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Sample records for comprehensive technical review

  1. A COMPREHENSIVE TECHNICAL REVIEW OF THE DEMONSTRATION BULK VITRIFICATION SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SCHAUS, P.S.

    2006-09-29

    In May 2006, CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc. chartered an Expert Review Panel (ERP) to review the current status of the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS). It is the consensus of the ERP that bulk vitrification is a technology that requires further development and evaluation to determine its potential for meeting the Hanford waste stabilization mission. No fatal flaws (issues that would jeopardize the overall DBVS mission that cannot be mitigated) were found, given the current state of the project. However, a number of technical issues were found that could significantly affect the project's ability to meet its overall mission as stated in the project ''Justification of Mission Need'' document, if not satisfactorily resolved. The ERP recognizes that the project has changed from an accelerated schedule demonstration project to a formally chartered project that must be in full compliance with DOE 413.3 requirements. The perspective of the ERP presented herein, is measured against the formally chartered project as stated in the approved Justification of Mission Need document. A justification of Mission Need document was approved in July 2006 which defined the objectives for the DBVS Project. In this document, DOE concluded that bulk vitrification is a viable technology that requires additional development to determine its potential applicability to treatment of a portion of the Hanford low activity waste. The DBVS mission need statement now includes the following primary objectives: (1) process approximately 190,000 gallons of Tank S-109 waste into fifty 100 metric ton boxes of vitrified product; (2) store and dispose of these boxes at Hanford's Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF); (3) evaluate the waste form characteristics; (4) gather pilot plant operability data, and (5) develop the overall life cycle system performance of bulk vitrification and produce a comparison of the bulk vitrification process to building a second LAW

  2. T1 Mapping for Myocardial Fibrosis by Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Relaxometry—A Comprehensive Technical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton-Craig, Christian R.; Strudwick, Mark W.; Galloway, Graham J.

    2017-01-01

    Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging has been widely used to assess myocardial perfusion and scar and is the non-invasive gold standard for identification of focal myocardial fibrosis. However, the late gadolinium enhancement technique is limited in its accuracy for absolute quantification and assessment of diffuse myocardial fibrosis by technical and pathophysiological features. CMR relaxometry, incorporating T1 mapping, has emerged as an accurate, reproducible, highly sensitive, and quantitative technique for the assessment of diffuse myocardial fibrosis in a number of disease states. We comprehensively review the physics behind CMR relaxometry, the evidence base, and the clinical applications of this emerging technique. PMID:28361053

  3. The 2001 Comprehensive Review

    CERN Multimedia

    Åkesson, T

    A new approach for CERN to monitor the LHC-experiments' technical and scientific progress was introduced last year: The Comprehensive Reviews. A significant fraction of the full LHCC committee is mobilized during two days to review the complete project status. This event took place for ATLAS during 2-3 of July this year. With a rather exhaustive program we presented our status in 39 talks. It was a demanding and close to impossible task for the referees to comprehend the ATLAS status by listening to this massive amount of information, but from the ATLAS point-of-view we judged it important that the referees were exposed to both the progress and the remaining problem areas. The referees were satisfied with our status; probably more so this year than last year. They judged the main critical issues to be: The schedules of the barrel toroid, the end-cap TRT, the LAr barrel and end-cap A, and the MDTs. The procurement of radiation hard electronics was also thought to be a critical issue. They were informed of ...

  4. Independent technical review, handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    Purpose Provide an independent engineering review of the major projects being funded by the Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. The independent engineering review will address questions of whether the engineering practice is sufficiently developed to a point where a major project can be executed without significant technical problems. The independent review will focus on questions related to: (1) Adequacy of development of the technical base of understanding; (2) Status of development and availability of technology among the various alternatives; (3) Status and availability of the industrial infrastructure to support project design, equipment fabrication, facility construction, and process and program/project operation; (4) Adequacy of the design effort to provide a sound foundation to support execution of project; (5) Ability of the organization to fully integrate the system, and direct, manage, and control the execution of a complex major project.

  5. Eagle syndrome : A comprehensive review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badhey, Arvind; Jategaonkar, Ameya; Kovacs, Alexander Joseph Anglin; Kadakia, Sameep; De Deyn, Peter Paul; Ducic, Yadranko; Schantz, Stimson; Shin, Edward

    The objective of this report is to summarize the symptoms, diagnostic workup, necessary imaging, and management of Eagle syndrome. A comprehensive literature review was conducted on peer-reviewed publications of Eagle syndrome across multiple disciplines in order to gain a thorough understanding of

  6. Mechanical engineering department technical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, R.B. Denney, R.M. (eds.)

    1981-01-01

    The Mechanical Engineering Department Technical Review is published to: (1) inform the readers of various technical activities within the department, (2) promote exchange of ideas, and (3) give credit to the personnel who are achieving the results. The report is formatted into two parts: technical acievements and publication abstracts. The first is divided into eight sections, one for each division in the department providing the reader with the names of the personnel and the division accomplishing the work.

  7. Mechanical Engineering Department Technical Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, R.B.; Denney, R.M. (eds.)

    1981-07-01

    The Mechanical Engineering Department Technical Review is published to inform readers of various technical activities within the Department, promote exchange of ideas, and give credit to personnel who are achieving the results. The report is presented in two parts: technical achievements and publication abstracts. The first is divided into seven sections, each of which reports on an engineering division and its specific activities related to nuclear tests, nuclear explosives, weapons, energy systems, engineering sciences, magnetic fusion, and materials fabrication.

  8. Electronic apex locator: A comprehensive literature review — Part II: Effect of different clinical and technical conditions on electronic apex locator′s accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Razavian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To investigate the effects of different clinical and technical conditions on the accuracy of electronic apex locators (EALs. Materials and Methods: "Tooth apex," "dental instrument," "odontometry," "electronic medical," and "electronic apex locator" were searched as primary identifiers via Medline/PubMed, Cochrane library, and Scopus data base up to 30 July 2013. Original articles that fulfilled the inclusion criteria were selected and reviewed. Results: Out of 402 relevant studies, 183 were selected based on the inclusion criteria. In this part, 75 studies are presented. Pulp vitality conditions and root resorption, types of files and irrigating materials do not affect an EAL′s accuracy; however, the file size and foramen diameter can affect its accuracy. Conclusions: Various clinical conditions such as the file size and foramen diameter may affect EALs′ accuracy. However, more randomized clinical trials are needed for definitive conclusion.

  9. 49 CFR 552.6 - Technical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Technical review. 552.6 Section 552.6... § 552.6 Technical review. The appropriate Associate Administrator conducts a technical review of the petition. The technical review may consist of an analysis of the material submitted, together with...

  10. Comprehensive review on endonasal endoscopic sinus surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Rainer K.; Hosemann, Werner

    2015-01-01

    Endonasal endoscopic sinus surgery is the standard procedure for surgery of most paranasal sinus diseases. Appropriate frame conditions provided, the respective procedures are safe and successful. These prerequisites encompass appropriate technical equipment, anatomical oriented surgical technique, proper patient selection, and individually adapted extent of surgery. The range of endonasal sinus operations has dramatically increased during the last 20 years and reaches from partial uncinectomy to pansinus surgery with extended surgery of the frontal (Draf type III), maxillary (grade 3–4, medial maxillectomy, prelacrimal approach) and sphenoid sinus. In addition there are operations outside and beyond the paranasal sinuses. The development of surgical technique is still constantly evolving. This article gives a comprehensive review on the most recent state of the art in endoscopic sinus surgery according to the literature with the following aspects: principles and fundamentals, surgical techniques, indications, outcome, postoperative care, nasal packing and stents, technical equipment. PMID:26770282

  11. Comprehensive feedback on trainee surgeons' non-technical skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanager, Lene; Dieckmann, Peter; Beier-Holgersen, Randi

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore the content of conversations, feedback style, and perceived usefulness of feedback to trainee surgeons when conversations were stimulated by a tool for assessing surgeons' non-technical skills. METHODS: Trainee surgeons and their supervisors used the Non......-Technical Skills for Surgeons in Denmark tool to stimulate feedback conversations. Audio recordings of post-operation feedback conversations were collected. Trainees and supervisors provided questionnaire responses on the usefulness and comprehensiveness of the feedback. The feedback conversations were...

  12. Mechanical Engineering Department technical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, R.B.; Abrahamson, L.; Denney, R.M.; Dubois, B.E (eds.)

    1982-01-01

    Technical achievements and publication abstracts related to research in the following Divisions of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory are reported in this biannual review: Nuclear Fuel Engineering; Nuclear Explosives Engineering; Weapons Engineering; Energy Systems Engineering; Engineering Sciences; Magnetic Fusion Engineering; and Material Fabrication. (LCL)

  13. Abdominopelvic washings: A comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika F Rodriguez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intraperitoneal spread may occur with gynecological epithelial neoplasms, as well as with non-gynecological malignancies, which may result in serosal involvement with or without concomitant effusion. Therefore, washings in patients with abdominopelvic tumors represent important specimens for cytologic examination. They are primarily utilized for staging ovarian cancers, although their role has decreased in staging of endometrial and cervical carcinoma. Abdominopelvic washings can be positive in a variety of pathologic conditions, including benign conditions, borderline neoplastic tumors, locally invasive tumors, or distant metastases. In a subset of cases, washings can be diagnostically challenging due to the presence of co-existing benign cells (e.g., mesothelial hyperplasia, endosalpingiosis, or endometriosis, lesions in which there is only minimal atypia (e.g., serous borderline tumors or scant atypical cells, and the rarity of specific tumor types (e.g., mesothelioma. Ancillary studies including immunocytochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization may be required in difficult cases to resolve the diagnosis. This article provides a comprehensive and contemporary review of abdominopelvic washings in the evaluation of gynecologic and non-gynecologic tumors, including primary peritoneal and mesothelial entities.

  14. Comprehensive feedback on trainee surgeons’ non-technical skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieckmann, Peter; Beier-Holgersen, Randi; Rosenberg, Jacob; Oestergaard, Doris

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to explore the content of conversations, feedback style, and perceived usefulness of feedback to trainee surgeons when conversations were stimulated by a tool for assessing surgeons’ non-technical skills. Methods Trainee surgeons and their supervisors used the Non-Technical Skills for Surgeons in Denmark tool to stimulate feedback conversations. Audio recordings of post-operation feedback conversations were collected. Trainees and supervisors provided questionnaire responses on the usefulness and comprehensiveness of the feedback. The feedback conversations were qualitatively analyzed for content and feedback style. Usefulness was investigated using a scale from 1 to 5 and written comments were qualitatively analyzed. Results Six trainees and six supervisors participated in eight feedback conversations. Eighty questionnaires (response rate 83 percent) were collected from 13 trainees and 12 supervisors. Conversations lasted median eight (2-15) minutes. Supervisors used the elements and categories in the tool to structure the content of the conversations. Supervisors tended to talk about the trainees’ actions and their own frames rather than attempting to understand the trainees’ perceptions. Supervisors and trainees welcomed the feedback opportunity and agreed that the conversations were useful and comprehensive. Conclusions The content of the feedback conversations reflected the contents of the tool and the feedback was considered useful and comprehensive. However, supervisors talked primarily about their own frames, so in order for the feedback to reach its full potential, supervisors may benefit from training techniques to stimulate a deeper reflection among trainees. PMID:25602262

  15. Astrobee Periodic Technical Review (PTR) Delta 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provencher, Christopher; Smith, Marion F.; Smith, Ernest Everett; Bualat, Maria Gabriele; Barlow, Jonathan Spencer

    2017-01-01

    Astrobee is a free flying robot for the inside of the International Space Station (ISS). The Periodic Technical Review (PTR) delta 3 is the final design review of the system presented to stakeholders.

  16. Guidelines for technical reviews of software products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilburn, N.P.

    1982-03-01

    A guideline is given for technical review of products developed during a software life cycle. Purposes and benefits of reviews are given. Varieties of reviews, when they should take place, roles of the reviewers and products of the review are described.

  17. Technical Issues Related to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garwin, Richard L.

    2003-04-01

    The National Academy of Sciences recently published a detailed study of technical factors related to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), with emphasis on those issues that arose when the Senate declined to ratify the Treaty in 1999. The study considered (1) the capacity of the United States to maintain confidence in the safety and reliability of its nuclear weapons without nuclear testing; (2) the capabilities of the international nuclear-test monitoring system; and (3) the advances in nuclear weapons capabilities that other countries might make through low-yield testing that might escape detection. Excluding political factors, the committee considered three possible future worlds: (1) a world without a CTBT; (2) a world in which the signatories comply with a CTBT; and (3) a world in the signatories evade its strictures within the limits set by the detection system. The talk and ensuing discussion will elaborate on the study. The principal conclusion of the report, based solely on technical reasons, is that the national security of the United States is better served with a CTBT in force than without it, whether or not other signatories conduct low level but undetected tests in violation of the treaty. Moreover, the study finds that nuclear testing would not add substantially to the US Stockpile Stewardship Program in allowing the United States to maintain confidence in the assessment of its existing nuclear weapons.

  18. Sports massage. A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraska, A

    2005-09-01

    The science of sports massage is of interest to many populations including athletes, athletic trainers, coaches, as well as sports physiologists. While evidence to support or refute the effects of massage on sports performance is insufficient to make definitive statements, new reports and trends within data help formulate an understanding of sports massage. This article will review sports massage research on topics including lactate clearance, delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS), muscle fatigue, the psychological effect of massage, and injury prevention and treatment. Articles referenced in Medline, Cochrane Database, the authors library, and references from articles are included in this review. Most studies contain methodological limitations including inadequate therapist training, insufficient duration of treatment, few subjects, or over or under working of muscles that limit a practical conclusion. Muscle soreness associated with DOMS is reduced with massage, although whether force recovers more quickly is still unclear. The research literature to date is insufficient to conclude whether massage facilitates recovery from a fatiguing effort. Both tissue healing and a psychological effect of massage are areas that may prove promising with further research. Results from published literature support a positive trend for massage to benefit athletic recovery and performance; a need for further research into sports massage, especially well-designed studies utilizing therapists specifically trained to administer this type of therapy, is warranted.

  19. A comprehensive review of agrimoniin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grochowski, Daniel M; Skalicka-Woźniak, Krystyna; Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan; Xiao, Jianbo; Locatelli, Marcello; Piwowarski, Jakub P; Granica, Sebastian; Tomczyk, Michał

    2017-08-01

    Plant tannins are a unique class of polyphenols with relatively high molecular weights. Within the ellagitannins group, agrimoniin--dimeric ellagitannin--is one of the most representative compounds found in many plant materials belonging to the Rosaceae family. Agrimoniin was first isolated in 1982 from roots of Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. (Rosaceae), a plant traditionally used in Japan and China as an antidiarrheal, hemostatic, and antiparasitic agent. Agrimoniin is a constituent of medicinal plants, which are often applied orally in the form of infusions, decoctions, or tinctures. It is also present in commonly consumed food products, such as strawberries and raspberries. It is metabolized by human gut microbiota into a series of low-molecular-weight urolithins with proven anti-inflammatory and anticancer in vivo and in vitro bioactivities. The compound has received widespread interest owing to some interesting biological effects and therapeutic activities, which we elaborate in the present review. Additionally, we present an overview of the techniques used for the analysis, isolation, and separation of agrimoniin from the practical perspective. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  20. Late Abortion: A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Chiang

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Late termination of pregnancy (LTOP is defined as an abortion carried out beyond 24 gestational weeks, when the fetus has arguably attained viability. In Taiwan, the current abortion law, bearing a eugenic title, allows LTOP on certain medical grounds. However, the fetal and maternal conditions that constitute medical grounds are not clarified and remain legally untested. Professional debate on the abortion issue is also lacking in academia in Taiwan, despite societal concerns. With the advent of technology to detect fetal abnormalities, obstetricians are now confronted more frequently with acute dilemmas regarding LTOP. Quite often, they sail in an uncharted sea with no clinical guidelines from their professional societies or affiliated hospitals. Recently, LTOP at 35 gestational weeks for a fetus with Down syndrome, complicated with polyhydramnios and tetralogy of Fallot, triggered media scrutiny and aroused much public attention. Although the clinical decision making for pregnancies with fetal abnormalities entails increasingly balanced information and consideration in terms of the medical, ethical, legal, psychologic, and societal aspects, society at large is unaware of the complexity and intertwined nature of various abortion issues, especially LTOP. Obstetricians are now in a vulnerable position in Taiwanese society, where litigations relevant to the practice of early abortions are not rare. Therefore, a global and in-depth look into abortion issues from legal and ethical dimensions is indispensable for modern obstetric practice. This review considers the core issues in LTOP, including what conditions constitute a “serious” fetal abnormality to justify LTOP, the incidence of LTOP, legislation regarding LTOP in Western countries, and recent research on ambivalent fetal pain. It will also present procedures, some under the auspices of the ethical committee of a Presbyterian hospital in Taiwan, for clinical decision making, particularly

  1. Research Methods for Comprehensive Science Literature Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Barry N.

    2009-01-01

    Finding some information on most topics is easy. There are abundant sources of information readily available. However, completing a comprehensive literature review on a particular topic is often difficult, laborious, and time intensive; the project requires organization, persistence, and an understanding of the scholarly communication and…

  2. Review Essay: Research in Technical Communication: A Bibliographic Sourcebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagge, John

    1987-01-01

    Describes "Research in Technical Communication" as a superb resource appropriate for anyone interested in business, technical, even legal communication. Notes that the book contains a wealth of bibliographic citations as well as comprehensive coverage of a diversity of topics. (JD)

  3. Independent technical review of the Pinellas Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    This report documents an Independent Technical Review (ITR) of facilities, organizations, plans, activities and various other elements required to successfully transition the Pinellas Plant from Defense Program (DP) funded operation to either community developed reuse or safe deactivation leading to decontamination and decommissioning (D&D). The review was conducted at the request of the Department of Energy (DOE) Deputy Assistant Secretary for Facility Transition and Management (EM-60) and is a consensus of the nine member ITR Team.

  4. Book Review: New Perspectives on Technical Editing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, A. J. (Ed.); Sterken, Christiaan

    2012-08-01

    New Perspectives on Technical Editing by Avon J. Murphy (ed.) ISBN : 978-0895033949 (2010) Baywood Publishing Company Inc, Hardcover, 210 pages, 35.5 GBP This book presents a collection of 10 chapters dealing with diverse aspects of technical editing (ie, editorial planning, and analysis and structural changes made to other people's technological documents): research in technical editing, trends and teaching of technical editing, copyediting, and technical journal editing. The role and function of the modern journal and book editor is also dealt with in detail. Each chapter is written by an expert in the field: senior editors, university professors in technical communication, technical writers and linguists. The ever-evolving role of the editor is clearly elucidated in several historical reviews, and in the descriptions of the expectations for the future. A very striking aspect of this book is its extensive collection of bibliographic resources: every chapter lists dozens of very useful references, and the closing chapter, and annotated bibliography, contain many not so well known references, and are most useful. All in all, the book is a treasure trove listing more than 400 references, in addition to numerous webpage URLs embedded in the texts. The book is designed to help the reader to understand current practices and norms in technical editing, and to help to take action in editing as well as in teaching and educating would-be editors. The audience for this book thus includes editors and teachers, but also writers, researchers and students. A deep reading of this book will result in a better understanding of the difference between full technical editing and its much narrower component so well known as copyediting, and will convince any prospective editor that editing should not be undertaken if the people involved do not master the art of precision and accuracy in technical (as well as in human) communication, do not possess the technical know how and computer

  5. Aircraft digital flight control technical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Otha B.; Leggett, David B.

    1993-01-01

    The Aircraft Digital Flight Control Technical Review was initiated by two pilot induced oscillation (PIO) incidents in the spring and summer of 1992. Maj. Gen. Franklin (PEO) wondered why the Air Force development process for digital flight control systems was not preventing PIO problems. Consequently, a technical review team was formed to examine the development process and determine why PIO problems continued to occur. The team was also to identify the 'best practices' used in the various programs. The charter of the team was to focus on the PIO problem, assess the current development process, and document the 'best practices.' The team reviewed all major USAF aircraft programs with digital flight controls, specifically, the F-15E, F-16C/D, F-22, F-111, C-17, and B-2. The team interviewed contractor, System Program Office (SPO), and Combined Test Force (CTF) personnel on these programs. The team also went to NAS Patuxent River to interview USN personnel about the F/A-18 program. The team also reviewed experimental USAF and NASA systems with digital flight control systems: X-29, X-31, F-15 STOL and Maneuver Technology Demonstrator (SMTD), and the Variable In-Flight Stability Test Aircraft (VISTA). The team also discussed the problem with other experts in the field including Ralph Smith and personnel from Calspan. The major conclusions and recommendations from the review are presented.

  6. A Comprehensive Review of Hypertension in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reem Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is the most common medical disorder encountered during pregnancy. Hypertensive disorders are one of the major causes of pregnancy-related maternal deaths in the United States. We will present a comprehensive update of the literature pertinent to hypertension in pregnancy. The paper begins by defining and classifying hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. The normal vascular and renal physiological changes which occur during pregnancy are detailed. We will summarize the intriguing aspects of pathophysiology of preeclampsia, emphasizing on recent advances in this field. The existing diagnostic tools and the tests which have been proposed for screening preeclampsia are comprehensively described. We also highlight the short- and long-term implications of preeclampsia. Finally, we review the current management guidelines, goals of treatment and describe the potential risks and benefits associated with various antihypertensive drug classes. Preeclampsia still remains an enigma, and the present management focuses on monitoring and treatment of its manifestations. We are hopeful that this in depth critique will stimulate the blossoming research in the field and assist practitioners to identify women at risk and more effectively treat affected individuals.

  7. Mitral Valve Disease: a Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harb, Serge C; Griffin, Brian P

    2017-08-01

    This review aims to provide a comprehensive assessment of mitral valve disease, both mitral stenosis and mitral regurgitation, starting with an overview of the valve anatomy. The advent of three-dimensional imaging has allowed a better representation of the valve anatomy. Rheumatic disease is still the number one cause of mitral stenosis worldwide and percutaneous balloon mitral valvuloplasty remains the therapy of choice when indicated and in anatomically eligible patients. Mitral regurgitation (MR) is classified as primary (i.e., lesion in the mitral apparatus) or secondary (caused by left ventricular geometrical alterations). While surgery, preferably repair, is still the recommended therapy for severe primary MR, percutaneous approaches to repair and/or replace the mitral valve are being extensively investigated. Mitral valve disease is common. A careful understanding of mitral valve anatomy and the disease processes that affect the valve are crucial for providing optimal patient care.

  8. A comprehensive review of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Sara; Carr, Karen; Reiley, Luz; Diaz, Kelvin; Guerra, Orleiquis; Altamirano, Pablo Fernandez; Pagani, Wilfredo; Lodin, Daud; Orozco, Gloria; Chinea, Angel

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a late-onset fatal neurodegenerative disease affecting motor neurons with an incidence of about 1/100,000. Most ALS cases are sporadic, but 5–10% of the cases are familial ALS. Both sporadic and familial ALS (FALS) are associated with degeneration of cortical and spinal motor neurons. The etiology of ALS remains unknown. However, mutations of superoxide dismutase 1 have been known as the most common cause of FALS. In this study, we provide a comprehensive review of ALS. We cover all aspects of the disease including epidemiology, comorbidities, environmental risk factor, molecular mechanism, genetic factors, symptoms, diagnostic, treatment, and even the available supplement and management of ALS. This will provide the reader with an advantage of receiving a broad range of information about the disease. PMID:26629397

  9. Technical Review Board Chairperson Guidelines for Conducting Technical Review Boards for Rocket Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    Drawing SRB – Safety Review Board TOP – Test Operating Procedure TRB – Technical Review Board TQM – Total Quality Management VPP – Voluntary...including Total Quality Management ( TQM ). The final section is on meeting management, and was included to find more efficient and effective ways to...includes a review of quality process with an emphasis on total quality management ( TQM ). Total Quality Management ( TQM ) is a quality assurance

  10. A comprehensive review on proppant technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Liang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The main function of traditional proppants is to provide and maintain conductive fractures during well production where proppants should meet closure stress requirement and show resistance to diagenesis under downhole conditions. Many different proppants have been developed in the oil & gas industry, with various types, sizes, shapes, and applications. While most proppants are simply made of silica or ceramics, advanced proppants like ultra-lightweight proppant is also desirable since it reduces proppant settling and requires low viscosity fluids to transport. Additionally, multifunctional proppants may be used as a crude way to detect hydraulic fracture geometry or as matrices to slowly release downhole chemical additives, besides their basic function of maintaining conductive hydraulic fractures. Different from the conventional approach where proppant is pumped downhole in frac fluids, a revolutionary way to generate in-situ spherical proppants has been reported recently. This paper presents a comprehensive review of over 100 papers published in the past several decades on the subject. The objectives of this review study are to provide an overview of current proppant technologies, including different types, compositions, and shapes of proppants, new technologies to pump and organize proppants downhole such as channel fracturing, and also in-situ proppant generation. Finally, the paper sheds light on the current challenges and emphasizes needs for new proppant development for unconventional resources.

  11. Gluteal Augmentation Techniques: A Comprehensive Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oranges, Carlo M; Tremp, Mathias; di Summa, Pietro G; Haug, Martin; Kalbermatten, Daniel F; Harder, Yves; Schaefer, Dirk J

    2017-05-01

    Many studies of gluteal augmentation techniques have been published in recent decades, including case reports, retrospective and prospective case series, and multicenter survey reviews. However, to date, there has been no study of the overall complications or satisfaction rates associated with the broad spectrum of techniques. The authors performed a comprehensive literature review to determine outcomes and complications of gluteoplasty techniques, including patient satisfaction. A search on PubMed/Medline was performed for clinical studies involving gluteal augmentation techniques. A priori criteria were used to review the resulting articles. Fifty-two studies, published from 1969 through 2015, were included - representing 7834 treated patients. Five gluteal augmentation techniques were identified from these studies: gluteal augmentation with implants (n = 4781), autologous fat grafting (n = 2609), local flaps (n = 369), hyaluronic acid gel injection (n = 69), and local tissue rearrangement (n = 6). The overall complication rates of the most commonly utilized techniques were: 30.5% for gluteal augmentation with implants, 10.5% for autologous fat grafting, and 22% for local flaps. Patients' satisfaction was reported as consistently high for all the five techniques. Implant-based gluteal augmentation is associated with high patients' satisfaction despite a high complication rate, while autologous fat grafting is associated with the lowest complication rate yet including serious major complications such as fat embolism. Local flaps and local tissue rearrangements are the ideal procedures in case of massive weight loss patients. A paucity of data is available for hyaluronic acid gel injections, which appear to be effective but temporary and expensive.

  12. No. 352-Technical Update: The Role of Early Comprehensive Fetal Anatomy Ultrasound Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevo, Ori; Brown, Richard; Glanc, Phyllis; Lim, Ken

    2017-12-01

    This guideline presents an evidence-based technical update and recommendations for the performance of early comprehensive fetal anatomic scanning (ECFAS) at 11 to 16 weeks' gestation. Patients at high risk for fetal anomalies and in whom traditional mid-second trimester transabdominal imaging may be challenging or who may benefit from earlier identification of fetal anomalies may be suitable for early fetal anatomy scanning. This practice may result in earlier identification of fetal anomalies and provide earlier intervention options in high-risk populations and/or in populations where mid-second trimester transabdominal scanning is challenging. This population consists of obstetrical patients in whom mid-second trimester ultrasound scanning will be technically challenging and patients who are at higher risk for major fetal anomalies. Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed and Medline in 2016 using key words. Results were restricted to controlled clinical trials, reviews, and observational studies published in English. There were no date restrictions, and searches were updated in the guideline to 2016. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and clinical practice guidelines and national and international medical specialty societies. No relevant studies were found. The content and recommendations were drafted and agreed on by the principal authors. The Board of the SOGC approved the final draft for publication. The quality of evidence was rated using the criteria described in the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology framework. It is anticipated that there will be an increase in earlier detection of major fetal anomalies in the target population with the benefits of earlier interventions for those individuals. In areas where the service is not available the patient may need to travel to a nearby centre. Early fetal anatomy

  13. Independent technical review of the Mound Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This report documents an Independent Technical Review (ITR) of the facilities, organizations, plans, and activities required to transition particular elements of the Mound Plant from Defense Program (DP) funded operation as appropriate either to community developed reuse or safe deactivation leading to decontamination and decommissioning (D&D). The review was conducted at the request of the Dr. Willis Bixby, Deputy Assistant Secretary, U.S. Department of Energy EM-60, Office of Facility Transition and Management and is a consensus of the nine member ITR Team. Information for the review was drawn from documents provided to the ITR Team by the Miamisburg Area Office (MB) of the DOE, EG&G, the City of Miamisburg, and others; and from presentations, discussions, interviews, and facility inspections at the Mound Plant during the weeks of March 14 and March 28, 1994. During the week of April 25, 1994, the ITR Team met at Los Alamos, New Mexico to develop consensus recommendations. A presentation of the core recommendations was made at the Mound Plant on May 5, 1994. This is an independent assessment of information available to, and used by, the Mound Plant personnel. Repetition of the information is not meant to imply discovery by the ITR Team. Team members, however, acting as independent reviewers, frequently assess the information from a perspective that differs significantly from that of the Mound Plant personnel. The report is based on information obtained and conditions observed during the March 1994 review interval. The ITR process and normal site work often initiate rapid, beneficial changes in understanding and organization immediately following the review. These changes frequently alter conditions observed during the review, but the report does not address changes subsequent to the review interval.

  14. Apps for Radiation Oncology. A Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calero, J J; Oton, L F; Oton, C A

    2017-02-01

    Software applications executed on a smart-phone or mobile device ("Apps") are increasingly used by oncologists in their daily work. A comprehensive critical review was conducted on Apps specifically designed for Radiation Oncology, which aims to provide scientific support for these tools and to guide users in choosing the most suited to their needs. A systematic search was conducted in mobile platforms, iOS and Android, returning 157 Apps. Excluding those whose purpose did not match the scope of the study, 31 Apps were methodically analyzed by the following items: Objective Features, List of Functionalities, Consistency in Outcomes and Usability. Apps are presented in groups of features, as Dose Calculators (7 Apps), Clinical Calculators (4), Tools for Staging (7), Multipurpose (7) and Others (6). Each App is presented with the list of attributes and a brief comment. A short summary is provided at the end of each group. There are numerous Apps with useful tools at the disposal of radiation oncologists. The most advisable Apps do not match the more expensive. Three all-in-one apps seem advisable above all: RadOnc Reference (in English), Easy Oncology (in German) and iOncoR (in Spanish). Others recommendations are suggested for specific tasks: dose calculators, treatment-decision and staging. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Apps for Radiation Oncology. A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J. Calero

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Software applications executed on a smart-phone or mobile device (“Apps” are increasingly used by oncologists in their daily work. A comprehensive critical review was conducted on Apps specifically designed for Radiation Oncology, which aims to provide scientific support for these tools and to guide users in choosing the most suited to their needs. Material and methods: A systematic search was conducted in mobile platforms, iOS and Android, returning 157 Apps. Excluding those whose purpose did not match the scope of the study, 31 Apps were methodically analyzed by the following items: Objective Features, List of Functionalities, Consistency in Outcomes and Usability. Results: Apps are presented in groups of features, as Dose Calculators (7 Apps, Clinical Calculators (4, Tools for Staging (7, Multipurpose (7 and Others (6. Each App is presented with the list of attributes and a brief comment. A short summary is provided at the end of each group. Discussion and Recommendations: There are numerous Apps with useful tools at the disposal of radiation oncologists. The most advisable Apps do not match the more expensive. Three all-in-one apps seem advisable above all: RadOnc Reference (in English, Easy Oncology (in German and iOncoR (in Spanish. Others recommendations are suggested for specific tasks: dose calculators, treatment-decision and staging.

  16. Pediatric blunt splenic trauma: a comprehensive review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynn, Karen N.; Werder, Gabriel M.; Callaghan, Rachel M.; Jafri, Zafar H. [William Beaumont Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Sullivan, Ashley N. [St. George' s University School of Medicine, Grenada, West Indies (Grenada); Bloom, David A. [William Beaumont Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Royal Oak, MI (United States); William Beaumont Hospital, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology, Royal Oak, MI (United States)

    2009-09-15

    Abdominal trauma is a leading cause of death in children older than 1 year of age. The spleen is the most common organ injured following blunt abdominal trauma. Pediatric trauma patients present unique clinical challenges as compared to adults, including different mechanisms of injury, physiologic responses, and indications for operative versus nonoperative management. Splenic salvage techniques and nonoperative approaches are preferred to splenectomy in order to decrease perioperative risks, transfusion needs, duration/cost of hospitalization, and risk of overwhelming postsplenectomy infection. Early and accurate detection of splenic injury is critical in both adults and children; however, while imaging findings guide management in adults, hemodynamic stability is the primary determinant in pediatric patients. After initial diagnosis, the primary role of imaging in pediatric patients is to determine the level and duration of care. We present a comprehensive literature review regarding the mechanism of injury, imaging, management, and complications of traumatic splenic injury in pediatric patients. Multiple patients are presented with an emphasis on the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma organ injury grading system. Clinical practice guidelines from the American Pediatric Surgical Association are discussed and compared with our experience at a large community hospital, with recommendations for future practice guidelines. (orig.)

  17. PET/MRI – Technical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzic, Raymond F.; DiFilippo, Frank P.

    2015-01-01

    PET/MR is a hybrid imaging technology with the potential to combine the molecular and functional information of PET with the soft-tissue contrast of MR. Herein we review the technical features and challenges of putting these different technologies together. We emphasize the conceptual to make the material accessible to a wide audience. We begin by reviewing PET/CT, a more mature multi-modality imaging technology, to provide a basis for comparison to the history of PET/MR development. We discuss the motivation and challenges of PET/MR and different approaches that have been used to meet the challenges. We conclude with a speculation about the future of this exciting imaging method. PMID:25497909

  18. Executive Function and Reading Comprehension: A Meta-Analytic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follmer, D. Jake

    2018-01-01

    This article presents a meta-analytic review of the relation between executive function and reading comprehension. Results (N = 6,673) supported a moderate positive association between executive function and reading comprehension (r = 0.36). Moderator analyses suggested that correlations between executive function and reading comprehension did not…

  19. Reviews of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty and U.S. security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanloz, Raymond

    2017-11-01

    Reviews of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) by the National Academy of Sciences concluded that the United States has the technical expertise and physical means to i) maintain a safe, secure and reliable nuclear-weapons stockpile without nuclear-explosion testing, and ii) effectively monitor global compliance once the Treaty enters into force. Moreover, the CTBT is judged to help constrain proliferation of nuclear-weapons technology, so it is considered favorable to U.S. security. Review of developments since the studies were published, in 2002 and 2012, show that the study conclusions remain valid and that technical capabilities are better than anticipated.

  20. Cardiac myxoma in pregnancy: a comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Min Yuan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective:Cardiac myxoma in pregnancy is rare and the clinical characteristics of this entity have been insufficiently elucidated. This article aims to describe the treatment options and the risk factors responsible for the maternal and feto-neonatal prognoses.Methods:A comprehensive search of the literature of cardiac myxoma in pregnancy was conducted and 44 articles with 51 patients were included in the present review.Results:Transthoracic echocardiography was the most common diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of cardiac myxoma during pregnancy. Cardiac myxoma resection was performed in 95.9% (47/49; while no surgical resection was performed in 4.1% (2/49 patients (P=0.000. More patients had an isolated cardiac myxoma resection in comparison to those with a concurrent or staged additional cardiac operation [87.2% (41/47 vs. 12.8% (6/47, P=0.000]. A voluntary termination of the pregnancy was done in 7 (13.7% cases. In the remaining 31 (60.8% pregnant patients, cesarean section was the most common delivery mode representing 61.3% and vaginal delivery was more common accounting for 19.4%. Cardiac surgery was performed in the first, second and third trimester in 5 (13.9%, 14 (38.9% and 17 (47.2% patients, respectively. No patients died. In the delivery group, 20 (76.9% neonates were event-free survivals, 4 (15.4% were complicated and 2 (7.7% died. Neonatal prognoses did not differ between the delivery modes, treatment options, timing of cardiac surgery and sequence of cardiac myxoma resection in relation to delivery.Conclusion:The diagnosis of cardiac myxoma in pregnancy is important. Surgical treatment of cardiac myxoma in the pregnant patients has brought about favorable maternal and feto-neonatal outcomes in the delivery group, which might be attributable to the shorter operation duration and non-emergency nature of the surgical intervention. Proper timing of cardiac surgery and improved cardiopulmonary bypass conditions may result in

  1. Cardiac myxoma in pregnancy: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shi-Min

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac myxoma in pregnancy is rare and the clinical characteristics of this entity have been insufficiently elucidated. This article aims to describe the treatment options and the risk factors responsible for the maternal and feto-neonatal prognoses. A comprehensive search of the literature of cardiac myxoma in pregnancy was conducted and 44 articles with 51 patients were included in the present review. Transthoracic echocardiography was the most common diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of cardiac myxoma during pregnancy. Cardiac myxoma resection was performed in 95.9% (47/49); while no surgical resection was performed in 4.1% (2/49) patients (P=0.000). More patients had an isolated cardiac myxoma resection in comparison to those with a concurrent or staged additional cardiac operation [87.2% (41/47) vs. 12.8% (6/47), P=0.000]. A voluntary termination of the pregnancy was done in 7 (13.7%) cases. In the remaining 31 (60.8%) pregnant patients, cesarean section was the most common delivery mode representing 61.3% and vaginal delivery was more common accounting for 19.4%. Cardiac surgery was performed in the first, second and third trimester in 5 (13.9%), 14 (38.9%) and 17 (47.2%) patients, respectively. No patients died. In the delivery group, 20 (76.9%) neonates were event-free survivals, 4 (15.4%) were complicated and 2 (7.7%) died. Neonatal prognoses did not differ between the delivery modes, treatment options, timing of cardiac surgery and sequence of cardiac myxoma resection in relation to delivery. The diagnosis of cardiac myxoma in pregnancy is important. Surgical treatment of cardiac myxoma in the pregnant patients has brought about favorable maternal and feto-neonatal outcomes in the delivery group, which might be attributable to the shorter operation duration and non-emergency nature of the surgical intervention. Proper timing of cardiac surgery and improved cardiopulmonary bypass conditions may result in even better maternal and feto-neonatal survivals.

  2. Tailoring the Systems Engineering Technical Review Implementation Within Naval Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    SYSTEMS ENGINEERING TECHNICAL REVIEW IMPLEMENTATION WITHIN NAVAL ACQUISITION by Heather B. Burke September 2017 Thesis Advisor: Walter E...2017 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE TAILORING THE SYSTEMS ENGINEERING TECHNICAL REVIEW IMPLEMENTATION...STATEMENT Approved for public release. Distribution is unlimited. 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) The systems engineering

  3. Assessing scrub practitioner non-technical skills: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Guy

    2015-01-01

    A review by Catchpole et al (2009) into the causes and types of harm experienced by the surgical patient emphasised the high risk nature of the perioperative period. Investigations into recent failures at NHS organisations have emphasised the relevance of non-technical skills education in improving clinical performance and patient outcomes. However, scrub practitioner non-technical skills are often developed on a tacit basis, making assessment of performance difficult. This literature review identifies strategies that facilitate assessment of non-technical skills during surgery. Recommendations are made that will assist scrub practitioners in using a validated scrub practitioner non-technical skills assessment framework reliably.

  4. Personality in sport: A comprehensive review.

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Mark; Greenlees, Iain; Jones, Marc

    2013-01-01

    This review addresses personality in organised sport. We describe the extant literature that has explored personality effects on athletic success and population based differences before hypothesising how sport participation may contribute to personality development. We then outline the role of personality in athletic interactions and group processes before considering the practical applications of personality research and avenues for future study. Our review shows that personality is an impor...

  5. A Comprehensive Review of Data Governance Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Olivia Benfeldt

    2017-01-01

    governance literature offer valuable contributions, these approaches all focus on isolated aspects and no systematic review exists. This paper presents a review of data governance literature, classifying authors, journals, research disciplines, methods and related theoretical fields, providing researchers......Organizations have found that seemingly tedious data problems are fundamentally business problems, and cannot be solved by the IT group alone. Data governance has received growing attention from both practitioners and academics as a promising approach to solving these issues. While the data...

  6. The genus Hymenocrater: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morteza-Semnani, Katayoun; Ahadi, Hamideh; Hashemi, Zahra

    2016-12-01

    The genus Hymenocrater Fisch. et Mey. (Lamiaceae) contains over 21 species in the world. Some species have been used in folk medicine around the world. The present review comprises the ethnopharmacological, phytochemical and therapeutic potential of various species of Hymenocrater. This review brings together most of the available scientific research regarding the genus Hymenocrater. Through this review, the authors hope to attract the attention of natural product researchers throughout the world to focus on the unexplored potential of Hymenocrater species. This review has been compiled using references from major databases such as Chemical Abstracts, Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Abstracts, ScienceDirect, SciFinder, Google Scholar, Scopus, PubMed, Springer Link and books, without limiting the dates of publication. General web searches were also carried out using Google and Yahoo search engines by applying some related search terms (e.g., Hymenocrater spp., phytochemical, pharmacological, extract, essential oil and traditional uses). The articles related to agriculture, ecology, and synthetic works and those using languages other than English or Persian have been excluded. The genus Hymenocrater contains essential oil. Flavonoids, phenolic acids and terpenoids are important constituents of this genus. The pharmacological studies confirmed that the species of the genus Hymenocrater showed antimicrobial, antiparasitic, antioxidant, anticancer and antidiabetic activities. This review discusses the current knowledge of Hymenocrater species that review therapeutic potential, especially their effects on the cancer cells and gaps offering opportunities for future research.

  7. A comprehensive review of swarm optimization algorithms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Nadhir Ab Wahab

    Full Text Available Many swarm optimization algorithms have been introduced since the early 60's, Evolutionary Programming to the most recent, Grey Wolf Optimization. All of these algorithms have demonstrated their potential to solve many optimization problems. This paper provides an in-depth survey of well-known optimization algorithms. Selected algorithms are briefly explained and compared with each other comprehensively through experiments conducted using thirty well-known benchmark functions. Their advantages and disadvantages are also discussed. A number of statistical tests are then carried out to determine the significant performances. The results indicate the overall advantage of Differential Evolution (DE and is closely followed by Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO, compared with other considered approaches.

  8. A comprehensive review of swarm optimization algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ab Wahab, Mohd Nadhir; Nefti-Meziani, Samia; Atyabi, Adham

    2015-01-01

    Many swarm optimization algorithms have been introduced since the early 60's, Evolutionary Programming to the most recent, Grey Wolf Optimization. All of these algorithms have demonstrated their potential to solve many optimization problems. This paper provides an in-depth survey of well-known optimization algorithms. Selected algorithms are briefly explained and compared with each other comprehensively through experiments conducted using thirty well-known benchmark functions. Their advantages and disadvantages are also discussed. A number of statistical tests are then carried out to determine the significant performances. The results indicate the overall advantage of Differential Evolution (DE) and is closely followed by Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), compared with other considered approaches.

  9. Comprehensive Program Review: Applying TQM Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostroth, D. David

    1996-01-01

    Reviews one system successfully used to implement Total Quality Management (TQM) principles and techniques in a student affairs department at a large public university. Discusses TQM applications and argues that implementation of TQM requires both planned staff training and an organization-wide culture change. (RJM)

  10. Mycoviruses in Aspergilli: A Comprehensive Review

    OpenAIRE

    Ioly Kotta-Loizou; Coutts, Robert H. A.

    2017-01-01

    Fungi, similar to all species, are susceptible to viral infection. Aspergillus is arguably the most well studied fungal genus because of its medical, ecological and economical significance. Mycoviruses were initially detected in Aspergillus species almost 50 years ago and the field continues to be active today with ground-breaking discoveries. The aim of the present review is to cover the scientific progress in all aspects of mycovirology as exemplified by Aspergillus-focused research. Initia...

  11. A Comprehensive Review of New Attachment Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Calculus attachment in cemental separations . J Periodontol 40: 125, 1969 . 34. Schaffer, E. M.: Histologic...121, 1965. 30. Zander, H. A.: The attachment of calculus to root surfaces. J Periodontol 24: 16, 1953. 31. Kopczyk, R. A., and Conroy, C. W.: The...periodontology. J Periodontol 40: 155, 1969 . 4. Waerhaug, J .: Review of Cohen: "Role of periodontal surgery." J Dent Res 50: 219, 1971. 5. Melcher,

  12. Cellulite treatment: a comprehensive literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerini, Irene; Sisti, Andrea; Cuomo, Roberto; Ciappi, Serena; Russo, Francesco; Brandi, Cesare; D'Aniello, Carlo; Nisi, Giuseppe

    2015-09-01

    An effective and long-term treatment of cellulite has not been well established. To our knowledge, no review has analyzed the whole range of treatments for this condition. We conducted a review of in vivo studies on humans adopting the key words "cellulite" and "treatment." The studies were included according to eligibility criteria. We performed an analysis to estimate the overall effect of cellulite treatments from clinical studies. Medline library was screened up to December 2014 to identify eligible studies. We included 73 original studies in the present review. All of them were clinical studies, in most of them, only women were recruited. Above the studies searched up, 66 tested the effectiveness of an exclusive treatment performed without the association to other procedures: 11 topical agents, 10 shock-wave therapy, 10 radio frequency, eight laser therapy, five oral therapy, four manual massage therapy, three carbon dioxide therapy, two compressive therapy, two infrared therapy, one dermabrasion, and 11 devices that use an association of multiple treatments. Seven papers tested a combination of two or more treatments. The mean difference of clinical morphologic features and ultrastructural changes between the treated group and the controlled showed significant heterogeneity between studies. It is still difficult to indicate an exclusive and effective single treatment for this condition. Our analysis purposed to obtain a complete overview of the available treatments in cellulite reduction. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The Babinski Sign: A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambesh, Paurush; Paliwal, Vimal Kumar; Shetty, Vijay; Kamholz, Stephan

    2017-01-15

    The Babinski Sign is one of the most clinically relevant diagnostic signs in medicine. Though the plantar reflex is practiced thousands of times across the globe every day, few realize its historical importance. In this narrative review we trace the origins of the Plantar Reflex back in the 19th century, discuss its evolution over time and examine the body of evidence behind the current understanding. State of the art diagnostic modalities like video analysis and electromyography have helped us in dissecting the pathophysiology behind the simple yet beautiful Babinski Sign. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Tanks Focus Area FY98 midyear technical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlahta, S.N.; Brouns, T.M.

    1998-06-01

    The Tanks Focus Area (TFA) serves as the DOE`s Office of Environmental Management`s national technology and solution development program for radioactive waste tank remediation. Its technical scope covers the major functions that comprise a complete tank remediation system: waste retrieval, waste pretreatment, waste immobilization, tank closure, and characterization of both the waste and tank with safety integrated into all the functions. In total, 17 technologies and technical solutions were selected for review. The purpose of each review was to understand the state of development of each technology selected for review and to identify issues to be resolved before the technology or technical solution progressed to the next level of maturity. The reviewers provided detailed technical and programmatic recommendations and comments. The disposition of these recommendations and comments and their impact on the program is documented in this report.

  15. Mycoviruses in Aspergilli: A Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotta-Loizou, Ioly; Coutts, Robert H A

    2017-01-01

    Fungi, similar to all species, are susceptible to viral infection. Aspergillus is arguably the most well studied fungal genus because of its medical, ecological and economical significance. Mycoviruses were initially detected in Aspergillus species almost 50 years ago and the field continues to be active today with ground-breaking discoveries. The aim of the present review is to cover the scientific progress in all aspects of mycovirology as exemplified by Aspergillus-focused research. Initially an overview of the population studies illustrating the presence of mycoviruses in numerous important Aspergillus species, such as A. niger, A. flavus, and A. fumigatus with be presented. Moreover the intricacies of mycovirus transmission, both inter- and intra-species, will be discussed together with the methodologies used to investigate viral dispersion in a laboratory setting. Subsequently, the genomic features of all molecularly characterized mycoviruses to date will be analyzed in depth. These include members of established viral families, such as Partitiviridae, Chrysoviridae and Totiviridae, but also more recent, novel discoveries that led to the proposal of new viral families, such as Polymycoviridae, Alternaviridae and, in the context of the present review, Exartaviridae. Finally, the major issue of phenotypic effects of mycoviral infection on the host is addressed, including aflatoxin production in A. flavus, together with growth and virulence in A. fumigatus. Although the molecular mechanisms behind these phenomena are yet to be elucidated, recent studies suggest that by implication, RNA silencing may be involved.

  16. Mycoviruses in Aspergilli: A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioly Kotta-Loizou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Fungi, similar to all species, are susceptible to viral infection. Aspergillus is arguably the most well studied fungal genus because of its medical, ecological and economical significance. Mycoviruses were initially detected in Aspergillus species almost 50 years ago and the field continues to be active today with ground-breaking discoveries. The aim of the present review is to cover the scientific progress in all aspects of mycovirology as exemplified by Aspergillus-focused research. Initially an overview of the population studies illustrating the presence of mycoviruses in numerous important Aspergillus species, such as A. niger, A. flavus, and A. fumigatus with be presented. Moreover the intricacies of mycovirus transmission, both inter- and intra-species, will be discussed together with the methodologies used to investigate viral dispersion in a laboratory setting. Subsequently, the genomic features of all molecularly characterized mycoviruses to date will be analyzed in depth. These include members of established viral families, such as Partitiviridae, Chrysoviridae and Totiviridae, but also more recent, novel discoveries that led to the proposal of new viral families, such as Polymycoviridae, Alternaviridae and, in the context of the present review, Exartaviridae. Finally, the major issue of phenotypic effects of mycoviral infection on the host is addressed, including aflatoxin production in A. flavus, together with growth and virulence in A. fumigatus. Although the molecular mechanisms behind these phenomena are yet to be elucidated, recent studies suggest that by implication, RNA silencing may be involved.

  17. A Comprehensive Review of Thermal Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Sarbu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal energy storage (TES is a technology that stocks thermal energy by heating or cooling a storage medium so that the stored energy can be used at a later time for heating and cooling applications and power generation. TES systems are used particularly in buildings and in industrial processes. This paper is focused on TES technologies that provide a way of valorizing solar heat and reducing the energy demand of buildings. The principles of several energy storage methods and calculation of storage capacities are described. Sensible heat storage technologies, including water tank, underground, and packed-bed storage methods, are briefly reviewed. Additionally, latent-heat storage systems associated with phase-change materials for use in solar heating/cooling of buildings, solar water heating, heat-pump systems, and concentrating solar power plants as well as thermo-chemical storage are discussed. Finally, cool thermal energy storage is also briefly reviewed and outstanding information on the performance and costs of TES systems are included.

  18. Tumefactive demyelinating lesions: A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algahtani, Hussein; Shirah, Bader; Alassiri, Ali

    2017-05-01

    Tumefactive multiple sclerosis or tumefactive demyelinating lesion (TDL) is one of the rare variants of multiple sclerosis (MS) posing a diagnostic challenge and a therapeutic enigma since it is difficult to distinguish from a true central nervous system (CNS) neoplasm or other CNS lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The prevalence of TDL is estimated to be 1-3/1000 cases of MS with an annual incidence of 0.3/100,000. This could be an underestimate due to unavailability of a global MS registry and under-reporting of this condition. TDL may occur at any age with the ages between the 20s and 30s being more frequently affected. The pathogenesis of TDL remains unknown, but some speculations have been made. These include the autoimmune theory based on the close relationship between TDLs and MS, Fingolimod use, Fingolimod cessation, and Natalizumab use. The clinical presentation of patients with TDL is variable and atypical for demyelinating disease due to the differences in size and location of the lesion. In this article, we aim to explore TDL comprehensively and provide an evidence-based approach for diagnosis and treatment. This will result in recommendations that may improve the diagnostic accuracy and treatment outcomes. Detailed history, physical examination, and several MRI imaging can spare patients the need for a brain biopsy. Treatment of acute lesions includes corticosteroids and plasma exchange therapy. When a diagnosis of relapsing-remitting MS is fulfilled, conventional first line MS disease modifying therapy should be used. Available recently published data suggests that Fingolimod should not be used in TDL patients, mainly due to the possibility of more than just a chance association between TDLs and initiation of Fingolimod. The use of several new MS disease modifying therapy for the management of TDL remains to be studied. Further well-conducted research including multi-center trials is needed to explain several ambiguous aspects related to

  19. Adipokines and cardiovascular disease: A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smekal, Ales; Vaclavik, Jan

    2017-03-01

    Adipokines are peptides that signal the functional status of adipose tissue to the brain and other target organs. In adipose tissue dysfunction, adipokine secretion is altered, and this can contribute to a spectrum of obesity-associated conditions including cardiovascular disease. Some adipokines have anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective effects (omentin, apelin, adiponectin). Others are pro-inflammatory with negative impact on cardiovascular function (leptin, visfatin, resistin, adipocyte fatty-acid-binding protein). In the first part, this article reviews the endocrine functions of adipose tissue in general, effects of the distribution and composition of fat tissue, and the roles of cortisol and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in the development of the inflammatory state of addipose tissue. In the second part, the known cardiovascular effects of different adipokines and their clinical potential are discussed in detail.

  20. Pediatric Hangman's Fracture: A Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalbano, Michael; Fisahn, Christian; Loukas, Marios; Oskouian, Rod J; Chapman, Jens R; Tubbs, R Shane

    2017-01-01

    Over 170 years ago, traumatic spondylolisthesis of the axis or hangman's fracture was described. Most descriptions of this entity have focused on adult presentations. We review the literature on pediatric cases of hangman's fracture emphasizing the embryological as well as presentation aspects. The majority of cervical spine fractures in children occur at C1 and C2 vertebrae. A normal anterolisthesis of C2 can be seen in younger children and can mimic the anterolisthesis seen after traumatic spondylolisthesis. Traumatic spondylolisthesis of the axis in children requires further investigation due to the current emphasis in the literature on adult clinical findings and diagnostic challenges from the developmental immaturity of the pediatric skeleton. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Lumbar Facet Tropism: A Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Fernando; Kirkpatrick, Christina M; Jeong, William; Fisahn, Christian; Usman, Sameera; Rustagi, Tarush; Loukas, Marios; Chapman, Jens R; Oskouian, Rod J; Tubbs, R Shane

    2017-06-01

    Scattered reports exist in the medical literature regarding facet tropism. However, this finding has had mixed conclusions regarding its origin and impact on the normal spine. We performed a literature review of the anatomy, embryology, biomechanics, and pathology related to lumbar facet tropism. Facet tropism is most commonly found at L4-L5 vertebral segments and there is some evidence that this condition may lead to facet degenerative spondylolisthesis, intervertebral disc disease, and other degenerative conditions. Long-term analyses of patients are necessary to elucidate relationships between associated findings and facet tropism. In addition, a universally agreed definition that is more precise should be developed for future investigative studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A comprehensive review of mercury provoked autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, D A; King, P G; Sykes, L K; Geier, M R

    2008-10-01

    Emerging evidence supports the theory that some autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) may result from a combination of genetic/biochemical susceptibility, specifically a reduced ability to excrete mercury (Hg), and exposure to Hg at critical developmental periods. Elemental/inorganic Hg is released into the air/water where it becomes methylated and accumulates in animal tissues. The US population is primarily exposed to methyl-Hg by fish consumption. In addition, many pharmaceuticals have been, and some continue to be, a ubiquitous source of danger because they contain mercurials. Mercurials may be found in drugs for the eye, ear, nose, throat, and skin; in bleaching creams; as preservatives in cosmetics, tooth pastes, lens solutions, vaccines, allergy test and immunotherapy solutions; in antiseptics, disinfectants, and contraceptives; in fungicides and herbicides; in dental fillings and thermometers; and many other products. Hg has been found to cause immune, sensory, neurological, motor, and behavioural dysfunctions similar to traits defining/associated with ASDs, and that these similarities extend to neuroanatomy, neurotransmitters, and biochemistry. Furthermore, a review of molecular mechanisms indicates that Hg exposure can induce death, disorganization and/or damage to selected neurons in the brain similar to that seen in recent ASD brain pathology studies, and this alteration may likely produce the symptoms by which ASDs are diagnosed. Finally, a review of treatments suggests that ASD patients who undergo protocols to reduce Hg and/or its effects show significant clinical improvements in some cases. In conclusion, the overwhelming preponderance of the evidence favours acceptance that Hg exposure is capable of causing some ASDs.

  3. Robotics in Arthroplasty: A Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacofsky, David J; Allen, Mark

    2016-10-01

    Robotic-assisted orthopedic surgery has been available clinically in some form for over 2 decades, claiming to improve total joint arthroplasty by enhancing the surgeon's ability to reproduce alignment and therefore better restore normal kinematics. Various current systems include a robotic arm, robotic-guided cutting jigs, and robotic milling systems with a diversity of different navigation strategies using active, semiactive, or passive control systems. Semiactive systems have become dominant, providing a haptic window through which the surgeon is able to consistently prepare an arthroplasty based on preoperative planning. A review of previous designs and clinical studies demonstrate that these robotic systems decrease variability and increase precision, primarily focusing on component positioning and alignment. Some early clinical results indicate decreased revision rates and improved patient satisfaction with robotic-assisted arthroplasty. The future design objectives include precise planning and even further improved consistent intraoperative execution. Despite this cautious optimism, many still wonder whether robotics will ultimately increase cost and operative time without objectively improving outcomes. Over the long term, every industry that has seen robotic technology be introduced, ultimately has shown an increase in production capacity, improved accuracy and precision, and lower cost. A new generation of robotic systems is now being introduced into the arthroplasty arena, and early results with unicompartmental knee arthroplasty and total hip arthroplasty have demonstrated improved accuracy of placement, improved satisfaction, and reduced complications. Further studies are needed to confirm the cost effectiveness of these technologies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Diagnosis of Wilson's disease: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Chloe M; Lam, Ching-Wan

    2008-01-01

    Wilson's disease is an autosomal recessive disorder of copper metabolism. The culprit gene is ATP7B. The worldwide prevalence is about 1 in 30,000, which may vary by population. Higher prevalence rates were reported using more sensitive screening techniques and pilot population screening. Typical presentations include neuropsychiatric and hepatic dysfunction, whereas atypical presentations are protean. Diagnosis relies on a high clinical suspicion, typical neurological symptoms, presence of Kayser-Fleischer rings, and reduced serum ceruloplasmin concentration. The conventional value of gene mutations. Direct molecular diagnosis remains the most decisive tool. Other tests such as non-ceruloplasmin-bound copper are unreliable. Potential pitfalls and limitations of these diagnostic markers are critically reviewed in this paper. The mainstays of therapy are trientine, penicillamine, and/or zinc. Liver transplantation is lifesaving for those with advanced disease. Ceruloplasmin oxidase activity and serum free-copper concentration should be monitored in patients on long-term de-coppering therapy to prevent iatrogenic copper deficiency.

  5. Cystic fibrosis chronic rhinosinusitis: A comprehensive review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaaban, Mohamad R.; Kejner, Alexandra; Rowe, Steven M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Advances in the care of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) have improved pulmonary outcomes and survival. In addition, rapid developments regarding the underlying genetic and molecular basis of the disease have led to numerous novel targets for treatment. However, clinical and basic scientific research focusing on therapeutic strategies for CF-associated chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) lags behind the evidence-based approaches currently used for pulmonary disease. Methods: This review evaluates the available literature and provides an update concerning the pathophysiology, current treatment approaches, and future pharmaceutical tactics in the management of CRS in patients with CF. Results: Optimal medical and surgical strategies for CF CRS are lacking because of a dearth of well-performed clinical trials. Medical and surgical interventions are supported primarily by level 2 or 3 evidence and are aimed at improving clearance of mucus, infection, and inflammation. A number of novel therapeutics that target the basic defect in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator channel are currently under investigation. Ivacaftor, a corrector of the G551D mutation, was recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration. However, sinonasal outcomes using this and other novel drugs are pending. Conclusion: CRS is a lifelong disease in CF patients that can lead to substantial morbidity and decreased quality of life. A multidisciplinary approach will be necessary to develop consistent and evidence-based treatment paradigms. PMID:24119602

  6. L-arginine biosensors: A comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam Verma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Arginine has been considered as the most potent nutraceutics discovered ever, due to its powerful healing property, and it's been known to scientists as the Miracle Molecule. Arginine detection in fermented food products is necessary because, high level of arginine in foods forms ethyl carbamate (EC during the fermentation process. Therefore, L-arginine detection in fermented food products is very important as a control measure for quality of fermented foods, food supplements and beverages including wine. In clinical analysis arginine detection is important due to their enormous inherent versatility in various metabolic pathways, topmost in the synthesis of Nitric oxide (NO and tumor growth. A number of methods are being used for arginine detection, but biosensors technique holds prime position due to rapid response, high sensitivity and high specificity. However, there are many problems still to be addressed, including selectivity, real time analysis and interference of urea presence in the sample. In the present review we aim to emphasize the significant role of arginine in human physiology and foods. A small attempt has been made to discuss the various techniques used for development of arginine biosensor and how these techniques affect their performance. The choice of transducers for arginine biosensor ranges from optical, pH sensing, ammonia gas sensing, ammonium ion-selective, conductometric and amperometric electrodes because ammonia is formed as a final product.

  7. Persistent Dentoalveolar Pain Disorder: A Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malacarne, Alberto; Spierings, Egilius L H; Lu, Chao; Maloney, George E

    2018-02-01

    Persistent dentoalveolar pain of idiopathic origin represents a diagnostic challenge for the dentist and physician alike. Disagreement on taxonomy and diagnostic criteria presents a significant limit to the advancement of research in the field. Patients struggle with a lack of knowledge by dental and medical professionals, diagnostic delays, and unnecessary treatments. A PubMed search was performed as of January 1, 2017 by using the terms atypical odontalgia, phantom tooth pain, persistent idiopathic facial pain, painful posttraumatic trigeminal neuropathy, idiopathic toothache, persistent dentoalveolar pain disorder, nonodontogenic tooth pain, and continuous neuropathic orofacial pain. Three hundred forty-five abstracts were screened, and 128 articles that were pertinent to the topic went through full-text reading. Case reports and narrative reviews constitute the majority of available literature. Several retrospective case-control studies investigated the clinical characteristics, pathophysiology, and diagnostic processes. Treatment strategies were evaluated in only 7 open-label and 2 randomized controlled trials. Persistent dentoalveolar pain disorder is likely neuropathic in origin, but pathophysiological mechanisms to explain the onset and persistence of the pain are still far from understood. A correct diagnosis should be established before treatments are performed. Researchers should reach an agreement on the diagnostic criteria to enable a coherent research path to better understand the condition and reduce patient suffering. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Immunogenetics of Psoriasis: A Comprehensive Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Jamie L.; Krueger, James G.; Bowcock, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Psoriasis vulgaris is a common, chronic inflammatory skin disease with a complex etiology involving genetic risk factors and environmental triggers. Here we describe the many known genetic predispositions of psoriasis with respect to immune genes and their encoded pathways in psoriasis susceptibility. These genes span an array of functions that involve antigen presentation (HLA-Cw6, ERAP1, ERAP2, MICA), the IL-23 axis (IL12Bp40, IL23Ap19, IL23R, JAK2, TYK2), T-cell development and T-cells polarization (RUNX1, RUNX3, STAT3, TAGAP, IL4, IL13), innate immunity (CARD14, c-REL, TRAF3IP2, DDX58, IFIH1), and negative regulators of immune responses (TNIP1, TNFAIP3, NFKBIA, ZC3H12C, IL36RN, SOCS1). The contribution of some of these gene products to psoriatic disease has also been revealed in recent years through targeting of key immune components, such as the Th17/IL-23 axis which has been highly successful in disease treatment. However, many of the genetic findings involve immune genes with less clear roles in psoriasis pathogenesis. This is particularly the case for those genes involved in innate immunity and negative regulation of immune specific pathways. It is possible that risk alleles of these genes decrease the threshold for the initial activation of the innate immune response. This could then lead to the onslaught of the pathogenic adaptive immune response known to be active in psoriatic skin. However, precisely how these various genes affect immunobiology need to be determined and some are speculated upon in this review. These novel genetic findings also open opportunities to explore novel therapeutic targets and potentially the development of personalized medicine, as well as discover new biology of human skin disease. PMID:26215033

  9. Genetics of rheumatoid arthritis - a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurkó, Júlia; Besenyei, Timea; Laki, Judit; Glant, Tibor T; Mikecz, Katalin; Szekanecz, Zoltán

    2013-10-01

    The "Bermuda triangle" of genetics, environment and autoimmunity is involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Various aspects of genetic contribution to the etiology, pathogenesis and outcome of RA are discussed in this review. The heritability of RA has been estimated to be about 60 %, while the contribution of HLA to heritability has been estimated to be 11-37 %. Apart from known shared epitope (SE) alleles, such as HLA-DRB1*01 and DRB1*04, other HLA alleles, such as HLA-DRB1*13 and DRB1*15 have been linked to RA susceptibility. A novel SE classification divides SE alleles into S1, S2, S3P and S3D groups, where primarily S2 and S3P groups have been associated with predisposition to seropositive RA. The most relevant non-HLA gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with RA include PTPN22, IL23R, TRAF1, CTLA4, IRF5, STAT4, CCR6, PADI4. Large genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 30 loci involved in RA pathogenesis. HLA and some non-HLA genes may differentiate between anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) seropositive and seronegative RA. Genetic susceptibility has also been associated with environmental factors, primarily smoking. Some GWAS studies carried out in rodent models of arthritis have confirmed the role of human genes. For example, in the collagen-induced (CIA) and proteoglycan-induced arthritis (PgIA) models, two important loci - Pgia26/Cia5 and Pgia2/Cia2/Cia3, corresponding the human PTPN22/CD2 and TRAF1/C5 loci, respectively - have been identified. Finally, pharmacogenomics identified SNPs or multiple genetic signatures that may be associated with responses to traditional disease-modifying drugs and biologics.

  10. Medical Complications of Tattoos: A Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Parvez S; Chang, Christopher; Selmi, Carlo; Generali, Elena; Huntley, Arthur; Teuber, Suzanne S; Gershwin, M Eric

    2016-04-01

    Tattoos are defined as the introduction of exogenous pigments into the dermis in order to produce a permanent design. This process may occur unintentional or may be deliberately administered for cosmetic or medical reasons. Tattoos have been around for over 5000 years and over time have evolved to represent a common cosmetic practice worldwide. Currently, adverse reactions are relatively rare and generally unpredictable and predominantly include immune-mediated reactions and skin infections. Along with better healthcare standards and more stringent public health mandates such as the provision of disposable needles, major infectious complications related to hepatitis and human retroviral infections have decreased significantly. When they do occur, skin infections are most frequently associated with Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus pyogenes. The aim of this study is to review the types and rates of medical complications of permanent tattoos. PubMed search and search dates were open ended. Acute local inflammation is the most common complication, but infections, allergic contact dermatitis, and other inflammatory or immune responses that are not well-characterized may occur. As many patients with immune reactions to tattoos do not react on skin or patch testing, it is postulated that the antigens contained in dyes or pigments are such small molecules that they need to be haptenized in order to become immunogenic. Red ink is associated more frequently with long-term reactions, including granulomatous and pseudolymphomatous phenomena or morphea-like lesions and vasculitis. Exacerbation of preexisting psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, and pyoderma gangrenosum may occur after tattooing. There is no well-defined association between cancer and tattoos. The treatment of tattoo-related complications may include local destructive measures (cryotherapy, electro-surgery, dermabrasion, chemical destruction, ablative laser destruction), surgical excision, and thermolysis of the

  11. Adoption of Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Kari; Metzler, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Recent research has provided preliminary insight into the implementation of Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program (CSPAP) components in P-12 schools, but additional empirical support is needed to establish the CSPAP model as a viable conceptual framework. The purpose of this review is to examine the extent to which the CSPAP framework is…

  12. Physical activity level in pediatric population: A comprehensive review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physical activity level in pediatric population: A comprehensive review. KD Monyeki, HCG Kemper, L Scott. Abstract. Physical activity (PA) is a key component in the maintenance and attainment of healthy, active, well-nourished and psycho-social well-being of a society. Hence, the reduction of sedentary lifestyle has ...

  13. Paramedics' non-technical skills: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Allan; Flin, Rhona

    2013-05-01

    Healthcare organisations have started to examine the impact that the human worker has on patient safety. Adopting the Crew Resource Management (CRM) approach, used in aviation, the CRM or non-technical skills of anaesthetists, surgeons, scrub practitioners and emergency physicians have recently been identified to assist in their training and assessment. Paramedics are exposed to dynamic and dangerous situations where patients have to be managed, often with life-threatening injuries or illness. As in other safety-critical domains, the technical skills of paramedics are complemented by effective non-technical skills. The aim of this paper was to review the literature on the non-technical (social and cognitive) skills used by paramedics. This review was undertaken as part of a task analysis to identify the non-technical skills used by paramedics. Of the seven papers reviewed, the results have shown very little research on this topic and so reveal a gap in the understanding of paramedic non-technical skills.

  14. Alcohol Fuels Program technical review, Spring 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-10-01

    The alcohol fuels program consists of in-house and subcontracted research for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into fuel alcohols via thermoconversion and bioconversion technologies. In the thermoconversion area, the SERI gasifier has been operated on a one-ton per day scale and produces a clean, medium-Btu gas that can be used to manufacture methanol with a relatively small gas-water shift reaction requirement. Recent research has produced catalysts that make methanol and a mixture of higher alcohols from the biomass-derived synthetic gas. Three hydrolysis processes have emerged as candidates for more focused research. They are: a high-temperature, dilute-acid, plug-flow approach based on the Dartmouth reactor; steam explosion pretreatment followed by hydrolysis using the RUT-C30 fungal organism; and direct microbial conversion of the cellulose to ethanol using bacteria in a single or mixed culture. Modeling studies, including parametric and sensitivity analyses, have recently been completed. The results of these studies will lead to a better definition of the present state-of-the-art for these processes and provide a framework for establishing the research and process engineering issues that still need resolution. In addition to these modeling studies, economic feasibility studies are being carried out by commercial engineering firms. Their results will supplement and add commercial validity to the program results. The feasibility contractors will provide input at two levels: Technical and economic assessment of the current state-of-the-art in alcohol production from lignocellulosic biomass via thermoconversion to produce methanol and higher alcohol mixtures and bioconversion to produce ethanol; and identification of research areas having the potential to significantly reduce the cost of production of alcohols.

  15. Review of the monograph V. Yu. Lukyanova “Technical regulation in the system of the Russian legislation”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albina S. Panova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to carry out a comprehensive analysis of a monograph by V.Yu. Lukyanova devoted to one of the main elements of the legal institution of technical regulation ndash the technical norm. Methods dialectic approach to the cognition of social phenomena which enables to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the integrity of objective and subjective factors it determined the choice of the following research methods formallegal comparative legal etc. Results the main approaches of the reviewed monograph were assessed which refer to the nature of technical norm its position in the legislation on technical regulation. The reviewed monograph consists of an introduction two sections conclusion and bibliography. The introduction describes technical regulation at the modern stage of development substantiates the topicality of the research and briefly describes its structure. The first section is devoted to the legal nature of technical regulation. It explores such issues as the development of concepts about the acts stipulating the mandatory requirements to products the content of technical regulation the forms of adopting technical regulations and their juridical force. The work also analyzes the role of technical regulation in the legislation system of the Russian Federation. In conclusion the author proposes a systematicparametric model of technical regulation in the Russian Federation. Scientific novelty for the first time the assessment is given to the provisions of the reviewed monograph which refer to the nature of technical norm limitations of its action both in time and space and by the circle of persons the position in the modern Russian legislation. The conclusion is made that the monograph by V.Yu. Lukyanova should be published. Practical significance the reviewer concludes that the monograph by V.Yu. Lukyanova can be used by specialists in the sphere of technical regulation and standardization research

  16. Review of technical features in underground laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianni, Aldo

    2017-10-01

    Deep underground laboratories are multidisciplinary research infrastructures. The main feature of these laboratories is the reduced cosmic ray muons flux. This characteristic allows searching for rare events such as proton decay, dark matter particles or neutrino interactions. However, biology in extreme environments and geophysics are also studied underground. A number of ancillary facilities are critical to properly operate low background experiments in these laboratories. In this work we review the main characteristics of deep underground laboratories and discuss a few of the low background facilities.

  17. Where's the Psychology? A Commentary on "Unique Characteristics of Diagnostic Classification Models: A Comprehensive Review of the Current State-of-the-Art"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighton, Jacqueline P.

    2008-01-01

    In this commentary, the author asks the analogous question, "where's the psychology?" Not because the authors of the focus article "Unique Characteristics of Diagnostic Classification Models: A Comprehensive Review of the Current State-of-the-Art" have not provided a solid review of the technical aspects of Diagnostic…

  18. Arterial supply of the upper cranial nerves: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, Philipp; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Foreman, Paul; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Loukas, Marios; Tubbs, R Shane

    2014-11-01

    The arterial supply to the upper cranial nerves is derived from a complex network of branches derived from the anterior and posterior cerebral circulations. We performed a comprehensive literature review of the arterial supply of the upper cranial nerves with an emphasis on clinical considerations. Arteries coursing in close proximity to the cranial nerves regularly give rise to small vessels that supply the nerve. Knowledge of the arteries supplying the cranial nerves is of particular importance during surgical approaches to the skull base. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Arterial supply of the lower cranial nerves: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, Philipp; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Foreman, Paul; Loukas, Marios; Fisher, Winfield S; Rizk, Elias; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane

    2014-01-01

    The lower cranial nerves receive their arterial supply from an intricate network of tributaries derived from the external carotid, internal carotid, and vertebrobasilar territories. A contemporary, comprehensive literature review of the vascular supply of the lower cranial nerves was performed. The vascular supply to the trigeminal, facial, vestibulocochlear, glossopharyngeal, vagus, spinal accessory, and hypoglossal nerves are illustrated with a special emphasis on clinical issues. Frequently the external carotid, internal carotid, and vertebrobasilar territories all contribute to the vascular supply of an individual cranial nerve along its course. Understanding of the vasculature of the lower cranial nerves is of great relevance for skull base surgery. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Adderall abuse on college campuses: a comprehensive literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Matthew D

    2012-01-01

    Prescription stimulant abuse has dramatically increased over the past 10 years, but the amount of research regarding college students and illicit prescription stimulant use is still very limited. This has important implications for college mental health professionals and higher education administrators. In this comprehensive literature review the author explores factors contributing to illicit use, self-medication, and recreational use of controlled prescription stimulants; discusses the potential consequences for those students abusing stimulants; and provides recommendations for educating, combating, and assisting students who illicitly use prescriptions stimulants on college campuses.

  1. A Comprehensive Review of Graphene Nanocomposites: Research Status and Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Dhand

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a comprehensive review of the present trends in graphene research with an emphasis on graphene-based nanocomposites and their applications. Various synthesis routes have recently been devised for mass production of graphene to address the needs of the composite industry. This paper describes the worldwide scenario of research and patents being conducted in the field of graphene nanocomposites. It concludes with a discussion of the impact of graphene in composites and the future challenges to meeting industrial demands.

  2. Control strategies for crane systems: A comprehensive review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Liyana; Mohamed, Z.; Abdullahi, Auwalu M.; Jaafar, H. I.; Lazim, Izzuddin M.

    2017-10-01

    Crane systems are tremendously utilised in numerous heavy load transportation industries, and therefore, the control of crane systems is a well-established research field. As the last review paper was published more than a decade ago, there is a lack of collected and organised information regarding the latest and the newest updates on control strategies for crane control systems. Hence, this paper presents a comprehensive review of crane control strategies discussing the latest research works during the years from 2000 to 2016. Various crane types and control issues are highlighted, followed by the main focus of this paper, an extensive review of the control schemes for diverse types of crane systems that have been carried out in the 21st century. A brief review on modelling of single-pendulum and double-pendulum crane systems is also given. In addition, anti-sway control systems for industrial cranes that are available on the market is described. This paper summarises most of the related work and also pays a special focus on research trends regarding the control of crane systems that have been previously published in the literature. It is envisaged that this review paper will be helpful to new researchers when identifying research directions for this particular area of interest.

  3. Educational interventions in neurology: a comprehensive systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McColgan, P; McKeown, P P; Selai, C; Doherty-Allan, R; McCarron, M O

    2013-07-01

    A fear of neurology and neural sciences (neurophobia) may have clinical consequences. There is therefore a need to formulate an evidence-based approach to neurology education. A comprehensive systematic review of educational interventions in neurology was performed. BEI, Cochrane Library, Dialog Datastar, EBSCO Biomedical, EBSCO Psychology & Behavioral Sciences, EMBASE, ERIC, First Search, MDConsult, Medline, Proquest Medical Library and Web of Knowledge databases were searched for all published studies assessing interventions in neurology education among undergraduate students, junior medical doctors and residents up to and including July 2012. Two independent literature searches were performed for relevant studies, which were then classified for level of evidence using the Centre of Evidence-based Medicine criteria and four levels of Kirkpatrick educational outcomes. One systematic review, 16 randomized controlled trials (RCTs), nine non-randomized cohort/follow-up studies, 33 case series or historically controlled studies and three mechanism-based reasoning studies were identified. Educational interventions showed favourable evaluation or assessment outcomes in 15 of 16 (94%) RCTs. Very few studies measured subsequent clinical behaviour (two studies) and patient outcomes (one study). There is very little high quality evidence of demonstrably effective neurology education. However, RCTs are emerging, albeit without meeting comprehensive educational criteria. An improving evidence base in the quality of neurology education will be important to reduce neurophobia. © 2013 The Author(s) European Journal of Neurology © 2013 EFNS.

  4. Technical review of the da Vinci surgical telemanipulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freschi, C; Ferrari, V; Melfi, F; Ferrari, M; Mosca, F; Cuschieri, A

    2013-12-01

    The da Vinci robotic surgical telemanipulator has been utilized in several surgical specialties for varied procedures, and the users' experiences have been widely published. To date, no detailed system technical analyses have been performed. A detailed review was performed of all publications and patents about the technical aspects of the da Vinci robotic system. Published technical literature on the da Vinci system highlight strengths and weaknesses of the robot design. While the system facilitates complex surgical operations and has a low malfunction rate, the lack of haptic (especially tactile) feedback and collisions between the robotic arms remain the major limitations of the system. Accurate, preplanned positioning of access ports is essential. Knowledge of the technical aspects of the da Vinci robot is important for optimal use. We confirmed the excellent system functionality and ease of use for surgeons without an engineering background. Research and development of the surgical robot has been predominant in the literature. Future trends address robot miniaturization and intelligent control design. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Reading Comprehension Instruction for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hsu-Min; Lin, Yueh-Hsien

    2007-01-01

    The authors reviewed studies on teaching reading comprehension to students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) with a focus on text (academic reading) comprehension and sight word (functional) comprehension. Eleven of 754 studies met the inclusion criteria: participants with ASD, published in English in a peer-reviewed journal, and use of an…

  6. Musical obsessions: a comprehensive review of neglected clinical phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Steven; McKay, Dean; Miguel, Euripedes C; De Mathis, Maria Alice; Andrade, Chittaranjan; Ahuja, Niraj; Sookman, Debbie; Kwon, Jun Soo; Huh, Min Jung; Riemann, Bradley C; Cottraux, Jean; O'Connor, Kieron; Hale, Lisa R; Abramowitz, Jonathan S; Fontenelle, Leonardo F; Storch, Eric A

    2014-08-01

    Intrusive musical imagery (IMI) consists of involuntarily recalled, short, looping fragments of melodies. Musical obsessions are distressing, impairing forms of IMI that merit investigation in their own right and, more generally, research into these phenomena may broaden our understanding of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), which is phenomenologically and etiologically heterogeneous. We present the first comprehensive review of musical obsessions, based on the largest set of case descriptions ever assembled (N=96). Characteristics of musical obsessions are described and compared with normal IMI, musical hallucinations, and visual obsessional imagery. Assessment, differential diagnosis, comorbidity, etiologic hypotheses, and treatments are described. Musical obsessions may be under-diagnosed because they are not adequately assessed by current measures of OCD. Musical obsessions have been misdiagnosed as psychotic phenomena, which has led to ineffective treatment. Accurate diagnosis is important for appropriate treatment. Musical obsessions may respond to treatments that are not recommended for prototypic OCD symptoms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The bioink: A comprehensive review on bioprintable materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hospodiuk, Monika; Dey, Madhuri; Sosnoski, Donna; Ozbolat, Ibrahim T

    This paper discusses "bioink", bioprintable materials used in three dimensional (3D) bioprinting processes, where cells and other biologics are deposited in a spatially controlled pattern to fabricate living tissues and organs. It presents the first comprehensive review of existing bioink types including hydrogels, cell aggregates, microcarriers and decellularized matrix components used in extrusion-, droplet- and laser-based bioprinting processes. A detailed comparison of these bioink materials is conducted in terms of supporting bioprinting modalities and bioprintability, cell viability and proliferation, biomimicry, resolution, affordability, scalability, practicality, mechanical and structural integrity, bioprinting and post-bioprinting maturation times, tissue fusion and formation post-implantation, degradation characteristics, commercial availability, immune-compatibility, and application areas. The paper then discusses current limitations of bioink materials and presents the future prospects to the reader. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The human microbiome in rheumatic autoimmune diseases: A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coit, Patrick; Sawalha, Amr H

    2016-09-01

    The human microbiome consists of the total diversity of microbiota and their genes. High-throughput sequencing has allowed for inexpensive and rapid evaluation of taxonomic representation and functional capability of the microbiomes of human body sites. Autoimmune and inflammatory rheumatic diseases are characterized by dysbiosis of the microbiome. Microbiome dysbiosis can be influenced by host genetics and environmental factors. Dysbiosis is also associated with shifts in certain functional pathways. The goal of this article is to provide a current and comprehensive review of the unique characteristics of the microbiome of patients with autoimmune and inflammatory rheumatic diseases, measured using high-throughput sequencing. We also highlight the need for broader studies utilizing a longitudinal approach to better understand how the human microbiome contributes to disease susceptibility, and to characterize the role of the interaction between host genetics and microbial diversity in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, disease manifestations, and progression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Functional and therapeutic potential of inulin: A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Waqas; Rashid, Summer

    2017-08-11

    Inulin as a heterogeneous blend of fructose polymers is diversely found in nature primarily as storage carbohydrates in plants. Besides, inulin is believed to induce certain techno-functional and associated properties in food systems. Inulin owing to its foam forming ability has been successfully used as fat replacer in quite a wide range of products as dairy and baked products. Furthermore, it is known to impart certain nutritional and therapeutic benefits that extend apart to improve health and reduce the risk of many lifestyle related diseases. Additionally, as a functional ingredient, Inulin has been adopted in various efficacy studies involving animal and human studies to function as a prebiotic, in promoting good digestive health, influencing lipid metabolism and has some beneficial roles in ensuring optimum levels of glucose and insulin. This review article is an attempt to present a comprehensive overview on both techno-functional and therapeutic potential of inulin.

  10. Fit of CAD/CAM implant frameworks: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abduo, Jaafar

    2014-12-01

    Computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) is a strongly emerging prosthesis fabrication method for implant dentistry. Currently, CAD/CAM allows the construction of implant frameworks from different materials. This review evaluates the literature pertaining to the precision fit of fixed implant frameworks fabricated by CAD/CAM. Following a comprehensive electronic search through PubMed (MEDLINE), 14 relevant articles were identified. The results indicate that the precision fit of CAD/CAM frameworks exceeded the fit of the 1-piece cast frameworks and laser-welded frameworks. A similar fit was observed for CAD/CAM frameworks and bonding of the framework body to prefabricated cylinders. The influence of CAD/CAM materials on the fit of a framework is minimal.

  11. Memory function approach to correlated electron transport: A comprehensive review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Nabyendu; Bhalla, Pankaj; Singh, Navinder

    2016-09-01

    Memory function formalism or projection operator technique is an extremely useful method to study the transport and optical properties of various condensed matter systems. A recent revival of its uses in various correlated electronic systems is being observed. It is being used and discussed in various contexts, ranging from non-equilibrium dynamics to the optical properties of various strongly correlated systems such as high temperature superconductors. However, a detailed discussion on this method, starting from its origin to its present day applications at one place is lacking. In this article we attempt a comprehensive review of the memory function approach focusing on its uses in studying the dynamics and the transport properties of correlated electronic systems.

  12. Concepts and measures of patient empowerment: a comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Garcimartín Cerezo

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE Analyze the definitions and dimensions of empowerment. Identify the strengths and weaknesses of empowerment measures based on the conceptual model. METHOD This was a comprehensive literature review of publications on the MEDLINE and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL databases. RESULTS Twenty-nine articles were selected. Seventeen definitions and seven dimensions of empowerment, and 10 empowerment measures were selected. Empowerment can be seen as an enabling process involving a shift in the balance of power, or as an outcome of this process. The dimensions reflect outcome indicators, such as participation in decision-making and control, and process indicators, such as knowledge acquisition and coping skills. Six of the tools analyzed by this study could be said to provide a robust measure of patient empowerment. CONCLUSION we propose a definition of empowerment that helps to deepen understanding of the term and, therefore, its operationalization.

  13. Comprehensive Review of Applicable Supercritical Fluid Extraction Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, Scott; Wright, Cherylyn W.; Wright, Bob W.

    2001-09-10

    This comprehensive supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) literature review is divided into three major sections. The first section describes the electronic literature search details including the abstract service used and the different topics searched. This section also contains an overview of the seven search topics that yielded relevant references along with a brief synopsis of the most significant literature citations. These seven groupings are (1) chemical warfare agents; (2) explosives; (3) hazardous chemicals; (4) poisons, toxins and mycotoxins; (5) toxic (lethal) chemical and toxicants; (6) pesticides in soil; and (7) pesticides from plant and animal tissues. The second section contains tables of each of these groupings. Each of the seven tables contains entries for individual literature citations listed along with the specific compounds or compound classes that are addressed. The third section refers to the abstracts used in the literature search.

  14. Wideband and UWB Antennas for Wireless Applications: A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Cicchetti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive review concerning the geometry, the manufacturing technologies, the materials, and the numerical techniques, adopted for the analysis and design of wideband and ultrawideband (UWB antennas for wireless applications, is presented. Planar, printed, dielectric, and wearable antennas, achievable on laminate (rigid and flexible, and textile dielectric substrates are taken into account. The performances of small, low-profile, and dielectric resonator antennas are illustrated paying particular attention to the application areas concerning portable devices (mobile phones, tablets, glasses, laptops, wearable computers, etc. and radio base stations. This information provides a guidance to the selection of the different antenna geometries in terms of bandwidth, gain, field polarization, time-domain response, dimensions, and materials useful for their realization and integration in modern communication systems.

  15. Dried Plums, Prunes and Bone Health: A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor C. Wallace

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans advocate for increasing fruit intake and replacing energy-dense foods with those that are nutrient-dense. Nutrition across the lifespan is pivotal for the healthy development and maintenance of bone. The National Osteoporosis Foundation estimates that over half of Americans age 50+ have either osteoporosis or low bone mass. Dried plums, also commonly referred to as prunes, have a unique nutrient and dietary bioactive profile and are suggested to exert beneficial effects on bone. To further elucidate and summarize the potential mechanisms and effects of dried plums on bone health, a comprehensive review of the scientific literature was conducted. The PubMed database was searched through 24 January 2017 for all cell, animal, population and clinical studies that examined the effects of dried plums and/or extracts of the former on markers of bone health. Twenty-four studies were included in the review and summarized in table form. The beneficial effects of dried plums on bone health may be in part due to the variety of phenolics present in the fruit. Animal and cell studies suggest that dried plums and/or their extracts enhance bone formation and inhibit bone resorption through their actions on cell signaling pathways that influence osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation. These studies are consistent with clinical studies that show that dried plums may exert beneficial effects on bone mineral density (BMD. Long-term prospective cohort studies using fractures and BMD as primary endpoints are needed to confirm the effects of smaller clinical, animal and mechanistic studies. Clinical and prospective cohort studies in men are also needed, since they represent roughly 29% of fractures, and likewise, diverse race and ethnic groups. No adverse effects were noted among any of the studies included in this comprehensive review. While the data are not completely consistent, this review suggests that

  16. Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollenbach, Carolyn

    1986-01-01

    Teaching comprehension skills requires teaching to intuition with activities such as presenting puzzling situations to introduce a topic, using art to elicit latent feelings, using imagery and improvisations to enhance visualization, and using music and dance to encourage nonverbal expressions. (DB)

  17. History, Rhetoric, and Humanism: Toward a More Comprehensive Definition of Technical Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, Russell

    1991-01-01

    Argues for studying technical communication in the larger context of evolving science and technology, developing trends in technical education, and the oratorical tradition of broad learning. Suggests supplementing studies of the workplace with increased attention to humanistic questions of what a person needs to be and know to cooperate…

  18. Proceedings of the 24th NSRR technical review meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uetsuka, Hiroshi; Fuketa, Toyoshi; Suzuki, Motoe [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] [and others

    2001-09-01

    The 24th NSRR Technical Review Meeting was held at Tranomon Pastoral, Tokyo, on November 13 and 14, 2000. The purpose of the meeting was to present and discuss the recent progress of the NSRR program and other LWR fuel safety researches at JAERI. Twenty-one papers, including five by foreign institutes, were presented and discussed regarding fuel behavior during normal operation, reactivity initiated accident (RIA) and loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) and FP release behavior during severe accident. The meeting was a great help in planning future research and promoting research cooperation. This proceeding contains the papers presented in the meeting. (author)

  19. Defect Characterization Based on Eddy Current Technique: Technical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruzlaini Ghoni

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Eddy current testing is widely used for nondestructive evaluation of metallic structures in characterizing numerous types of defects occurring in various locations. It offers remarkable advantages over other nondestructive techniques because of its ease of implementation. This paper presents a technical review of Eddy current technique in various scope of defect detection. The first part presents Eddy current evaluation on various defects location and orientation such as steam generator tubes, stress crack corrosion, and fatigue cracks. The next section analyzes the use of pulsed Eddy current and pulsed Eddy current thermography as an alternative method for monitoring the growth of cracks with the aid of computational techniques for postsignal analysis.

  20. Volcano-related materials in concretes: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Gaochuang; Noguchi, Takafumi; Degée, Hervé; Zhao, Jun; Kitagaki, Ryoma

    2016-04-01

    Massive volcano-related materials (VRMs) erupted from volcanoes bring the impacts to natural environment and humanity health worldwide, which include generally volcanic ash (VA), volcanic pumice (VP), volcanic tuff (VT), etc. Considering the pozzolanic activities and mechanical characters of these materials, civil engineers propose to use them in low carbon/cement and environment-friendly concrete industries as supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) or artificial/natural aggregates. The utilization of VRMs in concretes has attracted increasing and pressing attentions from research community. Through a literature review, this paper presents comprehensively the properties of VRMs and VRM concretes (VRMCs), including the physical and chemical properties of raw VRMs and VRMCs, and the fresh, microstructural and mechanical properties of VRMCs. Besides, considering environmental impacts and the development of long-term properties, the durability and stability properties of VRMCs also are summarized in this paper. The former focuses on the resistance properties of VRMCs when subjected to aggressive environmental impacts such as chloride, sulfate, seawater, and freezing-thawing. The latter mainly includes the fatigue, creep, heat-insulating, and expansion properties of VRMCs. This study will be helpful to promote the sustainability in concrete industries, protect natural environment, and reduce the impacts of volcano disaster. Based on this review, some main conclusions are discussed and important recommendations regarding future research on the application of VRMs in concrete industries are provided.

  1. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and bariatric surgery: a comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everton Cazzo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD has been increasingly diagnosed worldwide and is now recognized as a source of public health concern. It comprises a wide spectrum of histological features that range from simple steatosis to severe forms of fibrosis, steatohepatitis and even cirrhosis. The impact of bariatric surgery on the course of NAFLD in individuals with obesity has been extensively studied. DESIGN AND SETTING: Narrative review; public university hospital. METHODS: A comprehensive review was conducted based on an online search on the electronic databases MEDLINE and LILACS using the MeSH terms “fatty liver” and “bariatric surgery”. RESULTS: The exact mechanisms that lead to improvement in NAFLD following bariatric surgery are not completely understood. Since Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB is the bariatric surgical procedure most performed worldwide, it is also the one from which the effects on NAFLD have been most studied, although there is also consistent evidence regarding the effects from gastric banding, sleeve gastrectomy and biliopancreatic diversions. CONCLUSION: According to the currently available evidence, bariatric surgery leads to significant improvement in NAFLD. Further research, especially by means of randomized controlled trials enrolling larger cohorts of individuals, is needed to determine the optimal procedure for this group of subjects.

  2. A comprehensive and quantitative review of dark fermentative biohydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Biohydrogen production (BHP) can be achieved by direct or indirect biophotolysis, photo-fermentation and dark fermentation, whereof only the latter does not require the input of light energy. Our motivation to compile this review was to quantify and comprehensively report strains and process performance of dark fermentative BHP. This review summarizes the work done on pure and defined co-culture dark fermentative BHP since the year 1901. Qualitative growth characteristics and quantitative normalized results of H2 production for more than 2000 conditions are presented in a normalized and therefore comparable format to the scientific community. Statistically based evidence shows that thermophilic strains comprise high substrate conversion efficiency, but mesophilic strains achieve high volumetric productivity. Moreover, microbes of Thermoanaerobacterales (Family III) have to be preferred when aiming to achieve high substrate conversion efficiency in comparison to the families Clostridiaceae and Enterobacteriaceae. The limited number of results available on dark fermentative BHP from fed-batch cultivations indicates the yet underestimated potential of this bioprocessing application. A Design of Experiments strategy should be preferred for efficient bioprocess development and optimization of BHP aiming at improving medium, cultivation conditions and revealing inhibitory effects. This will enable comparing and optimizing strains and processes independent of initial conditions and scale. PMID:22925149

  3. A comprehensive and quantitative review of dark fermentative biohydrogen production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rittmann Simon

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Biohydrogen production (BHP can be achieved by direct or indirect biophotolysis, photo-fermentation and dark fermentation, whereof only the latter does not require the input of light energy. Our motivation to compile this review was to quantify and comprehensively report strains and process performance of dark fermentative BHP. This review summarizes the work done on pure and defined co-culture dark fermentative BHP since the year 1901. Qualitative growth characteristics and quantitative normalized results of H2 production for more than 2000 conditions are presented in a normalized and therefore comparable format to the scientific community. Statistically based evidence shows that thermophilic strains comprise high substrate conversion efficiency, but mesophilic strains achieve high volumetric productivity. Moreover, microbes of Thermoanaerobacterales (Family III have to be preferred when aiming to achieve high substrate conversion efficiency in comparison to the families Clostridiaceae and Enterobacteriaceae. The limited number of results available on dark fermentative BHP from fed-batch cultivations indicates the yet underestimated potential of this bioprocessing application. A Design of Experiments strategy should be preferred for efficient bioprocess development and optimization of BHP aiming at improving medium, cultivation conditions and revealing inhibitory effects. This will enable comparing and optimizing strains and processes independent of initial conditions and scale.

  4. A comprehensive review of the genetics of juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glass David N

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA is the most common chronic arthropathy of childhood which is believed to be influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. The progress in identifying genes underlying JIA susceptibility using candidate gene association studies has been slow. Several associations between JIA and variants in the genes encoding the human leukocyte antigens (HLA have been confirmed and replicated in independent cohorts. However it is clear that genetic variants outside the HLA also influence susceptibility to JIA. While a large number of non-HLA candidate genes have been tested for associations, only a handful of reported associations such as PTPN22 have been validated. In this review we discuss the principles behind genetic studies of complex traits like JIA, and comprehensively catalogue non-HLA candidate-gene association studies performed in JIA to date and review several validated associations. Most candidate gene studies are underpowered and do not detect associations, and those that do are often not replicated. We also discuss the principles behind genome-wide association studies and discuss possible implications for identifying genes underlying JIA. Finally we discuss several genetic variants underlying multiple clinically distinct autoimmune phenotypes.

  5. Advances in Immunotherapy for Melanoma: A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Rodríguez-Cerdeira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Melanomas are tumors originating from melanocytes and tend to show early metastasis secondary to the loss of cellular adhesion in the primary tumor, resulting in high mortality rates. Cancer-specific active immunotherapy is an experimental form of treatment that stimulates the immune system to recognize antigens on the surface of cancer cells. Current experimental approaches in immunotherapy include vaccines, biochemotherapy, and the transfer of adoptive T cells and dendritic cells. Several types of vaccines, including peptide, viral, and dendritic cell vaccines, are currently under investigation for the treatment of melanoma. These treatments have the same goal as drugs that are already used to stimulate the proliferation of T lymphocytes in order to destroy tumor cells; however, immunotherapies aim to selectively attack the tumor cells of each patient. In this comprehensive review, we describe recent advancements in the development of immunotherapies for melanoma, with a specific focus on the identification of neoantigens for the prediction of their elicited immune responses. This review is expected to provide important insights into the future of immunotherapy for melanoma.

  6. ESAP Students' Comprehension of Multiple Technical Reading Texts: Insights from Personal Epistemological Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Mohammad Nabi; Atai, Mohamood Reza

    2014-01-01

    Given the importance associated with multiple-document literacy in the present-day knowledge societies and the dearth of research in English Language Teaching in general and English for Specific/Academic Purposes (ESAP) contexts in particular on multiple-document comprehension and the significance of reader beliefs in this type of comprehension,…

  7. Production, review, and impact of technical quality control guidelines in a national context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Michelle K; Malkoske, Kyle E; Brown, Erika; Diamond, Kevin; Frenière, Normand; Grant, John; Pomerleau-Dalcourt, Natalie; Schella, Jason; Schreiner, L John; Tantôt, Laurent; Villareal-Barajas, J Eduardo; Bissonnette, Jean-Pierre

    2016-11-08

    A close partnership between the Canadian Partnership for Quality Radiotherapy (CPQR) and the Canadian Organization of Medical Physicist's (COMP) Quality Assurance and Radiation Safety Advisory Committee (QARSAC) has resulted in the development of a suite of Technical Quality Control (TQC) guidelines for radiation treatment equipment; they outline specific performance objectives and criteria that equipment should meet in order to assure an acceptable level of radiation treatment quality. The adopted framework for the development and maintenance of the TQCs ensures the guidelines incorporate input from the medical physics com-munity during development, measures the workload required to perform the QC tests outlined in each TQC, and remain relevant (i.e., "living documents") through subsequent planned reviews and updates. The framework includes consolidation of existing guidelines and/or literature by expert reviewers, structured stages of public review, external field-testing, and ratification by COMP. This TQC develop-ment framework is a cross-country initiative that allows for rapid development of robust, community-driven living guideline documents that are owned by the com-munity and reviewed to keep relevant in a rapidly evolving technical environment. Community engagement and uptake survey data shows 70% of Canadian centers are part of this process and that the data in the guideline documents reflect, and are influencing, the way Canadian radiation treatment centers run their technical quality control programs. For a medium-sized center comprising six linear accelerators and a comprehensive brachytherapy program, we evaluate the physics workload to 1.5 full-time equivalent physicists per year to complete all QC tests listed in this suite. © 2016 The Authors.

  8. Summary of comprehensive systematic review: Rehabilitation in multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haselkorn, Jodie K.; Hughes, Christina; Rae-Grant, Alex; Henson, Lily Jung; Bever, Christopher T.; Lo, Albert C.; Brown, Theodore R.; Kraft, George H.; Getchius, Thomas; Gronseth, Gary; Armstrong, Melissa J.; Narayanaswami, Pushpa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To systematically review the evidence regarding rehabilitation treatments in multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods: We systematically searched the literature (1970–2013) and classified articles using 2004 American Academy of Neurology criteria. Results: This systematic review highlights the paucity of well-designed studies, which are needed to evaluate the available MS rehabilitative therapies. Weekly home/outpatient physical therapy (8 weeks) probably is effective for improving balance, disability, and gait (MS type unspecified, participants able to walk ≥5 meters) but probably is ineffective for improving upper extremity dexterity (1 Class I). Inpatient exercises (3 weeks) followed by home exercises (15 weeks) possibly are effective for improving disability (relapsing-remitting MS [RRMS], primary progressive MS [PPMS], secondary progressive MS [SPMS], Expanded Disability Status Scale [EDSS] 3.0–6.5) (1 Class II). Six weeks' worth of comprehensive multidisciplinary outpatient rehabilitation possibly is effective for improving disability/function (PPMS, SPMS, EDSS 4.0–8.0) (1 Class II). Motor and sensory balance training or motor balance training (3 weeks) possibly is effective for improving static and dynamic balance, and motor balance training (3 weeks) possibly is effective for improving static balance (RRMS, SPMS, PPMS) (1 Class II). Breathing-enhanced upper extremity exercises (6 weeks) possibly are effective for improving timed gait and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (RRMS, SPMS, PPMS, mean EDSS 4.5); this change is of unclear clinical significance. This technique possibly is ineffective for improving disability (1 Class II). Inspiratory muscle training (10 weeks) possibly improves maximal inspiratory pressure (RRMS, SPMS, PPMS, EDSS 2–6.5) (1 Class II). PMID:26598432

  9. Children's health and vulnerability in outdoor microclimates: A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanos, Jennifer K

    2015-03-01

    Children are routinely identified as a vulnerable population in environmental health risk assessments, experiencing adverse health outcomes due to exposure to a suite of atmospheric constituents. To provide a substantive overview of the research literature pertaining to biometeorological effects on children. Key information areas within urban environmental health research related to atmospheric variables (heat, air pollution, radiation) are assessed and integrated to better understand health outcomes and vulnerabilities in children. Critical avenues for improvement and understanding of children's health related to such biophysical parameters are also identified. This comprehensive review assesses past and current primary studies, organizational reports, educational books, and review articles. Emphasis is placed on the differential ambient exposures to temperature, air pollution, and radiation within urban microclimates commonly used by children (e.g., schoolyards, urban parks), and the resulting health impacts. Exposure to heat, air pollution, and radiation are often enhanced in urban areas, specifically under the current design of the majority of outdoor child play places. Many heat indices, energy budget models, and health outcome studies fail to adequately parameterize children, yet those that do find enhanced vulnerability to ambient stressors, particularly heat and air pollution. Such environmental exposures relate strongly to behavior, activity, asthma, obesity, and overall child well-being. Current research indicates that a changing climate, growing urban population, and unsustainable design are projected to pose increasing complications. Evidence-based research to link children's health, physiology, and behavior to atmospheric extremes is an important future research avenue, underscoring the fact that children are among the population groups disproportionately affected by ambient extremes. However, current methods and population-based models lack child

  10. Clinical efficacy of turmeric use in gingivitis: A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyell, Karissa A; Mappus, Jennifer L; Gandhi, Mona A

    2016-11-01

    Gingivitis affects an estimated 80% of the population, and is characterized as the world's most predominant inflammatory periodontal disease. Without intervention, gingivitis can advance to alveolar bone loss. Therefore, the primary goal in patients suffering with gingivitis is to control plaque buildup and soft tissue inflammation. Current guidelines consider chlorhexidine as the gold standard in the prevention and treatment of gingivitis. However, negative side effects of chlorhexidine, including oral mucosal erosion, discoloration of teeth, and bitter taste, provide an opportunity for alternative medications. Turmeric, a commonly used herb, possesses anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal properties. By virtue of these properties, multiple controlled trials have been performed to investigate the efficacy of turmeric in gingivitis. The aim of this comprehensive review is to summarize and evaluate the evidence on the efficacy of turmeric as compared to chlorhexidine in the prevention and treatment of gingivitis. PubMed, MedLine (Web of Science), and EBSCO (academic search complete) were utilized as primary literature search tools. The following search strategy was used: ((turmeric OR curcumin OR curcuma) AND (gingivitis OR "gum inflammation")). Five reviewed studies show that both turmeric and chlorhexidine significantly decrease plaque index (PI) and gingival index (GI), and can therefore be used in the prevention and treatment of gingivitis. Both chlorhexidine and turmeric can be used as an adjunct to mechanical means in preventing and treating gingivitis. However, trials longer than 21 days with a greater number of patients are necessary to further evaluate the comparison between turmeric and chlorhexidine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Advanced nanocomposite membranes for fuel cell applications: a comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolsoum Pourzare

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Combination of inorganic fillers into organic polymer membranes (organic–inorganic hybrid membranes has drawn a significant deal of attention over the last few decades. This is because of the incorporated influence of the organic and inorganic phases towards proton conductivity and membrane stability, in addition to cost decline, improved water retention property, and also suppressing fuel crossover by increasing the transport pathway tortuousness. The preparation methods of the composite membranes and the intrinsic characteristics of the used particles as filler, such as size, type, surface acidity, shape, and their interactions with the polymer matrix can significantly affect the properties of the resultant matrix. The membranes currently used in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs are perfluorinated polymers containing sulfonic acid, such as Nafion®. Although these membranes possess superior properties, such as high proton conductivity and acceptable chemical, mechanical, and thermal stability, they suffer from several disadvantages such as water management, CO poisoning, and fuel crossover. Organic-inorganic nanocomposite PEMs offer excellent potentials for overcoming these shortcomings in order to achieve improved FC performance. Various inorganic fillers for the fabrication of composite membranes have been comprehensively reviewed in the present article. Moreover, the properties of polymer composites containing different nanoparticles have been thoroughly discussed.

  12. Lipid extraction methods from microalgae: A comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjith Kumar eR

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy security has become a serious global issue and a lot of research is being carried out to look for economocially viable and environment-friendly alternatives. The only solution that appears to to meet the futuristic needs is the use of renewable energy. Although various forms of renewable energy are being currently used, the prospects of producing carbon-neutral biofuels from microalgae appears bright because of its unique features such as suitability of growing in open ponds required for production of a commodity product, high CO2-sequestering capability, ability to grow in wastewater/seawater/brackishwater and high lipid productivity. The major process constraint in the microalgal biofuel technology is the cost-effective and efficient extraction of lipids. The objective of this article is to provide a comprehensive review on various methods of lipid extraction from microalgae available till date, as well as to discuss their advantages and disadvantages. The article covers all areas of lipid extraction procedures including solvent extraction procedures, mechanical approaches and solvent-free procedures apart from some of the latest extraction technologies. A lot more research efforts are required in this area for successful implementation of this technology at a production scale.

  13. Melasma: an Up-to-Date Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbechie-Godec, Oluwatobi A; Elbuluk, Nada

    2017-09-01

    Melasma is a common acquired condition of symmetric hyperpigmentation, typically occurring on the face, with higher prevalence in females and darker skin types. Multiple etiologies, including light exposure, hormonal influences, and family history, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of this disorder. Overall prevalence ranges widely at 1-50%, since values are typically calculated within a specific ethnic population within a geographic region. Histologically, melasma can display increased epidermal and/or dermal pigmentation, enlarged melanocytes, increased melanosomes, solar elastosis, dermal blood vessels, and, occasionally, perivascular lymphohistiocytic infiltrates. Various topical, oral, and procedural therapies have been successfully used to treat melasma. Traditional topical therapies including hydroquinone, tretinoin, corticosteroids, and triple combination creams; however, other synthetic and natural topical compounds have also shown varying efficacies. Promising oral therapies for melasma include tranexamic acid, Polypodium leucotomos, and glutathione. Procedures, including chemical peels, microneedling, radiofrequency, and lasers, are also often used as primary or adjunctive treatments for melasma. Notably, combination therapies within or across treatment modalities generally result in better efficacies than monotherapies. This review serves as a comprehensive update on the current understanding of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical and histologic features of melasma, as well as treatments for this common, yet therapeutically challenging, condition.

  14. ECO-TOURISM SUSTAINABILITY THROUGH PV TECHNOLOGY: A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARAVIND C. V

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Through the Economic Transformation program the Malaysian Government aims to consider tourism as one of the major contributors to the country’s economy and as an industry that imbibe on the principles of environmental responsibility and sustainable development. The growing challenges in the prevention of expansion in agriculture, forestry and aquaculture, and over-exploitation of the natural resources, have made ecotourism extremely popular as a solution for developing tourism sites. Ecotourism attracts many people who wish not only to explore natural wonders but also to protect them for future generations. Most of the ecotourism sites are presumably situated far from the conventional energy resources and thus transporting electricity to those areas are discussed as inefficient and unsustainable. However, solar Photo-voltaic (PV system is clean and alternative energy to suffice the energy demands of eco-tourist sites. This paper puts statements of the energy demand in global and its impact on the traditional fossil fuels and proposes PV as an alternative renewable technology pertaining to the eco-tourism application. The paper especially focuses on solar PV systems which not only could supply the energy demand of tourist sites but can also maintain the image of the ecotourism. A case of a model lodge is used for the study, through the energy demand analysis. A comprehensive review on the PV architecture is presented that derive interest in the implementation of such structure for the case presented.

  15. Tick-borne diseases and autoimmunity: A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Yhojan; Rojas, Manuel; Gershwin, M Eric; Anaya, Juan-Manuel

    2017-11-25

    Tick-borne diseases (TBDs) are emerging and reemerging diseases transmitted by ticks, which portray wide heterogeneity and global distribution. TBDs may present acute clinical pictures that resemble those of autoimmune diseases (i.e., musculoskeletal symptoms, cutaneous involvement, neurologic impairment, renal failure, etc.), and in some cases infection is considered a triggering factor for autoimmunity (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis, autoimmune thyroid disease, vasculitides). The clinician should consider TBDs among the differential diagnoses when approaching autoimmune-like signs in areas of tick infestation. Epidemiological setting (e.g., endemic areas, seasons) and an accurate diagnostic approach (i.e., clinical history, physical examination and laboratory tests) are necessary to confirm TBDs. Further, control and prevention of TBDs is warranted. Research in the fields of ticks microbiome and vaccination (i.e., wildlife and humans) are ahead to control vector transmission and bacterial infection. This review offers a comprehensive update on TBDs and their relationship with autoimmunity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Carcinosarcoma of the Pancreas: Case Report With Comprehensive Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruess, Dietrich A; Kayser, Claudia; Neubauer, Jakob; Fichtner-Feigl, Stefan; Hopt, Ulrich T; Wittel, Uwe A

    2017-10-01

    Carcinosarcomas are rare biphasic neoplasms with distinct malignant epithelial and mesenchymal components. Most commonly, carcinosarcomas arise in the uterus as malignant mixed müllerian tumors, but also infrequently appear in other organs such as the ovaries and breast, the prostate and urinary tract, the lungs, or in the gastrointestinal system, among others. Pancreatic carcinosarcomas are exceedingly rare; only a few cases are reported in the English literature. Their pathogenesis remains to be fully clarified. We present here the case of a pancreatic carcinosarcoma with evidence for monoclonality via determination of Kras mutational status after microdissection and suggest a common origin of the 2 tumor components. Comprehensive review of the available literature allows the conclusion that most pancreatic carcinosarcomas appear to be of monoclonal origin and seem to have arisen from a carcinoma via metaplastic transformation of 1 part or subclone of the tumor, probably by epithelial-mesenchymal transition. All reported patients were treated with surgery. Adjuvant therapy, if administered, consisted predominantly of gemcitabine. Prognosis for this neoplasm occurs to be similar or even worse compared with classic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Despite the lack of evidence-based recommendations for its treatment, resection should be performed, if possible.

  17. Determinants of Transfer of Training: A Comprehensive Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Tonhäuser

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Investments in training measures can only be considered effective if the transfer of the learned contents to practical situations is continuously successful.  In this context the scientific and professional discourse regarding the effectiveness of further education, especially regarding training transfer, has intensified considerably.  This analysis provides a systematic and comprehensive overview of the current state of international empirical research regarding major influencing factors of learning transfer in the context of formalized further vocational training.  Our review of literature differentiates the most important influencing factors on the micro-level of the specific individual characteristics of the participants, the meso-level of measure-specific characteristics of the field of learning, as well as institutional characteristics of the work environment at the macro-level.  Decades of transfer research brings forth a wealth of information regarding factors which influence the learning transfer.  The current analysis systematizes these results and clarifies that the current state of research regarding the determinants of the process of learning transfer shows clear trends.  But there are also some inconsistent findings.  Thus the question of which factors positively influence the success of learning transfer is well-studied for the micro-level in particular.  The article shows that there is still a research deficit concerning the major determinants of learning transfer at the meso- and macro-level.  Finally, in this context this article identifies promising directions for future research.

  18. A Systematic Review of the Research on Vocabulary Instruction That Impacts Text Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Tanya S.; Cervetti, Gina N.

    2017-01-01

    Although numerous studies have identified a correlational relationship between vocabulary and comprehension, we know less about vocabulary interventions that impact reading comprehension. Therefore, this study is a systematic review of vocabulary interventions with comprehension outcomes. Analyses of 36 studies that met criteria are organized…

  19. Effects and effectiveness of dynamic arm supports: a technical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heide, Loek A; Gelderblom, Gert Jan; de Witte, Luc P

    2015-01-01

    Numerous dynamic arm supports have been developed in recent decades to increase independence in the performance of activities of daily living. Much effort and money have been spent on their development and prescription, yet insight into their effects and effectiveness is lacking. This article is a systematic review of evaluations of dynamic arm supports. The 8 technical evaluations, 12 usability evaluations, and 27 outcome studies together make 47 evaluations. Technical evaluations were often used as input for new developments and directed at balancing quality, forces and torques, and range of motion of prototypes. Usability studies were mostly single-measure designs that had varying results as to whether devices were usable for potential users. An increased ability to perform activities of daily living and user satisfaction were reported in outcome studies. However, the use of dynamic arm supports in the home situation was reported to be low. Gaining insight into why devices are not used when their developers believe them to be effective seems crucial for every new dynamic arm support developed. The methodological quality of the outcome studies was often low, so it is important that this is improved in the future.

  20. A Technical Review on Biomass Processing: Densification, Preprocessing, Modeling and Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Christopher T. Wright

    2010-06-01

    It is now a well-acclaimed fact that burning fossil fuels and deforestation are major contributors to climate change. Biomass from plants can serve as an alternative renewable and carbon-neutral raw material for the production of bioenergy. Low densities of 40–60 kg/m3 for lignocellulosic and 200–400 kg/m3 for woody biomass limits their application for energy purposes. Prior to use in energy applications these materials need to be densified. The densified biomass can have bulk densities over 10 times the raw material helping to significantly reduce technical limitations associated with storage, loading and transportation. Pelleting, briquetting, or extrusion processing are commonly used methods for densification. The aim of the present research is to develop a comprehensive review of biomass processing that includes densification, preprocessing, modeling and optimization. The specific objective include carrying out a technical review on (a) mechanisms of particle bonding during densification; (b) methods of densification including extrusion, briquetting, pelleting, and agglomeration; (c) effects of process and feedstock variables and biomass biochemical composition on the densification (d) effects of preprocessing such as grinding, preheating, steam explosion, and torrefaction on biomass quality and binding characteristics; (e) models for understanding the compression characteristics; and (f) procedures for response surface modeling and optimization.

  1. Technical Review: Cytogenetic Tools for Studying Mitotic Chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bačovský, Václaclav; Hobza, Roman; Vyskot, Boris

    2018-01-01

    Significant advances in chromosome preparation and other techniques have greatly increased the potential of plant cytogenetics in recent years. Increase in longitudinal resolution using DNA extended fibers as well as new developments in imaging and signal amplification technologies have enhanced the ability of FISH to detect small gene targets. The combination of fluorescence in situ hybridization with immunocytochemistry allows the investigation of cell events, chromosomal rearrangements and chromatin features typical for plant nuclei. Chromosome manipulation techniques using microdissection and flow sorting have accelerated the analysis of complex plant genomes. Together, the different cytogenetic approaches are invaluable for the unravelling of detailed structures of plant chromosomes, which are of utmost importance for the study of genome properties, DNA replication and gene regulation. In this technical review, different cytogenetic approaches are discussed for the analysis of plant chromosomes, with a focus on mitotic chromosomes.

  2. Models for waste life cycle assessment: Review of technical assumptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentil, Emmanuel; Damgaard, Anders; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2010-01-01

    , such as the functional unit, system boundaries, waste composition and energy modelling. The modelling assumptions of waste management processes, ranging from collection, transportation, intermediate facilities, recycling, thermal treatment, biological treatment, and landfilling, are obviously critical when comparing......A number of waste life cycle assessment (LCA) models have been gradually developed since the early 1990s, in a number of countries, usually independently from each other. Large discrepancies in results have been observed among different waste LCA models, although it has also been shown that results...... from different LCA studies can be consistent. This paper is an attempt to identify, review and analyse methodologies and technical assumptions used in various parts of selected waste LCA models. Several criteria were identified, which could have significant impacts on the results...

  3. Concepts and measures of patient empowerment: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerezo, Paloma Garcimartín; Juvé-Udina, Maria-Eulália; Delgado-Hito, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Analyze the definitions and dimensions of empowerment. Identify the strengths and weaknesses of empowerment measures based on the conceptual model. This was a comprehensive literature review of publications on the MEDLINE and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) databases. Twenty-nine articles were selected. Seventeen definitions and seven dimensions of empowerment, and 10 empowerment measures were selected. Empowerment can be seen as an enabling process involving a shift in the balance of power, or as an outcome of this process. The dimensions reflect outcome indicators, such as participation in decision-making and control, and process indicators, such as knowledge acquisition and coping skills. Six of the tools analyzed by this study could be said to provide a robust measure of patient empowerment. we propose a definition of empowerment that helps to deepen understanding of the term and, therefore, its operationalization. Analizar definiciones y dimensiones de empoderamiento. Identificar fortalezas y debilidades de los instrumentos de medida de empoderamiento respecto al modelo conceptual. Revisión integrativa de la literatura en las bases de datos MEDLINE y Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL). Fueram seleccionados 29 artículos . Se identificaron 17 definiciones, 7 propuestas de dimensiones y 10 instrumentos de medida. Empoderamiento puede ser un proceso de capacitación o habilitación en el que se transfiere el poder de un individuo a otro, o bien un resultado producto de ese proceso. Las dimensiones reflejan indicadores de resultados como son la participación en la toma de decisiones y tomar el control, e indicadores relativos al proceso como son la adquisición de conocimientos y las habilidades de afrontamiento. De los instrumentos analizados seis son los instrumentos que presentan mayor robustez. Se propone una definición de empoderamiento que puede ayudar a mejorar la comprensión del t

  4. Seafood-Associated Shellfish Allergy: A Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khora, Samanta S

    2016-08-01

    Shellfish are diverse, serve as main constituents of seafood, and are extensively consumed globally because of their nutritional values. Consequently, increase in reports of IgE-mediated seafood allergy is particularly food associated to shellfish. Seafood-associated shellfish consists of crustaceans (decapods, stomatopods, barnacles, and euphausiids) and molluskans (gastropods, bivalves, and cephalopods) and its products can start from mild local symptoms and lead to severe systemic anaphylactic reactions through ingestion, inhalation, or contact like most other food allergens. Globally, the most commonly causative shellfish are shrimps, crabs, lobsters, clams, oysters, and mussels. The prevalence of shellfish allergy is estimated to be 0.5-2.5% of the general population but higher in coastal Asian countries where shellfish constitute a large proportion of the diet. Diversity in allergens such as tropomyosin, arginine kinase, myosin light chain, and sarcoplasmic binding protein are from crustaceans whereas tropomyosin, paramyosin, troponin, actine, amylase, and hemoyanin are reported from molluskans shellfish. Tropomyosin is the major allergen and is responsible for cross-reactivity between shellfish and other invertebrates, within crustaceans, within molluskans, between crustaceans vs. molluskans as well as between shellfish and fish. Allergenicity diagnosis requires clinical history, in vivo skin prick testing, in vitro quantification of IgE, immunoCAP, and confirmation by oral challenge testing unless the reactions borne by it are life-threatening. This comprehensive review provides the update and new findings in the area of shellfish allergy including demographic, diversity of allergens, allergenicity, their cross-reactivity, and innovative molecular genetics approaches in diagnosing and managing this life-threatening as well as life-long disease.

  5. Effectiveness of Comprehensive Tobacco Control Programs in Reducing Teenage Smoking: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Wakefield, Melanie A. PhD; Chaloupka, Frank J. PhD

    1999-01-01

    This review focuses on the extent to which comprehensive, statewide, tobacco control programs in the United States have induced change in teenage smoking or made progress towards this goal and under what circumstances such programs are likely to be most effective. The sources for this review include published journal articles, reports and documents, rather than any primary data analysis. We review evidence for the extent to which individual strategies that comprise a comprehensive tobacco con...

  6. Independent Technical Review of the X-740 Groundwater Remedy, Portsmouth, Ohio: Technical Evaluation and Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney, B.; Rhia, B.; Jackson, D.; Eddy-Dilek, C.

    2010-04-30

    Energy Office of Environmental Management (EM-32) to provide an independent technical panel to review previous and ongoing remedial activities designed to address TCE contamination in groundwater at X-740. In 1999, a corrective action was implemented at X-740 to address contamination in the groundwater. The DOE planted poplar trees over 2.6 acres of the groundwater plume. After several years of groundwater monitoring, the results indicated that the benefits of phytoremediation were limited and insufficient to meet remedial objectives. In 2007, an alternative remedial strategy based on in situ oxidative treatment was negotiated with Ohio EPA. During FY2008, three treatment phases of chemical oxidation were completed. The general charter for the independent technical review team is to review the results of s previous and ongoing remedial actions to determine whether the current strategy will be effective in meeting the end points specified in the regulatory work plan.

  7. Peer Collaboration: Improving Teaching through Comprehensive Peer Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Shelley L.

    2014-01-01

    This article includes a brief rationale and review of the literature on peer review of teaching (PRT). Based on that literature review, it offers a proposal for an optimal formative review process that results in a teaching portfolio that would reflect a faculty member's efforts and successes in a critically reflective PRT process, and contributes…

  8. Comprehensive School-Based Physical Activity Promotion: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Heather; Beighle, Aaron; Carson, Russell L.; Castelli, Darla M.

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) participation levels among youth remain well below national recommendations. Thus, a variety of strategies to promote youth PA have been advocated, including multifaceted, school-based approaches. One identified as having great potential is a comprehensive school physical activity program (CSPAP). The goal of a CSPAP is to…

  9. Charter Schools, Civil Rights and School Discipline: A Comprehensive Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losen, Daniel J.; Keith, Michael A., II; Hodson, Cheri L.; Martinez, Tia E.

    2016-01-01

    This report, along with the companion spreadsheet, provides the first comprehensive description ever compiled of charter school discipline. In 2011-12, every one of the nation's 95,000 public schools was required to report its school discipline data, including charter schools. This analysis, which includes more than 5,250 charter schools, focuses…

  10. Comprehensive Deployment Method for Technical Characteristics Base on Multi-failure Modes Correlation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, W.; Gao, J. M.; Wang, R. X.; Chen, K.; Jiang, Y.

    2017-12-01

    This paper put forward a new method of technical characteristics deployment based on Reliability Function Deployment (RFD) by analysing the advantages and shortages of related research works on mechanical reliability design. The matrix decomposition structure of RFD was used to describe the correlative relation between failure mechanisms, soft failures and hard failures. By considering the correlation of multiple failure modes, the reliability loss of one failure mode to the whole part was defined, and a calculation and analysis model for reliability loss was presented. According to the reliability loss, the reliability index value of the whole part was allocated to each failure mode. On the basis of the deployment of reliability index value, the inverse reliability method was employed to acquire the values of technology characteristics. The feasibility and validity of proposed method were illustrated by a development case of machining centre’s transmission system.

  11. Robotic liver surgery: technical aspects and review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Francesco Maria; Daskalaki, Despoina; Gonzalez-Ciccarelli, Luis Fernando; Kim, Jihun; Benedetti, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery for liver resections has a defined role and represents an accepted alternative to open techniques for selected cases. Robotic technology can overcome some of the disadvantages of the laparoscopic technique, mainly in the most complex cases. Precise dissection and microsuturing is possible, even in narrow operative fields, allowing for a better dissection of the hepatic hilum, fine lymphadenectomy, and biliary reconstruction even with small bile ducts and easier bleeding control. This technique has the potential to allow for a greater number of major resections and difficult segmentectomies to be performed in a minimally invasive fashion. The implementation of near-infrared fluorescence with indocyanine green (ICG) also allows for a more accurate recognition of vascular and biliary anatomy. The perspectives of this kind of virtually implemented imaging are very promising and may be reflected in better outcomes. The overall data present in current literature suggests that robotic liver resections are at least comparable to both open and laparoscopic surgery in terms of perioperative and postoperative outcomes. This article provides technical details of robotic liver resections and a review of the current literature. PMID:27500143

  12. Typing of Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus: A technical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P L Mehndiratta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing prevalence of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA worldwide is a growing public health concern. MRSA typing is an essential component of an effective surveillance system to describe epidemiological trends and infection control strategies. Current challenges for MRSA typing are focused on selecting the most appropriate technique in terms of efficiency, reliability, ease of performance and cost involved. This review summarises the available information on application, potential and problems of various typing techniques in discriminating the strains and understanding the epidemiology of MRSA strains. The phenotypic methods in general are easier to perform, easier to interpret, cost effective and are widely available, however less discriminatory. The genotypic methods are expensive and technically demanding, however more discriminatory. Newer technologies involving sequencing of various genes are coming up as broadly applicable and high throughput typing systems. Still there is no consensus regarding the single best method for typing of MRSA strains. Phage typing is recommended as first line approach in epidemiological investigation of MRSA strains. PFGE remains the gold standard for characterisation of outbreak strains. DNA sequencing methods including MLST, spa typing, SCCmec typing and toxin gene profile typing are more practical methods for detecting evolutionary changes and transmission events. The choice of typing technique further depends on the purpose of the study, the facilities available and the utility of data generated to answer a desirable research question. A need for harmonisation of typing techniques by following standard protocols is emphasised to establish surveillance networks and facilitate global MRSA control.

  13. Remote monitoring technical review for light water reactors (Phase 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seung Sik; Yoon, Wan Ki; Na, Won Woo; Kwack, Eun Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-10-01

    The IAEA has been conducting a field trial of a Remote Monitoring System (RMS) at the spent fuel storage, Younggwang 3 nuclear power plant. The system installation plan was initiated after the agreement in the 7th ROK-IAEA safeguards Implementation Review Meeting that was held in Soul, 1998. It describes that IAEA and Korea proceed RM tasks Implementation of RMS at LWRs in the ROK for field trials. The project of RMS is conducting through 3 stages with timing. RMS has been installed for the Phase I of field trial, one of two stages at Younggwang Unit 3 in October 1998. The RMS consists of video systems and a seal at the spent fuel pond area. This report provides a description of the monitoring system and its functions focusing on several technical points of the installation and its 6 month operation at Younggwang Unit 3. Subjects are selected and analyzed in the three chapters, IAEA safeguards policy on Remote Monitoring, the technology, and field test experiences. 8 refs., 12 figs., 12 tabs. (Author)

  14. INDEPENDENT REVIEW OF THE X-701B GROUNDWATER REMEDY, PORTSMOUTH, OHIO: TECHNICAL EVALUATION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney, B.; Eddy-Dilek, C.; Costanza, J.; Rossabi, J.; Early, T.; Skubal, K.; Magnuson, C.

    2008-12-15

    recommended, the team should identify the type of injection and target soil horizon for these injections; (2) Consider the feasibility of declaring Technical Impracticability and proceeding with the RCRA Cap for the X-701B; and (3) Provide a summary of other cost-effective technologies that could be implemented (especially for the lower Gallia). The Independent Technical Review team focused its evaluation solely on the X-701B source zone and contaminant plume. It did not review current or planned remedial activities at other plumes, waste areas, or landfills at the Portsmouth site, nor did it attempt to integrate such activities into its recommendations for X-701B. However, the ultimate selection of a remedy for X-701B by site personnel and regulators should take into account potentially synergistic efforts at other waste areas. Assessment of remedial alternatives in the context of site-wide management practices may reveal opportunities for leveraging and savings that would not otherwise be identified. For example, the cost of source-zone excavation or construction of a permeable reactive barrier at X-701B might be substantially reduced if contaminated soil could be buried on site at an existing or planned landfill. This allowance would improve the feasibility and competitiveness of both remedies. A comprehensive examination of ongoing and future environmental activities across the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant is necessary to optimize the selection and timing of X-701B remediation with respect to cleanup efficiency, safety, and economics. A selected group of technical experts attended the technical workshop at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant from November 18 through 21, 2008. During the first day of the workshop, both contractor and DOE site personnel briefed the workshop participants and took them on a tour of the X-701B site. The initial briefing was attended by representatives of Ohio EPA who participated in the discussions. On subsequent days, the team

  15. Findings across Practitioner Training Studies in Special Education: A Comprehensive Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Matthew E.; Cannella-Malone, Helen I.; Seaman, Rachel L.; Andzik, Natalie R.; Schaefer, John M.; Page, E. Justin; Barczak, Mary A.; Dueker, Scott A.

    2017-01-01

    Existing reviews address important questions about subsets of practitioner training studies in special education but leave important questions about the broader literature unanswered. In this comprehensive review, we identified 118 peer-reviewed single-case-design studies in which researchers tested the efficacy of practitioner training on…

  16. Caltrans use of scrap tires in asphalt rubber products: a comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiping Zhou

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The California Department of Transportation (Caltrans has been using scrap tire rubber in asphalt pavements since the 1970s in chip seals and the 1980s in rubberized hot mix asphalt(RHMA. Both the wet (field blend and dry processes were used in early trials. Caltrans has also used rubber modified binders containing both crumb rubber modifier and polymer modifier that could be manufactured at a refinery facility, a terminal blend wet process. Since the beginning of this century, Caltrans increased the use of scrap tire rubber in paving projects and invested considerable resources in developing technically sound, cost effective, and environmentally friendly strategies for using scrap tire rubber in roadway applications. By the end of year 2010, approximately 31%of all hot mix asphalt (HMA placed by Caltrans was rubberized HMA, roughly 1.2 million tons. Caltrans efforts in using asphalt rubber products were also demonstrated in its research and technology development. These included the construction of two full-scale field experiments, five warranty projects, and an accelerated pavement study using a heavy vehicle simulator. Additionally, terminal blend asphalt rubber and rubberized warm mix asphalts began to be experimented on trial basis. This paper provides a comprehensive review of Caltrans experience over four decades with asphalt rubber products. Current practices and future outlook are also discussed.

  17. The Effects of Self-Questioning on Reading Comprehension: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Laurice M.; Alber-Morgan, Sheila; Cullen, Jennifer; Rouse, Christina

    2016-01-01

    The ability to monitor one's own reading comprehension is a critical skill for deriving meaning from text. Self-questioning during reading is a strategy that enables students to monitor their reading comprehension and increases their ability to learn independently. The purpose of this article was to review experimental research studies that…

  18. International Linear Collider Technical Review Committee: Second Report, 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loew, Gregory

    2003-02-21

    As this report is being published, the international high energy physics (HEP) community finds itself confronting a set of fascinating discoveries and new questions regarding the nature of matter and its fundamental particles and forces. The observation of neutrino oscillations that indicates that neutrinos have mass, measurements of the accelerating expansion of the universe that may be due to dark energy, and evidence for a period of rapid inflation at the beginning of the Big Bang are stimulating the entire field. Looming on the horizon are the potential discoveries of a Higgs particle that may reveal the origin of mass and of a whole family of supersymmetric particles that may be part of the cosmic dark matter. For the HEP community to elucidate these mysteries, new accelerators are indispensable. At this time, after careful deliberations, all three regional organizations of the HEP community (ACFA in Asia, HEPAP in North America, and ECFA in Europe) have reached the common conclusion that the next accelerator should be an electron-positron linear collider with an initial center-of-mass energy of 500 Giga-electronvolts (GeV), later upgradable to higher energies, and that it should be built and operated in parallel with the Large Hadron Collider under construction at CERN. Hence, this second report of the International Linear Collider Technical Review Committee (ILC-TRC) comes at a very timely moment. The report was requested by the International Committee on Future Accelerators (ICFA) in February 2001 to assess the current technical status of electron-positron linear collider designs in the various regions. Note that the ILC-TRC was not asked to concern itself with either cost studies or the ultimate selection process of a machine. This Executive Summary gives a short outline of the genesis of the report, the charge given to the committee, and its organization. It then presents a brief description of four electron-positron linear collider designs at hand. The

  19. Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan, Environmental Impact Statement, and Wilderness Review

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is the final Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP), Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), and Wilderness Review (WR) for the Yukon Flats National...

  20. Operator Workload: Comprehensive Review and Evaluation of Operator Workload Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    was introduced as part of a more comprehensive human-machine system design aid, Computer Aided Function-Allocation Evaluation System ( CAFES ). WAM Is...development of the NASA-TLX Is presented in Hart and Stavelhnd (1987). Both the MASA -TLX and Bipolar scales have been used In laboratory and operational...single pilot during actual flights in a small two-engine transport aircraft. The flights weae pedfomsed either as tho first flight of the day, after a

  1. Rett Syndrome: A Comprehensive Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Adrienne

    1991-01-01

    This nontechnical review of the literature on Rett Syndrome, a developmental disability found only in females, examines the syndrome's history, diagnostic criteria, clinical stages, incidence, differential diagnosis, etiology, genetics, treatment approaches, and prognosis. (Author/DB)

  2. 77 FR 8926 - Board Meeting: March 7, 2012-Albuquerque, NM; The U.S. Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board Will...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD Board Meeting: March 7, 2012--Albuquerque, NM; The U.S. Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board... authority under section 5051 of Public Law 100-203, the Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board will hold a...

  3. VOCATIONAL-TECHNICAL EDUCATION IN NIGERIA: A REVIEW

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    2009-08-17

    vi). Mathematics. Graduates of trade schools are encouraged to gain admission into Technical Colleges for full vocational training or obtain work in industry as artisans. ... Education (GCE) or Senior School Certificate.

  4. Gluten related illnesses and severe mental disorders: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brietzke, Elisa; Cerqueira, Raphael O; Mansur, Rodrigo B; McIntyre, Roger S

    2018-01-01

    The putative role of gluten in the pathophysiology of severe mental illnesses remains uncertain and there is doubt about the possible benefit of gluten-free diets for individuals affected by psychosis and mood disorders. The objective of this review was to summarize the findings linking gluten related conditions to pathophysiological substrates implicated in schizophrenia and mood disorders and review the evidences of potential benefits of glute-free diets in these populations. A literature search was conducted within PubMed and Scielo databases including references from inception until March 1st 2017. The strategy search was to use the key words "gluten", "celiac disease", "wheat", "bipolar disorder", "mood disorders", "psychosis", "schizophrenia", "depression". In the review about the potential efficacy of gluten-free diets in severe mental illnesses, we included only studies with original data, including cross sectional and longitudinal studies and clinical trials. Book chapters, review articles and meta-analysis and republished data were excluded. Although the current available evidences suggest that people with celiac disease or gluten allergy could have a slightly higher risk of schizophrenia and mood disorders compared to the general population, the literature review reveals significant inaccuracies in the data. There is insufficient evidence to recommend gluten-free diets for populations with psychosis and mood disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sighten Final Technical Report DEEE0006690 Deploying an integrated and comprehensive solar financing software platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Leary, Conlan [Sighten, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2017-10-15

    Over the project, Sighten built a comprehensive software-as-a-service (Saas) platform to automate and streamline the residential solar financing workflow. Before the project period, significant time and money was spent by companies on front-end tools related to system design and proposal creation, but comparatively few resources were available to support the many back-end calculations and data management processes that underpin third party financing. Without a tool like Sighten, the solar financing processes involved passing information from the homeowner prospect into separate tools for system design, financing, and then later to reporting tools including Microsoft Excel, CRM software, in-house software, outside software, and offline, manual processes. Passing data between tools and attempting to connect disparate systems results in inefficiency and inaccuracy for the industry. Sighten was built to consolidate all financial and solar-related calculations in a single software platform. It significantly improves upon the accuracy of these calculations and exposes sophisticated new analysis tools resulting in a rigorous, efficient and cost-effective toolset for scaling residential solar. Widely deploying a platform like Sighten’s significantly and immediately impacts the residential solar space in several important ways: 1) standardizing and improving the quality of all quantitative calculations involved in the residential financing process, most notably project finance, system production and reporting calculations; 2) representing a true step change in terms of reporting and analysis capabilities by maintaining more accurate data and exposing sophisticated tools around simulation, tranching, and financial reporting, among others, to all stakeholders in the space; 3) allowing a broader group of developers/installers/finance companies to access the capital markets by providing an out-of-the-box toolset that handles the execution of running investor capital through a

  6. Review of PREPA Technical Requirements for Interconnecting Wind and Solar Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gevorgian, Vahan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Booth, Sarah [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority developed the minimum technical requirements for interconnection of wind turbine generation and photovoltaic power plants. NREL has conducted a review of these requirements based on generic technical aspects and electrical characteristics of wind and photovoltaic power plants, and on existing requirements from other utilities (both U.S. and European).

  7. Os Odontoideum: A Comprehensive Clinical and Surgical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumah, Fareed; Alkhdour, Saja; Mansour, Shaden; He, Puhan; Hroub, Ali; Adeeb, Nimer; Hanif, Rimal; Mortazavi, Martin M; Tubbs, R Shane; Nanda, Anil

    2017-08-08

    Os odontoideum (OO) is a rare anomaly of the odontoid process first described by Giacomini in 1886. There is considerable debate about the origin of this anomaly, whether congenital or acquired, though a growing body of evidence favors the latter. Using PubMed, we reviewed the literature on OO with regards to its etiology, clinical presentations, diagnostic modalities, and management. Manuscripts cited in reviews were also searched manually. Because the medical literature on this condition is limited, our understanding of the natural history and management of OO is still vague. The management guidelines for asymptomatic OO are preliminary. Therefore, we need more large-center studies to investigate this condition further.

  8. Developing Reading Comprehension through Metacognitive Strategies: A Review of Previous Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channa, Mansoor Ahmed; Nordin, Zaimuariffudin Shukri; Siming, Insaf Ali; Chandio, Ali Asgher; Koondher, Mansoor Ali

    2015-01-01

    This paper has reviewed the previous studies on metacognitive strategies based on planning, monitoring, and evaluating in order to develop reading comprehension. The main purpose of this review in metacognition, and reading domain is to help readers to enhance their capabilities and power reading through these strategies. The researchers reviewed…

  9. The Labour Party's Blunkett Review: A Comprehensive Disappointment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichman, Keith

    2014-01-01

    David Blunkett's "Review of Education Structures" for the Labour Party recognises that there is a chaotic and unsatisfactory situation in the English education system but its response is ambiguous and self-contradictory. Its proposals seek to normalise and regulate rather than remedy a system in which lack of democratic accountability,…

  10. A comprehensive review of diverse issues related to Sickle cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This review was carried out to understand diverse issues in sickle cell disease (SCD), such as its prevalence, clinical manifestations, preventive measures, secondary infections, nutrition and therapies. Methods: A deductive reasoning approach was followed to unearth the information from the published literature.

  11. A Comprehensive Literature Review of the ERP research field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kræmmergaard, Pernille; Schlichter, Bjarne Rerup

    of this paper is to address these questions, which is done by providing an overview of the Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) research field regardless of research discipline, research topic and research traditions. Abstracts from 723 peer-reviewed journal publications from 2000 up till 2007 have been analyzed...

  12. Technical Review Guidelines for Environmental Impact Assessments in the Tourism, Energy and Mining Sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA coordinated a regional collaborative process with Central America and Dominican Republic Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR) partners to develop Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Technical Review Guidelines for three sectors.

  13. Book Review: Space Research at the Technical University of Moldova.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaina, Alex

    Recently the historian of the Technical University of Moldova Aurel Marinchuk (Marinciuc) in a collaboration with the editorial team from the same University has published a Jubiliary Album "50 Years of the Technical University of Moldova". The Album is published at the Technical University in Chisinau (The Republic of Moldova). Two chapters of this album present major interest: 1) Space research at the Technical University of Moldova 2) The Foucault Pendulum manufactured at the same University under the supervision of the Rector of University, Dr. Hab. of Technical Sciences and Member of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Moldova Ion Bostan. The parameters of the Pendulums are: m=102 kg L=17,24 m T=8.35 sec. >From the first chapter We learn that 3 astronauts: Frank Lee Culbertson, Vladimir Dezhurov and Dumitru Dorin Prunariu are Doctors Honoris Causa of this University. As well we can found in the album informations about the Microsatellit "Republic of Moldova" built also by a team from the same University. It is ready to fly, but many depends on the funds for launch the Satellite. The Foucault Pendulum presents also interest in view of its possible applications to detect the influence of the relative position of the Sun and the Moon on Earthquakes. As is well known the tidal gravitational Force varies, depending on the relative position of the Sun and the Moon.

  14. A comprehensive systematic review of factors influencing women's birthing preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bt Maznin, Nur Liyanna; Creedy, Debra Kay

    2012-01-01

    Although many women prefer a vaginal birth, caesarean deliveries have risen dramatically, reaching more than 50% in some countries, despite a lack of evidence of any increase in obstetric emergencies. Some authors concluded that maternal request is a significant factor in the rising caesarean section rates. There is a need to examine factors that influence women's birthing preferences for normal vaginal birth or caesarean delivery. The objective of this systematic review was to identify factors influencing women's birthing preferences. Studies that involved women with low-obstetric risk, who have given birth at term or were going to give birth.This review considered studies that investigated women's experience of birth and factors influencing women's birth preferences for mode of delivery, excluding preference for place of birth.This review considered studies indicating women's preference for vaginal birth, caesarean section and vaginal birth after caesarean; factors influencing birth preference; and subjective accounts of childbirth during the antenatal period or first postpartum year.This review included quantitative descriptive survey studies and qualitative studies that examined women's childbirth preferences. The search was limited to English language reports from 1990 to 2009. A three step strategy to search for relevant articles was undertaken. Papers selected were assessed by two independent reviewers for methodological validity prior to inclusion in the review using critical appraisal instruments from Joanna Briggs Institute. Quantitative and qualitative data were extracted using standardised data extraction tools from Joanna Briggs Institute. A narrative summary was done for quantitative studies while qualitative findings were pooled into a meta-synthesis. The qualitative meta-synthesis identified three major factors influencing women's birth preferences which were: fear of childbirth that relates to safety, pain, and the rate of recovery of childbirth

  15. Allergic conjunctivitis: a comprehensive review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Rosa, Mario; Lionetti, Elena; Reibaldi, Michele; Russo, Andrea; Longo, Antonio; Leonardi, Salvatore; Tomarchio, Stefania; Avitabile, Teresio; Reibaldi, Alfredo

    2013-03-14

    Ocular allergy represents one of the most common conditions encountered by allergists and ophthalmologists. Allergic conjunctivitis is often underdiagnosed and consequently undertreated. Basic and clinical research has provided a better understanding of the cells, mediators, and immunologic events, which occur in ocular allergy. New pharmacological agents have improved the efficacy and safety of ocular allergy treatment. An understanding of the immunologic mechanisms, clinical features, differential diagnosis, and treatment of ocular allergy may be useful to all specialists who deal with these patients. The purpose of this review is to systematically review literature underlining all the forms classified as ocular allergy: seasonal allergic conjunctivitis, perennial allergic conjunctivitis, vernal keratoconjunctivitis, atopic keratocongiuntivitis, contact allergy, and giant papillary conjunctivitis.

  16. Advances in arsenic biosensor development--a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Hardeep; Kumar, Rabindra; Babu, J Nagendra; Mittal, Sunil

    2015-01-15

    Biosensors are analytical devices having high sensitivity, portability, small sample requirement and ease of use for qualitative and quantitative monitoring of various analytes of human importance. Arsenic (As), owing to its widespread presence in nature and high toxicity to living creatures, requires frequent determination in water, soil, agricultural and food samples. The present review is an effort to highlight the various advancements made so far in the development of arsenic biosensors based either on recombinant whole cells or on certain arsenic-binding oligonucleotides or proteins. The role of futuristic approaches like surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and aptamer technology has also been discussed. The biomethods employed and their general mechanisms, advantages and limitations in relevance to arsenic biosensors developed so far are intended to be discussed in this review. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. ECG Parameters for Malignant Ventricular Arrhythmias: A Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandala, Satria; Di, Tham Cai

    2017-01-01

    Many studies showed electrocardiogram (ECG) parameters are useful for predicting fatal ventricular arrhythmias (VAs). However, the studies have several shortcomings. Firstly, all studies lack of effective way to present behavior of various ECG parameters prior to the occurrence of the VAs. Secondly, they also lack of discussion on how to consider the parameters as abnormal. Thirdly, the reports do not include approaches to increase the detection accuracy for the abnormal patterns. The purpose of this study is to address the aforementioned issues. It identifies ten ECG parameters from various sources and then presents a review based on the identified parameters. From the review, it has been found that the increased risk of VAs can be represented by presence and certain abnormal range of the parameters. The variation of parameters range could be influenced by either gender or age. This study also has discovered the facts that averaging, outliers elimination and morphology detection algorithms can contribute to the detection accuracy.

  18. A Literature Review on Organizational Commitment – A Comprehensive Summary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayani Ghosh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper encapsulates the evolution of the concept of organizational commitment, and its constructs. It focuses and analyses the literature findings of organizational commitments over the last five decades. It categorizes the approaches into six broad eras, each era being an extension and modification over the preceding ones. This review paper brings to the fore the theories that have emerged in the body of knowledge regarding commitment in organizations in a chronological order, starting from the side bet theory to the more recent multiple commitment approach. The gaps in the theories proposed have been identified and reviewed critically. It is difficult to conceptualize and measure organizational commitment as it encompasses a vast and highly diverse body of knowledge. Due to this it becomes difficult to interpret and conclude from the existing bodies of literature. The paper also highlights the importance of recognizing the individual/employee‟s perspective towards organizational commitment.

  19. Allergic conjunctivitis: a comprehensive review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Ocular allergy represents one of the most common conditions encountered by allergists and ophthalmologists. Allergic conjunctivitis is often underdiagnosed and consequently undertreated. Basic and clinical research has provided a better understanding of the cells, mediators, and immunologic events, which occur in ocular allergy. New pharmacological agents have improved the efficacy and safety of ocular allergy treatment. An understanding of the immunologic mechanisms, clinical features, differential diagnosis, and treatment of ocular allergy may be useful to all specialists who deal with these patients. The purpose of this review is to systematically review literature underlining all the forms classified as ocular allergy: seasonal allergic conjunctivitis, perennial allergic conjunctivitis, vernal keratoconjunctivitis, atopic keratocongiuntivitis, contact allergy, and giant papillary conjunctivitis. PMID:23497516

  20. Amitriptyline for the treatment of fibromyalgia: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico-Villademoros, Fernando; Slim, Mahmoud; Calandre, Elena P

    2015-10-01

    Fibromyalgia is characterized by chronic generalized pain accompanied by a wide range of clinical manifestations. Most clinical practice guidelines recommend multidisciplinary treatment using a combination of pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies. The tricyclic antidepressant amitriptyline has been most thoroughly studied in fibromyalgia. Amitriptyline has been evaluated in placebo-controlled studies, and it has served as an active comparator to other therapeutic interventions in the treatment of fibromyalgia. In addition, several systematic reviews and meta-analyses have evaluated its efficacy and safety for the treatment of fibromyalgia. Data from individual studies as well as from systematic reviews indicate that low doses (10-75 mg/day) of amitriptyline are effective for the treatment of fibromyalgia and, despite the limited quality of the data, they do not seem to be associated with relevant tolerability or safety issues. Consistent with some clinical guidelines, we believe amitriptyline in low doses should be considered a first-line drug for the treatment of fibromyalgia.

  1. Use of antenatal corticosteroids in special circumstances: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magann, Everett F; Haram, Kjell; Ounpraseuth, Songthip; Mortensen, Jan H; Spencer, Horace J; Morrison, John C

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine, in pregnancies complicated by preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM), hypertension, intrauterine growth restriction, multi-fetal gestations and pregnancies 23-26 weeks and ≥34 weeks' gestation, whether antenatal corticosteroids benefit the fetus. Literature review using PubMed, Web of Science, Clinical trials.gov, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (1990-2015). Search terms linked special circumstances with corticosteroids. Randomized clinical trials, retrospective and prospective cohort studies, and case control studies were reviewed. In all, 468 abstracts were identified and 84 added from selected article bibliographies; of these, 503 abstracts were excluded, leaving 49 articles as the basis of review. The literature supports corticosteroids for PPROM up to 32-34 weeks without chorioamnionitis. Antenatal corticosteroids are beneficial for preterm infants of women with HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelets) syndrome/severe preeclampsia. Postpartum corticosteroid treatment of HELLP patients results in more rapid correction of liver enzymes, platelet counts, and urinary output, which can reduce maternal morbidity. Corticosteroids in twin pregnancies decrease respiratory distress syndrome but the effect is less than in singleton pregnancies. Corticosteroid effects on intrauterine growth restriction pregnancies are conflicting and steroid use should be individualized. Corticosteroid use for 23-26 weeks reduces neonatal mortality but not morbidity. In pregnancies of 34 weeks to 366/7  weeks, corticosteroids reduce respiratory distress syndrome, but follow-up studies are unavailable. No long-term adverse child developmental effects have been observed with one or two courses of corticosteroids, but three or more steroid courses lowers birthweight and organ weight, and there may be an increase in neurodevelopmental abnormalities. Longer follow up of corticosteroid-treated fetuses is required.

  2. Comprehensive Review on Divisible Load Theory: Concepts, Strategies, and Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsollah Ghanbari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is extensive literature concerning the divisible load theory. The divisible load theory is mainly applied for scheduling in the area of distributed computing. It is based on the fact that the load can be divided into some arbitrarily independent parts, in which each part can be processed independently by a processor. This paper reviews the literature concerning the divisible load theory, while focusing on the details of the basic concepts, approaches, strategies, typologies, and open problems.

  3. Driving with upper extremity immobilization: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandvall, Brinkley K; Friedrich, Jeffrey B

    2015-05-01

    Driving with upper extremity immobilization can be potentially dangerous. The aim of this article is to review current medical literature, state laws, and guidelines on driving with upper extremity immobilization and appraise the available evidence. A literature search was conducted to identify citations related to driving with upper extremity immobilization and included a law literature search. Each state's Department of Motor Vehicle handbook was reviewed. Fourteen studies were reviewed and 5 provided subjective and/or objective assessments of upper limb immobilization. Of 2 studies that evaluated only below-elbow immobilization, 1 found driving in a wrist splint had no perceptible effect on driving ability, and the other supported safe driving under normal conditions. The studies that evaluated both below- and above-elbow immobilization recommended against driving with left arm above-elbow immobilization. Two of them found a trend toward worse driving performance in both below- and above-elbow splints. The following organizations' policies on driving are (1) The American Medical Association and National Highway Traffic Association have a joint recommendation for older drivers recommending referral to a rehabilitation specialist, (2) the U.S. Public Health Service recommends normal motor function and adequate mobility of both upper extremities and a performance examination when impaired, and (3) the U.S. Department of Transportation recommends a performance evaluation to determine fitness of commercial motor vehicle drivers. There are no state statutes or multijurisdictional surveys on the topic. This review finds that driving is hindered in some splints, there are substantial variations in physician practice patterns, there are no formal guidelines for physicians and patients to consider, and there is a paucity of published literature on this topic in the United States. Both physicians and patients would benefit from evidence-based recommendations or practice

  4. Application of ultrasonography in female infertility: a comprehensive review

    OpenAIRE

    Okeke, Tochukwu C; Agwuna, Kennedy K; Ezenyeaku, Cyril C; Lawrence C. Ikeako

    2015-01-01

    The quest for detailed evaluation of the uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries that is radiation free, inexpensive, readily available, non-invasive, relatively less time consuming and easily repeatable in female infertility has resulted in further studies. However, ultrasonography (US) remains the first line indispensable tool for gynecologic workup, monitoring and treating infertility. The aim is to review the current knowledge regarding the application of ultrasonography in female infertilit...

  5. A comprehensive review on biodiesel purification and upgrading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Bateni

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Serious environmental concerns regarding the use of fossil-based fuels have raised awareness regarding the necessity of alternative clean fuels and energy carriers. Biodiesel is considered a clean, biodegradable, and non-toxic diesel substitute produced via the transesterification of triglycerides with an alcohol in the presence of a proper catalyst. After initial separation of the by-product (glycerol, the crude biodiesel needs to be purified to meet the standard specifications prior to marketing. The presence of impurities in the biodiesel not only significantly affects its engine performance but also complicates its handling and storage. Therefore, biodiesel purification is an essential step prior to marketing. Biodiesel purification methods can be classified based on the nature of the process into equilibrium-based, affinity-based, membrane-based, reaction-based, and solid-liquid separation processes. The main adverse properties of biodiesel – namely moisture absorption, corrosiveness, and high viscosity – primarily arise from the presence of oxygen. To address these issues, several upgrading techniques have been proposed, among which catalytic (hydrodeoxygenation using conventional hydrotreating catalysts, supported metallic materials, and most recently transition metals in various forms appear promising. Nevertheless, catalyst deactivation (via coking and/or inadequacy of product yields necessitate further research. This paper provides a comprehensive overview on the techniques and methods used for biodiesel purification and upgrading.

  6. Bioactivity assessment and toxicity of crocin: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavizadeh, Seyedeh Hoda; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2014-02-01

    Since ancient times, saffron, the dried stigma of the plant Crocus sativus L. has been extensively used as a spice and food colorant; in folk medicine it has been reputed to be efficacious for the alleviation and treatment of ailments. In addition to the three founded major constituents including crocin, picrocrocin and safranal, presence of carotenoids, carbohydrates, proteins, anthocyanins, vitamins and minerals provide valuable insights into the health benefits and nutritional value of saffron. Of the carotenoids present in saffron, highly water-soluble crocin (mono and diglycosyl esters of a polyene dicarboxylic acid, named crocetin) is responsible for the majority of its color, and appears to possess various health-promoting properties, as an antioxidant, antitumor, memory enhancer, antidepressant, anxiolytic and aphrodisiac. It is also worth noting that the crocin principle of saffron exhibited high efficacy along with no major toxicity in experimental models. We would be remiss to not consider the great potential of saffron and crocin, which benefits the cuisine and health of human life throughout the world. The present study provides a comprehensive and updated report of empirical investigations on bioactivities and biological characteristics of crocin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Siderophore: Structural And Functional Characterisation – A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sah Stuti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Plants and microbes have enormous importance in our daily life. Iron is said to be the fourth most abundant element in the earth's crust from soil, still many plants face problem in uptaking iron because it is found in insoluble form, which severely restricts the bioavailability of this metal. In response to this, microorganisms present in soil such as Pseudomonas sp., Enterobacter genera, Bacillus and Rhodococcus produce special iron carriers or iron-binding compounds called as ‘siderphores’ or ‘siderochromes’. This paper is an attempt to review the importance of siderphores in enhancing plants’ iron utilisation strategies, the mode of transport of siderophores along with iron across the memberane and depending on the difference in their chemical structure, functional moiety and their source of isolation of four different types of siderophore (hydroxamates, catecholates, carboxylates and siderophore with mixed ligand. Siderophore and their derivative have large application in agriculture as to increase soil fertility and as biocontrol for fungal pathogen. This review unlike other reviews includes (1 types of siderophore, (2 the structural difference amongst them, (3 siderophore biosynthesis, (4 transport mechanism, (5 the genetics of siderophore and (6 their efficacy in human life.

  8. Comprehensive review of surgeries for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Macario; Certal, Victor; Capasso, Robson

    2013-01-01

    There are several surgical treatment modalities utilized for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). OSAS can cause excessive daytime sleepiness as well as cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Patients who fail medical management often seek surgical treatment. This paper reviews surgical treatment options for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome to include original descriptions as well as outcomes for snoring, apnea-hypopnea indices, and mortality benefits. A literature review was performed for OSAS surgical treatment options for soft tissue and skeletal surgeries. Articles with the original descriptions and surgical reviews are included for each procedure. A total of twenty-eight surgical treatment modalities for OSAS were identified. Original article authors and year of description were obtained and presented. Polysomnographic data for apnea indices, apnea-hypopnea indices and mortality are presented. There is a large amount of variability in outcomes for sleep surgeries, however, in order to maximize success and cure rates, multiple procedures are most often necessary. Sleep surgeons must get familiar with modern surgical concepts and techniques, and participate in multi-disciplinary care in order to maximize treatment outcomes.

  9. Research review: reading comprehension in developmental disorders of language and communication\\ud

    OpenAIRE

    Ricketts, Jessie

    2011-01-01

    Background: Deficits in reading airment (SLI), Down syndrome (DS) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Methods: In this review (based on a search of the ISI Web of Knowledge database to 2011), the Simple View of Reading is used as a framework for considering reading comprehension in these groups. Conclusions: There is substantial evidence for reading comprehension impairments in SLI and growing evidence that weaknesses in this domain are common in DS and ASD. Further, in these groups reading ...

  10. A Comprehensive Review of Serious Games in Health Professions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Ricciardi

    2014-01-01

    learner oriented approach and providing a stealth mode of teaching. In some fields it represents an ideal instrument for continuous health professions education also in terms of costs because it is cheaper than traditional training methods that use cadavers or mannequins. In this paper we make a scoping review of serious games developed for health professions and health related fields in order to understand if they are useful tools for health related fields training. Many papers confirmed that serious gaming is a useful technology that improves learning and skills development for health professionals.

  11. A Review of Technical Communication Programs Outside the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alred, Gerald J.

    2001-01-01

    Examines technical communication programs outside the United States and comments on such features as their location in the university structure, links with public relations, the inclusion of internships or practicums, the balance of theory and practice, and typical course offerings. Lists a dozen major programs in seven countries. Concludes that…

  12. VOCATIONAL-TECHNICAL EDUCATION IN NIGERIA: A REVIEW

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    2009-08-17

    Aug 17, 2009 ... acquisition of practical and applied skills as well as basic scientific knowledge. The major focus of this ... general education, the study of technologies and .... (c). Electrical Technology. (d). Building Technology. Students may also be required to take non- technical subjects such as;. (i). English Language. (ii).

  13. Biosensors based on electrochemical lactate detection: A comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Rathee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Lactate detection plays a significant role in healthcare, food industries and is specially necessitated in conditions like hemorrhage, respiratory failure, hepatic disease, sepsis and tissue hypoxia. Conventional methods for lactate determination are not accurate and fast so this accelerated the need of sensitive biosensors for high-throughput screening of lactate in different samples. This review focuses on applications and developments of various electrochemical biosensors based on lactate detection as lactate being essential metabolite in anaerobic metabolic pathway. A comparative study to summarize the L-lactate biosensors on the basis of different analytical properties in terms of fabrication, sensitivity, detection limit, linearity, response time and storage stability has been done. It also addresses the merits and demerits of current enzyme based lactate biosensors. Lactate biosensors are of two main types – lactate oxidase (LOD and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH based. Different supports tried for manufacturing lactate biosensors include membranes, polymeric matrices-conducting or non-conducting, transparent gel matrix, hydrogel supports, screen printed electrodes and nanoparticles. All the examples in these support categories have been aptly discussed. Finally this review encompasses the conclusion and future emerging prospects of lactate sensors.

  14. A comprehensive review of metal-induced cellular transformation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiao Yi; Costa, Max

    2017-09-15

    In vitro transformation assays not only serve practical purposes in screening for potential carcinogenic substances in food, drug, and cosmetic industries, but more importantly, they provide a means of understanding the critical biological processes behind in vivo cancer development. In resemblance to cancer cells in vivo, successfully transformed cells display loss of contact inhibition, gain of anchorage independent growth, resistant to proper cell cycle regulation such as apoptosis, faster proliferation rate, potential for cellular invasion, and ability to form tumors in experimental animals. Cells purposely transformed using metal exposures enable researchers to examine molecular changes, dissect various stages of tumor formation, and ultimately elucidate metal induced cancer mode of action. For practical purposes, this review specifically focuses on studies incorporating As-, Cd-, Cr-, and Ni-induced cell transformation. Through investigating and comparing an extensive list of studies using various methods of metal-induced transformation, this review serves to bridge an information gap and provide a guide for avoiding procedural discrepancies as well as maximizing experimental efficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Swertia chirata: A comprehensive review with recent advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauhari, Nupur; Bharadvaja, Navneeta; Sharma, Neelam

    2017-10-26

    Swertia chirata, an ethnomedicinal plant, is renowned for its diverse medicinal properties. The plant produces large number of therapeutic phytochemicals responsible for remedial effect against various ailments mainly chronic fever, malaria, bronchial asthma, liver disorders, certain type of mental disorder, blood purification and diabetes. Recently reported anticancer effect of S. chirata has amplified its importance in the scientific community. The aim of the review is to deliver the pharmaceutical importance of S. chirata as diverse therapeutic agent and attract the scientific community working in the field of pharmacology to produce new drug to treat various ailments. Data compiled and presented here were obtained from E-resources like Science Direct, Pubmed, Google, through books and web of science up to Oct 2017. This review comprises the common aspects of S. chirata like pharmacologically important phytochemicals with in vitro and in vivo studies, toxicology, adulteration with similar species, dosage, conservation via in vitro studies and genetic stability with molecular markers. A bioinformatics approach to explore therapeutic targets that might suppress many diseases is also compiled to make it complete. The medicinal plant S. chirata is continuously being used as a traditional herb. The data indicated its safe and positive effect in the treatment of various diseases. It presents many promising prospects for modern medicine, which may be validated after the process of successful in vivo research, clinical studies, and human trials. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  16. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cerebrovascular disease: A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahousse, Lies; Tiemeier, Henning; Ikram, M Arfan; Brusselle, Guy G

    2015-11-01

    Along with the aging population, the public health burden of cerebrovascular disease is increasing. Cerebral small vessel disease and accumulation of brain pathology associate with cognitive decline and can lead to clinical outcomes, such as stroke and dementia. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a common respiratory disease among elderly. The quality of life and prognosis of patients with COPD is greatly determined by the presence of comorbidities including stroke and cognitive impairment. Despite the clinical relevance of cerebral small vessel disease, stroke and (vascular) cognitive impairment in patients with COPD, literature is scarce and underlying mechanisms are unknown. The aim of the present review is therefore to summarize current scientific knowledge, to provide a better understanding of the interplay between COPD and the aging brain and to define remaining knowledge gaps. This narrative review article 1) overviews the epidemiology of cerebral small vessel disease, stroke and cognitive impairment in patients with COPD; 2) discusses potential underlying mechanisms including aging, smoking, systemic inflammation, vasculopathy, hypoxia and genetic susceptibility; and 3) highlights areas requiring further research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Rice methylmercury exposure and mitigation: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, Sarah E; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie; Creswell, Joel E

    2014-08-01

    Rice cultivation practices from field preparation to post-harvest transform rice paddies into hot spots for microbial mercury methylation, converting less-toxic inorganic mercury to more-toxic methylmercury, which is likely translocated to rice grain. This review includes 51 studies reporting rice total mercury and/or methylmercury concentrations, based on rice (Orzya sativa) cultivated or purchased in 15 countries. Not surprisingly, both rice total mercury and methylmercury levels were significantly higher in polluted sites compared to non-polluted sites (Wilcoxon rank sum, p<0.001). However, rice percent methylmercury (of total mercury) did not differ statistically between polluted and non-polluted sites (Wilcoxon rank sum, p=0.35), suggesting comparable mercury methylation rates in paddy soil across these sites and/or similar accumulation of mercury species for these rice cultivars. Studies characterizing the effects of rice cultivation under more aerobic conditions were reviewed to determine the mitigation potential of this practice. Rice management practices utilizing alternating wetting and drying (instead of continuous flooding) caused soil methylmercury levels to spike, resulting in a strong methylmercury pulse after fields were dried and reflooded; however, it is uncertain whether this led to increased translocation of methylmercury from paddy soil to rice grain. Due to the potential health risks, it is advisable to investigate this issue further, and to develop separate water management strategies for mercury polluted and non-polluted sites, in order to minimize methylmercury exposure through rice ingestion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Medical image segmentation on GPUs--a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smistad, Erik; Falch, Thomas L; Bozorgi, Mohammadmehdi; Elster, Anne C; Lindseth, Frank

    2015-02-01

    Segmentation of anatomical structures, from modalities like computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound, is a key enabling technology for medical applications such as diagnostics, planning and guidance. More efficient implementations are necessary, as most segmentation methods are computationally expensive, and the amount of medical imaging data is growing. The increased programmability of graphic processing units (GPUs) in recent years have enabled their use in several areas. GPUs can solve large data parallel problems at a higher speed than the traditional CPU, while being more affordable and energy efficient than distributed systems. Furthermore, using a GPU enables concurrent visualization and interactive segmentation, where the user can help the algorithm to achieve a satisfactory result. This review investigates the use of GPUs to accelerate medical image segmentation methods. A set of criteria for efficient use of GPUs are defined and each segmentation method is rated accordingly. In addition, references to relevant GPU implementations and insight into GPU optimization are provided and discussed. The review concludes that most segmentation methods may benefit from GPU processing due to the methods' data parallel structure and high thread count. However, factors such as synchronization, branch divergence and memory usage can limit the speedup. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Humidity Sensors Principle, Mechanism, and Fabrication Technologies: A Comprehensive Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahani, Hamid; Wagiran, Rahman; Hamidon, Mohd Nizar

    2014-01-01

    Humidity measurement is one of the most significant issues in various areas of applications such as instrumentation, automated systems, agriculture, climatology and GIS. Numerous sorts of humidity sensors fabricated and developed for industrial and laboratory applications are reviewed and presented in this article. The survey frequently concentrates on the RH sensors based upon their organic and inorganic functional materials, e.g., porous ceramics (semiconductors), polymers, ceramic/polymer and electrolytes, as well as conduction mechanism and fabrication technologies. A significant aim of this review is to provide a distinct categorization pursuant to state of the art humidity sensor types, principles of work, sensing substances, transduction mechanisms, and production technologies. Furthermore, performance characteristics of the different humidity sensors such as electrical and statistical data will be detailed and gives an added value to the report. By comparison of overall prospects of the sensors it was revealed that there are still drawbacks as to efficiency of sensing elements and conduction values. The flexibility offered by thick film and thin film processes either in the preparation of materials or in the choice of shape and size of the sensor structure provides advantages over other technologies. These ceramic sensors show faster response than other types. PMID:24784036

  20. Statin-induced rhabdomyolysis: a comprehensive review of case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Polyana; Robles, Priscila Games; Mathur, Sunita

    2014-01-01

    To identify case reports of statin-induced rhabdomyolysis and summarize common predisposing factors, symptoms, diagnostic findings, functional outcomes, characteristics, treatment, and rehabilitation. MEDLINE, CINAHL, SCOPUS, and PEDro databases were searched (1990-2013) for relevant case reports using the search terms "Statins," "Rhabdomyolysis," "Myalgia," "Muscle damage," "Muscle injury," and "Myopathy." Relevance (based on title and abstract) was assessed by one investigator; two investigators independently reviewed the relevant articles to determine inclusion in the review. A total of 112 cases met the inclusion criteria. The majority were in men (70%) and people over 45 years of age (mean 64 [SD 14] years). Simvastatin was the most commonly reported statin (n=55); the majority of cases reported the use of concomitant medications such as fibrates (n=25). Weakness (n=65) and muscle pain (n=64) were the most common symptoms. In 19 cases, the patient was referred to rehabilitation, but the case reports do not include descriptions of the treatment. Statin-induced rhabdomyolysis was more commonly reported when statins were used in conjunction with other drugs, which potentiated its effect. Research is needed to identify the role of exercise and rehabilitation following statin-induced rhabdomyoloysis since muscle damage may be severe and may have long-term effects on muscle function.

  1. Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage and Neuroinflammation: A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon P. Lucke-Wold

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH can lead to devastating outcomes including vasospasm, cognitive decline, and even death. Currently, treatment options are limited for this potentially life threatening injury. Recent evidence suggests that neuroinflammation plays a critical role in injury expansion and brain damage. Red blood cell breakdown products can lead to the release of inflammatory cytokines that trigger vasospasm and tissue injury. Preclinical models have been used successfully to improve understanding about neuroinflammation following aneurysmal rupture. The focus of this review is to provide an overview of how neuroinflammation relates to secondary outcomes such as vasospasm after aneurysmal rupture and to critically discuss pharmaceutical agents that warrant further investigation for the treatment of subarachnoid hemorrhage. We provide a concise overview of the neuroinflammatory pathways that are upregulated following aneurysmal rupture and how these pathways correlate to long-term outcomes. Treatment of aneurysm rupture is limited and few pharmaceutical drugs are available. Through improved understanding of biochemical mechanisms of injury, novel treatment solutions are being developed that target neuroinflammation. In the final sections of this review, we highlight a few of these novel treatment approaches and emphasize why targeting neuroinflammation following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage may improve patient care. We encourage ongoing research into the pathophysiology of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, especially in regards to neuroinflammatory cascades and the translation to randomized clinical trials.

  2. Cancer, Fertility Preservation, and Future Pregnancy: A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle L. Matthews

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the increases in 5-year cancer survival and recent advances in fertility preserving technologies, an increasing number of women with cancer are presenting for discussion of fertility preserving options. This review will summarize the risk of infertility secondary to cancer treatment, available treatment options for fertility preservation, and techniques to reduce future risks for patients. Concerns that will be addressed include the risk of the medications and procedures, the potential delay in cancer treatment, likelihood of pregnancy complications, as well as the impact of future pregnancy on the recurrence risk of cancer. Recent advances in oocyte cryopreservation and ovarian stimulation protocols will be discussed. Healthcare providers need to be informed of available treatment options including the risks, advantages, and disadvantages of fertility preserving options to properly counsel patients.

  3. Clostridium difficile in Food and Animals: A Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, C; Taminiau, B; Van Broeck, J; Delmée, M; Daube, G

    2016-01-01

    Zoonoses are infections or diseases that can be transmitted between animals and humans through direct contact, close proximity or the environment. Clostridium difficile is ubiquitous in the environment, and the bacterium is able to colonise the intestinal tract of both animals and humans. Since domestic and food animals frequently test positive for toxigenic C. difficile, even without showing any signs of disease, it seems plausible that C. difficile could be zoonotic. Therefore, animals could play an essential role as carriers of the bacterium. In addition, the presence of the spores in different meats, fish, fruits and vegetables suggests a risk of foodborne transmission. This review summarises the current available data on C. difficile in animals and foods, from when the bacterium was first described up to the present.

  4. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a comprehensive review and 2017 update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terwilliger, T; Abdul-Hay, M

    2017-01-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the second most common acute leukemia in adults, with an incidence of over 6500 cases per year in the United States alone. The hallmark of ALL is chromosomal abnormalities and genetic alterations involved in differentiation and proliferation of lymphoid precursor cells. In adults, 75% of cases develop from precursors of the B-cell lineage, with the remainder of cases consisting of malignant T-cell precursors. Traditionally, risk stratification has been based on clinical factors such age, white blood cell count and response to chemotherapy; however, the identification of recurrent genetic alterations has helped refine individual prognosis and guide management. Despite advances in management, the backbone of therapy remains multi-agent chemotherapy with vincristine, corticosteroids and an anthracycline with allogeneic stem cell transplantation for eligible candidates. Elderly patients are often unable to tolerate such regimens and carry a particularly poor prognosis. Here, we review the major recent advances in the treatment of ALL. PMID:28665419

  5. Entropy in the Critical Zone: A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Quijano

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Thermodynamic entropy was initially proposed by Clausius in 1865. Since then it has been implemented in the analysis of different systems, and is seen as a promising concept to understand the evolution of open systems in non-equilibrium conditions. Information entropy was proposed by Shannon in 1948, and has become an important concept to measure information in different systems. Both thermodynamic entropy and information entropy have been extensively applied in different fields related to the Critical Zone, such as hydrology, ecology, pedology, and geomorphology. In this study, we review the most important applications of these concepts in those fields, including how they are calculated, and how they have been utilized to analyze different processes. We then synthesize the link between thermodynamic and information entropies in the light of energy dissipation and organizational patterns, and discuss how this link may be used to enhance the understanding of the Critical Zone.

  6. A comprehensive review of neuroanatomy of the prostate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Hyun Park

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Although oncologic efficacy is the primary goal of radical prostatectomy, preserving potency and continence is also important, given the indolent clinical course of most prostate cancers. In order to preserve and recover postoperative potency and continence after radical prostatectomy, a detailed understanding of the pelvic anatomy is necessary to recognize the optimal nerve-sparing plane and to minimize injury to the neurovascular bundles. Therefore, we reviewed the most recent findings from neuroanatomic studies of the prostate and adjacent tissues, some of which are contrary to the established consensus on pelvic anatomy. We also described the functional outcomes of radical prostatectomies following improved anatomical understanding and development of surgical techniques for preserving the neurovascular bundles.

  7. A comprehensive review on Nymphaea stellata: A traditionally used bitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, M K Mohan Maruga; Sethiya, Neeraj Kumar; Mishra, S H

    2010-07-01

    Nymphaea stellata Willd. (Syn. Nymphaea nouchali Burman f.) (Nymphaeaceae) is an important and well-known medicinal plant, widely used in the Ayurveda and Siddha systems of medicines for the treatment of diabetes, inflammation, liver disorders, urinary disorders, menorrhagia, blenorrhagia, menstruation problem, as an aphrodisiac, and as a bitter tonic. There seems to be an agreement between the traditional use and experimental observations, such as, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and particularly antidiabetic activity. Nymphayol, a steroid isolated from the flowers has been scientifically proved to be responsible for the traditionally claimed antidiabetic activity; it reverses the damaged endocrine tissue and stimulates secretion of insulin in the β-cells. However, taking into account the magnitude of its traditional uses, the studies conducted are still negligible. This review is an attempt to provide the pharmaceutical prospective of Nymphaea stellata.

  8. A comprehensive review on Nymphaea stellata: A traditionally used bitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M K Mohan Maruga Raja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nymphaea stellata Willd. (Syn. Nymphaea nouchali Burman f. (Nymphaeaceae is an important and well-known medicinal plant, widely used in the Ayurveda and Siddha systems of medicines for the treatment of diabetes, inflammation, liver disorders, urinary disorders, menorrhagia, blenorrhagia, menstruation problem, as an aphrodisiac, and as a bitter tonic. There seems to be an agreement between the traditional use and experimental observations, such as, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and particularly antidiabetic activity. Nymphayol, a steroid isolated from the flowers has been scientifically proved to be responsible for the traditionally claimed antidiabetic activity; it reverses the damaged endocrine tissue and stimulates secretion of insulin in the β-cells. However, taking into account the magnitude of its traditional uses, the studies conducted are still negligible. This review is an attempt to provide the pharmaceutical prospective of Nymphaea stellata.

  9. Diverticulitis: a comprehensive review with usual and unusual complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onur, Mehmet Ruhi; Akpinar, Erhan; Karaosmanoglu, Ali Devrim; Isayev, Cavid; Karcaaltincaba, Musturay

    2017-02-01

    Diverticulitis is characterized by inflammation of the outpouchings of the bowel wall. Imaging findings of diverticulitis include edematous thickening of the bowel wall with inflammatory changes within the adjacent mesenteric fat. Uncomplicated diverticulitis can be treated conservatively; however, complicated diverticulitis may not be responsive to medical treatment and life-threatening conditions may occur. In this review, we aimed to illustrate the ultrasonography (US) and computed tomography (CT) features of diverticulitis and its complications including perforation, phlegmon, abscess, ascending septic thrombophlebitis (phylephlebitis), bleeding, intestinal obstruction, and fistula. • Complications of diverticulitis may be highly variable. • It may be difficult to diagnose diverticulitis as underlying cause of severe complications. • MDCT is essential for the primary diagnosis of the acute diverticulitis and its complications.

  10. A Comprehensive Literature Review of the ERP research field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kræmmergaard, Pernille; Schlichter, Bjarne Rerup

    according to journal, authors and year of publication, and further categorized into research discipline, research topic and methods used. The paper demonstrates that the body of academic knowledge about ERP systems has reached a certain level of maturity and several different research disciplines have......During the past decade ERP has attracted attention from both academic and industrial communities (Shehab, Sharp et al. 2004) and we feel that now is an opportune time for the ERP field to ask how the field has evolved and what its present state is (Chen and Hirschheim 2004). The purpose...... of this paper is to address these questions, which is done by providing an overview of the Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) research field regardless of research discipline, research topic and research traditions. Abstracts from 723 peer-reviewed journal publications from 2000 up till 2007 have been analyzed...

  11. A comprehensive review on vernal keratoconjunctivitis with emphasis on proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattnaik, Lolly; Acharya, Laxmikanta

    2015-05-01

    Allergic conjunctivitis presents as a spectrum of different clinical entities, such as perennial allergic conjunctivitis, seasonal allergic conjunctivitis, atopic keratoconjunctivitis and vernal keratoconjunctivitis. Vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) is a disorder that is often associated with allergens and is seen during the spring season. Herein, we focused on vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) and reviewed its epidemiology, clinical presentations, ocular associations, available treatment options, and the progressive understanding of its histopathological features; we have also systematically elaborated on the various studies on proteomics. Initial theories of a solely IgE-mediated mechanism have been replaced by those considering IgE and non-IgE mechanisms. Developments in basic and clinical research will open novel diagnostic approaches for the early detection and cure of the disease. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Growth hormone therapy and craniofacial bones: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litsas, G

    2013-09-01

    Growth hormone (GH) has significant effects on linear bone growth, bone mass and bone metabolism. The primary role of GH supplementation in children with GH deficiency, those born small for gestational age or with other types of disorders in somatic development is to increase linear growth. However, GH therapy seems to elicit varying responses in the craniofacial region. Whereas the effects of GH administration on somatic development are well documented, comparatively little is known of its effects on the craniofacial region. The purpose of this review was to search the literature and compile results from both animal and human studies related to the impact of GH on craniofacial growth. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Anabolic steroids and male infertility: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Guilherme Leme; Hallak, Jorge

    2011-12-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? The negative impact of AAS abuse on male fertility is well known by urologists. The secondary hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is often highlighted when AAS and fertility are being discussed. On the other hand, the patterns of use, mechanisms of action and direct effects over the testicle are usually overseen. The present study reviews the vast formal and "underground" culture of AAS, as well as their overall implications. Specific considerations about their impact on the male reproductive system are made, with special attention to the recent data on direct damage to the testicle. To our knowledge this kind of overview is absolutely unique, offering a distinguished set of information to the day-by-day urologists. For several decades, testosterone and its synthetic derivatives have been used with anabolic and androgenic purposes. Initially, these substances were restricted to professional bodybuilders, becoming gradually more popular among recreational power athletes. Currently, as many as 3 million anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) users have been reported in the United States, and considering its increasing prevalence, it has become an issue of major concern. Infertility is defined as the failure to achieve a successful pregnancy after 12 months or more of regular unprotected intercourse, with male factor being present in up to 50% of all infertile couples. Several conditions may be related to male infertility. Substance abuse, including AAS, is commonly associated to transient or persistent impairment on male reproductive function, through different pathways. Herein, a brief overview on AAS, specially oriented to urologists, is offered. Steroids biochemistry, patterns of use, physiological and clinical issues are enlightened. A further review about fertility outcomes among male AAS abusers is also presented, including the classic reports on transient axial inhibition, and the more recent experimental reports

  14. Spatial abilities and technical skills performance in health care: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Jean; Bellemare, Christian; Toulouse, Josée; Wells, George A

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the relationship between spatial abilities and technical skills performance in health care in beginners and to compare this relationship with those in intermediate and autonomous learners. Search criteria included 'spatial abilities' and 'technical skills'. Keywords related to these criteria were defined. A literature search was conducted to 20 December, 2013 in Scopus (including MEDLINE) and in several databases on EBSCOhost platforms (CINAHL Plus with Full Text, ERIC, Education Source and PsycINFO). Citations were obtained and reviewed by two independent reviewers. Articles related to retained citations were reviewed and a final list of eligible articles was determined. Articles were assessed for quality using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network-50 assessment instrument. Data were extracted from articles in a systematic way. Correlations between spatial abilities test scores and technical skills performance were identified. A series of 8289 citations was obtained. Eighty articles were retained and fully reviewed, yielding 36 eligible articles. The systematic review found a tendency for spatial abilities to be negatively correlated with the duration of technical skills and positively correlated with the quality of technical skills performance in beginners and intermediate learners. Pooled correlations of studies were -0.46 (p = 0.03) and -0.38 (95% confidence interval [CI] -0.53 to -0.21) for duration and 0.33 (95% CI 0.20-0.44) and 0.41 (95% CI 0.26-0.54) for quality of technical skills performance in beginners and intermediate learners, respectively. However, correlations between spatial abilities test scores and technical skills performance were not statistically significant in autonomous learners. Spatial abilities are an important factor to consider in selecting and training individuals in technical skills in health care. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Review of the technical bases of 40 CFR Part 190.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, John E.; McMahon, Kevin A.; Siegel, Malcolm Dean; Weiner, Ruth F.; Bixler, Nathan E.; Klein, Keith A. (Longenecker and Associates)

    2010-07-01

    The dose limits for emissions from the nuclear fuel cycle were established by the Environmental Protection Agency in 40 CFR Part 190 in 1977. These limits were based on assumptions regarding the growth of nuclear power and the technical capabilities of decontamination systems as well as the then-current knowledge of atmospheric dispersion and the biological effects of ionizing radiation. In the more than thirty years since the adoption of the limits, much has changed with respect to the scale of nuclear energy deployment in the United States and the scientific knowledge associated with modeling health effects from radioactivity release. Sandia National Laboratories conducted a study to examine and understand the methodologies and technical bases of 40 CFR 190 and also to determine if the conclusions of the earlier work would be different today given the current projected growth of nuclear power and the advances in scientific understanding. This report documents the results of that work.

  16. Novel Biomarkers Associated with Deep Venous Thrombosis: A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn M Barnes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary and recurrent venous thromboembolic disease (VTE, deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism remain a significant source of morbidity and mortality in the hospitalized patient. Non-specific subjective complaints and lack of specific objective findings related to acute deep venous thrombosis (DVT and pulmonary embolism (PE complicate the diagnosis. There remains no single serum marker available to exclusively confirm the diagnosis of VTE. While D-dimer is highly sensitive and useful for diagnostic exclusion, it lacks the specificity necessary for diagnostic confirmation resulting in the need for a variety of additional studies (i.e.: duplex ultrasound, venography, V/Q scanning, helical thoracic and pelvic CT scans and pulmoary angiography. There is evolving research supporting the utility of various plasma markers as novel “biomarkers” for VTE including selectins, microparticles, interleukin-10 and other cytokines. This review attempts to examine recent literature assessing the utility of P-selectin, microparticles, D-dimer, E-selectin, thrombin, interleukins and fibrin monomers in the diagnosis and guidance of therapy for VTE.

  17. Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Umbilicus: A Comprehensive Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Philip R

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) typically occurs in sun-exposed sites. Only 16 individuals with umbilical BCC have been described in the literature, and the characteristics of patients with umbilical BCC are summarized. PubMed was used to search the following terms: abdomen, basal cell carcinoma, basal cell nevus syndrome, and umbilicus. Papers with these terms and references cited within these papers were reviewed. BCC of the umbilicus has been reported in five men and 11 women; one man had two tumors. Two patients had basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS). Other risk factors for BCC were absent. The tumor most commonly demonstrated nodular histology (64%, 9/14); superficial and fibroepithelioma of Pinkus variants were noted in three and two patients, respectively. The tumor was pigmented in eight individuals. Treatment was conventional surgical excision (87%, 13/15) or Mohs micrographic surgery (13%, 2/15); either adjuvant laser ablation or radiotherapy was performed in two patients. The prognosis after treatment was excellent with no recurrence or metastasis (100%, 16/16). In conclusion, BCC of the umbilicus is rare. It usually presents as a tumor with a non-aggressive histologic subtype in an individual with no risk factors for this malignancy. There has been no recurrence or metastasis following excision of the cancer. PMID:27738570

  18. A Comprehensive Review of Drug-Drug Interactions with Metformin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stage, Tore Bjerregaard; Brøsen, Kim; Christensen, Mette Marie Hougaard

    2015-08-01

    Metformin is the world's most commonly used oral glucose-lowering drug for type 2 diabetes, and this is mainly because it protects against diabetes-related mortality and all-cause mortality. Although it is an old drug, its mechanism of action has not yet been clarified and its pharmacokinetic pathway is still not fully understood. There is considerable inter-individual variability in the response to metformin, and this has led to many drug-drug interaction (DDI) studies of metformin. In this review, we describe both in vitro and human interaction studies of metformin both as a victim and as a perpetrator. We also clarify the importance of including pharmacodynamic end points in DDI studies of metformin and taking pharmacogenetic variation into account when performing these studies to avoid hidden pitfalls in the interpretation of DDIs with metformin. This evaluation of the literature has revealed holes in our knowledge and given clues as to where future DDI studies should be focused and performed.

  19. A comprehensive comparative review of adenosine diphosphate receptor antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Erin Y; Abraham, Teena; Saad, Nasser; Rapp, Jonathan H; Vastey, Fabienne L; Balmir, Eric

    2012-02-01

    Thrombosis risk necessitates dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and an adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptor antagonist, in patients who have acute coronary syndrome. Current guidelines emphasize the critical role of dual antiplatelet therapy in both medical management and invasive strategy, especially in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. With the availability of multiple ADP-receptor antagonists, it is crucial to select the most appropriate agent for each patient. The pertinent trials were identified through a MEDLINE search, in addition to a manual search from the articles retrieved. This review examines the differences between clopidogrel, prasugrel and ticagrelor in terms of their pharmacological/pharmacokinetic properties, clinical efficacy, drug interactions and safety parameters. Prasugrel and ticagrelor exhibit greater platelet inhibition and superior efficacy compared with clopidogrel, at the expense of higher bleeding risk. Prasugrel and ticagrelor should be preferred over clopidogrel in patients who are at a high risk of thrombotic events with low risk of bleeding. Additionally, these two agents may offer advantage over clopidogrel in those patients who might have risk for drug resistance due to CYP2C19 polymorphism. In selecting the ideal agent for patients, clinicians should tailor the antiplatelet regimen by considering individual risk factors and medication characteristics.

  20. Immunotherapy in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachna Raman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Localized renal cell carcinoma (RCC is often curable by surgery alone. However, metastatic RCC is generally incurable. In the 1990s, immunotherapy in the form of cytokines was the mainstay of treatment for metastatic RCC. However, responses were seen in only a minority of highly selected patients with substantial treatment-related toxicities. The advent of targeted agents such as vascular endothelial growth factor tyrosine kinase inhibitors VEGF-TKIs and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR inhibitors led to a change in this paradigm due to improved response rates and progression-free survival, a better safety profile, and the convenience of oral administration. However, most patients ultimately progress with about 12% being alive at 5 years. In contrast, durable responses lasting 10 years or more are noted in a minority of those treated with cytokines. More recently, an improved overall survival with newer forms of immunotherapy in other malignancies (such as melanoma and prostate cancer has led to a resurgence of interest in immune therapies in metastatic RCC. In this review we discuss the rationale for immunotherapy and recent developments in immunotherapeutic strategies for treating metastatic RCC.

  1. Comprehensive review of Clerodendrum phlomidis: a traditionally used bitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan Maruga Raja, Muthu Kumaradoss; Mishra, Shri Hari

    2010-06-01

    Clerodendrum phlomidis Linn. f., (syn. Clerodendrum multiflorum (Burm.f) O. Kuntze, Volkameria multiflorum Burm. f.) (Lamiaceae) is an important and well known medicinal plant extensively used in Ayurveda and Siddha system of medicine for treatment of various ailments. The popular therapies include on inflammation, diabetes, nervous disorder, asthma, rheumatism, digestive disorders, and urinary disorders as well as a bitter tonic. It was reported that pectolinaringenin, scutellarein, clerodin, clerodendrin, clerosterol, 24beta-ethylcholesta-5,22E,25-triene-3beta-ol, lup-20(29)-en-3-triacontanoate, 4,2',4'-trihydroxy-6'-methoxychalcone-4,4'alpha-D-diglucoside, 7-hydroxyflavone, 7-hydroxyflavanone-7-O-glucoside and alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-2)alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-7-O-naringin-4'-O-alpha-D-glucopyranoside-5-methyl ether had been isolated from this plant. The alcoholic and aqueous extracts were reported active as analgesic, antidiarrhoeal, antiplasmodial, hypoglycemic, minor tranquilizers, anti-asthmatic, antifungal, nematicidal, anti-amnestic and anti-arthritic. There are coincidences between some of the traditional usages of this plant and experimentally observed effects of the extracts but very few biological studies available on bioactive fractions and/or pure compounds. This review is an attempt to compile the exhaustive literature on Clerodendrum phlomidis, to highlight, analyze and critically assess the pharmaceutical potential of this underestimated plant in a systematic way.

  2. A comprehensive review on clinical applications of comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekarana, Vidya; Raj, Gladwin Victor; Chand, Parkash

    2015-03-01

    Increased levels of DNA damage and ineffective repair mechanisms are the underlying bio-molecular events in the pathogenesis of most of the life-threatening diseases like cancer and degenerative diseases. The sources of DNA damage can be either exogenous or endogenous in origin. Imbalance between the oxidants and antioxidants resulting in increased reactive oxygen species mostly accounts for the endogenously derived attacks on DNA. Among the various methods employed in the estimation of DNA damage, alkaline comet assay is proven to be a relatively simple and versatile tool in the assessment of DNA damage and also in determining the efficacy of DNA repair mechanism. The aim of this article is to review the application of comet assay in the field of medicine towards human biomonitoring, understanding the pathogenesis of cancer and progression of chronic and degenerative diseases, prediction of tumour radio & chemosensitivity and in male infertility. A standardized protocol and analysis system of various variants of comet assay in different types of cells, across the labs will be of useful and reliable clinical tool in the field of Medicine for the estimation of levels of DNA damage and repair mechanisms.

  3. Brachiomedian artery (arteria brachiomediana revisited: a comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Kachlik

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews in detail the superficial brachiomedian artery (arteria brachiomediana superficialis, a very rare variant of the main arterial trunks of the upper limb. It branches either from the axillary artery or the brachial artery, descends superficially in the arm (similar to the course of the superficial brachial artery and continues across the cubital fossa, runs superficially in the forearm, approaches the median nerve and enters the carpal canal to reach the hand. It usually terminates in the superficial palmar arch. The first drawing was published, in 1830, and the first description was published, in 1844. Altogether, to our knowledge, only 31 cases of a true, superficial brachiomedian artery have been reported (Some cases are incorrectly reported as superficial brachioradiomedian artery or superficial brachioulnomedian artery. Based on a meta-analysis of known, available studies, the incidence is 0.23% in Caucasians and 1.48% in Mongolians. Knowing whether or not this arterial variant is present is important in clinical medicine and relevant for: The catheterization via the radial or ulnar artery; harvesting the vascular pedicle for a forearm flap based on the radial, ulnar or superficial brachiomedian arteries; the possible collateral circulation in cases of the arterial closure; and the surgical management of carpal tunnel syndrome. Its presence can elevate the danger of an injury to the superficially located variant artery or of an accidental injection.

  4. A Comprehensive Review on Clinical Applications of Comet Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekarana, Vidya; Chand, Parkash

    2015-01-01

    Increased levels of DNA damage and ineffective repair mechanisms are the underlying bio-molecular events in the pathogenesis of most of the life-threatening diseases like cancer and degenerative diseases. The sources of DNA damage can be either exogenous or endogenous in origin. Imbalance between the oxidants and antioxidants resulting in increased reactive oxygen species mostly accounts for the endogenously derived attacks on DNA. Among the various methods employed in the estimation of DNA damage, alkaline comet assay is proven to be a relatively simple and versatile tool in the assessment of DNA damage and also in determining the efficacy of DNA repair mechanism. The aim of this article is to review the application of comet assay in the field of medicine towards human biomonitoring, understanding the pathogenesis of cancer and progression of chronic and degenerative diseases, prediction of tumour radio & chemosensitivity and in male infertility. A standardized protocol and analysis system of various variants of comet assay in different types of cells, across the labs will be of useful and reliable clinical tool in the field of Medicine for the estimation of levels of DNA damage and repair mechanisms. PMID:25954633

  5. Statistical analysis of fNIRS data: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Sungho; Ye, Jong Chul

    2014-01-15

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a non-invasive method to measure brain activities using the changes of optical absorption in the brain through the intact skull. fNIRS has many advantages over other neuroimaging modalities such as positron emission tomography (PET), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), or magnetoencephalography (MEG), since it can directly measure blood oxygenation level changes related to neural activation with high temporal resolution. However, fNIRS signals are highly corrupted by measurement noises and physiology-based systemic interference. Careful statistical analyses are therefore required to extract neuronal activity-related signals from fNIRS data. In this paper, we provide an extensive review of historical developments of statistical analyses of fNIRS signal, which include motion artifact correction, short source-detector separation correction, principal component analysis (PCA)/independent component analysis (ICA), false discovery rate (FDR), serially-correlated errors, as well as inference techniques such as the standard t-test, F-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and statistical parameter mapping (SPM) framework. In addition, to provide a unified view of various existing inference techniques, we explain a linear mixed effect model with restricted maximum likelihood (ReML) variance estimation, and show that most of the existing inference methods for fNIRS analysis can be derived as special cases. Some of the open issues in statistical analysis are also described. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cardiac Computed Tomography Radiomics: A Comprehensive Review on Radiomic Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolossváry, Márton; Kellermayer, Miklós; Merkely, Béla; Maurovich-Horvat, Pál

    2018-01-01

    Radiologic images are vast three-dimensional data sets in which each voxel of the underlying volume represents distinct physical measurements of a tissue-dependent characteristic. Advances in technology allow radiologists to image pathologies with unforeseen detail, thereby further increasing the amount of information to be processed. Even though the imaging modalities have advanced greatly, our interpretation of the images has remained essentially unchanged for decades. We have arrived in the era of precision medicine where even slight differences in disease manifestation are seen as potential target points for new intervention strategies. There is a pressing need to improve and expand the interpretation of radiologic images if we wish to keep up with the progress in other diagnostic areas. Radiomics is the process of extracting numerous quantitative features from a given region of interest to create large data sets in which each abnormality is described by hundreds of parameters. From these parameters datamining is used to explore and establish new, meaningful correlations between the variables and the clinical data. Predictive models can be built on the basis of the results, which may broaden our knowledge of diseases and assist clinical decision making. Radiomics is a complex subject that involves the interaction of different disciplines; our objective is to explain commonly used radiomic techniques and review current applications in cardiac computed tomography imaging.

  7. Abdominopelvic washings in gynecologic pathology: A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Jefree J; Lastra, Ricardo R

    2016-12-01

    Abdominopelvic washings (APW) performed during gynecologic surgeries have become a common specimen evaluated by cytopathologists. Their role in staging of female genital tract tumors has changed significantly since they were first described, and continue to evolve. The ability of these washings to detect microscopic disease, even in the absence of gross disease, warrants the critical role that these washings play in the staging of certain female gynecologic tract tumors, allowing for optimal staging and subsequent treatment of the patient. Irrespective of the underlying pathology, the gamut of cytomorphologic findings that may be observed in APW is extensive, and ranges from benign lesions that may act as mimickers of malignancy, to both common and rare malignancies. This review discusses the changing role of APW in the staging of gynecologic tumors, and highlights the salient cytomorphologic features of these lesions, with emphasis in their correct identification, including cautionary notes to avoid over or misinterpretation. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:1039-1057. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Self-care challenges in adolescents: a comprehensive literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoumi, Maryam; Shahhosseini, Zohreh

    2017-05-24

    Background Adolescence is the period of accepting self-care responsibility. Many severe diseases that cause early mortality are rooted in adolescence. Hence, adolescence is the definitive time for preventive interventions such as self-care behaviors. In addition to the benefits of self-care behaviors, evidence shows that adolescents face barriers in performing self-care behaviors. Objective The aim of the current study to review the self-care challenges for adolescents. Methods Databases such as Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, PubMed, Web of Science, Scientific Information Database and Scopus were searched to extract papers published from 1994 to 2016 based on the inclusion criterion. The inclusion criterion was English language papers from famous authors on self-care behaviors in adolescents. Results The results of the current study showed that adolescents face cultural (two subcategories, beliefs and convictions, knowledge), socio-economic (five subcategories, family, healthcare providers, peers, social support, economic status) and personal (three subcategories, mental health, gender, ethnicity) challenges. Conclusions Self-care behaviors in adolescents are influenced by biological, psychological, economic and social factors. As this is a multifactorial process, people who deal with adolescents should have enough knowledge regarding adolescent health status and also learn how to perceive the role of culture in self-care behaviors of the adolescents.

  9. The Safety of Ingested Caffeine: A Comprehensive Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Jennifer L.; Bernard, Christophe; Lipshultz, Steven E.; Czachor, Jason D.; Westphal, Joslyn A.; Mestre, Miriam A.

    2017-01-01

    Caffeine is the most widely consumed psychoactive drug in the world. Natural sources of caffeine include coffee, tea, and chocolate. Synthetic caffeine is also added to products to promote arousal, alertness, energy, and elevated mood. Over the past decade, the introduction of new caffeine-containing food products, as well as changes in consumption patterns of the more traditional sources of caffeine, has increased scrutiny by health authorities and regulatory bodies about the overall consumption of caffeine and its potential cumulative effects on behavior and physiology. Of particular concern is the rate of caffeine intake among populations potentially vulnerable to the negative effects of caffeine consumption: pregnant and lactating women, children and adolescents, young adults, and people with underlying heart or other health conditions, such as mental illness. Here, we review the research into the safety and safe doses of ingested caffeine in healthy and in vulnerable populations. We report that, for healthy adults, caffeine consumption is relatively safe, but that for some vulnerable populations, caffeine consumption could be harmful, including impairments in cardiovascular function, sleep, and substance use. We also identified several gaps in the literature on which we based recommendations for the future of caffeine research. PMID:28603504

  10. The Safety of Ingested Caffeine: A Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Jennifer L; Bernard, Christophe; Lipshultz, Steven E; Czachor, Jason D; Westphal, Joslyn A; Mestre, Miriam A

    2017-01-01

    Caffeine is the most widely consumed psychoactive drug in the world. Natural sources of caffeine include coffee, tea, and chocolate. Synthetic caffeine is also added to products to promote arousal, alertness, energy, and elevated mood. Over the past decade, the introduction of new caffeine-containing food products, as well as changes in consumption patterns of the more traditional sources of caffeine, has increased scrutiny by health authorities and regulatory bodies about the overall consumption of caffeine and its potential cumulative effects on behavior and physiology. Of particular concern is the rate of caffeine intake among populations potentially vulnerable to the negative effects of caffeine consumption: pregnant and lactating women, children and adolescents, young adults, and people with underlying heart or other health conditions, such as mental illness. Here, we review the research into the safety and safe doses of ingested caffeine in healthy and in vulnerable populations. We report that, for healthy adults, caffeine consumption is relatively safe, but that for some vulnerable populations, caffeine consumption could be harmful, including impairments in cardiovascular function, sleep, and substance use. We also identified several gaps in the literature on which we based recommendations for the future of caffeine research.

  11. Leishmaniases in Ecuador: Comprehensive review and current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Velez, Lenin N; Villegas, Nancy V; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Gomez, Eduardo A L; Kato, Hirotomo

    2017-02-01

    This article reviews current knowledge about leishmaniases in Ecuador, proceeding from 1920, when the first human case was described, to the present, mainly focusing on the recent research events published. Regarding basic situations, it appears that 23 of Ecuador's 24 provinces have leishmaniasis-case reports. The disease is one of the mandatory notification infectious diseases in the country since 2005. All the 21,305 cases notified to the Ministry of Public Health, during the period from 2001 through 2014, were said to involve different clinical features of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) but not visceral (VL). Eight Leishmania species, L. (Viannia) guyanensis, L. (V.) panamensis, L. (V.) braziliensis, L. (Leishmania) mexicana, L. (L.) amazonensis, L. (L.) major-like, L. (V.) naiffiand L. (V.) lainsoni were characterized. The last two species were most recently reported from the Ecuadorian Amazon regions. Of the 73 Ecuadorian Lutzomyia species (43 man-biting species) recorded, only four, Lu. trapidoi, Lu. gomezi, Lu. ayacuchensis, and Lu. tortura were incriminated as vectors of the Leishmania parasites. Current knowledge on the reservoir hosts of Leishmania in Ecuador is extremely poor. Recently, in Ecuador different kinds of molecular techniques were developed for diagnosis and mass screening of the disease, employing various materials derived from patients and sand fly vectors. These are PCR-RFLP, colorimetric FTA-LAMP etc. Brief comments and recommendations were also given, for future research and control of leishmaniases in Ecuador. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Tobacco smoking: From 'glamour' to 'stigma'. A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaldelli-Maia, João Mauricio; Ventriglio, Antonio; Bhugra, Dinesh

    2016-01-01

    In this narrative review, we explore the history of tobacco smoking, its associations and portrayal of its use with luxury and glamour in the past, and intriguingly, its subsequent transformation into a mass consumption industrialized product encouraged by advertising and film. Then, we describe the next phase where tobacco in parts of the world has become an unwanted product. However, the number of smokers is still increasing, especially in new markets, and increasingly younger individuals are being attracted to it, despite the well-known health consequences of tobacco use. We also explore current smoking behaviors, looking at trends in the prevalence of consumption throughout the world, discrimination against smokers, light and/or intermittent smokers, and the electronic cigarette (e-cigarette). We place these changes in the context of neuroscience, which may help explain why the cognitive effects of smoking can be important reinforcers for its consumption despite strong anti-smoking pressure in Western countries. © 2015 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2015 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  13. A Comprehensive Review on Pharmacotherapeutics of Herbal Bioenhancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghanshyam B. Dudhatra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In India, Ayurveda has made a major contribution to the drug discovery process with new means of identifying active compounds. Recent advancement in bioavailability enhancement of drugs by compounds of herbal origin has produced a revolutionary shift in the way of therapeutics. Thus, bibliographic investigation was carried out by analyzing classical text books and peer-reviewed papers, consulting worldwide-accepted scientific databases from last 30 years. Herbal bioenhancers have been shown to enhance bioavailability and bioefficacy of different classes of drugs, such as antibiotics, antituberculosis, antiviral, antifungal, and anticancerous drugs at low doses. They have also improved oral absorption of nutraceuticals like vitamins, minerals, amino acids, and certain herbal compounds. Their mechanism of action is mainly through absorption process, drug metabolism, and action on drug target. This paper clearly indicates that scientific researchers and pharmaceutical industries have to give emphasis on experimental studies to find out novel active principles from such a vast array of unexploited plants having a role as a bioavailability and bioefficacy enhancer. Also, the mechanisms of action by which bioenhancer compounds exert bioenhancing effects remain to be explored.

  14. Atlas Fractures and Atlas Osteosynthesis: A Comprehensive Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandziora, Frank; Chapman, Jens R; Vaccaro, Alexander R; Schroeder, Gregory D; Scholz, Matti

    2017-09-01

    Most atlas fractures are the result of compression forces. They are often combined with fractures of the axis and especially with the odontoid process. Multiple classification systems for atlas fractures have been described. For an adequate diagnosis, a computed tomography is mandatory. To distinguish between stable and unstable atlas injury, it is necessary to evaluate the integrity of the transverse atlantal ligament (TAL) by magnetic resonance imaging and to classify the TAL lesion. Studies comparing conservative and operative management of unstable atlas fractures are unfortunately not available in the literature; neither are studies comparing different operative treatment strategies. Hence all treatment recommendations are based on low level evidence. Most of atlas fractures are stable and will be successfully managed by immobilization in a soft/hard collar. Unstable atlas fractures may be treated conservatively by halo-fixation, but nowadays more and more surgeons prefer surgery because of the potential discomfort and complications of halo-traction. Atlas fractures with a midsubstance ligamentous disruption of TAL or severe bony ligamentous avulsion can be treated by a C1/2 fusion. Unstable atlas fractures with moderate bony ligamentous avulsion may be treated by atlas osteosynthesis. Although the evidence for the different treatment strategies of atlas fractures is low, atlas osteosynthesis has the potential to change treatment philosophies. The reasons for this are described in this review.

  15. The Safety of Ingested Caffeine: A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Temple

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine is the most widely consumed psychoactive drug in the world. Natural sources of caffeine include coffee, tea, and chocolate. Synthetic caffeine is also added to products to promote arousal, alertness, energy, and elevated mood. Over the past decade, the introduction of new caffeine-containing food products, as well as changes in consumption patterns of the more traditional sources of caffeine, has increased scrutiny by health authorities and regulatory bodies about the overall consumption of caffeine and its potential cumulative effects on behavior and physiology. Of particular concern is the rate of caffeine intake among populations potentially vulnerable to the negative effects of caffeine consumption: pregnant and lactating women, children and adolescents, young adults, and people with underlying heart or other health conditions, such as mental illness. Here, we review the research into the safety and safe doses of ingested caffeine in healthy and in vulnerable populations. We report that, for healthy adults, caffeine consumption is relatively safe, but that for some vulnerable populations, caffeine consumption could be harmful, including impairments in cardiovascular function, sleep, and substance use. We also identified several gaps in the literature on which we based recommendations for the future of caffeine research.

  16. Ovarian hormones and chronic pain: A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Samah; Muere, Abi; Einstein, Gillian

    2014-12-01

    Most chronic noncancer pain (CNCP) conditions are more common in women and have been reported to worsen, particularly during the peak reproductive years. This phenomenon suggests that ovarian hormones might play a role in modulating CNCP pain. To this end, we reviewed human literature aiming to assess the potential role of ovarian hormones in modulating the following CNCP conditions: musculoskeletal pain, migraine headache, temporal mandibular disorder, and pelvic pain. We found 50 relevant clinical studies, the majority of which demonstrated a correlation between hormone changes or treatments and pain intensity, threshold, or symptoms. Taken together, the findings suggest that changes in hormonal levels may well play a role in modulating the severity of CNCP conditions. However, the lack of consistency in study design, methodology, and interpretation of menstrual cycle phases impedes comparison between the studies. Thus, while the literature is highly suggestive of the role of ovarian hormones in modulating CNCP conditions, serious confounds impede a definitive understanding for most conditions except menstrual migraine and endometriosis. It may be that these inconsistencies and the resulting lack of clarity have contributed to the failure of hormonal effects being translated into medical practice for treatment of CNCP conditions. Copyright © 2014 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Complex regional pain syndrome: a comprehensive and critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchers, A T; Gershwin, M E

    2014-03-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a term used to describe a variety of disorders characterized by spontaneous or stimulus-induced pain that is disproportional to the inciting event and accompanied by a myriad of autonomic and motor disturbances in highly variable combinations. There are no standards which can be applied to the diagnosis and would fulfill definitions of evidence-based medicine. Indeed, there are almost as many diagnostic criteria as there are names to this disorder. The umbrella term CRPS has been subdivided into type I and type II. CRPS I is intended to encompass reflex sympathetic dystrophy and similar disorders without a nerve injury; while CRPS II occurs after damage to a peripheral nerve. There are numerous etiological pathophysiological events that have been incriminated in development of CRPS, including inflammation, autoimmune responses, abnormal cytokine production, sympathetic-sensory disorders, altered blood flow and central cortical reorganization. However, the number of studies that have included appropriate controls and have sufficient numbers of patients to allow statistical analysis with appropriate power calculations is vanishingly small. This has led to over-diagnosis and often excessive pharmacotherapy and even unnecessary surgical interventions. In this review we provide a detailed critical overview of not only the history of CRPS, but also the epidemiology, the clinical features, the pathophysiological studies, the proposed criteria, the therapy and, in particular, an emphasis that future research should apply more rigorous standards to allow a better understanding of CRPS, i.e. what it is, if it is, and when it is. © 2013.

  18. Genetics of Rheumatoid Arthritis — A Comprehensive Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurkó, Júlia; Besenyei, Timea; Laki, Judit; Glant, Tibor T.; Mikecz, Katalin

    2013-01-01

    The “Bermuda triangle” of genetics, environment and autoimmunity is involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Various aspects of genetic contribution to the etiology, pathogenesis and outcome of RA are discussed in this review. The heritability of RA has been estimated to be about 60 %, while the contribution of HLA to heritability has been estimated to be 11–37 %. Apart from known shared epitope (SE) alleles, such as HLA-DRB1*01 and DRB1*04, other HLA alleles, such as HLA-DRB1*13 and DRB1*15 have been linked to RA susceptibility. A novel SE classification divides SE alleles into S1, S2, S3P and S3D groups, where primarily S2 and S3P groups have been associated with predisposition to seropositive RA. The most relevant non-HLA gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with RA include PTPN22, IL23R, TRAF1, CTLA4, IRF5, STAT4, CCR6, PADI4. Large genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 30 loci involved in RA pathogenesis. HLA and some non-HLA genes may differentiate between anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) seropositive and seronegative RA. Genetic susceptibility has also been associated with environmental factors, primarily smoking. Some GWAS studies carried out in rodent models of arthritis have confirmed the role of human genes. For example, in the collagen-induced (CIA) and proteoglycan-induced arthritis (PgIA) models, two important loci — Pgia26/Cia5 and Pgia2/Cia2/Cia3, corresponding the human PTPN22/CD2 and TRAF1/C5 loci, respectively — have been identified. Finally, pharmacogenomics identified SNPs or multiple genetic signatures that may be associated with responses to traditional disease-modifying drugs and biologics. PMID:23288628

  19. Propeller aircraft noise legislation—A comprehensive review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Hanno H.

    After a brief historical review of the development of propeller aircraft noise certification by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), this paper describes in detail the pertinent ICAO-document-the ‘ANNEX 16’-which contains ‘Standards and Recommended Practices’ for the noise certification of propeller-driven aeorplanes either above, or not exceeding, a certificated take-off mass of 5700 kg. Direct experience in the ‘day to day’ practice of conducting aircraft flyover noise measurements for purposes of noise certification is revealed, potential pit-falls, ‘loop-holes’, and present uncertainties in the various procedures are described, and the efforts of the ICAO-Committee on Aircraft Noise (CAN), and its successor organization, the ICAO-Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection (CAEP) to resolve ensuing problems, are given extensive space. The continuing development, as well as the frequently necessary consolidations, of noise certification methods and procedures requires substantial research effort, both in terms of actual dedicated flight testing and wind tunnel testing. This work is dealt with in fair detail and where necessary explained with illustrations, often directly out of research reports. This should give the reader an impression of the enormous complexity of noise certificating propeller aircraft, which after all entails not only legislative aspects, but also basic and applied aerocoustic research. However, in addition to discussing the current state of propeller-aeroplane noise certification, there are sections which go back in time to elaborate on the thoughts and the sometimes dead-end streets which were penetrated in the numerous attempts to improve noise certification. Other sections still look into the future to present changes in propeller aircraft noise legislation that are expected to be agreed upon either in the near- or medium-term.

  20. Treatment for Negative Symptoms in Schizophrenia: A Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerman, Selene R T; Schulte, Peter F J; de Haan, Lieuwe

    2017-09-01

    Negative symptoms (such as amotivation and diminished expression) associated with schizophrenia are a major health concern. Adequate treatment would mean important progress with respect to quality of life and participation in society. Distinguishing primary from secondary negative symptoms may inform treatment options. Primary negative symptoms are part of schizophrenia. Well-known sources of secondary negative symptoms are psychotic symptoms, disorganisation, anxiety, depression, chronic abuse of illicit drugs and alcohol, an overly high dosage of antipsychotic medication, social deprivation, lack of stimulation and hospitalisation. We present an overview of reviews and meta-analyses of double-blind, controlled randomised trials, in which the efficacy of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions for negative symptoms was assessed. Unfortunately, there have been very few clinical trials focusing on primary negative symptoms and selecting chronically ill patients with predominant persistent negative symptoms. An important limitation in many of these studies is the failure to adequately control for potential sources of secondary negative symptoms. At present, there is no convincing evidence regarding efficacy for any treatment of predominant persistent primary negative symptoms. However, for several interventions there is short-term evidence of efficacy for negative symptoms. This evidence has mainly been obtained from studies in chronically ill patients with residual symptoms and studies with a heterogeneous study population of patients in both the acute and chronic phase. Unfortunately, reliable information regarding the distinction between primary and secondary negative symptoms is lacking. Currently, early treatment of psychosis, add-on therapy with aripiprazole, antidepressants or topiramate, music therapy and exercise have been found to be useful for unspecified negative symptoms. These interventions can be considered carefully in a shared decision

  1. Bacterial and Viral Infections in Atopic Dermatitis: a Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Peck Y; Leung, Donald Y M

    2016-12-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most common allergic skin disease in the general population. It is a chronic inflammatory skin disease complicated by recurrent bacterial and viral infections that, when left untreated, can lead to significant complications. The current article will review immunologic and molecular mechanisms underlying the propensity of AD patients to microbial infections. These infections include Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) skin infections, eczema herpeticum, eczema vaccinatum, and eczema coxsackium. Previous studies have shown that skin barrier defects, a decrease in antimicrobial peptides, increased skin pH, or Th2 cytokines such as IL-4 and IL-13 are potential contributing factors for the increased risk of skin infections in AD. In addition, bacterial virulence such as methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) produces significantly higher number of superantigens that increase their potential in causing infection and more severe cutaneous inflammation in AD patients. More recent studies suggest that skin microbiome including Staphylococcus epidermidis or other coagulase-negative staphylococci may play an important role in controlling S. aureus skin infections in AD. Other studies also suggest that genetic variants in the innate immune response may predispose AD patients to increased risk of viral skin infections. These genetic variants include thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), type I interferon (α, ß, ω), type II interferon (γ), and molecular pathways that lead to the production of interferons (interferon regulatory factor 2). A common staphylococcal toxin, α-toxin, may also play a role in enhancing herpes simplex virus skin infections in AD. Further understanding of these disease processes may have important clinical implications for the prevention and treatment of skin infections in this common skin disease.

  2. Clinical spectrum of food allergies: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Marco H-K; Wong, Wilfred H-S; Chang, Christopher

    2014-06-01

    Food allergy is defined as an adverse immune response towards food proteins or as a form of a food intolerance associated with a hypersensitive immune response. It should also be reproducible by a double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge. Many reported that food reactions are not allergic but are intolerances. Food allergy often presents to clinicians as a symptom complex. This review focuses on the clinical spectrum and manifestations of various forms of food allergies. According to clinical presentations and allergy testing, there are three types of food allergy: IgE mediated, mixed (IgE/Non-IgE), and non-IgE mediated (cellular, delayed type hypersensitivity). Recent advances in food allergy in early childhood have highlighted increasing recognition of a spectrum of delayed-onset non-IgE-mediated manifestation of food allergy. Common presentations of food allergy in infancy including atopic eczema, infantile colic, and gastroesophageal reflux. These clinical observations are frequently associated with food hypersensitivity and respond to dietary elimination. Non-IgE-mediated food allergy includes a wide range of diseases, from atopic dermatitis to food protein-induced enterocolitis and from eosinophilic esophagitis to celiac disease. The most common food allergies in children include milk, egg, soy, wheat, peanut, treenut, fish, and shellfish. Milk and egg allergies are usually outgrown, but peanut and treenut allergy tends to persist. The prevalence of food allergy in infancy is increasing and may affect up to 15-20 % of infants. The alarming rate of increase calls for a public health approach in the prevention and treatment of food allergy in children.

  3. Vasculitides and the Complement System: a Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimenti, Maria Sole; Ballanti, Eleonora; Triggianese, Paola; Perricone, Roberto

    2015-12-01

    Systemic vasculitides are a group of rare diseases characterized by inflammation of the arterial or venous vessel wall, causing stenosis or thrombosis. Clinical symptoms may be limited to skin or to other organs or may include multiple manifestations as systemic conditions. The pathogenesis is related to the presence of leukocytes in the vessels and to the IC deposition, which implies the activation of the complement system (CS) and then the swelling and damage of vessel mural structures. The complement system (CS) is involved in the pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases, including systemic vasculitides. This enzymatic system is a part of the innate immune system, and its function is linked to the modulation of the adaptive immunity and in bridging innate and adaptive responses. Its activation is also critical for the development of natural antibodies and T cell response and for the regulation of autoreactive B cells. Complement triggering contributes to inflammation-driven tissue injury, which occurs during the ischemia/reperfusion processes, vasculitides, nephritis, arthritis, and many others diseases. In systemic vasculitides, a group of uncommon diseases characterized by blood vessel inflammation, the contribution of CS in the development of inflammatory damage has been demonstrated. Treatment is mainly based on clinical manifestations and severity of organ involvement. Evidences on the efficacy of traditional immunosuppressive therapies have been collected as well as data from clinical trials that involve the modulation of the CS. In particular in small-medium-vessel vasculitides, the CS represents an attractive target. Herein, we reviewed the pathogenetic role of CS in these systemic vasculitides as urticarial vasculitis, ANCA-associated vasculitides, anti-glomerular basement membrane disease, cryoglobulinaemic vasculitides, Henoch-Schönlein purpura/IgA nephropathy, and Kawasaki disease and therefore its potential therapeutic use in this context.

  4. Control of autonomous ground vehicles: a brief technical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babak, Shahian-Jahromi; Hussain, Syed A.; Karakas, Burak; Cetin, Sabri

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a brief review of the developments achieved in autonomous vehicle systems technology. A concise history of autonomous driver assistance systems is presented, followed by a review of current state of the art sensor technology used in autonomous vehicles. Standard sensor fusion method that has been recently explored is discussed. Finally, advances in embedded software methodologies that define the logic between sensory information and actuation decisions are reviewed.

  5. Are dietary intakes and eating behaviors related to childhood obesity? A comprehensive review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newby, P K

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to comprehensively review studies that have examined the relation between diet and childhood obesity. The review specifically considers the roles of total energy intake and energy density; dietary composition; individual foods, food groups, and dietary patterns; beverage consumption; and eating behaviors. The paper also discusses methodological considerations and future research directions and concludes by summarizing the evidence presented and highlighting the ethical issues surrounding providing dietary advice.

  6. Yoga and heart rate variability: A comprehensive review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Anupama Tyagi; Marc Cohen

    2016-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) has been used as a proxy for health and fitness and indicator of autonomic regulation and therefore, appears well placed to assess the changes occurring with mind.-body practices that facilitate autonomic balance. While many studies suggest that yoga influences HRV, such studies have not been systematically reviewed. We aimed to systematically review all published papers that report on yoga practices and HRV. A comprehensive search of multiple databases was conduc...

  7. Research Review: Reading Comprehension in Developmental Disorders of Language and Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Jessie

    2011-01-01

    Background: Deficits in reading airment (SLI), Down syndrome (DS) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Methods: In this review (based on a search of the ISI Web of Knowledge database to 2011), the Simple View of Reading is used as a framework for considering reading comprehension in these groups. Conclusions: There is substantial evidence for…

  8. From Compromise to Concept? – A Review of ‘Other Comprehensive Income’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Detzen, D.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews how ‘other comprehensive income’ (OCI) entered financial reporting by tracing major Financial Accounting Standard Board (FASB) and International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) projects that required direct entries to equity and describing recent efforts to make sense of the

  9. Improving English Reading Comprehension Ability through Survey, Questions, Read, Record, Recite, Review Strategy (SQ4R)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khusniyah, Nurul Lailatul; Lustyantie, Ninuk

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the effect of the survey, questions, read, record, recite, review (SQ4R) strategy of the reading comprehension ability students of 2nd semester. The research study was used action research method. The sampling was taken by 34 students. The validity of data used credibility, transferability, dependability, and…

  10. Developing, Analyzing, and Using Distractors for Multiple-Choice Tests in Education: A Comprehensive Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierl, Mark J.; Bulut, Okan; Guo, Qi; Zhang, Xinxin

    2017-01-01

    Multiple-choice testing is considered one of the most effective and enduring forms of educational assessment that remains in practice today. This study presents a comprehensive review of the literature on multiple-choice testing in education focused, specifically, on the development, analysis, and use of the incorrect options, which are also…

  11. Developing and Improving Student Non-Technical Skills in IT Education: A Literature Review and Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Hagen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to identify portions of the literature in the areas of Information Technology (IT management, skills development, and curriculum development that support the design of a holistic conceptual framework for instruction in non-technical skills within the IT higher education context. This article review provides a framework for understanding how the critical success factors related to IT and Information Systems (IS professional success is impacted by developing students’ non-technical skills. The article culminates in a holistic conceptual framework for developing non-technical skills within the IT higher education context. Implications for theory and research are provided.

  12. CERN Technical Training 2006: 'Comprehensive VHDL for FPGA Design' and 'Introduction au VHDL et utilisation du simulateur NCVHDL de CADENCE' course sessions, May-June 2006

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Learning for the LHC! The next session of the course 'Comprehensive VHDL for FPGA Design' given in English by Doulos Ltd (UK) will take place at CERN from May 29 through June 2nd (5 days), for a maximum of 14 participants. It will be preceded by an optional, refresher session of the two-day course 'Introduction au VHDL et utilisation du simulateur NCVHDL de CADENCE', given on 23-24 May, in French, by Serge Brobecker of IT/DES. For more information, please visit the Technical Training CTA website, http://cta.cern.ch/cta2/f?p=300, to consult the detailed course descriptions and to apply via EDH. Organiser: Davide Vitè / HR-PMD / 75141 Davide.Vite@cern.ch ENSEIGNEMENT TECHNIQUE TECHNICAL TRAINING technical.training@cern.ch

  13. Technical training: Comprehensive VHDL for FPGA Design' and 'Introduction au VHDL et utilisation du simulateur NCVHDL de CADENCE' course sessions, May-June 2006

    CERN Multimedia

    Davide Vitè

    2006-01-01

    The next session of the course 'Comprehensive VHDL for FPGA Design'given in English by Doulos Ltd (UK) will take place at CERN from May 29 through June 2nd (5 days), for a maximum of 14 participants. It will be preceded by an optional, refresher session of the two-day course 'Introduction au VHDL et utilisation du simulateur NCVHDL de CADENCE', given on 23-24 May, in French, by Serge Brobecker of IT/DES. For more information, please visit the Technical Training CTA website, http://cta.cern.ch/cta2/f?p=300, to consult the detailed course descriptions and to apply via EDH. Organiser: Davide Vitè / HR-PMD / 75141 Davide.Vite@cern.ch ENSEIGNEMENT TECHNIQUE TECHNICAL TRAINING technical.training@cern.ch

  14. Technical Review of SRS Dose Reconstrruction Methods Used By CDC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpkins, Ali, A

    2005-07-20

    At the request of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), a subcontractor Advanced Technologies and Laboratories International, Inc.(ATL) issued a draft report estimating offsite dose as a result of Savannah River Site operations for the period 1954-1992 in support of Phase III of the SRS Dose Reconstruction Project. The doses reported by ATL differed than those previously estimated by Savannah River Site SRS dose modelers for a variety of reasons, but primarily because (1) ATL used different source terms, (2) ATL considered trespasser/poacher scenarios and (3) ATL did not consistently use site-specific parameters or correct usage parameters. The receptors with the highest dose from atmospheric and liquid pathways were within about a factor of four greater than dose values previously reported by SRS. A complete set of technical comments have also been included.

  15. Scientific and technical aspects of yogurt fortification: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Hashemi Gahruie

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Food fortification is one of the most important processes for improvement of the nutrients quality and quantity in food. It can be a very cost effective public health intervention. Due to the high consumption rate of dairy products such as yogurt, fortification of these products will effectively reduce or prevent diseases associated with nutritional deficiencies. The aim of this investigation is to study the technical aspects involved in production of different types of fortified yogurts and their role in disease prevention and correction of deficiencies. In this paper, firstly, fortification is defined and the main reasons behind carrying out this process are presented and then yogurt production process and a variety of minerals, vitamins, and functional ingredients which are used in the process are briefly discussed.

  16. Impairments of Speech Comprehension in Patients with Tinnitus—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Ivansic

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Tinnitus describes the subjective perception of a sound despite the absence of external stimulation. Being a sensory symptom the majority of studies focusses on the auditory pathway. In the recent years, a series of studies suggested a crucial involvement of the limbic system in the manifestation and development of chronic tinnitus. Regarding cognitive symptoms, several reviews addressed the presence of cognitive impairments in tinnitus as well and concluded that attention and memory processes are affected. Despite the importance for social communication and the reliance on a highly functional auditory system, speech comprehension remains a largely neglected field in tinnitus research. This is why we review here the existing literature on speech and language functions in tinnitus patients. Reviewed studies suggest that speech comprehension is impaired in patients with tinnitus, especially in the presence of competing noise. This is even the case in tinnitus patients with normal hearing thresholds. Additionally, speech comprehension measures seem independent of other measures such as tinnitus severity and perceived tinnitus loudness. According to the majority of authors, the speech comprehension difficulties arise as a result of central processes or dysfunctional neuroplasticity.

  17. Non-technical skills of the operating theatre scrub nurse: literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Lucy; Flin, Rhona

    2008-07-01

    This paper is a report of a review to identify the non-technical (cognitive and social) skills used by scrub nurses. Recognition that failures in non-technical skills contributed to accidents in high-risk industries led to the development of research programmes to study the role of cognition and social interactions in operational safety. Recently, psychological research in operating theatres has revealed the importance of non-technical skills in safe and efficient performance. Most of the studies to date have focused on anaesthetists and surgeons. On-line sources and university library catalogues, publications of the Association for Perioperative Practice, National Association of Theatre Nurses and Association of Peri-Operative Registered Nurses were searched in 2007. Studies were included in the review if they presented data from scrub nurses on one or more of their non-technical skills. These findings were examined in relation to an existing medical non-technical skills framework with categories of communication, teamwork, leadership, situation awareness and decision-making. Of 424 publications retrieved, 13 were reviewed in detail. Ten concerned communication and eight of those also had data on teamwork. In 11 papers teamwork was examined, and one focused on nurses' situation awareness, teamwork and communication. None of the papers we reviewed examined leadership or decision-making by scrub nurses. Further work is needed to identify formally the non-technical skills which are important to the role of scrub nurse and then to design training in the identified non-technical skills during the education and development of scrub nurses.

  18. Intermediate Technical Review Report : Deliverable D0.4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygholm, Ann; Buus, Lillian; Svendsen, Brian Møller

    This report provides a coprehensivi overview of the activities of the Mediterranean Virtual Univeristy Project from the contract start for December 2005. It provides a review of the achievements so far and a discussion of issues currently being adressed along with remedial actions. The report als...

  19. General Electric ATS program technical review: Phase 2 activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chance, T. [GE Power Generation, Schenectady, NY (United States); Smith, D. [GE Corporate Research & Development Center, Schenectady, NY (United States)

    1995-10-01

    In response to the industrial and utility objectives specified for the ATS, the GE Power Generation ATS Phase 2 Program consisted of a dual approach. These were (1) development of an Industrial ATS (aircraft engine based) led by GE Aircraft Engines, and (2) development of a Utility ATS which was already underway at GEPG. Both programs required the identification and resolution of critical technical issues. Both systems were studied in Tasks 3-7, and both have resulted in designs that meet all ATS goals. The Industrial ATS as defined (130 MW) did not meet projected market power size requirements, and emphasis has remained on the Utility ATS development. The design and testing effort has been focused on the MS7001H combined cycle gas turbine, as the next product evolution in GE Power Generation`s product line. Common technology derived from the ATS Program is also being incorporated into the 50 Hz version of the ATS utility machine designated as the MS9001H.

  20. Community Noise Exposure Resulting from Aircraft Operations: Technical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-11-01

    approved for publication. FOR THE COMMANDER HENHllGiJE. VOM GIERKE Director Biodynamics and Bionics Division Aerospace Medical Research...content, critical review, and suggestions by Jerry D. Speakman and John N. Cole of the Biodynamics and Bionics Division, Aerospace Medical Research...such as a flighttrack map, is capable of an astounding amount cf data processing. Equivalently, one can observe that the eyes are a very powerful

  1. Nuclear Safety: Technical progress review, January--March 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, E. G. [ed.

    1989-01-01

    This review journal covers significant developments in the field of nuclear safety. Its scope includes the analysis and control of hazards associated with nuclear energy, operations involving fissionable materials, and the products of nuclear fission and their effects on the environment. Primary emphasis is on safety in reactor design, construction, and operation; however, the safety aspects of the entire fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing, nuclear waste disposal, handling of radioisotopes, and environmental effects of these operations, are also treated.

  2. Review Article. Technical aspects of oxygen level regulation in primary cell cultures: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazdani Mazyar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen (O2 is an essential element for aerobic respiration. Atmospheric concentration of O2 is approximately 21%. Mammalian cells, however, are generally adapted to O2 levels much lower than atmospheric conditions. The pericellular levels of O2 must also be maintained within a fairly narrow range to meet the demands of cells. This applies equally to cells in vivo and cells in primary cultures. There has been growing interest in the performance of cell culture experiments under various O2 levels to study molecular and cellular responses. To this end, a range of technologies (e.g. gas-permeable technology and instruments (e.g. gas-tight boxes and gas-controlled incubators have been developed. It should be noted, however, that some of these have limitations and they are still undergoing refinement. Nevertheless, better results should be possible when technical concerns are taken into account. This paper aims to review various aspects of O2 level adjustment in primary cell cultures, regulation of pericellular O2 gradients and possible effects of the cell culture medium.

  3. Nulcear Safety: Technical progress review, October--December 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, E G [ed.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear Safety is a review journal that covers significant developments in the field of nuclear safety. Its scope includes the analysis and control of hazards associated with nuclear energy, operations involving fissionable materials, and the products of nuclear fission and their effects on the environment. Primary emphasis is on safety in reactor design, construction, and operation; however, the safety aspects of the entire fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing, nuclear waste disposal, handling of radioisotopes, and environmental effects of these operations, are also treated.

  4. Nuclear Safety: Volume 29, No. 3: Technical progress review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, E G [ed.

    1988-07-01

    Nuclear Safety is a review journal that covers significant development in the field of nuclear safety. Its scope included the analysis and control of hazards associated with nuclear energy, operations involving fissionable materials and the products of nuclear fission and their effects on the environment. Primary emphasis is on safety in reactor design, construction, and operation; however, the safety aspects of the entire fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing, nuclear waste disposal, handling of radioisotopes, and environmental effects of these operations, are also treated. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  5. The Effect of Technical Performance on Patient Outcomes in Surgery: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecso, Andras B; Szasz, Peter; Kerezov, Georgi; Grantcharov, Teodor P

    2017-03-01

    Systematic review of the effect of intraoperative technical performance on patient outcomes. The operating room is a high-stakes, high-risk environment. As a result, the quality of surgical interventions affecting patient outcomes has been the subject of discussion and research for years. MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and Cochrane databases were searched. All surgical specialties were eligible for inclusion. Data were reviewed in regards to the methods by which technical performance was measured, what patient outcomes were assessed, and how intraoperative technical performance affected patient outcomes. Quality of evidence was assessed using the Medical Education Research Study Quality Instrument (MERSQI). Of the 12,758 studies initially identified, 24 articles (7775 total participants) were ultimately included in this review. Seventeen studies assessed the performance of the faculty alone, 2 assessed both the faculty and trainees, 1 assessed trainees alone, and in 4 studies, the level of the operating surgeon was not specified. In 18 studies, a performance assessment tool was used. Patient outcomes were evaluated using intraoperative complications, short-term morbidity, long-term morbidity, short-term mortality, and long-term mortality. The average MERSQI score was 11.67 (range 9.5-14.5). Twenty-one studies demonstrated that superior technical performance was related to improved patient outcomes. The results of this systematic review demonstrated that superior technical performance positively affects patient outcomes. Despite this initial evidence, more robust research is needed to directly assess intraoperative technical performance and its effect on postoperative patient outcomes using meaningful assessment instruments and reliable processes.

  6. Comprehensive Adolescent Health Programs That Include Sexual and Reproductive Health Services: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, Jenita; Tunçalp, Özge; Turke, Shani; Blum, Robert William

    2014-01-01

    We systematically reviewed peer-reviewed and gray literature on comprehensive adolescent health (CAH) programs (1998–2013), including sexual and reproductive health services. We screened 36 119 records and extracted articles using predefined criteria. We synthesized data into descriptive characteristics and assessed quality by evidence level. We extracted data on 46 programs, of which 19 were defined as comprehensive. Ten met all inclusion criteria. Most were US based; others were implemented in Egypt, Ethiopia, and Mexico. Three programs displayed rigorous evidence; 5 had strong and 2 had modest evidence. Those with rigorous or strong evidence directly or indirectly influenced adolescent sexual and reproductive health. The long-term impact of many CAH programs cannot be proven because of insufficient evaluations. Evaluation approaches that take into account the complex operating conditions of many programs are needed to better understand mechanisms behind program effects. PMID:25320876

  7. Towards a Comprehensive Conceptual Framework of Active Travel Behavior: a Review and Synthesis of Published Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götschi, Thomas; de Nazelle, Audrey; Brand, Christian; Gerike, Regine

    2017-09-01

    This paper reviews the use of conceptual frameworks in research on active travel, such as walking and cycling. Generic framework features and a wide range of contents are identified and synthesized into a comprehensive framework of active travel behavior, as part of the Physical Activity through Sustainable Transport Approaches project (PASTA). PASTA is a European multinational, interdisciplinary research project on active travel and health. Along with an exponential growth in active travel research, a growing number of conceptual frameworks has been published since the early 2000s. Earlier frameworks are simpler and emphasize the distinction of environmental vs. individual factors, while more recently several studies have integrated travel behavior theories more thoroughly. Based on the reviewed frameworks and various behavioral theories, we propose the comprehensive PASTA conceptual framework of active travel behavior. We discuss how it can guide future research, such as data collection, data analysis, and modeling of active travel behavior, and present some examples from the PASTA project.

  8. A Review on Technical and Clinical Impact of Microsoft Kinect on Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Mousavi Hondori; Maryam Khademi

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews technical and clinical impact of the Microsoft Kinect in physical therapy and rehabilitation. It covers the studies on patients with neurological disorders including stroke, Parkinson’s, cerebral palsy, and MS as well as the elderly patients. Search results in Pubmed and Google scholar reveal increasing interest in using Kinect in medical application. Relevant papers are reviewed and divided into three groups: (1) papers which evaluated Kinect’s accuracy and reliability, (2...

  9. Technical options for the mitigation of direct methane and nitrous oxide emissions from livestock: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerber, P.J.; Hristov, A.N.; Henderson, B.L.; Makkar, H.P.S.; Oh, J.; Lee, C.; Meinen, R.; Montes, F.; Ott, T.; Firkins, J.; Rotz, A.; Dell, C.; Adesogan, A.T.; Yang, W.Z.; Tricarico, J.M.; Kebreab, E.; Waghorn, G.; Dijkstra, J.; Oosting, S.J.

    2013-01-01

    Although livestock production accounts for a sizeable share of global greenhouse gas emissions, numerous technical options have been identified to mitigate these emissions. In this review, a subset of these options, which have proven to be effective, are discussed. These include measures to reduce

  10. Robotic Arm-Assisted Sonography: Review of Technical Developments and Potential Clinical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swerdlow, Daniel R; Cleary, Kevin; Wilson, Emmanuel; Azizi-Koutenaei, Bamshad; Monfaredi, Reza

    2017-04-01

    Ultrasound imaging requires trained personnel. Advances in robotics and data transmission create the possibility of telesonography. This review introduces clinicians to current technical work in and potential applications of this developing capability. Telesonography offers advantages in hazardous or remote environments. Robotically assisted ultrasound can reduce stress injuries in sonographers and has potential utility during robotic surgery and interventional procedures.

  11. A Critical Review of the Technical Characteristics of Current Preschool Screening Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmons, Michael R.; Alfonso, Vincent C.

    2005-01-01

    The current review provides a summary and evaluation of the technical characteristics of five preschool screening batteries, including the Brigance Screens, DIAL-3, ESI-R, ESP, and FirstSTEP. These norm-referenced instruments were selected on the basis of their commercial availability, description as a screening instrument, and ability to assess…

  12. A Comprehensive Review of Pharmaceutical Care in Type 2 Diabetes Patients; Keeping Developing Countries in View

    OpenAIRE

    B. O. Ogbonna; A. C. Oparah

    2016-01-01

    Pharmaceutical Care (PC) represents a frontier in disease state management. It is a departure from the traditional drug dispensing of the past to comprehensive and holistic focus on patient disease management and outcomes of pharmacotherapy while systematically and actively identifying potential and actual problems in pharmacotherapy. This narrative review assessed the benefits of pharmaceutical care in promoting patient care and disease management. The study utilized synthesis of materials o...

  13. BPA-Solicited Technical Review of "Echo Meadows Project Winter Artificial Recharge: Final Report for 2001 Baseline", Technical Report 2004.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, David

    2004-02-01

    The purpose of this report was to provide, at BPA's request, a technical review of interim products received for Project 2001-015-00 under contract 6925. BPA sometimes solicits technical reviews for Fish and Wildlife products or issues where outside expertise is required. External review of complex project deliverables assures BPA as a funding agency that the contractor is continuing with scientifically-credible experimental techniques envisioned in the original proposal. If the project's methodology proves feasible, there could be potential applications beyond the project area to similar situations in the Columbia Basin. The Experiment involves artificial flooding during high flow periods and a determination of the portion of the return flows that end up in the Umatilla River during low flow months and within acceptable water quality parameters (e.g., low temperature, few contaminants). Flooding could be a critical water source for aquatic organisms at times of the year when flows in the lower reaches of the Umatilla River are low and water is warmer than would be desired. The experiment was proposed to test whether 'this process, recharges the shallow aquifers of the old flood plain, for natural filtration through the alluvial soils as it returns to the Umatilla River, cleaner and cooler (about 50 degree Fahrenheit) five to six month later (about July and August) substantially cooling the river and [making it] more beneficial to anadromous [fish]'. A substantial amount of preliminary data had been collected and preliminary results were submitted in an interim report 'Echo Meadows Project Winter Artificial Recharge: Final Report for 2001 Baseline (December 2002)'. A substantial amount of addition funding was provided for the last cycle of flooding (Phases II) and final analyses of the full compliment of data collected over the life of the contract (Phase III). Third party scientific review may assist the contractor in producing a

  14. Estimating the cost of accidents and ill-health at work : a review of methodologies technical annex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerd, M. de; Tierney, R.; Duuren-Stuurman, B. van; Bertranou, E.

    2014-01-01

    This technical annex complements the report 'Estimating the cost of accidents and ill-health at work - a review of methodologies' by providing further details on each of the studies reviewed, including their results.

  15. Is the evaluation of risk of bias in periodontology and implant dentistry comprehensive? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faggion, Clovis Mariano; Listl, Stefan; Alarcón, Marco Antonio

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to assess how authors of systematic reviews (SRs) with meta-analyses published in periodontology and implant dentistry evaluate risk of bias (ROB) in primary studies included in these reviews. A literature search for SRs with meta-analyses was performed in PubMed and Cochrane library databases up to July 20th 2014. The reference lists of included articles were screened for further reviews. The standards of evaluating ROB in primary studies were evaluated by using a 14-item checklist based on the Cochrane approach for evaluating ROB. Standards in ROB evaluations in Cochrane and paper-based SRs were compared using the Fisher's exact test. All searches, data extraction and evaluations were performed independently and in duplicate. Seventy SRs were included (45 paper-based and 25 Cochrane SRs, respectively). The median percentage of items addressed was 58% (interquartile range 4-100%). Cochrane SRs more frequently included ROB assessments than paper-based reviews in terms of examiner blinding (p = 0.0026), selective outcome reporting (p = 0.0207) and other bias (p = 0.0241). The ROB evaluation in primary studies currently included in SRs with meta-analyses in periodontology and implant dentistry is not sufficiently comprehensive. Cochrane SRs have more comprehensive ROB evaluation than paper-based reviews. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. 76 FR 3678 - Board Meeting: February 16, 2011-Las Vegas, NV, the U.S. Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD Board Meeting: February 16, 2011--Las Vegas, NV, the U.S. Nuclear Waste Technical Review... Radioactive Waste Pursuant to its authority under section 5051 of Public Law 100-203, Nuclear Waste Policy...

  17. 76 FR 17970 - Board Meeting: April 27, 2011-Amherst, New York; the U.S. Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD Board Meeting: April 27, 2011--Amherst, New York; the U.S. Nuclear Waste Technical Review... 5051 of Public Law 100-203, Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, the U.S. Nuclear Waste...

  18. The impact of nontechnical skills on technical performance in surgery: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Louise; Arora, Sonal; Aggarwal, Rajesh; Darzi, Ara; Vincent, Charles; Sevdalis, Nick

    2012-02-01

    Failures in nontechnical and teamwork skills frequently lie at the heart of harm and near-misses in the operating room (OR). The purpose of this systematic review was to assess the impact of nontechnical skills on technical performance in surgery. MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO databases were searched, and 2,041 articles were identified. After limits were applied, 341 articles were retrieved for evaluation. Of these, 28 articles were accepted for this review. Data were extracted from the articles regarding sample population, study design and setting, measures of nontechnical skills and technical performance, study findings, and limitations. Of the 28 articles that met inclusion criteria, 21 articles assessed the impact of surgeons' nontechnical skills on their technical performance. The evidence suggests that receiving feedback and effectively coping with stressful events in the OR has a beneficial impact on certain aspects of technical performance. Conversely, increased levels of fatigue are associated with detriments to surgical skill. One article assessed the impact of anesthesiologists' nontechnical skills on anesthetic technical performance, finding a strong positive correlation between the 2 skill sets. Finally, 6 articles assessed the impact of multiple nontechnical skills of the entire OR team on surgical performance. A strong relationship between teamwork failure and technical error was empirically demonstrated in these studies. Evidence suggests that certain nontechnical aspects of performance can enhance or, if lacking, contribute to deterioration of surgeons' technical performance. The precise extent of this effect remains to be elucidated. Copyright © 2012 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. PNL technical review of pressurized thermal-shock issues. [PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, L.T.; Apley, W.J.; Bian, S.H.; Defferding, L.J.; Morgenstern, M.H.; Pelto, P.J.; Simonen, E.P.; Simonen, F.A.; Stevens, D.L.; Taylor, T.T.

    1982-07-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was asked to develop and recommend a regulatory position that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) should adopt regarding the ability of reactor pressure vessels to withstand the effects of pressurized thermal shock (PTS). Licensees of eight pressurized water reactors provided NRC with estimates of remaining effective full power years before corrective actions would be required to prevent an unsafe operating condition. PNL reviewed these responses and the results of supporting research and concluded that none of the eight reactors would undergo vessel failure from a PTS event before several more years of operation. Operator actions, however, were often required to terminate a PTS event before it deteriorated to the point where failure could occur. Therefore, the near-term (less than one year) recommendation is to upgrade, on a site-specific basis, operational procedures, training, and control room instrumentation. Also, uniform criteria should be developed by NRC for use during future licensee analyses. Finally, it was recommended that NRC upgrade nondestructive inspection techniques used during vessel examinations and become more involved in the evaluation of annealing requirements.

  20. A technical review of flexible endoscopic multitasking platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Baldwin Po Man; Gourlay, Terence

    2012-01-01

    Further development of advanced therapeutic endoscopic techniques and natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) requires a powerful flexible endoscopic multitasking platform. Medline search was performed to identify literature relating to flexible endoscopic multitasking platform from year 2004-2011 using keywords: Flexible endoscopic multitasking platform, NOTES, Instrumentation, Endoscopic robotic surgery, and specific names of various endoscopic multitasking platforms. Key articles from articles references were reviewed. Flexible multitasking platforms can be classified as either mechanical or robotic. Purely mechanical systems include the dual channel endoscope (DCE) (Olympus), R-Scope (Olympus), the EndoSamurai (Olympus), the ANUBIScope (Karl-Storz), Incisionless Operating Platform (IOP) (USGI), and DDES system (Boston Scientific). Robotic systems include the MASTER system (Nanyang University, Singapore) and the Viacath (Hansen Medical). The DCE, the R-Scope, the EndoSamurai and the ANUBIScope have integrated visual function and instrument manipulation function. The IOP and DDES systems rely on the conventional flexible endoscope for visualization, and instrument manipulation is integrated through the use of a flexible, often lockable, multichannel access device. The advantage of the access device concept is that it allows optics and instrument dissociation. Due to the anatomical constrains of the pharynx, systems are designed to have a diameter of less than 20 mm. All systems are controlled by traction cable system actuated either by hand or by robotic machinery. In a flexible system, this method of actuation inevitably leads to significant hysteresis. This problem will be accentuated with a long endoscope such as that required in performing colonic procedures. Systems often require multiple operators. To date, the DCE, the R-Scope, the IOP, and the Viacath system have data published relating to their application in human. Alternative forms of

  1. Development of a comprehensive hospital-based elder abuse intervention: an initial systematic scoping review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Du Mont

    Full Text Available Elder abuse, a universal human rights problem, is associated with many negative consequences. In most jurisdictions, however, there are no comprehensive hospital-based interventions for elder abuse that address the totality of needs of abused older adults: psychological, physical, legal, and social. As the first step towards the development of such an intervention, we undertook a systematic scoping review.Our primary objective was to systematically extract and synthesize actionable and applicable recommendations for components of a multidisciplinary intersectoral hospital-based elder abuse intervention. A secondary objective was to summarize the characteristics of the responses reviewed, including methods of development and validation.The grey and scholarly literatures were systematically searched, with two independent reviewers conducting the title, abstract and full text screening. Documents were considered eligible for inclusion if they: 1 addressed a response (e.g., an intervention to elder abuse, 2 contained recommendations for responding to abused older adults with potential relevance to a multidisciplinary and intersectoral hospital-based elder abuse intervention; and 3 were available in English.The extracted recommendations for care were collated, coded, categorized into themes, and further reviewed for relevancy to a comprehensive hospital-based response. Characteristics of the responses were summarized using descriptive statistics.649 recommendations were extracted from 68 distinct elder abuse responses, 149 of which were deemed relevant and were categorized into 5 themes: Initial contact; Capacity and consent; Interview with older adult, caregiver, collateral contacts, and/or suspected abuser;physical/forensic, mental, psychosocial, and environmental/functional; and care plan. Only 6 responses had been evaluated, suggesting a significant gap between development and implementation of recommendations.To address the lack of evidence to

  2. A systematic literature review on security and privacy of electronic health record systems: technical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeibagha, Fatemeh; Win, Khin Than; Susilo, Willy

    2015-01-01

    Even though many safeguards and policies for electronic health record (EHR) security have been implemented, barriers to the privacy and security protection of EHR systems persist. This article presents the results of a systematic literature review regarding frequently adopted security and privacy technical features of EHR systems. Our inclusion criteria were full articles that dealt with the security and privacy of technical implementations of EHR systems published in English in peer-reviewed journals and conference proceedings between 1998 and 2013; 55 selected studies were reviewed in detail. We analysed the review results using two International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards (29100 and 27002) in order to consolidate the study findings. Using this process, we identified 13 features that are essential to security and privacy in EHRs. These included system and application access control, compliance with security requirements, interoperability, integration and sharing, consent and choice mechanism, policies and regulation, applicability and scalability and cryptography techniques. This review highlights the importance of technical features, including mandated access control policies and consent mechanisms, to provide patients' consent, scalability through proper architecture and frameworks, and interoperability of health information systems, to EHR security and privacy requirements.

  3. A Review on Technical and Clinical Impact of Microsoft Kinect on Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Mousavi Hondori

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews technical and clinical impact of the Microsoft Kinect in physical therapy and rehabilitation. It covers the studies on patients with neurological disorders including stroke, Parkinson’s, cerebral palsy, and MS as well as the elderly patients. Search results in Pubmed and Google scholar reveal increasing interest in using Kinect in medical application. Relevant papers are reviewed and divided into three groups: (1 papers which evaluated Kinect’s accuracy and reliability, (2 papers which used Kinect for a rehabilitation system and provided clinical evaluation involving patients, and (3 papers which proposed a Kinect-based system for rehabilitation but fell short of providing clinical validation. At last, to serve as technical comparison to help future rehabilitation design other sensors similar to Kinect are reviewed.

  4. Design and comprehensibility of over-the-counter product labels and leaflets: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Vivien; Raynor, David K; Aslani, Parisa

    2014-10-01

    Over-the-counter medicines must be supplied with appropriate, user-friendly medicine information to satisfactorily support consumer self-management and safe use. Product labels and written medicine information leaflets are highly accessible over-the-counter medicine information sources for consumers. Factors such as comprehensibility and design underpin the usefulness of over-the-counter labels and leaflets and should be further examined to better inform future optimisation strategies. Aim of the review To undertake an in-depth exploration of studies that have evaluated design and/or comprehensibility of over-the-counter labels and written medicine information leaflets Methods Database searches were performed using Medline, Embase, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts and PubMed. Studies exploring over-the-counter medicine label and/or leaflet comprehensibility and/or design were identified. Additional author and reference list searches were performed to identify studies which met the inclusion criteria and key terms. A total of 35 studies were included in the review, which explored OTC medicine information design and/or comprehensibility via researcher evaluation alone (n = 8) or with consumers (n = 27). Researcher-determined over-the-counter written medicine information leaflet readability (n = 4) has highlighted suboptimal readability, with few studies evaluating over-the-counter leaflet performance using the gold standard method of 'user testing' with consumers (n = 2). Variable over-the-counter label comprehensibility was identified in consumer studies, ranging from satisfactory understanding to considerable misunderstanding. The review findings indicate that consumer outcomes were influenced by information design, where implementation of good design principles generally improved over-the-counter label and leaflet performance. Significant diversity existed in study design aspects such as sampling frames, sample sizes and tools used to evaluate over

  5. Metaphor-related figurative language comprehension in clinical populations: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maity Siqueira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to critically review current studies with respect to definitions,methods, and results on the comprehension of metaphor, metonymy,idioms, and proverbs under the following clinical conditions: aphasia,Alzheimer’s disease, autism, brain injuries, specific language impairment,and Williams Syndrome. A comprehensive search of experimentalpsycholinguistic research was conducted using EBSCOhost, PsychInfo,PUBMED, and Web of Science databases. Thirty-eight studies met thereview inclusion criteria. Results point to deficits in figurative languagecomprehension in all conditions considered, lack of clear definitions ofthe phenomena investigated, and varied methods throughout the sample.Patients’ difficulties are attributed to multiple factors, such as a lack ofTheory of Mind, executive dysfunctions, and poor semantic knowledge.The study of nonliteral aspects of language comprehension in clinicalpopulations reveals a range of disparate impairments. There was no specificfeature about metaphor-related phenomena identified that could, on its own,account for the difficulty some populations have to understand figurativelanguage. Rather, metaphor-related language comprehension difficultiesare often part of pragmatic, linguistic, and/or cognitive impairments.Keywords: Figurative language. Metaphor. Metonymy. Proverb. Clinicalpopulations

  6. SUPPLEMENTAL COLUMBIA RIVER PROTECTION ACTIVITIES AT THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY HANFORD SITE: 2006 TECHNICAL PEER REVIEW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney, B; Dawn Kaback; Gene Leboeuf; Jason Mulvihill-Kuntz; Lynn Lefkoff

    2006-12-20

    Prompted by a $10 million Congressional allocation to identify supplemental actions to protect the Columbia River from groundwater contamination beneath the Hanford Reservation, the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) Office of Clean-up Technology identified twenty-three potential technical projects and then down-selected ten of these for further evaluation. An independent expert peer review was conducted for the ten down-selected proposals. The review panel consisted of twenty-three recognized subject matter experts that broadly represented academia, industry, and federal laboratories. Of the initial ten proposals reviewed, one was given unconditional support, six were given conditional support, and three were not supported as proposed. Three additional proposals were then submitted by DOE for review--these proposals were structured, in part, to respond to the initial round of technical peer review comments. Peer reviews of these additional proposals provided conditional support. For those proposals that received conditional support, DOE requested specific implementation and work plans and assessed whether the plans adequately addressed the technical conditions identified by the review panel. The final list of technology proposals receiving support, or conditional support, primarily focused on understanding and reducing the potential impacts of uranium, chromium, and strontium from facilities adjacent to the Columbia River, with a secondary focus on understanding and limiting the future Columbia River impacts from the large carbon tetrachloride groundwater plume underlying and downgradient of the Hanford Central Plateau facilities. The results and recommendations of the peer reviews informed the final DOE project selections and supported implementation of the selected projects to protect the Columbia River and address groundwater contamination at Hanford.

  7. Exploring China’s offshore wind energy potential in a comprehensive perspectives of technical, environmental and economic constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hong, Lixuan; Möller, Bernd

    (GIS), which allows the influence of technical, spatial and economic constraints on raw offshore wind potential being reflected in a continuous space. Firstly, based on ocean wind speed data gained from satellite QuikSCAT, raw potential are identified. Those findings are then used along...

  8. Towards a contemporary, comprehensive scoring system for determining technical outcomes of hybrid percutaneous chronic total occlusion treatment: The RECHARGE score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeremans, Joren; Spratt, James C; Knaapen, Paul; Walsh, Simon; Agostoni, Pierfrancesco; Wilson, William; Avran, Alexandre; Faurie, Benjamin; Bressollette, Erwan; Kayaert, Peter; Bagnall, Alan J; Smith, Dave; McEntegart, Margaret B; Smith, William H T; Kelly, Paul; Irving, John; Smith, Elliot J; Strange, Julian W; Dens, Jo

    2018-02-01

    This study sought to create a contemporary scoring tool to predict technical outcomes of chronic total occlusion (CTO) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) from patients treated by hybrid operators with differing experience levels. Current scoring systems need regular updating to cope with the positive evolutions regarding materials, techniques, and outcomes, while at the same time being applicable for a broad range of operators. Clinical and angiographic characteristics from 880 CTO-PCIs included in the REgistry of CrossBoss and Hybrid procedures in FrAnce, the NetheRlands, BelGium and UnitEd Kingdom (RECHARGE) were analyzed by using a derivation and validation set (2:1 ratio). Variables significantly associated with technical failure in the multivariable analysis were incorporated in the score. Subsequently, the discriminatory capacity was assessed and the validation set was used to compare with the J-CTO score and PROGRESS scores. Technical success in the derivation and validation sets was 83% and 85%, respectively. Multivariate analysis identified six parameters associated with technical failure: blunt stump (beta coefficient (b) = 1.014); calcification (b = 0.908); tortuosity ≥45° (b = 0.964); lesion length 20 mm (b = 0.556); diseased distal landing zone (b = 0.794), and previous bypass graft on CTO vessel (b = 0.833). Score variables remained significant after bootstrapping. The RECHARGE score showed better discriminatory capacity in both sets (area-under-the-curve (AUC) = 0.783 and 0.711), compared to the J-CTO (AUC = 0.676) and PROGRESS (AUC = 0.608) scores. The RECHARGE score is a novel, easy-to-use tool for assessing the risk for technical failure in hybrid CTO-PCI and has the potential to perform well for a broad community of operators. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. The Effects of Peer Tutoring on the Reading Comprehension Performance of Secondary Students with Disabilities: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzahrani, Turkey; Leko, Melinda

    2018-01-01

    The purposes of this review were to examine the effects of peer tutoring models on the reading comprehension performance of secondary students with disabilities and to provide evidence of the extent to which peer tutoring can be considered an evidence-based practice (EBP) for improving reading comprehension performance among secondary students…

  10. Maine Exhibitions Assessment Project, September 2002-June 2004. Technical Criteria for Including Exhibition Assessments in Comprehensive Local Assessment Systems. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maine Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    In September 2002, the Maine Department of Education began organizing an Exhibition Assessment Advisory Committee whose purpose it was to consider meaningful ways to include exhibition assessments in comprehensive local assessment systems. School administrators were invited to participate and/or nominate practitioners in their districts to become…

  11. A Comprehensive Review on Handcrafted and Learning-Based Action Representation Approaches for Human Activity Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allah Bux Sargano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Human activity recognition (HAR is an important research area in the fields of human perception and computer vision due to its wide range of applications. These applications include: intelligent video surveillance, ambient assisted living, human computer interaction, human-robot interaction, entertainment, and intelligent driving. Recently, with the emergence and successful deployment of deep learning techniques for image classification, researchers have migrated from traditional handcrafting to deep learning techniques for HAR. However, handcrafted representation-based approaches are still widely used due to some bottlenecks such as computational complexity of deep learning techniques for activity recognition. However, approaches based on handcrafted representation are not able to handle complex scenarios due to their limitations and incapability; therefore, resorting to deep learning-based techniques is a natural option. This review paper presents a comprehensive survey of both handcrafted and learning-based action representations, offering comparison, analysis, and discussions on these approaches. In addition to this, the well-known public datasets available for experimentations and important applications of HAR are also presented to provide further insight into the field. This is the first review paper of its kind which presents all these aspects of HAR in a single review article with comprehensive coverage of each part. Finally, the paper is concluded with important discussions and research directions in the domain of HAR.

  12. A comprehensive review of spatial allocation of LID-BMP-GI practices: Strategies and optimization tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Chui, Ting Fong May

    2017-12-06

    Low-impact development (LID), best management practice (BMP), and green infrastructure (GI) are semi-engineered stormwater management practices that have been widely studied and implemented worldwide. Implemented in the complex environment of urban areas, LID-BMP-GI practices often intertwine with a very large number of hydro-environmental and socio-economic considerations and constraints. Therefore, they need to be carefully selected, designed, and allocated within an urban area. Both planning and optimization can lead to more systematic and strategic approaches to address this multi-scale, multi-parameter problem of practice allocation. In this review, we first identify the main components of the strategic planning cycle, their scope and inter-relationships, and their corresponding mathematical representations. We then present a comprehensive review of the existing literature on spatial allocation optimization tools (SAOTs) for LID-BMP-GI practices and summarize the generic structure and the systematic typology of the existing SAOTs. We conclude with a discussion of several current research gaps in the spatial allocation of LID-BMP-GI practices. In this review, we aim to summarize the strategies and optimization tools for the spatial allocation of LID-BMP-GI practices that are beneficial to practitioners. The other aim is to provide recommendations for future research on the development of more advanced and comprehensive SAOTs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Discourse level reading comprehension interventions following acquired brain injury: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watter, Kerrin; Copley, Anna; Finch, Emma

    2017-02-01

    Purpose Reading comprehension can change following acquired brain injury (ABI), impacting independence and participation. This review aims to identify and evaluate the interventions used for rehabilitation of discourse level reading in adults with ABI. Methods A systematic review was conducted of published journal articles. Methodological quality of studies was reviewed using formal and informal rating scales. Inclusion criteria involved adults with non-progressive ABI who experienced discourse level reading deficits related to aphasia or cognitive-communication disorders. Results A total of 23 studies were identified; these included randomized controlled trials, cohort and case studies. Six different types of reading interventions were found, overall results of these interventions were mixed. Reading deficits were reportedly related to language (aphasia) and/or cognitive deficits, with assessment processes varying. Questions arose regarding comparability of assessment methods and diagnostic issues across the studies. Conclusions Interventions for discourse level reading comprehension can make positive changes to reading function. However, no intervention was identified as a gold standard. A trend toward strategy-based reading was found, with these offering a potential for (comparatively) cost-effective lower-dosage reading treatments with positive-trend results. Cognitive and language features should be considered for assessment and intervention planning for discourse reading in ABI. Implications for Rehabilitation Six different types of discourse reading comprehension interventions for people with ABI were identified, with mixed evidence for each intervention. Clinicians need to consider both the linguistic and cognitive features of reading for assessment and intervention planning for discourse level reading. There is a research trend toward strategy-based reading interventions, which use a lower treatment dosage.

  14. Estimating Weight and Moments for Ship Control Design Technical Assessment Team Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-26

    other provision of law, no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a...estimations for the Ship Change Document (SCD) Technical Assessment Team (TAT) review process. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Weight and Moment, Weight Calculations 16...service life allowances early in life, will be put into a critical status if the rate of consumption is too high. If a class has managed to reduce

  15. Valgus slipped capital femoral epiphysis: report of two cases and a comprehensive review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatadass, K; Shetty, Ajoy P; Rajasekaran, S

    2011-09-01

    Valgus slip of the capital femoral epiphysis is a known but extremely rare form of a slipped capital femoral epiphysis. After the first report in 1926 up to the present, approximately 44 cases have been reported. We report two cases of valgus slip of the capital femoral epiphysis with a comprehensive review of the existing literature and the precautions that are needed while planning surgical management of these patients. Awareness of this condition is essential to make a prompt diagnosis and plan the appropriate management.

  16. A Review of Warm Mix Asphalt Technology: Technical, Eco-nomical and Enviromental Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Alexander Rondón

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In general terms, warm mix asphalt (WMA technology presents a wide potential for successful use in road works construction projects. However, concerns remain regarding the durability and behavior of WMA mixtures in the long term, which need to be addressed. This review focuses on the technical, economic and environmental advantages and disadvantages. The review concludes that the main advantage, at the moment, of this technology concerns the environment. At the end of this work, the authors include certain recommendations for future works to continue strengthening the development of WMA technology.

  17. A Review of Warm Mix Asphalt Technology: Technical, Eco-nomical and Enviromental Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Alexander Rondón

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In general terms, warm mix asphalt (WMA technology presents a wide potential for successful use in road works construction projects. However, concerns remain regarding the durability and behavior of WMA mixtures in the long term, which need to be addressed. This review focuses on the technical, economic and environmental advantages and disadvantages. The review concludes that the main advantage, at the moment, of this technology concerns the environment. At the end of this work, the authors include certain recommendations for future works to continue strengthening the development of WMA technology.

  18. Yoga and heart rate variability: A comprehensive review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupama Tyagi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Heart rate variability (HRV has been used as a proxy for health and fitness and indicator of autonomic regulation and therefore, appears well placed to assess the changes occurring with mind.-body practices that facilitate autonomic balance. While many studies suggest that yoga influences HRV, such studies have not been systematically reviewed. We aimed to systematically review all published papers that report on yoga practices and HRV. A comprehensive search of multiple databases was conducted and all studies that reported a measure of HRV associated with any yoga practice were included. Studies were categorized by the study design and type of yoga practice. A total of 59 studies were reviewed involving a total of 2358 participants. Most studies were performed in India on relatively small numbers of healthy male yoga practitioners during a single laboratory session. Of the reviewed studies, 15 were randomized controlled trials with 6 having a Jadad score of 3. The reviewed studies suggest that yoga can affect cardiac autonomic regulation with increased HRV and vagal dominance during yoga practices. Regular yoga practitioners were also found to have increased vagal tone at rest compared to non-yoga practitioners. It is premature to draw any firm conclusions about yoga and HRV as most studies were of poor quality, with small sample sizes and insufficient reporting of study design and statistical methods. Rigorous studies with detailed reporting of yoga practices and any corresponding changes in respiration are required to determine the effect of yoga on HRV.

  19. Technical Review of Retrieval and Closure Plans for the INEEL INTEC Tank Farm Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bamberger, Judith A; Burks, Barry L; Quigley, Keith D; Falter, Diedre D

    2001-09-28

    The purpose of this report is to document the conclusions of a technical review of retrieval and closure plans for the Idaho National Energy and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) Tank Farm Facility. In addition to reviewing retrieval and closure plans for these tanks, the review process served as an information exchange mechanism so that staff in the INEEL High Level Waste (HLW) Program could become more familiar with retrieval and closure approaches that have been completed or are planned for underground storage tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Hanford sites. This review focused not only on evaluation of the technical feasibility and appropriateness of the approach selected by INEEL but also on technology gaps that could be addressed through utilization of technologies or performance data available at other DOE sites and in the private sector. The reviewers, Judith Bamberger of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Dr. Barry Burks of The Providence Group Applied Technology, have extensive experience in the development and application of tank waste retrieval technologies for nuclear waste remediation.

  20. A global comprehensive review of economic interventions to prevent intimate partner violence and HIV risk behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Andrew; Jacobson, Jessica; Kerr Wilson, Alice

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) and HIV are co-occurring global epidemics, with similar root causes of gender and economic inequalities. Economic interventions have become a central approach to preventing IPV and HIV. We undertook a comprehensive scoping review of published evaluations of economic interventions that sought to prevent IPV and/or HIV risk behaviours. Forty-five separate analyses of interventions met our criteria. Broadly, unconditional cash transfer interventions showed either flat or positive outcomes; economic strengthening interventions had mixed outcomes, with some negative, flat and positive results reported; interventions combining economic strengthening and gender transformative interventions tended to have positive outcomes. The review highlighted a number of gaps. Specifically, there were limited studies evaluating the impact of economic interventions on female sex workers, young women, and men. In addition, there were missed opportunities, with many evaluations only reporting either IPV- or HIV-related outcomes, rather than both, despite overlaps.

  1. Efficacy of simulation-based trauma team training of non-technical skills. A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjeraa, K; Møller, T P; Østergaard, D

    2014-08-01

    Trauma resuscitation is a complex situation, and most organisations have multi-professional trauma teams. Non-technical skills are challenged during trauma resuscitation, and they play an important role in the prevention of critical incidents. Simulation-based training of these is recommended. Our research question was: Does simulation-based trauma team training of non-technical skills have effect on reaction, learning, behaviour or patient outcome? The authors searched PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library and found 13 studies eligible for analysis. We described and compared the educational interventions and the evaluations of effect according to the four Kirkpatrick levels: reaction, learning (knowledge, skills, attitudes), behaviour (in a clinical setting) and patient outcome. No studies were randomised, controlled and blinded, resulting in a moderate to high risk of bias. The multi-professional trauma teams had positive reactions to simulation-based training of non-technical skills. Knowledge and skills improved in all studies evaluating the effect on learning. Three studies found improvements in team performance (behaviour) in the clinical setting. One of these found difficulties in maintaining these skills. Two studies evaluated on patient outcome, of which none showed improvements in mortality, complication rate or duration of hospitalisation. A significant effect on learning was found after simulation-based training of the multi-professional trauma team in non-technical skills. Three studies demonstrated significantly increased clinical team performance. No effect on patient outcome was found. All studies had a moderate to high risk of bias. More comprehensive randomised studies are needed to evaluate the effect on patient outcome. © 2014 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Review of Sodium and Plutonium related Technical Standards in Trans-Uranium Fuel Fabrication Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Misuk; Jeon, Jong Seon; Kang, Hyun Sik; Kim, Seoung Rae [NESS, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In this paper, we would introduce and review technical standards related to sodium fire and plutonium criticality safety. This paper may be helpful to identify considerations in the development of equipment, standards, and etc., to meet the safety requirements in the design, construction and operating of TFFF, KAPF and SFR. The feasibility and conceptual designs are being examined on related facilities, for example, TRU Fuel Fabrication Facilities (TFFF), Korea Advanced Pyro-process Facility (KAPF), and Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR), in Korea. However, the safety concerns of these facilities have been controversial in part because of the Sodium fire accident and Plutonium related radiation safety caused by transport and handling accident. Thus, many researches have been performed to ensure safety and various documents including safety requirements have been developed. In separating and reducing the long-lived radioactive transuranic(TRU) in the spent nuclear fuel, reusing as the potential energy of uranium fuel resources and reducing the high level wastes, TFFF would be receiving the attention of many people. Thus, people would wonder whether compliance with technical standards that ensures safety. For new facility design, one of the important tasks is to review of technical standards, especially for sodium and Plutonium because of water related highly reactive characteristics and criticality hazard respectively. We have introduced and reviewed two important technical standards for TFFF, which are sodium fire and plutonium criticality safety, in this paper. This paper would provide a brief guidance, about how to start and what is important, to people who are responsible for the initial design to operation of TFFF.

  3. Entropy in bimolecular simulations: A comprehensive review of atomic fluctuations-based methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Summer; Ahmed, Marawan; El-Sheikh, Salah; Barakat, Khaled H

    2015-11-01

    Entropy of binding constitutes a major, and in many cases a detrimental, component of the binding affinity in biomolecular interactions. While the enthalpic part of the binding free energy is easier to calculate, estimating the entropy of binding is further more complicated. A precise evaluation of entropy requires a comprehensive exploration of the complete phase space of the interacting entities. As this task is extremely hard to accomplish in the context of conventional molecular simulations, calculating entropy has involved many approximations. Most of these golden standard methods focused on developing a reliable estimation of the conformational part of the entropy. Here, we review these methods with a particular emphasis on the different techniques that extract entropy from atomic fluctuations. The theoretical formalisms behind each method is explained highlighting its strengths as well as its limitations, followed by a description of a number of case studies for each method. We hope that this brief, yet comprehensive, review provides a useful tool to understand these methods and realize the practical issues that may arise in such calculations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Is Empirical Research on Periodization Trustworthy? A Comprehensive Review of Conceptual and Methodological Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Afonso, Pantelis T. Nikolaidis, Patrícia Sousa, Isabel Mesquita

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Periodization is a core concept in training. Recently, systematic reviews and meta-analyses have attempted to provide a comprehensive overview of the topic, but theoretical criticisms have arisen with regard to how such research has been conducted. The purpose of the study was to review comprehensively the conceptual and methodological issues surrounding empirical research on periodization in training with human subjects. A search was conducted late in February 2016 on Academic Search Complete, CINAHL Plus, MedicLatina, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, Scielo, Scopus, SPORTDiscus and Web of Science. Forty-two randomized or randomized controlled trials were retrieved. Problems emerged in three domains: (a Conceptually, periodization and variation were applied differently in research, while no empirical research tested predictions concerning direction, timing or magnitude of the adaptations; (b Study design: More than 95% of papers investigated the ‘physical’ factor (mainly strength. Research on long-term effects was absent (no study lasted more than nine months. Controlling for confounding factors such as nutrition, supplementation and medication was largely ignored; (c Data analysis was biased as dispersion in responsiveness was ignored when discussing the findings. Overall, research on periodization fails to analyze the conceptual premises proposed by these approaches.

  5. Long-Term Surgical Complications in the Oral Cancer Patient: a Comprehensive Review. Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Kolokythas

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Oral and oropharyngeal cancer remains among the top ten most common malignancies in the United States and worldwide. Over the last several decades the approach to treatment of oral cancer has changed very little with regards to primary tumour extirpation while the approach to the “at risk” lymph nodes has evolved significantly. Perhaps the most significant change in the surgical treatment of cancer is the introduction of free flap for reconstruction post resection. Despite these surgical advances, oral cancer ablation, still results in the sacrifice of several functional and aesthetic organs. The aim of this article was to provide a comprehensive review of the potential long-term complications associated with surgical treatment of oral cancer and their management.Material and Methods: The available English language literature relevant to long-term surgical complications associated with surgical treatment of oral cancer was reviewed. The potential common as well as rarer complications that may be encountered and their treatment are summarized.Results: In total 50 literature sources were obtained and reviewed. The topics covered in the first part of this review series include ablative surgery complications, issues with speech, swallowing and chewing and neurologic dysfunction.Conclusions: The early complications associated with oncologic surgery for oral cancer are similar to other surgical procedures. The potential long-term complications however are quite challenging for the oncologic team and the patient who survives oral cancer, primarily due to the highly specialized regional tissues involved in the surgical field.

  6. Long-Term Surgical Complications in the Oral Cancer Patient: a Comprehensive Review. Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Kolokythas

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Surgery remains the preferred treatment for the majority of oral cancers. The aim of the present article was to provide a comprehensive review of complications associated with surgical treatment of oral cancer including hardware failure; complications associated with choice of reconstruction, donor site morbidity as well as functional and aesthetic issues that impact on the quality of life.Material and Methods: The available English language literature relevant to complications associated with surgical treatment of oral cancer was reviewed. Complications associated with potential for disfigurement, choice of reconstruction, donor site morbidity as well as functional and aesthetic issues that impact on the quality of life are summarized.Results: In total 35 literature sources were obtained and reviewed. The topics covered in the second part of this review series include hardware failure, scars and fistula formation; complications associated with choice of reconstruction, donor site morbidity as well as functional and aesthetic issues.Conclusions: Cancer resection should be planned around two very important concepts. First and foremost is the eradication of disease. This should be the ultimate goal of the ablative team and all potential complications that may be the result of appropriately executed oncologic resection should be discussed in details with the patient. Adequate reconstruction of the defects with restoration of form and function is the second, but not of less importance, goal for the successful care of the head and neck cancer patient.

  7. Using Model-Based System Engineering to Provide Artifacts for NASA Project Life-Cycle and Technical Reviews Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Edith L.; Weiland, Karen J.

    2017-01-01

    This is the presentation for the AIAA Space conference in September 2017. It highlights key information from Using Model-Based Systems Engineering to Provide Artifacts for NASA Project Life-cycle and Technical Reviews paper.

  8. A comprehensive review of the SLMTA literature part 2: Measuring success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth T. Luman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since its introduction in 2009, the Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA programme has been implemented in 671 laboratories in 47 countries. Objective: We completed a systematic review of the published literature on SLMTA. The review consists of two companion papers; this article examines quantitative evidence presented in the publications along with a meta-analysis of selected results. Methods: We identified 28 published articles with data from SLMTA implementation. The SLMTA programme was evaluated through audits based on a standard checklist, which is divided into 12 sections corresponding to the 12 Quality System Essentials (QSEs. Several basic service delivery indicators reported by programmes were also examined. Results for various components of the programme were reviewed and summarised; a meta-analysis of QSE results grouped by the three stages of the quality cycle was conducted for 126 laboratories in 12 countries. Results: Global programme data show improved quality in SLMTA laboratories in every country, with average improvements on audit scores of 25 percentage points. Meta-analysis identified Improvement Management as the weakest stage, with internal audits (8% and occurrence management (16% showing the lowest scores. Studies documented 19% – 95% reductions in turn-around times, 69% – 93% reductions in specimen rejection rates, 76% – 81% increases in clinician satisfaction rates, 67% – 85% improvements in external quality assessment results, 50% – 66% decreases in nonconformities and 67% increases in staff punctuality. Conclusions: The wide array of results reported provides a comprehensive picture of the SLMTA programme overall, suggesting a substantive impact on provision of quality laboratory services and patient care. These comprehensive results establish a solid data-driven foundation for program improvement and further expansion.

  9. A comprehensive review of the SLMTA literature part 2: Measuring success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth T. Luman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since its introduction in 2009, the Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA programme has been implemented in 671 laboratories in 47 countries. Objective: We completed a systematic review of the published literature on SLMTA. The review consists of two companion papers; this article examines quantitative evidence presented in the publications along with a meta-analysis of selected results. Methods: We identified 28 published articles with data from SLMTA implementation. The SLMTA programme was evaluated through audits based on a standard checklist, which is divided into 12 sections corresponding to the 12 Quality System Essentials (QSEs. Several basic service delivery indicators reported by programmes were also examined. Results for various components of the programme were reviewed and summarised; a meta-analysis of QSE results grouped by the three stages of the quality cycle was conducted for 126 laboratories in 12 countries. Results: Global programme data show improved quality in SLMTA laboratories in every country, with average improvements on audit scores of 25 percentage points. Meta-analysis identified Improvement Management as the weakest stage, with internal audits (8% and occurrence management (16% showing the lowest scores. Studies documented 19% – 95% reductions in turn-around times, 69% – 93% reductions in specimen rejection rates, 76% – 81% increases in clinician satisfaction rates, 67% – 85% improvements in external quality assessment results, 50% – 66% decreases in nonconformities and 67% increases in staff punctuality. Conclusions: The wide array of results reported provides a comprehensive picture of the SLMTA programme overall, suggesting a substantive impact on provision of quality laboratory services and patient care. These comprehensive results establish a solid data-driven foundation for program improvement and further expansion.

  10. A Comprehensive Review of Credit Instructional Programs Offered by Pasadena City Colleges, 1981-1982. Volume I. Summary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvell Education Managment Planning, Inc., Los Angeles, CA.

    The first part of a report on a comprehensive review of the credit instructional programs offered by Pasadena City College (PCC), this volume provides a description of the evaluation procedures used, and a discussion of general issues that are major considerations for program improvement. Section I introduces the program review in terms of its…

  11. Ultrasound guided distal peripheral nerve block of the upper limb: A technical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Sehmbi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Upper extremity surgery is commonly performed under regional anesthesia. The advent of ultrasonography has made performing upper extremity nerve blocks relatively easy with a high degree of reliability. The proximal approaches to brachial plexus block such as supraclavicular plexus block, infraclavicular plexus block, or the axillary block are favored for the most surgical procedures of distal upper extremity. Ultrasound guidance has however made distal nerve blocks of the upper limb a technically feasible, safe and efficacious option. In recent years, there has thus been a resurgence of distal peripheral nerve blocks to facilitate hand and wrist surgery. In this article, we review the technical aspects of performing the distal blocks of the upper extremity and highlight some of the clinical aspects of their usage.

  12. Image formation in diffusion MRI: A review of recent technical developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Karla L.

    2017-01-01

    Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a standard imaging tool in clinical neurology, and is becoming increasingly important for neuroscience studies due to its ability to depict complex neuroanatomy (eg, white matter connectivity). Single‐shot echo‐planar imaging is currently the predominant formation method for diffusion MRI, but suffers from blurring, distortion, and low spatial resolution. A number of methods have been proposed to address these limitations and improve diffusion MRI acquisition. Here, the recent technical developments for image formation in diffusion MRI are reviewed. We discuss three areas of advance in diffusion MRI: improving image fidelity, accelerating acquisition, and increasing the signal‐to‐noise ratio. Level of Evidence: 5 Technical Efficacy: Stage 1 J. MAGN. RESON. IMAGING 2017;46:646–662 PMID:28194821

  13. Measuring non-technical skills in medical emergency care: a review of assessment measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Cooper

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Simon Cooper1, Ruth Endacott2, Robyn Cant11School of Nursing and Midwifery, Monash University, Gippsland Campus, Churchill, Victoria, Australia; 2School of Nursing and Midwifery, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth UKAim: To review the literature on non-technical skills and assessment methods relevant to emergency care.Background: Non-technical skills (NTS include leadership, teamwork, decision making and situation awareness, all of which have an impact on healthcare outcomes. Significant concerns have been raised about the rates of adverse medical events, many of which are attributed to NTS failures.Methods: Ovid, Medline, ProQUEST, PsycINFO and specialty websites were searched for NTS measures using applicable access strategies, inclusion and exclusion criteria. Publications identified were assessed for relevance.Results: A range of non-technical skill measures relevant to emergency care was identified: leadership (n = 5, teamwork (n = 7, personality/behavior (n = 3 and situation awareness tools (n = 1. Of these, 9 have been used with emergency care populations/clinicians. All had varying degrees of reliability and validity. In the last decade there has been some development of teamwork measures specific to emergency care with a predominantly global and collective rating of broad skills.Conclusion: A variety of non-technical skill measures are available; only a few have been used in the emergency care arena. There is a need for an increase in the focused assessment of teamwork skills for a greater understanding of team performance to enhance patient safety in medical emergency care.Keywords: non-technical skills, teamwork, medical emergency, standards

  14. Comprehension of non-technical words in science: The case of students using a `foreign' language as the medium of instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, P. K.

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports on an investigation into Hong Kong students' comprehension of English non-technical words used in science. The investigation was conducted in a context in which English, a foreign language to students, is the medium of instruction, in that textbooks and examinations are all in English but the classroom language used is mainly Chinese, with frequent Chinese-English code-switching. A total of 4644 Secondary 4, 5 and 6 students participated in the study. Many students did not correctly comprehend a large proportion of the words, confused them with words that were graphologically or phonetically similar, and even took them for their antonyms. Such poor performance raises doubts as to whether the majority of Hong Kong students have attained a ‘threshold level’ of competence in English to benefit from learning science in English.

  15. Determinants of adherence to treatment in first-episode psychosis: a comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Leclerc

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To conduct a comprehensive review of current evidence on factors for nonadherence to treatment in individuals with first-episode psychosis (FEP.Methods:MEDLINE, LILACS, PsycINFO, and SciELO databases were searched with the keywords first episode psychosis, factor, adherence, nonadherence, engagement, disengagement, compliance, and intervention. References of selected studies were consulted for relevant articles.Results:A total of 157 articles were screened, of which 33 articles were retained for full review. The factors related to nonadherence were: a patient-related (e.g., lower education level, persistent substance use, forensic history, unemployment, history of physical abuse; b environment-related (e.g., no family involved in treatment, social adjustment difficulties; c medication-related (e.g., rapid remission of negative symptoms when starting treatment, therapeutic alliance; and d illness-related (e.g., more positive symptoms, more relapses. Treatment factors that improve adherence include a good therapeutic alliance and a voluntary first admission when hospitalization occurs.Conclusion:The results of this review suggest that nonadherence to treatment in FEP is multifactorial. Many of these factors are modifiable and can be specifically targeted in early intervention programs. Very few studies have assessed strategies to raise adherence in FEP.

  16. The relationship between mercury and autism: A comprehensive review and discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Janet K; Geier, David A; Sykes, Lisa K; Haley, Boyd E; Geier, Mark R

    2016-09-01

    The brain pathology in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) indicates marked and ongoing inflammatory reactivity with concomitant neuronal damage. These findings are suggestive of neuronal insult as a result of external factors, rather than some type of developmental mishap. Various xenobiotics have been suggested as possible causes of this pathology. In a recent review, the top ten environmental compounds suspected of causing autism and learning disabilities were listed and they included: lead, methyl-mercury, polychorinated biphenyls, organophosphate pesticides, organochlorine pesticides, endocrine disruptors, automotive exhaust, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and perfluorinated compounds. This current review, however, will focus specifically on mercury exposure and ASD by conducting a comprehensive literature search of original studies in humans that examine the potential relationship between mercury and ASD, categorizing, summarizing, and discussing the published research that addresses this topic. This review found 91 studies that examine the potential relationship between mercury and ASD from 1999 to February 2016. Of these studies, the vast majority (74%) suggest that mercury is a risk factor for ASD, revealing both direct and indirect effects. The preponderance of the evidence indicates that mercury exposure is causal and/or contributory in ASD. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  17. Serum testosterone levels after medical or surgical androgen deprivation: a comprehensive review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    Androgens and the androgen receptor play a role in the progression of prostate cancer. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is a mainstay in the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer. ADT is expected to reduce serum testosterone levels from a normal level of about 500 to 600 ng/dl (17.3-20.8 nmol) down to castration levels. Traditionally, castration was considered to be achieved if testosterone levels were lowered to a threshold of 50 ng/dl (1.73 nmol/l), a definition determined more by measurement methods derived from the use of old assay methods than by evidence. Serum testosterone levels in three-quarter patients after surgical castration drop to less than 20 ng/dl (0.69 nmol/l). Ineffective suppression of testosterone is currently poorly recognized and may possibly have an effect of prostate cancer mortality. Persistent levels of serum testosterone after castration are mainly derived from adrenal androgens. Furthermore, the arrival of new therapies targeting androgen synthesis and androgen receptor activity has renewed interest on serum testosterone. This review discusses the biosynthetic pathway for androgen synthesis in humans and provides a comprehensive review of serum testosterone levels after surgical or medical castration. This review assesses serum testosterone levels after surgical castration and different pharmacologic castration in patients with prostate cancer under ADT, and ineffective testosterone suppression. The author proposes methods to better lower serum testosterone levels during ADT. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Nonphysical effects of exergames on child and adolescent well-being: a comprehensive systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joronen, Katja; Aikasalo, Anna; Suvitie, Anne

    2017-09-01

    Exergames have the potential to promote physical activity among children and adolescents. They also have other important benefits, but knowledge about other than the physical effects of exergaming remains thin. To report the findings of a review of ten studies on the nonphysical effects of exergames on child and adolescent well-being. A broad search strategy was employed to identify relevant studies in CINAHL Ebsco Host, Ovid MEDLINE, Psycinfo ProQuest, Eric ProQuest, Scopus and Cochrane Library. The search timeframe was from January 2004 to April 2015. A comprehensive systematic review without meta-analysis was conducted on 10 quantitative, qualitative and mixed-methods intervention studies. The quality of these studies was assessed following the guidelines of the Joanna Briggs Institute. The data were analysed using a narrative synthesis approach. Exergaming was found to have some positive effects on self-concept, situational interest and motivation, enjoyment, psychological and social well-being, symptomatology and different learning experiences. However, two studies reported no effect on self-efficacy, and one study showed no intervention effect on self-esteem. The only follow-up study indicated that the enjoyment effect lasted for a few months. Most of the studies reviewed found that exergaming had positive effects. However, more research evidence is still needed. In particular, there is a need for better-validated instruments and follow-up research. © 2016 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  19. Final report of the UMTRA independent technical review of TAC audit programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    This report details the findings of an Independent Technical Review (ITR) of practices and procedures for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project audit program. The audit program is conducted by Jacobs Engineering Group Inc., the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) for the UMTRA Project. The purpose of the ITR was to ensure that the TAC audit program is effective and is conducted efficiently. The ITR was conducted from May 16-20, 1994. A review team observed audit practices in the field, reviewed the TAC audit program`s documentation, and discussed the program with TAC staff and management. The format of this report has been developed around EPA guidelines; they comprise most of the major section headings. Each section begins by identifying the criteria that the TAC program is measured against, then describing the approach used by the ITR team to measure each TAC audit program against the criteria. An assessment of each type of audit is then summarized for each component in the following order: Radiological audit summary; Health and safety audit summary; Environmental audit summary; Quality assurance audit summary.

  20. Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project melter system preliminary design technical review meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy, T.L.; Raivo, B.D.; Soelberg, N.R.; Wiersholm, O.

    1995-02-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project sponsored a plasma are melter technical design review meeting to evaluate high-temperature melter system configurations for processing heterogeneous alpha-contaminated low-level radioactive waste (ALLW). Thermal processing experts representing Department of Energy contractors, the Environmental Protection Agency, and private sector companies participated in the review. The participants discussed issues and evaluated alternative configurations for three areas of the melter system design: plasma torch melters and graphite arc melters, offgas treatment options, and overall system configuration considerations. The Technical Advisory Committee for the review concluded that graphite arc melters are preferred over plasma torch melters for processing ALLW. Initiating involvement of stakeholders was considered essential at this stage of the design. For the offgas treatment system, the advisory committee raised the question whether to a use wet-dry or a dry-wet system. The committee recommended that the waste stream characterization, feed preparation, and the control system are essential design tasks for the high-temperature melter treatment system. The participants strongly recommended that a complete melter treatment system be assembled to conduct tests with nonradioactive surrogate waste material. A nonradioactive test bed would allow for inexpensive design and operational changes prior to assembling a system for radioactive waste treatment operations.

  1. A comprehensive model for executing knowledge management audits in organizations: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahmoradi, Leila; Ahmadi, Maryam; Sadoughi, Farahnaz; Piri, Zakieh; Gohari, Mahmood Reza

    2015-01-01

    A knowledge management audit (KMA) is the first phase in knowledge management implementation. Incomplete or incomprehensive execution of the KMA has caused many knowledge management programs to fail. A study was undertaken to investigate how KMAs are performed systematically in organizations and present a comprehensive model for performing KMAs based on a systematic review. Studies were identified by searching electronic databases such as Emerald, LISA, and the Cochrane library and e-journals such as the Oxford Journal and hand searching of printed journals, theses, and books in the Tehran University of Medical Sciences digital library. The sources used in this study consisted of studies available through the digital library of the Tehran University of Medical Sciences that were published between 2000 and 2013, including both Persian- and English-language sources, as well as articles explaining the steps involved in performing a KMA. A comprehensive model for KMAs is presented in this study. To successfully execute a KMA, it is necessary to perform the appropriate preliminary activities in relation to the knowledge management infrastructure, determine the knowledge management situation, and analyze and use the available data on this situation.

  2. Potocki-Shaffer syndrome: comprehensive clinical assessment, review of the literature, and proposals for medical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarr, Daniel T; Bloom, Douglas; Lewis, Richard Alan; Elenberg, Ewa; Friedman, Ellen M; Glotzbach, Caron; Wissman, Scott D; Shaffer, Lisa G; Potocki, Lorraine

    2010-03-01

    Potocki-Shaffer syndrome is a rare contiguous gene deletion syndrome due to haploinsufficiency of the 11p11.2p12 region and is characterized by craniofacial abnormalities, developmental delay, intellectual disability, multiple exostoses, and biparietal foramina. In this study, six patients with the Potocki-Shaffer syndrome were identified and evaluated using a multidisciplinary protocol that included assessments by a geneticist, ophthalmologist, otolaryngologist, orthopedist, nephrologist, audiologist, and neuropsychologist. Diagnostic studies included skeletal survey, magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, renal ultrasound, complete blood count, comprehensive metabolic panel, thyroid studies, and urinalysis. Using array comparative genomic hybridization, we further characterized the deletion in five of these patients. The results of these evaluations were combined with a comprehensive review of reported cases. Our data highlight the characteristic facial features, biparietal foramina, moderate-to-severe developmental delay and intellectual disability, myopia and strabismus, and multiple exostoses seen with this disorder. We also identify for the first time an association of Potocki-Shaffer syndrome with sensorineural hearing loss and autistic behaviors. Finally, we provide recommendations for the health maintenance of patients with Potocki-Shaffer syndrome. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Technical Letter Report: Evaluation and Analysis of a Few International Periodic Safety Review Summary Reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopra, Omesh K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Science Division; Diercks, Dwight R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Ma, David Chia-Chiun [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Science Division; Garud, Yogendra S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Science Division

    2013-12-17

    and 1988. All of the reports reviewed were the regulator’s assessment of the PSR findings rather than the original PSR report, and all but one were English translations from the original language. In these reviews, it was found that most of the countries base their regulatory guidance to some extent (and often to a large extent) on U.S. design codes and standards, NRC regulatory guidance, and U.S. industry guidance. In addition, many of the observed operational technical issues and OpE events reported for U.S. reactors are also cited in the PSR reports. The PSR reports also identified a number of potential technical material/component performance issues and OpE events that are not commonly reported for U.S. plants.

  4. A Comprehensive Review of US FDA-Approved Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in Urothelial Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Shun Hsu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Few effective treatment options are available for patients with advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma (UC after unsuccessful first-line platinum-based chemotherapy. To date, immune checkpoint inhibitors are novel therapeutic agents for UC treatment. From May 2016 to May 2017, five anti-PD-1/PD-L1 monoclonal antibodies received accelerated or regular approval from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA for the treatment of patients with locally advanced or metastatic UC. The present comprehensive review presents the background information of these five US FDA-approved anticancer agents to provide a basic but concise understanding of these agents for advanced studies. We summarize their immune checkpoint mechanisms, clinical efficacy, recommended usage protocols, adverse events, and the limitations of the PD-L1 biomarker assays.

  5. Meningocele manqué: a comprehensive review of this enigmatic finding in occult spinal dysraphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Cameron; Bryant, Ellie; Iwanaga, Joe; Oskouian, Rod J; Oakes, W Jerry; Tubbs, R Shane

    2017-07-01

    The term meningocele manqué (MM) was coined in 1972 to describe a broad range of surgical findings characterized by intradural bands tethering neural structures to the dorsal dura. Over the following decades, reports continued to lump intradural tethering bands associated with a variety of comorbidities under the umbrella term MM. In more recent years, disorders previously called MM have been identified as embryologically distinct and were reclassified. While this sectioning continues, there remains a set of intradural tethering disorders for which no better term than MM exists. Herein, we comprehensively review the literature surrounding MM, including embryological disorders, clinical, radiographic, and surgical presentation, as well as alternative classification methods and MM treatment.

  6. A Comprehensive Review of Optical Stretcher for Cell Mechanical Characterization at Single-Cell Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tie Yang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comprehensive review of the development of the optical stretcher, a powerful optofluidic device for single cell mechanical study by using optical force induced cell stretching. The different techniques and the different materials for the fabrication of the optical stretcher are first summarized. A short description of the optical-stretching mechanism is then given, highlighting the optical force calculation and the cell optical deformability characterization. Subsequently, the implementations of the optical stretcher in various cell-mechanics studies are shown on different types of cells. Afterwards, two new advancements on optical stretcher applications are also introduced: the active cell sorting based on cell mechanical characterization and the temperature effect on cell stretching measurement from laser-induced heating. Two examples of new functionalities developed with the optical stretcher are also included. Finally, the current major limitation and the future development possibilities are discussed.

  7. A comprehensive review of Farm Bill contributions to wildlife conservation, 1985-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, P.L.; Allen, A.W.; Best, Louis B.; Brady, S.J.; Burger, W.; Esser, A.J.; Hackett, E.; Johnson, D.H.; Pederson, R.L.; Reynolds, R.E.; Rewa, C.; Ryan, M.R.; Molleur, R.T.; Buck, P.

    2000-01-01

    A comprehensive review of the scientific literature was undertaken to determine wildlife responses to programs established under the conservation title of the 1985 Food Security Act as amended in 1990 and 1996 (Farm Bill). Literature was annotated and summaries of wildlife responses were provided for the Conservation Reserve Program CRP, Wetlands Reserve Program (WRP), Wildlife Habitat Incentives Program (WHIP) and Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP). The report recognized that Farm Bill conservation programs were created to serve many purposes. Foremost among these purposes was to enable Americaa??s farmers and ranchers to be better stewards of their lands. In general, wildlife responded positively to improvements in land stewardship, particularly when the needs of wildlife were considered in conservation planning and implementation. Whereas authors acknowledged that their understanding of wildlife responses to Farm Bill conservation programs was still incomplete, they concluded that these programs were making significant contributions toward conservation of the nationa??s fish and wildlife resources.

  8. A Comprehensive Review of Spirit Drink Safety Standards and Regulations from an International Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Xiao-Na; Li, Zhao-Jie; Chen, Jing-Yu; Gao, Li-Juan; Han, Bei-Zhong

    2017-03-01

    Standards and regulations related to spirit drinks have been established by different countries and international organizations to ensure the safety and quality of spirits. Here, we introduce the principles of food safety and quality standards for alcoholic beverages and then compare the key indicators used in the distinct standards of the Codex Alimentarius Commission, the European Union, the People's Republic of China, the United States, Canada, and Australia. We also discuss in detail the "maximum level" of the following main contaminants of spirit drinks: methanol, higher alcohols, ethyl carbamate, hydrocyanic acid, heavy metals, mycotoxins, phthalates, and aldehydes. Furthermore, the control measures used for potential hazards are introduced. Harmonization of the current requirements based on comprehensive scope analysis and the risk assessment approach will enhance both the trade and quality of distilled spirits. This review article provides valuable information that will enable producers, traders, governments, and researchers to increase their knowledge of spirit drink safety requirements, control measures, and research trends.

  9. Human-tiger conflict: a review and call for comprehensive plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, John M

    2010-12-01

    Human-tiger (Panthera tigris Linnaeus, 1758) conflicts (HTC), manifested primarily as attacks on people and domestic animals, exacerbate at least 2 major threats to tigers: (i) conflicts often result in mortality or removal of tigers from the wild; and (ii) they result in negative attitudes towards tigers by local people, thereby reducing support for tiger conservation. Although HTC has decreased over the past century, it will likely increase if current and proposed conservation initiatives to double tiger populations are successful. Increased HTC could undermine successful conservation initiatives if proactive steps are not taken to reduce HTC. The present paper provides a review of the impacts of HTC and the measures taken to reduce it in ways that reduce negative impacts on both humans and tigers, and stresses the need for development and implementation of comprehensive plans to reduce HTC. © 2010 ISZS, Blackwell Publishing and IOZ/CAS.

  10. Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of InternationalExperience-- Technical Appendix: Market Descriptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grayson Heffner, Charles Goldman, Kintner-Meyer, M; Kirby, Brendan

    2007-05-01

    In this study, we examine the arrangements for andexperiences of end-use loads providing ancillary services (AS) in fiveelectricity markets: Australia, the United Kingdom (UK), the Nordicmarket, and the ERCOT and PJM markets in the United States. Our objectivein undertaking this review of international experience was to identifyspecific approaches or market designs that have enabled customer loads toeffectively deliver various ancillary services (AS) products. We hopethat this report will contribute to the ongoing discussion in the U.S.and elsewhere regarding what institutional and technical developments areneeded to ensure that customer loads can meaningfully participate in allwholesale electricity markets.

  11. Technical review of the Sandia Laboratories' Particle Beam Fusion Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-18

    This report considers the technical aspects of Sandia Laboratories' Particle Beam Fusion Program and examines the program's initial goals, the progress made to date towards reaching those goals, and the future plans or methods of reaching those original or modified goals. A summary of Sandia Laboratories' effort, which seeks to demonstrate that high voltage pulsed power generated high-current electron or light ion beams can be used to ignite a deuterium or tritium pellet, is provided. A brief review and assessment of the Sandia Pulse Power Program is given. Several critical issues and summaries of the committee members' opinions are discussed.

  12. A comprehensive review on recent progress in aluminum–air batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yisi Liu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aluminum–air battery is considered to be an attractive candidate as a power source for electric vehicles (EVs because of its high theoretical energy density (8100 Wh kg−1, which is significantly greater than that of the state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries (LIBs. However, some technical and scientific problems preventing the large-scale development of Al–air batteries have not yet to be resolved. In this review, we present the fundamentals, challenges and the recent advances in Al–air battery technology from aluminum anode, air cathode and electrocatalysts to electrolytes and inhibitors. Firstly, the alloying of aluminum with transition metal elements is reviewed and shown to reduce the self-corrosion of Al and improve battery performance. Additionally for the cathode, extensive studies of electrocatalytic materials for oxygen reduction/evolution including Pt and Pt alloys, nonprecious metal catalysts, and carbonaceous materials at the air cathode are highlighted. Moreover, for the electrolyte, the application of aqueous and nonaqueous electrolytes in Al–air batteries are discussed. Meanwhile, the addition of inhibitors to the electrolyte to enhance electrochemical performance is also explored. Finally, the challenges and future research directions are proposed for the further development of Al–air batteries. Keywords: Aluminum–air battery, Aluminum anode, Air cathode, Oxygen reduction reaction, Electrolytes

  13. Cognitive correlates of pragmatic language comprehension in adult traumatic brain injury: A systematic review and meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Dane A; Rogish, Miles; Alexander, Timothy; Riggs, Kevin J

    2017-09-13

    Effective pragmatic comprehension of language is critical for successful communication and interaction, but this ability is routinely impaired following Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) (1,2). Individual studies have investigated the cognitive domains associated with impaired pragmatic comprehension, but there remains little understanding of the relative importance of these domains in contributing to pragmatic comprehension impairment following TBI. This paper presents a systematic meta-analytic review of the observed correlations between pragmatic comprehension and cognitive processes following TBI. Five meta-analyses were computed, which quantified the relationship between pragmatic comprehension and five key cognitive constructs (declarative memory; working memory; attention; executive functions; social cognition). Significant moderate-to-strong correlations were found between all cognitive measures and pragmatic comprehension, where declarative memory was the strongest correlate. Thus, our findings indicate that pragmatic comprehension in TBI is associated with an array of domain general cognitive processes, and as such deficits in these cognitive domains may underlie pragmatic comprehension difficulties following TBI. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  14. Review of Technical Studies in the United States in Support of Burnup Credit Regulatory Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, John C [ORNL; Parks, Cecil V [ORNL; Mueller, Don [ORNL; Gauld, Ian C [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Taking credit for the reduction in reactivity associated with fuel depletion can enable more cost-effective, higher-density storage, transport, disposal, and reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) while maintaining sufficient subcritical margin to establish an adequate safety basis. Consequently, there continues to be considerable interest in the United States (U.S.), as well as internationally, in the increased use of burnup credit in SNF operations, particularly related to storage, transport, and disposal of commercial SNF. This interest has motivated numerous technical studies related to the application of burnup credit, both domestically and internationally, as well as the design of SNF storage, transport and disposal systems that rely on burnup credit for maintaining subcriticality. Responding to industry requests and needs, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated a burnup credit research program in 1999, with support from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), to develop regulatory guidance and the supporting technical bases for allowing and expanding the use of burnup credit in pressurized-water reactor SNF storage and transport applications. Although this NRC research program has not been continuous since its inception, considerable progress has been achieved in many key areas in terms of increased understanding of relevant phenomena and issues, availability of relevant information and data, and subsequently updated regulatory guidance for expanded use of burnup credit. This paper reviews technical studies performed by ORNL for the U.S. NRC burnup credit research program. Examples of topics include reactivity effects associated with reactor operating characteristics, fuel assembly characteristics, burnable absorbers, control rods, spatial burnup distributions, cooling time, and assembly misloading; methods and data for validation of isotopic composition predictions; methods and data for validation of criticality calculations; and

  15. A review of technical options for solar charging stations in Asia and Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. Almeida

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Charging stations are an attractive solution to provide access to electricity to low income populations with low energy consumption in remote and off-grid areas. This paper reviews the state of the art of charging stations, with special focus on the technical options. Forty-five different actors in this field were analysed, based on academic publications, reports, online search and surveys. Results show that most stations are run in Sub Saharan Africa and South Asia, are powered by solar energy and although there are many different energy services targeted, the most popular services are charging batteries, mobile phones and lamps. The first charging station was installed in 1992 but most activities happen after 2005. This recent growth has been enabled by the falling cost of photovoltaic modules, learning effect, economies of scale, financial innovation, private sector involvement and worldwide dissemination of mobile phones. While in the first system the only purpose was to charge solar photovoltaic lanterns, the first multi-purpose station appeared in 2008. As expected, the technical challenges are mostly related to the use of batteries not only because they represent the component with shortest lifetime but also because if the battery is not for individual use, social questions arise due to poor definition of rights and duties of the customers. Furthermore, the development of a sustainable business model is also a challenge since this requires technical skills and system monitoring that are not usually available locally. Finally, it is also suggested that the minimum technical quality standards for charging stations should be defined and implemented.

  16. Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Dorsal Foot: An Update and Comprehensive Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Tiffany Y; Rubin, Ashley G; Jiang, Shang I Brian

    2017-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation is a well-known risk factor for basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Therefore, the high incidence of BCCs in sun-exposed areas such as the head and neck is unsurprising. However, unexpectedly, BCCs on the sun-protected dorsal foot have also been reported, and tumor occurrence here suggests that other factors besides ultraviolet radiation may play a role in BCC pathogenesis. Because only few dorsal foot BCCs have been reported, data on their clinical features and management are limited. To perform an updated review of the literature on clinical characteristics and treatment of dorsal foot BCCs. We conducted a comprehensive literature review by searching the PubMed database with the key phrases "basal cell carcinoma dorsal foot," "basal cell carcinoma foot," and "basal cell carcinoma toe." We identified 20 cases of dorsal foot BCCs in the literature, 17 of which had sufficient data for analysis. Only 1 case was treated with Mohs micrographic surgery. We present 8 additional cases of dorsal foot BCCs treated with Mohs micrographic surgery. Basal cell carcinomas on the dorsal foot are rare, and potential risk factors include Caucasian descent and personal history of skin cancer. Mohs micrographic surgery seems to be an effective treatment option.

  17. Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Dorsal Hand: An Update and Comprehensive Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Tiffany Y; Rubin, Ashley G; Brian Jiang, Shang I

    2016-04-01

    Excessive ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure is the primary predisposing factor for basal cell carcinoma (BCC). However, surprisingly, BCCs occur very rarely on the dorsal hand, which is subject to intense sun exposure, and their infrequent presentation in this location suggests that other factors besides UVR may play a role in BCC pathogenesis. Because dorsal hand BCCs are uncommon, knowledge of their characteristics is limited, and more data are needed to describe their clinical presentation and treatment. To perform an updated review of the literature on the management of dorsal hand BCCs. The authors conducted a comprehensive literature review by searching the PubMed database with the key phrases "basal cell carcinoma dorsal hand," "basal cell carcinoma hand," and "basal cell carcinoma finger," and "basal cell carcinoma thumb." The authors identified 176 cases of dorsal hand BCCs in the literature, 120 of which had sufficient data for analysis. Only 4 cases were treated with Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS). The authors present 14 additional cases of dorsal hand BCCs treated with MMS. Basal cell carcinomas on the dorsal hand occur infrequently, and potential risk factors include being a male of white descent and personal history of skin cancer. Mohs micrographic surgery seems to be an effective treatment method.

  18. Buprenorphine treatment of opioid-dependent pregnant women: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Hendrée E; Heil, Sarah H; Baewert, Andjela; Arria, Amelia M; Kaltenbach, Karol; Martin, Peter R; Coyle, Mara G; Selby, Peter; Stine, Susan M; Fischer, Gabriele

    2012-11-01

    This paper reviews the published literature regarding outcomes following maternal treatment with buprenorphine in five areas: maternal efficacy, fetal effects, neonatal effects, effects on breast milk and longer-term developmental effects. Within each outcome area, findings are summarized first for the three randomized clinical trials and then for the 44 non-randomized studies (i.e. prospective studies, case reports and series and retrospective chart reviews), only 28 of which involve independent samples. Results indicate that maternal treatment with buprenorphine has comparable efficacy to methadone, although difficulties may exist with current buprenorphine induction methods. The available fetal data suggest buprenorphine results in less physiological suppression of fetal heart rate and movements than methadone. Regarding neonatal effects, perhaps the single definitive conclusion is that prenatal buprenorphine treatment results in a clinically significant less severe neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) than treatment with methadone. The limited research suggests that, like methadone, buprenorphine is compatible with breastfeeding. Data available thus far suggest that there are no deleterious effects of in utero buprenorphine exposure on infant development. While buprenorphine produces a less severe neonatal abstinence syndrome than methadone, both methadone and buprenorphine are important parts of a complete comprehensive treatment approach for opioid-dependent pregnant women. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  19. A Comprehensive Review of Treatment Options for Premenstrual Syndrome and Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharaj, Shalini; Trevino, Kenneth

    2015-09-01

    Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is a severe form of premenstrual syndrome that involves a combination of emotional and physical symptoms that result in significant functional impairment. Because of the debilitating nature of PMDD, multiple treatment options have been considered. This review provides a comprehensive overview of these therapeutic regimens to help health care professionals provide adequate treatment for PMDD and premenstrual syndrome. The treatments that are reviewed are organized into the following categories: psychiatric, anovulatory, supplements, herbal, nonpharmacological, and other. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors have been established as the first-line treatment for PMDD. Although luteal phase or continuous dosing can be used, additional research is needed to more thoroughly compare the efficacies and differential symptom response of continuous, semi-intermittent, luteal phase, and symptoms-onset dosing. The psychiatric medications venlafaxine, duloxetine, alprazolam, and buspirone have also been found to be useful treatments for PMDD. Various anovulatory-related treatments have demonstrated efficacy; however, the use of some of these treatments remains limited due to potential side effects and/or the availability of cheaper alternatives. Although a variety of supplement and herbal-related treatments have been proposed, with some warranting further research, at this time only calcium supplementation has demonstrated a consistent therapeutic benefit. In conclusion, serotoninergic antidepressants have been established as the first-line treatment option for PMDD; however, there are a variety of additional treatment options that should be considered if a patient fails to achieve an adequate therapeutic response with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor.

  20. Application of soft computing based hybrid models in hydrological variables modeling: a comprehensive review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahimi, Farzad; Yaseen, Zaher Mundher; El-shafie, Ahmed

    2017-05-01

    Since the middle of the twentieth century, artificial intelligence (AI) models have been used widely in engineering and science problems. Water resource variable modeling and prediction are the most challenging issues in water engineering. Artificial neural network (ANN) is a common approach used to tackle this problem by using viable and efficient models. Numerous ANN models have been successfully developed to achieve more accurate results. In the current review, different ANN models in water resource applications and hydrological variable predictions are reviewed and outlined. In addition, recent hybrid models and their structures, input preprocessing, and optimization techniques are discussed and the results are compared with similar previous studies. Moreover, to achieve a comprehensive view of the literature, many articles that applied ANN models together with other techniques are included. Consequently, coupling procedure, model evaluation, and performance comparison of hybrid models with conventional ANN models are assessed, as well as, taxonomy and hybrid ANN models structures. Finally, current challenges and recommendations for future researches are indicated and new hybrid approaches are proposed.

  1. Comprehensive review on the development of high mobility in oxide thin film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jun Young; Lee, Sang Yeol

    2017-11-01

    Oxide materials are one of the most advanced key technology in the thin film transistors (TFTs) for the high-end of device applications. Amorphous oxide semiconductors (AOSs) have leading technique for flat panel display (FPD), active matrix organic light emitting display (AMOLED) and active matrix liquid crystal display (AMLCD) due to their excellent electrical characteristics, such as field effect mobility ( μ FE ), subthreshold swing (S.S) and threshold voltage ( V th ). Covalent semiconductor like amorphous silicon (a-Si) is attributed to the anti-bonding and bonding states of Si hybridized orbitals. However, AOSs have not grain boundary and excellent performances originated from the unique characteristics of AOS which is the direct orbital overlap between s orbitals of neighboring metal cations. High mobility oxide TFTs have gained attractive attention during the last few years and today in display industries. It is progressively developed to increase the mobility either by exploring various oxide semiconductors or by adopting new TFT structures. Mobility of oxide thin film transistor has been rapidly increased from single digit to higher than 100 cm2/V·s in a decade. In this review, we discuss on the comprehensive review on the mobility of oxide TFTs in a decade and propose bandgap engineering and novel structure to enhance the electrical characteristics of oxide TFTs.

  2. Management of spondylolysis and low-grade spondylolisthesis in fine athletes. A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouras, Theodoros; Korovessis, Panagiotis

    2015-07-01

    To provide evidence-based data about the aetiology, incidence, diagnosis and treatment of isthmic lumbar spondylolysis and low-grade spondylolisthesis and return to athletic activities in fine athlete. This is a comprehensive literature review. A thorough MEDLINE search in the period from 1973 to 2014 with the keywords: athlete, spondylolysis, low-grade spondylolisthesis, treatment and return to athletic activities was conducted. A total of 228 articles were initially enrolled from the search, and 74 case series and reviews were finally included because they referred to incidence, diagnosis, treatment and return to play in fine athletes with symptomatic isthmic spondylolysis and low-grade (Meyerding I and II) spondylolisthesis. There were 13 studies reporting surgical treatment (194 patients of average age 19 years) and 14 studies with conservative treatment (589 patients of average age 15.7). The percentage of athletes who were successfully treated with conservative or operative treatment was 85 and 87.8%, respectively. Conservative treatment including physiotherapy and bracing is the mainstay in the treatment of symptomatic spondylolysis and low-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis in fine athletes. If consequent treatment fails, the operative treatment (pars repair and short fusion) is decided. Return to play following surgery varies from 6 to 12 months with prohibition in collision sports. Return to play is mostly depended on specific sport activity.

  3. Factors affecting circulating levels of peptide YY in humans: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Jamie A

    2014-06-01

    As obesity continues to be a global epidemic, research into the mechanisms of hunger and satiety and how those signals act to regulate energy homeostasis persists. Peptide YY (PYY) is an acute satiety signal released upon nutrient ingestion and has been shown to decrease food intake when administered exogenously. More recently, investigators have studied how different factors influence PYY release and circulating levels in humans. Some of these factors include exercise, macronutrient composition of the diet, body-weight status, adiposity levels, sex, race and ageing. The present article provides a succinct and comprehensive review of the recent literature published on the different factors that influence PYY release and circulating levels in humans. Where human data are insufficient, evidence in animal or cell models is summarised. Additionally, the present review explores the recent findings on PYY responses to different dietary fatty acids and how this new line of research will make an impact on future studies on PYY. Human demographics, such as sex and age, do not appear to influence PYY levels. Conversely, adiposity or BMI, race and acute exercise all influence circulating PYY levels. Both dietary fat and protein strongly stimulate PYY release. Furthermore, MUFA appear to result in a smaller PYY response compared with SFA and PUFA. PYY levels appear to be affected by acute exercise, macronutrient composition, adiposity, race and the composition of fatty acids from dietary fat.

  4. Keeping pace with the media; Giant Hogweed burns - A case series and comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Benjamin G; Bedford, James; Kanitkar, Suryakant

    2017-08-01

    Phytophotodermatitis is almost exclusively reported in the dermatological literature, but may progress to a chemical burn. There has been widespread media reporting during the summer of 2015 of burns caused by giant hogweed. However, there is a lack of awareness of this mechanism of injury amongst the burn multidisciplinary team, and there have been no published articles in the surgical literature regarding plant burns, other than sporadic case reports, for 20 years. We present a comprehensive review of plant burns and three cases from our adult and paediatric Burn Centres of burns caused by giant hogweed. Accurate diagnosis is straightforward with a detailed history and is important to prompt appropriate treatment, and prevent a misdiagnosis of non-accidental injury. This review and case series are timely to raise awareness of phytophotodermatitis and burns caused by plants to burns multidisciplinary teams. Prospective studies are warranted to assess the efficacy of topical treatments and surgical management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  5. Resistance of human cytomegalovirus to ganciclovir/valganciclovir: a comprehensive review of putative resistance pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Takashi E; Pikis, Andreas; Naeger, Lisa K; Harrington, Patrick R

    2014-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a pathogen that can be life-threatening in immunocompromised individuals. Valganciclovir and its parent drug ganciclovir are currently the principle drugs used for the treatment or prevention of HCMV disease. The development of HCMV resistance to ganciclovir/valganciclovir has been documented in treated patients and is associated with the emergence of amino acid substitutions in the viral proteins pUL97, pUL54 or both. Generally, single amino acid substitutions associated with clinical resistance that alone do not confer decreased ganciclovir susceptibility in cell culture have been disregarded as causative or clinically significant. This review focuses on the analysis and mechanisms of antiviral drug resistance to HCMV. We also conducted a review of publicly available clinical and nonclinical data to construct a comprehensive list of pUL97 and pUL54 amino acid substitutions that are associated with a poor clinical response to the first line therapies ganciclovir and valganciclovir, or associated with reduced HCMV ganciclovir susceptibility in cell culture. Over 40 putative ganciclovir/valganciclovir resistance-associated substitutions were identified in this analysis. These include the commonly reported substitutions M460I/V and C592G in pUL97. There were additional substitutions that are not widely considered as ganciclovir/valganciclovir resistance-associated substitutions, including V466M in pUL97 and E315D in pUL54. Some of these ganciclovir/valganciclovir resistance-associated substitutions may confer cross-resistance to other HCMV therapies, such as cidofovir and foscarnet. Based on this review, we propose that there are more potential HCMV ganciclovir/valganciclovir resistance pathways than generally appreciated. The resulting comprehensive list of putative ganciclovir/valganciclovir resistance-associated substitutions provides a foundation for future investigations to characterize the role of specific substitutions or

  6. Advanced human-system interface design review guideline. General evaluation model, technical development, and guideline description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Hara, J.M.

    1994-07-01

    Advanced control rooms will use advanced human-system interface (HSI) technologies that may have significant implications for plant safety in that they will affect the operator`s overall role in the system, the method of information presentation, and the ways in which operators interact with the system. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the HSI aspects of control rooms to ensure that they are designed to good human factors engineering principles and that operator performance and reliability are appropriately supported to protect public health and safety. The principal guidance available to the NRC, however, was developed more than ten years ago, well before these technological changes. Accordingly, the human factors guidance needs to be updated to serve as the basis for NRC review of these advanced designs. The purpose of this project was to develop a general approach to advanced HSI review and the human factors guidelines to support NRC safety reviews of advanced systems. This two-volume report provides the results of the project. Volume I describes the development of the Advanced HSI Design Review Guideline (DRG) including (1) its theoretical and technical foundation, (2) a general model for the review of advanced HSIs, (3) guideline development in both hard-copy and computer-based versions, and (4) the tests and evaluations performed to develop and validate the DRG. Volume I also includes a discussion of the gaps in available guidance and a methodology for addressing them. Volume 2 provides the guidelines to be used for advanced HSI review and the procedures for their use.

  7. A Comprehensive Review of Tropical Milky White Mushroom (Calocybe indica P&C).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbiah, Krishnamoorthy Akkanna; Balan, Venkatesh

    2015-09-01

    A compressive description of tropical milky white mushroom (Calocybe indica P&C var. APK2) is provided in this review. This mushroom variety was first identified in the eastern Indian state of West Bengal and can be cultivated on a wide variety of substrates, at a high temperature range (30~38℃). However, no commercial cultivation was made until 1998. Krishnamoorthy 1997 rediscovered the fungus from Tamil Nadu, India and standardized the commercial production techniques for the first time in the world. This edible mushroom has a long shelf life (5~7 days) compared to other commercially available counterparts. A comprehensive and critical review on physiological and nutritional requirements viz., pH, temperature, carbon to nitrogen ratio, best carbon source, best nitrogen source, growth period, growth promoters for mycelia biomass production; substrate preparation; spawn inoculation; different supplementation and casing requirements to increase the yield of mushrooms has been outlined. Innovative and inexpensive methods developed to commercially cultivate milky white mushrooms on different lignocellulosic biomass is also described in this review. The composition profiles of milky white mushroom, its mineral contents and non-enzymatic antioxidants are provided in comparison with button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) and oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus). Antioxidant assay results using methanol extract of milky white mushroom has been provided along with the information about the compounds that are responsible for flavor profile both in fresh and dry mushrooms. Milky white mushroom extracts are known to have anti-hyperglycemic effect and anti-lipid peroxidation effect. The advantage of growing at elevated temperature creates newer avenues to explore milky white mushroom cultivation economically around the world, especially, in humid tropical and sub-tropical zones. Because of its incomparable productivity and shelf life to any other cultivated mushrooms in the

  8. SCFA lead lab technical assistance review of the Pit 7 Complex source containment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eaton, D.; Janeday, D.; Woodward, D.; Imrich, J.; Evans, J.; Morris, M.; Reimus, P.; Hazen, T.

    2001-01-29

    On January 29-30, 2001 a technical assistance team (TAT) met with the Pit 7 project team at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to review technologies being evaluated for remediation in the Site 300 Pit 7 Complex and the process for selecting these technologies. Specifically, the project team presented the TAT with a core need to identify technically and economically practicable technologies and methods to stabilize, contain, or control the tritium and uranium in the source areas at the Pits 3 and 5 landfill area to prevent further releases of these contaminants to groundwater and the migration of tritiated and uranium-contaminated groundwater. The approaches and needs for the systems surrounding the landfills were also presented and discussed. With encouragement from the project team, the TAT expanded its focus to include additional site characterization, a water balance model, and computational models. The TAT was comprised of leading technical and regulatory experts from around the country and was assembled by SCFA's Lead Lab in response to a technical assistance request from John Ziagos, Project Manager for the Pit 7 Area (Technical Assistance Request: LLNL No.1). A list of the TAT members is included below and contact information the TAT members and site participants is in Appendix B. To familiarize the TAT assistance team with Pit 7 Complex issues, the project team gave a presentation outlining the site geology, contaminant hydrogeology, land-use issues, stakeholder concerns, regulatory requirements, groundwater flow and transport modeling efforts, pit source characterization efforts, and remedial options. Time for clarification and questions between the TAT and the site team was integrated into the presentation schedule. On the morning of the second day, the TAT reconvened with the site team and John Evans of the TAT presented information about a helium soil gas survey method that could potentially be used to locate and characterize tritium

  9. Human-system Interfaces to Automatic Systems: Review Guidance and Technical Basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OHara, J.M.; Higgins, J.C.

    2010-01-31

    Automation has become ubiquitous in modern complex systems and commercial nuclear power plants are no exception. Beyond the control of plant functions and systems, automation is applied to a wide range of additional functions including monitoring and detection, situation assessment, response planning, response implementation, and interface management. Automation has become a 'team player' supporting plant personnel in nearly all aspects of plant operation. In light of the increasing use and importance of automation in new and future plants, guidance is needed to enable the NRC staff to conduct safety reviews of the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of modern automation. The objective of the research described in this report was to develop guidance for reviewing the operator's interface with automation. We first developed a characterization of the important HFE aspects of automation based on how it is implemented in current systems. The characterization included five dimensions: Level of automation, function of automation, modes of automation, flexibility of allocation, and reliability of automation. Next, we reviewed literature pertaining to the effects of these aspects of automation on human performance and the design of human-system interfaces (HSIs) for automation. Then, we used the technical basis established by the literature to develop design review guidance. The guidance is divided into the following seven topics: Automation displays, interaction and control, automation modes, automation levels, adaptive automation, error tolerance and failure management, and HSI integration. In addition, we identified insights into the automaton design process, operator training, and operations.

  10. Technical review of WSRC-TR-93-614 criticality safety evaluation for disassembly basin sand filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, R.L

    1994-04-27

    The study documented in WSRC-TR-93-614 performed an evaluation of the criticality potential associated with the Disassembly Basin Sand Filter for K and L Areas. The document reviewed incorporated results of calculations documented in the engineering calculation N-CLC-K-00151. Analyses of the contents of disassembly basin sludge has indicated that the sludge contains fissile material in excess of subcritical mass limits as specified in ANSI/ANS standards. Previous studies had determined that the fissile material can not collect into a critical configuration in the basin. Since the sand filter is intended to remove suspended particles from the basin water and could serve as a mechanism to collect the fissile material into a critical configuration, the study examined conditions under which criticality could occur in the sand filter. The study shows that criticality is not considered possible in the sand filter. This review emphasized the technical accuracy and presentation of the evaluation. The evaluation was also examined for the elements required for NCSEs. The review was performed in accordance with the NRTSC technical review requirements and procedures and the E7 Manual technical review requirements. The technical review (per the E7 manual) of the engineering calculation (N-CLC-K-0 1 5 1) was previously performed by this reviewer.

  11. A comprehensive review on the implementation of the biorefinery concept in biodiesel production plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian David Botero Gutiérrez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is a promising alternative to petroleum diesel and its production from various generations of feedstocks by using different technologies has been constantly growing globally. However, in spite of such large scale of production, serious considerations should be taken into account to ensure the long-term sustainability of biodiesel production. This issue becomes more of concern given the fact that some generations of feedstocks used for biodiesel production are in clear conflict with food security. The concept of biorefinery has been at the center of attention with an aim to address these challenges by promoting an integral use of biomass to allow the production of multiple products along with biodiesel. Such implementation has been extensively studied over the last years and is expected to lead to economic, environmental, and social advantages over individual processes. The current review first presented an overview on biodiesel, its different feedstocks, and production technologies. Subsequently, the biorefinery concept and its correct implementation was technically discussed. Biodiesel production under the biorefinery scheme was also presented. Finally, techno-economic analysis of biodiesel production under the biorefinery concept by considering palm oil-based biorefinery as case study was investigated.

  12. Comprehensibility of Health-Related Documents for Older Adults with Different Levels of Health Literacy : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koops van 't Jagt, Ruth; Hoeks, John C J; Jansen, Carel J M; de Winter, Andrea F; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review was conducted to assess the available evidence for the effectiveness of interventions aiming to improve the comprehensibility of health-related documents in older adults (≥50) with different levels of health literacy. Seven databases were searched (2005 forward), and references

  13. Technical skills assessment toolbox: a review using the unitary framework of validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaderi, Iman; Manji, Farouq; Park, Yoon Soo; Juul, Dorthea; Ott, Michael; Harris, Ilene; Farrell, Timothy M

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to create a technical skills assessment toolbox for 35 basic and advanced skills/procedures that comprise the American College of Surgeons (ACS)/Association of Program Directors in Surgery (APDS) surgical skills curriculum and to provide a critical appraisal of the included tools, using contemporary framework of validity. Competency-based training has become the predominant model in surgical education and assessment of performance is an essential component. Assessment methods must produce valid results to accurately determine the level of competency. A search was performed, using PubMed and Google Scholar, to identify tools that have been developed for assessment of the targeted technical skills. A total of 23 assessment tools for the 35 ACS/APDS skills modules were identified. Some tools, such as Operative Performance Rating System (OSATS) and Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skill (OPRS), have been tested for more than 1 procedure. Therefore, 30 modules had at least 1 assessment tool, with some common surgical procedures being addressed by several tools. Five modules had none. Only 3 studies used Messick's framework to design their validity studies. The remaining studies used an outdated framework on the basis of "types of validity." When analyzed using the contemporary framework, few of these studies demonstrated validity for content, internal structure, and relationship to other variables. This study provides an assessment toolbox for common surgical skills/procedures. Our review shows that few authors have used the contemporary unitary concept of validity for development of their assessment tools. As we progress toward competency-based training, future studies should provide evidence for various sources of validity using the contemporary framework.

  14. Home hemodialysis: a comprehensive review of patient-centered and economic considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Rachael C; Howard, Kirsten; Morton, Rachael L

    2017-01-01

    Internationally, the number of patients requiring treatment for end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) continues to increase, placing substantial burden on health systems and patients. Home hemodialysis (HD) has fluctuated in its popularity, and the rates of home HD vary considerably between and within countries although there is evidence suggesting a number of clinical, survival, economic, and quality of life (QoL) advantages associated with this treatment. International guidelines encourage shared decision making between patients and clinicians for the type of dialysis, with an emphasis on a treatment that aligned to the patients’ lifestyle. This is a comprehensive literature review of patient-centered and economic impacts of home HD with the studies published between January 2000 and July 2016. Data from the primary studies representing both efficiency and equity of home HD were presented as a narrative synthesis under the following topics: advantages to patients, barriers to patients, economic factors influencing patients, cost-effectiveness of home HD, and inequities in home HD delivery. There were a number of advantages for patients on home HD including improved survival and QoL and flexibility and potential for employment, compared to hospital HD. Similarly, there were several barriers to patients preferring or maintaining home HD, and the strategies to overcome these barriers were frequently reported. Good evidence reported that indigenous, low-income, and other socially disadvantaged individuals had reduced access to home HD compared to other forms of dialysis and that this situation compounds already-poor health outcomes on renal replacement therapy. Government policies that minimize barriers to home HD include reimbursement for dialysis-related out-of-pocket costs and employment-retention interventions for home HD patients and their family members. This review argues that home HD is a cost-effective treatment, and increasing the proportion of patients on this

  15. Ethnopharmacological uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology of genus Adiantum: A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Subha; Pandey, Madan Mohan; Rawat, Ajay Kumar Singh

    2017-12-28

    Genus Adiantum (Pteridaceae) forms a significant dominant component of many plant communities especially in the tropical and temperate regions. These are commonly known as maidenhair ferns and several have been used medicinally in different parts of the world. They exhibit antidysenteric, antiulcer, antimicrobial, antitumor and antiviral activities. The traditional uses of Adiantum species are known to be for respiratory problems such as cough cold, fever, pneumonia and mucous formation. This review aims to provide a comprehensive and updated, categorized information on the botanical aspects, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological activities and toxicological research of Adiantum species in order to explore their therapeutic potential and evaluate future research opportunities. The available information on various species belonging to the genus Adiantum was collected via electronic search (using Pubmed, SciFinder, Scirus, Google Scholar, JCCC@INSTIRC and Web of Science) and a library search for articles published in peer-reviewed journals. The literature provided information on several ethnopharmacologically well known Adiantum species, the best studied species being A. capillus-veneris. From these plant species, more than 130 compounds belonging to triterpenoids, flavanoids, phenyl propanoids, phenolics, coumarins, phytosterols, fatty acids and others were identified. Experimental evidences confirmed that the Adiantum species could be used in treating microbial infections, diabetes, liver disorders as well as inflammatory disorders. Plants belonging to the genus Adiantum have offered bioactive crude extracts as well as pure compounds, thus substantiating their effectiveness in traditional medicine. Although toxicity studies carried out on some Adiantum species have showed them to be non-toxic, further toxicological studies are still required to confirm their safety in humans. Future research should be directed towards implementing an integrated approach

  16. Comprehensive overview of computer-based health information tailoring: a scoping review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghalibaf, Azadeh Kamel; Nazari, Elham; Gholian-Aval, Mahdi; Tabesh, Hamed; Tara, Mahmood

    2017-12-27

    Tailoring health information to the needs of individuals has become an important part of modern health communications. Tailoring has been addressed by researchers from different disciplines leading to the emergence of a wide range of approaches, making the newcomers confused. In order to address this, a comprehensive overview of the field with the indications of research gaps, tendencies and trends will be helpful. As a result, a systematic protocol was outlined to conduct a scoping review within the field of computer-based health information tailoring. This protocol is based on the York's five-stage framework outlined by Arksey and O'Malley. A field-specific structure was defined as a basis for undertaking each stage. The structure comprised three main aspects: system design, information communication and evaluation. Five leading databases were searched: PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, EBSCO and IEEE and a broad search strategy was used with less strict inclusion criteria to cover the breadth of evidence. Theoretical frameworks were used to develop the data extraction form and a rigorous approach was introduced to identify the categories from data. Several explanatory-descriptive methods were considered to analyse the data, from which some were proposed to be employed for the first time in scoping studies. This study investigates the breadth and depth of existing literature on computer-tailoring and as a secondary analysis, does not require ethics approval. We anticipate that the results will identify research gaps and novel ideas for future studies and provide direction to combine methods from different disciplines. The research findings will be submitted for publication to relevant peer-reviewed journals and conferences targeting health promotion and patient education. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. A comprehensive review of the effects of mixing caffeinated energy drinks with alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKetin, Rebecca; Coen, Alice; Kaye, Sharlene

    2015-06-01

    In response to concern about whether mixing caffeinated energy drinks with alcohol (AED) increases alcohol consumption and related harm, and the role of industry in this debate, we conducted a comprehensive review of the research evidence on the effects of AED and documented industry involvement in this research. A systematic review of 6 databases. Studies must have examined the effect of consuming alcohol with energy drinks (ED) or caffeine on alcohol-related outcomes. 62 studies were identified; 29 were experiments, 9 had industry ties (8 with Red Bull GmbH). Young adults who consumed AED drank more alcohol and experienced more alcohol-related harm than other drinkers. There was insufficient evidence to conclude that AED led to increased alcohol consumption or altered the nature of alcohol-related harm. However, AED consumers reported that AED increased stimulation and alertness, offset fatigue from drinking, and facilitated drinking. Experimental research also found that combining ED or caffeine with alcohol increased stimulation and alertness, offset alcohol-related fatigue and increased the desire to keep drinking. It did not change BAC, perceived intoxication, perceived impairment and it did not reverse alcohol-induced impairment on simple psychomotor tasks. Combining ED/caffeine with alcohol reduced alcohol-induced impairment on some but not all aspects of complex tasks. Although few in number, studies with industry ties presented contrary evidence. A growing body of evidence suggests that AED may facilitate drinking and related harms via its effects on intoxication but a causal link needs to be confirmed. The influence of industry involvement in this area of research needs to be monitored. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Role of Elimination Diets in Atopic Dermatitis-A Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Neil R; Lohman, Mary E; Lio, Peter A

    2017-09-01

    Diet is a common concern for individuals with atopic dermatitis (AD) and their families. Studies regarding the effect of dietary interventions on AD exist, but many are limited by small size and poor design. Conflicting results present a challenge to clinicians seeking to counsel patients. The aim of the current review is to examine the published literature and generate helpful conclusions for clinicians faced with dietary questions in AD. A PubMed search was performed focusing on dietary interventions for AD in children and adults through July 2016. The search was limited to the English language and included studies that evaluated one or more forms of dietary modification for the treatment of AD. Studies of supplementation, such as with vitamins, minerals, or probiotics, were not included, nor were studies on prevention of the development of AD. A total of 43 articles met the inclusion criteria and were included in the final analysis. Trials varied in type, duration, and the AD patient populations studied. Overall, there is some level I evidence to support specific exclusion diets in preselected patients but insufficient evidence for strict elimination diets (diets that are typically limited to six to eight foods). Data supporting other interventions are mixed and based on small, poorly designed studies. A comprehensive literature review reveals some promising results and several areas in need of further study. More evidence is needed to form a strong foundation for recommendations regarding the utility and role of elimination diets in AD management, but current evidence suggests that strict diet management is not effective in the treatment AD in the vast majority of patients. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. A comprehensive review of pediatric endotracheal suctioning: Effects, indications, and clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Brenda M; Argent, Andrew C

    2008-09-01

    To provide a comprehensive, evidence-based review of pediatric endotracheal suctioning: effects, indications, and clinical practice. PubMed, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and PEDro (Physiotherapy Evidence Database) electronic databases were searched for English language articles, published between 1962 and June 2007. Owing to the paucity of objective pediatric data, all reports dealing with this topic were examined, including adult and neonatal studies. One hundred eighteen references were included in the final review. Despite the widespread use of endotracheal suctioning, very little high-level evidence dealing with pediatric endotracheal suctioning exists. Studies of mechanically ventilated neonatal, pediatric, and adult patients have shown that suctioning causes a range of potentially serious complications. Current practice guidelines are not based on evidence from controlled clinical trials. There is no clear evidence that endotracheal suctioning improves respiratory mechanics, with most studies pointing to the detrimental effect it has on lung mechanics. Suctioning should be performed when obstructive secretions are present rather than routinely. There is no clear evidence for the superiority of closed- or open-system suctioning, nor is there clear evidence for appropriate vacuum pressures and suction catheter size. Sterility does not seem to be necessary when suctioning. Preoxygenation has short-term benefits, but the longer-term impact is unknown. Routine saline instillation before suctioning should not be performed. Recruitment maneuvers performed after suctioning have not been shown to be useful as standard practice. Endotracheal suctioning is a procedure used regularly in the pediatric intensive care unit. Despite this, good evidence supporting its practice is limited. Further, controlled clinical studies are needed to develop evidence-based protocols for endotracheal suctioning of infants and children, and to examine the

  20. A comprehensive review of biomass resources and biofuel production in Nigeria: potential and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokan-Adeaga, Adewale Allen; Ana, Godson R E E

    2015-01-01

    The quest for biofuels in Nigeria, no doubt, represents a legitimate ambition. This is so because the focus on biofuel production has assumed a global dimension, and the benefits that may accrue from such effort may turn out to be enormous if the preconditions are adequately satisfied. As a member of the global community, it has become exigent for Nigeria to explore other potential means of bettering her already impoverished economy. Biomass is the major energy source in Nigeria, contributing about 78% of Nigeria's primary energy supply. In this paper, a comprehensive review of the potential of biomass resources and biofuel production in Nigeria is given. The study adopted a desk review of existing literatures on major energy crops produced in Nigeria. A brief description of the current biofuel developmental activities in the country is also given. A variety of biomass resources exist in the country in large quantities with opportunities for expansion. Biomass resources considered include agricultural crops, agricultural crop residues, forestry resources, municipal solid waste, and animal waste. However, the prospects of achieving this giant stride appear not to be feasible in Nigeria. Although the focus on biofuel production may be a worthwhile endeavor in view of Nigeria's development woes, the paper argues that because Nigeria is yet to adequately satisfy the preconditions for such program, the effort may be designed to fail after all. To avoid this, the government must address key areas of concern such as food insecurity, environmental crisis, and blatant corruption in all quarters. It is concluded that given the large availability of biomass resources in Nigeria, there is immense potential for biofuel production from these biomass resources. With the very high potential for biofuel production, the governments as well as private investors are therefore encouraged to take practical steps toward investing in agriculture for the production of energy crops and the

  1. Hypnosis Treatment of Gastrointestinal Disorders: A Comprehensive Review of the Empirical Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palsson, Olafur S

    2015-10-01

    Hypnotherapy has been investigated for 30 years as a treatment for gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. There are presently 35 studies in the published empirical literature, including 17 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that have assessed clinical outcomes of such treatment. This body of research is reviewed comprehensively in this article. Twenty-four of the studies have tested hypnotherapy for adult irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and 5 have focused on IBS or abdominal pain in children. All IBS hypnotherapy studies have reported significant improvement in gastrointestinal symptoms, and 7 out of 10 RCTs in adults and all 3 RCTs in pediatric patient samples found superior outcomes for hypnosis compared to control groups. Collectively this body of research shows unequivocally that for both adults and children with IBS, hypnosis treatment is highly efficacious in reducing bowel symptoms and can offer lasting and substantial symptom relief for a large proportion of patients who do not respond adequately to usual medical treatment approaches. For other GI disorders the evidence is more limited, but preliminary indications of therapeutic potential can be seen in the single randomized controlled trials published to date on hypnotherapy for functional dyspepsia, functional chest pain, and ulcerative colitis. Further controlled hypnotherapy trials in those three disorders should be a high priority. The mechanisms underlying the impact of hypnosis on GI problems are still unclear, but findings from a number of studies suggest that they involve both modulation of gut functioning and changes in the brain's handling of sensory signals from the GI tract.

  2. Anthracycline Nano-Delivery Systems to Overcome Multiple Drug Resistance: A Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ping; Mumper, Russell J

    2013-06-01

    Anthracyclines (doxorubicin, daunorubicin, and idarubicin) are very effective chemotherapeutic drugs to treat many cancers; however, the development of multiple drug resistance (MDR) is one of the major limitations for their clinical applications. Nano-delivery systems have emerged as the novel cancer therapeutics to overcome MDR. Up until now, many anthracycline nano-delivery systems have been developed and reported to effectively circumvent MDR both in-vitro and in-vivo, and some of these systems have even advanced to clinical trials, such as the HPMA-doxorubicin (HPMA-DOX) conjugate. Doxil, a DOX PEGylated liposome formulation, was developed and approved by FDA in 1995. Unfortunately, this formulation does not address the MDR problem. In this comprehensive review, more than ten types of developed anthracycline nano-delivery systems to overcome MDR and their proposed mechanisms are covered and discussed, including liposomes; polymeric micelles, conjugate and nanoparticles; peptide/protein conjugates; solid-lipid, magnetic, gold, silica, and cyclodextrin nanoparticles; and carbon nanotubes.

  3. Comprehensive review on phytotechnology: Heavy metals removal by diverse aquatic plants species from wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezania, Shahabaldin; Taib, Shazwin Mat; Md Din, Mohd Fadhil; Dahalan, Farrah Aini; Kamyab, Hesam

    2016-11-15

    Environmental pollution specifically water pollution is alarming both in the developed and developing countries. Heavy metal contamination of water resources is a critical issue which adversely affects humans, plants and animals. Phytoremediation is a cost-effective remediation technology which able to treat heavy metal polluted sites. This environmental friendly method has been successfully implemented in constructed wetland (CWs) which is able to restore the aquatic biosystem naturally. Nowadays, many aquatic plant species are being investigated to determine their potential and effectiveness for phytoremediation application, especially high growth rate plants i.e. macrophytes. Based on the findings, phytofiltration (rhizofiltration) is the sole method which defined as heavy metals removal from water by aquatic plants. Due to specific morphology and higher growth rate, free-floating plants were more efficient to uptake heavy metals in comparison with submerged and emergent plants. In this review, the potential of wide range of aquatic plant species with main focus on four well known species (hyper-accumulators): Pistia stratiotes, Eicchornia spp., Lemna spp. and Salvinia spp. was investigated. Moreover, we discussed about the history, methods and future prospects in phytoremediation of heavy metals by aquatic plants comprehensively. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Effects of Altitude/Hypoxia on Single- and Multiple-Sprint Performance: A Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Olivier; Brocherie, Franck; Millet, Grégoire P

    2017-04-27

    Many sport competitions, typically involving the completion of single- (e.g. track-and-field or track cycling events) and multiple-sprint exercises (e.g. team and racquet sports, cycling races), are staged at terrestrial altitudes ranging from 1000 to 2500 m. Our aim was to comprehensively review the current knowledge on the responses to either acute or chronic altitude exposure relevant to single and multiple sprints. Performance of a single sprint is generally not negatively affected by acute exposure to simulated altitude (i.e. normobaric hypoxia) because an enhanced anaerobic energy release compensates for the reduced aerobic adenosine triphosphate production. Conversely, the reduction in air density in terrestrial altitude (i.e. hypobaric hypoxia) leads to an improved sprinting performance when aerodynamic drag is a limiting factor. With the repetition of maximal efforts, however, repeated-sprint ability is more altered (i.e. with earlier and larger performance decrements) at high altitudes (>3000-3600 m or inspired fraction of oxygen 14.4%). Traditionally, altitude training camps involve chronic exposure to low-to-moderate terrestrial altitudes (14.4%) for inducing haematological adaptations. However, beneficial effects on sprint performance after such altitude interventions are still debated. Recently, innovative 'live low-train high' methods, in isolation or in combination with hypoxic residence, have emerged with the belief that up-regulated non-haematological peripheral adaptations may further improve performance of multiple sprints compared with similar normoxic interventions.

  5. The use of miniscrew implants for temporary skeletal anchorage in orthodontics: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Moschos A; Tarawneh, Fadi

    2007-05-01

    Though not a novel therapeutic concept, the use of miniscrew implants to obtain absolute anchorage has recently become very popular in clinical orthodontic approaches. The mode of anchorage facilitated by these implant systems has a unique characteristic owing to their temporary use, which results in a transient, albeit absolute anchorage. The foregoing properties together with the recently achieved simple application of these screws have increased their popularity, establishing them as a necessary treatment option in complex cases that would have otherwise been impossible to treat. The aim of this comprehensive review is to present and discuss the development, clinical use, benefits, and drawbacks of the miniscrew implants used to obtain a temporary but absolute/skeletal anchorage for orthodontic applications. Topics to be discussed include classification, types and properties (e.g., biocompatibility, osseointegration, types of anchorage, screw head, and thread design), clinical applications, site and placement method selection, clinical procedures for implant insertion, and loading and removal processes. Lastly, the potential complications and the advantages and disadvantages accompanying their use are presented.

  6. Toward a comprehensive, theoretical model of compassion fatigue: An integrative literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzee, Siedine K; Laschinger, Heather K S

    2017-11-20

    This study was an integrative literature review in relation to compassion fatigue models, appraising these models, and developing a comprehensive theoretical model of compassion fatigue. A systematic search on PubMed, EbscoHost (Academic Search Premier, E-Journals, Medline, PsycINFO, Health Source Nursing/Academic Edition, CINAHL, MasterFILE Premier and Health Source Consumer Edition), gray literature, and manual searches of included reference lists was conducted in 2016. The studies (n = 11) were analyzed, and the strengths and limitations of the compassion fatigue models identified. We further built on these models through the application of the conservation of resources theory and the social neuroscience of empathy. The compassion fatigue model shows that it is not empathy that puts nurses at risk of developing compassion fatigue, but rather a lack of resources, inadequate positive feedback, and the nurse's response to personal distress. By acting on these three aspects, the risk of developing compassion fatigue can be addressed, which could improve the retention of a compassionate and committed nurse workforce. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. Recent developments in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV): a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, K; Jahn, F; Aapro, M

    2015-06-01

    The prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) has been revolutionized over the past 25 years. Guideline-based treatment means that vomiting can be prevented in the majority, but not in all patients. Therefore, antiemetic research continues with the goal of optimizing CINV control for all patients. This comprehensive review summarizes the research efforts in this field over the past few years. Emerging from this research are two new antiemetic agents, netupitant/palonosetron, the first antiemetic combination agent and rolapitant, a new NK1RA. In addition, studies have evaluated the benefits of olanzapine and ginger, explored optimal combinations of agents for delayed CINV prevention, confirmed that dexamethasone-sparing regimens are effective, and demonstrated the value of NK1RAs in high-dose chemotherapy settings as well as with certain moderately emetogenic chemotherapies such as carboplatin. Research has also validated the correlation between antiemetic guideline adherence and improved CINV control. Finally, regulatory authorities have utilized extreme caution in retiring some 5-HT3RAs or decreasing their maximum dose. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Exosomes in Cancer Development, Metastasis and Drug Resistance: A Comprehensive Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Asfar S.; Bao, Bin; Sarkar, Fazlul H.

    2013-01-01

    Trafficking of biological material across membranes is an evolutionary conserved mechanism and is part of any normal cell homeostasis. Such transport is comprised of active, passive, export through microparticles and vesicular transport (exosomes) that collectively maintain proper compartmentalization of important micro and macromolecules. In pathological states, such as cancer, aberrant activity of export machinery results in expulsion of a number of key proteins and microRNAs resulting in their misexpression. Exosome mediated expulsion of intracellular drugs could be another barrier in the proper action of most of the commonly used therapeutics, targeted agents and their intracellular metabolites. Over the last decade, a number of studies have revealed that exosomes cross-talk and/or influence major tumor related pathways such as hypoxia driven EMT, cancer stemness, angiogenesis and metastasis involving many cell types within the tumor microenvironment. Emerging evidence suggest that exosome secreted proteins can also propel fibroblast growth, resulting in Desmoplastic reaction (DR); a major barrier in effective cancer drug delivery. This comprehensive review highlights the advancements in the understanding of the biology of exosomes secretions and the consequence on cancer drug resistance. We propose that the successful combination of cancer treatments to tackle exosome mediated drug resistance requires an interdisciplinary understanding of these cellular exclusion mechanisms, and how secreted biomolecules are involved in cellular cross-talk within the tumor microenvironment. PMID:23709120

  9. The Socio-Demographic and Psychological Predictors of Residential Energy Consumption: A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisha R. Frederiks

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a comprehensive review of theory and research on the individual-level predictors of household energy usage. Drawing on literature from across the social sciences, we examine two broad categories of variables that have been identified as potentially important for explaining variability in energy consumption and conservation: socio-demographic factors (e.g., income, employment status, dwelling type/size, home ownership, household size, stage of family life cycle and psychological factors (e.g., beliefs and attitudes, motives and intentions, perceived behavioral control, cost-benefit appraisals, personal and social norms. Despite an expanding literature, we find that empirical evidence of the impact of these variables has been far from consistent and conclusive to date. Such inconsistency poses challenges for drawing generalizable conclusions, and underscores the complexity of consumer behavior in this domain. In this article, we propose that a multitude of factors—whether directly, indirectly, or in interaction—influence how householders consume and conserve energy. Theory, research and practice can be greatly advanced by understanding what these factors are, and how, when, where, why and for whom they operate. We conclude by outlining some important practical implications for policymakers and directions for future research.

  10. Review of streptococcal bloodstream infections at a comprehensive cancer care center, 2000-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelburne, Samuel A; Tarrand, Jeffrey; Rolston, Kenneth V

    2013-02-01

    To determine the comparative rates, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of invasive infections due to specific streptococcal types in patients with cancer. Review of electronic medical records of patients with non-viridans group streptococcal bloodstream infection (BSI) at the MD Anderson Cancer Center from 2000 to 2011. 550 streptococcal BSI were identified. The largest number of cases were caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae (251), group B Streptococcus (147), and gamma-hemolytic streptococci (55). Risk factors for developing a severe streptococcal infection included older age, being neutropenic at onset of BSI, and having a respiratory source of infection. Between 2000-2001 and 2010-2011, the rates of S. pneumoniae BSI and penicillin non-susceptibility decreased by 55% and 100%. In contrast the rate of group B streptococcal (GBS) BSI increased 34% over the same time period. GBS accounted for >80% of the recurrent infections following streptococcal BSI. Patients with breast cancer and those with soft-tissue/bone BSI sources were at increased risk for recurrent GBS infection but had lower rates of severe GBS disease. From 2000 to 2011, our comprehensive cancer center observed a significant decrease in the rates of S. pneumoniae BSI and a significant increase in the rates of GBS BSI. Copyright © 2012 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Terpenoids as anti-colon cancer agents - A comprehensive review on its mechanistic perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sharada H; Thulasingam, Senthilkumar; Nagarajan, Sangeetha

    2017-01-15

    Multistep model of colon carcinogenesis has provided the framework to advance our understanding of the molecular basis of colon cancer. This multistage process of carcinogenesis takes a long period to transform from a normal epithelial cell to invasive carcinoma. Thus, it provides enough time to intervene the process of carcinogenesis especially through dietary modification. In spite of the in-depth understanding of the colon cancer etiology and pathophysiology and its association with diet, colon cancer remains a major cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Phytochemicals and their derivatives are gaining attention in cancer prevention and treatment strategies because of cancer chemotherapy associated adverse effects. Being the largest group of phytochemicals traditionally used for medicinal purpose in India and China, terpenoids are recently being explored as anticancer agents. Anticancer properties of terpenoids are associated with various mechanisms like counteraction of oxidative stress, potentiating endogenous antioxidants, improving detoxification potential, disrupting cell survival pathways and inducing apoptosis. This review gives a comprehensive idea of naturally occurring terpenoids as useful agents for the prevention of colon cancer with reference to their classes, sources and molecular targets. Based on the explored molecular targets further research in colon cancer chemoprevention is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Vitamin D and Lung Cancer Risk: A Comprehensive Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqun Zhang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Vitamin D has been suggested to have important roles against cancer development. There were several published studies on the association between vitamin D and lung cancer risk, but not conclusive results were available. Methods: To clarify the role of vitamin D in lung carcinogenesis, we performed a comprehensive review of the literature and a meta-analysis to evaluate the association of serum vitamin D levels and dietary vitamin D intake with lung cancer risk. Twelve studies (9 prospective cohort and 3 nested case-control studies with a total of 288,778 individuals were included. The summary relative risk (RR with 95% confidence interval (CI was used to assess lung cancer risk. Results: Meta-analysis of total 12 studies showed that RR for the association of high vitamin D status with lung cancer was 0.84 (95%CI 0.78-0.90, P Conclusion: Current data suggest an inverse association between serum vitamin D and lung cancer risk. Further studies are needed to investigate the effect of vitamin D intake on lung cancer risk and to evaluate whether vitamin D supplementation can prevent lung cancer.

  13. Comprehensive geriatric assessment for older women with early breast cancer – a systematic review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parks Ruth M

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA is an analytical tool increasingly implemented in clinical practice. Breast cancer is primarily a disease of older people; however, most evidence-based research is aimed at younger patients. Methods A systematic review of literature was carried out to assess the use of CGA in older breast cancer patients for clinical decision making. The PubMed, Embase and Cochrane databases were searched. Results A total of nine useful full text article results were found. Only five of these were exclusively concerned with early breast cancer; thus, studies involving a variety of cancer types, stages and treatments were accepted, as long as they included early breast cancer.The results comprised a series of low sources of evidence. However, all results shared a common theme: the CGA has a use in determining patient suitability for different types of cancer treatment and subsequently maximizing the patient’s quality of life. Conclusions There is not yet sufficient high level evidence to instate CGA guidelines as a mandatory practice in the management of breast cancer, due to the heterogeneity of available studies. More studies need to be conducted to cement current work on the benefits of the CGA. An area of particular interest is with regard to treatment options, especially surgery and chemotherapy, and identifying patients who may be suitable for these treatments.

  14. Advances in consolidated bioprocessing systems for bioethanol and butanol production from biomass: a comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Salehi Jouzani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, lignocellulosic biomass as the most abundant renewable resource has been widely considered for bioalcohols production. However, the complex structure of lignocelluloses requires a multi-step process which is costly and time consuming. Although, several bioprocessing approaches have been developed for pretreatment, saccharification and fermentation, bioalcohols production from lignocelluloses is still limited because of the economic infeasibility of these technologies. This cost constraint could be overcome by designing and constructing robust cellulolytic and bioalcohols producing microbes and by using them in a consolidated bioprocessing (CBP system. This paper comprehensively reviews potentials, recent advances and challenges faced in CBP systems for efficient bioalcohols (ethanol and butanol production from lignocellulosic and starchy biomass. The CBP strategies include using native single strains with cellulytic and alcohol production activities, microbial co-cultures containing both cellulytic and ethanologenic microorganisms, and genetic engineering of cellulytic microorganisms to be alcohol-producing or alcohol producing microorganisms to be cellulytic. Moreover, high-throughput techniques, such as metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, next generation sequencing and synthetic biology developed to explore novel microorganisms and powerful enzymes with high activity, thermostability and pH stability are also discussed. Currently, the CBP technology is in its infant stage, and ideal microorganisms and/or conditions at industrial scale are yet to be introduced. So, it is essential to bring into attention all barriers faced and take advantage of all the experiences gained to achieve a high-yield and low-cost CBP process.

  15. Foeniculum vulgare: A comprehensive review of its traditional use, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzoor A. Rather

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Foeniculum vulgare (Apiaceae commonly known as fennel is a well known and important medicinal and aromatic plant widely used as carminative, digestive, lactogogue and diuretic and in treating respiratory and gastrointestinal disorders. Its seeds are used as flavourings in baked goods, meat and fish dishes, ice cream, alcoholic beverages and herb mixtures. Phenols, phenolic glycosides and volatile aroma compounds such as trans-anethole, estragole and fenchone have been reported as the major phytoconstituents of this species. Different pharmacological experiments in a number of in vitro and in vivo models have convincingly demonstrated the ability of F. vulgare to exhibit antifungal, antibacterial, antioxidant, antithrombotic and hepatoprotective activities, lending support to the rationale behind several of its therapeutic uses. Phenolic compounds isolated from F. vulgare are considered to be responsible for its antioxidant activity while the volatile aroma compounds make it an excellent flavouring agent. The present review is an up-to-date and comprehensive analysis of the chemistry, pharmacology, traditional uses and safety of F. vulgare.

  16. Non-technical skills of anaesthetic assistants in the perioperative period: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, J S; Flin, R; Mitchell, L

    2012-07-01

    Non-technical skills (NTS), which include communication, teamwork, leadership, decision-making, and situation awareness, are important in the maintenance of patient safety. NTS frameworks have been developed for anaesthetists, surgeons, and scrub practitioners. Most studies of NTS in operating theatres to date have focused on anaesthetists and surgeons. We have attempted to identify the NTS used by anaesthetic assistants in the perioperative period. An electronic search of the NHS e-library, PubMed, BioMed Central, ScienceDirect, and Scopus databases was performed in December 2010. The abstracts of the papers identified were checked for relevance and the article examined. Out of 308 papers initially identified, there were only three papers describing the use of NTS by anaesthetic assistants. Communication and situation awareness were described in three papers, teamwork and decision-making in two, and leadership in one. This search did not reveal any comprehensive description of the NTS required by anaesthetic assistants. The benefits of developing an NTS taxonomy for anaesthetic assistants are discussed.

  17. Spent fuel sabotage test program, characterization of aerosol dispersal : technical review and analysis supplement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durbin, Samuel G.; Lindgren, Eric Richard

    2009-07-01

    This project seeks to provide vital data required to assess the consequences of a terrorist attack on a spent fuel transportation cask. One such attack scenario involves the use of conical shaped charges (CSC), which are capable of damaging a spent fuel transportation cask. In the event of such an attack, the amount of radioactivity that may be released as respirable aerosols is not known with great certainty. Research to date has focused on measuring the aerosol release from single short surrogate fuel rodlets subjected to attack by a small CSC device in various aerosol chamber designs. The last series of three experiments tested surrogate fuel rodlets made with depleted uranium oxide ceramic pellets in a specially designed double chamber aerosol containment apparatus. This robust testing apparatus was designed to prevent any radioactive release and allow high level radioactive waste disposal of the entire apparatus following testing of actual spent fuel rodlets as proposed. DOE and Sandia reviews of the project to date identified a number of issues. The purpose of this supplemental report is to address and document the DOE review comments and to resolve the issues identified in the Sandia technical review.

  18. Technical Review of the CENWP Computational Fluid Dynamics Model of the John Day Dam Forebay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Serkowski, John A.; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2010-12-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers Portland District (CENWP) has developed a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the John Day forebay on the Columbia River to aid in the development and design of alternatives to improve juvenile salmon passage at the John Day Project. At the request of CENWP, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Hydrology Group has conducted a technical review of CENWP's CFD model run in CFD solver software, STAR-CD. PNNL has extensive experience developing and applying 3D CFD models run in STAR-CD for Columbia River hydroelectric projects. The John Day forebay model developed by CENWP is adequately configured and validated. The model is ready for use simulating forebay hydraulics for structural and operational alternatives. The approach and method are sound, however CENWP has identified some improvements that need to be made for future models and for modifications to this existing model.

  19. Advanced Fast Reactor - 100 (AFR-100) Report for the Technical Review Panel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandy, Christopher [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sienicki, James J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Moisseytsev, Anton [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Krajtl, Lubomir [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Farmer, Mitchell T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kim, Taek K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Middleton, B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-06-04

    This report is written to provide an overview of the Advanced Fast Reactor-100 in the requested format for a DOE technical review panel. This report was prepared with information that is responsive to the DOE Request for Information, DE-SOL-0003674 Advanced Reactor Concepts, dated February 27, 2012 from DOE’s Office of Nuclear Energy, Office of Nuclear Reactor Technologies. The document consists of two main sections. The first section is a summary of the AFR-100 design including the innovations that are incorporated into the design. The second section contains a series of tables that respond to the various questions requested of the reactor design team from the subject DOE RFI.

  20. Exemplar-based inpainting: technical review and new heuristics for better geometric reconstructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyssens, Pierre; Daisy, Maxime; Tschumperle, David; Lezoray, Olivier

    2015-06-01

    This paper proposes a technical review of exemplar-based inpainting approaches with a particular focus on greedy methods. Several comparative and illustrative experiments are provided to deeply explore and enlighten these methods, and to have a better understanding on the state-of-the-art improvements of these approaches. From this analysis, three improvements over Criminisi et al. algorithm are then presented and detailed: 1) a tensor-based data term for a better selection of pixel candidates to fill in; 2) a fast patch lookup strategy to ensure a better global coherence of the reconstruction; and 3) a novel fast anisotropic spatial blending algorithm that reduces typical block artifacts using tensor models. Relevant comparisons with the state-of-the-art inpainting methods are provided that exhibit the effectiveness of our contributions.

  1. A comprehensive systematic review of pharmacy perspectives on interprofessional education and collaborative practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Awaisi, Alla; Joseph, Sundari; El Hajj, Maguy Saffouh; Diack, Lesley

    2017-11-02

    attitudes towards it. Five main findings have been identified from this review: heterogeneity in reporting IPE research, traditional professional image of the pharmacist, lack of longitudinal follow-up, lack of IPE research on faculty and paucity in mixed method studies in terms of quality and numbers. These findings will provide an opportunity to stakeholders and policy makers to develop and implement IPE activities that are meaningful, comprehensive and unique. Sustained efforts are required not just in undergraduate curricula but also in healthcare settings to improve and promote an interprofessional culture at individual and organisational level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Selective prevention programs for children from substance-affected families: a comprehensive systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bröning Sonja

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Children from substance-affected families show an elevated risk for developing own substance-related or other mental disorders. Therefore, they are an important target group for preventive efforts. So far, such programs for children of substance-involved parents have not been reviewed together. We conducted a comprehensive systematic review to identify and summarize evaluations of selective preventive interventions in childhood and adolescence targeted at this specific group. From the overall search result of 375 articles, 339 were excluded, 36 full texts were reviewed. From these, nine eligible programs documented in 13 studies were identified comprising four school-based interventions (study 1–6, one community-based intervention (study 7–8, and four family-based interventions (study 9–13. Studies’ levels of evidence were rated in accordance with the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN methodology, and their quality was ranked according to a score adapted from the area of meta-analytic family therapy research and consisting of 15 study design quality criteria. Studies varied in program format, structure, content, and participants. They also varied in outcome measures, results, and study design quality. We found seven RCT’s, two well designed controlled or quasi-experimental studies, three well-designed descriptive studies, and one qualitative study. There was preliminary evidence for the effectiveness of the programs, especially when their duration was longer than ten weeks and when they involved children’s, parenting, and family skills training components. Outcomes proximal to the intervention, such as program-related knowledge, coping-skills, and family relations, showed better results than more distal outcomes such as self-worth and substance use initiation, the latter due to the comparably young age of participants and sparse longitudinal data. However, because of the small overall number of studies found

  3. Need for a comprehensive epidemiologic study of spinal cord injury in Poland: findings from a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tederko, P; Krasuski, M; Ptyushkin, P; Selb, M; Pawlak, K; Skrzypczyk, R; Escorpizo, R

    2013-11-01

    Systematic literature review To review and assess the quality of available epidemiologic data of spinal cord injury (SCI) in Poland in the context of general International Classification of Functioning (ICF) domains and to answer the question whether there is a need for a comprehensive epidemiologic study of SCI in Poland. Databases Medline, Embase and Polish Medical Bibliography were searched using keywords 'spinal cord injury', 'paraplegia', 'tetraplegia' and 'Poland'. studies on humans, original papers, publication in 1979 or later. Case reports and studies with unclear inclusion criteria or performed on a population other than Polish were excluded. Full texts were reviewed for data on incidence, prevalence, etiology, mortality, natural history and outcome of comprehensive treatment. Quality of studies was assessed according to the modified Downs and Black criteria. The ICF model was applied to group the studies according to the ICF components. Out of 536 identified papers, 224 articles were extracted and reviewed. Mean quality score was 11.04 points based on a 28-grade scale. Body functions and structures were assessed in 81.6%, activities in 22.4%, participation in 14.8%, environmental factors in 15.2% and personal factors in 47% of the studies reviewed. Current epidemiologic data on SCI in Poland are insufficient and biased toward biomedical aspects. There is a need to develop a long-term research strategy for SCI in Poland in the form of a comprehensive cohort study.

  4. Positive Medication Changes Resulting from Comprehensive and Noncomprehensive Medication Reviews in a Medicare Part D Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhl, Allison; Augustine, Jill; Taylor, Ann M; Martin, Rose; Warholak, Terri L

    2017-03-01

    Health care organizations face the challenge of reducing costs while improving health outcomes. Currently, more than 39 million seniors are enrolled in a Medicare Part D prescription benefit plan, many of whom also qualify for medication therapy management (MTM) services. MTM programs provide valuable services designed to prevent or resolve medication-related problems (MRPs). Two core components of all MTM programs include comprehensive medication reviews (CMRs) with followup interventions and focused non-CMR interventions. Currently, there is limited research comparing the rate of MRPs resolved by CMR and non-CMR interventions. To determine whether CMRs versus non-CMR interventions resulted in more pharmacist-initiated intervention recommendations and positive medication changes. This retrospective, cross-sectional quality improvement project evaluated outcomes for individuals who received interventions following a CMR compared with those who received non-CMR interventions as part of a comprehensive MTM program. For this project, eligible individuals qualified for an MTM program. A positive medication change was defined as the addition of an appropriate medication or the removal of an inappropriate medication within 120 days of a pharmacist recommendation. Differences between the groups were calculated using the Wilcoxon rank sum test. During the 2-year period (2012 and 2013), 788,756 beneficiaries were enrolled in the MTM program and evaluated for potential MRPs. In both years, pharmacists recommended more medication changes per member for those receiving a CMR (0.81 in 2012 and 0.82 in 2013) compared with the non-CMR group (0.68 in 2012 and 0.61 in 2013; P value MTM program who received non-CMR interventions had a higher likelihood of having positive medication changes than those receiving CMRs. These results are enlightening and may provide initial evidence to support inclusion of a non-CMR performance metric for the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Service

  5. Morinda officinalis How. - A comprehensive review of traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-Hua; Xin, Hai-Liang; Xu, Yue-Ming; Shen, Yi; He, Yu-Qiong; Hsien-Yeh; Lin, Bing; Song, Hong-Tao; Juan-Liu; Yang, Hai-Yue; Qin, Lu-Ping; Zhang, Qiao-Yan; Du, Juan

    2018-03-01

    The medicinal plant Morinda officinalisHow. (MO) and its root have long been used in traditional medicines in China and northeast Asia as tonics for nourishing the kidney, strengthening the bone and enhancing immunofunction in the treatment of impotence, osteoporosis, depression and inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and dermatitis. This review aims to sum up updated and comprehensive information about traditional usage, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of MO and provide insights into potential opportunities for future research and development of this plant. A bibliographic investigation was performed by analyzing the information available on MO in the internationally accepted scientific databases including Pubmed, Scopus and Web of Science, SciFinder, Google Scholar, Yahoo, Ph.D. and M.Sc. dissertations in Chinese. Information was also obtained from some local and foreign books on ethnobotany and ethnomedicines. The literature supported the ethnomedicinal uses of MO as recorded in China for various purposes. The ethnomedical uses of MO have been recorded in many regions of China. More than 100 chemical compounds have been isolated from this plant, and the major constituents have been found to be polysaccharides, oligosaccharides, anthraquinones and iridoid glycosides. Crude extracts and pure compounds of this plant are used as effective agents in the treatment of depression, osteoporosis, fatigue, rheumatoid arthritis, and infertility due to their anti-depressant, anti-osteoporosis, pro-fertility, anti-radiation, anti-Alzheimer disease, anti-rheumatoid, anti-fatigue, anti-aging, cardiovascularprotective, anti-oxidation, immune-regulatory, and anti-inflammatory activities. Pharmacokinetic studies have demonstrated that the main components of MO including monotropein and deacetyl asperulosidic acid are distributed in various organs and tissues. The investigation on acute toxicity and genotoxicity indicated that MO is nontoxic. There have

  6. Neurofeedback: A Comprehensive Review on System Design, Methodology and Clinical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzbani, Hengameh; Marateb, Hamid Reza; Mansourian, Marjan

    2016-01-01

    Neurofeedback is a kind of biofeedback, which teaches self-control of brain functions to subjects by measuring brain waves and providing a feedback signal. Neurofeedback usually provides the audio and or video feedback. Positive or negative feedback is produced for desirable or undesirable brain activities, respectively. In this review, we provided clinical and technical information about the following issues: (1) Various neurofeedback treatment protocols i.e. alpha, beta, alpha/theta, delta, gamma, and theta; (2) Different EEG electrode placements i.e. standard recording channels in the frontal, temporal, central, and occipital lobes; (3) Electrode montages (unipolar, bipolar); (4) Types of neurofeedback i.e. frequency, power, slow cortical potential, functional magnetic resonance imaging, and so on; (5) Clinical applications of neurofeedback i.e. treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, anxiety, depression, epilepsy, insomnia, drug addiction, schizophrenia, learning disabilities, dyslexia and dyscalculia, autistic spectrum disorders and so on as well as other applications such as pain management, and the improvement of musical and athletic performance; and (6) Neurofeedback softwares. To date, many studies have been conducted on the neurofeedback therapy and its effectiveness on the treatment of many diseases. Neurofeedback, like other treatments, has its own pros and cons. Although it is a non-invasive procedure, its validity has been questioned in terms of conclusive scientific evidence. For example, it is expensive, time-consuming and its benefits are not long-lasting. Also, it might take months to show the desired improvements. Nevertheless, neurofeedback is known as a complementary and alternative treatment of many brain dysfunctions. However, current research does not support conclusive results about its efficacy. PMID:27303609

  7. Methodological Note: Neurofeedback: A Comprehensive Review on System Design, Methodology and Clinical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hengameh Marzbani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Neurofeedback is a kind of biofeedback, which teaches self-control of brain functions to subjects by measuring brain waves and providing a feedback signal. Neurofeedback usually provides the audio and or video feedback. Positive or negative feedback is produced for desirable or undesirable brain activities, respectively. In this review, we provided clinical and technical information about the following issues: (1 Various neurofeedback treatment protocols i.e. alpha, beta, alpha/theta, delta, gamma, and theta; (2 Different EEG electrode placements i.e. standard recording channels in the frontal, temporal, central, and occipital lobes; (3 Electrode montages (unipolar, bipolar; (4 Types of neurofeedback i.e. frequency, power, slow cortical potential, functional magnetic resonance imaging, and so on; (5 Clinical applications of neurofeedback i.e. treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, anxiety, depression, epilepsy, insomnia, drug addiction, schizophrenia, learning disabilities, dyslexia and dyscalculia, autistic spectrum disorders and so on as well as other applications such as pain management, and the improvement of musical and athletic performance; and (6 Neurofeedback softwares. To date, many studies have been conducted on the neurofeedback therapy and its effectiveness on the treatment ofmany diseases. Neurofeedback, like other treatments, has its own pros and cons. Although it  is a non-invasive procedure, its validity has been questioned in terms of conclusive scientific evidence. For example, it is expensive, time-consuming and its benefits are not long-lasting. Also, it might take months to show the desired improvements. Nevertheless, neurofeedback is known as a complementary and alternative treatment of many brain dysfunctions. However, current research does not support conclusive results about its efficacy.

  8. Technical cooperation on nuclear security between the United States and China : review of the past and opportunities for the future.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pregenzer, Arian Leigh

    2011-12-01

    The United States and China are committed to cooperation to address the challenges of the next century. Technical cooperation, building on a long tradition of technical exchange between the two countries, can play an important role. This paper focuses on technical cooperation between the United States and China in the areas of nonproliferation, arms control and other nuclear security topics. It reviews cooperation during the 1990s on nonproliferation and arms control under the U.S.-China Arms Control Exchange, discusses examples of ongoing activities under the Peaceful Uses of Technology Agreement to enhance security of nuclear and radiological material, and suggests opportunities for expanding technical cooperation between the defense nuclear laboratories of both countries to address a broader range of nuclear security topics.

  9. A Meta-Analytic Review of the Effect of Adjunct Pictures on Reading Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Readence, John E.; Moore, David W.

    1981-01-01

    Overall findings of this meta-analysis reveal small effects of adjunct pictures on reading comprehension. No advantage was found when traditional v nontraditional text settings were compared. Line drawings seem to facilitate comprehension and color pictures seem to have a greater effect than black and white pictures. (Author)

  10. A comprehensive review of visual air quality at the Grand Canyon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, S F; Molenar, J V; Dietrich, D L

    1989-04-01

    The Grand Canyon, located in Northern Arizona, is one of the seven natural wonders of the world, and has been set aside as a National Park to preserve its unique character. Several million visitors from all over the world travel to the Grand Canyon each year to witness its awesome beauty, As a natural preserve, the area protects numerous values such as genetic diversity, solitude, non-mechanized recreation, etc, but the majority of visitors travel to the Grand Canyon for one reason: to view the scenery.There have been reports in the general press (and even in the United States Congressional Hearings) that visual conditions at the Grand Canyon have been seriously degraded by air pollution. Over the past nine years, a vast array of visibility-related research and monitoring has been conducted to determine the extent and probable cause of this visible degradation. Studies have included optical measurements, pollution characterization, source-receptor relationship analysis, and human perception of visual air quality. The resulting data document the visual air quality of the Grand Canyon and provide a basis to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate significant events and trends.This poster comprehensively assembles, updates, analyzes and summarizes these various studies to report what has happened to air clarity at the Grand Canyon. The authors examine: - the extent and variation of optical conditions through an examination of reported standard visual range data and a qualitative review of standard photographic monitoring record; - the scientific basis and measurement techniques used to quantify optical conditions; - the probable causes of visual degradation by analyzing the chemical properties of collected aerosols, and through investigation of air mass trajectories; - how visitors to the Grand Canyon perceive and value visual air quality; - the implications study results have for control of air pollutants outside protected natural areas. By examining the situation

  11. Heat waves and morbidity: current knowledge and further direction-a comprehensive literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengmeng; Gu, Shaohua; Bi, Peng; Yang, Jun; Liu, Qiyong

    2015-05-18

    In the past few decades, several devastating heat wave events have significantly challenged public health. As these events are projected to increase in both severity and frequency in the future, it is important to assess the relationship between heat waves and the health indicators that can be used in the early warning systems to guide the public health response. Yet there is a knowledge gap in the impact of heat waves on morbidity. In this study, a comprehensive review was conducted to assess the relationship between heat waves and different morbidity indicators, and to identify the vulnerable populations. The PubMed and ScienceDirect database were used to retrieve published literature in English from 1985 to 2014 on the relationship between heat waves and morbidity, and the following MeSH terms and keywords were used: heat wave, heat wave, morbidity, hospital admission, hospitalization, emergency call, emergency medical services, and outpatient visit. Thirty-three studies were included in the final analysis. Most studies found a short-term negative health impact of heat waves on morbidity. The elderly, children, and males were more vulnerable during heat waves, and the medical care demand increased for those with existing chronic diseases. Some social factors, such as lower socioeconomic status, can contribute to heat-susceptibility. In terms of study methods and heat wave definitions, there remain inconsistencies and uncertainties. Relevant policies and guidelines need to be developed to protect vulnerable populations. Morbidity indicators should be adopted in heat wave early warning systems in order to guide the effective implementation of public health actions.

  12. Atmospheric HULIS: How humic-like are they? A comprehensive and critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. R. Graber

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A class of organic molecules extracted from atmospheric aerosol particles and isolated from fog and cloud water has been termed HUmic-LIke Substances (HULIS due to a certain resemblance to terrestrial and aquatic humic and fulvic acids. In light of the interest that this class of atmospheric compounds currently attracts, we comprehensively review HULIS properties, as well as laboratory and field investigations concerning their formation and characterization in atmospheric samples. While sharing some important features such as polyacidic nature, accumulating evidence suggests that atmospheric HULIS differ substantially from terrestrial and aquatic humic substances. Major differences between HULIS and humic substances, including smaller average molecular weight, lower aromatic moiety content, greater surface activity, better droplet activation ability, as well as others, are highlighted. Several alternatives are proposed that may explain such differences: (1 the possibility that mono- and di-carboxylic acids and mineral acids abundant in the atmosphere prevent the formation of large humic 'supramolecular associations'; (2 that large humic macromolecules are destroyed in the atmosphere by UV radiation, O3, and OH- radicals; (3 that 'HULIS' actually consists of a complex, unresolved mixture of relatively small molecules rather than macromolecular entities; and (4 that HULIS formed via abiotic and short-lived oxidative reaction pathways differ substantially from humic substances formed over long time periods via biologically-mediated reactions. It should also be recalled that the vast majority of studies of HULIS relate to the water soluble fraction, which would include only the fulvic acid fraction of humic substances, and exclude the humic acid (base-soluble and humin (insoluble fractions of humic substances. A significant effort towards adopting standard extraction and characterization methods is required to develop a better and meaningful

  13. Breast Cancer Survivorship: A Comprehensive Review of Long-Term Medical Issues and Lifestyle Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodai, Balazs I; Tuso, Phillip

    2015-01-01

    Long-term survival rates after a diagnosis of breast cancer are steadily rising. This is good news, but clinicians must also recognize that this brings new challenges to the medical community. As breast cancer becomes a chronic condition rather than a life-threatening illness owing to advances in early diagnosis and more effective treatments, health care practitioners must recognize and manage the long-term sequelae of the constellation of therapeutic modalities. Survivors of breast cancer represent a unique and extremely complex group of patients; not only do they have the challenge of dealing with multiple long-term side effects of treatment protocols, but many are also forced to address the preexisting comorbidities of their therapies, which often include multiple other issues. Therapies have additional and/or additive side effects that may interfere with treatments directed toward the new primary diagnosis of breast cancer. Our mandate is to establish a smooth transition from patient with breast cancer to survivor of breast cancer while providing ongoing and future guidance. Certainly, the information and resources to accomplish this transition are readily available; however, they are scattered throughout the literature and therefore are not easily accessible or available to the primary care physician. It is imperative that the information available regarding survivorship issues be accessible in an organized and useful format. This article is a modest attempt to provide a comprehensive review of the long-term medical issues relevant to survivorship after the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. A predicted shortage of oncologists by 2020 is well-recognized. Therefore, the bulk of long-term care will become dependent on the primary care physician. This shift of care means that these physicians will need to be well educated in the long-term medical issues related to breast cancer treatment. PMID:25902343

  14. A comprehensive comparative review of sequence-based predictors of DNA- and RNA-binding residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jing; Friedrich, Stefanie; Kurgan, Lukasz

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the pressing need to characterize protein-DNA and protein-RNA interactions on large scale, we review a comprehensive set of 30 computational methods for high-throughput prediction of RNA- or DNA-binding residues from protein sequences. We summarize these predictors from several significant perspectives including their design, outputs and availability. We perform empirical assessment of methods that offer web servers using a new benchmark data set characterized by a more complete annotation that includes binding residues transferred from the same or similar proteins. We show that predictors of DNA-binding (RNA-binding) residues offer relatively strong predictive performance but they are unable to properly separate DNA- from RNA-binding residues. We design and empirically assess several types of consensuses and demonstrate that machine learning (ML)-based approaches provide improved predictive performance when compared with the individual predictors of DNA-binding residues or RNA-binding residues. We also formulate and execute first-of-its-kind study that targets combined prediction of DNA- and RNA-binding residues. We design and test three types of consensuses for this prediction and conclude that this novel approach that relies on ML design provides better predictive quality than individual predictors when tested on prediction of DNA- and RNA-binding residues individually. It also substantially improves discrimination between these two types of nucleic acids. Our results suggest that development of a new generation of predictors would benefit from using training data sets that combine both RNA- and DNA-binding proteins, designing new inputs that specifically target either DNA- or RNA-binding residues and pursuing combined prediction of DNA- and RNA-binding residues. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Comprehensive Review of the Impact of Dairy Foods and Dairy Fat on Cardiometabolic Risk123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouin-Chartier, Jean-Philippe; Côté, Julie Anne; Labonté, Marie-Ève; Brassard, Didier; Tessier-Grenier, Maude; Desroches, Sophie; Couture, Patrick; Lamarche, Benoît

    2016-01-01

    Because regular-fat dairy products are a major source of cholesterol-raising saturated fatty acids (SFAs), current US and Canadian dietary guidelines for cardiovascular health recommend the consumption of low-fat dairy products. Yet, numerous randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have reported rather mixed effects of reduced- and regular-fat dairy consumption on blood lipid concentrations and on many other cardiometabolic disease risk factors, such as blood pressure and inflammation markers. Thus, the focus on low-fat dairy in current dietary guidelines is being challenged, creating confusion within health professional circles and the public. This narrative review provides perspective on the research pertaining to the impact of dairy consumption and dairy fat on traditional and emerging cardiometabolic disease risk factors. This comprehensive assessment of evidence from RCTs suggests that there is no apparent risk of potential harmful effects of dairy consumption, irrespective of the content of dairy fat, on a large array of cardiometabolic variables, including lipid-related risk factors, blood pressure, inflammation, insulin resistance, and vascular function. This suggests that the purported detrimental effects of SFAs on cardiometabolic health may in fact be nullified when they are consumed as part of complex food matrices such as those in cheese and other dairy foods. Thus, the focus on low-fat dairy products in current guidelines apparently is not entirely supported by the existing literature and may need to be revisited on the basis of this evidence. Future studies addressing key research gaps in this area will be extremely informative to better appreciate the impact of dairy food matrices, as well as dairy fat specifically, on cardiometabolic health. PMID:28140322

  16. The cultural-bound disease "empacho" in Argentina. A comprehensive botanico-historical and ethnopharmacological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Navarro, R; Scarpa, G F

    2013-07-09

    Empacho is one of the most recognized cultural-bound syndromes in Argentina. It is a digestive disorder with many causes, being excessive food intake the most frequent. It is easily diagnosed in household medicine and there are different treatments applied for releasing the obstruction of the gastrointestinal tract. Therapeutics includes the use of medicinal plants and abdominal maneuvers, as well as rituals of magical and/or religious nature. The aim of this work is to analyze the compiled literature, considering documents from the XVIIIth century up to present, related to the employed plant species for the treatment of empacho. The bibliographic and journal collections of several Argentinean and foreign libraries and bookstores were consulted, in addition to the comprehensive review of the specific information found online. Ninety (90) primary sources, spanning three hundred years (from 1710 to 2010) were found; most of them included ethnobotanical studies besides others of medical botany, pharmacobotanical and anthropological origin. A total of 152 plant species used to treat empacho were found in 360 total quotations, being Dysphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin and Clemants; Alternanthera pungens Kunth; Ruta chalepensis L.; Clinopodium gilliesii (Benth.) Kuntze; Aloysia polystachya (Griseb.) Moldenke; Lippia turbinata Griseb., and Pluchea sagittalis (Lam.) Cabrera, the most frequently mentioned. The main therapeutic properties of the medicinal plants cited against empacho are stomachic, purgative, antispasmodic, bitter-tonic, carminative, and cholagogue-choleretic. The variety of regions - spanning most of the country - from which the information comes, as well as the great variety of therapeutic strategies used, diversity of plant species and knowledge related to the treatment of empacho, is directly associated with the great significance that this disorder has within the system of medical-nosologic representations of the Argentinean popular medicine. Copyright

  17. Critical Review of Rasaratna Samuccaya: A Comprehensive Treatise of Indian Alchemy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhirajsingh Rajput Sumersingh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rasaratna Samuccaya (RRS a 13th century C.E. alchemical treatise, authored by Vāgbhaṭa, is a useful compilation related to preparation and properties of drugs of mineral and metallic origin. This text throws light on the state of Indian expertise in the field of alchemy regarding the extraction, purification, conversion of metals/minerals into therapeutically suitable forms, various instruments developed for alchemical purposes and treatment of numerous diseases by using herbo-mineral preparations. The present work is an attempt to summarize the key features of RRS to highlight its utility and contribution in the development of Indian alchemy. To study and summarize the important, comprehensive and specific points mentioned in RRS and to elaborate the contribution of RRS in the field of Indian alchemy. A critical review of RRS from Suratnojjvalā Hindi commentary by Ambikadatta Shastri was done and the collected information was compared with other available literature of Rasaśāstra. Research of modern science was also utilized to explore some facts mentioned by Vāgbhaṭa. RRS is a precise treatise among available ancient literature. It comprises of all eight branches of Ayurveda, although it mainly deals with therapeutic aspects of Rasaśāstra and emphasizes the use of metals and minerals in treating nearly 68 types of ailments. It contains 30 chapters, 3871 verses and detailed description of 960 formulations. Classification of metals and minerals; description of some new instruments, formulations and averting use of metals and minerals in pregnancy are the key features of RRS.

  18. Management of disruptive behaviour within nursing work environments: a comprehensive systematic review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers-Clark, Catherine; Pearce, Susanne; Cameron, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    methods as well as opinion based papers were considered for this systematic review.Types of outcomes - Outcomes were assessed in relation to the effect of interventions on patient safety and quality of care, quality of team work and work environment, levels of job satisfaction and nursing staff morale as well as levels of staff retention. Searches were conducted including any published and unpublished material, including grey literature, in the English language. A search of CINAHL, Medline, Medline-in Process, PsychINFO, Emerald and TRIP was undertaken using specifically defined terms and synonyms. Scirus, OpenSIGLE and Google Scholar were also searched. A search of electronic dissertations via Dissertation Abstracts was undertaken. Each paper was assessed by two independent reviewers for methodological quality prior to inclusion in the review using an appropriate critical appraisal instrument from the System for the Unified Management, Assessment and Review of Information' (SUMARI) developed by JBI. Data was identified as quantitative or qualitative data or opinion based and data extraction tools developed by the Joanna Briggs Institute were used to extract the data, where possible. Where this was not possible, findings were presented in narrative form. Data were synthesised according to their methodological approach. Qualitative data were pooled using the QARI instrument and a set of statements were developed that represented a broader overview of a specific aggregation RESULTS: A total of 24 papers, descriptive quantitative, qualitative and textual in approach, were included in the review. The majority of the papers were textual, with a variety of expert opinion provided in relation to managing disruptive clinician behaviour. Comprehensive review of the literature identified that there has been very little research evaluating the effectiveness of interventions to manage disruptive clinician behaviour in nursing, or more broadly within the health care system. A handful

  19. Epidemiology, management, complications and costs associated with type 2 diabetes in Brazil: a comprehensive literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background With an estimated 74% of all deaths attributable to non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in 2010, NCDs have become a major health priority in Brazil. The objective of the study was to conduct a comprehensive literature review on diabetes in Brazil; specifically: the epidemiology of type 2 diabetes, the availability of national and regional sources of data (particularly in terms of direct and indirect costs) and health policies for the management of diabetes and its complications. Methods A literature search was conducted using PubMed to identify articles containing information on diabetes in Brazil. Official documents from the Brazilian government and the World Health Organization, as well as other grey literature and official government websites were also reviewed. Results From 2006 to 2010, an approximate 20% increase in the prevalence of self-reported diabetes was observed. In 2010, it was estimated that 6.3% of Brazilians aged 18 years or over had diabetes. Diabetes was estimated to be responsible for 278,778 years of potential life lost for every 100,000 people. In 2013, it is estimated that about 7% of patients with diabetes has had one or more of the following complications: diabetic foot ulcers, amputation, kidney disease, and fundus changes. The estimated annual direct cost of diabetes was USD $3.952 billion in 2000; the estimated annual indirect cost was USD $18.6 billion. The two main sources of data on diabetes are the information systems of the Ministry of Health and surveys. In the last few years, the Brazilian Ministry of Health has invested considerably in improving surveillance systems for NCDs as well as implementing specific programmes to improve diagnosis and access to treatment. Conclusions Brazil has the capacity to address and respond to NCDs due to the leadership of the Ministry of Health in NCD prevention activities, including an integrated programme currently in place for diabetes. Strengthening the surveillance of NCDs is a

  20. Prioritization of patients for comprehensive medication review by a clinical pharmacist in family medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vande Griend, Joseph P; Saseen, Joseph J; Bislip, Debra; Emsermann, Caroline; Conry, Colleen; Pace, Wilson D

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study describes and evaluates the clinical pharmacy priority (CP2) score. We hypothesize that patients with high CP2 scores are more likely to receive a medication recommendation after comprehensive medication review (CMR) than patients with lower scores. Prioritization of patients for CMR by a clinical pharmacist in family medicine could enhance the provision of interprofessional care within the patient-centered medical home. The CP2 score was developed collaboratively by the research team and is derived from 11 patient-specific factors extracted from the electronic health record. To evaluate the utility of the score, CMR was performed prospectively by a clinical pharmacist for patients with appointments between October 1 and December 31, 2012, at 2 University of Colorado family medicine clinics. CMR was performed for 1107 patient appointments. Of these, 101 were identified as having received a medication recommendation from the clinical pharmacist. For patients with a CP2 score of 0 to 2, 2 of 588 charts (0.3%) reviewed received a recommendation (level 1). The proportion increased to 37 of 358 (10.3%) for scores of 3 to 7 (level 2), 40 of 119 (33.6%) for scores of 8 to 10 (level 3), and 22 of 42 (52.4%) for scores of ≥11 (level 4). Compared with CP2 scores in level 1, patient appointments were more likely to receive a medication recommendation after CMR in level 2 (relative risk [RR], 30.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 7.4-125.3), in level 3 (RR, 98.8; 95% CI, 24.2-403.3), and in level 4 (RR, 154; 95% CI, 37.5-632.8). Patients with higher CP2 scores were more likely to receive a medication recommendation after CMR by a clinical pharmacist than patients with lower scores. The CP2 score could be used by clinical pharmacists in family medicine to enhance the efficient and effective delivery of interprofessional care. © Copyright 2015 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  1. Home hemodialysis: a comprehensive review of patient-centered and economic considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker RC

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Rachael C Walker,1,2 Kirsten Howard,1 Rachael L Morton3 1School of Public Health, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia; 2Hawke’s Bay District Health Board, Hastings, New Zealand; 3NHMRC Clinical Trials Centre, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia Abstract: Internationally, the number of patients requiring treatment for end-stage kidney disease (ESKD continues to increase, placing substantial burden on health systems and patients. Home hemodialysis (HD has fluctuated in its popularity, and the rates of home HD vary considerably between and within countries although there is evidence suggesting a number of clinical, survival, economic, and quality of life (QoL advantages associated with this treatment. International guidelines encourage shared decision making between patients and clinicians for the type of dialysis, with an emphasis on a treatment that aligned to the patients’ lifestyle. This is a comprehensive literature review of patient-centered and economic impacts of home HD with the studies published between January 2000 and July 2016. Data from the primary studies representing both efficiency and equity of home HD were presented as a narrative synthesis under the following topics: advantages to patients, barriers to patients, economic factors influencing patients, cost-effectiveness of home HD, and inequities in home HD delivery. There were a number of advantages for patients on home HD including improved survival and QoL and flexibility and potential for employment, compared to hospital HD. Similarly, there were several barriers to patients preferring or maintaining home HD, and the strategies to overcome these barriers were frequently reported. Good evidence reported that indigenous, low-income, and other socially disadvantaged individuals had reduced access to home HD compared to other forms of dialysis and that this situation compounds already-poor health outcomes on renal

  2. 75 FR 64120 - Technical Amendments to Forms N-CSR and N-SAR in Connection With the Comprehensive Iran Sanctions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... COMMISSION 17 CFR Parts 249 and 274 Technical Amendments to Forms N-CSR and N-SAR in Connection With the... adopting technical amendments to Forms N-CSR and N-SAR under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and the... Securities and Exchange Commission (``Commission'') is adopting technical amendments to Form N-CSR \\1\\ and...

  3. The Experience and Effectiveness of Nurse Practitioners in Orthopaedic Settings: A Comprehensive Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Anita; Staruchowicz, Lynda

    2012-01-01

    identified a published systematic review protocol in the JBI Library for a qualitative systematic review by Ramis looking broadly at the experience of advanced practice nurses working in acute settings. The JBI Library of Systematic Reviews also contains a systematic review examining the effectiveness of nurse practitioners in residential aged care. Whilst these publications provide valuable context to this review neither specifically examines the clinical practice of orthopaedic nurse practitioners.Similarly a search of the Cochrane Library revealed a review on the topic of substitution of doctors by nurses in primary care. The focus of this particular intervention review was neither specific to nurse practitioners nor the acute care setting, but the topic of 'doctor substitution' complements the practice of nurse practitioners and may be a consideration in this review. Doctor substitution or care provided by a nurse other than an orthopaedic nurse practitioner is a natural comparator when examining the role and practice of orthopaedic nurse practitioners.Given the breadth of this topic a comprehensive approach has been chosen to systematically review the evidence as it relates to orthopaedic nurse practitioner role and practice.

  4. 48 CFR 801.602-80 - Legal and technical review-Office of Construction and Facilities Management and National Cemetery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-Office of Construction and Facilities Management and National Cemetery Administration. 801.602-80 Section... Responsibilities 801.602-80 Legal and technical review-Office of Construction and Facilities Management and National Cemetery Administration. An Office of Construction and Facilities Management or National Cemetery...

  5. 1?10 kW Stationary Combined Heat and Power Systems Status and Technical Potential: Independent Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maru, H. C.; Singhal, S. C.; Stone, C.; Wheeler, D.

    2010-11-01

    This independent review examines the status and technical potential of 1-10 kW stationary combined heat and power fuel cell systems and analyzes the achievability of the DOE cost, efficiency, and durability targets for 2012, 2015, and 2020.

  6. Constructing a Validity Argument for the Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS): A Systematic Review of Validity Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatala, Rose; Cook, David A.; Brydges, Ryan; Hawkins, Richard

    2015-01-01

    In order to construct and evaluate the validity argument for the Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS), based on Kane's framework, we conducted a systematic review. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ERIC, Web of Science, Scopus, and selected reference lists through February 2013. Working in duplicate, we selected…

  7. 48 CFR 801.602-78 - Processing solicitations and contract documents for legal or technical review-Veterans Health...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., and the Denver Acquisition and Logistics Center. 801.602-78 Section 801.602-78 Federal Acquisition... Acquisition Center, and the Denver Acquisition and Logistics Center. (a) If legal or technical review is... clauses, and proposed utility connection agreements specified in 801.602-75(a)(3) through (a)(7) and in...

  8. Non-technical skills training to enhance patient safety: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Morris; Darbyshire, Daniel; Baker, Paul

    2012-11-01

    Many quality improvement education programmes have been introduced over the last decade with the purpose of enhancing patient safety. The importance of non-technical skills training is becoming increasingly prominent, but the extent to which educational interventions have been used and the theoretical underpinnings of such interventions remain unclear. These issues were investigated through a systematic review of the literature. Any studies involving an educational intervention to improve non-technical skills amongst undergraduate or postgraduate staff in an acute health care environment were considered. A standardised search of online databases was carried out independently by two authors and consensus reached on the inclusion of studies. Data extraction and multimodal quality assessment were completed independently, followed by a content analysis of interventions and the extraction of key themes. A total of 22 studies met the inclusion criteria. Measured outcomes were variable, as was the strength of conclusions. Theoretical underpinning of interventions was not described in any studies. Content analysis revealed reasonable consistency with the emergence of five key themes: error; communication; teamwork and leadership; systems, and situational awareness. Teaching was often multidisciplinary and methods used included simulation and role-play exercises, and observation. The methodological quality of published studies is reasonable, although the reporting of specific interventions is poor. Although a recognised model to support the design of patient safety education is lacking, a number of theories have been applied to guide educators in future instructional design. Further published work should clearly describe interventions and their theoretical underpinnings, and should aim to further explore which specific aspects of interventions are effective and why. Such research should also try to assess whether such interventions can impact patient outcomes. © Blackwell

  9. SUPPLEMENTAL COLUMBIA RIVER PROTECTION ACTIVITIES AT THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY HANFORD SITE 2008 TECHNICAL REVIEW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney, B; Dawn S. Kaback, D; Eugene L. LeBoeuf, E; Joe Rossabi, J; Karen L. Skubal, K; David L. Cocke, D; Paul C. Deutsch, P

    2008-09-30

    Beginning in 2006, the US Department of Energy (DOE) supported nine applied research projects to improve the protection of the Columbia River and mitigate the impacts of Hanford Site groundwater. These projects were funded through a supplemental Congressional budget allocation, and are now in various stages of completion in accordance with the research plans. The DOE Office of Environmental Management Groundwater and Soil Cleanup Technologies (EM-22) sponsored a technical peer review meeting for these projects in Richland WA, July 28-31, 2008. The overall objective of the peer review is to provide information to support DOE decisions about the status and potential future application of the various technologies. The charge for the peer review panel was to develop recommendations for each of the nine 'technologies'. Team members for the July 2008 review were Brian Looney, Gene LeBoeuf, Dawn Kaback, Karen Skubal, Joe Rossabi, Paul Deutsch, and David Cocke. Previous project reviews were held in May 2007 and March-May of 2006. The team used the following four rating categories for projects: (a) Incorporate the technology/strategy in ongoing and future EM activities; (b) Finish existing scope of applied research and determine potential for EM activities when research program is finished; (c) Discontinue current development activities and do not incorporate technology/strategy into ongoing and future EM activities unless a significant and compelling change in potential viability is documented; and (d) Supplement original funded work to obtain the data needed to support a DOE decision to incorporate the technology into ongoing and future EM activities. The supplemental funding portfolio included two projects that addressed strontium, five projects that addressed chromium, one project that addressed uranium and one project that addressed carbon tetrachloride. The projects ranged from in situ treatment methods for immobilizing contaminants using chemical

  10. Effects of Cereal, Fruit and Vegetable Fibers on Human Fecal Weight and Transit Time: A Comprehensive Review of Intervention Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Jan; Birkett, Anne; Hulshof, Toine; Verbeke, Kristin; Gibes, Kernon

    2016-03-02

    Cereal fibers are known to increase fecal weight and speed transit time, but far less data are available on the effects of fruits and vegetable fibers on regularity. This study provides a comprehensive review of the impact of these three fiber sources on regularity in healthy humans. We identified English-language intervention studies on dietary fibers and regularity and performed weighted linear regression analyses for fecal weight and transit time. Cereal and vegetable fiber groups had comparable effects on fecal weight; both contributed to it more than fruit fibers. Less fermentable fibers increased fecal weight to a greater degree than more fermentable fibers. Dietary fiber did not change transit time in those with an initial time of vegetable fibers, regardless of fermentability. Cereal fibers have been studied more than any other kind in relation to regularity. This is the first comprehensive review comparing the effects of the three major food sources of fiber on bowel function and regularity since 1993.

  11. Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge: Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan, Wilderness Review, and Environmental Impact Statement

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) describes three alternatives for managing Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge and identifies the possible...

  12. 76 FR 24065 - Board Workshop: June 6-7, 2011-Arlington, Virginia; the U.S. Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD Board Workshop: June 6-7, 2011--Arlington, Virginia; the U.S. Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board Will Hold a Workshop on Methods for Evaluating Nuclear Waste Streams Pursuant to its authority...

  13. 76 FR 47613 - Board Meeting: September 13-14, 2011-Salt Lake City, UT; the U.S. Nuclear Waste Technical Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ... REVIEW BOARD Board Meeting: September 13-14, 2011--Salt Lake City, UT; the U.S. Nuclear Waste Technical... Technical Review Board will hold a public meeting in Salt Lake City, Utah, on Tuesday, September 13, and....m. and will be held at the Little America Hotel; 500 South Main Street; Salt Lake City, Utah 84101...

  14. Effects of Cereal, Fruit and Vegetable Fibers on Human Fecal Weight and Transit Time: A Comprehensive Review of Intervention Trials

    OpenAIRE

    Jan de Vries; Anne Birkett; Toine Hulshof; Kristin Verbeke; Kernon Gibes

    2016-01-01

    Cereal fibers are known to increase fecal weight and speed transit time, but far less data are available on the effects of fruits and vegetable fibers on regularity. This study provides a comprehensive review of the impact of these three fiber sources on regularity in healthy humans. We identified English-language intervention studies on dietary fibers and regularity and performed weighted linear regression analyses for fecal weight and transit time. Cereal and vegetable fiber groups had comp...

  15. Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: Revised Comprehensive Conservation Plan, Final Environmental Impact Statement, Wilderness Review, and Wild and Scenic River Review

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Arctic NWR for the next 15 years. It is a revision of the 1988 plan, and it describes...

  16. Fitness for duty in the nuclear power industry: A review of technical issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, C.; Barnes, V.; Hauth, J.; Wilson, R.; Fawcett-Long, J.; Toquam, J.; Baker, K.; Wieringa, D.; Olson, J.; Christensen, J.

    1989-05-01

    This report presents information gathered and analyzed in support of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) efforts to develop a rule that will ensure that workers with unescorted access to protected areas of nuclear power plants are fit for duty. This report supplements information previously published in NUREG/CR-5227, Fitness for Duty in the Nuclear Power Industry: A Review of Technical Issues (Barnes et al., 1988). The primary potential fitness-for-duty concern addressed in both of these reports is impairment caused by substance abuse, although other fitness concerns are discussed. This report addresses issues pertaining to workers' use and misuse of alcohol, prescription drugs, and over-the-counter drugs as fitness-for-duty concerns; responds to several questions raised by NRC Commissioners; discusses subversion of the chemical testing process and methods of preventing such subversion; and examines concerns about the urinalysis cutoff levels used when testing for marijuana metabolites, amphetamines, and phencyclidine (PCP).

  17. A Review of Adaptive Optics Optical Coherence Tomography: Technical Advances, Scientific Applications, and the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonnal, Ravi S; Kocaoglu, Omer P; Zawadzki, Robert J; Liu, Zhuolin; Miller, Donald T; Werner, John S

    2016-07-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has enabled "virtual biopsy" of the living human retina, revolutionizing both basic retina research and clinical practice over the past 25 years. For most of those years, in parallel, adaptive optics (AO) has been used to improve the transverse resolution of ophthalmoscopes to foster in vivo study of the retina at the microscopic level. Here, we review work done over the last 15 years to combine the microscopic transverse resolution of AO with the microscopic axial resolution of OCT, building AO-OCT systems with the highest three-dimensional resolution of any existing retinal imaging modality. We surveyed the literature to identify the most influential antecedent work, important milestones in the development of AO-OCT technology, its applications that have yielded new knowledge, research areas into which it may productively expand, and nascent applications that have the potential to grow. Initial efforts focused on demonstrating three-dimensional resolution. Since then, many improvements have been made in resolution and speed, as well as other enhancements of acquisition and postprocessing techniques. Progress on these fronts has produced numerous discoveries about the anatomy, function, and optical properties of the retina. Adaptive optics OCT continues to evolve technically and to contribute to our basic and clinical knowledge of the retina. Due to its capacity to reveal cellular and microscopic detail invisible to clinical OCT systems, it is an ideal companion to those instruments and has the demonstrable potential to produce images that can guide the interpretation of clinical findings.

  18. Review of the Technical Status on the Debris Bed Cooling Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eui Kwang; Cho, Chung Ho; Lee, Yong Bum

    2007-09-15

    Preliminary safety analyses of the KALIMER-600 design have shown that the design has inherent safety characteristics and is capable of accommodating double-fault initiators such as ATWS events without coolant boiling or fuel melting. However, for the future design of sodium cooled fast reactor, the evaluation of the safety performance and the determination of containment requirements may be worth due consideration of triple-fault accident sequences of extremely low probability of occurrence that leads to core melting. For any postulated accident sequence which leads to core melting, in-vessel retention of the core debris will be required as a design requirement for the future design of sodium cooled fast reactor. Also, proof of the capacity of the debris bed cooling is an essential condition to solve the problem of in-vessel retention of the core debris. In this study, review of the technical status on the debris bed cooling model was carried out for in-vessel retention of the core debris0.

  19. A Technical Review of Penning Trap based Investigations in Neutron Decay

    CERN Document Server

    Byrne, J

    2014-01-01

    This review is concerned with a detailed analysis of some of the technical problems which arise in the application of the Penning trap method to the experimental study of neutron $\\beta $ -decay,a technique which was first successfully tested on the low-flux swimming-pool reactor LIDO (capture flux =3$\\cdot 10^6$cm$^(-2)$s$^(-1)$) at AERE Harwell in the 1970's. It does not discuss the scientific merits or demerits of these studies. Of particular importance are the trapping and release of neutron decay protons, and the influence of magnetic mirror effects and radial drifting on the trapped particles. Since these have energies < 1 keV they must be accelerated to energies of order 20-30 keV following release, at which point they are recorded in a silicon surface barrier detector. However serious difficulties were encountered in the post-release acceleration process with vacuum breakdown in the presence of crossed electric and magnetic fields.

  20. Dual-mobility arthroplasty failure: a rationale review of causes and technical considerations for revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernigou, Philippe; Dubory, Arnaud; Potage, Damien; Roubineau, François; Flouzat Lachaniette, Charles Henri

    2017-03-01

    Dual-mobility arthroplasty is an alternative to conventional total hip arthroplasty (THA) in appropriately selected, active adults with degenerative, necrotic or post-traumatic hip disease or with revision hip arthroplasty. Numerous papers have been published with results of dual-mobility arthroplasty, but there have been no comprehensive literature reviews that summarise the most recent findings and help the orthopaedic surgeon facing different scenarios in which revision of one or both components of a dual-mobility arthroplasty is indicated. We performed a PubMed search for papers published on dual-mobility arthroplasty that provided data on revision and add our experience in order to describe different revision scenarios. We collected data on revision for any reason, for aseptic loosening, for infection, or for dislocation. For each complication, we summarise causes and diagnosis of this complication and describe the direction of possible therapeutic options. The dual-mobility arthroplasty offers the benefit of increased stability without compromising clinical outcomes and implant longevity. However, as with conventional arthroplasties, complications are also reported, with the most frequent being cup loosening, dislocation, accelerated wear and infection. Dual-mobility implants also have some specific complications secondary to their specific design, with the presence of a third joint. For example, intraprosthetic dislocation due to retentive failure of the polyethylene (PE) liner on the femoral head is a complication observed exclusively with this type of implant and involves articulation failure between the femoral head and the PE liner. Mechanical conflict with the iliopsoas tendon has also been reported, probably due to femoral head size, cup design, and/or a dysplastic hip. This systematic review of the literature identified several options for treating each complication, and in particular, options regarding conserving or not of one the two articulating

  1. A review and evaluation of the Langley Research Center's Scientific and Technical Information Program: Results of phase 6: The technical report. A survey and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccullough, R. A.; Pinelli, T. E.; Pilley, D. D.; Stohrer, F. F.

    1982-01-01

    Current practice and usage using selected technical reports; literature relative to the sequential, language, and presentation components of technical reports; and NASA technical report publications standards are discussed. The effctiveness of the technical report as a product for information dissemination is considered.

  2. INDEPENDENT TECHNICAL REVIEW OF THE C-400 INTERIM REMEDIAL PROJECT PHASE I RESULTS, PADUCAH, KENTUCKY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney, B.; Rossabi, J.; Stewart,L.; Richards, W.

    2010-10-29

    The groundwater and soil in the vicinity of the C-400 Building at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), is contaminated with substantial quantities of industrial solvents, primarily trichoroethene (TCE). This solvent 'source' is recognized as a significant challenge and an important remediation target in the overall environmental cleanup strategy for PGDP. Thus, the cleanup of the C-400 TCE Source is a principal focus for the Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors, and for PGDP regulators and stakeholders. Using a formal investigation, feasibility study and decision process, Electrical Resistance Heating (ERH) was selected for the treatment of the soil and groundwater in the vicinity of C-400. ERH was selected as an interim action to remove 'a significant portion of the contaminant mass of TCE at the C-400 Cleaning Building area through treatment' with the longer term goal of reducing 'the period the TCE concentration in groundwater remains above its Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL).' ERH is a thermal treatment that enhances the removal of TCE and related solvents from soil and groundwater. The heterogeneous conditions at PGDP, particularly the high permeability regional gravel aquifer (RGA), are challenging to ERH. Thus, a phased approach is being followed to implement this relatively expensive and complex remediation technology. Conceptually, the phased approach encourages safety and efficiency by providing a 'lessons learned' process and allowing appropriate adjustments to be identified and implemented prior to follow-on phase(s) of treatment. More specifically, early deployment targeted portions of the challenging RGA treatment zone with relatively little contamination reducing the risk of adverse collateral impacts from underperformance in terms of heating and capture. Because of the importance and scope of the C-400 TCE source remediation activities, DOE chartered an Independent Technical Review (ITR) in

  3. A comprehensive review of the use of computational intelligence methods in mineral exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibollah Bazdar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Mineral exploration is a process by which it is decided whether or not continuing explorations at the end of each stage t will be cost-effective or not. This decision is dependent upon many factors including technical factors, economic, social and other related factors. All new methods used in mineral exploration are meant to make this decision making more simplified. In recent years, advanced computational intelligence methods for modeling along with many other disciplines of science, including the science of mineral exploration have been used. Although the results of the application of these methods show a good performance, it is essential to determine the mineral potential in terms of geology, mineralogy, petrology and other factors for a final decision. The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive set of mineral exploration research and different applications of computational intelligence techniques in this respect during the last decades. Materials and methods Artificial neural network and its application in mineral exploration Artificial neural network (ANN is a series of communications between the units or nodes that try to function like neurons of the human brain (Jorjani et al., 2008. The network processing capability of communication between the units and the weights connection originates or comes from learning or are predetermined (Monjezi and Dehghani, 2008. The ANN method has been applied in different branches of mining exploration in the last decades (Brown et al., 2000; Leite and de Souza Filho, 2009; Porwal et al., 2003. Support vector machines (SVM and its application in mineral exploration SVM uses a set of examples with known class of information to build a linear hyperplane separating samples of different classes. This initial dataset is known as a training set and every sample within it is characterized by features upon which the classification is based (Smirnoff et al., 2008. The SVM classifier is a

  4. How comprehensive are research studies investigating the efficacy of technology-enhanced learning resources in anatomy education? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clunie, Lauren; Morris, Neil P; Joynes, Viktoria C T; Pickering, James D

    2017-12-13

    Anatomy education is at the forefront of integrating innovative technologies into its curricula. However, despite this rise in technology numerous authors have commented on the shortfall in efficacy studies to assess the impact such technology-enhanced learning (TEL) resources have on learning. To assess the range of evaluation approaches to TEL across anatomy education, a systematic review was conducted using MEDLINE, the Educational Resources Information Centre (ERIC), Scopus, and Google Scholar, with a total of 3,345 articles retrieved. Following the PRISMA method for reporting items, 153 articles were identified and reviewed against a published framework-the technology-enhanced learning evaluation model (TELEM). The model allowed published reports to be categorized according to evaluations at the level of (1) learner satisfaction, (2) learning gain, (3) learner impact, and (4) institutional impact. The results of this systematic review reveal that most evaluation studies into TEL within anatomy curricula were based on learner satisfaction, followed by module or course learning outcomes. Randomized controlled studies assessing learning gain with a specific TEL resource were in a minority, with no studies reporting a comprehensive assessment on the overall impact of introducing a specific TEL resource (e.g., return on investment). This systematic review has provided clear evidence that anatomy education is engaged in evaluating the impact of TEL resources on student education, although it remains at a level that fails to provide comprehensive causative evidence. Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.

  5. Theories to support method development in comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography - A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bedani, F.; Schoenmakers, P.J.; Janssen, H.-G.

    2012-01-01

    On-line comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography techniques promise to resolve samples that current one-dimensional liquid chromatography methods cannot adequately deal with. To make full use of the potential of two-dimensional liquid chromatography, optimization is required. Optimization

  6. The Effectiveness of the Comprehension Hypothesis: A Review on the Current Research on Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponniah, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    The Comprehension Hypothesis (CH) is the most powerful hypothesis in the field of Second Language Acquisition despite the presence of the rivals the skill-building hypothesis, the output hypothesis, and the interaction hypothesis. The competing hypotheses state that consciously learned linguistic knowledge is a necessary step for the development…

  7. An Advanced Review of Speech-Language Pathology: Preparation for Praxis and Comprehensive Examination. Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseberry-McKibbin, Celeste; Hegde, M. N.

    2006-01-01

    This second edition book is tailor made for speech-language pathology students preparing to take departmental comprehensive examinations as well as the Praxis Examination in Speech-Language Pathology. In addition, this inclusive book is a terrific teaching tool for university faculty---offering preview outlines, brief introductions, and summaries.…

  8. Learners' Listening Comprehension Difficulties in English Language Learning: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilakjani, Abbas Pourhosein; Sabouri, Narjes Banou

    2016-01-01

    Listening is one of the most important skills in English language learning. When students listen to English language, they face a lot of listening difficulties. Students have critical difficulties in listening comprehension because universities and schools pay more attention to writing, reading, and vocabulary. Listening is not an important part…

  9. Comprehensive Medication Reviews in Long-term Care Facilities: History of Process Implementation and 2015 Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Terrence E; Zarowitz, Barbara J; Erwin, W Gary

    2017-01-01

    Since 2013, Part D sponsors have been required to offer comprehensive medication reviews (CMRs) to all beneficiaries enrolled in their medication therapy management (MTM) programs at least annually, including those in long-term care (LTC) settings. Since that time, MTM providers have found that accessing and completing CMRs with beneficiaries is frequently prohibitively complex, since the process often requires a live, face-to-face interactive interview where the beneficiary resides. However, with the migration of the CMR completion rate from a star ratings display measure to an active measure, coupled with the new CMR completion rate cutpoints for 2016, accessing this population for CMR completion has heightened importance. Our proprietary consultant pharmacist (CP) software was programmed in 2012 to produce a cover letter, medication action plan, and personal medication list per CMS standardized format specifications. Using this system, CPs were trained to perform and document CMRs and the interactive interviews. MTM-eligible Part D beneficiaries, identified by several contracted clients as residing in LTC serviced by Omnicare, were provided CMRs and summaries written in CMS standardized format by CPs. Residents with cognitive impairment were identified using 3 data elements in the Minimum Data Set (MDS). In 2015, 7,935 MTM-eligible beneficiaries were identified as receiving medications from an Omnicare pharmacy. After excluding those who were disenrolled by their prescription drug plans, discharged from the LTC facility, or resided in a LTC facility no longer serviced by Omnicare, 5,593 residents were available for CMR completion. Of these, only 3% refused the CMR offer, and 5,392 CMRs (96%) were completed successfully. Thirty-nine percent of residents had cognitive impairment per MDS assessments; in those instances, CMRs were conducted with someone other than the beneficiary. Based on the CMRs and interactive interviews, 7,527 drug therapy problem

  10. Using Model-Based Systems Engineering to Provide Artifacts for NASA Project Life-cycle and Technical Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Edith L.; Weiland, Karen J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper is for the AIAA Space Conference. The ability of systems engineers to use model-based systems engineering (MBSE) to generate self-consistent, up-to-date systems engineering products for project life-cycle and technical reviews is an important aspect for the continued and accelerated acceptance of MBSE. Currently, many review products are generated using labor-intensive, error-prone approaches based on documents, spreadsheets, and chart sets; a promised benefit of MBSE is that users will experience reductions in inconsistencies and errors. This work examines features of SysML that can be used to generate systems engineering products. Model elements, relationships, tables, and diagrams are identified for a large number of the typical systems engineering artifacts. A SysML system model can contain and generate most systems engineering products to a significant extent and this paper provides a guide on how to use MBSE to generate products for project life-cycle and technical reviews. The use of MBSE can reduce the schedule impact usually experienced for review preparation, as in many cases the review products can be auto-generated directly from the system model. These approaches are useful to systems engineers, project managers, review board members, and other key project stakeholders.

  11. Using Model-Based Systems Engineering To Provide Artifacts for NASA Project Life-Cycle and Technical Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Edith L.; Weiland, Karen J.

    2017-01-01

    The ability of systems engineers to use model-based systems engineering (MBSE) to generate self-consistent, up-to-date systems engineering products for project life-cycle and technical reviews is an important aspect for the continued and accelerated acceptance of MBSE. Currently, many review products are generated using labor-intensive, error-prone approaches based on documents, spreadsheets, and chart sets; a promised benefit of MBSE is that users will experience reductions in inconsistencies and errors. This work examines features of SysML that can be used to generate systems engineering products. Model elements, relationships, tables, and diagrams are identified for a large number of the typical systems engineering artifacts. A SysML system model can contain and generate most systems engineering products to a significant extent and this paper provides a guide on how to use MBSE to generate products for project life-cycle and technical reviews. The use of MBSE can reduce the schedule impact usually experienced for review preparation, as in many cases the review products can be auto-generated directly from the system model. These approaches are useful to systems engineers, project managers, review board members, and other key project stakeholders.

  12. Inferential comprehension of 3-6 year olds within the context of story grammar: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filiatrault-Veilleux, Paméla; Bouchard, Caroline; Trudeau, Natacha; Desmarais, Chantal

    2015-01-01

    The ability to make inferences plays a crucial role in reading comprehension and the educational success of school-aged children. However, it starts to unfold much earlier than school entry and literacy. Given that it is likely to be targeted in speech language therapy, it would be useful for clinicians to have access to information about a developmental sequence of inferential comprehension. Yet, at this time, there is no clear proposition of the way in which this ability develops in young children prior to school entry. To reduce the knowledge gap with regards to inferential comprehension in young children by conducting a scoping review of the literature. The two objectives of this research are: (1) to describe typically developing children's comprehension of causal inferences targeting elements of story grammar, with the goal of proposing milestones in the development of this ability; and (2) to highlight key elements of the methodology used to gather this information in a paediatric population. A total of 16 studies from six databases that met the inclusion criteria were qualitatively analysed in the context of a scoping review. This methodological approach was used to identify common themes and gaps in the knowledge base to achieve the intended objectives. Results permit the description of key elements in the development of six types of causal inference targeting elements of story grammar in children between 3 and 6 years old. Results also demonstrate the various methods used to assess this ability in young children and highlight particularly interesting procedures for use with this younger population. These findings point to the need for additional studies to understand this ability better and to develop strategies to stimulate an evidence-based developmental sequence in children from an early age. © 2015 The Authors. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Royal College of Speech and

  13. A comprehensive review of on-board State-of-Available-Power prediction techniques for lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmann, Alexander; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2016-10-01

    This study provides an overview of available techniques for on-board State-of-Available-Power (SoAP) prediction of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) in electric vehicles. Different approaches dealing with the on-board estimation of battery State-of-Charge (SoC) or State-of-Health (SoH) have been extensively discussed in various researches in the past. However, the topic of SoAP prediction has not been explored comprehensively yet. The prediction of the maximum power that can be applied to the battery by discharging or charging it during acceleration, regenerative braking and gradient climbing is definitely one of the most challenging tasks of battery management systems. In large lithium-ion battery packs because of many factors, such as temperature distribution, cell-to-cell deviations regarding the actual battery impedance or capacity either in initial or aged state, the use of efficient and reliable methods for battery state estimation is required. The available battery power is limited by the safe operating area (SOA), where SOA is defined by battery temperature, current, voltage and SoC. Accurate SoAP prediction allows the energy management system to regulate the power flow of the vehicle more precisely and optimize battery performance and improve its lifetime accordingly. To this end, scientific and technical literature sources are studied and available approaches are reviewed.

  14. Non-technical skills assessment for prelicensure nursing students: An integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Sara; Monteiro, Sara; Pereira, Anabela; Chaló, Daniela; Melo, Elsa; Rodrigues, Alexandre

    2017-11-01

    In nursing, non-technical skills are recognized as playing an important role to increase patient safety and successful clinical outcomes (Pearson and McLafferty, 2011). Non-technical skills are cognitive and social resource skills that complement technical skills and contribute to safe and efficient task performance (Flin et al., 2008). In order to effectively provide non-technical skills training, it is essential to have an instrument to measure these skills. An online search was conducted. Articles were selected if they referred to and/or described instruments assessing non-technical skills for nurses and/or prelicensure nursing students in educational, clinical and/or simulated settings with validation evidence (inclusion criteria). Of the 53 articles located, 26 met the inclusion criteria. Those referred to and/or described 16 instruments with validation evidence developed to assess non-technical skills in multidisciplinary teams including nurses. Although articles have shown 16 valid and reliable instruments, to our knowledge, no instrument has been published or developed and validated for the assessment of non-technical skills of only nurses in general, relevant for use in high-fidelity simulation-based training for prelicensure nursing students. Therefore, there is a need for the development of such an instrument. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Hospital-at-home in older patients: a scoping review on opportunities of developing comprehensive geriatric assessment based services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas, Miquel Àngel; Santaeugènia, Sebastià

    2015-01-01

    This scoping review focused on the opportunity of developing new hospital-at-home schemes in our health systems adapted to older patients with complex conditions due to acute illness. A review was conducted on articles including, randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews and meta-analysis in PubMed and Cochrane Library, from January 1990 to July 2013. Search terms were: hospital-at-home, Early Supported Discharge, hospital in the home and home hospitalization. An analysis was performed to include: the intervention model (admission avoidance or early discharge), age, diagnosis, main inclusion criteria and intervention characteristics (disciplines involved, duration of intervention, main outcomes and objectives). It is concluded that there are several models of hospital-at-home care, with favorable clinical outcomes. The majority of teams in our country focused on acute health care in the less elderly with chronic diseases. Other schemes based on comprehensive geriatric assessment and interdisciplinary teams specialized in complex interventions are also highlighted. The development of comprehensive geriatric assessment based hospital-at-home care by teams led by geriatricians is an opportunity to develop alternatives to conventional hospitalization interventions tailored to older patients. Copyright © 2014 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Review and comment on the advanced spent fuel management process (1): Technical aspects and non-proliferation concerns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Yo Taik

    2001-01-01

    Efforts are made to analyze the project, the Advanced Spent Fuel Management Technology (ASFMT), which is currently carried out at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, on the technical feasibility and validity as well as on the nuclear non-proliferation concerns. The project is a part of a program under the 'Long and Midterm Nuclear Development Program'. On the technical analysis, reviewed the papers presented at the national and international meetings on the subject by KAERI staffs, and also participated to various technical discussions on the 'Mock-up Test', currently in progress. On the non-proliferation concerns, the ASFMT project was reviewed and analyzed in reference to various programs currently in progress or in a formulation stages in US, such as the DOE TOPS and ATW. Further reviewed the past JASNEC process and programs for possible application of the ASFMT project for JASNEC project. Provided a few thoughts for effectively carrying out the ASFMT project, and a plan for the next phase is presented.

  17. Figurative language comprehension in individuals with autism spectrum disorder: A meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalandadze, Tamar; Norbury, Courtenay; Nærland, Terje; Næss, Kari-Anne B

    2016-11-01

    We present a meta-analysis of studies that compare figurative language comprehension in individuals with autism spectrum disorder and in typically developing controls who were matched based on chronological age or/and language ability. A total of 41 studies and 45 independent effect sizes were included based on predetermined inclusion criteria. Group matching strategy, age, types of figurative language, and cross-linguistic differences were examined as predictors that might explain heterogeneity in effect sizes. Overall, individuals with autism spectrum disorder showed poorer comprehension of figurative language than their typically developing peers (Hedges' g = -0.57). A meta-regression analysis showed that group matching strategy and types of figurative language were significantly related to differences in effect sizes, whereas chronological age and cross-linguistic differences were not. Differences between the autism spectrum disorder and typically developing groups were small and nonsignificant when the groups were matched based on the language ability. Metaphors were more difficult to comprehend for individuals with autism spectrum disorder compared with typically developing controls than were irony and sarcasm. Our findings highlight the critical role of core language skills in figurative language comprehension. Interventions and educational programmes designed to improve social communication skills in individuals with autism spectrum disorder may beneficially target core language skills in addition to social skills.

  18. The Role of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L) Pollen in Fertility: A Comprehensive Review of Current Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahvilzadeh, Mohammad; Hajimahmoodi, Mannan; Rahimi, Roja

    2016-10-01

    Date palm pollen (DPP) is the male reproductive dust of palm flowers used as dietary supplement especially as aphrodisiac and fertility enhancer in both women and men from ancient times. Although there are few clinical trials evaluating the beneficial effects of DPP in humans, various experimental studies have been conducted on the reproductive effects of DPP. Among the compounds isolated from DPP are amino acids, fatty acids, flavonoids, saponins, and estroles. The present review summarizes comprehensive information concerning the phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of DPP and its application in fertility disorders. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Heat Transfer Measurements with Surface Mounted Foil-Sensors in an Active Mode: A Comprehensive Review and a New Design

    OpenAIRE

    Mocikat, Horst; Herwig, Heinz

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive review of film-sensors shows that they are primarily operated in a passive mode, i.e. without being actively heated to an extent, whereby they create a heat transfer situation on their own. Only when these sensors are used for wall shear stress measurements, the detection of laminar/turbulent transition, or the measurement of certain flow velocities, they are operated in an active mode, i.e. heated by an electrical current (after an appropriate calibration). In our study we de...

  20. US technical assistance to the IAEA and the chemical weapons convection (CWC) - a review and look to the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indusi, J.; Parsick, R.J.; Reisman, A.W.

    1997-08-01

    This paper reviews the Safeguards mandate of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and describes U.S. technical support programs. We also review the mandate of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) and speculate on the technical areas where U.S. assistance may prove useful. The IAEA was organized in 1957 in response to President Eisenhower`s {open_quotes}Atoms for Peace{close_quotes} initiative presented to the UN General Assembly on December 8, 1953. The Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) has been organized by a Preparatory Commission (PREPCOM) to prepare for the entry-into-force of this new convention which prohibits the development, production, stockpiling and use of chemical weapons and on their destruction. The safeguards mandate of the IAEA is to carry out verifications of nuclear material pursuant to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) and other voluntary but legally binding agreements. U.S. technical support programs have provided and continue to provide assistance in the form of Cost-Free Experts (CFE`s), systems studies on new safeguards approaches, training, computerized information systems, and equipment for nuclear materials measurements and containment and surveillance systems. Because the CWC just recently entered into force (April 29, 1997), verification procedures of the OPCW are not yet fully developed. However, it is expected, and can already be seen for many aspects of the technical task, that there are many similarities between the verification activities of the OPCW and those carried out by the IAEA. This paper will discuss potential technical support areas that can help strengthen the OPCW. 9 refs.

  1. A study on technical efficiency of a DMU (review of literature)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswarlu, B.; Mahaboob, B.; Subbarami Reddy, C.; Sankar, J. Ravi

    2017-11-01

    In this research paper the concept of technical efficiency (due to Farell) [1] of a decision making unit (DMU) has been introduced and the measure of technical and cost efficiencies are derived. Timmer’s [2] deterministic approach to estimate the Cobb-Douglas production frontier has been proposed. The idea of extension of Timmer’s [2] method to any production frontier which is linear in parameters has been presented here. The estimation of parameters of Cobb-Douglas production frontier by linear programming approach has been discussed in this paper. Mark et al. [3] proposed a non-parametric method to assess efficiency. Nuti et al. [4] investigated the relationships among technical efficiency scores, weighted per capita cost and overall performance Gahe Zing Samuel Yank et al. [5] used Data envelopment analysis to assess technical assessment in banking sectors.

  2. Digital Mapping Charting and Geodesy analysis Program (DMAP) Review of Technical Initiatives for FY03

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Breckenridge, John

    2003-01-01

    The Naval DMAP serves as a technical representative for the Oceanographer of the Navy, NO96 to address significant issues relevant to the Navy's use and development of digital Mapping, Charting & Geodesy (MC&G) data...

  3. 77 FR 13318 - Meeting of the Mobile Sources Technical Review Subcommittee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ... being conducted by EPA's Office of Transportation and Air Quality. The preliminary agenda for the... interested parties should monitor the Subcommittee Web site (above) for the latest logistical information... CONTACT: For technical information: Jennifer Krueger, Designated Federal Officer, Transportation and...

  4. Improving Comprehensive Medication Review Acceptance by Using a Standardized Recruitment Script: A Randomized Control Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Alexander; Hall, Anna; Liu, Wei; Garrett, Jeremy; Ballew, Angel; Yang, Tsu-Hsaun; Segal, Richard

    2017-01-01

    The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) require prescription drug plan sponsors to offer a comprehensive medication review (CMR) annually to eligible beneficiaries through the plans' Medication Therapy Management Programs (MTMPs). In 2011, the Pharmacy Quality Alliance endorsed the CMR completion rate as a quality measure for MTMPs, and CMS has adopted the measure into the 2016 CMS star ratings. CMS star ratings are used to describe the quality of plans to assist Medicare plan enrollees in choosing a plan and to determine quality bonus payments for Medicare Advantage plans. Star ratings are measured on a scale of 1 to 5, with 5 being the highest possible rating for an individual measure. Currently, the majority of plans score 2 stars or less on the CMR completion rate measure. To demonstrate the effectiveness of a standardized CMR recruitment script emphasizing the benefits of the service to increase acceptance of CMR offers among beneficiaries of a Medicare prescription drug plan. A CMR recruitment script, shaped by the Health Belief Model, was developed based on a previous pilot study. The original script described the CMR service but did not emphasize key benefits or barriers from the beneficiary perspective. The updated script aimed to enhance beneficiary understanding of the CMR service, explain the benefits from the beneficiary perspective, and address potential barriers to accepting the service. The updated script was tested during the 2012 MTMP enrollment in a randomized controlled experiment, using the original script as the control. The CMR service was offered to MTMP members via phone calls by live call agents who spoke with members who answered, using 1 of the 2 scripts. Both scripts asked members if they were willing to have a pharmacist call them back and perform a CMR at a later date. Two call attempts were made to all eligible beneficiaries. If contact was not made after 2 unsuccessful outreach attempts, a computer-generated voicemail

  5. Comprehensive treatments for social cognitive deficits in schizophrenia: A critical review and effect-size analysis of controlled studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Matthew M; Gagen, Emily; Rocha, Nuno B F; Machado, Sergio; Penn, David L

    2016-02-01

    Recent advances in psychosocial treatments for schizophrenia have targeted social cognitive deficits. A critical literature review and effect-size (ES) analysis was conducted to investigate the efficacy of comprehensive programs of social cognitive training in schizophrenia. Results revealed 16 controlled studies consisting of seven models of comprehensive treatment with only three of these treatment models investigated in more than one study. The effects of social cognitive training were reported in 11/15 studies that included facial affect recognition skills (ES=.84) and 10/13 studies that included theory-of-mind (ES=.70) as outcomes. Less than half (4/9) of studies that measured attributional style as an outcome reported effects of treatment, but effect sizes across studies were significant (ESs=.30-.52). The effect sizes for symptoms were modest, but, with the exception of positive symptoms, significant (ESs=.32-.40). The majority of trials were randomized (13/16), selected active control conditions (11/16) and included at least 30 participants (12/16). Concerns for this area of research include the absence of blinded outcome raters in more than 50% of trials and low rates of utilization of procedures for maintaining treatment fidelity. These findings provide preliminary support for the broader use of comprehensive social cognitive training procedures as a psychosocial intervention for schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Factors Associated With Marital Satisfaction in Infertile Couple: A Comprehensive Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadaee-Gelehkolaee, Keshvar; McCarthy, Barry W; Khalilian, Alireza; Hamzehgardeshi, Zeinab; Peyvandi, Sepideh; Elyasi, Forouza; Shahidi, Maryam

    2015-09-02

    Many factors impact on marital satisfaction. Related factors include demographic factors, assisted reproductive techniques, psychological health, quality of life, psychological, socioeconomic and family support, and sexual function. This study is a literature review of research studies conducted on factors associated with marital satisfaction in infertile couples. The current literature review search was undertaken using multiple databases selected from articles pertinent to the study. The selection of subjects was undertaken from1990 through 2015. The methodological quality was analyzed based on a checklist adopted from a systematic review. Quality assessment of full text studies was finally carried out by two reviewers. The initial search yielded a list of 445 papers, and then reviewers studied titles and abstracts. Thereafter, 69 papers were incorporated, and researchers reviewed summaries of all of the searched articles. Finally, the researchers utilized the data gained from 64 full articles so as to compile this review paper. Reviewing the studies conducted on marital satisfaction, they classified related findings into 6 categories: demographic factors, using fertility assisting methods, psychological health, life quality, economic, social, and family support, and sexual function. The results of this review article depicted that various factors play role in creating marriage life satisfaction in an infertile couple, so that paying attention to them can play an important role in continuing their treatment. Thus, to identify such factors is considered essential in their treatment protocol highly based on culture. Of the drawbacks of this research is that it has tried at best to employ the studies belonging to diverse countries with different cultures. Also, the number of the papers was considerably limited.

  7. The Influences of Technical Support, Self Efficacy and Instructional Design on the Usage and Acceptance of LMS: A Comprehensive Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshammari, Sultan Hammad; Ali, Mohamad Bilal; Rosli, Mohd Shafie

    2016-01-01

    Innovation, globalization and the rapid expansion of technologies are the current trend now, which lead to the use of latest technologies in several different sectors, including education sector without exception. Learning management system (LMS) that is used for delivering education has become one of the most important innovative tools that is…

  8. Impact of irradiation on fish and seafood shelf life: a comprehensive review of applications and irradiation detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvanitoyannis, Ioannis S; Stratakos, Alexandros; Mente, Elena

    2009-01-01

    Irradiation is one of the most important and effective methods towards food preservation despite the consumer lack of trust and aversion towards this method. Irradiation effectiveness greatly depends on the dose provided to food. This review aims at summarizing all available information regarding the impact of irradiation dose on the shelf life and microflora and sensory and physical properties of fish, shellfish, molluscs, and crustaceans. The synergistic effect of irradiation in conjunction with other techniques such as salting, smoking, freezing, and vacuum packaging was also reported. Another issue covered within the frame of this review is the detection (comparison of methods in terms of their effectiveness and validity) of irradiated fish and seafood. The information related to fish and seafood irradiation and its detection is presented by means of 11 comprehensive tables and 9 figures.

  9. Immunoglobulin G4 -related kidney disease: A comprehensive pictorial review of the imaging spectrum, Mimickers, and clinicopathological characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Ni Eun; Kim, Jin Hee; Byun, Jae Ho; Lee, Seung Soo; Kim, Hyoung Jung; Lee, Moon Gyu [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related kidney disease (IgG4-KD) has recently been demonstrated to be an important part of IgG4-related sclerosing disease (IgG4-SD). However, since IgG4-KD is still relatively unfamiliar to radiologists and physicians as compared to IgG4-SD involving other organs, it could, therefore, be easily missed. In this article, we present a comprehensive pictorial review of IgG4-KD with regards to the imaging spectrum, mimickers, and clinicopathologic characteristics, based on our clinical experience with 48 patients during the past 13 years, as well as a literature review. Awareness of the broad imaging spectrum of IgG4-KD and differential diagnosis from its mimickers will thus facilitate its early diagnosis and treatment.

  10. Toward a competitive electric power industry for the 21. century. Comprehensive Review of the Northwest Energy System final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-12

    This report contains a review of the activities and the recommendations of the Steering Committee of the Comprehensive Review of the Northwest Energy System. The topics of the report include a summary of recommendations; federal power marketing; preserving the benefits of low-cost hydropower for the Northwest; Columbia River System governance; reflecting the values and meeting the needs of northwest citizens through conservation, renewable resources and low-income energy services; ensuring the benefits of competition for all by consumer access to the competitive market; open-access power transmission for competion in generation; and the future power system role for a four-state regional body. An appendix contains a dissenting opinion.

  11. Application of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM to Solve Environmental Sustainability Problems: A Comprehensive Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Mardani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Most methodological areas assume common serious reflections to certify difficult study and publication practices, and, therefore, approval in their area. Interestingly, relatively little attention has been paid to reviewing the application of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM in environmental sustainability problems despite the growing number of publications in the past two decades. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to fill this gap by conducting a wide search in two main databases including Web of Science and Scopus to identify the studies which used SEM techniques in the period from 2005 to 2016. A critical analysis of these articles addresses some important key issues. On the basis of our results, we present comprehensive guidelines to help researchers avoid general pitfalls in using SEM. The results of this review are important and will help researchers to better develop research models based on SEM in the area of environmental sustainability.

  12. A comparative analysis of comprehensive geriatric assessments for nursing home residents receiving palliative care: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Kirsten; De Almeida Mello, Johanna; Spruytte, Nele; Cohen, Joachim; Van Audenhove, Chantal; Declercq, Anja

    2014-07-01

    Nursing homes become important locations for palliative care. By means of comprehensive geriatric assessments (CGAs), an evaluation can be made of the different palliative care needs of nursing home residents. This review aims to identify all CGAs that can be used to assess palliative care needs in long-term care settings and that have been validated for nursing home residents receiving palliative care. The CGAs are evaluated in terms of psychometric properties and content comprehensiveness. A systematic literature search in electronic databases MEDLINE, Web of Science, EMBASE, Cochrane, CINAHL, and PsycInfo was conducted for the years 1990 to 2012. Nursing homes. Nursing home residents with palliative care needs. Psychometric data on validity and reliability were extracted from the articles. The content comprehensiveness of the identified CGAs was analyzed, using the 13 domains for a palliative approach in residential aged care of the Australian Government Department of Health and Aging. A total of 1368 articles were identified. Seven studies met our inclusion criteria, describing 5 different CGAs that have been validated for nursing home residents with palliative care needs. All CGAs demonstrate moderate to high psychometric properties. The interRAI Palliative Care instrument (interRAI PC) covers all domains for a palliative approach in residential aged care of the Australian Government Department of Health and Aging. The McMaster Quality of Life Scale covers nine domains. All other CGAs cover seven domains or fewer. The interRAI PC and the McMaster Quality of Life Scale are considered to be the most comprehensive CGAs to evaluate the needs and preferences of nursing home residents receiving palliative care. Future research should aim to examine the effectiveness of the identified CGAs and to further validate the CGAs for nursing home residents with palliative care needs. Copyright © 2014 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published

  13. Multilevel conceptualization of leader-member exchange processes: a comprehensive review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paik, Yonjeong

    2016-01-01

    ...) literature and identified fruitful areas for future research. After thoroughly reviewing conceptualization and operationalization in the literature, I summarized empirical findings at the dyadic, individual within-team, and team levels...

  14. A comprehensive review of full cost accounting methods and their applicability to the automotive industry

    OpenAIRE

    Jasinski, Dominik; Meredith, James O.; Kirwan, Kerry

    2015-01-01

    Full cost accounting has been applied in many industrial settings that include the oil and gas, energy, chemical and waste management industries. Presently, it is not known how it can be applied in an automotive industry context. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to review existing full cost accounting methods and identify an appropriate approach for the automotive sector. This literature review of 4381 papers extracted ten full cost accounting methods with a diverse level of developm...

  15. Effects of Cereal, Fruit and Vegetable Fibers on Human Fecal Weight and Transit Time: A Comprehensive Review of Intervention Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan de Vries

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cereal fibers are known to increase fecal weight and speed transit time, but far less data are available on the effects of fruits and vegetable fibers on regularity. This study provides a comprehensive review of the impact of these three fiber sources on regularity in healthy humans. We identified English-language intervention studies on dietary fibers and regularity and performed weighted linear regression analyses for fecal weight and transit time. Cereal and vegetable fiber groups had comparable effects on fecal weight; both contributed to it more than fruit fibers. Less fermentable fibers increased fecal weight to a greater degree than more fermentable fibers. Dietary fiber did not change transit time in those with an initial time of <48 h. In those with an initial transit time ≥48 h, transit time was reduced by approximately 30 min per gram of cereal, fruit or vegetable fibers, regardless of fermentability. Cereal fibers have been studied more than any other kind in relation to regularity. This is the first comprehensive review comparing the effects of the three major food sources of fiber on bowel function and regularity since 1993.

  16. A systematic literature review on security and privacy of electronic health record systems: Technical perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rezaeibagha, Fatemeh; Win, Khin Than; Susilo, Willy

    2015-01-01

    ... proceedings between 1998 and 2013; 55 selected studies were reviewed in detail. We analysed the review results using two International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards (29100 and 27002...

  17. Book review: Ham radio's technical culture. By K. Haring. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. 2007. xvii + 220 pp. #18.95. cloth. ISBN: 0262083558

    OpenAIRE

    Geoghegan, Hilary

    2008-01-01

    Book review: Ham radio's technical culture. By K. Haring. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. 2007. xvii + 220 pp. #18.95. cloth. ISBN: 0262083558 Department of Geography Royal Holloway, University of London - (Geoghegan, Hilary)

  18. Technical Review of Law Enforcement Standards and Guides Relative to Incident Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenner, Robert D.; Salter, R.; Stanton, J. R.; Fisher, D.

    2009-03-24

    In an effort to locate potential law enforcement-related standards that support incident management, a team from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contacted representatives from the National Institute of Standards-Office of Law Enforcement Standards (NIST-OLES), National Institute of Justice (NIJ), Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), Secret Service, ASTM International committees that have a law enforcement focus, and a variety of individuals from local and regional law enforcement organizations. Discussions were held with various state and local law enforcement organizations. The NIJ has published several specific equipment-related law enforcement standards that were included in the review, but it appears that law enforcement program and process-type standards are developed principally by organizations that operate at the state and local level. Input is provided from state regulations and codes and from external non-government organizations (NGOs) that provide national standards. The standards that are adopted from external organizations or developed independently by state authorities are available for use by local law enforcement agencies on a voluntary basis. The extent to which they are used depends on the respective jurisdictions involved. In some instances, use of state and local disseminated standards is mandatory, but in most cases, use is voluntary. Usually, the extent to which these standards are used appears to depend on whether or not jurisdictions receive certification from a “governing” entity due to their use and compliance with the standards. In some cases, these certification-based standards are used in principal but without certification or other compliance monitoring. In general, these standards appear to be routinely used for qualification, selection for employment, and training. In these standards, the term “Peace Officer” is frequently used to refer to law enforcement personnel. This technical review of national law

  19. A comprehensive systematic review of evidence on the effectiveness and appropriateness of undergraduate nursing curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasekara, Rasika; Schultz, Tim; McCutcheon, Helen

    2006-09-01

    Objectives  The objective of this review was to appraise and synthesise the best available evidence on the effectiveness and appropriateness of undergraduate nursing curricula. Inclusion criteria  This review considered research papers that addressed the effectiveness and appropriateness of undergraduate nursing curricula. Studies of higher evidence levels were given priority over lower-evidence studies. Participants of interest were undergraduate nursing students, nursing staff and healthcare consumers. Nursing staff outcomes, consumer outcomes and system outcomes (e.g. competency, satisfaction, critical thinking skills, healthcare consumer rights and cost-effectiveness) that impact on the evaluation of undergraduate nursing curricula were considered in the review. Search strategy  The search strategy sought to find both published and unpublished studies and reports limited to the English language. An initial limited search of MEDLINE and CINAHL was undertaken, followed by an analysis of the text contained in the title and abstract, and of the index terms used to describe the article. A second extensive search was then undertaken using all identified key words and index terms. Finally, the reference list of all identified reports and articles was searched for additional studies. Methodological quality  Each paper was assessed by two independent reviewers for methodological quality before inclusion in the review using an appropriate critical appraisal instrument from the Unified Management, Assessment and Review of Information (SUMARI) package. Results  A total of 16 papers, experimental and textual in nature, were included in the review. The majority of papers was descriptive and examined the relationships between nursing curricula and specific learning outcomes such as critical thinking skills. Because of the diverse nature of these papers, meta-analysis of the results was not possible and this section of the review is presented in narrative form. In

  20. Critical Review of Technical Questions Facing Low Impact Development and Green Infrastructure: A Perspective from the Great Plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Jason R; Moore, Trisha L; Coffman, Reid R; Rodie, Steven N; Hutchinson, Stacy L; McDonough, Kelsey R; McLemore, Alex J; McMaine, John T

    2015-09-01

    Since its inception, Low Impact Development (LID) has become part of urban stormwater management across the United States, marking progress in the gradual transition from centralized to distributed runoff management infrastructure. The ultimate goal of LID is full, cost-effective implementation to maximize watershed-scale ecosystem services and enhance resilience. To reach that goal in the Great Plains, the multi-disciplinary author team presents this critical review based on thirteen technical questions within the context of regional climate and socioeconomics across increasing complexities in scale and function. Although some progress has been made, much remains to be done including continued basic and applied research, development of local LID design specifications, local demonstrations, and identifying funding mechanisms for these solutions. Within the Great Plains and beyond, by addressing these technical questions within a local context, the goal of widespread acceptance of LID can be achieved, resulting in more effective and resilient stormwater management.

  1. Polymer Combustion as a Basis for Hybrid Propulsion: A Comprehensive Review and New Numerical Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasily Novozhilov

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid Propulsion is an attractive alternative to conventional liquid and solid rocket motors. This is an active area of research and technological developments. Potential wide application of Hybrid Engines opens the possibility for safer and more flexible space vehicle launching and manoeuvring. The present paper discusses fundamental combustion issues related to further development of Hybrid Rockets. The emphasis is made on the two aspects: (1 properties of potential polymeric fuels, and their modification, and (2 implementation of comprehensive CFD models for combustion in Hybrid Engines. Fundamentals of polymeric fuel combustion are discussed. Further, steps necessary to accurately describe their burning behaviour by means of CFD models are investigated. Final part of the paper presents results of preliminary CFD simulations of fuel burning process in Hybrid Engine using a simplified set-up.

  2. The RIFLE and AKIN classifications for acute kidney injury: a critical and comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, José António; Jorge, Sofia

    2013-02-01

    In May 2004, a new classification, the RIFLE (Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss of kidney function, and End-stage kidney disease) classification, was proposed in order to define and stratify the severity of acute kidney injury (AKI). This system relies on changes in the serum creatinine (SCr) or glomerular filtration rates and/or urine output, and it has been largely demonstrated that the RIFLE criteria allows the identification of a significant proportion of AKI patients hospitalized in numerous settings, enables monitoring of AKI severity, and is a good predictor of patient outcome. Three years later (March 2007), the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) classification, a modified version of the RIFLE, was released in order to increase the sensitivity and specificity of AKI diagnosis. Until now, the benefit of these modifications for clinical practice has not been clearly demonstrated. Here we provide a critical and comprehensive discussion of the two classifications for AKI, focusing on the main differences, advantages and limitations.

  3. Management of symptoms in children with autism spectrum disorders: a comprehensive review of pharmacologic and complementary-alternative medicine treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Lynne C; Sutcliffe, Trenna L; Tanner, Ima S D; Feldman, Heidi M

    2011-01-01

    In the care of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), medical treatment is typically considered an adjunct to educational and behavioral interventions. Nonetheless, large proportions of children with ASD are managed medically and receive both pharmacologic and complementary-alternative medicine (CAM) treatments. Although many medical treatments have been studied in children with ASD, studies vary widely in terms of the sample, sample size, research design, purposes of treatment, and measurements of change. Surprisingly, comprehensive reviews of the options for medical management in ASD are lacking, particularly reviews that address both pharmacologic and CAM treatments. Furthermore, reviews to date tend to emphasize general effects of medication; this perspective contradicts medical practice, which targets particular symptoms during treatment selection and monitoring. This review of 115 studies adds to the ASD treatment literature by (1) including studies of individuals 0 to 22 years of age; (2) aggregating studies of pharmacologic treatments and CAM treatments; and importantly, (3) organizing treatment response by ASD symptoms, differentiating core and associated symptoms.

  4. Dengue viral infections in Pakistan and other Asian countries: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubair, Muhammad; Ashraf, Muhammad; Ahsan, Aitezaz; Nazir, Noor-Ul-Ain; Hanif, Hina; Khan, Haider Ali

    2016-07-01

    Infections due to Dengue virus are widespread throughout the world. Disease starts with mild flu like sickness to a severe intricate condition which results in the death of the patient. Dengue illness has high morbidity and mortality in Pakistan as well as in other Asian countries. The Review article is a discourse analysis that explores the facts about the history, emergence and impact of dengue in Pakistan and other Asian countries. Data was collected from internet sources, mainly using Science Direct and PubMed. The final literature was reviewed and summarised. About 150 articles were identified and 47 articles were shortlisted for final review. Aedesaegypti was found to be a major vector for the transmission and spread of dengue illness. Treatment comprises supportive therapy as no specific treatment was available. During the last couple of years, the incidence of dengue fever was extraordinary in metropolitan cities of Pakistan.

  5. Development a Comprehensive Food Safety System in Serbia- A Narrative Review Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    RADOVIĆ, Vesela; KEKOVIĆ, Zoran; AGIĆ, Samir

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Food safety issues are not a new issue in science, but due to the dynamic changes in the modern world it is as equally important as decades ago. The aim of the study was to address the efforts in the development of a comprehensive food safety system in Serbia, and make specific recommendations regarding the improvement of epidemiological investigation capacity as a useful tool which contributes to improving the public health by joint efforts of epidemiologists and law enforcement. Methods We used the methodology appropriate for social sciences. Results The findings show the current state-of-affairs in the area of food safety and health care system and present some most important weaknesses which have to be overcome. Policy makers need timely and reliable information so that they can make informed decisions to improve the population health in an ongoing process of seeking full membership in the European Union. Conclusion Serbia has to apply significant changes in practice because the current state-of-affairs in the area of food safety and health care system is not so favourable due to numerous both objective and subjective factors. Hence, the policy-makers must work on the development of epidemiological investigation capacities as a firm basis for greater efficiency and effectiveness. Epidemiologists would not stay alone in their work. Law enforcement as well as many other stakeholders should recognize their new role in the process of the development of epidemiological investigation capacity as a tool for the development of a comprehensive food safety system in Serbia. PMID:25909057

  6. Proceedings of the technical review on advances in geothermal reservoir technology---Research in progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippmann, M.J. (ed.)

    1988-09-01

    This proceedings contains 20 technical papers and abstracts describing most of the research activities funded by the Department of Energy (DOE's) Geothermal Reservoir Technology Program, which is under the management of Marshall Reed. The meeting was organized in response to several requests made by geothermal industry representatives who wanted to learn more about technical details of the projects supported by the DOE program. Also, this gives them an opportunity to personally discuss research topics with colleagues in the national laboratories and universities.

  7. A comprehensive review on two-stage integrative schemes for the valorization of dark fermentative effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivagurunathan, Periyasamy; Kuppam, Chandrasekhar; Mudhoo, Ackmez; Saratale, Ganesh D; Kadier, Abudukeremu; Zhen, Guangyin; Chatellard, Lucile; Trably, Eric; Kumar, Gopalakrishnan

    2017-12-21

    This review provides the alternative routes towards the valorization of dark H 2 fermentation effluents that are mainly rich in volatile fatty acids such as acetate and butyrate. Various enhancement and alternative routes such as photo fermentation, anaerobic digestion, utilization of microbial electrochemical systems, and algal system towards the generation of bioenergy and electricity and also for efficient organic matter utilization are highlighted. What is more, various integration schemes and two-stage fermentation for the possible scale up are reviewed. Moreover, recent progress for enhanced performance towards waste stabilization and overall utilization of useful and higher COD present in the organic source into value-added products are extensively discussed.

  8. A comprehensive review of diagnostic and treatment options for granulosa cell tumors of the ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stine, Jessica E; Pierce, Stuart; Soper, John T

    2014-01-01

    Granulosa cell tumors are rare and comprise approximately 2% to 8% of all ovarian malignancies. Research dedicated to these tumors is rare given the low incidence. These tumors are more difficult to diagnose than epithelial ovarian tumors, and understanding how they present may aid in appropriate referral to a gynecologic oncologist. The aim of this review was to summarize the epidemiology, risk factors, and clinical presentation of granulosa cell tumors to aid in provider recognition. We will also explore current diagnostic and treatment modalities with examination of newer, novel treatments. At the end of this review, the reader should understand how to appropriately diagnose and treat these rare malignancies.

  9. Index to Nuclear Safety: a technical progress review by chrology, permuted title, and author, Volume 11(1) through Volume 20(6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrell, W B; Passiakos, M

    1980-06-01

    This index to Nuclear Safety, a bimonthly technical progress review, covers articles published in Nuclear Safety, Volume II, No. 1 (January-February 1970), through Volume 20, No. 6 (November-December 1979). It is divided into three sections: a chronological list of articles (including abstracts) followed by a permuted-title (KWIC) index and an author index. Nuclear Safety, a bimonthly technical progress review prepared by the Nuclear Safety Information Center (NSIC), covers all safety aspects of nuclear power reactors and associated facilities. Over 600 technical articles published in Nuclear Safety in the last ten years are listed in this index.

  10. A comment on Farwell : brain fingerprinting: a comprehensive tutorial review of detection of concealed information with event-related brain potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, E.H.; Ben-Shakhar, G.; Verschuere, B.; Donchin, E.

    2013-01-01

    In a recent issue of Cognitive Neurodynamics Farwell (Cogn Neurodyn 6:115-154, 2012) published a comprehensive tutorial review of the use of Event Related Brain Potentials (ERP) in the detection of concealed information. Farwell’s review covered much of his own work employing his ‘‘brain

  11. School Hopscotch: A Comprehensive Review of K-12 Student Mobility in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Richard O.

    2017-01-01

    This article provides an integrative review of the extant literature on K-12 student mobility in the United States. Student mobility is a widespread phenomenon with significant policy implications. Changing schools is most prevalent among minority and low-income students in urban school districts. There is an ongoing debate about whether student…

  12. Social-Skill Interventions for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students with Disabilities: A Comprehensive Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunyoung; Yan, Min-Chi; Kulkarni, Saili S.

    2017-01-01

    Teachers and researchers have considered social-skill interventions to be an essential component in the development and progress of students with disabilities. However, there is still relatively limited research on these interventions for individuals from culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) backgrounds. This literature review was conducted…

  13. Software Piracy among College Students: A Comprehensive Review of Contributing Factors, Underlying Processes, and Tackling Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhili; Yan, Zheng

    2005-01-01

    This article reviewed empirical studies published in the past 30 years that examined software piracy among college students. It focused on three areas of study: (a) major factors that affect college students' intentions, attitudes, and moral intensity regarding software piracy, (b) various decision-making processes that underlie software piracy…

  14. Comprehensive Public Expenditure Review 2013 : Eye on Budget - Spending for Results

    OpenAIRE

    Ministry of Devolution and Planning

    2013-01-01

    This public expenditure review (PER) provides an assessment of the extent to which expenditure addresses national priorities in an effort to strengthen the link between government policies, planning, and budgeting. This report is prepared to provide a critical assessment of public spending, challenges, weaknesses, and successes in the past three years (2009 to 2012). The report subsequently ...

  15. Vulvar postoperative care, gestalt or evidence based medicine? A comprehensive systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Alon D; Robinson, Christine

    2017-05-01

    This paper reviews all current literature for vulvar postoperative care, and forms a summary of evidence based practice. Scopus, Cochrane Library, CINHAL, Web of Science Core Collection, PubMed, Embase, Google Scholar, clinicaltrials.gov and Medline databases were searched. Various combinations of key-terms were used to identify relevant articles. All identified primary research articles and review articles were then examined with their references in order to identify further relevant studies. The literature was examined within gynecology, gynecologic oncology, surgical oncology, urology, plastic surgery and dermatology. A total of 199 studies were reviewed and 80 were included in this paper. All relevant studies pertaining to the subject were included. Studies were excluded if there was no relevance to the review as deemed by both authors. There remains much room for improvement to minimize postoperative stay, decrease the chances of morbidity and improve patient outcome and satisfaction, while establishing standardized care pathways. Further research and clinical trials are needed in this area to help us to provide evidence-based care to our postoperative vulvar patient population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. In vitro induction of NETosis: Comprehensive live imaging comparison and systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Hoppenbrouwers (Tamara); A. Autar (Anouchska); A.R. Sultan (Andi); T.E. Abraham; W.A. van Cappellen (Gert); A.B. Houtsmuller (Adriaan); W.J.B. van Wamel (Willem); H.M.M. van Beusekom (Heleen); J.W. van Neck (Han); M.P.M. de Maat (Moniek)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstract__Background__ Multiple inducers of in vitro Neutrophil Extracellular Trap (NET) formation (NETosis) have been described. Since there is much variation in study design and results, our aim was to create a systematic review of NETosis inducers and perform a standardized in vitro study

  17. The value of pemetrexed for the treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma: a comprehensive review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boons, C.C.L.M.; Tulder, M.W. van; Burgers, J.A.; Beckeringh, J.J.; Wagner, C.; Hugtenburg, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    This review aims to provide insight into treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) considering effects on survival, quality of life (QoL) and costs, in order to determine the value of pemetrexed in MPM treatment. Cisplatin in combination with pemetrexed or raltitrexed increased survival in

  18. Reviews and Bibliographies Related to Research in Vocational-Technical Education; A Selective Bibliography with Annotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Curtis R.; And Others

    This document contains 74 annotated bibliographic entries related to research in vocational-technical education. The document does not represent an extensive search, is not intended to benefit all persons equally, and no plans are being made to up-date the contents; however, it should be of considerable value to persons concerned with research…

  19. Developing Technical Writing Skills in the Physical Chemistry Laboratory: A Progressive Approach Employing Peer Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gragson, Derek E.; Hagen, John P.

    2010-01-01

    Writing formal "journal-style" lab reports is often one of the requirements chemistry and biochemistry students encounter in the physical chemistry laboratory. Helping students improve their technical writing skills is the primary reason this type of writing is a requirement in the physical chemistry laboratory. Developing these skills is an…

  20. Technical factors that affect anastomotic integrity following esophagectomy: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markar, Sheraz R; Arya, Shobhit; Karthikesalingam, Alan; Hanna, George B

    2013-12-01

    Due to the significant contribution of anastomotic leak, with its disastrous consequences to patient morbidity and mortality, multiple parameters have been proposed and individually meta-analyzed for the formation of the ideal esophagogastric anastomosis following cancer resection. The purpose of this pooled analysis was to examine the main technical parameters that impact on anastomotic integrity. Medline, Embase, trial registries, and conference proceedings were searched. Technical factors evaluated included hand-sewn versus stapled esophagogastric anastomosis (EGA), cervical versus thoracic EGA, minimally invasive versus open esophagectomy, anterior versus posterior route of reconstruction and ischemic conditioning of the gastric conduit. The outcome of interest was the incidence of anastomotic leak, for which pooled odds ratios were calculated for each technical factor. No significant difference in the incidence of anastomotic leak was demonstrated for the following technical factors: hand-sewn versus stapled EGA, minimally invasive versus open esophagectomy, anterior versus posterior route of reconstruction and ischemic conditioning of the gastric conduit. Four randomized, controlled trials comprising 298 patients were included that compared cervical and thoracic EGA. Anastomotic leak was seen more commonly in the cervical group (13.64 %) than in the thoracic group (2.96 %). Pooled analysis demonstrated a significantly increased incidence of anastomotic leak in the cervical group (pooled odds ratio = 4.73; 95 % CI 1.61-13.9; P = 0.005). A tailored surgical approach to the patient's physiology and esophageal cancer stage is the most important factor that influences anastomotic integrity after esophagectomy.

  1. Accreditation System for Technical Education Programmes in India: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, G.; Bhar, C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the Indian technical education system with regard to both its quantitative and qualitative scenario and upholds the value of accreditation in quality improvement and quality assurance of educational programmes. The paper presents a comparison of accreditation systems being followed in some important countries,…

  2. Cost Finding Principles and Procedures. Preliminary Field Review Edition. Technical Report 26.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemer, Gordon; And Others

    This report is part of the Larger Cost Finding Principles Project designed to develop a uniform set of standards, definitions, and alternative procedures that will use accounting and statistical data to find the full cost of resources utilized in the process of producing institutional outputs. This technical report describes preliminary procedures…

  3. The State of Technical Communication in the Former USSR: A Review of Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemliansky, Pavel; St. Amant, Kirk

    2013-01-01

    Over the last 2 decades, the nations that once comprised the Soviet Union have begun to play an increasingly important role in the global economy. As a result, today's technical and professional communicators could find themselves interacting with co-workers, colleagues, and clients in these nations. Being successful in such contexts, however,…

  4. 78 FR 59017 - Meeting of the Mobile Sources Technical Review Subcommittee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... activities being conducted by EPA's Office of Transportation and Air Quality. The preliminary agenda for the... interested parties should monitor the Subcommittee Web site (above) for the latest logistical information... CONTACT: For technical information: Elizabeth Etchells, Designated Federal Officer, Transportation and...

  5. 77 FR 60430 - Meeting of the Mobile Sources Technical Review Subcommittee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... conducted by EPA's Office of Transportation and Air Quality. The preliminary agenda for the meeting and any... parties should monitor the Subcommittee Web site (above) for the latest logistical information. The hotel... technical information: Jennifer Krueger, Designated Federal Officer, Transportation and Climate Division...

  6. 75 FR 16461 - Meeting of the Mobile Sources Technical Review Subcommittee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... being conducted by EPA's Office of Transportation and Air Quality. The preliminary agenda for the... CONTACT: For technical information: John Guy, Designated Federal Officer, Transportation and Regional...-9276; e-mail: [email protected] . For logistical and administrative information: Ms. Cheryl Jackson, U.S...

  7. 75 FR 52737 - Meeting of the Mobile Sources Technical Review Subcommittee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    ....gov . For logistical and administrative information: Ms. Cheryl Jackson, U.S. EPA, Transportation and... activities being conducted by EPA's Office of Transportation and Air Quality. The preliminary agenda for the... for the latest logistical information. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For technical information...

  8. Integrated bioleaching of copper metal from waste printed circuit board-a comprehensive review of approaches and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Abhishek Kumar; Zeng, Xianlai; Li, Jinhui

    2016-11-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (e-waste) is the most rapidly growing waste stream in the world, and the majority of the residues are openly disposed of in developing countries. Waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) make up the major portion of e-waste, and their informal recycling can cause environmental pollution and health risks. Furthermore, the conventional disposal and recycling techniques-mechanical treatments used to recover valuable metals, including copper-are not sustainable in the long term. Chemical leaching is rapid and efficient but causes secondary pollution. Bioleaching is a promising approach, eco-friendly and economically feasible, but it is slower process. This review considers the recycling potential of microbes and suggests an integrated bioleaching approach for Cu extraction and recovery from WPCBs. The proposed recycling system should be more effective, efficient and both technically and economically feasible.

  9. Xenograft biologic mesh in parietal and general surgery: Technical assessment and review of clinical effectiveness and safety data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainfort, A; Denis Hallouard, I; Hartmann, D; Aulagner, G; Francois, Y; Tiffet, O; Barabino, G; Nuiry, O; Armoiry, X

    2016-12-01

    To describe the main technical characteristics of biologic prostheses used for parietal reinforcement and to present the state of the art on their risk/benefit ratio. We conducted a technical analysis of manufacturer specifications of the biologic prostheses that are currently available in France accompanied by a literature review by selecting meta-analyses and systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials and publications of health technology rating agencies. Biological implants for parietal reinforcement are mainly intended for use in a contaminated environment where the use of synthetic prostheses is contra-indicated. We identified fourteen systematic reviews and meta-analyses and one randomized controlled trial. Six ongoing clinical trials were identified as well as two clinical trials that had been interrupted. In the current state of knowledge, there are no high-level evidence data on the therapeutic contribution of biologic prostheses that allow prioritization of the various biologic prostheses according to their characteristics or their different manufacturing processes. Pending the results of current randomized controlled trials to validate the indications and an eventual specific reimbursement, indications for the use of biologic parietal reinforcement prostheses seems to be limited to rare clinical situations and only after collegial discussion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluating clinical competence during nursing education: A comprehensive integrative literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejonqvist, Gun-Britt; Eriksson, Katie; Meretoja, Riitta

    2016-04-01

    This paper explored concepts, definitions and theoretical perspectives evaluating clinical competence during nursing education. The questions were: (i) How is clinical competence evaluated? and (ii) What is evaluated? An integrative review of 19 original research articles from 2009 to 2013 was performed. Results showed that evaluation tools were used in 14, observations in 2 and reflecting writing in 3 studies. The students participated in all but one evaluation alone or together with peers, faculty members or preceptors. Three themes were found: (i) professional practice with a caring perspective; (ii) clinical skills and reflective practice; and (iii) cognitive, affective and psychomotor skills both with a nursing perspective. This review shows an emphasis on structured methods with a risk reducing nursing to tasks and skills why combinations with qualitative evaluations are recommended. A holistic view of competence dominated and in designing evaluations, explicit perspectives and operationalized definitions of clinical competence became evident. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  11. A Comprehensive Review of the Evidence of the Impact of Surface Water Quality on Property Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Nicholls

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The desirability of living on or close to water is reflected in sometimes substantial property price premiums. Water quality has an important influence on property prices, since it impacts a water body’s appearance, capacity to support wildlife, and recreational potential. As water quality continues to be altered by human use and activity, and in light of new threats posed by projected climate and associated environmental change, understanding the impact of changing quality on property prices, and the associated property tax base, is paramount. This paper reviews the body of evidence on this topic to date. Of the 43 distinct studies represented in the 48 publications reviewed, the expected, statistically significant relationship between water quality and property price was demonstrated in at least one of the models developed in all but two studies. As a whole, they provide convincing evidence that clean water has a positive effect on property values.

  12. Applications of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for geochemical and environmental analysis: A comprehensive review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, Russell S., E-mail: Russell.S.Harmon@usace.army.mil [USACE-ERDC International Research Office, 86-88 Blenheim Crescent, Ruislip HA4 7HB (United Kingdom); Russo, Richard E., E-mail: rerusso@lbl.gov [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Mail Stop 70-108B, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Hark, Richard R., E-mail: hark@juniata.edu [Department of Chemistry, Juniata College, Huntingdon, PA 16652 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Applications of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) have been growing rapidly and continue to be extended to a broad range of materials. This paper reviews recent application of LIBS for the analysis of geological and environmental materials, here termed ''GEOLIBS''. Following a summary of fundamentals of the LIBS analytical technique and its potential for chemical analysis in real time, the history of the application of LIBS to the analysis of natural fluids, minerals, rocks, soils, sediments, and other natural materials is described. - Highlights: • LIBS can be used to analyze geological and environmental samples. • Analysis of minerals, rocks, natural fluids, soils, and sediments are described. • Quantitative and qualitative aspects of the LIBS technique are discussed. • Laboratory, field portable and stand-off approaches are reviewed. • A total of 216 references to recent literature are included.

  13. Review of a comprehensive baseline survey in Ethiopia using nutritional indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Lachat, Carl

    2001-01-01

    This paper reviews a cross-sectional baseline survey conducted during 1998-1999 in the Southern Region of Ethiopia in the context of the Southern Region Co-operatives Development and Credit Project. The survey was undertaken prior to the water supply, health and basic sanitation component of the IFAD/BSF joint programme. Baseline surveys are an effective way of determining benchmark indicators for monitoring and evaluating projects. In order to visualise and measure changes in the nutritional...

  14. Antiphospholipid syndrome: a comprehensive review of a complex and multisystemic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomo, I; Segovia, F; Ortega, C; Pierangeli, S

    2009-01-01

    The antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an acquired thombophilia, which is characterized by one or more thrombotic episodes and obstetric complications in the presence of antiphospholipid (aPL) antibodies (Abs). APL Abs are detected by laboratory tests such as lupus anticoagulant (LAC), anticardiolipin (aCL) and anti-Beta2-glycoprotein I (Beta2GPI) Abs. This article reviews the most current aspects of APS with emphasis on the pathophysiology of the disease, clinical manifestations, laboratory tests, and current modalities of treatment.

  15. Honey, Propolis, and Royal Jelly: A Comprehensive Review of Their Biological Actions and Health Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Pasupuleti, Visweswara Rao; Sammugam, Lakhsmi; Ramesh, Nagesvari; Gan, Siew Hua

    2017-01-01

    Background. There are several health benefits that honeybee products such as honey, propolis, and royal jelly claim toward various types of diseases in addition to being food. Scope and Approach. In this paper, the effects of honey, propolis, and royal jelly on different metabolic diseases, cancers, and other diseases have been reviewed. The modes of actions of these products have also been illustrated for purposes of better understanding. Key Findings and Conclusions. An overview of honey, p...

  16. Inflammatory bowel diseases and human reproduction: A comprehensive evidence-based review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomba, Stefano; Sereni, Giuliana; Falbo, Angela; Beltrami, Marina; Lombardini, Silvia; Boni, Maria Chiara; Fornaciari, Giovanni; Sassatelli, Romano; La Sala, Giovanni Battista

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) on human reproduction, we reviewed the current literature using a systematic search for published studies (articles and/or abstracts) without limits for English language. We searched on Medline (through PubMed), the Institute for Scientific Information, the Web of Science and the websites for the registration of controlled trials (http://controlled-trials.com/). Bibliographies of retrieved articles, books, expert opinion review articles and reviewed bibliographies from subject experts were manually searched. Titles and abstracts were screened initially, and potential relevant articles were identified and reviewed. Whenever possible, data were analyzed by comparing IBD patients vs healthy controls, and patients with active IBDs vs those with disease in remission. The effects of IBDs on female fertility, fertility in infertile couples, pregnancy and male infertility were examined separately. Patients with IBDs in remission have normal fertility. At the moment, there is no established guideline for the preservation of fertility in women with IBD undergoing surgery. Further data are needed regarding guidelines for the management of these patients. Data regarding IBDs and infertility are currently completely lacking. Considering the prevalence of intestinal pathology in young adults of childbearing age, this field is of great scientific and clinical interest, opening up important future perspectives. Another important and as yet unexplored point is the response to treatments for infertility in patients with IBDs. In particular, the question is whether the reproductive outcomes (clinical and biological) can be influenced by the IBD of one of the partners. The goals for successful reproductive outcomes in IBD population are correct counseling and disease remission. IBDs significantly affect several reproductive aspects of human (female, male, couple) reproduction. Further data are needed to develop guidelines

  17. Access to Orphan Drugs: A Comprehensive Review of Legislations, Regulations and Policies in 35 Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammie, Todd; Lu, Christine Y; Babar, Zaheer Ud-Din

    2015-01-01

    To review existing regulations and policies utilised by countries to enable patient access to orphan drugs. A review of the literature (1998 to 2014) was performed to identify relevant, peer-reviewed articles. Using content analysis, we synthesised regulations and policies for access to orphan drugs by type and by country. Fifty seven articles and 35 countries were included in this review. Six broad categories of regulation and policy instruments were identified: national orphan drug policies, orphan drug designation, marketing authorization, incentives, marketing exclusivity, and pricing and reimbursement. The availability of orphan drugs depends on individual country's legislation and regulations including national orphan drug policies, orphan drug designation, marketing authorization, marketing exclusivity and incentives such as tax credits to ensure research, development and marketing. The majority of countries (27/35) had in place orphan drug legislation. Access to orphan drugs depends on individual country's pricing and reimbursement policies, which varied widely between countries. High prices and insufficient evidence often limit orphan drugs from meeting the traditional health technology assessment criteria, especially cost-effectiveness, which may influence access. Overall many countries have implemented a combination of legislations, regulations and policies for orphan drugs in the last two decades. While these may enable the availability and access to orphan drugs, there are critical differences between countries in terms of range and types of legislations, regulations and policies implemented. Importantly, China and India, two of the largest countries by population size, both lack national legislation for orphan medicines and rare diseases, which could have substantial negative impacts on their patient populations with rare diseases.

  18. Highly sensitive and selective chemiresistor gas/vapor sensors based on polyaniline nanocomposite: A comprehensive review

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, Sadanand

    2016-01-01

    This review article directs particular attention to some current breakthrough developments in the area of gas sensors based on polyaniline (PANI) nanocomposite. Conducting polymers symbolize a paramount class of organic materials that boost the resistivity towards external stimuli. Nevertheless, PANI-based sensor experiences some disadvantages of relatively low reproducibility, selectivity, and stability. In order to overcome these restrictions, PANI was functionalised or incorporated with na...

  19. A comprehensive review on pre-treatment strategy for lignocellulosic food industry waste: Challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, Rajeev; Jaiswal, Amit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Lignocellulose is a generic term used to describe plant biomass. It is the most abundant renewable carbon resource in the world and is mainly composed of lignin, cellulose and hemicelluloses. Most of the food and food processing industry waste are lignocellulosic in nature with a global estimate of up to 1.3 billion tons/year. Lignocellulose, on hydrolysis, releases reducing sugars which is used for the production of bioethanol, biogas, organic acids, enzymes and biosorbents. However, structural conformation, high lignin content and crystalline cellulose hinder its use for value addition. Pre-treatment strategies facilitate the exposure of more cellulose and hemicelluloses for enzymatic hydrolysis. The present article confers about the structure of lignocellulose and how it influences enzymatic degradation emphasising the need for pre-treatments along with a comprehensive analysis and categorisation of the same. Finally, this article concludes with a detailed discussion on microbial/enzymatic inhibitors that arise post pre-treatment and strategies to eliminate them. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Buried Penis: A Comprehensive Review on Aetiology, Classification and Plastic-Surgical Reconstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirastschijski, Ursula; Schwenke, Carla; Melchior, Sebastian; Cedidi, Can

    2017-04-01

    The buried penis, also called hidden or concealed penis, is associated with morbid obesity or seen after massive weight loss in adults. In highly obese, bariatric patients, the penile shaft invaginates into the pre-pubic fat masses, resulting in voiding problems and urine wetting of the surrounding tissue. This leads to infection, skin maceration, lichen sclerosus and eczema. Sole circumcision without mons pubis plasty or penile fixation does not suffice to alleviate the discomfort and leads to recurrence. In post-bariatric patients, penile retraction is only partially present or absent, but abundant pre-pubic skin tissue forms an apron covering the genitals with problems in hygiene and sexual intercourse. In these cases, plastic-reconstructive interventions include mons pubis plasty with or without penile fixation. This article provides a comprehensive overview on aetiology, a novel classification of the buried penis and plastic-surgical reconstructive interventions matched to the stages of the condition. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Comprehensive review and compilation of pretreatments for mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordeleau, É L; Droste, R L

    2011-01-01

    Organic matter hydrolysis prior to anaerobic digestion has been shown to improve biogas production (30-50%) and reduce solids (20-60%) by ultrasound, chemical, conventional heating, and microwave pretreatments. Numerous studies have been performed to determine the extent of digestion improvement but few focus on financial feasibility of these processes. A comprehensive model was created using Microsoft Excel and its Visual Basic Assistant to evaluate pretreatment permutations for conventional wastewater treatment plants. The four above-mentioned processes were evaluated for energetic and financial demands. Well-established energy equations and wastewater characteristics, both average and high, were used. Average and high flows were 460 and 750×10(3) m3/d, respectively. Net costs per influent flow for ultrasound, chemical, conventional heating, and microwave were 0.0166, 0.0217, 0.0124, 0.0119 $/m3 and 0.0264, 0.0357, 0.0187, and 0.0162 $/m3 for average and high conditions, respectively. The average cost increase from results excluding pretreatment use for all processes was 0.003 and 0.0055 $/m3 for average and high conditions, respectively. No matter the permutation, pretreatments requiring more energy to achieve required hydrolysis levels were costlier. If energetic recoveries are substantial, dewaterability is positively affected, and solids meet environmental constraints to be handled and disposed at lower costs, pretreatments can be viable.

  2. Association between Mastication, the Hippocampus, and the HPA Axis: A Comprehensive Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Kagaku; Zhou, Qian; Niwa, Masami; Kubo, Kin-ya

    2017-01-01

    Mastication is mainly involved in food intake and nutrient digestion with the aid of teeth. Mastication is also important for preserving and promoting general health, including hippocampus-dependent cognition. Both animal and human studies indicate that mastication influences hippocampal functions through the end product of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, glucocorticoid (GC). Epidemiologic studies suggest that masticatory dysfunction in aged individuals, such as that resulting from tooth loss and periodontitis, acting as a source of chronic stress, activates the HPA axis, leading to increases in circulating GCs and eventually inducing various physical and psychological diseases, such as cognitive impairment, cardiovascular disorders, and osteoporosis. Recent studies demonstrated that masticatory stimulation or chewing during stressful conditions suppresses the hyperactivity of the HPA axis via GCs and GC receptors within the hippocampus, and ameliorates chronic stress-induced hippocampus-dependent cognitive deficits. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of current research regarding the association between mastication, the hippocampus, and HPA axis activity. We also discuss several potential molecular mechanisms involved in the interactions between mastication, hippocampal function, and HPA axis activity. PMID:28771175

  3. Recent Advances in the Surgical Treatment of Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghunandan Venkat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Differentiated thyroid cancers have become one of the fastest growing malignancies in the world. While surgery has remained the cornerstone of management of these tumors, the surgical approach has seen numerous innovations over the past few decades. The use of video-assistance and robotics has revolutionized thyroid surgery. This paper provides a comprehensive evaluation of the different approaches to thyroid surgery, the utility of prophylactic and therapeutic lymph node dissection, and evidence-based guidelines in the treatment of differentiated thyroid cancers. Minimally invasive video-ssisted thyroidectomy is both safe and effective in the hands of the trained surgeon and, in selected patient populations, has comparative perioperative morbidity and better cosmesis as compared to conventional open thyroidectomy. It is universally accepted that therapeutic central lymph node dissection should be performed when metastatic lymph nodes are identified on physical exam, ultrasound, or intraoperatively. In the absence of overt nodal metastasis, the role of elective prophylactic central lymph node dissection remains a matter of debate and prospective, randomized studies are warranted to evaluate the utility of this procedure.

  4. Association between Mastication, the Hippocampus, and the HPA Axis: A Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Kagaku; Zhou, Qian; Niwa, Masami; Kubo, Kin-Ya

    2017-08-03

    Mastication is mainly involved in food intake and nutrient digestion with the aid of teeth. Mastication is also important for preserving and promoting general health, including hippocampus-dependent cognition. Both animal and human studies indicate that mastication influences hippocampal functions through the end product of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, glucocorticoid (GC). Epidemiologic studies suggest that masticatory dysfunction in aged individuals, such as that resulting from tooth loss and periodontitis, acting as a source of chronic stress, activates the HPA axis, leading to increases in circulating GCs and eventually inducing various physical and psychological diseases, such as cognitive impairment, cardiovascular disorders, and osteoporosis. Recent studies demonstrated that masticatory stimulation or chewing during stressful conditions suppresses the hyperactivity of the HPA axis via GCs and GC receptors within the hippocampus, and ameliorates chronic stress-induced hippocampus-dependent cognitive deficits. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of current research regarding the association between mastication, the hippocampus, and HPA axis activity. We also discuss several potential molecular mechanisms involved in the interactions between mastication, hippocampal function, and HPA axis activity.

  5. The vertebral nerve: A comprehensive review of its form and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johal, Jaspreet; BelElary, Sharath S; Lax, Elizabeth A; Maharaja, Gopi K; Oskouian, Rod J; Loukas, Marios; Tubbs, R Shane

    2017-07-01

    The literature is littered with variable and scant reports of the vertebral nerve. The present paper reviews the literature regarding this nervous structure of the neck and attempts to clarify a number of issues surrounding its form, function, and implications of surgical manipulation. The nerve may arise from the stellate ganglion or the ansa subclavia, amongst a number of other structures. Additionally, the terminal insertion of the vertebral nerve varies in the reported literature, with authors observing various terminations. Animal models of the vertebral nerve have limited value, as variations between species and with species have been observed. This review also indicates that contradictory evidence exists regarding the clinical implications of vertebral nerve damage. Although irritation may result in ocular disturbance, hearing loss, headaches, and dizziness, a high degree of incongruity exists around whether or not any clinical findings will actually be observed. Based on our review of the available literature and recent cadaveric research, it appears it may be more logical to classify the vertebral nerve as a variable ramus communicans that connects the stellate or inferior cervical ganglia to the lower cervical spinal nerves and not a structure that ascends entirely with the vertebral artery to enter the cranium. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A Comprehensive Review on Chemical Profiling of Nelumbo Nucifera: Potential for Drug Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bhesh Raj; Gautam, Lekh Nath S; Adhikari, Deepak; Karki, Rajendra

    2017-01-01

    Nelumbo nucifera, also known as sacred lotus, has primarily been used as food throughout the Asian continent, and its medicinal values have been described in Ayurvedic and Traditional Chinese Medicine. The purpose of this study is to systematically characterize the chemical profiling and pharmacological activities of N. nucifera. Herein, we critically reviewed and analysed the phytochemical and pharmacological reports of N. nucifera. Our search for the keyword 'Nelumbo nucifera pharmacology' in all databases reported in Web of Science yielded 373 results excluding reviews and abstracts in document types. Two hundred and forty-three spectrum natural compounds from different parts of N. nucifera belonging to diverse chemical groups, including alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, terpenoids, steroids, fatty acids, proteins, minerals, and vitamins have been reported. In addition, distinct pharmacological activities, mainly against cancer, microbial infection, diabetes, inflammation, atherosclerosis, and obesity, have been associated with crude extracts, fractions, and isolated compounds. This review highlights potential use of neferine, liensinine, isoliensinine, and nuciferine in clinical trials. In depth, mechanism of the potential chemical entities from N. nucifera via structure activity relationship needs to be explored to guarantee the stability and safety for the clinical use. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Warburgia: a comprehensive review of the botany, traditional uses and phytochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Carmen M; Viljoen, Alvaro M

    2015-05-13

    The genus Warburgia (Canellaceae) is represented by several medicinal trees found exclusively on the African continent. Traditionally, extracts and products produced from Warburgia species are regarded as important natural African antibiotics and have been used extensively as part of traditional healing practices for the treatment of fungal, bacterial and protozoal infections in both humans and animals. We here aim to collate and review the fragmented information on the ethnobotany, phytochemistry and biological activities of ethnomedicinally important Warburgia species and present recommendations for future research. Peer-reviewed articles using "Warburgia" as search term ("all fields") were retrieved from Scopus, ScienceDirect, SciFinder and Google Scholar with no specific time frame set for the search. In addition, various books were consulted that contained botanical and ethnopharmacological information. The ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry and biological activity of Warburgia are reviewed. Most of the biological activities are attributed to the drimane sesquiterpenoids, including polygodial, warburganal, muzigadial, mukaadial and ugandensial, flavonoids and miscellaneous compounds present in the various species. In addition to anti-infective properties, Warburgia extracts are also used to treat a wide range of ailments, including stomach aches, fever and headaches, which may also be a manifestation of infections. The need to record anecdotal evidence is emphasised and conservation efforts are highlighted to contribute to the protection and preservation of one of Africa's most coveted botanical resources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Electrochemical biosensors based on nanofibres for cardiac biomarker detection: A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Babak; Ghani, Mozhdeh; Shoushtari, Ahmad Mousavi; Rabiee, Mohammad

    2016-04-15

    The vital importance of early and accurate diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) to prevent the irreversible damage or even death of patients has driven the development of biosensor devices for detection and quantification of cardiac biomarkers. Electrochemical biosensors offer rapid sensing, low cost, portability and ease of use. Over the past few years, nanotechnology has contributed to a tremendous improvement in the sensitivity of biosensors. In this review, the authors summarise the state-of-the-art of the application of one particular type of nanostructured material, i.e. nanofibres, for use in electrochemical biosensors for the ultrasensitive detection of cardiac biomarkers. A new way of classifying the nanofibre-based electrochemical biosensors according to the electrical conductance and the type of nanofibres is presented. Some key data from each article reviewed are highlighted, including the mechanism of detection, experimental conditions and the response range of the biosensor. The primary aim of this review is to emphasise the prospects for nanofibres for the future development of biosensors in diagnosis of CVDs as well as considering how to improve their characteristics for application in medicine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Discharge communication practices and healthcare provider and patient preferences, satisfaction and comprehension: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newnham, Harvey; Barker, Anna; Ritchie, Edward; Hitchcock, Karen; Gibbs, Harry; Holton, Sara

    2017-09-07

    To systematically review the available evidence about hospital discharge communication practices and identify which practices were preferred by patients and healthcare providers, improved patient and provider satisfaction, and increased patients' understanding of their medical condition. OVID Medline, Web of Science, ProQuest, PubMed and CINAHL plus. Databases were searched for peer-reviewed, English-language papers, published to August 2016, of empirical research using quantitative or qualitative methods. Reference lists in the papers meeting inclusion criteria were searched to identify further papers. Of the 3489 articles identified, 30 met inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Much research to date has focused on the use of printed material and person-based discharge communication methods including verbal instructions (either in person or via telephone calls). Several studies have examined the use of information technology (IT) such as computer-generated and video-based discharge communication practices. Utilizing technology to deliver discharge information is preferred by healthcare providers and patients, and improves patients' understanding of their medical condition and discharge instructions. Well-designed IT solutions may improve communication, coordination and retention of information, and lead to improved outcomes for patients, their families, caregivers and primary healthcare providers as well as expediting the task for hospital staff.

  10. A comprehensive review of 46 exercise treatment studies in fibromyalgia (1988–2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kim Dupree; Adams, Dianne; Winters-Stone, Kerri; Burckhardt, Carol S

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to: (1) locate all exercise treatment studies of fibromyalgia (FM) patients from 1988 through 2005, (2) present in tabular format the key details of each study and (3) to provide a summary and evaluation of each study for exercise and health outcomes researchers. Exercise intervention studies in FM were retrieved through Cochrane Collaboration Reviews and key word searches of the medical literature, conference proceedings and bibliographies. Studies were reviewed for inclusion using a standardized process. A table summarizing subject characteristics, exercise mode, timing, duration, frequency, intensity, attrition and outcome variables was developed. Results, conclusions and comments were made for each study. Forty-six exercise treatment studies were found with a total of 3035 subjects. The strongest evidence was in support of aerobic exercise a treatment prescription for fitness and symptom and improvement. In general, the greatest effect and lowest attrition occurred in exercise programs that were of lower intensity than those of higher intensity. Exercise is a crucial part of treatment for people with FM. Increased health and fitness, along with symptom reduction, can be expected with exercise that is of appropriate intensity, self-modified, and symptom-limited. Exercise and health outcomes researchers are encouraged to use the extant literature to develop effective health enhancing programs for people with FM and to target research to as yet understudied FM subpopulations, such as children, men, older adults, ethnic minorities and those with common comorbidities of osteoarthritis and obesity. PMID:16999856

  11. A comprehensive review of 46 exercise treatment studies in fibromyalgia (1988–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winters-Stone Kerri

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this review was to: (1 locate all exercise treatment studies of fibromyalgia (FM patients from 1988 through 2005, (2 present in tabular format the key details of each study and (3 to provide a summary and evaluation of each study for exercise and health outcomes researchers. Exercise intervention studies in FM were retrieved through Cochrane Collaboration Reviews and key word searches of the medical literature, conference proceedings and bibliographies. Studies were reviewed for inclusion using a standardized process. A table summarizing subject characteristics, exercise mode, timing, duration, frequency, intensity, attrition and outcome variables was developed. Results, conclusions and comments were made for each study. Forty-six exercise treatment studies were found with a total of 3035 subjects. The strongest evidence was in support of aerobic exercise a treatment prescription for fitness and symptom and improvement. In general, the greatest effect and lowest attrition occurred in exercise programs that were of lower intensity than those of higher intensity. Exercise is a crucial part of treatment for people with FM. Increased health and fitness, along with symptom reduction, can be expected with exercise that is of appropriate intensity, self-modified, and symptom-limited. Exercise and health outcomes researchers are encouraged to use the extant literature to develop effective health enhancing programs for people with FM and to target research to as yet understudied FM subpopulations, such as children, men, older adults, ethnic minorities and those with common comorbidities of osteoarthritis and obesity.

  12. Patients' views on student participation in general practice consultations: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mol, S S L; Peelen, J H; Kuyvenhoven, M M

    2011-01-01

    Recruiting general practitioners (GPs) to host students for their clerkship is difficult. GPs often assume patients dislike consulting a student-doctor. To systematically review the evidence on patient satisfaction regarding the presence/participation of a student during a consultation in general practice. Medline search (January 1990 to July 2010). One reviewer extracted data from the articles fulfilling the criteria which were set, and a second reviewer checked these for accuracy. Due to heterogeneity a quantitative synthesis could not be performed. Sixteen studies fulfilled the criteria. The majority of patients gave permission for the presence or participation of a student-doctor. Emotional problems and the need for an intimate examination were the main reasons for refusal. Satisfaction was high. Benefits the patients mentioned were: more time, a more thorough physical examination, better patient education and getting a second opinion. Altruism also played a role. In general, the attitude of patients towards student-doctors is positive. There is a general reluctance to see a student-doctor for emotional or intimate problems. Future research should focus on the effect of the preceptor's presence in the latter case. Another interesting topic would be the effect on consent and appreciation of the student-doctor when there are differences in cultural background between patient and student.

  13. Love Canal Emergency Declaration Area habitability study. Volume 5. Peer review summary: TRC (Technical Review Committee) responses. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-07-01

    Environmental studies were conducted to provide data that could be used by the Commissioner of Health for the State of New York in determining whether the Emergency Declaration Area surrounding the Love Canal hazardous-waste site is habitable. These volumes (II through IV) were reviewed by a peer-review panel of expert scientists. The scientists concluded that each of the three environmental studies was well planned and well executed. Volume V summarizes the peer review and gives additional information or clarifications as requested during the peer review. Volume V also provides additional supplemental statistical analyses requested by the peer reviewer panel.

  14. SU-E-CAMPUS-J-04: Image Guided Radiation Therapy (IGRT): Review of Technical Standards and Credentialing in Radiotherapy Clinical Trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giaddui, T; Chen, W; Yu, J; Gong, Y; Galvin, J; Xiao, Y [Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Cui, Y; Yin, F [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Craig, T; Dawson, L [The Princess Margaret Cancer Centre - UHN, Toronto, ON (Canada); Al-Hallaq, H; Chmura, S [The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL. (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To review IGRT credentialing experience and unexpected technical issues encountered in connection with advanced radiotherapy technologies as implemented in RTOG clinical trials. To update IGRT credentialing procedures with the aim of improving the quality of the process, and to increase the proportion of IGRT credentialing compliance. To develop a living disease site-specific IGRT encyclopedia. Methods: Numerous technical issues were encountered during the IGRT credentialing process. The criteria used for credentialing review were based on: image quality; anatomy included in fused data sets and shift results. Credentialing requirements have been updated according to the AAPM task group reports for IGRT to ensure that all required technical items are included in the quality review process. Implementation instructions have been updated and expanded for recent protocols. Results: Technical issues observed during the credentialing review process include, but are not limited to: poor quality images; inadequate image acquisition region; poor data quality; shifts larger than acceptable; no soft tissue surrogate. The updated IGRT credentialing process will address these issues and will also include the technical items required from AAPM: TG 104; TG 142 and TG 179 reports. An instruction manual has been developed describing a remote credentialing method for reviewers. Submission requirements are updated, including images/documents as well as facility questionnaire. The review report now includes summary of the review process and the parameters that reviewers check. We have reached consensus on the minimum IGRT technical requirement for a number of disease sites. RTOG 1311(NRG-BR002A Phase 1 Study of Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) for the Treatment of Multiple Metastases) is an example, here; the protocol specified the minimum requirement for each anatomical sites (with/without fiducials). Conclusion: Technical issues are identified and reported. IGRT

  15. Interventions to Address Medical Conditions and Health-Risk Behaviors Among Persons With Serious Mental Illness: A Comprehensive Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, Emma E.; Baller, Julia; Azrin, Susan T.; Juliano-Bult, Denise; Daumit, Gail L.

    2016-01-01

    People with serious mental illness (SMI) have mortality rates 2 to 3 times higher than the overall US population, largely due to cardiovascular disease. The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors such as obesity and diabetes mellitus and other conditions, such as HIV/AIDS, is heightened in this group. Based on the recommendations of a National Institute of Mental Health stakeholder meeting, we conducted a comprehensive review examining the strength of the evidence surrounding interventions to address major medical conditions and health-risk behaviors among persons with SMI. Peer-reviewed studies were identified using 4 major research databases. Randomized controlled trials and observational studies testing interventions to address medical conditions and risk behaviors among persons with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder between January 2000 and June 2014 were included. Information was abstracted from each study by 2 trained reviewers, who also rated study quality using a standard tool. Following individual study review, the quality of the evidence (high, medium, low) and the effectiveness of various interventions were synthesized. 108 studies were included. The majority of studies examined interventions to address overweight/obesity (n = 80). The strength of the evidence was high for 4 interventions: metformin and behavioral interventions had beneficial effects on weight loss; and bupropion and varenicline reduced tobacco smoking. The strength of the evidence was low for most other interventions reviewed. Future studies should test long-term interventions to cardiovascular risk factors and health-risk behaviors. In addition, future research should study implementation strategies to effectively translate efficacious interventions into real-world settings. PMID:26221050

  16. Role of trophic factors GDNF, IGF-1 and VEGF in major depressive disorder: A comprehensive review of human studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ajaykumar N; da Costa e Silva, Bruno Fernando Borges; Soares, Jair C; Carvalho, André F; Quevedo, Joao

    2016-06-01

    The neurotrophin hypothesis of major depressive disorder (MDD) postulates that this illness results from aberrant neurogenesis in brain regions that regulates emotion and memory. Notwithstanding this theory has primarily implicated BDNF in the neurobiology of MDD. Recent evidence suggests that other trophic factors namely GDNF, VEGF and IGF-1 may also be involved. The present review aimed to critically summarize evidence regarding changes in GDNF, IGF-1 and VEGF in individuals with MDD compared to healthy controls. In addition, we also evaluated the role of these mediators as potential treatment response biomarkers for MDD. A comprehensive review of original studies studies measuring peripheral, central or mRNA levels of GDNF, IGF-1 or VEGF in patients with MDD was conducted. The PubMed/MEDLINE database was searched for peer-reviewed studies published in English through June 2nd, 2015. Most studies reported a reduction in peripheral GDNF and its mRNA levels in MDD patients versus controls. In contrast, IGF-1 levels in MDD patients compared to controls were discrepant across studies. Finally, most studies reported high peripheral VEGF levels and mRNA expression in MDD patients compared to healthy controls. GDNF, IGF-1 and VEGF levels and their mRNA expression appear to be differentially altered in MDD patients compared to healthy individuals, indicating that these molecules might play an important role in the pathophysiology of depression and antidepressant action of therapeutic interventions. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Rapid Damage Assessment by Means of Multi-Temporal SAR — A Comprehensive Review and Outlook to Sentinel-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Plank

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Fast crisis response after natural disasters, such as earthquakes and tropical storms, is necessary to support, for instance, rescue, humanitarian, and reconstruction operations in the crisis area. Therefore, rapid damage mapping after a disaster is crucial, i.e., to detect the affected area, including grade and type of damage. Thereby, satellite remote sensing plays a key role due to its fast response, wide field of view, and low cost. With the increasing availability of remote sensing data, numerous methods have been developed for damage assessment. This article gives a comprehensive review of these techniques focusing on multi-temporal SAR procedures for rapid damage assessment: interferometric coherence and intensity correlation. The review is divided into six parts: First, methods based on coherence; second, the ones using intensity correlation; and third, techniques using both methodologies combined to increase the accuracy of the damage assessment are reviewed. Next, studies using additional data (e.g., GIS and optical imagery to support the damage assessment and increase its accuracy are reported. Moreover, selected studies on post-event SAR damage assessment techniques and examples of other applications of the interferometric coherence are presented. Then, the preconditions for a successful worldwide application of multi-temporal SAR methods for damage assessment and the limitations of current SAR satellite missions are reported. Finally, an outlook to the Sentinel-1 SAR mission shows possible solutions of these limitations, enabling a worldwide applicability of the presented damage assessment methods.

  18. Schema therapy for borderline personality disorder: a comprehensive review of its empirical foundations, effectiveness and implementation possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sempértegui, Gabriela A; Karreman, Annemiek; Arntz, Arnoud; Bekker, Marrie H J

    2013-04-01

    Borderline personality disorder is a serious psychiatric disorder for which the effectiveness of the current pharmacotherapeutical and psychotherapeutic approaches has shown to be limited. In the last decades, schema therapy has increased in popularity as a treatment of borderline personality disorder; however, systematic evaluation of both effectiveness and empirical evidence for the theoretical background of the therapy is limited. This literature review comprehensively evaluates the current empirical status of schema therapy for borderline personality disorder. We first described the theoretical framework and reviewed its empirical foundations. Next, we examined the evidence regarding effectiveness and implementability. We found evidence for a considerable number of elements of Young's schema model; however, the strength of the results varies and there are also mixed results and some empirical blanks in the theory. The number of studies on effectiveness is small, but reviewed findings suggest that schema therapy is a promising treatment. In Western-European societies, the therapy could be readily implemented as a cost-effective strategy with positive economic consequences. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A Comprehensive and System Review for the Pharmacological Mechanism of Action of Rhein, an Active Anthraquinone Ingredient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Sun

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractRhein is a major medicinal ingredient isolated from several traditional Chinese medicines, including Rheum palmatum L., Aloe barbadensis Miller, Cassia angustifolia Vahl., and Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. Rhein has various pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antioxidant, antifibrosis, hepatoprotective, and nephroprotective activities. Although more than 100 articles in PubMed are involved in the pharmacological mechanism of action of rhein, only a few focus on the relationship of crosstalk among multiple pharmacological mechanisms. The mechanism of rhein involves multiple pathways which contain close interactions. From the overall perspective, the pathways which are related to the targets of rhein, are initiated by the membrane receptor. Then, MAPK and PI3K-AKT parallel signaling pathways are activated, and several downstream pathways are affected, thereby eventually regulating cell cycle and apoptosis. The therapeutic effect of rhein, as a multitarget molecule, is the synergistic and comprehensive result of the involvement of multiple pathways rather than the blocking or activation of a single signaling pathway. We review the pharmacological mechanisms of action of rhein by consulting literature published in the last 100 years in PubMed. We then summarize these pharmacological mechanisms from a comprehensive, interactive, and crosstalk perspective. In general, the molecular mechanism of action of drug must be understood from a systematic and holistic perspective, which can provide a theoretical basis for precise treatment and rational drug use.

  20. Toolbox of assessment tools of technical skills in otolaryngology-head and neck surgery: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbé, Mathilde; Young, Meredith; Nguyen, Lily H P

    2017-10-08

    To support the development of programs of assessment of technical skills in the operating room (OR), we systematically reviewed the literature to identify assessment tools specific to otolaryngology-head and neck surgery (OTL-HNS) core procedures and summarized their characteristics. We systematically searched Embase, MEDLINE, PubMed, and Cochrane to identify and report on assessment tools that can be used to assess residents' technical surgical skills in the operating room for OTL-HNS core procedures. Of the 736 unique titles retrieved, 16 articles met inclusion criteria, covering 11 different procedures (in otology, rhinology, laryngology, head and neck, and general otolaryngology). The tools were composed of a task-specific checklist and/or global rating scale and were developed in the OR, on human cadavers, or in a simulation setting. Our study reports on published tools for assessing technical skills for OTL-HNS residents during core procedures conducted in the OR. These assessment tools could facilitate the provision of timely feedback to trainees including specific goals for improvement. However, the paucity of publications suggests little agreement on how to best perform work-based direct-observation assessment for core surgical procedures in OTL-HNS. The sparsity of tools specific to OTL-HNS may become a barrier to a fluid transition to competency-based medical education. Laryngoscope, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.