θ0=0.2 are small enough. The fitting functions between log⁡|T−Tc| and log⁡|δL−δLc| for both cases are also obtained. It is shown that the slope is around 3, implying that the critical exponent is about 2/3. This result is in accordance with those in former literatures of specific heat related to the thermal entropy or entanglement entropy.

  14. Comprehensive analyses of genomes, transcriptomes and metabolites of neem tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuravadi, Nagesh A; Yenagi, Vijay; Rangiah, Kannan; Mahesh, H B; Rajamani, Anantharamanan; Shirke, Meghana D; Russiachand, Heikham; Loganathan, Ramya Malarini; Shankara Lingu, Chandana; Siddappa, Shilpa; Ramamurthy, Aishwarya; Sathyanarayana, B N; Gowda, Malali

    2015-01-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) is one of the most versatile tropical evergreen tree species known in India since the Vedic period (1500 BC-600 BC). Neem tree is a rich source of limonoids, having a wide spectrum of activity against insect pests and microbial pathogens. Complex tetranortriterpenoids such as azadirachtin, salanin and nimbin are the major active principles isolated from neem seed. Absolutely nothing is known about the biochemical pathways of these metabolites in neem tree. To identify genes and pathways in neem, we sequenced neem genomes and transcriptomes using next generation sequencing technologies. Assembly of Illumina and 454 sequencing reads resulted in 267 Mb, which accounts for 70% of estimated size of neem genome. We predicted 44,495 genes in the neem genome, of which 32,278 genes were expressed in neem tissues. Neem genome consists about 32.5% (87 Mb) of repetitive DNA elements. Neem tree is phylogenetically related to citrus, Citrus sinensis. Comparative analysis anchored 62% (161 Mb) of assembled neem genomic contigs onto citrus chromomes. Ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-selected reaction monitoring (UHPLC-MS/SRM) method was used to quantify azadirachtin, nimbin, and salanin from neem tissues. Weighted Correlation Network Analysis (WCGNA) of expressed genes and metabolites resulted in identification of possible candidate genes involved in azadirachtin biosynthesis pathway. This study provides genomic, transcriptomic and quantity of top three neem metabolites resource, which will accelerate basic research in neem to understand biochemical pathways.

  15. Comprehensive analyses of genomes, transcriptomes and metabolites of neem tree

    OpenAIRE

    Kuravadi, Nagesh A.; Vijay Yenagi; Kannan Rangiah; HB Mahesh; Anantharamanan Rajamani; Shirke, Meghana D.; Heikham Russiachand; Ramya Malarini Loganathan; Chandana Shankara Lingu; Shilpa Siddappa; Aishwarya Ramamurthy; BN Sathyanarayana; Malali Gowda

    2015-01-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) is one of the most versatile tropical evergreen tree species known in India since the Vedic period (1500 BC–600 BC). Neem tree is a rich source of limonoids, having a wide spectrum of activity against insect pests and microbial pathogens. Complex tetranortriterpenoids such as azadirachtin, salanin and nimbin are the major active principles isolated from neem seed. Absolutely nothing is known about the biochemical pathways of these metabolites in neem tree. To...

  16. Comprehensive analyses of genomes, transcriptomes and metabolites of neem tree

    OpenAIRE

    Kuravadi, Nagesh A.; Yenagi, Vijay; Rangiah, Kannan; Mahesh, HB; Rajamani, Anantharamanan; Shirke, Meghana D.; Russiachand, Heikham; Loganathan, Ramya Malarini; Shankara Lingu, Chandana; Siddappa, Shilpa; Ramamurthy, Aishwarya; Sathyanarayana, BN; Gowda, Malali

    2015-01-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) is one of the most versatile tropical evergreen tree species known in India since the Vedic period (1500 BC?600 BC). Neem tree is a rich source of limonoids, having a wide spectrum of activity against insect pests and microbial pathogens. Complex tetranortriterpenoids such as azadirachtin, salanin and nimbin are the major active principles isolated from neem seed. Absolutely nothing is known about the biochemical pathways of these metabolites in neem tree. To...

  17. Comprehensive analyses of genomes, transcriptomes and metabolites of neem tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagesh A. Kuravadi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss is one of the most versatile tropical evergreen tree species known in India since the Vedic period (1500 BC–600 BC. Neem tree is a rich source of limonoids, having a wide spectrum of activity against insect pests and microbial pathogens. Complex tetranortriterpenoids such as azadirachtin, salanin and nimbin are the major active principles isolated from neem seed. Absolutely nothing is known about the biochemical pathways of these metabolites in neem tree. To identify genes and pathways in neem, we sequenced neem genomes and transcriptomes using next generation sequencing technologies. Assembly of Illumina and 454 sequencing reads resulted in 267 Mb, which accounts for 70% of estimated size of neem genome. We predicted 44,495 genes in the neem genome, of which 32,278 genes were expressed in neem tissues. Neem genome consists about 32.5% (87 Mb of repetitive DNA elements. Neem tree is phylogenetically related to citrus, Citrus sinensis. Comparative analysis anchored 62% (161 Mb of assembled neem genomic contigs onto citrus chromomes. Ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-selected reaction monitoring (UHPLC-MS/SRM method was used to quantify azadirachtin, nimbin, and salanin from neem tissues. Weighted Correlation Network Analysis (WCGNA of expressed genes and metabolites resulted in identification of possible candidate genes involved in azadirachtin biosynthesis pathway. This study provides genomic, transcriptomic and quantity of top three neem metabolites resource, which will accelerate basic research in neem to understand biochemical pathways.

  18. Comprehensive metabolic panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolic panel - comprehensive; Chem-20; SMA20; Sequential multi-channel analysis with computer-20; SMAC20; Metabolic panel 20 ... Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP) - ... Diagnostic Procedures . 6th ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier Saunders; ...

  19. Executive Function and Reading Comprehension: A Meta-Analytic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follmer, D. Jake

    2018-01-01

    This article presents a meta-analytic review of the relation between executive function and reading comprehension. Results (N = 6,673) supported a moderate positive association between executive function and reading comprehension (r = 0.36). Moderator analyses suggested that correlations between executive function and reading comprehension did not…

  20. Recommendation: Comprehensive Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Judith

    1989-01-01

    This article summarizes recommendations of the Richardson Study regarding a comprehensive approach to programing for gifted students. Basic components of comprehensive programing are outlined, and seven steps deemed essential to program development and implementation are described, as implemented by the Pyramid Project in four school districts in…

  1. Spectrum of Physics Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasiak, W.; Godlewska, M.; Rosiek, R.; Wcislo, D.

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the results of research on the relationship between self-assessed comprehension of physics lectures and final grades of junior high school students (aged 13-15), high school students (aged 16-18) and physics students at the Pedagogical University of Cracow, Poland (aged 21). Students' declared level of comprehension was measured…

  2. Scaffolding Reading Comprehension Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Ashraf Atta Mohamed Safein

    2017-01-01

    The current study investigates whether English language teachers use scaffolding strategies for developing their students' reading comprehension skills or just for assessing their comprehension. It also tries to demonstrate whether teachers are aware of these strategies or they use them as a matter of habit. A questionnaire as well as structured…

  3. Disentangling Accent from Comprehensibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofimovich, Pavel; Isaacs, Talia

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine which linguistic aspects of second language speech are related to accent and which to comprehensibility. To address this goal, 19 different speech measures in the oral productions of 40 native French speakers of English were examined in relation to accent and comprehensibility, as rated by 60 novice raters…

  4. Case in Language Comprehension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bader, Markus; Lamers, Monique

    2012-01-01

    Research on human language comprehension has been heavily influenced by properties of the English language. Since case plays only a minor role in English, its role for language comprehension has only recently become a topic for extensive research on psycholinguistics. In the psycholinguistic

  5. Comprehensive geriatric assessment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-09-14

    Sep 14, 2007 ... i.e. difficulty performing simple physical and mental tasks necessary for daily ... elderly person's medical, psychological and functional capability in ... care. Components of comprehensive geriatric assessment. Comprehensive geriatric assessment. The increasing morbidity related to old age requires careful.

  6. Interruptions disrupt reading comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroughi, Cyrus K; Werner, Nicole E; Barragán, Daniela; Boehm-Davis, Deborah A

    2015-06-01

    Previous research suggests that being interrupted while reading a text does not disrupt the later recognition or recall of information from that text. This research is used as support for Ericsson and Kintsch's (1995) long-term working memory (LT-WM) theory, which posits that disruptions while reading (e.g., interruptions) do not impair subsequent text comprehension. However, to fully comprehend a text, individuals may need to do more than recognize or recall information that has been presented in the text at a later time. Reading comprehension often requires individuals to connect and synthesize information across a text (e.g., successfully identifying complex topics such as themes and tones) and not just make a familiarity-based decision (i.e., recognition). The goal for this study was to determine whether interruptions while reading disrupt reading comprehension when the questions assessing comprehension require participants to connect and synthesize information across the passage. In Experiment 1, interruptions disrupted reading comprehension. In Experiment 2, interruptions disrupted reading comprehension but not recognition of information from the text. In Experiment 3, the addition of a 15-s time-out prior to the interruption successfully removed these negative effects. These data suggest that the time it takes to process the information needed to successfully comprehend text when reading is greater than that required for recognition. Any interference (e.g., an interruption) that occurs during the comprehension process may disrupt reading comprehension. This evidence supports the need for transient activation of information in working memory for successful text comprehension and does not support LT-WM theory. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Quotient-Comprehension Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenta Cho

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Quotients and comprehension are fundamental mathematical constructions that can be described via adjunctions in categorical logic. This paper reveals that quotients and comprehension are related to measurement, not only in quantum logic, but also in probabilistic and classical logic. This relation is presented by a long series of examples, some of them easy, and some also highly non-trivial (esp. for von Neumann algebras. We have not yet identified a unifying theory. Nevertheless, the paper contributes towards such a theory by introducing the new quotient-and-comprehension perspective on measurement instruments, and by describing the examples on which such a theory should be built.

  8. A Comprehensive Advising Effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeger, Brian A.; McLean, Daniel D.

    1985-01-01

    The Iowa State Department of Physical Education and Leisure Studies model for comprehensive advising system is explained, including how it evolved, its limitations, and what has been learned. (Author/MLW)

  9. Reading comprehension interaction – a conversation analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose is to use current methods of conversation analysis to analyse a typical interaction in order to understand how the use of conversational techniques support reading comprehension. It explores how communicative activity plays out in terms of conversational features such as sequence organisation, response ...

  10. A Comprehensive Enzyme Kinetic Exercise for Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Janice S.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a comprehensive treatment of experimental enzyme kinetics strongly coupled to electronic data acquisition and use of spreadsheets to organize data and perform linear and nonlinear least-squares analyses, all in a manner that promotes development of important reasoning skills. Kinetic parameters are obtained for the stable…

  11. Testing Local Independence between Two Point Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allard, Denis; Brix, Anders; Chadæuf, Joël

    2001-01-01

    Independence test, Inhomogeneous point processes, Local test, Monte Carlo, Nonstationary, Rotations, Spatial pattern, Tiger bush......Independence test, Inhomogeneous point processes, Local test, Monte Carlo, Nonstationary, Rotations, Spatial pattern, Tiger bush...

  12. Comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Marie; Hochstrasser, Stefan; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe O

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The costs of comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation are established and compared to the corresponding costs of usual care. The effect on health-related quality of life is analyzed. METHODS: An unprecedented and very detailed cost assessment was carried out, as no guidelines existed...... for the situation at hand. Due to challenging circumstances, the cost assessment turned out to be ex-post and top-down. RESULTS: Cost per treatment sequence is estimated to be approximately euro 976, whereas the incremental cost (compared with usual care) is approximately euro 682. The cost estimate is uncertain...... and may be as high as euro 1.877. CONCLUSIONS: Comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation is more costly than usual care, and the higher costs are not outweighed by a quality of life gain. Comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation is, therefore, not cost-effective....

  13. Painless reading comprehension

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, EdD, Darolyn "Lyn"

    2016-01-01

    Reading comprehension gets easier as students learn what kind of reader they are, discover how to keep facts in their head, and much more. Bonus Online Component: includes additional games, including Beat the Clock, a line match game, and a word scramble.

  14. Enhancing Comprehension with Videodiscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howson, Betty Ann; Davis, Hilarie

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the use of videodiscs to increase students' comprehension. Benefits of adding visual images to learning activities are discussed, videodiscs as sources of data for students to analyze are considered, and an example is given of using videodiscs to illustrate concepts in a chemistry class. (LRW)

  15. COMPREHENSIVE JUNIOR COLLEGES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NIKITAS, CHRISTUS M.; AND OTHERS

    TO MEET THE STATE'S HIGHER EDUCATION NEEDS, THE NEW HAMPSHIRE JUNIOR COLLEGE COMMISSION DEVELOPED A PLAN OF (1) GRADUAL AND SELECTIVE CONVERSION OF THE STATE'S TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL SCHOOLS TO COMPREHENSIVE JUNIOR COLLEGES, (2) SELECTIVE ADDITION OF 2-YEAR PROGRAMS AT THE STATE COLLEGES AND INSTITUTES, AND (3) ESTABLISHMENT OF A STATE…

  16. The Comprehensive Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gothberg, Helen M.; Aleamoni, Lawrence M.

    1988-01-01

    Describes an objective test used as the comprehensive examination in a graduate library school and discusses its advantages over essay tests. The topics covered include test construction, the use of item analysis for scoring and test revision, and student reactions to the objective test. (1 reference) (CLB)

  17. Two-point versus multiple-point geostatistics: the ability of geostatistical methods to capture complex geobodies and their facies associations—an application to a channelized carbonate reservoir, southwest Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Seyyedhossein; Javaherian, Abdolrahim; Ataee-pour, Majid; Khoshdel, Hossein

    2014-12-01

    Facies models try to explain facies architectures which have a primary control on the subsurface heterogeneities and the fluid flow characteristics of a given reservoir. In the process of facies modeling, geostatistical methods are implemented to integrate different sources of data into a consistent model. The facies models should describe facies interactions; the shape and geometry of the geobodies as they occur in reality. Two distinct categories of geostatistical techniques are two-point and multiple-point (geo) statistics (MPS). In this study, both of the aforementioned categories were applied to generate facies models. A sequential indicator simulation (SIS) and a truncated Gaussian simulation (TGS) represented two-point geostatistical methods, and a single normal equation simulation (SNESIM) selected as an MPS simulation representative. The dataset from an extremely channelized carbonate reservoir located in southwest Iran was applied to these algorithms to analyze their performance in reproducing complex curvilinear geobodies. The SNESIM algorithm needs consistent training images (TI) in which all possible facies architectures that are present in the area are included. The TI model was founded on the data acquired from modern occurrences. These analogies delivered vital information about the possible channel geometries and facies classes that are typically present in those similar environments. The MPS results were conditioned to both soft and hard data. Soft facies probabilities were acquired from a neural network workflow. In this workflow, seismic-derived attributes were implemented as the input data. Furthermore, MPS realizations were conditioned to hard data to guarantee the exact positioning and continuity of the channel bodies. A geobody extraction workflow was implemented to extract the most certain parts of the channel bodies from the seismic data. These extracted parts of the channel bodies were applied to the simulation workflow as hard data. This

  18. Comprehensive hard materials

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive Hard Materials deals with the production, uses and properties of the carbides, nitrides and borides of these metals and those of titanium, as well as tools of ceramics, the superhard boron nitrides and diamond and related compounds. Articles include the technologies of powder production (including their precursor materials), milling, granulation, cold and hot compaction, sintering, hot isostatic pressing, hot-pressing, injection moulding, as well as on the coating technologies for refractory metals, hard metals and hard materials. The characterization, testing, quality assurance and applications are also covered. Comprehensive Hard Materials provides meaningful insights on materials at the leading edge of technology. It aids continued research and development of these materials and as such it is a critical information resource to academics and industry professionals facing the technological challenges of the future. Hard materials operate at the leading edge of technology, and continued res...

  19. 501 reading comprehension questions

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This updated edition offers the most extensive and varied practice for all types of questions students might face on standardized and in-class tests. With this guide, students will learn to develop expert reading strategies, understand how to read faster and with greater comprehension, overcome reading anxiety, and increase appreciation of reading for pleasure. This book's step-by-step approach provides graduated coverage that moves from the basics to more advanced reading.

  20. Cooperative catalysis of metal and O-H···O/sp3-C-H···O two-point hydrogen bonds in alcoholic solvents: Cu-catalyzed enantioselective direct alkynylation of aldehydes with terminal alkynes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Takaoki; Watanabe, Ryo; Moriya, Toshimitsu; Ohmiya, Hirohisa; Mori, Seiji; Sawamura, Masaya

    2013-09-27

    Catalyst-substrate hydrogen bonds in artificial catalysts usually occur in aprotic solvents, but not in protic solvents, in contrast to enzymatic catalysis. We report a case in which ligand-substrate hydrogen-bonding interactions cooperate with a transition-metal center in alcoholic solvents for enantioselective catalysis. Copper(I) complexes with prolinol-based hydroxy amino phosphane chiral ligands catalytically promoted the direct alkynylation of aldehydes with terminal alkynes in alcoholic solvents to afford nonracemic secondary propargylic alcohols with high enantioselectivities. Quantum-mechanical calculations of enantiodiscriminating transition states show the occurrence of a nonclassical sp(3)-C-H···O hydrogen bond as a secondary interaction between the ligand and substrate, which results in highly directional catalyst-substrate two-point hydrogen bonding. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Predicting Retear after Repair of Full-Thickness Rotator Cuff Tear: Two-Point Dixon MR Imaging Quantification of Fatty Muscle Degeneration-Initial Experience with 1-year Follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, Taiki; Tasaki, Atsushi; Horiuchi, Saya; Ochi, Junko; Starkey, Jay; Hara, Takeshi; Saida, Yukihisa; Yoshioka, Hiroshi

    2016-08-01

    Purpose To determine the degree of preoperative fatty degeneration within muscles, postoperative longitudinal changes in fatty degeneration, and differences in fatty degeneration between patients with full-thickness supraspinatus tears who do and those who do not experience a retear after surgery. Materials and Methods This prospective study had institutional review board approval and was conducted in accordance with the Committee for Human Research. Informed consent was obtained. Fifty patients with full-thickness supraspinatus tears (18 men, 32 women; mean age, 67.0 years ± 8.0; age range, 41-91 years) were recruited. The degrees of preoperative and postoperative fatty degeneration were quantified by using a two-point Dixon magnetic resonance (MR) imaging sequence; two radiologists measured the mean signal intensity on in-phase [S(In)] and fat [S(Fat)] images. Estimates of fatty degeneration were calculated with "fat fraction" values by using the formula S(Fat)/S(In) within the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and subscapularis muscles at baseline preoperative and at postoperative 1-year follow-up MR imaging. Preoperative fat fractions in the failed-repair group and the intact-repair group were compared by using the Mann-Whitney U test. Results The preoperative fat fractions in the supraspinatus muscle were significantly higher in the failed-repair group than in the intact-repair group (37.0% vs 19.5%, P muscle tended to progress at 1 year postoperatively in only the failed-repair group. Conclusion MR imaging quantification of preoperative fat fractions by using a two-point Dixon sequence within the rotator cuff muscles may be a viable method for predicting postoperative retear. (©) RSNA, 2016.

  2. Supporting analyses and assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohi, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Supporting analysis and assessments can provide a sound analytic foundation and focus for program planning, evaluation, and coordination, particularly if issues of hydrogen production, distribution, storage, safety, and infrastructure can be analyzed in a comprehensive and systematic manner. The overall purpose of this activity is to coordinate all key analytic tasks-such as technology and market status, opportunities, and trends; environmental costs and benefits; and regulatory constraints and opportunities-within a long-term and systematic analytic foundation for program planning and evaluation. Within this context, the purpose of the project is to help develop and evaluate programmatic pathway options that incorporate near and mid-term strategies to achieve the long-term goals of the Hydrogen Program. In FY 95, NREL will develop a comprehensive effort with industry, state and local agencies, and other federal agencies to identify and evaluate programmatic pathway options to achieve the long-term goals of the Program. Activity to date is reported.

  3. Sproglig Metode og Analyse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    le Fevre Jakobsen, Bjarne

    Publikationen indeholder øvematerialer, tekster, powerpointpræsentationer og handouts til undervisningsfaget Sproglig Metode og Analyse på BA og tilvalg i Dansk/Nordisk 2010-2011......Publikationen indeholder øvematerialer, tekster, powerpointpræsentationer og handouts til undervisningsfaget Sproglig Metode og Analyse på BA og tilvalg i Dansk/Nordisk 2010-2011...

  4. Performance and Vibration Analyses of Lift-Offset Helicopters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-In Go

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A validation study on the performance and vibration analyses of the XH-59A compound helicopter is conducted to establish techniques for the comprehensive analysis of lift-offset compound helicopters. This study considers the XH-59A lift-offset compound helicopter using a rigid coaxial rotor system as a verification model. CAMRAD II (Comprehensive Analytical Method of Rotorcraft Aerodynamics and Dynamics II, a comprehensive analysis code, is used as a tool for the performance, vibration, and loads analyses. A general free wake model, which is a more sophisticated wake model than other wake models, is used to obtain good results for the comprehensive analysis. Performance analyses of the XH-59A helicopter with and without auxiliary propulsion are conducted in various flight conditions. In addition, vibration analyses of the XH-59A compound helicopter configuration are conducted in the forward flight condition. The present comprehensive analysis results are in good agreement with the flight test and previous analyses. Therefore, techniques for the comprehensive analysis of lift-offset compound helicopters are appropriately established. Furthermore, the rotor lifts are calculated for the XH-59A lift-offset compound helicopter in the forward flight condition to investigate the airloads characteristics of the ABC™ (Advancing Blade Concept rotor.

  5. Riddle appreciation and reading comprehension in Cantonese-speaking children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ivy N Y; To, Carol K S; Weekes, Brendan S

    2013-10-01

    Inference-making skills are necessary for reading comprehension. Training in riddle appreciation is an effective way to improve reading comprehension among English-speaking children. However, it is not clear whether these methods generalize to other writing systems. The goal of the present study was to investigate the relationship between inference-making skills, as measured by riddle appreciation ability, and reading comprehension performance in typically developing Cantonese-speaking children in the 4th grade. Forty Cantonese-speaking children between the ages of 9;1 (years;months) and 11;0 were given tests of riddle appreciation ability and reading comprehension. Chinese character reading and auditory comprehension abilities were also assessed using tests that had been standardized in Hong Kong. Regression analyses revealed that riddle appreciation ability explained a significant amount of variance in reading comprehension after variance due to character reading skills and auditory comprehension skills were first considered. Orthographic, lexical, morphological, and syntactic riddles were also significantly correlated with reading comprehension. Riddle appreciation ability predicts reading comprehension in Cantonese-speaking 4th-grade children. Therefore, training Cantonese speakers in riddle appreciation should improve their reading comprehension.

  6. A comprehensive French grammar

    CERN Document Server

    Price, Glanville

    2013-01-01

    Characterized by clear and accessible explanations, numerous examples and sample sentences, a new section on register and tone, and useful appendices covering topics including age and time, A Comprehensive French Grammar, Sixth Edition is an indispensable tool for advanced students of French language and literature.A revised edition of this established, bestselling French grammarIncludes a new section on register and medium and offers expanded treatment of French punctuationFeatures numerous examples and sample sentences, and useful appendices covering topics including age, time, and dimension

  7. A comprehensive psychiatric service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, A G

    1984-01-01

    A comprehensive psychiatric service was established in 1969 in the Faroe Islands. This service was created as a department of a general hospital. The spheres covered by this department, operating in the midst of the community were: acute and chronic patients, a liaison-psychiatric service......, and an outpatient service. The number of chronic patients has not decreased, due to an influx of unruly senile patients. The close proximity of the service to the community has increased the pressure with regard to the care of such patients. Other services, such as outpatient treatment of alcoholics and neurotics...

  8. A comprehensive psychiatric service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, A G

    1984-01-01

    , and an outpatient service. The number of chronic patients has not decreased, due to an influx of unruly senile patients. The close proximity of the service to the community has increased the pressure with regard to the care of such patients. Other services, such as outpatient treatment of alcoholics and neurotics......A comprehensive psychiatric service was established in 1969 in the Faroe Islands. This service was created as a department of a general hospital. The spheres covered by this department, operating in the midst of the community were: acute and chronic patients, a liaison-psychiatric service...

  9. Comprehensive national energy strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This Comprehensive National Energy Strategy sets forth a set of five common sense goals for national energy policy: (1) improve the efficiency of the energy system, (2) ensure against energy disruptions, (3) promote energy production and use in ways that respect health and environmental values, (4) expand future energy choices, and (5) cooperate internationally on global issues. These goals are further elaborated by a series of objectives and strategies to illustrate how the goals will be achieved. Taken together, the goals, objectives, and strategies form a blueprint for the specific programs, projects, initiatives, investments, and other actions that will be developed and undertaken by the Federal Government, with significant emphasis on the importance of the scientific and technological advancements that will allow implementation of this Comprehensive National Energy Strategy. Moreover, the statutory requirement of regular submissions of national energy policy plans ensures that this framework can be modified to reflect evolving conditions, such as better knowledge of our surroundings, changes in energy markets, and advances in technology. This Strategy, then, should be thought of as a living document. Finally, this plan benefited from the comments and suggestions of numerous individuals and organizations, both inside and outside of government. The Summary of Public Comments, located at the end of this document, describes the public participation process and summarizes the comments that were received. 8 figs.

  10. A Systematic Review of the Research on Vocabulary Instruction That Impacts Text Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Tanya S.; Cervetti, Gina N.

    2017-01-01

    Although numerous studies have identified a correlational relationship between vocabulary and comprehension, we know less about vocabulary interventions that impact reading comprehension. Therefore, this study is a systematic review of vocabulary interventions with comprehension outcomes. Analyses of 36 studies that met criteria are organized…

  11. The Validity of Reading Comprehension Rate: Reading Speed, Comprehension, and Comprehension Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Christopher H.; Williams, Jacqueline L.; Morrow, Jennifer Ann; Hale, Andre D.; Neddenriep, Christine E.; Hawkins, Renee O.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a secondary analysis of a brief reading comprehension rate measure, percent comprehension questions correct per minute spent reading (%C/M). This measure includes reading speed (seconds to read) in the denominator and percentage of comprehension questions answered correctly in the numerator. Participants were 22 4th-, 29…

  12. Comprehensive nuclear materials

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Todd; Stoller, Roger; Yamanaka, Shinsuke

    2012-01-01

    Comprehensive Nuclear Materials encapsulates a panorama of fundamental information on the vast variety of materials employed in the broad field of nuclear technology. The work addresses, in five volumes, 3,400 pages and over 120 chapter-length articles, the full panorama of historical and contemporary international research in nuclear materials, from Actinides to Zirconium alloys, from the worlds' leading scientists and engineers. It synthesizes the most pertinent research to support the selection, assessment, validation and engineering of materials in extreme nuclear environments. The work discusses the major classes of materials suitable for usage in nuclear fission, fusion reactors and high power accelerators, and for diverse functions in fuels, cladding, moderator and control materials, structural, functional, and waste materials.

  13. [Comprehensive geriatric medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Hidetoshi

    2004-07-01

    This paper is written to make clear the new medical system in the elderly and to standardize of Geriatrics and care. There are two major important components in geriatrics and geriatric care which are comprehensive geriatric assessment and team approach. But this is sometimes difficulut to do geriatric medicine. This goal is to make clear the usefulness of comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) and team approach. And the research purpose is to make standardization of geriatric medicine and care of elderly patients and organization of professionals. I have studied QOL of elderly people in the community. The scale, SF36, was used in this study. I compared with QOL between elderly with dementia and healthy elderly. QOL was studied with statistical analysis of SPSS. Physical function and symptomatic vitality in lower items of QOL were much better in health people than demented elderly. But global subjective health was much better in demented elderly than healthy people in the community. And I made clinical path of dementia for examination in the hospital. The results were clinical path made clear the importance of team approaches and standard of medical course in the hospital. It was helpful in medicine and care and its bindings. Dr. Murashima and her group have developed a new check list of screening risk factor of long stay of elderly inpatient. And they studied about the effects of supportive group for discharge using assessment and team approaches. This unit has a good function which support home care of the elderly patients. Finally narrative based medicine is very important to take care for the elderly patients. It has been lacked to do the present medicine for the elderly patient by evidence based medicine. In conclusion, for the standardization of geriatrics, CGA is useful for support for the frail elderly and team approach is good for staff communication through team conference.

  14. Laser Beam Focus Analyser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Carøe; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    2007-01-01

    The quantitative and qualitative description of laser beam characteristics is important for process implementation and optimisation. In particular, a need for quantitative characterisation of beam diameter was identified when using fibre lasers for micro manufacturing. Here the beam diameter limits...... the obtainable features in direct laser machining as well as heat affected zones in welding processes. This paper describes the development of a measuring unit capable of analysing beam shape and diameter of lasers to be used in manufacturing processes. The analyser is based on the principle of a rotating...... mechanical wire being swept through the laser beam at varying Z-heights. The reflected signal is analysed and the resulting beam profile determined. The development comprised the design of a flexible fixture capable of providing both rotation and Z-axis movement, control software including data capture...

  15. Meta-analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, Maria A.; Luyten, Johannes W.; Scheerens, Jaap; Sleegers, P.J.C.; Scheerens, J

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter results of a research synthesis and quantitative meta-analyses of three facets of time effects in education are presented, namely time at school during regular lesson hours, homework, and extended learning time. The number of studies for these three facets of time that could be used

  16. Contesting Citizenship: Comparative Analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte; Squires, Judith

    2007-01-01

    importance of particularized experiences and multiple ineequality agendas). These developments shape the way citizenship is both practiced and analysed. Mapping neat citizenship modles onto distinct nation-states and evaluating these in relation to formal equality is no longer an adequate approach...

  17. Analysing Access Control Specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probst, Christian W.; Hansen, René Rydhof

    2009-01-01

    . Recent events have revealed intimate knowledge of surveillance and control systems on the side of the attacker, making it often impossible to deduce the identity of an inside attacker from logged data. In this work we present an approach that analyses the access control configuration to identify the set...

  18. Chromosome analyses in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann-Berg, N; Bullerdiek, J; Murua Escobar, H; Nolte, I

    2012-01-01

    Cytogenetics is the study of normal and abnormal chromosomes. Every species is characterized by a given number of chromosomes that can be recognized by their specific shape. The chromosomes are arranged according to standard classification schemes for the respective species. While pre- and postnatal chromosome analyses investigate the constitutional karyotype, tumor cytogenetics is focused on the detection of clonal acquired, tumor-associated chromosome aberrations. Cytogenetic investigations in dogs are of great value especially for breeders dealing with fertility problems within their pedigrees, for veterinarians and last but not least for the dog owners. Dogs and humans share a variety of genetic diseases, including cancer. Thus, the dog has become an increasingly important model for genetic diseases. However, cytogenetic analyses of canine cells are complicated by the complex karyotype of the dog. Only just 15 years ago, a standard classification scheme for the complete canine karyotype was established. For chromosome analyses of canine cells the same steps of chromosome preparation are used as in human cytogenetics. There are few reports about cytogenetic changes in non-neoplastic cells, involving predominantly the sex chromosomes. Cytogenetic analyses of different entities of canine tumors revealed that, comparable to human tumors, tumors of the dog are often characterized by clonal chromosome aberrations, which might be used as diagnostic and prognostic markers. The integration of modern techniques (molecular genetic approaches, adaptive computer programs) will facilitate and complete conventional cytogenetic studies. However, conventional cytogenetics is still non-replaceable.

  19. Report sensory analyses veal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldman, M.; Schelvis-Smit, A.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    On behalf of a client of Animal Sciences Group, different varieties of veal were analyzed by both instrumental and sensory analyses. The sensory evaluation was performed with a sensory analytical panel in the period of 13th of May and 31st of May, 2005. The three varieties of veal were: young bull,

  20. Filmstil - teori og analyse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lennard Højbjerg

    Filmstil påvirker på afgørende vis vores oplevelse af film. Men filmstil, måden, de levende billeder organiserer fortællingen på fylder noget mindre end filmens handling, når vi taler om film. Filmstil - teori og analyse er en rigt eksemplificeret præsentation, kritik og videreudvikling af...

  1. Language Comprehension as Structure Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-10-17

    G CO O MP R EHEO N N A SC N ESTR ANCTU RE LD I G G - A F S - - 5 Dr ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ P Alre R2rg313NY EOT UU AFOAS-/A4 Brorting AB DC 20332/644 7...language comprehension, and in particular, the general, cognitive processes and mechanisms that underlie language comprehension. These general...views language comprehension and production as drawing on general, cognitive processes and mechanisms. Such processes and mechanisms also underlie

  2. Prosody and language comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan, Delphine

    2015-01-01

    This review provides a summary of the most recent advances on the study of how prosody is used during language comprehension. Prosody is characterized as an abstract structure composed of discrete tonal elements aligned with the segmental composition of the sentence organized in constituents of increasing size, and this structure is influenced by the phonological, syntactic, and informational structures of the sentence. Here, we discuss evidence that listeners are affected by prosody when establishing those linguistic structures. Prosody has been shown to influence the segmentation of the utterance into syllables and words, and, in some cases, whether a syllable or word is judged to be present or not. The literature on how prosody informs the structural relationship between words and phrases is also discussed, contrasting views that assume a direct (albeit probabilistic) link between syntax and prosody with those that posit a complex interface between syntax and prosodic structure. Finally, the role of prosody in conveying important aspects pertaining to the sentence's information structure (i.e., which parts of the sentence's meaning are highlighted and brought forward to the discourse, which ones are presupposed and left in the background, which attitudes are being conveyed about the concepts or propositional content) has long been recognized. Current research focuses on which prosodic elements contribute to marking the dimensions (or semantic primitives) of the information structure. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Comprehensive facilities plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory`s Comprehensive Facilities Plan (CFP) document provides analysis and policy guidance for the effective use and orderly future development of land and capital assets at the Berkeley Lab site. The CFP directly supports Berkeley Lab`s role as a multiprogram national laboratory operated by the University of California (UC) for the Department of Energy (DOE). The CFP is revised annually on Berkeley Lab`s Facilities Planning Website. Major revisions are consistent with DOE policy and review guidance. Facilities planing is motivated by the need to develop facilities for DOE programmatic needs; to maintain, replace and rehabilitate existing obsolete facilities; to identify sites for anticipated programmatic growth; and to establish a planning framework in recognition of site amenities and the surrounding community. The CFP presents a concise expression of the policy for the future physical development of the Laboratory, based upon anticipated operational needs of research programs and the environmental setting. It is a product of the ongoing planning processes and is a dynamic information source.

  4. The 2001 Comprehensive Review

    CERN Multimedia

    Åkesson, T

    A new approach for CERN to monitor the LHC-experiments' technical and scientific progress was introduced last year: The Comprehensive Reviews. A significant fraction of the full LHCC committee is mobilized during two days to review the complete project status. This event took place for ATLAS during 2-3 of July this year. With a rather exhaustive program we presented our status in 39 talks. It was a demanding and close to impossible task for the referees to comprehend the ATLAS status by listening to this massive amount of information, but from the ATLAS point-of-view we judged it important that the referees were exposed to both the progress and the remaining problem areas. The referees were satisfied with our status; probably more so this year than last year. They judged the main critical issues to be: The schedules of the barrel toroid, the end-cap TRT, the LAr barrel and end-cap A, and the MDTs. The procurement of radiation hard electronics was also thought to be a critical issue. They were informed of ...

  5. Comprehensive test ban negotiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grab, G. Allen; Heckrotte, Warren

    1983-10-01

    Although it has been a stated policy goal of American and Soviet leaders since 1958 (with the exception of Ronald Reagan), the world today is still without a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. Throughout their history, test an negotiatins have been plagued by a number of persistent problems. Chief among these is East-West differences on the verification question, with the United States concerned about the problem of possible Soviet cheating and the USSR concerned about the protection of its national sovereignty. In addition, internal bureaucratic politics have played a major role in preventing the successful conclusion of an agreement. Despite these problems, the superpowers have concluded several significant partial meausres: a brief (1958-1961) total moratorium on nuclear weapons tests; the Limited Test Ban Treaty of 1963, banning tests in the air, water and outer space; the Threshold Test Ban Treaty of 1974 (150 KT limit on underground explosions); and the Peaceful Nuclear Explosions Treaty of 1976 (150 KT limit on individal PNEs). Today, the main U.S. objections to a CTBT center is the nuclear weapons laboratories, the Department of Energy, and the Pentagon, who all stress the issues of stockpile reliability and verification. Those who remain committed to a CTBT emphasize and the potential political leverage it offers in checking both horizontal and vertical proliferation.

  6. Comprehensive eye evaluation algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agurto, C.; Nemeth, S.; Zamora, G.; Vahtel, M.; Soliz, P.; Barriga, S.

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, several research groups have developed automatic algorithms to detect diabetic retinopathy (DR) in individuals with diabetes (DM), using digital retinal images. Studies have indicated that diabetics have 1.5 times the annual risk of developing primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) as do people without DM. Moreover, DM patients have 1.8 times the risk for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Although numerous investigators are developing automatic DR detection algorithms, there have been few successful efforts to create an automatic algorithm that can detect other ocular diseases, such as POAG and AMD. Consequently, our aim in the current study was to develop a comprehensive eye evaluation algorithm that not only detects DR in retinal images, but also automatically identifies glaucoma suspects and AMD by integrating other personal medical information with the retinal features. The proposed system is fully automatic and provides the likelihood of each of the three eye disease. The system was evaluated in two datasets of 104 and 88 diabetic cases. For each eye, we used two non-mydriatic digital color fundus photographs (macula and optic disc centered) and, when available, information about age, duration of diabetes, cataracts, hypertension, gender, and laboratory data. Our results show that the combination of multimodal features can increase the AUC by up to 5%, 7%, and 8% in the detection of AMD, DR, and glaucoma respectively. Marked improvement was achieved when laboratory results were combined with retinal image features.

  7. SITE COMPREHENSIVE LISTING (CERCLIS) (Superfund)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) (Superfund) Public Access Database contains a selected set of...

  8. Blood Test: Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Voice in Health Care Decisions Blood Test: Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP) KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Test: Comprehensive Metabolic Panel ( ... or kidneys) is working. What Is a Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP)? The comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP) is a ...

  9. Dropped object protection analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsen, Ingve

    2014-01-01

    Master's thesis in Offshore structural engineering Impact from dropped object is a typical accident action (NOKSOK N-004, 2013). Hence, the DOP structure is to be analyzed in an accidental limit state (ALS) design practice, which means that a non-linear finite element analysis can be applied. The DOP structure will be based on a typical DOP structure. Several FEM analyses are performed for the DOP structure. Different shapes size and weights and various impact positions are used for si...

  10. Biomass feedstock analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilen, C.; Moilanen, A.; Kurkela, E. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1996-12-31

    The overall objectives of the project `Feasibility of electricity production from biomass by pressurized gasification systems` within the EC Research Programme JOULE II were to evaluate the potential of advanced power production systems based on biomass gasification and to study the technical and economic feasibility of these new processes with different type of biomass feed stocks. This report was prepared as part of this R and D project. The objectives of this task were to perform fuel analyses of potential woody and herbaceous biomasses with specific regard to the gasification properties of the selected feed stocks. The analyses of 15 Scandinavian and European biomass feed stock included density, proximate and ultimate analyses, trace compounds, ash composition and fusion behaviour in oxidizing and reducing atmospheres. The wood-derived fuels, such as whole-tree chips, forest residues, bark and to some extent willow, can be expected to have good gasification properties. Difficulties caused by ash fusion and sintering in straw combustion and gasification are generally known. The ash and alkali metal contents of the European biomasses harvested in Italy resembled those of the Nordic straws, and it is expected that they behave to a great extent as straw in gasification. Any direct relation between the ash fusion behavior (determined according to the standard method) and, for instance, the alkali metal content was not found in the laboratory determinations. A more profound characterisation of the fuels would require gasification experiments in a thermobalance and a PDU (Process development Unit) rig. (orig.) (10 refs.)

  11. Reading comprehension in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Laura L; Rutledge, Stefanie

    2014-05-01

    Although individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) self-report reading problems and experience difficulties in cognitive-linguistic functions that support discourse-level reading, prior research has primarily focused on sentence-level processing and auditory comprehension. Accordingly, the authors investigated the presence and nature of reading comprehension in PD, hypothesizing that (a) individuals with PD would display impaired accuracy and/or speed on reading comprehension tests and (b) reading performances would be correlated with cognitive test results. Eleven adults with PD and 9 age- and education-matched control participants completed tests that evaluated reading comprehension; general language and cognitive abilities; and aspects of attention, memory, and executive functioning. The PD group obtained significantly lower scores on several, but not all, reading comprehension, language, and cognitive measures. Memory, language, and disease severity were significantly correlated with reading comprehension for the PD group. Individuals in the early stages of PD without dementia or broad cognitive deficits can display reading comprehension difficulties, particularly for high- versus basic-level reading tasks. These reading difficulties are most closely related to memory, high-level language, and PD symptom severity status. The findings warrant additional research to delineate further the types and nature of reading comprehension impairments experienced by individuals with PD.

  12. Comprehensive mathematics for computer scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Mazzola, Guerino; Weissmann, Jody

    2005-01-01

    This two-volume textbook Comprehensive Mathematics for the Working Computer Scientist is a self-contained comprehensive presentation of mathematics including sets, numbers, graphs, algebra, logic, grammars, machines, linear geometry, calculus, ODEs, and special themes such as neural networks, Fourier theory, wavelets, numerical.

  13. Pragmatic Comprehension Development through Telecollaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafieyan, Vahid; Sharafi-Nejad, Maryam; Khavari, Zahra; Eng, Lin Siew; Mohamed, Abdul Rashid

    2014-01-01

    Pragmatic comprehension can be ideally developed through contact with target language speakers. This contact can be provided in English as Foreign Language contexts through telecollaboration. To test the actual effect of telecollaboration on the development of pragmatic comprehension, 30 Iranian undergraduates of English as a Foreign Language…

  14. Comparison of T1-weighted 2D TSE, 3D SPGR, and two-point 3D Dixon MRI for automated segmentation of visceral adipose tissue at 3 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallah, Faezeh; Machann, Jürgen; Martirosian, Petros; Bamberg, Fabian; Schick, Fritz; Yang, Bin

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate and compare conventional T1-weighted 2D turbo spin echo (TSE), T1-weighted 3D volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE), and two-point 3D Dixon-VIBE sequences for automatic segmentation of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volume at 3 Tesla by measuring and compensating for errors arising from intensity nonuniformity (INU) and partial volume effects (PVE). The body trunks of 28 volunteers with body mass index values ranging from 18 to 41.2 kg/m2 (30.02 ± 6.63 kg/m2) were scanned at 3 Tesla using three imaging techniques. Automatic methods were applied to reduce INU and PVE and to segment VAT. The automatically segmented VAT volumes obtained from all acquisitions were then statistically and objectively evaluated against the manually segmented (reference) VAT volumes. Comparing the reference volumes with the VAT volumes automatically segmented over the uncorrected images showed that INU led to an average relative volume difference of -59.22 ± 11.59, 2.21 ± 47.04, and -43.05 ± 5.01 % for the TSE, VIBE, and Dixon images, respectively, while PVE led to average differences of -34.85 ± 19.85, -15.13 ± 11.04, and -33.79 ± 20.38 %. After signal correction, differences of -2.72 ± 6.60, 34.02 ± 36.99, and -2.23 ± 7.58 % were obtained between the reference and the automatically segmented volumes. A paired-sample two-tailed t test revealed no significant difference between the reference and automatically segmented VAT volumes of the corrected TSE (p = 0.614) and Dixon (p = 0.969) images, but showed a significant VAT overestimation using the corrected VIBE images. Under similar imaging conditions and spatial resolution, automatically segmented VAT volumes obtained from the corrected TSE and Dixon images agreed with each other and with the reference volumes. These results demonstrate the efficacy of the signal correction methods and the similar accuracy of TSE and Dixon imaging for automatic volumetry of VAT at 3 Tesla.

  15. EEG analyses with SOBI.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glickman, Matthew R.; Tang, Akaysha (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-02-01

    The motivating vision behind Sandia's MENTOR/PAL LDRD project has been that of systems which use real-time psychophysiological data to support and enhance human performance, both individually and of groups. Relevant and significant psychophysiological data being a necessary prerequisite to such systems, this LDRD has focused on identifying and refining such signals. The project has focused in particular on EEG (electroencephalogram) data as a promising candidate signal because it (potentially) provides a broad window on brain activity with relatively low cost and logistical constraints. We report here on two analyses performed on EEG data collected in this project using the SOBI (Second Order Blind Identification) algorithm to identify two independent sources of brain activity: one in the frontal lobe and one in the occipital. The first study looks at directional influences between the two components, while the second study looks at inferring gender based upon the frontal component.

  16. Analyse af elbilers forbrug

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Krogh, Benjamin Bjerre; Torp, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Denne rapport undersøger GPS og CAN bus datagrundlaget opsamlet ved kørsel med elbiler og analysere på elbilers forbrug. Analyserne er baseret på godt 133 millioner GPS og CAN bus målinger opsamlet fra 164 elbiler (Citroen C-Zero, Mitsubishi iMiev og Peugeot Ion) i kalenderåret 2012....... For datagrundlaget kan det konstateres, at der er behov for væsentlige, men simple opstramninger for fremadrettet at gøre det nemmere at anvende GPS/CAN bus data fra elbiler i andre analyser. Brugen af elbiler er sammenlignet med brændstofbiler og konklusionen er, at elbiler generelt kører 10-15 km/t langsommere på...

  17. Molecular ecological network analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Ye

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the interaction among different species within a community and their responses to environmental changes is a central goal in ecology. However, defining the network structure in a microbial community is very challenging due to their extremely high diversity and as-yet uncultivated status. Although recent advance of metagenomic technologies, such as high throughout sequencing and functional gene arrays, provide revolutionary tools for analyzing microbial community structure, it is still difficult to examine network interactions in a microbial community based on high-throughput metagenomics data. Results Here, we describe a novel mathematical and bioinformatics framework to construct ecological association networks named molecular ecological networks (MENs through Random Matrix Theory (RMT-based methods. Compared to other network construction methods, this approach is remarkable in that the network is automatically defined and robust to noise, thus providing excellent solutions to several common issues associated with high-throughput metagenomics data. We applied it to determine the network structure of microbial communities subjected to long-term experimental warming based on pyrosequencing data of 16 S rRNA genes. We showed that the constructed MENs under both warming and unwarming conditions exhibited topological features of scale free, small world and modularity, which were consistent with previously described molecular ecological networks. Eigengene analysis indicated that the eigengenes represented the module profiles relatively well. In consistency with many other studies, several major environmental traits including temperature and soil pH were found to be important in determining network interactions in the microbial communities examined. To facilitate its application by the scientific community, all these methods and statistical tools have been integrated into a comprehensive Molecular Ecological

  18. Listening Comprehension, Oral Expression, Reading Comprehension, and Written Expression: Related yet Unique Language Systems in Grades 1, 3, 5, and 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berninger, Virginia W.; Abbott, Robert D.

    2010-01-01

    Age-normed tests of listening comprehension, oral expression, reading comprehension, and written expression were administered in Grades 1 (n = 128), 3, and 5, or 3 (n = 113), 5, and 7. Confirmatory factor analyses compared 1- and 4-factor models at each grade level and supported a 4-factor model of language by ear, mouth, eye, and hand. Multiple…

  19. Morphological awareness and reading comprehension: Examining mediating factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, Kyle C; Kieffer, Michael J; Deacon, S Hélène

    2017-08-01

    The relation between morphological awareness-defined as the awareness of and ability to manipulate the smallest units of meaning in language-and reading comprehension remains in need of specification. In this study, we evaluated four potential intervening variables through which morphological awareness may contribute indirectly to reading comprehension. We assessed word reading and vocabulary as well as children's ability to read and analyze the meaning of morphologically complex words (morphological decoding and morphological analysis, respectively). Controls of phonological awareness and nonverbal ability were included in the model. Participants were 221 English-speaking children in Grade 3. Multivariate path analyses revealed evidence of two indirect relations and one direct relation between morphological awareness and reading comprehension. In the first indirect path, morphological awareness contributed to morphological decoding, which then influenced word reading and finally reading comprehension. In a second indirect path, morphological awareness contributed to morphological analysis, which contributed to reading comprehension. Finally, in a direct path, morphological awareness contributed to reading comprehension beyond all other variables. These findings inform as to the potential mechanisms underlying the relation between morphological awareness and reading comprehension in children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. READING COMPREHENSION RFSEARCH AND LINGUISTIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    READING COMPREHENSION RFSEARCH AND LINGUISTIC PRAGMATICS: MAPPING OUT SOME UNRECOGNIZED INTERDISCIPLINARY. COMMON GROUND. 1. Introduction. Melinda Sinclair. Department of General Linguistics. University of SteUenbosch. 83. On the whole, research into the various aspects of natural ...

  1. Comprehensive Error Rate Testing (CERT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) implemented the Comprehensive Error Rate Testing (CERT) program to measure improper payments in the Medicare...

  2. READING THEORIES AND READING COMPREHENSION

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Novary Ngabut

    2015-01-01

    In this article several reading theories in their relations to reading comprehension teachers and lecturers of English need to know are reviewed. At the theory level, three other Models of Reading, namely Bottom-Up, Top-Down, and Interactive are previously discussed to the Schema Theory. In reviewing the reading comprehension, the history of reading instruction, types and purposes of reading, and cognitive reading skills are discussed. Finally, it reviews six variables involved in the compreh...

  3. Factors Affecting the Comprehension of Global and Local Main Idea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Danhua

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated factors that would affect a reader's understanding of the main idea at the global level and explicit and implicit main ideas at the local level. Fifty-seven first-year university students taking a college reading course took a comprehension test on an expository text. Statistical analyses revealed that text structure had a…

  4. The Hubble Relation for a Comprehensive Sample of QSOs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    On the other hand, most luminous QSOs in groups, and subsamples with particular properties, have been reported to show the Hubble relation. In the present paper, we analyse all optically non-variable QSOs in a comprehensive sample. In our analysis we grouped the objects into certain intervals of apparent magnitudes.

  5. Memory mechanisms supporting syntactic comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, David; Waters, Gloria

    2013-04-01

    Efforts to characterize the memory system that supports sentence comprehension have historically drawn extensively on short-term memory as a source of mechanisms that might apply to sentences. The focus of these efforts has changed significantly in the past decade. As a result of changes in models of short-term working memory (ST-WM) and developments in models of sentence comprehension, the effort to relate entire components of an ST-WM system, such as those in the model developed by Baddeley (Nature Reviews Neuroscience 4: 829-839, 2003) to sentence comprehension has largely been replaced by an effort to relate more specific mechanisms found in modern models of ST-WM to memory processes that support one aspect of sentence comprehension--the assignment of syntactic structure (parsing) and its use in determining sentence meaning (interpretation) during sentence comprehension. In this article, we present the historical background to recent studies of the memory mechanisms that support parsing and interpretation and review recent research into this relation. We argue that the results of this research do not converge on a set of mechanisms derived from ST-WM that apply to parsing and interpretation. We argue that the memory mechanisms supporting parsing and interpretation have features that characterize another memory system that has been postulated to account for skilled performance-long-term working memory. We propose a model of the relation of different aspects of parsing and interpretation to ST-WM and long-term working memory.

  6. Reliability of Visual-World Eyetracking for Lexical and Sentence Comprehension Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer E. Mack

    2014-04-01

    The results indicate that eyetracking is a reliable measure of the latency of lexical access and sentence comprehension, even with a limited number of trials. Therefore, this method may prove useful for investigating lexical access and sentence comprehension changes as a result of treatment for aphasia. Figure 1. Proportion of fixations to the target picture across sessions in (a lexical access and (b sentence comprehension trials. Vertical lines indicate windows for statistical analyses.

  7. Optimising Comprehensibility in Interlingual Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nisbeth Jensen, Matilde

    2015-01-01

    . It is argued that Plain Language writing is a type of intralingual translation as it involves rewriting or translating a complex monolingual text into comprehensible language. Based on Plain Language literature, a comprehensibility framework is elaborated, which is subsequently exemplified through...... the functional text type of Patient Information Leaflet. Finally, the usefulness of applying the principles of Plain Language and intralingual translation for optimising comprehensibility in interlingual translation is discussed....... information on medication and tax information. Such texts are often written by experts and received by lay people, and, in today’s globalised world, they are often translated as well. In these functional texts, the receiver is not a mere recipient of information, but s/he needs to be able to act upon it...

  8. A model of poetic comprehension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haase, K. [MIT Media Lab., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This article introduces an account of aesthetic comprehension and experience together with an implemented miniature which generates analogical interpretations from a semi-automatic parse of Wordsworth`s {open_quotes}Lines Written in Early Spring{close_quotes}. In our account, a poem serves as an analogy teaching machine by using formal structure to cue the formation of novel analogies. This account builds on an analogical model of comprehension previously applied to large corpora of newspaper summaries. In the miniature, an automatic grammatical and semantic analysis of the text is augmented with information about rhyme and rhythm. These formal cues allow the system to determine analogies which it would not otherwise consider. The article describes the comprehension framework, the annotated piece, and the matcher`s performance on the piece. It closes with a discussion of possible objections to aspects of the thesis or experiment and suggested directions for future work.

  9. Reading comprehension in autism spectrum disorders: the role of oral language and social functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Jessie; Jones, Catherine R G; Happé, Francesca; Charman, Tony

    2013-04-01

    Reading comprehension is an area of difficulty for many individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). According to the Simple View of Reading, word recognition and oral language are both important determinants of reading comprehension ability. We provide a novel test of this model in 100 adolescents with ASD of varying intellectual ability. Further, we explore whether reading comprehension is additionally influenced by individual differences in social behaviour and social cognition in ASD. Adolescents with ASD aged 14-16 years completed assessments indexing word recognition, oral language, reading comprehension, social behaviour and social cognition. Regression analyses show that both word recognition and oral language explain unique variance in reading comprehension. Further, measures of social behaviour and social cognition predict reading comprehension after controlling for the variance explained by word recognition and oral language. This indicates that word recognition, oral language and social impairments may constrain reading comprehension in ASD.

  10. Neural mechanisms of discourse comprehension: a human lesion study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbey, Aron K; Colom, Roberto; Grafman, Jordan

    2014-01-01

    Discourse comprehension is a hallmark of human social behaviour and refers to the act of interpreting a written or spoken message by constructing mental representations that integrate incoming language with prior knowledge and experience. Here, we report a human lesion study (n = 145) that investigates the neural mechanisms underlying discourse comprehension (measured by the Discourse Comprehension Test) and systematically examine its relation to a broad range of psychological factors, including psychometric intelligence (measured by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), emotional intelligence (measured by the Mayer, Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test), and personality traits (measured by the Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory). Scores obtained from these factors were submitted to voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping to elucidate their neural substrates. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that working memory and extraversion reliably predict individual differences in discourse comprehension: higher working memory scores and lower extraversion levels predict better discourse comprehension performance. Lesion mapping results indicated that these convergent variables depend on a shared network of frontal and parietal regions, including white matter association tracts that bind these areas into a coordinated system. The observed findings motivate an integrative framework for understanding the neural foundations of discourse comprehension, suggesting that core elements of discourse processing emerge from a distributed network of brain regions that support specific competencies for executive and social function.

  11. Executive dysfunction among children with reading comprehension deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locascio, Gianna; Mahone, E Mark; Eason, Sarah H; Cutting, Laurie E

    2010-01-01

    Emerging research supports the contribution of executive function (EF) to reading comprehension; however, a unique pattern has not been established for children who demonstrate comprehension difficulties despite average word recognition ability (specific reading comprehension deficit; S-RCD). To identify particular EF components on which children with S-RCD struggle, a range of EF skills was compared among 86 children, ages 10 to 14, grouped by word reading and comprehension abilities: 24 average readers, 44 with word recognition deficits (WRD), and 18 S-RCD. An exploratory principal components analysis of EF tests identified three latent factors, used in subsequent group comparisons: Planning/ Spatial Working Memory, Verbal Working Memory, and Response Inhibition. The WRD group exhibited deficits (relative to controls) on Verbal Working Memory and Inhibition factors; S-RCD children performed more poorly than controls on the Planning factor. Further analyses suggested the WRD group's poor performance on EF factors was a by-product of core deficits linked to WRD (after controlling for phonological processing, this group no longer showed EF deficits). In contrast, the S-RCD group's poor performance on the planning component remained significant after controlling for phonological processing. Findings suggest reading comprehension difficulties are linked to executive dysfunction; in particular, poor strategic planning/organizing may lead to reading comprehension problems.

  12. Conceptual Combination During Sentence Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinney, David; Love, Tracy; Walenski, Matthew; Smith, Edward E.

    2008-01-01

    This experiment examined the time course of integration of modifier-noun (conceptual) combinations during auditory sentence comprehension using cross-modal lexical priming. The study revealed that during ongoing comprehension, there is initial activation of features of the noun prior to activation of (emergent) features of the entire conceptual combination. These results support compositionality in conceptual combination; that is, they indicate that features of the individual words constituting a conceptual combination are activated prior to combination of the words into a new concept. PMID:17576278

  13. Comprehensible input and learning outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar Campillo, Patricia

    1996-01-01

    Segones Jornades de Foment de la Investigació de la FCHS (Any 1996-1997) In Krashen’s terms, optimal input has to be comprehensible to the learner if we want acquisition to take place. An overview of the literature on input indicates two ways of making input comprehensible: the first one is to premodify input before it is offered to the learner, (premodified input), and the second one is to negotiate the input through interaction (interactionally modified input). The aim of the...

  14. Analysing Scenarios of Cell Population System Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Vinogradova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers an isolated population system consisting of two types of human stem cells, namely normal cells and cells with chromosomal abnormalities (abnormal ones. The system develops in the laboratory (in vitro. The article analyses possible scenarios of the population system development, which are implemented for different values of its parameters. An investigated model of the cell population system takes into account the limited resources. It is represented as a system of two nonlinear differential equations with continuous right-hand part. The model is considered with non-negative values of the variables; the domain is divided into four sets. The model feature is that in each set the right part of the system of differential equations has a different form.The article analyses a quality of the rest points of the system in each of four sets. The analytical conditions for determination of the number of rest points and the quality of rest points, with, at least, one zero coordinate, are obtained.It is shown that the population system under study cannot have more than two points of rest, both coordinates of which are positive (non-zero. It is difficult to determine quality of such rest points depending on the model parameters due to the complexity of the expressions, which define the systems of the first approximation, recorded in a neighborhood of these points of rest. Numerical research results of the stability of these points of rest are obtained, and phase portraits with the specified specific values of the system parameters are demonstrated. The main scenarios for the cell population development are adduced. Analysis of mathematical model shows that a cell population system may remain the system consisting of populations of normal and abnormal cells; it can degenerate into a population of abnormal cells or perish. The scenario, in which there is only the population of normal cells, is not implemented. The numerical simulation

  15. TRAPPING PROTOCOLS, SAMPLING, AND VIABILITY ANALYSES FOR THE ALABAMA BEACH MICE (PEROMYSCUS POLIONOTUS AMMOBATES): FINAL REPORT

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We performed a comprehensive critique of trapping protocols, data analysis, and population viability analyses conducted to date for the Alabama beach mouse...

  16. Electroconvulsive Therapy: A Comprehensive Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayfun Zeren

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT is one of the most important discoveries of psychiatric treatments. This article comprehensively assesses historical progress, mechanism of actions, practical methods, indications, side effects, complications, drug interactions of ECT and attitudes towards ECT. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2003; 12(4.000: 340-377

  17. Constraint Programming for Context Comprehension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning

    2014-01-01

    A close similarity is demonstrated between context comprehension, such as discourse analysis, and constraint programming. The constraint store takes the role of a growing knowledge base learned throughout the discourse, and a suitable con- straint solver does the job of incorporating new pieces...

  18. The Comprehension Hypothesis: Recent Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krashen, Stephen

    1997-01-01

    Research published in recent years that deals with the Comprehension (Input) Hypothesis is reviewed, and evidence supporting the hypothesis is underlined. The research is from the areas of literacy development, second-language learning, and foreign-language learning and confirms the claim that development of language and literacy operate in much…

  19. Neuroimaging Evidence of Comprehension Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Baker

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to synthesize the emerging neuroimaging literature that reveals how the brain responds when readers and listeners encounter texts that demand monitoring of their ongoing comprehension processes. Much of this research has been undertaken by cognitive scientists who do not frame their work in metacognitive terms, and therefore it is less likely to be familiar to psychologists who study metacognition in educational contexts. The important role of metacognition in the development and use of academic skills is widely recognized. Metacognition is typically defined as the awareness and control of one's own cognitive processes. In the domain of reading, the most important metacognitive skill is comprehension monitoring, the evaluation and regulation of comprehension. Readers who monitor their understanding realize when they have encountered difficulty making sense of the text, and they apply error correction procedures to attempt to resolve the difficulty. Metacognition depends on executive control skills that continue to develop into early adulthood, in parallel with the maturation of the executive control regions of the prefrontal cortex. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and event-related potentials (ERP have been used for some time to study neural correlates of basic reading processes such as word identification, but it is only within recent years that researchers have turned to the higher-level processes of text comprehension. The article describes illustrative studies that reveal changes in neural activity when adults apply lexical, syntactic, or semantic standards to evaluate their understanding.

  20. Eagle syndrome : A comprehensive review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badhey, Arvind; Jategaonkar, Ameya; Kovacs, Alexander Joseph Anglin; Kadakia, Sameep; De Deyn, Peter Paul; Ducic, Yadranko; Schantz, Stimson; Shin, Edward

    The objective of this report is to summarize the symptoms, diagnostic workup, necessary imaging, and management of Eagle syndrome. A comprehensive literature review was conducted on peer-reviewed publications of Eagle syndrome across multiple disciplines in order to gain a thorough understanding of

  1. Comprehensive geriatric assessment | Lipschitz | Continuing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Continuing Medical Education. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 25, No 9 (2007) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Comprehensive geriatric assessment. S Lipschitz. Abstract.

  2. A model of comprehensive unification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reig, Mario; Valle, José W. F.; Vaquera-Araujo, C. A.; Wilczek, Frank

    2017-11-01

    Comprehensive - that is, gauge and family - unification using spinors has many attractive features, but it has been challenged to explain chirality. Here, by combining an orbifold construction with more traditional ideas, we address that difficulty. Our candidate model features three chiral families and leads to an acceptable result for quantitative unification of couplings. A potential target for accelerator and astronomical searches emerges.

  3. The Comprehensive Counseling Center Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Jon; Wallace, David; Keyes, Lee N.; Polychronis, Paul D.

    2017-01-01

    The authors outline a four-factor model and philosophy for college mental health services that addresses the loss of comprehensiveness in some centers due to changes in organizational structure. Given research on demand for services and retention of those seen in centers, emphasis is placed in particular upon the value of consultation, outreach,…

  4. Planning analyses for geothermal district heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tessmer, R.G. Jr.; Karkheck, J.

    1979-12-01

    Methodology and data bases are described which can provide a comprehensive planning assessment of the potential for geothermal district heating in any US market. This economic systems model encompasses life-cycle costing over a period of rising competitive fuel prices, it addresses the expansion and financing of a district system over time, and it includes an overall optimization of system design. The elemental area for all analyses is the census tract, for which published data allow estimation of residential and commercial heating demands, building retrofit requirements, and competitive fuel consumption and cost. A system type design, an appropriate hot water district piping system, and costing of heat supply is performed for groups of contiguous tracts in any urban market. Groups are aggregated, in decreasing benefit to cost order, to achieve optimal systems. A specific application for Salt Lake City, Utah, is also described.

  5. Combined Task and Physical Demands Analyses towards a Comprehensive Human Work Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    few simple tasks but for all tasks over the mission duration and for all crew positions: flying pilot (FP), non-flying pilot ( NFP ), and flight...spent in each postural sequence associated with each task (figure 6). Our. FP Post 1 NFP Post 1 FE Post 1 Mission Task FP Post 1 NFP Post 1 FE Post...slung load mzsszon task decomposed into postural sequences f or FP, NFP , FE Finally, pilots (in their flying and non-flying roles) and FE ’s

  6. Comprehensive analyses of core–shell InGaN/GaN single nanowire photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.; Guan, N.; Piazza, V.; Kapoor, A.; Bougerol, C.; Julien, F. H.; Babichev, A. V.; Cavassilas, N.; Bescond, M.; Michelini, F.; Foldyna, M.; Gautier, E.; Durand, C.; Eymery, J.; Tchernycheva, M.

    2017-12-01

    Single nitride nanowire core/shell n-p photodetectors are fabricated and analyzed. Nanowires consisting of an n-doped GaN stem, a radial InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well system and a p-doped GaN external shell were grown by catalyst-free metal–organic vapour phase epitaxy on sapphire substrates. Single nanowires were dispersed and the core and the shell regions were contacted with a metal and an ITO deposition, respectively, defined using electron beam lithography. The single wire photodiodes present a response in the visible to UV spectral range under zero external bias. The detector operation speed has been analyzed under different bias conditions. Under zero bias, the  ‑3 dB cut-off frequency is ~200 Hz for small light modulations. The current generation was modeled using non-equilibrium Green function formalism, which evidenced the importance of phonon scattering for carrier extraction from the quantum wells.

  7. Comprehensive postmortem analyses of intestinal microbiota changes and bacterial translocation in human flora associated mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus M Heimesaat

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Postmortem microbiological examinations are performed in forensic and medical pathology for defining uncertain causes of deaths and for screening of deceased tissue donors. Interpretation of bacteriological data, however, is hampered by false-positive results due to agonal spread of microorganisms, postmortem bacterial translocation, and environmental contamination. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a kinetic survey of naturally occurring postmortem gut flora changes in the small and large intestines of conventional and gnotobiotic mice associated with a human microbiota (hfa applying cultural and molecular methods. Sacrificed mice were kept under ambient conditions for up to 72 hours postmortem. Intestinal microbiota changes were most pronounced in the ileal lumen where enterobacteria and enterococci increased by 3-5 orders of magnitude in conventional and hfa mice. Interestingly, comparable intestinal overgrowth was shown in acute and chronic intestinal inflammation in mice and men. In hfa mice, ileal overgrowth with enterococci and enterobacteria started 3 and 24 hours postmortem, respectively. Strikingly, intestinal bacteria translocated to extra-intestinal compartments such as mesenteric lymphnodes, spleen, liver, kidney, and cardiac blood as early as 5 min after death. Furthermore, intestinal tissue destruction was characterized by increased numbers of apoptotic cells and neutrophils within 3 hours postmortem, whereas counts of proliferative cells as well as T- and B-lymphocytes and regulatory T-cells decreased between 3 and 12 hours postmortem. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that kinetics of ileal overgrowth with enterobacteria and enterococci in hfa mice can be used as an indicator for compromized intestinal functionality and for more precisely defining the time point of death under defined ambient conditions. The rapid translocation of intestinal bacteria starting within a few minutes after death will help to distinguish between relevant bacteria and secondary contaminants thus providing important informations for routine applications and future studies in applied microbiology, forensic pathology, and criminal medicine.

  8. Comprehensive comparative genomic and transcriptomic analyses of the legume genes controlling the nodulation process

    OpenAIRE

    Zhenzhen eQiao; Lise ePingault; Mehrnoush eNourbakhsh-Rey; Marc eLibault

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen is one of the most essential plant nutrients and one of the major factors limiting crop productivity. Having the goal to perform a more sustainable agriculture, there is a need to maximize biological nitrogen fixation, a feature of legumes. To enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling the interaction between legumes and rhizobia, the symbiotic partner fixing and assimilating the atmospheric nitrogen for the plant, researchers took advantage of genetic and geno...

  9. Comprehensive postmortem analyses of intestinal microbiota changes and bacterial translocation in human flora associated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimesaat, Markus M; Boelke, Silvia; Fischer, André; Haag, Lea-Maxie; Loddenkemper, Christoph; Kühl, Anja A; Göbel, Ulf B; Bereswill, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Postmortem microbiological examinations are performed in forensic and medical pathology for defining uncertain causes of deaths and for screening of deceased tissue donors. Interpretation of bacteriological data, however, is hampered by false-positive results due to agonal spread of microorganisms, postmortem bacterial translocation, and environmental contamination. We performed a kinetic survey of naturally occurring postmortem gut flora changes in the small and large intestines of conventional and gnotobiotic mice associated with a human microbiota (hfa) applying cultural and molecular methods. Sacrificed mice were kept under ambient conditions for up to 72 hours postmortem. Intestinal microbiota changes were most pronounced in the ileal lumen where enterobacteria and enterococci increased by 3-5 orders of magnitude in conventional and hfa mice. Interestingly, comparable intestinal overgrowth was shown in acute and chronic intestinal inflammation in mice and men. In hfa mice, ileal overgrowth with enterococci and enterobacteria started 3 and 24 hours postmortem, respectively. Strikingly, intestinal bacteria translocated to extra-intestinal compartments such as mesenteric lymphnodes, spleen, liver, kidney, and cardiac blood as early as 5 min after death. Furthermore, intestinal tissue destruction was characterized by increased numbers of apoptotic cells and neutrophils within 3 hours postmortem, whereas counts of proliferative cells as well as T- and B-lymphocytes and regulatory T-cells decreased between 3 and 12 hours postmortem. We conclude that kinetics of ileal overgrowth with enterobacteria and enterococci in hfa mice can be used as an indicator for compromized intestinal functionality and for more precisely defining the time point of death under defined ambient conditions. The rapid translocation of intestinal bacteria starting within a few minutes after death will help to distinguish between relevant bacteria and secondary contaminants thus providing important informations for routine applications and future studies in applied microbiology, forensic pathology, and criminal medicine.

  10. Pawnee Nation Energy Option Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matlock, M.; Kersey, K.; Riding In, C.

    2009-07-21

    Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma Energy Option Analyses In 2003, the Pawnee Nation leadership identified the need for the tribe to comprehensively address its energy issues. During a strategic energy planning workshop a general framework was laid out and the Pawnee Nation Energy Task Force was created to work toward further development of the tribe’s energy vision. The overarching goals of the “first steps” project were to identify the most appropriate focus for its strategic energy initiatives going forward, and to provide information necessary to take the next steps in pursuit of the “best fit” energy options. Description of Activities Performed The research team reviewed existing data pertaining to the availability of biomass (focusing on woody biomass, agricultural biomass/bio-energy crops, and methane capture), solar, wind and hydropower resources on the Pawnee-owned lands. Using these data, combined with assumptions about costs and revenue streams, the research team performed preliminary feasibility assessments for each resource category. The research team also reviewed available funding resources and made recommendations to Pawnee Nation highlighting those resources with the greatest potential for financially-viable development, both in the near-term and over a longer time horizon. Findings and Recommendations Due to a lack of financial incentives for renewable energy, particularly at the state level, combined mediocre renewable energy resources, renewable energy development opportunities are limited for Pawnee Nation. However, near-term potential exists for development of solar hot water at the gym, and an exterior wood-fired boiler system at the tribe’s main administrative building. Pawnee Nation should also explore options for developing LFGTE resources in collaboration with the City of Pawnee. Significant potential may also exist for development of bio-energy resources within the next decade. Pawnee Nation representatives should closely monitor

  11. Comprehensible Presentation of Topological Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Gunther H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Beketayev, Kenes [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bremer, Peer-Timo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hamann, Bernd [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Haranczyk, Maciej [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hlawitschka, Mario [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Pascucci, Valerio [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-03-05

    Topological information has proven very valuable in the analysis of scientific data. An important challenge that remains is presenting this highly abstract information in a way that it is comprehensible even if one does not have an in-depth background in topology. Furthermore, it is often desirable to combine the structural insight gained by topological analysis with complementary information, such as geometric information. We present an overview over methods that use metaphors to make topological information more accessible to non-expert users, and we demonstrate their applicability to a range of scientific data sets. With the increasingly complex output of exascale simulations, the importance of having effective means of providing a comprehensible, abstract overview over data will grow. The techniques that we present will serve as an important foundation for this purpose.

  12. Engineering comprehensible youth interrogation rights

    OpenAIRE

    Eastwood, Joseph; Snook, Brent; Luther, Kirk; Freedman, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Although youth in many Western countries have been afforded enhanced legal protections when facing police interrogations, the effectiveness of these protections may be limited by youth’s inability to comprehend them. The ability to increase the comprehension of Canadian interrogation rights among youth through the simplification of waiver forms was assessed. High school students (N = 367) in grades 9, 10, and 11 were presented with one of three waiver forms that varied in level of complexity....

  13. Comprehensive asymmetric dark matter model

    OpenAIRE

    Lonsdale, Stephen J.; Volkas, Raymond R.

    2018-01-01

    Asymmetric dark matter (ADM) is motivated by the similar cosmological mass densities measured for ordinary and dark matter. We present a comprehensive theory for ADM that addresses the mass density similarity, going beyond the usual ADM explanations of similar number densities. It features an explicit matter-antimatter asymmetry generation mechanism, has one fully worked out thermal history and suggestions for other possibilities, and meets all phenomenological, cosmological and astrophysical...

  14. Reading comprehension levels in scholars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Carolina Alves Ferreira de; Avila, Clara Regina Brandão de; Chiari, Brasília Maria

    2009-01-01

    important reading performance measurements are related to how and to what extent a child understands a written text. to study the performance of primary school (Ensino Fundamental) students in reading comprehension tasks according to the variables grade and type of school. 160 students from the 3rd to the 6th grades were screened and later evaluated based on the retelling and question answering about a given text. students of the 5th and 6th grades of private schools presented a better performance on issues related to implicit information when compared to students of public schools. The overall analysis of the educational level revealed, through the retelling task, a better performance of the 6th grade students in terms of the number of present macro propositions and a low performance of the 5th grade students in terms of the achieved comprehension level, in both types of school. When answering text-derived questions, the 4th, 5th and 6th grade students performed better than the 3rd grade students regarding explicit questions. When considering implicit questions, the 4th grade students performed better than all the other grades, in both types of school. These results gave evidence to the influence of the different texts used in each grade. the 5th and 6th grades from private schools were the only grades that performed better when compared to public schools in general, regarding answering implicit knowledge questions. All students achieved some level of reading comprehension.

  15. Validity of a reading comprehension test for Portuguese students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadime, Irene; Ribeiro, Iolanda; Viana, Fernanda Leopoldina; Santos, Sandra; Prieto, Gerardo; Maia, José

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to collect construct and criterion-related evidence of validity for a reading comprehension test (TCL - Teste de Compreensão da Leitura) with three vertically scaled forms, designed to assess students from second, third and fourth grade. Two studies were conducted. In the first (n = 1,229), a confirmatory factor analysis was performed to analyse the test dimensionality. In the second (n= 402), concurrent and predictive evidence of validity was analysed using correlations between TCL, other reading tests and academic achievement. Confirmatory factor analysis results supported a one-factor structure. Correlation coefficients with other reading tests were low to moderate and statistically significant. The TCL forms were shown to be good predictors of students' reading comprehension as assessed by teachers and of the National Exams of Portuguese Language results. Present results provide empirical evidence for the validity of the TCL forms.

  16. Lesion localization of speech comprehension deficits in chronic aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillay, Sara B; Binder, Jeffrey R; Humphries, Colin; Gross, William L; Book, Diane S

    2017-03-07

    Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) was used to localize impairments specific to multiword (phrase and sentence) spoken language comprehension. Participants were 51 right-handed patients with chronic left hemisphere stroke. They performed an auditory description naming (ADN) task requiring comprehension of a verbal description, an auditory sentence comprehension (ASC) task, and a picture naming (PN) task. Lesions were mapped using high-resolution MRI. VLSM analyses identified the lesion correlates of ADN and ASC impairment, first with no control measures, then adding PN impairment as a covariate to control for cognitive and language processes not specific to spoken language. ADN and ASC deficits were associated with lesions in a distributed frontal-temporal parietal language network. When PN impairment was included as a covariate, both ADN and ASC deficits were specifically correlated with damage localized to the mid-to-posterior portion of the middle temporal gyrus (MTG). Damage to the mid-to-posterior MTG is associated with an inability to integrate multiword utterances during comprehension of spoken language. Impairment of this integration process likely underlies the speech comprehension deficits characteristic of Wernicke aphasia. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  17. THE PQRST STRATEGY, READING COMPREHENSION, AND LEARNING STYLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfi Hidayatu Miqowati

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study aims at investigating the effectiveness of the PQRST strategy in students’ reading comprehension, the effectiveness of the PQRST strategy in reading comprehension of students with different learning styles, and the interaction between the PQRST strategy and the students’ learning styles. This study employed a 2x2 factorial design. The subjects were the second semester students of Public Administration Department, Faculty of Political and Social Science, University of Bondowoso. Two classes were randomly selected as the samples of this study. The experimental class was taught by using the PQRST strategy and the non-experimental class by translation and reading aloud. The data were analysed by utilizing non parametric testing: Mann–Whitney U and Kruskall-Wallis. The findings showed that the PQRST strategy statistically impacted students’ reading comprehension compared to the one taught using the translation and reading aloud. But, it was revealed that there was no difference in the reading comprehension of students with different learning styles taught under the PQRST strategy and translation and reading aloud, and there was no interaction between teaching strategies and students’ learning styles.   Keywords: PQRST, learning styles, reading comprehension

  18. Comprehension of metaphor and metonymy in children with Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annaz, Dagmara; Van Herwegen, Jo; Thomas, Michael; Fishman, Roza; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Rundblad, Gabriella

    2009-01-01

    Figurative language, such as metaphor and metonymy, is very common in daily language use. Its underlying cognitive processes are sometimes viewed as lying at the interface of language and thought. Williams syndrome, which is a rare genetic developmental disorder, provides an opportunity to study this interface because individuals with this disorder have relative strengths in vocabulary and syntax against a background of low general cognitive ability. Few studies have investigated metaphor comprehension in Williams syndrome and none has investigated metonymy. This is the first study to investigate metaphor and metonymy comprehension in Williams syndrome and to compare their performance with a group of typically developing children. Ten children with Williams syndrome were compared with eleven typically developing children in a novel metaphor-metonymy comprehension task. Cross-sectional trajectory analyses were used to compare the development of metaphor and metonymy using a child-friendly story picture task. Trajectories were constructed linking task performance either to chronological age or to measures of mental age (receptive vocabulary, visuospatial construction). The performance of children with Williams syndrome was significantly poorer than the typically developing group. The comprehension of metonyms was in line with receptive vocabulary, but comprehension of metaphors fell below this level. Metonyms may be part of vocabulary and treated as synonyms in Williams syndrome, while metaphor engages additional cognitive mechanisms outside language that develop atypically in this disorder. Despite earlier reports that emphasize good language skills, the Williams syndrome language system shows anomalies compared with typical development.

  19. Hitchhikers’ guide to analysing bird ringing data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harnos Andrea

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bird ringing datasets constitute possibly the largest source of temporal and spatial information on vertebrate taxa available on the globe. Initially, the method was invented to understand avian migration patterns. However, data deriving from bird ringing has been used in an array of other disciplines including population monitoring, changes in demography, conservation management and to study the effects of climate change to name a few. Despite the widespread usage and importance, there are no guidelines available specifically describing the practice of data management, preparation and analyses of ringing datasets. Here, we present the first of a series of comprehensive tutorials that may help fill this gap. We describe in detail and through a real-life example the intricacies of data cleaning and how to create a data table ready for analyses from raw ringing data in the R software environment. Moreover, we created and present here the R package; ringR, designed to carry out various specific tasks and plots related to bird ringing data. Most methods described here can also be applied to a wide range of capture-recapture type data based on individual marking, regardless to taxa or research question.

  20. Predictors of reading comprehension in children with cerebral palsy and typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbell, Shana; Donders, Jacobus; Van Tubbergen, Marie; Warschausky, Seth

    2010-01-01

    Predictors of reading comprehension were evaluated in 41 children with cerebral palsy and 74 typically developing children between the ages of 6 and 12 years. Regression analyses were conducted to determine the relative contributions of measures of phonemic awareness, receptive vocabulary, and general reasoning to variance in reading comprehension. All three independent variables were statistically significant predictors of reading comprehension in both groups of participants. The impact of phonemic awareness on reading comprehension was moderated by age, but only in the typically developing group. Within the group with cerebral palsy, there was an indirect effect of functional expressive ability on reading comprehension, mediated by phonemic awareness. It is concluded that largely the same variables predict reading comprehension in children with cerebral palsy as in typically developing children, but that children with cerebral palsy continue to rely on phonological processing for a more protracted period of time.

  1. Development of metaphor and metonymy comprehension: receptive vocabulary and conceptual knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundblad, Gabriella; Annaz, Dagmara

    2010-09-01

    Figurative language, such as metaphor and metonymy are common in our daily communication. This is one of the first studies to investigate metaphor and metonymy comprehension using a developmental approach. Forty-five typically developing individuals participated in a metaphor-metonymy verbal comprehension task incorporating 20 short picture-stories. Cross-sectional trajectory analyses linking task performance to either chronological age or receptive vocabulary (mental age, MA) were used to compare the development of metaphor and metonymy. Results showed that development of metaphor and metonymy comprehension is strongly linked with chronological and MA, but metaphor comprehension develops at a slower rate compared to metonymy. It was also found that participants, across all ages, consistently showed around 21% better performance on metonymy. The relationship between metaphor and metonymy comprehension is discussed in terms of linguistic and cognitive models of figurative language comprehension arguing that metonymy is cognitively more basic than metaphor.

  2. Norms and comprehension times for 305 French idiomatic expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Patrick; Méot, Alain; Bugaiska, Aurelia

    2013-12-01

    We report psycholinguistic norms for 305 French idiomatic expressions (Study 1). For each of the idiomatic expressions, the following variables are reported: knowledge, predictability, literality, compositionality, subjective and objective frequency, familiarity, age of acquisition (AoA), and length. In addition, we have collected comprehension times for each idiom (Study 2). The psycholinguistic relevance of the collected norms is explained, and different analyses (descriptive statistics, correlation and multiple regression analyses) performed on the norms are reported and discussed. The entire set of norms and reading times are provided as supplemental material.

  3. Listening Comprehension, Oral Expression, Reading Comprehension, and Written Expression: Related Yet Unique Language Systems in Grades 1, 3, 5, and 7

    OpenAIRE

    Berninger, Virginia W.; Abbott, Robert D.

    2010-01-01

    Age-normed tests of Listening Comprehension, Oral Expression, Reading Comprehension, and Written Expression were administered in grades 1 (n=128), 3, and 5 or 3 (n=113), 5, and 7. Confirmatory factor analyses compared one- and four- factor models at each grade level and supported a four- factor model of Language by Ear, Mouth, Eye, and Hand. Multiple regressions identified which of the three other language skills explained unique variance in each of the four language skill outcomes and provid...

  4. Comprehension of Figurative Language in Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nippold, Marilyn A.

    1985-01-01

    A review of developmental studies concerning metaphor, idiom, and proverb comprehension suggest a variety of assessment tasks for language impaired children. Also suggested are such intervention considerations as the comprehension of literal meaning of figurative expressions before nonliteral meanings. (CL)

  5. Quality assessment of economic analyses in pediatric urology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokorowski, Paul J; Routh, Jonathan C; Nelson, Caleb P

    2013-02-01

    To describe and evaluate economic analyses or economic evaluations in pediatric urologic literature, including study types such as cost-effectiveness analysis, which are increasingly common in the medical literature. We performed a systematic literature review of the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases (1990-2011) to identify economic analyses of pediatric urologic topics. Studies were evaluated using published quality metrics. We examined the analysis type, data sources, perspective, methodology, sensitivity analyses, and the reporting of methods, results, limitations, and conclusions. We identified 2945 nonduplicated studies, 60 of which met inclusion criteria. Economic analyses of pediatric urologic topics increased in number during the study period, from 1 study (2%) in 1990 to 7 (12%) in 2010 (P urologic literature, there is a need for standardization in methods and reporting. Future investigations should attempt to follow standardized reporting guidelines and should pay particular attention to reporting of methods and results, including a comprehensive discussion of limitations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Text comprehension dependence on reading experience

    OpenAIRE

    Tilmantaitė, Kamilė

    2016-01-01

    In bachelor thesis „Text comprehension dependence on reading experience“ – is researching, how students text comprehension is dependent on reading experience. In theoretical part discussed the reading conception and reading methods are discussed as well as the text comprehension, models and reading capacity. The practical part contains of pupils of eighth and tenth classes text comprehension test analysis, questionnaire about reading experience analysis and how they both interdependent. In th...

  7. Evaluating power and type 1 error in large pedigree analyses of binary traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna C Cummings

    Full Text Available Studying population isolates with large, complex pedigrees has many advantages for discovering genetic susceptibility loci; however, statistical analyses can be computationally challenging. Allelic association tests need to be corrected for relatedness among study participants, and linkage analyses require subdividing and simplifying the pedigree structures. We have extended GenomeSIMLA to simulate SNP data in complex pedigree structures based on an Amish pedigree to generate the same structure and distribution of sampled individuals. We evaluated type 1 error rates when no disease SNP was simulated and power when disease SNPs with recessive, additive, and dominant modes of inheritance and odds ratios of 1.1, 1.5, 2.0, and 5.0 were simulated. We generated subpedigrees with a maximum bit-size of 24 using PedCut and performed two-point and multipoint linkage using Merlin. We also ran MQLS on the subpedigrees and unified pedigree. We saw no inflation of type 1 error when running MQLS on either the whole pedigrees or the sub-pedigrees, and we saw low type 1 error for two-point and multipoint linkage. Power was reduced when running MQLS on the subpedigrees versus the whole pedigree, and power was low for two-point and multipoint linkage analyses of the subpedigrees. These data suggest that MQLS has appropriate type 1 error rates in our Amish pedigree structure, and while type 1 error does not seem to be affected when dividing the pedigree prior to linkage analysis, power to detect linkage is diminished when the pedigree is divided.

  8. 33 CFR 238.5 - Comprehensive planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Comprehensive planning. 238.5... Comprehensive planning. Coordinated comprehensive planning at the regional or river basin level, or for an urban.... This planning is particularly important in areas where significant portions of a watershed are expected...

  9. Using Appropriate Strategies to Improve Students' Comprehension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition, their complex organization and even unfriendly physical layout constitute serious reading comprehension difficulties. Undoubtedly, effective learning of chemistry requires good possession of reading comprehension skills. When students have reading comprehension difficulties, they have little or no ability ...

  10. Comprehension or comprehending? Using Critical Language ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a critique of current approaches to the teaching of reading comprehension in South African classrooms. It is argued that the genre of the school reading comprehension exercise is a prime inculcator of thoughtless and non-interactive reading practices. Doing 'a comprehension' (the word is often ...

  11. Text comprehension strategy instruction with poor readers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Bos, K.P.; Aarnoudse, C.C.; Brand-Gruwel, S.

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of teaching text comprehension strategies to children with decoding and reading comprehension problems and with a poor or normal listening ability. Two experiments are reported. Four text comprehension strategies, viz., question generation,

  12. Conjoint-Analyse und Marktsegmentierung

    OpenAIRE

    Steiner, Winfried J.; Baumgartner, Bernhard

    2003-01-01

    Die Marktsegmentierung zählt neben der Neuproduktplanung und Preisgestaltung zu den wesentlichen Einsatzgebieten der Conjoint-Analyse. Neben traditionell eingesetzten zweistufigen Vorgehensweisen, bei denen Conjoint-Analyse und Segmentierung in zwei getrennten Schritten erfolgen, stehen heute mit Methoden wie der Clusterwise Regression oder Mixture-Modellen neuere Entwicklungen, die eine simultane Segmentierung und Präferenzschätzung ermöglichen, zur Verfügung. Der Beitrag gibt einen Überblic...

  13. Analyse des Organisations en Afrique

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    de celle-ci pourtenter d'identifier et d'élucider les dynamiques sociales qui s'y déroulent, puis de les examiner en rapport avec les stratégies d'acteurs et le contexte général (l'environnement) dans lequel évolue cette organisation, ... Et son Analyse. L'analyse des organisations est une démarche ancienne dont les ...

  14. Meta-Analyses of Human Cell-Based Cardiac Regeneration Therapies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyöngyösi, Mariann; Wojakowski, Wojciech; Navarese, Eliano P

    2016-01-01

    outcome. A comprehensive review of the data collection, statistics, and the overall principles of meta-analyses provides further clarification and explanation for this controversy. The advantages and pitfalls of different types of meta-analyses are reviewed here. Each meta-analysis approach has a place...

  15. The comparison of classification analyses on the public opinion focus of biofuels based on twitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shianghau; Guo, Jiannjong

    2016-02-01

    The study combined with the text mining and classification methodology to investigate the biofuels related tweets on the social network so as to understand the general public opinion focus. The contribution of the study enclosed the subsequent two points. First, the study utilized the text mining method to explore the content of biofuels connected tweets on the famed social network "twitter" and found the main keywords consistent with their frequencies. Second, the study applied the Back Propagation Neural Network (BPN), random forests model and two sorts of hybrid algorithmclassification analyses to compare the classification results.

  16. mTransport: Two-point-correlation function calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Mafalda; Frazer, Jonathan; Seery, David

    2017-10-01

    mTransport computes the 2-point-correlation function of the curvature and tensor perturbations in multifield models of inflation in the presence of a curved field space. It is a Mathematica implementation of the transport method which encompasses scenarios with violations of slow-roll conditions and turns of the trajectory in field space. It can be used for an arbitrary mass spectrum, including massive modes, particle production and models with quasi-single-field dynamics.

  17. A two-point correlation function for Galactic halo stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cooper, A. P.; Cole, S.; Frenk, C. S.; Helmi, A.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a correlation function statistic that quantifies the amount of spatial and kinematic substructure in the stellar halo. We test this statistic using model stellar halo realizations constructed from the Aquarius suite of six high-resolution cosmological N-body simulations, in combination

  18. PHOTOJOURNALISM AND PROXIMITY IMAGES: two points of view, two professions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Thierry

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available For many decades, classic photojournalistic practice, firmly anchored in a creed established since Lewis Hine (1874-1940, has developed a praxis and a doxa that have barely been affected by the transformations in the various types of journalism. From the search for the “right image” which would be totally transparent by striving to refute its enunciative features from a perspective of maximumobjectivity, to the most seductive photography at supermarkets by photo agencies, the range of images seems to be decidedly framed. However, far from constituting high-powered reportingor excellent photography that is rewarded with numerous international prizes and invitations to the media-artistic world, local press photography remains in the shadows. How does oneoffer a representation of one’s self that can be shared in the local sphere? That is the first question which editors of the local daily and weekly press must grapple with. Using illustrations of the practices, this article proposes an examination of the origins ofthese practices and an analysis grounded on the originality of theauthors of these proximity photographs.

  19. Photojournalism and proximity images: two points of view, two professions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Thierry

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available For many decades, classic photojournalistic practice, firmly anchored in a creed established since Lewis Hine (1874-1940, has developed a praxis and a doxa that have barely been affected by the transformations in the various types of journalism. From the search for the “right image” which would be totally transparent by striving to refute its enunciative features from a perspective of maximumobjectivity, to the most seductive photography at supermarkets by photo agencies, the range of images seems to be decidedly framed. However, far from constituting high-powered reportingor excellent photography that is rewarded with numerous international prizes and invitations to the media-artistic world, local press photography remains in the shadows. How does oneoffer a representation of one’s self that can be shared in the local sphere? That is the first question which editors of the local daily and weekly press must grapple with. Using illustrations of the practices, this article proposes an examination of the origins ofthese practices and an analysis grounded on the originality of theauthors of these proximity photographs.

  20. Spline solutions for nonlinear two point boundary value problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riaz A. Usmani

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available Necessary formulas are developed for obtaining cubic, quartic, quintic, and sextic spline solutions of nonlinear boundary value problems. These methods enable us to approximate the solution of the boundary value problems, as well as their successive derivatives smoothly. Numerical evidence is included to demonstrate the relative performance of these four techniques.

  1. Direct approach for solving nonlinear evolution and two-point ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-12-01

    Dec 1, 2013 ... 1School of Mathematics and Applied Statistics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong,. NSW 2522 ... of problems in engineering and science, including the modelling of chemical reactions, heat transfer ...... [16] G E Pukhov, Differential transformations and mathematical modelling of physical processes.

  2. Advances in Simulation of Two Point Incremental Forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perezhyphen; Santiago, R.; Fiorentino, A.; Marzi, R.; Rodriguez, C. A.

    2011-05-01

    In addition to its technical and economical advantages, Incremental Sheet Forming (ISF) has been recognized as an environmentally friendlier process in comparison to its conventional counterparts. As a result, during the past two decades ISF has been the central topic of different research groups trying to overcome the barriers limiting its use as a widespread manufacturing process. Aiming to improve the geometrical accuracy of ISF, University of Brescia has been working with TPIF using both experimental and numerical approaches. Among others, an ISF process representative geometry has been the focus of previous studies where different parameters were varied in order to quantify their influence in the results. Besides the insight obtained from this strategy, a rich database of experimental results has been generated which allows to validate numerical models. Following this trend, the present work presents recent advances in the simulation of TPIF. Initially, numerical results were compared to experimental measurements in order to assess the robustness of the modeling technique. Finally, as a first step to improve the accuracy of numerical predictions, the influence of modeling parameters in the force results was investigated.

  3. Global solution branches of two point boundary value problems

    CERN Document Server

    Schaaf, Renate

    1990-01-01

    The book deals with parameter dependent problems of the form u"+*f(u)=0 on an interval with homogeneous Dirichlet or Neuman boundary conditions. These problems have a family of solution curves in the (u,*)-space. By examining the so-called time maps of the problem the shape of these curves is obtained which in turn leads to information about the number of solutions, the dimension of their unstable manifolds (regarded as stationary solutions of the corresponding parabolic prob- lem) as well as possible orbit connections between them. The methods used also yield results for the period map of certain Hamiltonian systems in the plane. The book will be of interest to researchers working in ordinary differential equations, partial differential equations and various fields of applications. By virtue of the elementary nature of the analytical tools used it can also be used as a text for undergraduate and graduate students with a good background in the theory of ordinary differential equations.

  4. Nursing supervision for care comprehensiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Lucieli Dias Pedreschi; Mininel, Vivian Aline; Silva, Jaqueline Alcântara Marcelino da; Alves, Larissa Roberta; Silva, Maria Ferreira da; Camelo, Silvia Helena Henriques

    2017-01-01

    To reflect on nursing supervision as a management tool for care comprehensiveness by nurses, considering its potential and limits in the current scenario. A reflective study based on discourse about nursing supervision, presenting theoretical and practical concepts and approaches. Limits on the exercise of supervision are related to the organization of healthcare services based on the functional and clinical model of care, in addition to possible gaps in the nurse training process and work overload. Regarding the potential, researchers emphasize that supervision is a tool for coordinating care and management actions, which may favor care comprehensiveness, and stimulate positive attitudes toward cooperation and contribution within teams, co-responsibility, and educational development at work. Nursing supervision may help enhance care comprehensiveness by implying continuous reflection on including the dynamics of the healthcare work process and user needs in care networks. refletir a supervisão de enfermagem como instrumento gerencial do enfermeiro para integralidade do cuidado, considerando suas potencialidades e limitações no cenário atual. estudo reflexivo baseado na formulação discursiva sobre a supervisão de enfermagem, apresentando conceitos e enfoques teóricos e/ou práticos. limitações no exercício da supervisão estão relacionadas à organização dos serviços de saúde embasada no modelo funcional e clínico de atenção, assim como possíveis lacunas no processo de formação do enfermeiro e sobrecarga de trabalho. Quanto às potencialidades, destaca-se a supervisão como instrumento de articulação de ações assistenciais e gerenciais, que pode favorecer integralidade da atenção, estimular atitudes de cooperação e colaboração em equipe, além da corresponsabilização e promoção da educação no trabalho. supervisão de enfermagem pode contribuir para fortalecimento da integralidade do cuidado, pressupondo reflexão cont

  5. Probability theory a comprehensive course

    CERN Document Server

    Klenke, Achim

    2014-01-01

    This second edition of the popular textbook contains a comprehensive course in modern probability theory. Overall, probabilistic concepts play an increasingly important role in mathematics, physics, biology, financial engineering and computer science. They help us in understanding magnetism, amorphous media, genetic diversity and the perils of random developments at financial markets, and they guide us in constructing more efficient algorithms.   To address these concepts, the title covers a wide variety of topics, many of which are not usually found in introductory textbooks, such as:   • limit theorems for sums of random variables • martingales • percolation • Markov chains and electrical networks • construction of stochastic processes • Poisson point process and infinite divisibility • large deviation principles and statistical physics • Brownian motion • stochastic integral and stochastic differential equations. The theory is developed rigorously and in a self-contained way, with the c...

  6. Disciplinary Fragmentation in Comprehensive Issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Erik Hagelskjær

    2004-01-01

    welfare of the population at large. This paper suggests that The Lake Bassin must be described and analyzed as a comprehensive issue which integrates an understanding of the uplands of the lake as more than watersheds. A literature surevey was performed searching major international research databases...... to social and economic factors are not subjects of specific analysis in the literature. They can to some extent be derived from the assumptions of the articles on environmental planning: Socio-economic data are available as statistics for the area, but they are not related to the concrete sources...... of environmental degradation of the lakes. Articles on environmental planning contain a more integrated understanding of the environmental degradation as a result of social activities. But also here the scope of the studies tend to be limited to the water related issues. The results of the literature survey...

  7. Building Information Modeling Comprehensive Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Kalinichuk

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The article is addressed to provide a comprehensive review on recently accelerated development of the Information Technology within project market such as industrial, engineering, procurement and construction. Author’s aim is to cover the last decades of the growth of the Information and Communication Technology in construction industry in particular Building Information Modeling and testifies that the problem of a choice of the effective project realization method not only has not lost its urgency, but has also transformed into one of the major condition of the intensive technology development. All of it has created a great impulse on shortening the project duration and has led to the development of various schedule compression techniques what becomes a focus of modern construction.

  8. Mitogenomic analyses from ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paijmans, Johanna L. A.; Gilbert, Tom; Hofreiter, Michael

    2013-01-01

    analyses (whether using modern or ancient DNA) were largely restricted to the analysis of short fragments of the mitochondrial genome. However, due to many technological advances during the past decade, a growing number of studies have explored the power of complete mitochondrial genome sequences......The analysis of ancient DNA is playing an increasingly important role in conservation genetic, phylogenetic and population genetic analyses, as it allows incorporating extinct species into DNA sequence trees and adds time depth to population genetics studies. For many years, these types of DNA...... (mitogenomes). Such studies were initially limited to analyses of extant organisms, but developments in both DNA sequencing technologies and general methodological aspects related to working with degraded DNA have resulted in complete mitogenomes becoming increasingly popular for ancient DNA studies as well...

  9. Subgame consistent cooperation a comprehensive treatise

    CERN Document Server

    Yeung, David W K

    2016-01-01

    Strategic behavior in the human and social world has been increasingly recognized in theory and practice. It is well known that non-cooperative behavior could lead to suboptimal or even highly undesirable outcomes. Cooperation suggests the possibility of obtaining socially optimal solutions and the calls for cooperation are prevalent in real-life problems. Dynamic cooperation cannot be sustainable if there is no guarantee that the agreed upon optimality principle at the beginning is maintained throughout the cooperation duration. It is due to the lack of this kind of guarantees that cooperative schemes fail to last till its end or even fail to get started. The property of subgame consistency in cooperative dynamic games and the corresponding solution mechanism resolve this “classic” problem in game theory. This book is a comprehensive treatise on subgame consistent dynamic cooperation covering the up-to-date state of the art analyses in this important topic. It sets out to provide the theory, solution tec...

  10. Comprehensive Assessments of Energy Balance in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobe, Justin L

    2017-01-01

    Increasing evidence supports a major role for the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in energy balance physiology. The RAS exists as a circulating system but also as a local paracrine/autocrine signaling mechanism in target tissues including the gastrointestinal tract, the brain, the kidney, and distinct adipose beds. Through activation of various receptors in these target tissues, the RAS contributes to the control of food intake behavior, digestive efficiency, spontaneous physical activity, and aerobic and anaerobic resting metabolism. Although the assortment of methodologies available to assess the various aspects of energy balance can be daunting for an investigator new to this area, a relatively straightforward array of entry-level and advanced methodologies can be employed to comprehensively and quantitatively dissect the effects of experimental manipulations on energy homeostasis. Such methodologies and a simple initial workflow for the use of these methods are described in this chapter, including the use of metabolic caging systems, bomb calorimetry, body composition analyzers, respirometry systems, and direct calorimetry systems. Finally, a brief discussion of the statistical analyses of metabolic data is included.

  11. Beskrivende analyse af mekaniske systemer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mogens Myrup; Hansen, Claus Thorp

    Descriptive analysis is the activity, where a given product is analysed for obtaining insight into different aspects, leading to an explicit description of each of these aspects. This textbook is worked out for course 72101 Produktanalyse (Analysis of products) given at DTU.......Descriptive analysis is the activity, where a given product is analysed for obtaining insight into different aspects, leading to an explicit description of each of these aspects. This textbook is worked out for course 72101 Produktanalyse (Analysis of products) given at DTU....

  12. An extensible analysable system model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probst, Christian W.; Hansen, Rene Rydhof

    2008-01-01

    , this does not hold for real physical systems. Approaches such as threat modelling try to target the formalisation of the real-world domain, but still are far from the rigid techniques available in security research. Many currently available approaches to assurance of critical infrastructure security......Analysing real-world systems for vulnerabilities with respect to security and safety threats is a difficult undertaking, not least due to a lack of availability of formalisations for those systems. While both formalisations and analyses can be found for artificial systems such as software...

  13. Oral morphosyntactic competence as a predictor of reading comprehension in children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buil-Legaz, Lucía; Aguilar-Mediavilla, Eva; Rodríguez-Ferreiro, Javier

    2016-07-01

    Children with a diagnosis of specific language impairment (SLI) present impaired oral comprehension. According to the simple view of reading, general amodal linguistic capacity accounts for both oral and reading comprehension. Considering this, we should expect SLI children to display a reading comprehension deficit. However, previous research regarding the association between reading disorders and SLI has yielded inconsistent results. To study the influence of prior oral comprehension competence over reading comprehension during the first years of reading acquisition of bilingual Catalan-Spanish children with SLI (ages 7-8). We assessed groups of bilingual Catalan-Spanish SLI and matched control children at ages 7 and 8 with standardized reading comprehension tasks including grammatical structures, sentence and text comprehension. Early oral competence and prior non-verbal intelligence were also measured and introduced into regression analyses with the participants' reading results in order to state the relation between the comprehension of oral and written material. Although we found no significant differences between the scores of our two participant groups in the reading tasks, data regarding their early oral competence, but not non-verbal intelligence measures, significantly influence their reading outcome. The results extend our knowledge regarding the course of literacy acquisition of children with SLI and provide evidence in support of the theories that assume common linguistic processes to be responsible for both oral and reading comprehension. © 2016 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  14. Working memory contributions to reading comprehension components in middle childhood children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysochoou, Elisavet; Bablekou, Zoe; Tsigilis, Nikolaos

    2011-01-01

    This study examined working memory contributions to reading comprehension subskills in Greek children (mean age 9 years, 1 month). The phonological loop of the Baddeley and Hitch working memory model was assessed with 3 recall tasks (words, nonwords, and digits) and a word list matching task. The central executive (CE) was assessed with 3 tasks (listening, counting, and backward digit recall). Participants were also given a receptive vocabulary task, a reading fluency task, and written stories accompanied by comprehension questions. Canonical correlation analyses showed that the comprehension variables were related to the CE rather than the phonological loop measures. CE functions were more strongly associated with elaborative inference generation (involving significant offline processing) and comprehension control (involving metacognitive monitoring). Smaller yet significant associations were observed between the CE and the necessary inference and literal comprehension measures, whereas a moderate relationship was found in the case of the simile comprehension variable. Among the CE variables, listening recall demonstrated the highest loading on the canonical function, followed by moderate yet significant counting and backward digit recall loadings. Vocabulary was found to fully mediate several associations between working memory and comprehension measures; however, the relationship between listening recall and elaborative inferences was partly mediated. Reading fluency and, on several occasions, Greek vocabulary knowledge did not mediate the relationships between CE measures and comprehension skills assessed. This study demonstrates the usefulness of CE measures for identifying young children's possible difficulties in carrying out specific reading comprehension processes.

  15. Automating Ultrasonic Vocalization Analyses: The WAAVES Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reno, James M.; Marker, Bryan; Cormack, Lawrence K.; Schallert, Timothy; Duvauchelle, Christine L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Human emotion is a crucial component of drug abuse and addiction. Ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) elicited by rodents are a highly translational animal model of emotion in drug abuse studies. A major roadblock to comprehensive use of USV data is the overwhelming burden to attain accurate USV assessment in a timely manner. One of the most accurate methods of analyzing USVs, human auditory detection with simultaneous spectrogram inspection, requires USV sound files to be played back 4% normal speed. New Method WAAVES (WAV-file Automated Analysis of Vocalizations Environment Specific) is an automated USV assessment program utilizing MATLAB’s Signal and Image Processing Toolboxes in conjunction with a series of customized filters to separate USV calls from background noise, and accurately tabulate and categorize USVs as flat or frequency-modulated (FM) calls. In the current report, WAAVES functionality is demonstrated by USV analyses of cocaine self-administration data collected over 10 daily sessions. Results WAAVES counts are significantly correlated with human auditory counts (r(48)=0.9925; p<0.001). Statistical analyses used WAAVES output to examine individual differences in USV responses to cocaine, cocaine-associated cues and relationships between USVs, cocaine intake and locomotor activity. Comparison with Existing Method WAAVES output is highly accurate and provides tabulated data in approximately 0.4% of the time required when using human auditory detection methods. Conclusions The development of a customized USV analysis program, such as WAAVES streamlines USV assessment and enhances the ability to utilize USVs as a tool to advance drug abuse research and ultimately develop effective treatments. PMID:23832016

  16. Does Modality Matter? The Effects of Reading, Listening, and Dual Modality on Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth A. Rogowsky

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available With advancing technology, there is increasing interest in differences between listening versus reading comprehension or doing both simultaneously. Ninety-one participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups that received the same instructional material (the preface and a chapter from a non-fiction book, but each in a different input modality (digital audiobook, e-text, dual modality. After completing the material, participants took the same comprehension test in written form to establish both immediate comprehension (Time 1 and 2-week retention (Time 2. No statistically significant differences were found for any analyses pertaining to effects of the three different instructional conditions on comprehension at Time 1 or Time 2. Additional analyses showed that both males and females in each condition recalled an equal amount of information, regardless of whether they listened to an audiobook, read from an electronic tablet, or both listened and read simultaneously (dual modality.

  17. Design and Analyses of Electromagnetic Microgenerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nibras Awaja

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new design of an electromagnetic microgenerator. The desgin aspects of the microgenerator comprises spring, coil and rear earth magnet have been addressed. The theoretical analyses of the electromagnetic microgenerator are established. Firstly, steady state analysis has been undertaken to determine the practical performance of the device. It is found that the generator will produce more power in applications with high frequency of vibration. Secondly, electromagnetic analysis is established to calculate the generated power on the load. It is found that the output power can be maximized when the impedance of the coil is less than the load impedance and when using a magnet with high magnetic field. Mechanical parameters like (damping factor, resonant frequency, proof mass and maximum displacement and magnetic parameters like (load resistance, coil resistance, and the magnetic field have been adjusted to optimize the output power through a comprehensive theoretical study. A range of microgenerator output power values are obtained in accordance with the consideration of the design parameters.

  18. Mitogenomic analyses from ancient DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paijmans, Johanna L A; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Hofreiter, Michael

    2013-11-01

    The analysis of ancient DNA is playing an increasingly important role in conservation genetic, phylogenetic and population genetic analyses, as it allows incorporating extinct species into DNA sequence trees and adds time depth to population genetics studies. For many years, these types of DNA analyses (whether using modern or ancient DNA) were largely restricted to the analysis of short fragments of the mitochondrial genome. However, due to many technological advances during the past decade, a growing number of studies have explored the power of complete mitochondrial genome sequences (mitogenomes). Such studies were initially limited to analyses of extant organisms, but developments in both DNA sequencing technologies and general methodological aspects related to working with degraded DNA have resulted in complete mitogenomes becoming increasingly popular for ancient DNA studies as well. To date, at least 124 partially or fully assembled mitogenomes from more than 20 species have been obtained, and, given the rapid progress in sequencing technology, this number is likely to dramatically increase in the future. The increased information content offered by analysing full mitogenomes has yielded major progress with regard to both the phylogenetic positions of extinct species, as well as resolving population genetics questions in both extinct and extant species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Descriptive Analyses of Mechanical Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mogens Myrup; Hansen, Claus Thorp

    2003-01-01

    Forord Produktanalyse og teknologianalyse kan gennmføres med et bredt socio-teknisk sigte med henblik på at forstå kulturelle, sociologiske, designmæssige, forretningsmæssige og mange andre forhold. Et delområde heri er systemisk analyse og beskrivelse af produkter og systemer. Nærværende kompend...

  20. Mitogenomic analyses of caniform relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnason, Ulfur; Gullberg, Anette; Janke, Axel; Kullberg, Morgan

    2007-12-01

    Extant members of the order Carnivora split into two basal groups, Caniformia (dog-like carnivorans) and Feliformia (cat-like carnivorans). In this study we address phylogenetic relationships within Caniformia applying various methodological approaches to analyses of complete mitochondrial genomes. Pinnipeds are currently well represented with respect to mitogenomic data and here we add seven mt genomes to the non-pinniped caniform collection. The analyses identified a basal caniform divergence between Cynoidea and Arctoidea. Arctoidea split into three primary groups, Ursidae (including the giant panda), Pinnipedia, and a branch, Musteloidea, which encompassed Ailuridae (red panda), Mephitidae (skunks), Procyonidae (raccoons) and Mustelidae (mustelids). The analyses favored a basal arctoid split between Ursidae and a branch containing Pinnipedia and Musteloidea. Within the Musteloidea there was a preference for a basal divergence between Ailuridae and remaining families. Among the latter, the analyses identified a sister group relationship between Mephitidae and a branch that contained Procyonidae and Mustelidae. The mitogenomic distance between the wolf and the dog was shown to be at the same level as that of basal human divergences. The wolf and the dog are commonly considered as separate species in the popular literature. The mitogenomic result is inconsistent with that understanding at the same time as it provides insight into the time of the domestication of the dog relative to basal human mitogenomic divergences.

  1. Evaluation "Risk analyses of agroparks"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ge, L.

    2011-01-01

    Dit TransForum project richt zich op analyse van de onzekerheden en mogelijkheden van agroparken. Dit heeft geleid tot een risicomodel dat de kwalitatieve en/of kwantitatieve onzekerheden van een agropark project in kaart brengt. Daarmee kunnen maatregelen en managementstrategiën worden

  2. Predictors of Reading Comprehension for Struggling Readers: The Case of Spanish-speaking Language Minority Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancilla-Martinez, Jeannette; Lesaux, Nonie K

    2010-08-01

    This longitudinal study examined the process of English reading comprehension at age 11 for 173 low achieving Spanish-speaking children. The influence of growth rates, from early childhood (age 4.5) to pre-adolescence (age 11), in vocabulary and word reading skills on this complex process were evaluated using structural equation modeling. Standardized measures of word reading accuracy and productive vocabulary were administered annually, in English and Spanish, and English reading comprehension measures were administered at age 11. Latent growth curve analyses revealed that English skills accounted for all unique variance in English reading comprehension outcomes. Further, expected developmental shifts in the influence of word reading and vocabulary skills over time were not shown, likely on account of students' below grade level reading comprehension achievement. This work underscores the need for theoretical models of comprehension to account for students' skill profiles and abilities.

  3. Culture and Comprehension: A Mixed Methods Study of Children's Responses to a Fictional Story about Interracial Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dray, Amy J.; Selman, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between early adolescents' understanding of social issues and their comprehension of a fictional story about interracial conflict. It combines qualitative and quantitative analyses to examine the ways in which social awareness and reading comprehension skills may be interrelated when children and adolescents…

  4. Silent Reading Fluency and Comprehension in Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Beth A.; Wallot, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on reading fluency by bilingual primary school students, and the relation of text fluency to their reading comprehension. Group differences were examined in a cross-sectional design across the age range when fluency is posed to shift from word-level to text-level. One hundred five bilingual children from primary grades 3, 4, and 5 were assessed for English word reading and decoding fluency, phonological awareness, rapid symbol naming, and oral language proficiency with standardized measures. These skills were correlated with their silent reading fluency on a self-paced story reading task. Text fluency was quantified using non-linear analytic methods: recurrence quantification and fractal analyses. Findings indicate that more fluent text reading appeared by grade 4, similar to monolingual findings, and that different aspects of fluency characterized passage reading performance at different grade levels. Text fluency and oral language proficiency emerged as significant predictors of reading comprehension. PMID:27630590

  5. Silent Reading Fluency and Comprehension in Bilingual Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Beth A; Wallot, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on reading fluency by bilingual primary school students, and the relation of text fluency to their reading comprehension. Group differences were examined in a cross-sectional design across the age range when fluency is posed to shift from word-level to text-level. One hundred five bilingual children from primary grades 3, 4, and 5 were assessed for English word reading and decoding fluency, phonological awareness, rapid symbol naming, and oral language proficiency with standardized measures. These skills were correlated with their silent reading fluency on a self-paced story reading task. Text fluency was quantified using non-linear analytic methods: recurrence quantification and fractal analyses. Findings indicate that more fluent text reading appeared by grade 4, similar to monolingual findings, and that different aspects of fluency characterized passage reading performance at different grade levels. Text fluency and oral language proficiency emerged as significant predictors of reading comprehension.

  6. Comprehensive energy management eco routing & velocity profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Brandstätter, Bernhard

    2017-01-01

    The book discusses the emerging topic of comprehensive energy management in electric vehicles from the viewpoint of academia and from the industrial perspective. It provides a seamless coverage of all relevant systems and control algorithms for comprehensive energy management, their integration on a multi-core system and their reliability assurance (validation and test). Relevant European projects contributing to the evolvement of comprehensive energy management in fully electric vehicles are also included.

  7. Comprehensive care for seniors in hospital

    OpenAIRE

    HRÁDKOVÁ, Lenka

    2017-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with the issue of Comprehensive care for seniors in hospital. The conception of this thesis is theoretically-empirical. The theoretical part is focused on the characteristics of old-age and changes that accompany it, on the concept of comprehensive care, workers who participate in complex care and comprehensive care in hospital reception and hospitalization. Subsequently, it is oriented towards peculiarities concerning communication with seniors, the nurse´s role in...

  8. Comprehensive approach to diabetic nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bancha Satirapoj

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy (DN is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with diabetes. This complication reflects a complex pathophysiology, whereby various genetic and environmental factors determine susceptibility and progression to end-stage renal disease. DN should be considered in patients with type 1 diabetes for at least 10 years who have microalbuminuria and diabetic retinopathy, as well as in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes with macroalbuminuria in whom other causes for proteinuria are absent. DN may also present as a falling estimated glomerular filtration rate with albuminuria as a minor presenting feature, especially in patients taking renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system inhibitors (RAASi. The pathological characteristic features of disease are three major lesions: diffuse mesangial expansion, diffuse thickened glomerular basement membrane, and hyalinosis of arterioles. Functionally, however, the pathophysiology is reflected in dysfunction of the mesangium, the glomerular capillary wall, the tubulointerstitium, and the vasculature. For all diabetic patients, a comprehensive approach to management including glycemic and hypertensive control with RAASi combined with lipid control, dietary salt restriction, lowering of protein intake, increased physical activity, weight reduction, and smoking cessation can reduce the rate of progression of nephropathy and minimize the risk for cardiovascular events. This review focuses on the latest published data dealing with the mechanisms, diagnosis, and current treatment of DN.

  9. Comprehensible visualization for augmented reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkofen, Denis; Mendez, Erick; Schmalstieg, Dieter

    2009-01-01

    This article presents interactive visualizations to support the comprehension of spatial relationships between virtual and real world objects for Augmented Reality (AR) applications. To enhance the clarity of such relationships we discuss visualization techniques and their suitability for AR. We apply them on different AR applications with different goals, e.g. in X-Ray vision or in applications which draw a user's attention to an object of interest. We demonstrate how Focus and Context (F+C) visualizations are used to affect the user's perception of hidden or nearby objects by presenting contextual information in the area of augmentation. We discuss the organization and the possible sources of data for visualizations in Augmented Reality and present cascaded and multi level F+C visualizations to address complex, cluttered scenes that are inevitable in real environments. This article also shows filters and tools to interactively control the amount of augmentation. It compares the impact of real world context preserving to a pure virtual and uniform enhancement of these structures for augmentations of real world imagery. Finally this paper discusses the stylization of sparse object representations for AR to improve X-Ray vision.

  10. Comprehensive school health in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veugelers, Paul J; Schwartz, Margaret E

    2010-01-01

    The Canadian education system is among the best in the world academically. In contrast, students' (children and youth) eating and activity levels are so poor that they have led to prevalence rates of overweight that are among the highest in the world. Given the enormous public health burden associated with poor nutrition and physical inactivity, Canada needs to address this health risk. Comprehensive school health (CSH) is a promising approach to promoting healthy eating and active living (HEAL). This article provides a review of CSH and discusses its four essential elements: 1) teaching and learning; 2) social and physical environments; 3) healthy school policy; and 4) partnerships and services. It also provides a common understanding of the implementation and broader benefits of CSH, which, in addition to health, include student learning and self-esteem. The article further discusses some complexities of a rigorous evaluation of CSH, which comprises proof of implementation, impact and positive outcome. Though such an evaluation has yet to be conducted, some studies did confirm successful implementation, and another study observed positive outcomes. Rigorous evaluation is urgently needed to provide a stronger evidence base of the benefits of CSH for learning, self-esteem and disease prevention. This evidence is essential to justify devoting more school time to promote HEAL and more resources to implement and support CSH to the benefit of both learning and health.

  11. Abdominopelvic washings: A comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika F Rodriguez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intraperitoneal spread may occur with gynecological epithelial neoplasms, as well as with non-gynecological malignancies, which may result in serosal involvement with or without concomitant effusion. Therefore, washings in patients with abdominopelvic tumors represent important specimens for cytologic examination. They are primarily utilized for staging ovarian cancers, although their role has decreased in staging of endometrial and cervical carcinoma. Abdominopelvic washings can be positive in a variety of pathologic conditions, including benign conditions, borderline neoplastic tumors, locally invasive tumors, or distant metastases. In a subset of cases, washings can be diagnostically challenging due to the presence of co-existing benign cells (e.g., mesothelial hyperplasia, endosalpingiosis, or endometriosis, lesions in which there is only minimal atypia (e.g., serous borderline tumors or scant atypical cells, and the rarity of specific tumor types (e.g., mesothelioma. Ancillary studies including immunocytochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization may be required in difficult cases to resolve the diagnosis. This article provides a comprehensive and contemporary review of abdominopelvic washings in the evaluation of gynecologic and non-gynecologic tumors, including primary peritoneal and mesothelial entities.

  12. CEDR: Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies have a long history of epidemiologic research programs. The main focus of these programs has been the Health and Mortality Study of the DOE work force. This epidemiologic study began in 1964 with a feasibility study of workers at the Hanford facility. Studies of other populations exposed to radiation have also been supported, including the classic epidemiologic study of radium dial painters and studies of atomic bomb survivors. From a scientific perspective, these epidemiologic research program have been productive, highly credible, and formed the bases for many radiological protection standards. Recently, there has been concern that, although research results were available, the data on which these results were based were not easily obtained by interested investigators outside DOE. Therefore, as part of an effort to integrate and broaden access to its epidemiologic information, the DOE has developed the Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR) Program. Included in this effort is the development of a computer information system for accessing the collection of CEDR data and its related descriptive information. The epidemiologic data currently available through the CEDAR Program consist of analytic data sets, working data sets, and their associated documentation files. In general, data sets are the result of epidemiologic studies that have been conducted on various groups of workers at different DOE facilities during the past 30 years.

  13. The Comprehensive Emergent Literacy Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh Rohde

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The early skills of Emergent Literacy include the knowledge and abilities related to the alphabet, phonological awareness, symbolic representation, and communication. However, existing models of emergent literacy focus on discrete skills and miss the perspective of the surrounding environment. Early literacy skills, including their relationship to one another, and the substantial impact of the setting and context, are critical in ensuring that children gain all of the preliminary skills and awareness they will need to become successful readers and writers. Research findings over the last few decades have led to a fuller understanding of all that emergent literacy includes, resulting in a need for a new, more comprehensive model. A new model, described in this article, strives to explain how emergent literacy can be viewed as an interactive process of skills and context rather than a linear series of individual components. Early literacy learning opportunities are more likely to happen when teachers have a solid knowledge base of emergent literacy and child development. Research has shown that preschool teachers with limited knowledge about literacy development are significantly less able to provide such experiences for children. Teachers will be better able to facilitate all of the components of emergent literacy if they have access to, and understanding of, a model that describes the components, their interactions, and the importance of environmental factors in supporting children.

  14. Swine Flu -A Comprehensive View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vandana; Sood, Meenakshi

    2012-07-01

    The present article is aimed on comprehensive view of Swine flu. It was first isolated from pigs in 1930 in USA. Pandemic caused by H1N1 in 2009 brought it in limelight. Itís a viral respiratory disease caused by viruses that infects pigs, resulting in nasal secretions, barking cough, decreased appetite, and listless behavior. Swine virus consist of eight RNA strands, one strand derived from human flu strains, two from avian (bird) strains, and five from swine strains. Swine flu spreads from infected person to healthy person by inhalation or ingestion of droplets contaminated with virus while sneezing or coughing. Two antiviral agents have been reported to help prevent or reduce the effects of swine flu, flu shot and nasal spray. WHO recommended for pandemic period to prevent its future outbreaks through vaccines or non-vaccines means. Antiviral drugs effective against this virus are Tamiflu and Relenza. Rapid antigen testing (RIDT), DFA testing, viral culture, and molecular testing (RT-PCR) are used for its diagnosis in laboratory

  15. Severe accident recriticality analyses (SARA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frid, W.; Højerup, C.F.; Lindholm, I.

    2001-01-01

    Recriticality in a BWR during reflooding of an overheated partly degraded core, i.e. with relocated control rods, has been studied for a total loss of electric power accident scenario. In order to assess the impact of recriticality on reactor safety, including accident management strategies...... three computer codes and to further develop and adapt them for the task. The codes were SIMULATE-3K, APROS and RECRIT. Recriticality analyses were carried out for a number of selected reflooding transients for the Oskarshamn 3 plant in Sweden with SIMULATE-3K and for the Olkiluoto I plant in Finland...... with all three codes. The core initial and boundary conditions prior to recriticality have been studied with the severe accident codes SCDAP/RELAP5, MELCOR and MAAP4. The results of the analyses show that all three codes predict recriticality-both super-prompt power bursts and quasi steady-state power...

  16. The CAMAC logic state analyser

    CERN Document Server

    Centro, Sandro

    1981-01-01

    Summary form only given, as follows. Large electronic experiments using distributed processors for parallel readout and data reduction need to analyse the data acquisition components status and monitor dead time constants of each active readout module and processor. For the UA1 experiment, a microprocessor-based CAMAC logic status analyser (CLSA) has been developed in order to implement these functions autonomously. CLSA is a single unit CAMAC module, able to record, up to 256 times, the logic status of 32 TTL inputs gated by a common clock, internal or external, with a maximum frequency of 2 MHz. The data stored in the internal CLSA memory can be read directly via CAMAC function or preprocessed by CLSA 6800 microprocessor. The 6800 resident firmware (4Kbyte) expands the module features to include an interactive monitor, data recording control, data reduction and histogram accumulation with statistics parameter evaluation. The microprocessor memory and the resident firmware can be externally extended using st...

  17. SITE COMPREHENSIVE LISTING (CERCLIS) (Superfund) - NPL Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — National Priorities List (NPL) Sites - The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) (Superfund) Public Access...

  18. Uncertainty in Operational Atmospheric Analyses and Re-Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langland, R.; Maue, R. N.

    2016-12-01

    This talk will describe uncertainty in atmospheric analyses of wind and temperature produced by operational forecast models and in re-analysis products. Because the "true" atmospheric state cannot be precisely quantified, there is necessarily error in every atmospheric analysis, and this error can be estimated by computing differences ( variance and bias) between analysis products produced at various centers (e.g., ECMWF, NCEP, U.S Navy, etc.) that use independent data assimilation procedures, somewhat different sets of atmospheric observations and forecast models with different resolutions, dynamical equations, and physical parameterizations. These estimates of analysis uncertainty provide a useful proxy to actual analysis error. For this study, we use a unique multi-year and multi-model data archive developed at NRL-Monterey. It will be shown that current uncertainty in atmospheric analyses is closely correlated with the geographic distribution of assimilated in-situ atmospheric observations, especially those provided by high-accuracy radiosonde and commercial aircraft observations. The lowest atmospheric analysis uncertainty is found over North America, Europe and Eastern Asia, which have the largest numbers of radiosonde and commercial aircraft observations. Analysis uncertainty is substantially larger (by factors of two to three times) in most of the Southern hemisphere, the North Pacific ocean, and under-developed nations of Africa and South America where there are few radiosonde or commercial aircraft data. It appears that in regions where atmospheric analyses depend primarily on satellite radiance observations, analysis uncertainty of both temperature and wind remains relatively high compared to values found over North America and Europe.

  19. Mitogenomic analyses of eutherian relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnason, U; Janke, A

    2002-01-01

    Reasonably correct phylogenies are fundamental to the testing of evolutionary hypotheses. Here, we present phylogenetic findings based on analyses of 67 complete mammalian mitochondrial (mt) genomes. The analyses, irrespective of whether they were performed at the amino acid (aa) level or on nucleotides (nt) of first and second codon positions, placed Erinaceomorpha (hedgehogs and their kin) as the sister group of remaining eutherians. Thus, the analyses separated Erinaceomorpha from other traditional lipotyphlans (e.g., tenrecs, moles, and shrews), making traditional Lipotyphla polyphyletic. Both the aa and nt data sets identified the two order-rich eutherian clades, the Cetferungulata (comprising Pholidota, Carnivora, Perissodactyla, Artiodactyla, and Cetacea) and the African clade (Tenrecomorpha, Macroscelidea, Tubulidentata, Hyracoidea, Proboscidea, and Sirenia). The study corroborated recent findings that have identified a sister-group relationship between Anthropoidea and Dermoptera (flying lemurs), thereby making our own order, Primates, a paraphyletic assembly. Molecular estimates using paleontologically well-established calibration points, placed the origin of most eutherian orders in Cretaceous times, 70-100 million years before present (MYBP). The same estimates place all primate divergences much earlier than traditionally believed. For example, the divergence between Homo and Pan is estimated to have taken place approximately 10 MYBP, a dating consistent with recent findings in primate paleontology. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  20. Providing traceability for neuroimaging analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClatchey, Richard; Branson, Andrew; Anjum, Ashiq; Bloodsworth, Peter; Habib, Irfan; Munir, Kamran; Shamdasani, Jetendr; Soomro, Kamran

    2013-09-01

    With the increasingly digital nature of biomedical data and as the complexity of analyses in medical research increases, the need for accurate information capture, traceability and accessibility has become crucial to medical researchers in the pursuance of their research goals. Grid- or Cloud-based technologies, often based on so-called Service Oriented Architectures (SOA), are increasingly being seen as viable solutions for managing distributed data and algorithms in the bio-medical domain. For neuroscientific analyses, especially those centred on complex image analysis, traceability of processes and datasets is essential but up to now this has not been captured in a manner that facilitates collaborative study. Few examples exist, of deployed medical systems based on Grids that provide the traceability of research data needed to facilitate complex analyses and none have been evaluated in practice. Over the past decade, we have been working with mammographers, paediatricians and neuroscientists in three generations of projects to provide the data management and provenance services now required for 21st century medical research. This paper outlines the finding of a requirements study and a resulting system architecture for the production of services to support neuroscientific studies of biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease. The paper proposes a software infrastructure and services that provide the foundation for such support. It introduces the use of the CRISTAL software to provide provenance management as one of a number of services delivered on a SOA, deployed to manage neuroimaging projects that have been studying biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease. In the neuGRID and N4U projects a Provenance Service has been delivered that captures and reconstructs the workflow information needed to facilitate researchers in conducting neuroimaging analyses. The software enables neuroscientists to track the evolution of workflows and datasets. It also tracks the outcomes of

  1. Correlates of lower comprehension of informed consent among participants enrolled in a cohort study in Pune, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joglekar, Neelam S.; Deshpande, Swapna S.; Sahay, Seema; Ghate, Manisha V.; Bollinger, Robert C.; Mehendale, Sanjay M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Optimum comprehension of informed consent by research participants is essential yet challenging. This study explored correlates of lower comprehension of informed consent among 1334 participants of a cohort study aimed at estimating HIV incidence in Pune, India. Methods As part of the informed consent process, a structured comprehension tool was administered to study participants. Participants scoring ≥90% were categorised into the ‘optimal comprehension group’, whilst those scoring 80–89% were categorised into the ‘lower comprehension group’. Data were analysed to identify sociodemographic and behavioural correlates of lower consent comprehension. Results The mean ± SD comprehension score was 94.4 ± 5.00%. Information pertaining to study-related risks was not comprehended by 61.7% of participants. HIV-negative men (adjusted OR [AOR] = 4.36, 95% CI 1.71–11.05) or HIV-negative women (AOR = 13.54, 95% CI 6.42–28.55), illiteracy (AOR= 1.65, 95% CI 1.19–2.30), those with a history of multiple partners (AOR = 1.73, 95% CI 1.12–2.66) and those never using condoms (AOR = 1.35, 95% CI 1.01–1.82) were more likely to have lower consent comprehension. Conclusions We recommend exploration of domains of lower consent comprehension using a validated consent comprehension tool. Improved education in these specific domains would optimise consent comprehension among research participants. PMID:24029848

  2. Methodological challenges in carbohydrate analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Beth Hall

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrates can provide up to 80% of the dry matter in animal diets, yet their specific evaluation for research and diet formulation is only now becoming a focus in the animal sciences. Partitioning of dietary carbohydrates for nutritional purposes should reflect differences in digestion and fermentation characteristics and effects on animal performance. Key challenges to designating nutritionally important carbohydrate fractions include classifying the carbohydrates in terms of nutritional characteristics, and selecting analytical methods that describe the desired fraction. The relative lack of information on digestion characteristics of various carbohydrates and their interactions with other fractions in diets means that fractions will not soon be perfectly established. Developing a system of carbohydrate analysis that could be used across animal species could enhance the utility of analyses and amount of data we can obtain on dietary effects of carbohydrates. Based on quantities present in diets and apparent effects on animal performance, some nutritionally important classes of carbohydrates that may be valuable to measure include sugars, starch, fructans, insoluble fiber, and soluble fiber. Essential to selection of methods for these fractions is agreement on precisely what carbohydrates should be included in each. Each of these fractions has analyses that could potentially be used to measure them, but most of the available methods have weaknesses that must be evaluated to see if they are fatal and the assay is unusable, or if the assay still may be made workable. Factors we must consider as we seek to analyze carbohydrates to describe diets: Does the assay accurately measure the desired fraction? Is the assay for research, regulatory, or field use (affects considerations of acceptable costs and throughput? What are acceptable accuracy and variability of measures? Is the assay robust (enhances accuracy of values? For some carbohydrates, we

  3. Comprehensive Chemical Characterisation of Byzantine Glass Weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schibille, Nadine; Meek, Andrew; Tobias, Bendeguz; Entwistle, Chris; Avisseau-Broustet, Mathilde; Da Mota, Henrique; Gratuze, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    The understanding of the glass trade in the first millennium CE relies on the characterisation of well-dated compositional groups and the identification of their primary production sites. 275 Byzantine glass weights from the British Museum and the Bibliothèque nationale de France dating to the sixth and seventh century were analysed by LA-ICP-MS. Multivariate statistical and graphical data analysis discriminated between six main primary glass types. Primary glass sources were differentiated based on multi-dimensional comparison of silica-derived elements (MgO, Al2O3, CaO, TiO2, Fe2O3, ZrO2) and components associated with the alkali source (Li2O, B2O3). Along with Egyptian and Levantine origins of the glassmaking sands, variations in the natron source possibly point to the exploitation of two different natron deposits. Differences in strontium to calcium ratios revealed variations in the carbonate fractions in the sand. At least two cobalt sources were employed as colouring agents, one of which shows strong correlations with nickel, indicating a specific post-Roman cobalt source. Typological evidence identified chronological developments in the use of the different glass groups. Throughout the sixth century, Byzantine glass weights were predominately produced from two glasses that are probably of an Egyptian origin (Foy-2 and Foy-2 high Fe). Towards the second half of the sixth century a new but related plant-ash glass type emerged (Magby). Levantine I was likewise found among the late sixth- to early seventh-century samples. The use of different dies for the same batch testifies to large-scale, centralised production of the weights, while the same die used for different primary production groups demonstrates the co-existence of alternative sources of supply. Given the comprehensive design of our study, these results can be extrapolated to the wider early Byzantine glass industry and its changes at large.

  4. Building Effective Collaboration in a Comprehensive Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essens, P.J.M.D.; Thompson, M.T.; Karrasch, A.; Jermalavičius, J.

    2016-01-01

    The Comprehensive Approach (CA) to crisis management operations is an essential element in NATO’s transformation in modern operations. At the Bucharest Summit in April 2008, Allied leaders endorsed an Action Plan for the development and implementation of NATO’s contribution to a Comprehensive

  5. The Effects of Reading Fluency on Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zugel, Kevin M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to examine the effects reading fluency has on reading comprehension. The analysis was done through a synthesis of recent literature on the topic. Research shows improvement in reading fluency does improve reading comprehension and suggests reading development similarities for all readers. This consistency in…

  6. University Students with Poor Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, George K.; Das, J. P.

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the nature of the working memory and general cognitive ability deficits experienced by university students with a specific reading comprehension deficit. A total of 32 university students with poor reading comprehension but average word-reading skills and 60 age-word-matched controls with no comprehension…

  7. Promoting Persistence through Comprehensive Student Supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, Rachel Pleasants; Soricone, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    This publication was developed to support the colleges Jobs For the Future (JFF) works with through Accelerating Opportunity, as well as other institutions in search of strategies to enhance their capacity to provide comprehensive supports. The goal of this paper is to provide clarity on what it means to provide comprehensive support services,…

  8. Financial planning on a comprehensive scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Simita

    2013-04-01

    Hospitals and health systems that wish to explore the shift to comprehensive care management should: Assess the investments in infrastructure necessary to support comprehensive care management, Gauge the financial implications and set quality and financial goals, Monitor performance using metrics such as patient satisfaction, avoidable admissions, out-of-group referrals, and average length of stay.

  9. Leadership Lessons from Comprehensive School Reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Joseph, Ed.; Datnow, Amanda, Ed.

    This volume explores the role of leadership in comprehensive school reform (CSR). It consists of 12 chapters: (1) "The Development of Comprehensive School Reform" (Joseph Murphy and Amanda Datnow); (2) "Expeditionary Learning Schools: Tenacity, Leadership, and School Reform" (Greg Farrell); (3) "The Modern Red School…

  10. Changing Student Teachers' Views of Comprehension Instruction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reasons seem to include a lack of proper teacher training in comprehension instruction, teachers remaining unconvinced about the value of strategy instruction, and concerns that strategy instruction is time consuming and difficult to learn and teach. This article reports on the effect of a reading comprehension instruction ...

  11. Reading Comprehension in Children with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Glynis; Brown, Heather; Main, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Two studies aimed to investigate the reading comprehension abilities of 14 readers with Down syndrome aged 6 years 8 months to 13 years relative to those of typically developing children matched on word reading ability, and to investigate how these abilities were associated with reading accuracy, listening comprehension, phonological awareness and…

  12. Reading Comprehension Instruction Practices in Sierra Leone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hersbach, S.; Denessen, E.J.P.G.; Droop, W.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: In this study an attempt was made to give insight in the way reading comprehension is taught in Sierra Leone. Attention was paid to the didactical strategies and the materials used during reading comprehension instruction. Methodology: Primary school teachers in Sierra Leone (N=43) were

  13. Optimizing Visually-Assisted Listening Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashani, Ahmad Sabouri; Sajjadi, Samad; Sohrabi, Mohammad Reza; Younespour, Shima

    2011-01-01

    The fact that visual aids such as pictures or graphs can lead to greater comprehension by language learners has been well established. Nonetheless, the order of presenting visuals to listeners is left unattended. This study examined listening comprehension from a strategy of introducing visual information, either prior to or during an audio…

  14. Binding in agrammatic aphasia: Processing to comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janet Choy, Jungwon; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2010-01-01

    Background Theories of comprehension deficits in Broca’s aphasia have largely been based on the pattern of deficit found with movement constructions. However, some studies have found comprehension deficits with binding constructions, which do not involve movement. Aims This study investigates online processing and offline comprehension of binding constructions, such as reflexive (e.g., himself) and pronoun (e.g., him) constructions in unimpaired and aphasic individuals in an attempt to evaluate theories of agrammatic comprehension. Methods & Procedures Participants were eight individuals with agrammatic Broca’s aphasia and eight age-matched unimpaired individuals. We used eyetracking to examine online processing of binding constructions while participants listened to stories. Offline comprehension was also tested. Outcomes & Results The eye movement data showed that individuals with Broca’s aphasia were able to automatically process the correct antecedent of reflexives and pronouns. In addition, their syntactic processing of binding was not delayed compared to normal controls. Nevertheless, offline comprehension of both pronouns and reflexives was significantly impaired compared to the control participants. This comprehension failure was reflected in the aphasic participants’ eye movements at sentence end, where fixations to the competitor increased. Conclusions These data suggest that comprehension difficulties with binding constructions seen in agrammatic aphasic patients are not due to a deficit in automatic syntactic processing or delayed processing. Rather, they point to a possible deficit in lexical integration. PMID:20535243

  15. LISTENING COMPREHENSION AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE SKILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Інна Шимків

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article reveals the basic features of listening comprehensive that are very constituent of communicative activity; listening comprehensive is analyzed, and attention is concentrated on the importance of its development in the teaching of future specialists. The nature of listening comprehension as a foreign-language skill is considered. Essential features of neuro-linguistic programming strategies used to teach listening are outlined. The system of teaching listening and its major levels are analyzed within the framework of communicative language teaching. The structural characteristics of listening comprehension on the basis of its psychophysiological mechanisms are elucidated. Listening comprehension difficulties caused by the physical settings are determined. Phonetic, lexical and grammatical problems encountered in listening are identified. It has been proved that both linguistic and non-linguistic types of knowledge, as well as various factors of communicative situation are essential for efficient listening comprehension. The characteristic features of handouts and worksheets used to overcome listening comprehension difficulties are defined. The study concludes with the integral part of listening comprehension in second language instruction and the need to improve the receptive mechanisms ensuring the efficiency of teaching listening.

  16. Profiling classroom reading comprehension development practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To shed light on potential reasons for learners' reading comprehension difficulties, this article presents selected findings on teachers' reading comprehension development practices emanating from the investigation of one KwaZulu-Natal and five Gauteng province case study schools from the national South African PIRLS ...

  17. Comprehensive Education Portfolio with a Career Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Evonne J.; Holtzman, Diane M.; Dagavarian, Debra A.

    2013-01-01

    There are many types of student portfolios used within academia: the prior learning portfolio, credentialing portfolio, developmental portfolio, capstone portfolio, individual course portfolio, and the comprehensive education portfolio. The comprehensive education portfolio (CEP), as used by the authors, is a student portfolio, developed over…

  18. Informed consent comprehension in African research settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afolabi, Muhammed O; Okebe, Joseph U; McGrath, Nuala; Larson, Heidi J; Bojang, Kalifa; Chandramohan, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    Previous reviews on participants' comprehension of informed consent information have focused on developed countries. Experience has shown that ethical standards developed on Western values may not be appropriate for African settings where research concepts are unfamiliar. We undertook this review to describe how informed consent comprehension is defined and measured in African research settings. We conducted a comprehensive search involving five electronic databases: Medline, Embase, Global Health, EthxWeb and Bioethics Literature Database (BELIT). We also examined African Index Medicus and Google Scholar for relevant publications on informed consent comprehension in clinical studies conducted in sub-Saharan Africa. 29 studies satisfied the inclusion criteria; meta-analysis was possible in 21 studies. We further conducted a direct comparison of participants' comprehension on domains of informed consent in all eligible studies. Comprehension of key concepts of informed consent varies considerably from country to country and depends on the nature and complexity of the study. Meta-analysis showed that 47% of a total of 1633 participants across four studies demonstrated comprehension about randomisation (95% CI 13.9-80.9%). Similarly, 48% of 3946 participants in six studies had understanding about placebo (95% CI 19.0-77.5%), while only 30% of 753 participants in five studies understood the concept of therapeutic misconception (95% CI 4.6-66.7%). Measurement tools for informed consent comprehension were developed with little or no validation. Assessment of comprehension was carried out at variable times after disclosure of study information. No uniform definition of informed consent comprehension exists to form the basis for development of an appropriate tool to measure comprehension in African participants. Comprehension of key concepts of informed consent is poor among study participants across Africa. There is a vital need to develop a uniform definition for

  19. Statistical Analyses of Digital Collections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Tove Faber; Nicolaisen, Jeppe

    2016-01-01

    Using statistical methods to analyse digital material for patterns makes it possible to detect patterns in big data that we would otherwise not be able to detect. This paper seeks to exemplify this fact by statistically analysing a large corpus of references in systematic reviews. The aim...... of the analysis is to study the phenomenon of non-citation: Situations where just one (or some) document(s) are cited from a pool of otherwise equally citable documents. The study is based on more than 120,000 cited studies, and a total number of non-cited studies of more than 1.6 million. The number of cited...... 10 years. After 10 years the cited and non-cited studies tend to be more similar in terms of age. Separating the data set into different sub-disciplines reveals that the sub-disciplines vary in terms of age of cited vs. non-cited references. Some fields may be expanding and the number of published...

  20. Analysing Old Testament poetry: Basic issues in contemporary exegesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. T. M. Prinsloo

    1991-08-01

    Full Text Available The wealth of publications on matters relating to Old Testament poetry is witness to the fact that this subject has become a focal point in Old Testament studies. In this paper, an overview of contemporary publications is given. The basic issues, both on the level of poetic theory and practical application, are pointed out. A tendency towards a comprehensive literary approach is definitely present and should be encouraged. Only when a poem is analysed on all levels and by all means, will the richness of its meaning be appreciated.

  1. How working memory relates to children's reading comprehension: the importance of domain-specificity in storage and processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouwens, Suzan; Groen, Margriet A; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2017-01-01

    Working memory is considered a well-established predictor of individual variation in reading comprehension in children and adults. However, how storage and processing capacities of working memory in both the phonological and semantic domain relate to reading comprehension is still unclear. In the current study, we investigated the contribution of phonological and semantic storage, and phonological and semantic processing to reading comprehension in 123 Dutch children in fifth grade. We conducted regression and mediation analyses to find out to what extent variation in reading comprehension could be explained by storage and processing capacities in both the phonological and the semantic domain, while controlling for children's decoding and vocabulary. The analyses included tasks that reflect storage only, and working memory tasks that assess processing in addition to storage. Regression analysis including only storage tasks as predictor measures, revealed semantic storage to be a better predictor of reading comprehension than phonological storage. Adding phonological and semantic working memory tasks as additional predictors to the model showed that semantic working memory explained individual variation in reading comprehension over and above all other memory measures. Additional mediation analysis made it clear that semantic storage contributed indirectly to reading comprehension via semantic working memory, indicating that semantic storage tapped by working memory, in addition to processing capacities, explains individual variation in reading comprehension. It can thus be concluded that semantic storage plays a more important role in children's reading comprehension than previously thought.

  2. Analysing ESP Texts, but How?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borza Natalia

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available English as a second language (ESL teachers instructing general English and English for specific purposes (ESP in bilingual secondary schools face various challenges when it comes to choosing the main linguistic foci of language preparatory courses enabling non-native students to study academic subjects in English. ESL teachers intending to analyse English language subject textbooks written for secondary school students with the aim of gaining information about what bilingual secondary school students need to know in terms of language to process academic textbooks cannot avoiding deal with a dilemma. It needs to be decided which way it is most appropriate to analyse the texts in question. Handbooks of English applied linguistics are not immensely helpful with regard to this problem as they tend not to give recommendation as to which major text analytical approaches are advisable to follow in a pre-college setting. The present theoretical research aims to address this lacuna. Respectively, the purpose of this pedagogically motivated theoretical paper is to investigate two major approaches of ESP text analysis, the register and the genre analysis, in order to find the more suitable one for exploring the language use of secondary school subject texts from the point of view of an English as a second language teacher. Comparing and contrasting the merits and limitations of the two contrastive approaches allows for a better understanding of the nature of the two different perspectives of text analysis. The study examines the goals, the scope of analysis, and the achievements of the register perspective and those of the genre approach alike. The paper also investigates and reviews in detail the starkly different methods of ESP text analysis applied by the two perspectives. Discovering text analysis from a theoretical and methodological angle supports a practical aspect of English teaching, namely making an informed choice when setting out to analyse

  3. Calibration of a reading comprehension test for Portuguese students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Cadime

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Reading comprehension assessments are important for determining which students are performing below the expected levels for their grade's normative group. However, instruments measuring this competency should also be able to assess students' gains in reading comprehension as they move from one grade to the next. In this paper, we present the construction and calibration process of three vertically scaled test forms of an original reading comprehension test to assess second, third and fourth grade students. A sample of 843 students was used. Rasch model analyses were employed during the following three phases of this study: (a analysis of the items' pool, (b item selection for the test forms, and (c test forms' calibration. Results suggest that a one dimension structure underlies the data. Mean-square residuals (infit and outfit indicated that the data fitted the model. Thirty items were assigned to each test form, by selecting the most adequate items for each grade in terms of difficulty. The reliability coefficients for each test form were high. Limitations and potentialities of the developed test forms are discussed.

  4. Haemodynamic and electrophysiological markers of pragmatic language comprehension in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Sabrina; Wagels, Lisa; Haeussinger, Florian B; Fallgatter, Andreas J; Ehlis, Ann-Christine; Rapp, Alexander M

    2015-03-30

    The present study aimed at investigating neurophysiological markers of language perception in schizophrenia using simultaneous near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and event-related potentials (ERPs), which have been proven to be useful for studying language processing abilities in psychiatric patients. The study shall help to integrate previous findings from ERP and fMRI studies on figurative language comprehension in schizophrenia and elucidate how electrophysiological and haemodynamic markers of language processing are related. Twenty-two healthy subjects and 22 schizophrenia patients judged 120 sentences regarding their meaningfulness. Phrases were literal, metaphoric, or meaningless. EEG-fNIRS signals were recorded throughout the entire experiment. Schizophrenia patients showed deficient and delayed sentence comprehension. Both the early N400 and left-hemispheric activation during language comprehension were altered in patients. Correlation analyses showed that metaphor-related ERPs were strongly linked to haemodynamic cortical activity in healthy subjects, but not in patients. Our results indicate group differences in cortical electrophysiological and haemodynamic activation that represent rather general impairments in the processing of complex language. Simultaneous EEG/NIRS applications are useful to depict these neural markers and to investigate their relationship. Future studies are needed to clarify the nature of respective anomalies and their potential as putative neural markers in schizophrenia research.

  5. HGCal Simulation Analyses for CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Bruno, Sarah Marie

    2015-01-01

    This summer, I approached the topic of fast-timing detection of photons from Higgs decays via simulation analyses, working under the supervision of Dr. Adolf Bornheim of the California Institute of Technology. My specific project focused on simulating the high granularity calorimeter for the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment. CMS detects particles using calorimeters. The Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECal) is arranged cylindrically to form a barrel section and two “endcaps.” Previously, both the barrel and endcap have employed lead tungstate crystal detectors, known as the “shashlik” design. The crystal detectors, however, rapidly degrade from exposure to radiation. This effect is most pronounced in the endcaps. To avoid the high expense of frequently replacing degraded detectors, it was recently decided to eliminate the endcap crystals in favor of an arrangement of silicon detectors known as the “High Granularity Calorimeter” (HGCal), while leaving the barrel detector technology unchanged. T...

  6. Analysing performance through value creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian TRIFAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper draws a parallel between measuring financial performance in 2 variants: the first one using data offered by accounting, which lays emphasis on maximizing profit, and the second one which aims to create value. The traditional approach to performance is based on some indicators from accounting data: ROI, ROE, EPS. The traditional management, based on analysing the data from accounting, has shown its limits, and a new approach is needed, based on creating value. The evaluation of value based performance tries to avoid the errors due to accounting data, by using other specific indicators: EVA, MVA, TSR, CVA. The main objective is shifted from maximizing the income to maximizing the value created for shareholders. The theoretical part is accompanied by a practical analysis regarding the creation of value and an analysis of the main indicators which evaluate this concept.

  7. Retorisk analyse af historiske tekster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Christian Erik J

    2014-01-01

    scholars who identify themselves as rhetoricians tend to define and conduct such an analysis. It is argued that while rhetoricians would sympathize with Skinner’s adoption of speech act theory in his reading of historical documents, they would generally extend their rhetorical readings of such documents......In recent years, rhetoric and the rhetorical tradition has attracted increasing interest from historians, such as, e.g., Quentin Skinner. The paper aims to explain and illustrate what may be understood by a rhetorical analysis (or “rhetorical criticism”) of historical documents, i.e., how those...... to many more features than just the key concepts invoked in them. The paper discusses examples of rhetorical analyses done by prominent contemporary rhetoricians, including Edwin Black, Kenneth Burke, Maurice Charland, and Michael Leff. It relates its view of rhetorical documents to trends in current...

  8. Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analyses Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, J.C.; Ramsdell, J.V. Jr.

    1993-04-01

    Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project staff are developing mathematical models to be used to estimate the radiation dose that individuals may have received as a result of emissions since 1944 from the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. An uncertainty and sensitivity analyses plan is essential to understand and interpret the predictions from these mathematical models. This is especially true in the case of the HEDR models where the values of many parameters are unknown. This plan gives a thorough documentation of the uncertainty and hierarchical sensitivity analysis methods recommended for use on all HEDR mathematical models. The documentation includes both technical definitions and examples. In addition, an extensive demonstration of the uncertainty and sensitivity analysis process is provided using actual results from the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Integrated Codes (HEDRIC). This demonstration shows how the approaches used in the recommended plan can be adapted for all dose predictions in the HEDR Project.

  9. Analysing the Wrongness of Killing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an in-depth analysis of the wrongness of killing by comparing different versions of three influential views: the traditional view that killing is always wrong; the liberal view that killing is wrong if and only if the victim does not want to be killed; and Don Marquis‟ future...... of value account of the wrongness of killing. In particular, I illustrate the advantages that a basic version of the liberal view and a basic version of the future of value account have over competing alternatives. Still, ultimately none of the views analysed here are satisfactory; but the different...... reasons why those competing views fail provide important insights into the ethics of killing....

  10. Analysing Protocol Stacks for Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Han; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2011-01-01

    We show an approach, CaPiTo, to model service-oriented applications using process algebras such that, on the one hand, we can achieve a certain level of abstraction without being overwhelmed by the underlying implementation details and, on the other hand, we respect the concrete industrial...... standards used for implementing the service-oriented applications. By doing so, we will be able to not only reason about applications at different levels of abstractions, but also to build a bridge between the views of researchers on formal methods and developers in industry. We apply our approach...... to the financial case study taken from Chapter 0-3. Finally, we develop a static analysis to analyse the security properties as they emerge at the level of concrete industrial protocols....

  11. THOR Turbulence Electron Analyser: TEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazakerley, Andrew; Samara, Marilia; Hancock, Barry; Wicks, Robert; Moore, Tom; Rust, Duncan; Jones, Jonathan; Saito, Yoshifumi; Pollock, Craig; Owen, Chris; Rae, Jonny

    2017-04-01

    Turbulence Heating ObserveR (THOR) is the first mission ever flown in space dedicated to plasma turbulence. The Turbulence Electron Analyser (TEA) will measure the plasma electron populations in the mission's Regions of Interest. It will collect a 3D electron velocity distribution with cadences as short as 5 ms. The instrument will be capable of measuring energies up to 30 keV. TEA consists of multiple electrostatic analyser heads arranged so as to measure electrons arriving from look directions covering the full sky, i.e. 4 pi solid angle. The baseline concept is similar to the successful FPI-DES instrument currently operating on the MMS mission. TEA is intended to have a similar angular resolution, but a larger geometric factor. In comparison to earlier missions, TEA improves on the measurement cadence. For example, MMS FPI-DES routinely operates at 30 ms cadence. The objective of measuring distributions at rates as fast as 5 ms is driven by the mission's scientific requirements to resolve electron gyroscale size structures, where plasma heating and fluctuation dissipation is predicted to occur. TEA will therefore be capable of making measurements of the evolution of distribution functions across thin (a few km) current sheets travelling past the spacecraft at up to 600 km/s, of the Power Spectral Density of fluctuations of electron moments and of distributions fast enough to match frequencies with waves expected to be dissipating turbulence (e.g. with 100 Hz whistler waves). A novel capability to time tag individual electron events during short intervals for the purposes of ground analysis of wave-particle interactions is also planned.

  12. Test Differences in Diagnosing Reading Comprehension Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Janice M.; Meenan, Chelsea E.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the implications of test differences for defining and diagnosing comprehension deficits using reading comprehension tests. We had 995 children complete the Gray Oral Reading Test-3, the Qualitative Reading Inventory-3, the Woodcock-Johnson Passage Comprehension-3, and the Peabody Individual Achievement Test, and compared which children were identified by each test as being in the lowest 10%. Although a child who performs so poorly might be expected to do poorly on all tests, we found that the average overlap between tests in diagnosing comprehension difficulties was only 43%. Consistency in diagnosis was greater for younger children, when comprehension deficits are due to weaker decoding skills, than for older children. Inconsistencies between tests were just as evident when identifying the top performers. The different children identified as having a comprehension deficit by each test were compared on four profile variables - word decoding skill, IQ, ADHD symptoms, and working memory skill – to understand the nature of the different deficits assessed by each test. Theoretical and practical implications of these test differences in defining and diagnosing comprehension deficits are discussed. PMID:22442251

  13. Neoliberalism in education: Five images of critical analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav Pupala

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The survey study brings information about the way that educational researchcopes with neoliberalism as a generalized form of social government in the currentwestern culture. It shows that neoliberalism is considered as a universal scope of otherchanges in the basic segments of education and those theoretical and critical analyses ofthis phenomenon represent an important part of production in the area of educationalresearch. It emphasizes the contribution of formation and development of the socalledgovernmental studies for comprehension of mechanisms and consequences ofneoliberal government of the society and shows how way the methodology of thesestudies helps to identify neoliberal strategies used in the regulation of social subjectsby education. There are five selected segments of critical analyses elaborated (fromthe concept of a lifelong learning, through preschool and university education to theeducation of teachers and PISA project that obviously show ideological and theoreticalcohesiveness of the education analysis through the scope of neoliberal governmentality.

  14. Metabolomics Analyses of Cancer Cells in Controlled Microenvironments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravel, Simon-Pierre; Avizonis, Daina; St-Pierre, Julie

    2016-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment is a complex and heterogeneous milieu in which cancer cells undergo metabolic reprogramming to fuel their growth. Cancer cell lines grown in vitro using traditional culture methods represent key experimental models to gain a mechanistic understanding of tumor biology. This protocol describes the use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to assess metabolic changes in cancer cells grown under varied levels of oxygen and nutrients that may better mimic the tumor microenvironment. Intracellular metabolite changes, metabolite uptake and release, as well as stable isotope ((13)C) tracer analyses are done in a single experimental setup to provide an integrated understanding of metabolic adaptation. Overall, this chapter describes some essential tools and methods to perform comprehensive metabolomics analyses.

  15. The Wernicke conundrum and the anatomy of language comprehension in primary progressive aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesulam, M-Marsel; Thompson, Cynthia K; Weintraub, Sandra; Rogalski, Emily J

    2015-08-01

    Wernicke's aphasia is characterized by severe word and sentence comprehension impairments. The location of the underlying lesion site, known as Wernicke's area, remains controversial. Questions related to this controversy were addressed in 72 patients with primary progressive aphasia who collectively displayed a wide spectrum of cortical atrophy sites and language impairment patterns. Clinico-anatomical correlations were explored at the individual and group levels. These analyses showed that neuronal loss in temporoparietal areas, traditionally included within Wernicke's area, leave single word comprehension intact and cause inconsistent impairments of sentence comprehension. The most severe sentence comprehension impairments were associated with a heterogeneous set of cortical atrophy sites variably encompassing temporoparietal components of Wernicke's area, Broca's area, and dorsal premotor cortex. Severe comprehension impairments for single words, on the other hand, were invariably associated with peak atrophy sites in the left temporal pole and adjacent anterior temporal cortex, a pattern of atrophy that left sentence comprehension intact. These results show that the neural substrates of word and sentence comprehension are dissociable and that a circumscribed cortical area equally critical for word and sentence comprehension is unlikely to exist anywhere in the cerebral cortex. Reports of combined word and sentence comprehension impairments in Wernicke's aphasia come almost exclusively from patients with cerebrovascular accidents where brain damage extends into subcortical white matter. The syndrome of Wernicke's aphasia is thus likely to reflect damage not only to the cerebral cortex but also to underlying axonal pathways, leading to strategic cortico-cortical disconnections within the language network. The results of this investigation further reinforce the conclusion that the left anterior temporal lobe, a region ignored by classic aphasiology, needs to be

  16. Genetic analyses of captive Alala (Corvus hawaiiensis) using AFLP analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvi, Susan I.; Bianchi, Kiara R.

    2006-01-01

    affected by the mutation rate at microsatellite loci, thus introducing a bias. Also, the number of loci that can be studied is frequently limited to fewer than 10. This theoretically represents a maximum of one marker for each of 10 chromosomes. Dominant markers like AFLP allow a larger fraction of the genome to be screened. Large numbers of loci can be screened by AFLP to resolve very small individual differences that can be used for identification of individuals, estimates of pairwise relatedness and, in some cases, for parentage analyses. Since AFLP is a dominant marker (can not distinguish between +/+ homozygote versus +/- heterozygote), it has limitations for parentage analyses. Only when both parents are homozygous for the absence of alleles (-/-) and offspring show a presence (+/+ or +/-) can the parents be excluded. In this case, microsatellites become preferable as they have the potential to exclude individual parents when the other parent is unknown. Another limitation of AFLP is that the loci are generally less polymorphic (only two alleles/locus) than microsatellite loci (often >10 alleles/locus). While generally fewer than 10 highly polymorphic microsatellite loci are enough to exclude and assign parentage, it might require up to 100 or more AFLP loci. While there are pros and cons to different methodologies, the total number of loci evaluated by AFLP generally offsets the limitations imposed due to the dominant nature of this approach and end results between methods are generally comparable. Overall objectives of this study were to evaluate the level of genetic diversity in the captive population of Alala, to compare genetic data with currently available pedigree information, and to determine the extent of relatedness of mating pairs and among founding individuals.

  17. Numbers and prior knowledge in sentence comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Macizo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated whether the comprehension of sentences that contained numerical information could benefit from presenting numbers in Arabic format and from using prior knowledge. Participants read sentences including numbers (Arabic digits or number words while the comprehension accuracy was evaluated. In addition, the sentences were biased or unbiased by people's prior knowledge about quantities. The results showed better comprehension for sentences that contained Arabic digits as compared to number words. Moreover, biased sentences were understood more accurately than unbiased sentences. These results indicate that information about magnitude in sentence context is comprehended better when quantities are presented in Arabic format and when they are associated with participants' world knowledge.

  18. Mental maps in memory retrieval and comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curiel, Jacqueline M; Radvansky, Gabriel A

    2002-03-01

    How do people use spatial information stored in maps? This question has been explored in a number of domains, such as memory and language comprehension, with differing results. Some studies of how experimentally learned maps are organised in memory, using primed recognition, have found temporal information to influence mental map organisation. In contrast, studies of narrative comprehension, using probe identification and anaphoric reading times, have observed spatial effects. This study combines these two research traditions and shows that the organisation observed in long-term memory differs from the organisation in narrative comprehension, even when both tasks refer to the same map.

  19. Lexical decision as an endophenotype for reading comprehension: an exploration of an association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naples, Adam; Katz, Len; Grigorenko, Elena L

    2012-11-01

    Based on numerous suggestions in the literature, we evaluated lexical decision (LD) as a putative endophenotype for reading comprehension by investigating heritability estimates and segregation analyses parameter estimates for both of these phenotypes. Specifically, in a segregation analysis of a large sample of families, we established that there is little to no overlap between genes contributing to LD and reading comprehension and that the genetic mechanism behind LD derived from this analysis appears to be more complex than that for reading comprehension. We conclude that in our sample, LD is not a good candidate as an endophenotype for reading comprehension, despite previous suggestions from the literature. Based on this conclusion, we discuss the role and benefit of the endophenotype approach in studies of complex human cognitive functions.

  20. Lexical decision as an endophenotype for reading comprehension: An exploration of an association

    Science.gov (United States)

    NAPLES, ADAM; KATZ, LEN; GRIGORENKO, ELENA L.

    2012-01-01

    Based on numerous suggestions in the literature, we evaluated lexical decision (LD) as a putative endophenotype for reading comprehension by investigating heritability estimates and segregation analyses parameter estimates for both of these phenotypes. Specifically, in a segregation analysis of a large sample of families, we established that there is little to no overlap between genes contributing to LD and reading comprehension and that the genetic mechanism behind LD derived from this analysis appears to be more complex than that for reading comprehension. We conclude that in our sample, LD is not a good candidate as an endophenotype for reading comprehension, despite previous suggestions from the literature. Based on this conclusion, we discuss the role and benefit of the endophenotype approach in studies of complex human cognitive functions. PMID:23062302

  1. Early-adolescents' reading comprehension and the stability of the middle school classroom-language environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gámez, Perla B; Lesaux, Nonie K

    2015-04-01

    This study examined teachers' language use across the school year in 6th grade urban middle-school classrooms (n = 24) and investigated the influence of this classroom-based linguistic input on the reading comprehension skills of the students (n = 851; 599 language minority learners and 252 English-only) in the participating classrooms. Analysis of speech transcripts revealed substantial variability in teachers' use of sophisticated vocabulary and total amount of talk and that individual teacher's language use was consistent across the school year. Analyses using Hierarchical Linear Modeling showed that when controlling for students' reading comprehension and vocabulary knowledge at the start of the year, teachers' use of sophisticated vocabulary was significantly related to students' reading comprehension outcomes, as was the time spent on vocabulary instruction. These findings suggest that the middle school classroom language environment plays a significant role in the reading comprehension of adolescent learners. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. The atypical development of metaphor and metonymy comprehension in children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundblad, Gabriella; Annaz, Dagmara

    2010-01-01

    One of the most noticeable problems in autism involves the social use of language such as metaphor and metonymy, both of which are very common in daily language use. The present study is the first to investigate the development of metaphor and metonymy comprehension in autism. Eleven children with autism were compared to 17 typically developing children in a metaphor-metonymy comprehension task. Cross-sectional trajectory analyses were used to compare the development of metaphor and metonymy comprehension using a child-friendly story picture task. Trajectories were constructed linking task performance either to chronological age or to measures of mental age. Children with autism showed an impaired metaphor comprehension in relation to both chronological and mental age, whereas performance on metonymy was delayed and in line with their receptive vocabulary. Our results suggest that understanding of metaphors and metonyms are severely affected at all ages examined in the current study.

  3. Pawnee Nation Energy Option Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matlock, M.; Kersey, K.; Riding In, C.

    2009-07-31

    In 2003, the Pawnee Nation leadership identified the need for the tribe to comprehensively address its energy issues. During a strategic energy planning workshop a general framework was laid out and the Pawnee Nation Energy Task Force was created to work toward further development of the tribe’s energy vision. The overarching goals of the “first steps” project were to identify the most appropriate focus for its strategic energy initiatives going forward, and to provide information necessary to take the next steps in pursuit of the “best fit” energy options. Based on the request of Pawnee Nation’s Energy Task Force the research team, consisting Tribal personnel and Summit Blue Consulting, focused on a review of renewable energy resource development potential, funding sources and utility organizational along with energy savings options. Elements of the energy demand forecasting and characterization and demand side options review remained in the scope of work, but were only addressed at a high level. Description of Activities Performed Renewable Energy Resource Development Potential The research team reviewed existing data pertaining to the availability of biomass (focusing on woody biomass, agricultural biomass/bio-energy crops, and methane capture), solar, wind and hydropower resources on the Pawnee-owned lands. Using these data, combined with assumptions about costs and revenue streams, the research team performed preliminary feasibility assessments for each resource category. The research team also reviewed available funding resources and made recommendations to Pawnee Nation highlighting those resources with the greatest potential for financially-viable development, both in the near-term and over a longer time horizon. Energy Efficiency Options While this was not a major focus of the project, the research team highlighted common strategies for reducing energy use in buildings. The team also discussed the benefits of adopting a building energy code and

  4. The role of speech prosody and text reading prosody in children's reading comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenendaal, Nathalie J; Groen, Margriet A; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2014-12-01

    Text reading prosody has been associated with reading comprehension. However, text reading prosody is a reading-dependent measure that relies heavily on decoding skills. Investigation of the contribution of speech prosody - which is independent from reading skills - in addition to text reading prosody, to reading comprehension could provide more insight into the general role of prosody in reading comprehension. The current study investigates how much variance in reading comprehension scores is explained by speech prosody and text reading prosody, after controlling for decoding, vocabulary, and syntactic awareness. A battery of reading and language assessments was performed by 106 Dutch fourth-grade primary school children. Speech prosody was assessed using a storytelling task and text reading prosody by oral text reading performance. Decoding skills, vocabulary, syntactic awareness, and reading comprehension were assessed using standardized tests. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that text reading prosody explained 6% of variance and that speech prosody explained 8% of variance in reading comprehension scores, after controlling for decoding, vocabulary, and syntactic awareness. Phrasing was the significant factor in both speech and text reading. When added in consecutive order, phrasing in speech added 5% variance to phrasing in reading. In contrast, phrasing in reading added only 3% variance to phrasing in speech. The variance that speech prosody explained in reading comprehension scores should not be neglected. Speech prosody seems to facilitate the construction of meaning in written language. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  5. Eufaula National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Eufaula NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and purpose and...

  6. Malheur National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Malheur Wildlife Refuge for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and...

  7. Muscatatuck National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Muscatatuck NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and purpose...

  8. Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Okefenokee NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and purpose...

  9. Santee National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Santee NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and purpose and...

  10. Mandalay National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Mandalay NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and purpose...

  11. Patuxent Research Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Patuxent Research Refuge for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision...

  12. Trempealeau National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Trempealeau NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and purpose...

  13. Turnbull National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Turnbull NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and purpose...

  14. Iroquois National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Iroquois National Wildlife Refuge for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge...

  15. Kootenai National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Kootenai Wildlife Refuge for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision...

  16. Atchafalaya National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Atchafalaya National Wildlife Refuge for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the...

  17. Seney National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Seney NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and purpose and...

  18. Practical Vocational Orientation in the Comprehensive School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orne, Ingegard

    1973-01-01

    This description of practical vocational orientation in the Swedish comprehensive schools has been excerpted from Pryo i Samverkan (1971), a publication of the Arbetsmarknadens Yrkesrad (Vocational Council of the Labor Market). (Editor)

  19. Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Piedmont NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and purpose...

  20. Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), commonly known as Superfund, provides a federal "superfund" to clean up...

  1. Currituck National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Currituck NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and purpose...

  2. Comprehensive highway corridor planning with sustainability indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    "The Maryland State Highway Administration (SHA) has initiated major planning efforts to improve transportation : efficiency, safety, and sustainability on critical highway corridors through its Comprehensive Highway Corridor : (CHC) program. This pr...

  3. Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) Comprehensive Catalog

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The ANSS Comprehensive Catalog (ComCat) contains earthquake source parameters and other products produced by contributing seismic networks. Important digital...

  4. Howland National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Howland NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and purpose and...

  5. Sherburne National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Sherburne NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and purpose...

  6. Culebra National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Culebra NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and purpose and...

  7. Mattamuskeet National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Mattamuskeet NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and...

  8. Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Sevilleta NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and purpose...

  9. Ninigret National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Ninigret NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and purpose...

  10. Comprehensive risk analysis for structure type selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Optimization of bridge selection and design traditionally has been sought in terms of the finished structure. This study presents a : more comprehensive risk-based analysis that includes user costs and accidents during the construction phase. Costs f...

  11. Arapaho National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Arapaho NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and purpose and...

  12. Guam National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Guam NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and purpose and...

  13. Valentine National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Valentine NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and purpose...

  14. Wapack National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Wapack National Wildlife Refuge for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge...

  15. Ouray National Widlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Ouray NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and purpose and...

  16. Missisquoi National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Missisquoi NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and purpose...

  17. Chassahowitzka National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Chassahowitzka NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and...

  18. Waccamaw National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Waccamaw NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and purpose...

  19. Hatchie National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Hatchie NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and purpose and...

  20. Chickasaw National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Chickasaw NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and purpose...

  1. Hagerman National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Hagerman NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and purpose...

  2. Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data represents geographic terms used within the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). CERCLA, commonly known as...

  3. Investigating Predictors of Listening Comprehension in Third-, Seventh-, and Tenth-Grade Students: A Dominance Analysis Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Spencer, Mercedes; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This study rank ordered the contributive importance of several predictors of listening comprehension for third, seventh, and tenth graders. Principal components analyses revealed that a three-factor solution with fluency, reasoning, and working memory components provided the best fit across grade levels. Dominance analyses indicated that fluency…

  4. Semantic and Syntactic Bases of Text Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-07-25

    comprehension in reading. Reading Research * Quarterly , 3, 499-545. 52 BBN Laboratories Incorporated Dolch, E. (1948). Grading reading difficulty. In E. Dolch...readability. Reading Research Quarterly , 10, 62-102. Kucera, H. & Francis, W. (1967). Computational analysis of present-day American English. Providence, RI...between the structure of text and information recalled. Reading Research Quarterly , 14, 1, 10-56. McKoon, G. & Ratcliff, R. (1982). The comprehension

  5. Most Likely to Succeed: Exploring Predictor Variables for the Counselor Preparation Comprehensive Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Elizabeth Kjellstrand; Van Overschelde, James P.

    2016-01-01

    The authors investigated predictor variables for the Counselor Preparation Comprehensive Examination (CPCE) to examine whether academic variables, demographic variables, and test version were associated with graduate counseling students' CPCE scores. Multiple regression analyses revealed all 3 variables were statistically significant predictors of…

  6. A comprehensive approach to benefit-risk assessment in drug development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarac, Sinan B; Rasmussen, Christian H; Rasmussen, Morten A.

    2012-01-01

    Major regulatory agencies, for example, FDA and EMA, have started to request comprehensive benefit-risk analyses of pharmaceutical products prior to approval or labelling expansion. The purpose of this study is to develop a generally applicable and reliable data-driven benefit-risk assessment...

  7. How Children Talk Together to Make Meaning from Texts: A Dialogic Perspective on Reading Comprehension Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maine, Fiona

    2013-01-01

    This study considers reading comprehension as a dialogic transaction of making meaning from text. The concept of text and reading is taken to include the visual and multimodal as well as written forms. Case studies of children discussing texts are analysed to explore how children engage in inter-mental and intra-mental processes of reading,…

  8. A Multivariate Analysis of Principle and Trace Elements in "Mature Reading Comprehension".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Anthony V.; Casale, Ula Price

    Data from 80 junior high school students who completed the Assessment of Language and Reading Maturity (ALARM) test battery were used to delineate elements within the concept of mature reading comprehension. Stepwise multiple regression analyses were performed on the 15 ALARM test factors to isolate both the principal elements and the "trace…

  9. Epistemological and Reading Beliefs Profiles and Their Role in Multiple Text Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos, Mar; Solé, Isabel; Martín, Elena; Castells, Nuria; Cuevas, Isabel; González-Lamas, Jara

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to analyse the role of epistemological beliefs and reading beliefs in the comprehension of multiple texts which presented conflicting positions about a controversial topic (nuclear energy). More specifically, we investigated the influence of the multidimensional configuration of epistemological and reading…

  10. Reading Development in European Portuguese: Relationships between Oral Reading Fluency, Vocabulary and Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Sandra; Querido, Luís; Verhaeghe, Arlette; Marques, Catarina; Araújo, Luísa

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated direct and indirect effects between oral reading fluency, vocabulary and reading comprehension across reading development in European Portuguese. Participants were 329 children attending basic education, from grade 1 to grade 6. The results of path analyses showed that text reading fluency is much more dependent on the…

  11. Concurrent and Longitudinal Effects of Morphological Awareness on Reading Comprehension among Chinese-Speaking Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haomin

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the concurrent and longitudinal effects of morphological awareness on the development of reading comprehension among Chinese-speaking children (N = 123, mean[subscript age] = 8.1 at Time 2). Drawing upon multivariate analyses, the study found that morphological awareness and lexical inferencing ability were intertwined together…

  12. Comprehension of a Colon Cancer Pamphlet among American Adults at Least 50 Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chiung-ju

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify determinants of comprehension of an educational pamphlet on colon cancer, by adults at least 50 years of age living in the United States. Design: Data were analysed from the "2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy" survey. The survey was designed to assess functional English…

  13. Severe Accident Recriticality Analyses (SARA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frid, W. [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden); Hoejerup, F. [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark); Lindholm, I.; Miettinen, J.; Puska, E.K. [VTT Energy, Helsinki (Finland); Nilsson, Lars [Studsvik Eco and Safety AB, Nykoeping (Sweden); Sjoevall, H. [Teoliisuuden Voima Oy (Finland)

    1999-11-01

    Recriticality in a BWR has been studied for a total loss of electric power accident scenario. In a BWR, the B{sub 4}C control rods would melt and relocate from the core before the fuel during core uncovery and heat-up. If electric power returns during this time-window unborated water from ECCS systems will start to reflood the partly control rod free core. Recriticality might take place for which the only mitigating mechanisms are the Doppler effect and void formation. In order to assess the impact of recriticality on reactor safety, including accident management measures, the following issues have been investigated in the SARA project: 1. the energy deposition in the fuel during super-prompt power burst, 2. the quasi steady-state reactor power following the initial power burst and 3. containment response to elevated quasi steady-state reactor power. The approach was to use three computer codes and to further develop and adapt them for the task. The codes were SIMULATE-3K, APROS and RECRIT. Recriticality analyses were carried out for a number of selected reflooding transients for the Oskarshamn 3 plant in Sweden with SIMULATE-3K and for the Olkiluoto 1 plant in Finland with all three codes. The core state initial and boundary conditions prior to recriticality have been studied with the severe accident codes SCDAP/RELAP5, MELCOR and MAAP4. The results of the analyses show that all three codes predict recriticality - both superprompt power bursts and quasi steady-state power generation - for the studied range of parameters, i. e. with core uncovery and heat-up to maximum core temperatures around 1800 K and water flow rates of 45 kg/s to 2000 kg/s injected into the downcomer. Since the recriticality takes place in a small fraction of the core the power densities are high which results in large energy deposition in the fuel during power burst in some accident scenarios. The highest value, 418 cal/g, was obtained with SIMULATE-3K for an Oskarshamn 3 case with reflooding

  14. Ergonomic analyses of downhill skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarys, J P; Publie, J; Zinzen, E

    1994-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide electromyographic feedback for (1) pedagogical advice in motor learning, (2) the ergonomics of materials choice and (3) competition. For these purposes: (1) EMG data were collected for the Stem Christie, the Stem Turn and the Parallel Christie (three basic ski initiation drills) and verified for the complexity of patterns; (2) integrated EMG (iEMG) and linear envelopes (LEs) were analysed from standardized positions, motions and slopes using compact, soft and competition skis; (3) in a simulated 'parallel special slalom', the muscular activity pattern and intensity of excavated and flat snow conditions were compared. The EMG data from the three studies were collected on location in the French Alps (Tignes). The analog raw EMG was recorded on the slopes with a portable seven-channel FM recorder (TEAC MR30) and with pre-amplified bipolar surface electrodes supplied with a precision instrumentation amplifier (AD 524, Analog Devices, Norwood, USA). The raw signal was full-wave rectified and enveloped using a moving average principle. This linear envelope was normalized according to the highest peak amplitude procedure per subject and was integrated in order to obtain a reference of muscular intensity. In the three studies and for all subjects (elite skiers: n = 25 in studies 1 and 2, n = 6 in study 3), we found a high level of co-contractions in the lower limb extensors and flexors, especially during the extension phase of the ski movement. The Stem Christie and the Parallel Christie showed higher levels of rhythmic movement (92 and 84%, respectively).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Genomic analyses provide new insights into apple evolution, domestication and genetic diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human selection has reshaped crop genomes. Here we report an apple genome variation map generated through genome sequencing of 117 diverse accessions. A comprehensive model of apple speciation and domestication along the Silk Road was proposed based on evidence from diverse genomic analyses. Cultiva...

  16. Comparison of two potato simulation models under climate change. I. Model calibration and sensitivity analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, J.

    2002-01-01

    To analyse the effects of climate change on potato growth and production, both a simple growth model, POTATOS, and a comprehensive model, NPOTATO, were applied. Both models were calibrated and tested against results from experiments and variety trials in The Netherlands. The sensitivity of model

  17. Comparison of two soya bean simulation models under climate change : I Model calibration and sensitivity analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, J.

    2002-01-01

    To analyse the effects of climate change on soya bean growth and production, both a simple growth model, SOYBEANW, and a comprehensive model, CROPGRO, have been applied. Both models were calibrated and tested against results from soya bean trials at Toulouse, France. The sensitivity of model results

  18. Nuclear Analyses of Indian LLCB Test Blanket System in ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, H. L.; Shaw, A. K.; Danani, C.; Chaudhuri, Paritosh

    2017-04-01

    Heading towards the Nuclear Fusion Reactor Program, India is developing Lead Lithium Ceramic Breeder (LLCB) tritium breeding blanket for its future fusion Reactor. A mock-up of the LLCB blanket is proposed to be tested in ITER equatorial port no.2, to ensure the overall performance of blanket in reactor relevant nuclear fusion environment. Nuclear analyses play an important role in LLCB Test Blanket System design & development. It is required for tritium breeding estimation, thermal-hydraulic design, coolants process design, radioactive waste management, equipment maintenance & replacement strategies and nuclear safety. The nuclear behaviour of LLCB test blanket module in ITER is predicated in terms of nuclear responses such as tritium production, nuclear heating, neutron fluxes and radiation damages. Radiation shielding capability of LLCB TBS inside and outside bio-shield was also assessed to fulfill ITER shielding requirements. In order to supports the rad-waste and safety assessment, nuclear activation analyses were carried out and radioactivity data were generated for LLCB TBS components. Nuclear analyses of LLCB TBS are performed using ITER recommended nuclear analyses codes (i.e. MCNP, EASY), nuclear cross section data libraries (i.e. FENDL 2.1, EAF) and neutronic model (ITER C-lite v.l). The paper describes a comprehensive nuclear performance of LLCB TBS in ITER.

  19. Automatic incrementalization of Prolog based static analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichberg, Michael; Kahl, Matthias; Saha, Diptikalyan

    2007-01-01

    Modem development environments integrate various static analyses into the build process. Analyses that analyze the whole project whenever the project changes are impractical in this context. We present an approach to automatic incrementalization of analyses that are specified as tabled logic...... incrementalizing a broad range of static analyses....

  20. Methodology for accident analyses of fusion breeder blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobromir Panayotov; Andrew Grief; Brad J. Merrill; Julian T. Murgatroyd; Paul Humrickhouse; Yves Poitevin; Simon Owen; Markus Iseli

    2015-06-01

    'Fusion for Energy' (F4E) develops designs and implements the European Test Blanket Systems (TBS) in ITER - Helium-Cooled Lithium-Lead (HCLL) and Helium-Cooled Pebble-Bed (HCPB). Safety demonstration is an essential element for the integration of TBS in ITER and accident analyses are one of its critical segments. A systematic approach to the accident analyses had been acquired under the F4E contract on TBS safety analyses. F4E technical requirements and AMEC and INL efforts resulted in the development of a comprehensive methodology for fusion breeding blanket accident analyses. It addresses the specificity of the breeding blankets design, materials and phenomena and at the same time is consistent with the one already applied to ITER accident analyses. Methodology consists of several phases. At first the reference scenarios are selected on the base of FMEA studies. In the second place elaboration of the accident analyses specifications we use phenomena identification and ranking tables to identify the requirements to be met by the code(s) and TBS models. Thus the limitations of the codes are identified and possible solutions to be built into the models are proposed. These include among others the loose coupling of different codes or code versions in order to simulate multi-fluid flows and phenomena. The code selection and issue of the accident analyses specifications conclude this second step. Furthermore the breeding blanket and ancillary systems models are built on. In this work challenges met and solutions used in the development of both MELCOR and RELAP5 codes models of HCLL and HCPB TBSs will be shared. To continue the developed models are qualified by comparison with finite elements analyses, by code to code comparison and sensitivity studies. Finally, the qualified models are used for the execution of the accident analyses of specific scenario. When possible the methodology phases will be illustrated in the paper by limited number of tables and

  1. Foundations of reading comprehension in children with intellectual disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wingerden-Fontein, E.G. van; Segers, P.C.J.; Balkom, L.J.M. van; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2017-01-01

    Background Knowledge about predictors for reading comprehension in children with intellectual disabilities (ID) is still fragmented. Aims This study compared reading comprehension, word decoding, listening comprehension, and reading related linguistic and cognitive precursor measures in children

  2. Reporting quality of systematic reviews/meta-analyses of acupuncture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yali Liu

    Full Text Available The QUOROM and PRISMA statements were published in 1999 and 2009, respectively, to improve the consistency of reporting systematic reviews (SRs/meta-analyses (MAs of clinical trials. However, not all SRs/MAs adhere completely to these important standards. In particular, it is not clear how well SRs/MAs of acupuncture studies adhere to reporting standards and which reporting criteria are generally ignored in these analyses.To evaluate reporting quality in SRs/MAs of acupuncture studies.We performed a literature search for studies published prior to 2014 using the following public archives: PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR, the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM, the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM database, the Chinese Journal Full-text Database (CJFD, the Chinese Scientific Journal Full-text Database (CSJD, and the Wanfang database. Data were extracted into pre-prepared Excel data-extraction forms. Reporting quality was assessed based on the PRISMA checklist (27 items.Of 476 appropriate SRs/MAs identified in our search, 203, 227, and 46 were published in Chinese journals, international journals, and the Cochrane Database, respectively. In 476 SRs/MAs, only 3 reported the information completely. By contrast, approximately 4.93% (1/203, 8.81% (2/227 and 0.00% (0/46 SRs/Mas reported less than 10 items in Chinese journals, international journals and CDSR, respectively. In general, the least frequently reported items (reported≤50% in SRs/MAs were "protocol and registration", "risk of bias across studies", and "additional analyses" in both methods and results sections.SRs/MAs of acupuncture studies have not comprehensively reported information recommended in the PRISMA statement. Our study underscores that, in addition to focusing on careful study design and performance, attention should be paid to comprehensive reporting standards in SRs/MAs on acupuncture studies.

  3. Dopamine supports sentence comprehension in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, M; Glosser, G; Kalmanson, J; Morris, J; Stern, M B; Hurtig, H I

    2001-03-01

    To determine the role of dopamine in the executive resource component of sentence comprehension. We studied sentence-picture matching in 20 right-handed, non-demented, native English speakers with mild Parkinson's disease (PD) when 'on' and 'off' their levodopa, taking into account disease duration to control for endogenous dopamine metabolism. We also administered a verbal working memory measure that does not involve specific grammatical manipulations. PD patients 'off' levodopa demonstrated a significant discrepancy in their comprehension of grammatically complex sentences compared to grammatically simpler sentences that was not evident when PD patients were 'on' levodopa. An error analysis demonstrated that impaired comprehension of grammatically complex sentences when 'off' levodopa was associated with poorer performance on foils requiring working memory resources. Performance on an independent measure of verbal working memory correlated only with comprehension of grammatically complex sentences during levodopa supplementation, but working memory according to this measure did not differ during 'on' and 'off' states. Dopamine supports the executive resources contributing to sentence comprehension in PD.

  4. A dynamic developmental link between verbal comprehension-knowledge (Gc) and reading comprehension: verbal comprehension-knowledge drives positive change in reading comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Matthew R; Turek, Joshua J

    2012-12-01

    Intelligence and general academic achievement have a well-established relation, but the interrelated development of the two constructs over time is less well-known. In this study, the dynamic developmental relation between verbal comprehension-knowledge (Gc) and reading comprehension was examined by applying bivariate dual change score models (McArdle, 2009) to longitudinal data collected from children aged 9 through 15 who were part of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (NICHD SECCYD). A unidirectional dynamic link was found in which higher levels of prior Gc led to increased positive change in reading comprehension scores. This unidirectional link was not altered by including intelligence measured at 24-months, SES, sex, basic reading, and reading volume as time-invariant covariates. Gc is a leading indicator of reading comprehension and should be considered when developing and monitoring long-term reading comprehension interventions for children. Copyright © 2012 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Strategy-based listening and pragmatic comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corsetti, Cristiane Ruzicki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the role of strategy-based listening as an alternative methodological approach to develop pragmatic comprehension in L2 contexts. Pragmatic comprehension refers to the understanding of speech acts and conversational implicatures. Listening comprehension comprises both bottom-up and top-down processes. Strategy-based listening encompasses the activation of pragmatic knowledge through pre-listening activities and the development of specific listening micro-skills. An empirical project which included a classroom project carried out with a group of eight learners preparing for the IELTS examination in 2009 corroborated the following assumptions: in order to achieve listening proficiency, learners need practice in making inferences as semantic and pragmatic inferences are embedded in verbal communication; semantic and pragmatic aspects affecting the meaning of utterances can be highlighted via comprehension activities focusing on specific listening subskills. The results of the classroom project suggested that strategy-based listening is potentially capable of directly enhancing pragmatic comprehension but were inconclusive with regards to pragmatic production

  6. Clustering Classes in Packages for Program Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobing Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During software maintenance and evolution, one of the important tasks faced by developers is to understand a system quickly and accurately. With the increasing size and complexity of an evolving system, program comprehension becomes an increasingly difficult activity. Given a target system for comprehension, developers may first focus on the package comprehension. The packages in the system are of different sizes. For small-sized packages in the system, developers can easily comprehend them. However, for large-sized packages, they are difficult to understand. In this article, we focus on understanding these large-sized packages and propose a novel program comprehension approach for large-sized packages, which utilizes the Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA model to cluster large-sized packages. Thus, these large-sized packages are separated as small-sized clusters, which are easier for developers to comprehend. Empirical studies on four real-world software projects demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach. The results show that the effectiveness of our approach is better than Latent Semantic Indexing- (LSI- and Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis- (PLSA- based clustering approaches. In addition, we find that the topic that labels each cluster is useful for program comprehension.

  7. Children's comprehension and production of derivational suffixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windsor, J

    1994-04-01

    Relational knowledge of 21 derivational suffixes conveying six different meanings was investigated with 120 children from 3rd to 8th grade, and with 40 adults. The results obtained from a nonsense-word paradigm indicated that suffixes were comprehended with greater accuracy than they were produced, particularly by the children. Children in the 5th through 8th grades were more accurate than children in the 3rd and 4th grades in both suffix comprehension and production. Children and adults demonstrated greatest accuracy in both comprehension and production with the meaning "without X" (conveyed by the suffix less). Overall, they showed low comprehension accuracy with a diminutive suffix, ette, and the suffix ful, meaning "character of X." They showed low production accuracy with "can be Xed" (able). Productive suffixes were produced more frequently than less productive suffixes to convey a given meaning.

  8. Comprehension of Ironic Utterances by Bilingual Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banasik Natalia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates verbal irony comprehension by 6-year old bilingual children speaking Polish and English and living in the USA. Researchers have predominantly focused on monolingual populations when examining non-literal language in young children. This is the first exploratory study of how irony is comprehended by children growing up in a bilingual setting. Results suggest that 6-year olds from this population score high in decoding the intended meaning behind an ironic utterance and that there is a relation between this ability and the development of their theory of mind (ToM. Interestingly, the data suggests that in the tested sample, no difference could be observed between comprehension of sarcastic irony (i.e., irony containing the element of blame directed towards the addressee and non-sarcastic irony (irony without criticism towards the interlocutor. The results may be a basis for assuming that irony comprehension may be different in bilingual, compared to monolingual, samples.

  9. Object orientation affects spatial language comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burigo, Michele; Sacchi, Simona

    2013-01-01

    Typical spatial descriptions, such as "The car is in front of the house," describe the position of a located object (LO; e.g., the car) in space relative to a reference object (RO) whose location is known (e.g., the house). The orientation of the RO affects spatial language comprehension via the reference frame selection process. However, the effects of the LO's orientation on spatial language have not received great attention. This study explores whether the pure geometric information of the LO (e.g., its orientation) affects spatial language comprehension using placing and production tasks. Our results suggest that the orientation of the LO influences spatial language comprehension even in the absence of functional relationships. Copyright © 2013 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  10. Palliative Care: Delivering Comprehensive Oncology Nursing Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlin, Constance

    2015-11-01

    To describe palliative care as part of comprehensive oncology nursing care. A review of the palliative care, oncology, and nursing literature over the past 10 years. Palliative care is mandated as part of comprehensive cancer care. A cancer diagnosis often results in distress in the physical, psychosocial, spiritual, and emotional domains of care. Oncology nurses are essential in providing palliative care from diagnosis to death to patients with cancer. They address the myriad aspects of cancer. With palliative care skills and knowledge, oncology nurses can provide quality cancer care. There are many opportunities in which oncology nurses can promote palliative care. Oncology nurses must obtain knowledge and skills in primary palliative care to provide comprehensive cancer care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Does the Component Processes Task Assess Text-Based Inferences Important for Reading Comprehension? A Path Analysis in Primary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassenburg, Stephanie I; de Koning, Björn B; de Vries, Meinou H; van der Schoot, Menno

    2016-01-01

    Using a component processes task (CPT) that differentiates between higher-level cognitive processes of reading comprehension provides important advantages over commonly used general reading comprehension assessments. The present study contributes to further development of the CPT by evaluating the relative contributions of its components (text memory, text inferencing, and knowledge integration) and working memory to general reading comprehension within a single study using path analyses. Participants were 173 third- and fourth-grade children. As hypothesized, knowledge integration was the only component of the CPT that directly contributed to reading comprehension, indicating that the text-inferencing component did not assess inferential processes related to reading comprehension. Working memory was a significant predictor of reading comprehension over and above the component processes. Future research should focus on finding ways to ensure that the text-inferencing component taps into processes important for reading comprehension.

  12. Cognitive control and discourse comprehension in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudewyn, Megan A; Carter, Cameron S; Swaab, Tamara Y

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive deficits across a wide range of domains have been consistently observed in schizophrenia and are linked to poor functional outcome (Green, 1996; Carter, 2006). Language abnormalities are among the most salient and include disorganized speech as well as deficits in comprehension. In this review, we aim to evaluate impairments of language processing in schizophrenia in relation to a domain-general control deficit. We first provide an overview of language comprehension in the healthy human brain, stressing the role of cognitive control processes, especially during discourse comprehension. We then discuss cognitive control deficits in schizophrenia, before turning to evidence suggesting that schizophrenia patients are particularly impaired at processing meaningful discourse as a result of deficits in control functions. We conclude that domain-general control mechanisms are impaired in schizophrenia and that during language comprehension this is most likely to result in difficulties during the processing of discourse-level context, which involves integrating and maintaining multiple levels of meaning. Finally, we predict that language comprehension in schizophrenia patients will be most impaired during discourse processing. We further suggest that discourse comprehension problems in schizophrenia might be mitigated when conflicting information is absent and strong relations amongst individual words are present in the discourse context."There is no "centre of Speech" in the brain any more than there is a faculty of Speech in the mind.The entire brain, more or less, is at work in a man who uses language"William JamesFrom The Principles of Psychology, 1890"The mind in dementia praecox is like an orchestra without a conductor"Kraepelin, 1919.

  13. Prediction in Language Comprehension beyond Specific Words: An ERP Study on Sentence Comprehension in Polish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szewczyk, Jakub M.; Schriefers, Herbert

    2013-01-01

    Recently, several ERP studies have shown that the human language comprehension system anticipates words that are highly likely continuations of a given text. However, it remains an open issue whether the language comprehension system can also make predictions that go beyond a specific word. Here, we address the question of whether readers predict…

  14. Individual differences in reading comprehension : A componential approach to eighth graders’ expository text comprehension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welie, C.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Why do secondary school students differ in their text comprehension? This is an important question because many secondary school students are unable to achieve the level of text comprehension required to enable learning from their school book texts. This thesis contributes to answering this question

  15. Explicit Reading Comprehension Instruction in Elementary Classrooms: Teacher Use of Reading Comprehension Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, Molly

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this observational study was to identify the frequency of reading comprehension instruction in elementary classrooms. Additional objectives were to determine which reading comprehension instructional strategies were most employed by teachers in elementary classrooms. In 3,000 minutes of direct classroom observation in 20 first-…

  16. Prediction in language comprehension beyond specific words: An ERP study on sentence comprehension in Polish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szewczyk, J.M.; Schriefers, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, several ERP studies have shown that the human language comprehension system anticipates words that are highly likely continuations of a given text. However, it remains an open issue whether the language comprehension system can also make predictions that go beyond a specific word. Here, we

  17. The Role of First-Language Listening Comprehension in Second-Language Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edele, Aileen; Stanat, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Although the simple view of reading and other theories suggest that listening comprehension is an important determinant of reading comprehension, previous research on linguistic transfer has mainly focused on the role of first language (L1) decoding skills in second language (L2) reading. The present study tested the assumption that listening…

  18. Low working memory capacity is only spuriously related to poor reading comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyke, Julie A; Johns, Clinton L; Kukona, Anuenue

    2014-06-01

    Accounts of comprehension failure, whether in the case of readers with poor skill or when syntactic complexity is high, have overwhelmingly implicated working memory capacity as the key causal factor. However, extant research suggests that this position is not well supported by evidence on the span of active memory during online sentence processing, nor is it well motivated by models that make explicit claims about the memory mechanisms that support language processing. The current study suggests that sensitivity to interference from similar items in memory may provide a better explanation of comprehension failure. Through administration of a comprehensive skill battery, we found that the previously observed association of working memory with comprehension is likely due to the collinearity of working memory with many other reading-related skills, especially IQ. In analyses which removed variance shared with IQ, we found that receptive vocabulary knowledge was the only significant predictor of comprehension performance in our task out of a battery of 24 skill measures. In addition, receptive vocabulary and non-verbal memory for serial order-but not simple verbal memory or working memory-were the only predictors of reading times in the region where interference had its primary affect. We interpret these results in light of a model that emphasizes retrieval interference and the quality of lexical representations as key determinants of successful comprehension. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Low working memory capacity is only spuriously related to poor reading comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyke, Julie A.; Johns, Clinton L.; Kukona, Anuenue

    2014-01-01

    Accounts of comprehension failure, whether in the case of readers with poor skill or when syntactic complexity is high, have overwhelmingly implicated working memory capacity as the key causal factor. However, extant research suggests that this position is not well supported by evidence on the span of active memory during online sentence processing, nor is it well motivated by models that make explicit claims about the memory mechanisms that support language processing. The current study suggests that sensitivity to interference from similar items in memory may provide a better explanation of comprehension failure. Through administration of a comprehensive skill battery, we found that the previously observed association of working memory with comprehension is likely due to the collinearity of working memory with many other reading-related skills, especially IQ. In analyses which removed variance shared with IQ, we found that receptive vocabulary knowledge was the only significant predictor of comprehension performance in our task out of a battery of 24 skill measures. In addition, receptive vocabulary and non-verbal memory for serial order—but not simple verbal memory or working memory—were the only predictors of reading times in the region where interference had its primary affect. We interpret these results in light of a model that emphasizes retrieval interference and the quality of lexical representations as key determinants of successful comprehension. PMID:24657820

  20. Cross-lagged relationships between morphological awareness and reading comprehension among Chinese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahua Cheng

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the developmental relationship between morphological awareness and reading comprehension using a two-year and four-wave cross-lagged design with a sample of 149 Chinese children (80 male and 69 female. We measured children’s morphological awareness, word reading, and reading comprehension from T1 to T4, in addition to phonological awareness, vocabulary knowledge, and general cognitive ability at T1 as control measures. Four plausible cross-lagged models were assessed and compared to examine the direction of the developmental relationships between morphological awareness and reading comprehension over time. Results found support for a reciprocal-causation model, that is, morphological awareness stably predicted subsequent reading comprehension, and the reverse relation was also found. Longitudinal mediation analyses revealed that word reading partially mediated the relationship between morphological awareness and reading comprehension in Chinese children. These findings extend our understanding of the relationship between morphological awareness and reading comprehension. The practical implications for these two developing skills in Chinese children are discussed.

  1. Mathematics is differentially related to reading comprehension and word decoding: Evidence from a genetically-sensitive design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlaar, Nicole; Kovas, Yulia; Dale, Philip S.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Plomin, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Although evidence suggests that individual differences in reading and mathematics skills are correlated, this relationship has typically only been studied in relation to word decoding or global measures of reading. It is unclear whether mathematics is differentially related to word decoding and reading comprehension. The current study examined these relationships at both a phenotypic and etiological level in a population-based cohort of 5162 twin pairs at age 12. Multivariate genetic analyses of latent phenotypic factors of mathematics, word decoding and reading comprehension revealed substantial genetic and shared environmental correlations among all three domains. However, the phenotypic and genetic correlations between mathematics and reading comprehension were significantly greater than between mathematics and word decoding. Independent of mathematics, there was also evidence for genetic and nonshared environmental links between word decoding and reading comprehension. These findings indicate that word decoding and reading comprehension have partly distinct relationships with mathematics in the middle school years. PMID:24319294

  2. A computational modeling of semantic knowledge in reading comprehension: Integrating the landscape model with latent semantic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeari, Menahem; van den Broek, Paul

    2016-09-01

    It is a well-accepted view that the prior semantic (general) knowledge that readers possess plays a central role in reading comprehension. Nevertheless, computational models of reading comprehension have not integrated the simulation of semantic knowledge and online comprehension processes under a unified mathematical algorithm. The present article introduces a computational model that integrates the landscape model of comprehension processes with latent semantic analysis representation of semantic knowledge. In three sets of simulations of previous behavioral findings, the integrated model successfully simulated the activation and attenuation of predictive and bridging inferences during reading, as well as centrality estimations and recall of textual information after reading. Analyses of the computational results revealed new theoretical insights regarding the underlying mechanisms of the various comprehension phenomena.

  3. How specific are specific comprehension difficulties?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønberg, Louise Flensted-Jensen; Petersen, Dorthe Klint

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the occurrence of poor comprehenders, i.e., children identified with reading comprehension difficulties in spite of age-appropriate word reading skills. It supports the findings that some children do show poor reading comprehension in spite of age-appropriate word reading as m...... and daily reading of literary texts were significantly below that of average readers. This study indicates that a lack of reading experience and, likewise, a lack of fluent word reading may be important factors in understanding nine-year-old poor comprehenders’ difficulties....

  4. Cellular communications a comprehensive and practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Tripathi, Nishith

    2014-01-01

    Even as newer cellular technologies and standards emerge, many of the fundamental principles and the components of the cellular network remain the same. Presenting a simple yet comprehensive view of cellular communications technologies, Cellular Communications provides an end-to-end perspective of cellular operations, ranging from physical layer details to call set-up and from the radio network to the core network. This self-contained source forpractitioners and students represents a comprehensive survey of the fundamentals of cellular communications and the landscape of commercially deployed

  5. Techniques for Analysing Problems in Engineering Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Uffe

    1998-01-01

    Description of how CPM network can be used for analysing complex problems in engineering projects.......Description of how CPM network can be used for analysing complex problems in engineering projects....

  6. Does simile comprehension differ from metaphor comprehension? A functional MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Midori; Toyomura, Akira; Motoyama, Hiroki; Itoh, Hiroaki; Kawabata, Yasuhiro; Abe, Jun-Ichi

    2012-06-01

    Since Aristotle, people have believed that metaphors and similes express the same type of figurative meaning, despite the fact that they are expressed with different sentence patterns. In contrast, recent psycholinguistic models have suggested that metaphors and similes may promote different comprehension processes. In this study, we investigated the neural substrates involved in the comprehension of metaphor and simile using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to evaluate whether simile comprehension differs from metaphor comprehension or not. In the metaphor and simile sentence conditions, higher activation was seen in the left inferior frontal gyrus. This result suggests that the activation in both metaphor and simile conditions indicates similar patterns in the left frontal region. The results also suggest that similes elicit higher levels of activation in the medial frontal region which might be related to inference processes, whereas metaphors elicit more right-sided prefrontal activation which might be related to figurative language comprehension. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation improves outcome for patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Selina Kikkenborg; Pedersen, Preben Ulrich; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe

    2015-01-01

    year of psycho-educational follow-up focusing on modifiable factors associated with poor outcomes. Two primary outcomes, general health score (Short Form-36 (SF-36)) and peak oxygen uptake (VO2), were used. Post-hoc analyses included SF-36 and ICD therapy history.Results:Comprehensive cardiac......Aims:The aim of this randomised clinical trial was to assess a comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation intervention including exercise training and psycho-education vs 'treatment as usual' in patients treated with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD).Methods:In this study 196 patients...

  8. Effects of undetected data quality issues on climatological analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunziker, Stefan; Brönnimann, Stefan; Calle, Juan; Moreno, Isabel; Andrade, Marcos; Ticona, Laura; Huerta, Adrian; Lavado-Casimiro, Waldo

    2018-01-01

    Systematic data quality issues may occur at various stages of the data generation process. They may affect large fractions of observational datasets and remain largely undetected with standard data quality control. This study investigates the effects of such undetected data quality issues on the results of climatological analyses. For this purpose, we quality controlled daily observations of manned weather stations from the Central Andean area with a standard and an enhanced approach. The climate variables analysed are minimum and maximum temperature and precipitation. About 40 % of the observations are inappropriate for the calculation of monthly temperature means and precipitation sums due to data quality issues. These quality problems undetected with the standard quality control approach strongly affect climatological analyses, since they reduce the correlation coefficients of station pairs, deteriorate the performance of data homogenization methods, increase the spread of individual station trends, and significantly bias regional temperature trends. Our findings indicate that undetected data quality issues are included in important and frequently used observational datasets and hence may affect a high number of climatological studies. It is of utmost importance to apply comprehensive and adequate data quality control approaches on manned weather station records in order to avoid biased results and large uncertainties.

  9. Effects of undetected data quality issues on climatological analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hunziker

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Systematic data quality issues may occur at various stages of the data generation process. They may affect large fractions of observational datasets and remain largely undetected with standard data quality control. This study investigates the effects of such undetected data quality issues on the results of climatological analyses. For this purpose, we quality controlled daily observations of manned weather stations from the Central Andean area with a standard and an enhanced approach. The climate variables analysed are minimum and maximum temperature and precipitation. About 40 % of the observations are inappropriate for the calculation of monthly temperature means and precipitation sums due to data quality issues. These quality problems undetected with the standard quality control approach strongly affect climatological analyses, since they reduce the correlation coefficients of station pairs, deteriorate the performance of data homogenization methods, increase the spread of individual station trends, and significantly bias regional temperature trends. Our findings indicate that undetected data quality issues are included in important and frequently used observational datasets and hence may affect a high number of climatological studies. It is of utmost importance to apply comprehensive and adequate data quality control approaches on manned weather station records in order to avoid biased results and large uncertainties.

  10. 10 CFR 61.13 - Technical analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Technical analyses. 61.13 Section 61.13 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Licenses § 61.13 Technical analyses. The specific technical information must also include the following analyses...

  11. China–Myanmar Comprehensive Strategic Cooperative Partnership: A Regional Threat?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenyang LI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the China-Myanmar ‘comprehensive strategic cooperative partnership’ in the framework of China’s diplomacy in the post-Cold War era and concludes that the partnership has no ‘significant negative impact’ on regional relations. China pursues its partnerships with Myanmar and other states to create a ‘stable’ and ‘harmonious’ surrounding environment, itself a ‘major’ prerequisite for China’s peaceful development. The author argues that China has not focused its diplomacy on Myanmar at the expense of other states; rather, he notes that in fact China established a ‘comprehensive strategic cooperative partnership’ with three other ASEAN states (Vietnam in 2008, Laos in 2009, and Cambodia in 2010 before it did so with Myanmar in May 2011. The article argues that the scope and depth of China’s partnerships with states such as Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia are actually above that of its partnership with Myanmar. It also argues that Myanmar’s strong nationalism will prevent China from, for example, building a base on Myanmar’s soil. The author also asserts that China does not seek to use Myanmar as an ally to weaken or dilute ASEAN or its unity on the South China Sea issue.

  12. Comprehensive metabolite profiling in distinct chemotypes of Commiphora wightii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Anil; Tripathi, Tusha; Singh, Suruchi; Bisht, Hema; Behl, Hari M; Roy, Raja; Sidhu, Om P

    2018-02-02

    Commiphora wightii (Arn.) Bhandari, known as guggul, produces a medicinally important gum resin which is used extensively by Ayurvedic physicians to treat various ailments. However, most of the studies on C. wightii have been limited to its gum resin. Comprehensive metabolic profiling of leaves, stem and gum resin samples was undertaken to analyse aqueous and non-aqueous metabolites from three distinct chemotypes (NBRI-101, NBRI-102 and NBRI-103) shortlisted from different agro-climatic zones. GC-MS, HPLC and NMR spectroscopy were used for comprehensive metabolomics. Multivariate analysis showed characteristic variation in quinic and citric acids, myo-inositol and glycine (aqueous metabolites) and 2,6-di-tert-butyl-phenol, trans-farnesol and guggulsterones (non-aqueous metabolites) amongst the three chemotypes. Quinic acid, citric acid and myo-ionositol were detected in substantial quantities from leaves and stem samples which provide opportunities for novel nutraceutical and pharmaceutical formulations. Quinic acid, from the leaves, was identified as a marker metabolite for early selection of high guggulsterones-yielding cultivars.

  13. Analysis of Virtual Learning Environments from a Comprehensive Semiotic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria María Álvarez Cadavid

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Although there is a wide variety of perspectives and models for the study of online education, most of these focus on the analysis of the verbal aspects of such learning, while very few consider the relationship between speech and elements of a different nature, such as images and hypermediality. In a previous article we presented a proposal for a comprehensive semiotic analysis of virtual learning environments that more recently has been developed and tested for the study of different online training courses without instructional intervention. In this paper we use this same proposal to analyze online learning environments in the framework of courses with instructional intervention. One of the main observations in relation to this type of analyses is that the organizational aspects of the courses are found to be related to the way in which the input elements for the teaching and learning process are constructed.

  14. Environmental applications of chitosan and cellulosic biopolymers: A comprehensive outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanmani, P; Aravind, J; Kamaraj, M; Sureshbabu, P; Karthikeyan, S

    2017-10-01

    Biopolymers are substances naturally produced by living organisms and are hence considered to be eco-friendly and sustainable. Chitosan and cellulose are of specific significance owing to their abundant availability, ease of modification, and application potential. On the environmental front, their coagulating and flocculating effects have helped in wastewater clarification, while minimizing the dependability on synthetic polyelectrolytes. Biopolymer based hydrogels and nanocomposite films have functioned as effective biosorbents in removing an array of organic and inorganic pollutants, including xenobiotics, from wastewater. Specifically, they have been vastly harnessed for heavy metal and dye adsorption. They have also played a pivotal part in other environmental applications including anti-desertification, natural bio-sealants for preventing concrete leaks and proton conducting membranes in electrochemical devices. Such recent research on the environmental applications of biopolymers has been comprehensively analysed, thus providing a fresh insight into the future prospects of research in this domain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Collective Code Bookmarks for Program Comprehension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guzzi, A.; Hattori, L.; Lanza, M.; Pinzger, M.; Van Deursen, A.

    2011-01-01

    The program comprehension research community has been developing useful tools and techniques to support developers in the time-consuming activity of understanding software artifacts. However, the majority of the tools do not bring collective benefit to the team: After gaining the necessary

  16. The Values of Scottish Comprehensive Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Daniel; Croxford, Linda; Howieson, Cathy

    2016-01-01

    It is just over 50 years since the government circulars in Scotland, England, and Wales which signalled an intention to abolish selection and reform secondary schooling along comprehensive lines. Each country's policy trajectories since then have been quite different. In this article the authors reflect on more than 50 years of comprehensive…

  17. Using readability, comprehensibility and lexical coverage to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Finally, Nations' Vocabulary Size Test (Nation and Beglar 2007: 9, 11) was used to determine whether the vocabulary size of the selection of students provides adequate lexical coverage of the lexis used in the textbook to enable comprehension of the text. The findings were somewhat conflicting. The readability indices ...

  18. Identifying Information Focuses in Listening Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-yan

    2011-01-01

    The study explains the process of learners' listening comprehension within Halliday's information theory in functional grammar, including the skills of identifying focuses while listening in college English teaching. Identifying information focuses in listening is proved to improve the students' communicative listening ability by the means of a…

  19. Impacts of Captioned Movies on Listening Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janfaza, Abusaied; Jelyani, Saghar Javidi; Soori, Afshin

    2014-01-01

    With the advent of technology, the implication of authentic multimedia-based teaching materials are using widely in language classrooms. Technology can be in service of teaching different skills such as listening, reading, speaking and writing. Among these skills listening comprehension is a skill in which the learners have problems to master.…

  20. American Learners' Comprehension of Russian Textual Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shardakova, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, second language (L2) humor has attracted scholarly attention as both a means and a goal of L2 development. Much of this research, however, has focused on oral communication, whereas virtually no studies address humor as an aspect of reading comprehension. This exploratory study combines these two areas of inquiry, examining…

  1. Measurment and Reporting of Comprehensive Income: Search ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work covers the various efforts in the search of alternatives to historical accounting for the measurement that produces such a comprehensive income, using different bases of assets valuation models, while also clearly identifying the challenges, dilemmas and prospects of such efforts, particularly in the perspective of ...

  2. Relationship between Cultural Distance and Pragmatic Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafieyan, Vahid; Sharafi-Nejad, Maryam; Khavari, Zahra; Damavand, Ayoob; Eng, Lin Siew

    2014-01-01

    The distance between language learners' culture and the culture of the target language community is considered to play a crucial role in determining the level of pragmatic comprehension. In this respect, a study was conducted over 30 German students, perceived as culturally close to the British, and 30 South Korean students, perceived as…

  3. Comprehension and Error Monitoring in Simultaneous Interpreters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudes, Carolina; Macizo, Pedro; Morales, Luis; Bajo, M. Teresa

    2013-01-01

    In the current study we explored lexical, syntactic, and semantic processes during text comprehension in English monolinguals and Spanish/English (first language/second language) bilinguals with different experience in interpreting (nontrained bilinguals, interpreting students and professional interpreters). The participants performed an…

  4. A Comprehensive Process for Display Systems Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simcox, William A.

    A comprehensive development process for display design, focusing on computer-generated cathode ray tube (CRT) displays is presented. A framework is created for breaking the display into its component parts, used to guide the design process. The objective is to design or select the most cost effective graphics solution (hardware and software) to…

  5. Swarm Level 2 Comprehensive Inversion, 2016 Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tøffner-Clausen, Lars; Sabaka, Terence; Olsen, Nils

    In the framework of the ESA Earth Observation Magnetic Mapping Mission Swarm, the Expert Support Laboratories (ESL) provides high quality Level 2 Products describing a.o. the magnetic fields of the Earth. This poster provides details of the Level 2 Products from the Comprehensive Inversion chain...

  6. Reading Comprehension Instruction: Effects of Two Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Nancy L.; Norris, Janet A.; Hoffman, Paul R.

    2001-01-01

    Compares an integrated reading approach called Communicative Reading Strategies (CRS) with a skills-based comprehension approach for college freshmen with reading difficulties. Finds that CRS is the better approach, as it produces earlier reading improvement. Adds that students may be failing their course by the time skill-based intervention is…

  7. Advanced Selling: A Comprehensive Course Sales Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarrington-Young, Susan; Castleberry, Stephen B.; Coleman, Joshua T.

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive project for the Advanced Selling course that has been tested at three universities is introduced. After selecting an industry and a company, students engage in a complete industry analysis, a company sales analysis, a sales-specific SWOT analysis, complete a ride day with a salesperson in that firm, then present their findings in a…

  8. Comprehensive Family Services and Customer Satisfaction Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Ruth A.; Jones, Blake L.; Miller, Viola P.; Custer, Melba; Critchfield, Becky

    2006-01-01

    Comprehensive Family Services (CFS) is a strengths-based and partnership-oriented approach to casework implemented through multiple initiatives. This study examines the relationship between the practice of CFS and satisfaction of clients, foster parents, and community partners. CFS indicators are paired with statewide customer satisfaction survey…

  9. Developing Reading Comprehension through Collaborative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Drummond, Sylvia; Mazón, Nancy; Littleton, Karen; Vélez, Maricela

    2014-01-01

    The present study explores the development and promotion of reading comprehension in primary school students, in the context of the implementation of an educational programme called "Learning Together" (LT). The programme, which centred on collaborative learning activities, was designed to promote oral and written communication in…

  10. Reading Comprehension, Extended Processing and Attention Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkes-Julkowski, Miriam; Stolzenberg, Jonathan

    This study investigated the role of executive function in children with attention deficit disorders (ADD) by comparing differences resulting when diagnostic measures of reading comprehension consisting of either short or long passages were used. Subjects (all in grades 1-12) were grouped as having an attention deficit disorder (ADD) and not taking…

  11. Comprehensive food security and vulnerability analysis: Nigeria:

    OpenAIRE

    Kuku, Oluyemisi; Mathiassen, Astrid; Wadhwa, Amit; Myles, Lucy; Ajibola, Akeem

    2013-01-01

    The Nigerian Comprehensive Food Security and Vulnerability Analysis (CFSVA) provides an in-depth assessment of the food security situation within Nigeria. This is very important as it equips policymakers with timely and relevant information that will aid the targeting of interventions.

  12. Comprehensive Molecular Characterization of Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fishbein, Lauren; Leshchiner, Ignaty; Walter, Vonn; Danilova, Ludmila; Robertson, A. Gordon; Johnson, Amy R.; Lichtenberg, Tara M.; Murray, Bradley A.; Ghayee, Hans K.; Else, Tobias; Ling, Shiyun; Jefferys, Stuart R.; de Cubas, Aguirre A.; Wenz, Brandon; Korpershoek, Esther; Amelio, Antonio L.; Makowski, Liza; Rathmell, W. Kimryn; Gimenez-Roqueplo, Anne Paule; Giordano, Thomas J.; Asa, Sylvia L.; Tischler, Arthur S.; Akbani, Rehan; Ally, Adrian; Amar, Laurence; Amelio, Antonio L.; Arachchi, Harindra; Asa, Sylvia L.; Auchus, Richard J.; Auman, J. Todd; Baertsch, Robert; Balasundaram, Miruna; Balu, Saianand; Bartsch, Detlef K.; Baudin, Eric; Bauer, Thomas; Beaver, Allison; Benz, Christopher; Beroukhim, Rameen; Beuschlein, Felix; Bodenheimer, Tom; Boice, Lori; Bowen, Jay; Bowlby, Reanne; Brooks, Denise; Carlsen, Rebecca; Carter, Suzie; Cassol, Clarissa A.; Cherniack, Andrew D.; Chin, Lynda; Cho, Juok; Chuah, Eric; Chudamani, Sudha; Cope, Leslie; Crain, Daniel; Curley, Erin; Danilova, Ludmila; de Cubas, Aguirre A.; de Krijger, Ronald R.; Demchok, John A.; Deutschbein, Timo; Dhalla, Noreen; Dimmock, David; Dinjens, Winand N M; Else, Tobias; Eng, Charis; Eschbacher, Jennifer; Fassnacht, Martin; Felau, Ina; Feldman, Michael; Ferguson, Martin L.; Fiddes, Ian; Fishbein, Lauren; Frazer, Scott; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Gardner, Johanna; Gastier-Foster, Julie M.; Gehlenborg, Nils; Gerken, Mark; Getz, Gad; Geurts, Jennifer; Ghayee, Hans K.; Gimenez-Roqueplo, Anne Paule; Giordano, Thomas J.; Goldman, Mary; Graim, Kiley; Gupta, Manaswi; Haan, David; Hahner, Stefanie; Hantel, Constanze; Haussler, David; Hayes, D. Neil; Heiman, David I.; Hoadley, Katherine A.; Holt, Robert A.; Hoyle, Alan P.; Huang, Mei; Hunt, Bryan; Hutter, Carolyn M.; Jefferys, Stuart R.; Johnson, Amy R.; Jones, Steven J M; Jones, Corbin D.; Kasaian, Katayoon; Kebebew, Electron; Kim, Jaegil; Kimes, Patrick; Knijnenburg, Theo; Korpershoek, Esther; Lander, Eric; Lawrence, Michael S.; Lechan, Ronald; Lee, Darlene; Leraas, Kristen M.; Lerario, Antonio; Leshchiner, Ignaty; Lichtenberg, Tara M.; Lin, Pei; Ling, Shiyun; Liu, Jia; LiVolsi, Virginia A.; Lolla, Laxmi; Lotan, Yair; Lu, Yiling; Ma, Yussanne; Maison, Nicole; Makowski, Liza; Mallery, David; Mannelli, Massimo; Marquard, Jessica; Marra, Marco A.; Matthew, Thomas; Mayo, Michael; Méatchi, Tchao; Meng, Shaowu; Merino, Maria J.; Mete, Ozgur; Meyerson, Matthew; Mieczkowski, Piotr A.; Mills, Gordon B.; Moore, Richard A.; Morozova, Olena; Morris, Scott; Mose, Lisle E.; Mungall, Andrew J.; Murray, Bradley A.; Naresh, Rashi; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Newton, Yulia; Ng, Sam; Ni, Ying; Noble, Michael S.; Nwariaku, Fiemu; Pacak, Karel; Parker, Joel S.; Paul, Evan; Penny, Robert; Perou, Charles M.; Perou, Amy H.; Pihl, Todd; Powers, James; Rabaglia, Jennifer; Radenbaugh, Amie; Ramirez, Nilsa C.; Rao, Arjun; Rathmell, W. Kimryn; Riester, Anna; Roach, Jeffrey; Robertson, A. Gordon; Sadeghi, Sara; Saksena, Gordon; Salama, Sofie; Saller, Charles; Sandusky, George; Sbiera, Silviu; Schein, Jacqueline E.; Schumacher, Steven E.; Shelton, Candace; Shelton, Troy; Sheth, Margi; Shi, Yan; Shih, Juliann; Shmulevich, Ilya; Simons, Janae V.; Sipahimalani, Payal; Skelly, Tara; Sofia, Heidi J.; Sokolov, Artem; Soloway, Matthew G.; Sougnez, Carrie; Stuart, Josh; Sun, Charlie; Swatloski, Teresa; Tam, Angela; Tan, Donghui; Tarnuzzer, Roy; Tarvin, Katherine; Thiessen, Nina; Thorne, Leigh B.; Timmers, Henri J.; Tischler, Arthur S.; Tse, Kane; Uzunangelov, Vlado; van Berkel, Anouk; Veluvolu, Umadevi; Vicha, Ales; Voet, Doug; Waldmann, Jens; Walter, Vonn; Wan, Yunhu; Wang, Zhining; Wang, Tracy S.; Weaver, Joellen; Weinstein, John N.; Weismann, Dirk; Wenz, Brandon; Wilkerson, Matthew D.; Wise, Lisa; Wong, Tina; Wong, Christopher; Wu, Ye; Yang, Liming; Zelinka, Tomas; Zenklusen, Jean C.; Zhang, Jiashan (Julia); Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Jingchun; Zinzindohoué, Franck; Zmuda, Erik; Pacak, Karel; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Wilkerson, Matthew D.

    2017-01-01

    We report a comprehensive molecular characterization of pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PCCs/PGLs), a rare tumor type. Multi-platform integration revealed that PCCs/PGLs are driven by diverse alterations affecting multiple genes and pathways. Pathogenic germline mutations occurred in eight

  13. Phonemic Processes in Children's Reading Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCutchen, Deborah; Crain-Thoreson, Catherine

    1994-01-01

    Two experiments studied the role of phonemic information in children's comprehension during silent reading. A sentence acceptability task indicated that readers required more time to read and comprehend sentences with word-initial phonemes (the "tongue-twister effect") than control sentences. When the first task was added to a digit…

  14. Pragmatic comprehension deficit in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtgraves, Thomas; McNamara, Patrick

    2010-04-01

    Recognizing the specific speech act (Searle, 1969) that a speaker performs with an utterance is a fundamental feature of pragmatic competence. However, little is known about neurocognitive mediation of speech act comprehension. The present research examined the extent to which people with Parkinson's disease (PD) comprehend specific speech acts. In the first experiment, participants read conversational utterances and then performed a lexical decision task (decide whether a target string of letters was a word). Consistent with past research, nonimpaired participants performed this task more quickly when the target string was the speech act associated with the preceding utterance. In contrast, people with PD did not demonstrate this effect, suggesting that speech act activation is slowed or is not an automatic component of comprehension for people with PD. In a second study, participants were given unlimited time to indicate their recognition of the speech act performed with an utterance. PD participants were significantly poorer at this task than were control participants. We conclude that a previously undocumented language disorder exists in PD and that this disorder involves a selective deficit in speech act comprehension. Frontostriatal systems (the systems impaired in PD) likely contribute to normal speech act comprehension.

  15. Processing speaker affect during spoken sentence comprehension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, A.R.; Quené, H.; van Berkum, J.J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Anne van Leeuwen Utrecht institute of Linguistics OTS, Utrecht University Processing speaker affect during spoken sentence comprehension We often smile (and frown) while we talk. Speakers use facial expression, posture and prosody to provide additional cues that signal speaker stance. Speaker stance

  16. Implementing Comprehensive Health Care Management for Sickle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This reduction was not achieved through the use of sophisticated care such as bone marrow transplant, but through the adoption of a Comprehensive Health Care Management protocol for sickle cell disease. This protocol of care emphasizes prevention of crises through effective management of the disease. In Africa, where ...

  17. Using Image Analysis to Build Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sarah Drake; Swope, John

    2010-01-01

    Content area reading remains a primary concern of history educators. In order to better prepare students for encounters with text, the authors propose the use of two image analysis strategies tied with a historical theme to heighten student interest in historical content and provide a basis for improved reading comprehension.

  18. Developing Reading Comprehension with Moving Image Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maine, Fiona; Shields, Robin

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the findings from a small-scale exploratory study that investigated how moving-image narratives might enable children to develop transferable reading comprehension strategies. Using short, animated, narrative films, 28 primary-aged children engaged in a 10-week programme that included the explicit instruction of comprehension…

  19. The Dark Side of Comprehensive Soldier Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidelson, Roy; Pilisuk, Marc; Soldz, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Comprehensive Soldier Fitness (CSF), the focus of the January 2011 special issue of the "American Psychologist," is a $125 million resilience training initiative designed to reduce and prevent the adverse psychological consequences of combat for soldiers and veterans. These are worthy goals. Soldiers and veterans deserve the best care possible,…

  20. Comprehensive vs. incremental reform: the debate intensifies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, M

    1992-03-20

    President Bush's health care reform proposal has intensified the current debate over whether the U.S. health care system requires incremental or comprehensive reform. But some analysts say that those terms are merely political instruments in a much broader debate on U.S. social policy.

  1. Managing the Development of Comprehensive Instructional Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Robert L.; Elam, Robert J.

    1978-01-01

    Identifies six stages for the development of a comprehensive instructional system (planning, design, development, implementation, management transfer, client operation) and describes briefly the general purpose of each stage as it relates to the total development efforts. Maintaining a strong user orientation and involvement at each stage is…

  2. Mobility in Older Adults: A Comprehensive Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Sandra C.; Porter, Michelle M.; Menec, Verena H.

    2010-01-01

    Mobility is fundamental to active aging and is intimately linked to health status and quality of life. Although there is widespread acceptance regarding the importance of mobility in older adults, there have been few attempts to comprehensively portray mobility, and research has to a large extent been discipline specific. In this article, a new…

  3. Comprehension: The Challenge for Children's Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Susan R.

    The purpose of this research was to determine young children's comprehension of selected TV program content. The subjects were 210 children in grades K-2. All subjects in groups of five, were shown segments from four TV programs: a scalloped potatoes commercial, a "Batman" and Robin episode, a news story on the MIG-25 and a segment of the…

  4. Electronic Books: Children's Reading and Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimshaw, Shirley; Dungworth, Naomi; McKnight, Cliff; Morris, Anne

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the differences in children's comprehension and enjoyment of storybooks according to the medium of presentation. Two different storybooks were used and 132 children participated. Of these, 51 children read an extract from "The Magicians of Caprona," about half reading an electronic version with an online dictionary, and the…

  5. Enhancing comprehensive inversions using the Swarm constellation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabaka, T.J.; Olsen, Nils

    2006-01-01

    signals, as well as information about mantle conductivity structure, can be met. The recovery method used in this paper is known as comprehensive inversion (CI) and involves the parameterization of all major fields followed by a co-estimation of these parameters in a least-squares sense in order...

  6. Towards Comprehensive Food Security Measures: Comparing Key ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food security is a multi-dimensional issue that has been difficult to measure comprehensively, given the one-dimensional focus of existing indicators. Three indicators dominate the food security measurement debate: Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS), Dietary Diversity Score (DDS) and Coping Strategies ...

  7. Improving reading comprehension through Reciprocal Teaching Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Komariah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at discovering the benefits of the Reciprocal Teaching Method (RTM in the reading classroom, finding out the achievements of students after four comprehension training sessions of using RTM, and exploring the perceptions of students on the use of RTM. This method uses four comprehension strategies: predicting, questioning, clarifying, and summarizing, to help learners monitor their development of reading comprehension by themselves. Students work in groups of four or five and the members are divided into five roles which are the leader, predictor, clarifier, questioner, and summarizer. The subjects were 24 students from the twelfth grade at a high school in Banda Aceh. Observations, tests, documents and interviews were collected to get the data. The results showed that the students were more active and productive in the reading classroom after RTM sessions and their reading proficiency improved. They learnt how to apply several of the strategies from RTM while reading. The results also showed that they preferred this method for teaching-learning reading compared to the conventional one. Therefore, teachers are suggested to consider using this method for teaching reading that instils the students on how to apply the four comprehension strategies used in reading.

  8. Updating during Reading Comprehension: Why Causality Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendeou, Panayiota; Smith, Emily R.; O'Brien, Edward J.

    2013-01-01

    The present set of 7 experiments systematically examined the effectiveness of adding causal explanations to simple refutations in reducing or eliminating the impact of outdated information on subsequent comprehension. The addition of a single causal-explanation sentence to a refutation was sufficient to eliminate any measurable disruption in…

  9. Early Identification of Reading Comprehension Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catts, Hugh W.; Nielsen, Diane Corcoran; Bridges, Mindy Sittner; Liu, Yi-Syuan

    2016-01-01

    Most research on early identification of reading disabilities has focused on word reading problems and little attention has been given to reading comprehension difficulties. In this study, we investigated whether measures of language ability and/or response to language intervention in kindergarten uniquely predicted reading comprehension…

  10. Relationship between Prior Knowledge and Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelaal, Noureldin Mohamed; Sase, Amal Saleh

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between prior knowledge and reading comprehension in second language among postgraduate students in UPM. Participants in the study were 20 students who have the same level in English as a second language from several faculties. On the basis of a prior-knowledge questionnaire and test, students were…

  11. Radio Listening, Television Viewing and Comprehension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reading comprehension is the basic foundation for functional literacy and scholastic achievement. However, most school children spend a great deal of their time watching television or listening to radio than in reading. The research effort was thus; set out to investigate the effects of television and radio programmes to the ...

  12. Phonological and conceptual activation in speech comprehension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norris, D.; Cutler, A.; McQueen, J.M.; Butterfield, S.

    2006-01-01

    We propose that speech comprehension involves the activation of token representations of the phonological forms of current lexical hypotheses, separately from the ongoing construction of a conceptual interpretation of the current utterance. In a series of cross-modal priming experiments,

  13. A comprehensive classification system for lipids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fahy, E.; Subramaniam, S.; Brown, H.A.; Glass, C.K.; Merrill, A.H.; Murphy, R.C.; Raetz, C.R.H.; Russell, D.W.; Seyama, Y.; Shaw, W.; Shimizu, T.; Spener, F.; van Meer, G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068570368; VanNieuwenhze, M.S.; White, S.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304843539; Witztum, J.; Dennis, E.A.

    2005-01-01

    Lipids are produced, transported, and recognized by the concerted actions of numerous enzymes, binding proteins, and receptors. A comprehensive analysis of lipid molecules, “lipidomics,” in the context of genomics and proteomics is crucial to understanding cellular physiology and pathology;

  14. Oral Reading Intonation and Reading Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlin, Andrea

    A study investigated whether fluency in oral reading, as indicated by proper intonation, could be used as a measure of college students' reading comprehension. The study was designed to look at the three features of intonation--pitch, stress, and juncture--separately and in combination to determine whether any one or a combination of all the…

  15. Writing Activities for Developing Reading Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlin, Robert; Karlin, Andrea R.

    As both draw upon language and experience, and both deal with meaning, writing and reading can be learned concurrently. Writing activities having a positive effect on reading skills include notetaking and sentence combining exercises. A more productive way of improving reading comprehension through writing is to have students base their writing on…

  16. IQ and Reading Comprehension in Translation Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Askari

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Having a deeper understanding of determining factors in the quality of translation is in the interest of almost all scholars of translation studies. Students’ intelligence is being measured constantly in order to determine their aptitude for entering into different programs. However, in translation studies, the variable of intelligence quotient (IQ has been curiously ignored among researchers. This study aimed to explore the strength of both IQ and reading comprehension in predicting translation quality among Iranian translation students.  A sample of forty-six translation students from Alborz University of Qazvin participated in this study. Data were collected using three tests including Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices, Colina’s (2008 componential translation quality rating scheme and the reading comprehension test of IELTS. The results show IQ test scores and reading comprehension significantly predict translation quality assessment. Surprisingly, the most significant finding is that IQ score is by far a better predictor of translation quality than reading comprehension. Overall, it is concluded that translation quality assessment is more of a deeper cognitive function than solely language process, which could lead to more research on cognitive aspects of translation.

  17. Web-Based CALL to Listening Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Mei; Zhang, Ruiming

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated effectiveness of Web-based CALL on listening comprehension. Both students' academic performance and attitudes were examined. T-tests were used to analyze the results of students' academic performance. Descriptive statistics interpreted students' attitudes toward this learning. Students' participation was also recorded.…

  18. Comprehensive entropy weight observability-controllability risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Decision making for water resource planning is often related to social, economic and environmental factors. There are various methods for making decisions about water resource planning alternatives and measures with various shortcomings. A comprehensive entropy weight observability-controllability risk analysis ...

  19. Categorization, or Schema Selection in Graph Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Mark A.

    A model of graph comprehension is proposed including perceptual and memory processes. Multidimensional scaling (MDS), cluster analysis, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to determine how college students with different mathematical experience read different types of bar graphs. Data were collected at the University of Oklahoma (Norman)…

  20. Production, Usage, and Comprehension in Animal Vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfarth, Robert M.; Cheney, Dorothy L.

    2010-01-01

    In this review, we place equal emphasis on production, usage, and comprehension because these components of communication may exhibit different developmental trajectories and be affected by different neural mechanisms. In the animal kingdom generally, learned, flexible vocal production is rare, appearing in only a few orders of birds and few…

  1. A Comprehensive Approach to Curriculum Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Lisa; Michaelson, Andrea

    This paper addresses how educators can encourage elementary-age children to develop critical thinking skills and creativity while also meeting educational standards and maintaining learning goals. The paper notes that a comprehensive curriculum: (1) honors the role of all participantsteachers, children, and parents; (2) engages children in…

  2. Self and External Monitoring of Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiu, Ling-po; Chen, Qishan

    2013-01-01

    The present study compared the effectiveness of 2 approaches to remedy the inaccuracy of self-monitoring of reading comprehension. The first approach attempts to enhance self-monitoring by strengthening the cues utilized in monitoring. The second approach replaces self-monitoring with external regulation based on objective evaluative information.…

  3. Self-Explanation Training Improves Proof Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodds, Mark; Alcock, Lara; Inglis, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    In this article we report 3 experiments demonstrating that a simple booklet containing self-explanation training, designed to focus students' attention on logical relationships within a mathematical proof, can significantly improve their proof comprehension. Experiment 1 demonstrated that students who received the training generated higher quality…

  4. Production/comprehension asymmetries in language acquisition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, Petra; Koster, Charlotte

    The theme of this Special Issue is asymmetries in language acquisition, and the contributions present evidence for either the presence or absence of a production/comprehension asymmetry in child language. The authors focus on various areas of linguistics, ranging from phonology and syntax to

  5. Comprehensive Building Systems: Threat or Promise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Building Research, 1966

    1966-01-01

    Comprehensive building systems are the result of industry's search for markets, clients' desire for shorter hours and lower costs, and the growing complexity of building technology which requires the architect to depend on industry for research and development. Certain questions are raised by this trend. Will industry dominate architecture? Can…

  6. Segmentation in Reading and Film Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacks, Jeffrey M.; Speer, Nicole K.; Reynolds, Jeremy R.

    2009-01-01

    When reading a story or watching a film, comprehenders construct a series of representations in order to understand the events depicted. Discourse comprehension theories and a recent theory of perceptual event segmentation both suggest that comprehenders monitor situational features such as characters' goals, to update these representations at…

  7. Missouri Comprehensive Outdoor Recreation Plan: Executive Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri State Inter-Agency for Outdoor Recreation, Jefferson.

    The document is a summary of the Missouri State Comprehensive Outdoor Recreation Plan, which was designed to provide guidelines for allocation of resources for needed recreation facilities. The plan identifies the present and future needs for outdoor recreation and recommends ways of meeting these needs. This 1967 document provides a brief history…

  8. Profiling classroom reading comprehension development practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The status quo of reading comprehension teaching in South African primary schools. Depending on the medium of instruction at each school, reading skills in South African schools are developed during the Foundation Phase of schooling using home language readers (Pretorius, 2002). Much emphasis is placed on ...

  9. Research Methods for Comprehensive Science Literature Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Barry N.

    2009-01-01

    Finding some information on most topics is easy. There are abundant sources of information readily available. However, completing a comprehensive literature review on a particular topic is often difficult, laborious, and time intensive; the project requires organization, persistence, and an understanding of the scholarly communication and…

  10. Retrenchment at Comprehensive Universities and Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of the College and University Personnel Association, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Data on current retrenchment policies and practices of comprehensive universities and colleges are reported and analyzed, including information on the existence of a retrenchment policy, retrenchment between 1974-75 and 1977-78, the retrenchment process, and the impact of retrenchment on affirmative action and employment rights and benefits. (MLW)

  11. Comprehensive Essays for World History Finals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Martha J.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a novel approach to comprehensive questions in world history examinations. Recommends using current events as illustrative reference points for complex subjects such as nationalism, liberalism, and international trade. Students receive information packets on the events for several weeks and must relate the subjects to these events. (MJP)

  12. Reading Comprehension and Understanding Idiomatic Expressions: A Developmental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiara Levorato, Maria; Nesi, Barbara; Cacciari, Cristina

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate idiom comprehension in school-age Italian children with different reading comprehension skills. According to our hypothesis, the level of a child's text comprehension skills should predict his/her ability to understand idiomatic meanings. Idiom comprehension in fact requires children to go beyond a…

  13. Comprehensive Transcriptome Analyses of the Fructose-Fed Syrian Golden Hamster Liver Provides Novel Insights into Lipid Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ziyang; Xiong, Chaoliang; Mo, Suo; Tian, Haiying; Yu, Mengqian; Mao, Tingting; Chen, Qian; Luo, Haitao; Li, Quanzhen; Lu, Jianxin; Zhao, Yi; Li, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Dyslipidemia has been widely proven to contribute to cardiovascular diseases and other metabolic disorders, especially in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. The overproduction of VLDL is a significant characteristic of dyslipidemia, indicating the dysfunction of hepatic lipid metabolism, from triglyceride synthesis to transport. The fructose-fed Syrian golden hamster is an established animal model for the study of VLDL assembly with insulin resistance, however, it remains unknown how VLDL production is regulated at the transcriptional level due to the absence of a complete hamster genome. Here, we performed deep sequencing and constructed an mRNA-miRNA-lncRNA interaction network of Syrian golden hamster liver in order to reveal the global transcription profile and find potential RNA molecular regulation of VLDL production. We identified 4,450 novel multi-exon hamster lncRNAs and 755 miRNAs expressed in liver. Additionally, 146 differentially expressed coding genes, 27 differentially expressed lncRNA genes, as well as 16 differentially expressed miRNAs were identified. We then constructed an mRNA-miRNA-lncRNA interaction network that may potentially regulate VLDL production, and interestingly found several microRNA-centered regulatory networks. In order to verify our interpretation, miR-486 was selected for further experiments. Overexpression or down-regulation of miR-486 in fructose-fed hamsters resulted in altered hepatic expression of proteins involved in VLDL production, and in modulated levels of circulating VLDL. Our findings implicated that miR-486 is a potential regulator of circulating VLDL levels. These results provide new insights and a valuable resource for further study of the molecular mechanisms of VLDL secretion.

  14. Industrial Sectors Integrated Solutions (ISIS) - An Engineering–Economic and Multi-Pollutant Modeling Framework for Comprehensive Regulatory Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Based on the National Academy of Science’s 2004 report, “Air Quality Management in the United States”, the National Research Council (NRC) recommended to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) that standard setting, planning, and control strategy development should be based...

  15. Predicting individual differences in reading comprehension: a twin study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutting, Laurie; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; DeThorne, Laura S.; Justice, Laura M.; Schatschneider, Chris; Thompson, Lee A.; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the Simple View of reading from a behavioral genetic perspective. Two aspects of word decoding (phonological decoding and word recognition), two aspects of oral language skill (listening comprehension and vocabulary), and reading comprehension were assessed in a twin sample at age 9. Using latent factor models, we found that overlap among phonological decoding, word recognition, listening comprehension, vocabulary, and reading comprehension was primarily due to genetic influences. Shared environmental influences accounted for associations among word recognition, listening comprehension, vocabulary, and reading comprehension. Independent of phonological decoding and word recognition, there was a separate genetic link between listening comprehension, vocabulary, and reading comprehension and a specific shared environmental link between vocabulary and reading comprehension. There were no residual genetic or environmental influences on reading comprehension. The findings provide evidence for a genetic basis to the “Simple View” of reading. PMID:20814768

  16. How reading comprehension is embodied and why that matters

    OpenAIRE

    Arthur M. Glenberg

    2011-01-01

    Reading comprehension, much like comprehension of situations and comprehension of oral language, is embodied. In all cases, comprehension is the ability to take effective action on the basis ofaffordances related to the body, the physical world, and personal goals and cultural norms. In language contexts, action-based comprehension arises from simulating the linguistic content usingneural and bodily systems of perception, action, and emotion. Within this framework, a new approach to teaching ...

  17. The Relations between Lower and Higher Level Comprehension Skills and Their Role in Prediction of Early Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Macarena; Cain, Kate

    2015-01-01

    This study of 4- to 6-year-olds had 2 aims: first, to determine how lower level comprehension skills (receptive vocabulary and grammar) and verbal memory support early higher level comprehension skills (inference and literal story comprehension), and second, to establish the predictive power of these skills on subsequent reading comprehension.…

  18. Using Performance Feedback of Reciprocal Teaching Strategies to Increase Reading Comprehension Srategy Use with Seventh Grade Students with Comprehension Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Matthew K.; Maki, Kathrin E.; Karich, Abbey C.; Coolong-Chaffin, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    The current study used a multiple-baseline design to examine the effect of providing performance feedback on comprehension strategy use and reading comprehension. The participants were four seventh grade students with comprehension difficulties. The students were taught the reciprocal teaching comprehension strategies of generating questions,…

  19. The relationship between component skills, reading experience, and reading comprehension in Danish 3rd graders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønberg, Louise Flensted-Jensen; Petersen, Dorthe Klint

    Purpose The main aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of aspects of vocabulary, word reading abilities, and reading experience to reading comprehension, and to analyse sub-samples of students with comprehension difficulties. Method The study employed a cross-sectional design. Full...... data sets were obtained from 179 Danish Grade 3 pupils. Participants were given a standard reading comprehension test requiring multiple-choice answers to six different texts of various length and type. Orthographic and phonological coding, as well as non-verbal problem solving were assessed by means...... of standard tests. Assessments of reading experience and aspects of vocabulary (size and semantic lexical structuring) entailed new assessment tools developed for group administration by the authors of this paper. Lexical structuring was assessed with odd one out tasks (e.g. which one does not belong here...

  20. Nondimensional Parameters and Equations for Nonlinear and Bifurcation Analyses of Thin Anisotropic Quasi-Shallow Shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Michael P.

    2010-01-01

    A comprehensive development of nondimensional parameters and equations for nonlinear and bifurcations analyses of quasi-shallow shells, based on the Donnell-Mushtari-Vlasov theory for thin anisotropic shells, is presented. A complete set of field equations for geometrically imperfect shells is presented in terms general of lines-of-curvature coordinates. A systematic nondimensionalization of these equations is developed, several new nondimensional parameters are defined, and a comprehensive stress-function formulation is presented that includes variational principles for equilibrium and compatibility. Bifurcation analysis is applied to the nondimensional nonlinear field equations and a comprehensive set of bifurcation equations are presented. An extensive collection of tables and figures are presented that show the effects of lamina material properties and stacking sequence on the nondimensional parameters.

  1. Preparing for reading comprehension: Fostering text comprehension skills in preschool and early elementary school children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paul van den Broek; Panayiota Kendeou; Sandra Lousberg; Gootje Visser

    2011-01-01

    .... Recent research suggests that the ability to do so starts to develop early -well before reading age- and that early individual differences are predictive of later reading-comprehension performance...

  2. “Deconstructing” comprehensibility: Identifying the linguistic influences on listeners’ L2 comprehensibility ratings

    OpenAIRE

    Isaacs, T.; Trofimovich, P.

    2012-01-01

    Comprehensibility, a major concept in second language (L2) pronunciation research that denotes listeners’ perceptions of how easily they understand L2 speech, is central to interlocutors’ communicative success in real-world contexts. Although comprehensibility has been modeled in several L2 oral proficiency scales—for example, the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) or the International English Language Testing System (IELTS)—shortcomings of existing scales (e.g., vague descriptors)...

  3. Reading comprehension and vocabulary:is vocabulary more important for some aspects of comprehension?

    OpenAIRE

    Cain, Kate; Oakhill, Jane

    2014-01-01

    The influence of vocabulary breadth (number of words known) and vocabulary depth (what is known about those words) on different aspects of text comprehension was examined in 83 10- to 11-year-olds. Vocabulary was not an important predictor of comprehension for details explicitly stated in the text. In contrast, vocabulary was related to inference making and, in particular, measures of vocabulary that assessed what was known about individual words predicted unique variance in global coherence ...

  4. [Anne Arold. Kontrastive Analyse...] / Paul Alvre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alvre, Paul, 1921-2008

    2001-01-01

    Arvustus: Arold, Anne. Kontrastive analyse der Wortbildungsmuster im Deutschen und im Estnischen (am Beispiel der Aussehensadjektive). Tartu, 2000. (Dissertationes philologiae germanicae Universitatis Tartuensis)

  5. How specific are specific comprehension difficulties?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønberg, Louise Flensted-Jensen; Petersen, Dorthe Klint

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the occurrence of poor comprehenders, i.e., children identified with reading comprehension difficulties in spite of age-appropriate word reading skills. It supports the findings that some children do show poor reading comprehension in spite of age-appropriate word reading...... as measured on a phonological coding measure. However, the proportion was smaller than the often reported 10-15 % and even smaller when average sight word recognition was also set as a criterion for word reading ability. Compared to average comprehenders, the poor comprehenders’ sight word recognition...... and daily reading of literary texts were significantly below that of average readers. This study indicates that a lack of reading experience and, likewise, a lack of fluent word reading may be important factors in understanding nine-year-old poor comprehenders’ difficulties....

  6. Subvocal speech, reading rate, and comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freese, A R

    1996-06-01

    The relationship of subvocal speech and reading rate to comprehension of 25 children, ranging from 8 to 15 years of age, was investigated by means of electromyographic (EMG) recordings taken while the subjects silently read two meaningful passages. The first was orthographically regular, and the second was composed of approximately sixty percent homophones, Labial muscle action recordings, latencies, and comprehension measures were obtained. Variables derived from these measures were used to predict reading age. Profiles derived from the EMGs provided information about how each reader processed the information from the reading passages. The empirical results of the study provide strong support for the valuable role of subvocal speech in the extraction of information and the importance of readers demonstrating the ability to use flexibility of the reading process when reading for meaning.

  7. Comprehensive Social Skills Taxonomy: Development and Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Nancy A; Kinnealey, Moya

    2015-01-01

    We developed a comprehensive social skills taxonomy based on archived children's social skill goal sheets, and we applied the taxonomy to 6,897 goals of children in 6 diagnostic categories to explore patterns related to diagnosis. We used a grounded theory approach to code and analyze social skill goals and develop the taxonomy. Multivariate analysis of variance and Tukey post hoc honestly significant difference test were used to analyze differences in social skill needs among diagnostic groups. We developed a taxonomy of 7 social skill constructs or categories, descriptions, and behavioral indicators. The 7 social skill categories were reflected across 6 diagnostic groups, and differences in social skill needs among groups were identified. This comprehensive taxonomy of social skills can be useful in developing research-based individual, group, or institutional programming to improve social skills. Copyright © 2015 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  8. Digital Earth - Young generation's comprehension and ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandrova, T.; Konecny, M.

    2014-02-01

    The authors are experienced in working with children and students in the field of early warning and crises management and cartography. All these topics are closely connected to Digital Earth (DE) ideas. On the basis of a questionnaire, the young generation's comprehension of DE concept is clarified. Students from different age groups (from 19 to 36) from different countries and with different social, cultural, economical and political backgrounds are asked to provide definition of DE and describe their basic ideas about meaning, methodology and applications of the concept. The questions aim to discover the young generation's comprehension of DE ideas. They partially cover the newest trends of DE development like social, cultural and environmental issues as well as the styles of new communications (Google Earth, Facebook, LinkedIn, etc.). In order to assure the future development of the DE science, it is important to take into account the young generation's expectations. Some aspects of DE development are considered in the Conclusions.

  9. Atopic Dermatitis and Comorbidities: Added Value of Comprehensive Dermatoepidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijsten, Tamar

    2017-05-01

    Atopic dermatitis is common and in its severe form is devastating. This chronic inflammatory dermatosis is part of the atopic syndrome, which includes asthma, food allergies, and hay fever and is known to be associated with mental health disorders. In line with psoriasis, several recent observational studies using national survey and linkage data have suggested a link between atopic dermatitis and cardiovascular disease. The atopic dermatitis field can benefit from the past experiences in psoriasis research and should not follow the same path, but, rather, aim for a more comprehensive approach from the beginning. A recent German consortium studying links between atopic dermatitis and cardiovascular disease first screened a large claims database, followed by analyses of more deeply phenotyped (birth) cohorts with longitudinal data. In addition, genetic and metabolic analyses assessing the predisposition of patients with atopic dermatitis for cardiovascular disease were performed. Overall, the association between atopic dermatitis and cardiovascular disease was at most modest, but in more refined cohorts the cardiovascular risk profile and genetic architecture was comparable. A more integrated approach could create clarity about the clinical relevance of cardiovascular disease in individuals with atopic dermatitis sooner, avoid speculation that affects patient care, and save scientific resources. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Toward Determining the Comprehensibility of Machine Translations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    SVT ) is a technique for measur- ing the comprehension of text paragraphs by determining if such a representation has been created. It has been used...al., 2009). In composing SVT tests, several paragraphs, each containing approximately 12 sentences, are chosen. For each of the sentences...version of the test that was developed out of the SVT and cor- rected for some of its shortfalls. Here, there are only two test sentence types

  11. Let's do comprehension 8-9

    CERN Document Server

    Brodie, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Let's Do Comprehension is a brand new series of six titles in the popular 'Let's Do' range. Each book contains a rich variety of stimulating reading passages, accompanied by questions of varying difficulty. Designed to be used at home, each book includes tips and clues from Alice the Alligator as well as extra challenges in Brodie's Brain Boosters. There is a clear answer section for reference by parents and children, together with bright, colourful reward stickers.

  12. Research team for Space Debris comprehensive measures

    OpenAIRE

    Ohnishi, Mitsuru; 大西, 充

    2017-01-01

    The increasing number of pieces of space junk, that is "space debris", is supposed to be a serious threat on humankind's use of outer space in the future. JAXA has organized the research team for space debris comprehensive measures, which consists of following 4 key sub-themes, (1) Formulating International Standards and Guidelines, (2) Researching technologies for debris Mitigation, (3)Researching technologies for the low-cost Active Debris Removal, (4)Researching technologies for debris Sit...

  13. Hand Specific Representations in Language Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire eMoody-Triantis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Theories of embodied cognition argue that language comprehension involves sensory-motor re-enactments of the actions described. However, the degree of specificity of these re-enactments as well as the relationship between action and language remains a matter of debate. Here we investigate these issues by examining how hand-specific information (left or right hand is recruited in language comprehension and action execution. An fMRI study tested right-handed participants in two separate tasks that were designed to be as similar as possible to increase sensitivity of the comparison across task: an action execution go/no-go task where participants performed right or left hand actions, and a language task where participants read sentences describing the same left or right handed actions as in the execution task. We found that language-induced activity did not match the hand-specific patterns of activity found for action execution in primary somatosensory and motor cortex, but it overlapped with pre-motor and parietal regions associated with action planning. Within these pre-motor regions, both right hand actions and sentences elicited stronger activity than left hand actions and sentences - a dominant hand effect -. Importantly, both dorsal and ventral sections of the left pre-central gyrus were recruited by both tasks, suggesting different action features being recruited. These results suggest that (a language comprehension elicits motor representations that are hand-specific and akin to multimodal action plans, rather than full action re-enactments; and (b language comprehension and action execution share schematic hand-specific representations that are richer for the dominant hand, and thus linked to previous motor experience.

  14. The comprehensive training in Colombian higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo M. Posada Alvarez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article the integral formation fundamental than action Under the new legislation and contemporary predicaments on education, knowledge and research education is analyzed. This training involves not only students but the entire university community, particularly teachers, whose reflective responsibility for their work should bring them to operate the pillars identified in education. Likewise Institutional factors that can ensure and strengthen the comprehensive training in higher education are analyzed: disciplinary integration, flexibility, innovation, leadership, participation, self-evaluation and accreditation.

  15. Comprehensive data analysis of human ureter proteome

    OpenAIRE

    Magdeldin, Sameh; Hirao, Yoshitoshi; El Guoshy, Amr; Xu, Bo; Zhang, Ying; Fujinaka, Hidehiko; Yamamoto, Keiko; Yates, John R.; Yamamoto, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    Comprehensive human ureter proteome dataset was generated from OFFGel fractionated ureter samples. Our result showed that among 2217 non-redundant ureter proteins, 751 protein candidates (33.8%) were detected in urine as urinary protein/polypeptide or exosomal protein. On the other hand, comparing ureter protein hits (48) that are not shown in corresponding databases to urinary bladder and prostate human protein atlas databases pinpointed 21 proteins that might be unique to ureter tissue. In ...

  16. Comprehension of contrastive stress by Broca's aphasics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avrutin, S; Lubarsky, S; Greene, J

    1999-11-01

    Comprehension of stress as a determiner of reference for pronouns was compared in eight patients with Broca's aphasia (BA) and five age-matched control subjects. The subjects were asked to listen to sentences in which the stressed or unstressed condition of the pronoun was a critical criterion for the establishment of reference. For each sentence, subjects were shown three pictures and asked to point to the correct referent of the pronoun. While the controls were nearly perfect in both the stressed and unstressed conditions, BA patients were significantly worse than normals, showing chance performance in both cases. However, a significant disparity was found in the BA patients' selection of the object NP as the referent under stressed and unstressed conditions, indicating that BA subjects are, indeed, sensitive to the stress patterns of pronouns. It was thus hypothesized that the BA patients' chance performance was the result of an inability to implement their knowledge of stress during the processing of sentences involving discourse-related linguistic operations, such as the establishment of pronoun reference (Grodzinsky, Wexler, Chien, Marakovitz, & Solomon, 1993). To test this hypothesis, a second experiment was conducted in which discourse-related operations were eliminated. In this second experiment, comprehension of stress by the same two groups was compared in tasks involving purely morphosyntactic processes. The contrastive stress patterns of otherwise homophonous compound nouns and adjectival phrases (e.g., BLACKboard, black BOARD), rather than those of pronouns, were examined. In this grammatically "simpler" experiment (i.e., without discourse-related operations), BA subjects scored significantly above chance in their comprehension of sentences involving compound nouns; unexpectedly, however, these same subjects did not show significantly above-chance performance in their comprehension of sentences containing adjectival phrases. Nevertheless, the results

  17. Scanning Technique In Developing Students Reading Comprehension

    OpenAIRE

    Thamrin, Nur Sehang

    2012-01-01

    One of the objectives of teaching English for university students is the students are expected to understand the reading text. However, it is very difficult for the students to catch the message from the reading text as they have limited words and reading strategies. This research was intended to solve the students' problem relating to the reading comprehension. The aim of this research is to prove whether the implementation of scanning technique is effective to develop students' reading comp...

  18. Let's do comprehension 5-6

    CERN Document Server

    Brodie, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Let's Do Comprehension is a brand new series of six titles in the popular 'Let's Do' range. Each book contains a rich variety of stimulating reading passages, accompanied by questions of varying difficulty. Designed to be used at home, each book includes tips and clues from Alice the Alligator as well as extra challenges in Brodie's Brain Boosters. There is a clear answer section for reference by parents and children, together with bright, colourful reward stickers.

  19. Does reading strategy instruction improve students’ comprehension?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyetunji, Christianah Oluwatoyin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the effect of reading strategy instruction on Second Language (L2 students’ reading comprehension in a Botswana College of Education. The intervention programme was implemented based on the observation that some trainee teachers failed to improve on their L2 proficiency after spending a year in the L2 classroom. Prior to the intervention, difficulty in reading and comprehending had been identified as one of the contributing factors to their failure to improve on their proficiency level. A reading comprehension test was used to collect data from participants who were trainee teachers at a College of Education in Botswana before and after the intervention. The six-week intervention programme focused on seven reading strategies, namely the use of background knowledge, self-questioning, inferencing, rereading, drawing conclusions, identifying main ideas and summarising. The findings suggest that strategy training can increase L2 students’ reading comprehension. Based on the findings, it is recommended that strategy training be introduced into the L2 syllabus of the primary school teacher trainees in all Botswana Colleges of Education.

  20. A Comprehensive Definition for Integrative Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Claudia M; Balneaves, Lynda G; Cardoso, Maria J; Cohen, Lorenzo; Greenlee, Heather; Johnstone, Peter; Kücük, Ömer; Mailman, Josh; Mao, Jun J

    2017-11-01

    Integrative oncology, which is generally understood to refer to the use of a combination of complementary medicine therapies in conjunction with conventional cancer treatments, has been defined in different ways, but there is no widely accepted definition. We sought to develop and establish a consensus for a comprehensive definition of the field of integrative oncology. We used a mixed-methods approach that included a literature analysis and a consensus procedure, including an interdisciplinary expert panel and surveys, to develop a comprehensive and acceptable definition for the term "integrative oncology." The themes identified in the literature and from the expert discussion were condensed into a two-sentence definition. Survey respondents had very positive views on the draft definition, and their comments helped to shape the final version. The final definition for integrative oncology is: "Integrative oncology is a patient-centered, evidence-informed field of cancer care that utilizes mind and body practices, natural products, and/or lifestyle modifications from different traditions alongside conventional cancer treatments. Integrative oncology aims to optimize health, quality of life, and clinical outcomes across the cancer care continuum and to empower people to prevent cancer and become active participants before,during, and beyond cancer treatment." This short and comprehensive definition for the term integrative oncology will facilitate a better understanding and communication of this emerging field. This definition will also drive focused and cohesive effort to advance the field of integrative oncology.