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Sample records for comprehensive technical review

  1. A COMPREHENSIVE TECHNICAL REVIEW OF THE DEMONSTRATION BULK VITRIFICATION SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SCHAUS, P.S.

    2006-01-01

    In May 2006, CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc. chartered an Expert Review Panel (ERP) to review the current status of the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS). It is the consensus of the ERP that bulk vitrification is a technology that requires further development and evaluation to determine its potential for meeting the Hanford waste stabilization mission. No fatal flaws (issues that would jeopardize the overall DBVS mission that cannot be mitigated) were found, given the current state of the project. However, a number of technical issues were found that could significantly affect the project's ability to meet its overall mission as stated in the project ''Justification of Mission Need'' document, if not satisfactorily resolved. The ERP recognizes that the project has changed from an accelerated schedule demonstration project to a formally chartered project that must be in full compliance with DOE 413.3 requirements. The perspective of the ERP presented herein, is measured against the formally chartered project as stated in the approved Justification of Mission Need document. A justification of Mission Need document was approved in July 2006 which defined the objectives for the DBVS Project. In this document, DOE concluded that bulk vitrification is a viable technology that requires additional development to determine its potential applicability to treatment of a portion of the Hanford low activity waste. The DBVS mission need statement now includes the following primary objectives: (1) process approximately 190,000 gallons of Tank S-109 waste into fifty 100 metric ton boxes of vitrified product; (2) store and dispose of these boxes at Hanford's Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF); (3) evaluate the waste form characteristics; (4) gather pilot plant operability data, and (5) develop the overall life cycle system performance of bulk vitrification and produce a comparison of the bulk vitrification process to building a second LAW Immobilization facility or other

  2. A Comprehensive Review of Selected Business Programs in Community Colleges and Area Vocational-Technical Centers. Program Review Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational, Adult, and Community Education.

    In 1988, a review was conducted of the business component of associate in arts and associate in science (AS) degree programs, and of the certificate programs in business in Florida community colleges and area vocational-technical centers. Focusing primarily on business programs in marketing, general business management, and small business…

  3. The 2001 Comprehensive Review

    CERN Multimedia

    Åkesson, T

    A new approach for CERN to monitor the LHC-experiments' technical and scientific progress was introduced last year: The Comprehensive Reviews. A significant fraction of the full LHCC committee is mobilized during two days to review the complete project status. This event took place for ATLAS during 2-3 of July this year. With a rather exhaustive program we presented our status in 39 talks. It was a demanding and close to impossible task for the referees to comprehend the ATLAS status by listening to this massive amount of information, but from the ATLAS point-of-view we judged it important that the referees were exposed to both the progress and the remaining problem areas. The referees were satisfied with our status; probably more so this year than last year. They judged the main critical issues to be: The schedules of the barrel toroid, the end-cap TRT, the LAr barrel and end-cap A, and the MDTs. The procurement of radiation hard electronics was also thought to be a critical issue. They were informed of ...

  4. Psychodermatology: A comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savita Yadav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychodermatology is an interesting domain of dermatology that overlaps with psychiatry. This arena in dermatology has received limited diligence, partly due to lack of training in this realm. We present here a comprehensive review of salient features and treatment updates in primary psychiatric dermatoses and have also discussed the role of psyche in psychophysiological cutaneous disorders. Secondary psychiatric morbidity is relatively common among patients visiting the dermatologists but often overlooked and uncared for. Dermatologist should be able to initiate basic pharmacotherapy, should be knowledgeable about various non-pharmacological treatments and know the right time to refer the patient to the psychiatrist. Awareness and pertinent treatment of psychodermatological disorders among dermatologists will lead to a more holistic treatment approach and better prognosis in this unique group of patients.

  5. Independent technical review, handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    Purpose Provide an independent engineering review of the major projects being funded by the Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. The independent engineering review will address questions of whether the engineering practice is sufficiently developed to a point where a major project can be executed without significant technical problems. The independent review will focus on questions related to: (1) Adequacy of development of the technical base of understanding; (2) Status of development and availability of technology among the various alternatives; (3) Status and availability of the industrial infrastructure to support project design, equipment fabrication, facility construction, and process and program/project operation; (4) Adequacy of the design effort to provide a sound foundation to support execution of project; (5) Ability of the organization to fully integrate the system, and direct, manage, and control the execution of a complex major project

  6. Independent technical review, handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    Purpose Provide an independent engineering review of the major projects being funded by the Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. The independent engineering review will address questions of whether the engineering practice is sufficiently developed to a point where a major project can be executed without significant technical problems. The independent review will focus on questions related to: (1) Adequacy of development of the technical base of understanding; (2) Status of development and availability of technology among the various alternatives; (3) Status and availability of the industrial infrastructure to support project design, equipment fabrication, facility construction, and process and program/project operation; (4) Adequacy of the design effort to provide a sound foundation to support execution of project; (5) Ability of the organization to fully integrate the system, and direct, manage, and control the execution of a complex major project.

  7. Engineering Technical Review Planning Briefing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Terrie

    2012-01-01

    The general topics covered in the engineering technical planning briefing are 1) overviews of NASA, Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and Engineering, 2) the NASA Systems Engineering(SE) Engine and its implementation , 3) the NASA Project Life Cycle, 4) MSFC Technical Management Branch Services in relation to the SE Engine and the Project Life Cycle , 5) Technical Reviews, 6) NASA Human Factor Design Guidance , and 7) the MSFC Human Factors Team. The engineering technical review portion of the presentation is the primary focus of the overall presentation and will address the definition of a design review, execution guidance, the essential stages of a technical review, and the overall review planning life cycle. Examples of a technical review plan content, review approaches, review schedules, and the review process will be provided and discussed. The human factors portion of the presentation will focus on the NASA guidance for human factors. Human factors definition, categories, design guidance, and human factor specialist roles will be addressed. In addition, the NASA Systems Engineering Engine description, definition, and application will be reviewed as background leading into the NASA Project Life Cycle Overview and technical review planning discussion.

  8. Mechanical engineering department technical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, R.B.; Denney, R.M.

    1981-01-01

    The Mechanical Engineering Department Technical Review is published to: (1) inform the readers of various technical activities within the department, (2) promote exchange of ideas, and (3) give credit to the personnel who are achieving the results. The report is formatted into two parts: technical acievements and publication abstracts. The first is divided into eight sections, one for each division in the department providing the reader with the names of the personnel and the division accomplishing the work

  9. Mechanical Engineering Department. Technical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simecka, W.B.; Condouris, R.A.; Talaber, C. (eds.)

    1980-01-01

    The Mechanical Engineering Department Technical Review is published to (1) inform the readers of various technical activities within the Department, (2) promote exchange of ideas, and (3) give credit to the personnel who are achieving the results. The report is formatted into two parts: technical achievements and publication abstracts. The first is divided into eight sections, one for each Division in the Department providing the reader with the names of the personnel and the Division accomplishing the work.

  10. Mechanical Engineering Department Technical Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, R.B.; Denney, R.M.

    1981-01-01

    The Mechanical Engineering Department Technical Review is published to inform readers of various technical activities within the Department, promote exchange of ideas, and give credit to personnel who are achieving the results. The report is presented in two parts: technical achievements and publication abstracts. The first is divided into seven sections, each of which reports on an engineering division and its specific activities related to nuclear tests, nuclear explosives, weapons, energy systems, engineering sciences, magnetic fusion, and materials fabrication

  11. Mechanical Engineering Department. Technical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simecka, W.B.; Condouris, R.A.; Talaber, C.

    1980-01-01

    The Mechanical Engineering Department Technical Review is published to (1) inform the readers of various technical activities within the Department, (2) promote exchange of ideas, and (3) give credit to the personnel who are achieving the results. The report is formatted into two parts: technical achievements and publication abstracts. The first is divided into eight sections, one for each Division in the Department providing the reader with the names of the personnel and the Division accomplishing the work

  12. Cardiac rehabilitation: a comprehensive review

    OpenAIRE

    Lear, Scott A; Ignaszewski, Andrew

    2001-01-01

    Abstract Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is a commonly used treatment for men and women with cardiovascular disease. To date, no single study has conclusively demonstrated a comprehensive benefit of CR. Numerous individual studies, however, have demonstrated beneficial effects such as improved risk-factor profile, slower disease progression, decreased morbidity, and decreased mortality. This paper will review the evidence for the use of CR and discuss the implications and limitations of these stu...

  13. Electronic apex locator: A comprehensive literature review — Part II: Effect of different clinical and technical conditions on electronic apex locator′s accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Razavian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To investigate the effects of different clinical and technical conditions on the accuracy of electronic apex locators (EALs. Materials and Methods: "Tooth apex," "dental instrument," "odontometry," "electronic medical," and "electronic apex locator" were searched as primary identifiers via Medline/PubMed, Cochrane library, and Scopus data base up to 30 July 2013. Original articles that fulfilled the inclusion criteria were selected and reviewed. Results: Out of 402 relevant studies, 183 were selected based on the inclusion criteria. In this part, 75 studies are presented. Pulp vitality conditions and root resorption, types of files and irrigating materials do not affect an EAL′s accuracy; however, the file size and foramen diameter can affect its accuracy. Conclusions: Various clinical conditions such as the file size and foramen diameter may affect EALs′ accuracy. However, more randomized clinical trials are needed for definitive conclusion.

  14. Review of technical specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedrich, M.; Scholz, D.

    1980-01-01

    The present paper deals with position and function of technical specifications before and during the manufacturing of reactor components, their structure and reasons for specific regulations due to safety philosophy and explains the cooperation of supplier, manufacturer, utilities and supervisory organizations. (RW)

  15. Comprehensive review on endonasal endoscopic sinus surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Rainer K.; Hosemann, Werner

    2015-01-01

    Endonasal endoscopic sinus surgery is the standard procedure for surgery of most paranasal sinus diseases. Appropriate frame conditions provided, the respective procedures are safe and successful. These prerequisites encompass appropriate technical equipment, anatomical oriented surgical technique, proper patient selection, and individually adapted extent of surgery. The range of endonasal sinus operations has dramatically increased during the last 20 years and reaches from partial uncinectomy to pansinus surgery with extended surgery of the frontal (Draf type III), maxillary (grade 3–4, medial maxillectomy, prelacrimal approach) and sphenoid sinus. In addition there are operations outside and beyond the paranasal sinuses. The development of surgical technique is still constantly evolving. This article gives a comprehensive review on the most recent state of the art in endoscopic sinus surgery according to the literature with the following aspects: principles and fundamentals, surgical techniques, indications, outcome, postoperative care, nasal packing and stents, technical equipment. PMID:26770282

  16. The in situ side-to-side bypass technique: a comprehensive review of the technical characteristics, current anastomosis approaches and surgical experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Long; Cai, Li; Qian, Hai; Lawton, Michael T; Shi, Xiang'en

    2018-05-02

    In situ side-to-side (STS) revascularization is an intracranial-intracranial (IC-IC) bypass technique that is increasingly used to treat complex aneurysms and cerebral ischemia. This sophisticated technique involves connecting two proximal parallel vessels to create an artificial conduit for blood flow. This study aims to provide a detailed description of the configuration of the STS bypass technique and extensive information regarding its technical characteristics, current anastomosis approaches and surgical significance. A literature search was performed using the PubMed, Medline, ScienceDirect, Embase, Wiley Online Library, Cambridge Journals, SAGE Journals, Oxford Journals, Research Gate, and Google Scholar databases. The terms "intracranial-intracranial bypass", "in situ bypass", "communicating bypass" and "STS anastomosis" were searched to identify pertinent articles. Articles involving in situ STS anastomosis combined with other bypass methods were excluded. Computer tablet-drawn illustrations of this technique are provided to enhance comprehension. In total, seventy articles that met our search and inclusion criteria were identified. Overall, the radiographical and clinical outcomes of one-hundred and thirty-two (125 aneurysm and 7 cerebral ischemia) patients who underwent in situ STS revascularization were analyzed. IC-IC bypass in the STS fashion can be a safe and effective strategy for the management of complex intracranial aneurysms and cerebral ischemia and is particularly attractive in rescue, anticipated and troubleshooting cases. Despite its extreme rarity, a de novo aneurysm may be observed following STS anastomosis; thus, long-term follow-up is mandatory. Vascular neurosurgeons should consider including this procedure in their treatment armamentarium. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. 16 CFR 1018.43 - Comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Comprehensive review. 1018.43 Section 1018.43 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT Records, Annual Reports and Audits § 1018.43 Comprehensive review. A comprehensive review of all...

  18. 49 CFR 552.6 - Technical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Technical review. 552.6 Section 552.6... § 552.6 Technical review. The appropriate Associate Administrator conducts a technical review of the petition. The technical review may consist of an analysis of the material submitted, together with...

  19. Mechanical Engineering Department technical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, R.B.; Abrahamson, L.; Denney, R.M.; Dubois, B.E (eds.)

    1982-01-01

    Technical achievements and publication abstracts related to research in the following Divisions of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory are reported in this biannual review: Nuclear Fuel Engineering; Nuclear Explosives Engineering; Weapons Engineering; Energy Systems Engineering; Engineering Sciences; Magnetic Fusion Engineering; and Material Fabrication. (LCL)

  20. Abdominopelvic washings: A comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika F Rodriguez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intraperitoneal spread may occur with gynecological epithelial neoplasms, as well as with non-gynecological malignancies, which may result in serosal involvement with or without concomitant effusion. Therefore, washings in patients with abdominopelvic tumors represent important specimens for cytologic examination. They are primarily utilized for staging ovarian cancers, although their role has decreased in staging of endometrial and cervical carcinoma. Abdominopelvic washings can be positive in a variety of pathologic conditions, including benign conditions, borderline neoplastic tumors, locally invasive tumors, or distant metastases. In a subset of cases, washings can be diagnostically challenging due to the presence of co-existing benign cells (e.g., mesothelial hyperplasia, endosalpingiosis, or endometriosis, lesions in which there is only minimal atypia (e.g., serous borderline tumors or scant atypical cells, and the rarity of specific tumor types (e.g., mesothelioma. Ancillary studies including immunocytochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization may be required in difficult cases to resolve the diagnosis. This article provides a comprehensive and contemporary review of abdominopelvic washings in the evaluation of gynecologic and non-gynecologic tumors, including primary peritoneal and mesothelial entities.

  1. Comprehensive feedback on trainee surgeons’ non-technical skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieckmann, Peter; Beier-Holgersen, Randi; Rosenberg, Jacob; Oestergaard, Doris

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to explore the content of conversations, feedback style, and perceived usefulness of feedback to trainee surgeons when conversations were stimulated by a tool for assessing surgeons’ non-technical skills. Methods Trainee surgeons and their supervisors used the Non-Technical Skills for Surgeons in Denmark tool to stimulate feedback conversations. Audio recordings of post-operation feedback conversations were collected. Trainees and supervisors provided questionnaire responses on the usefulness and comprehensiveness of the feedback. The feedback conversations were qualitatively analyzed for content and feedback style. Usefulness was investigated using a scale from 1 to 5 and written comments were qualitatively analyzed. Results Six trainees and six supervisors participated in eight feedback conversations. Eighty questionnaires (response rate 83 percent) were collected from 13 trainees and 12 supervisors. Conversations lasted median eight (2-15) minutes. Supervisors used the elements and categories in the tool to structure the content of the conversations. Supervisors tended to talk about the trainees’ actions and their own frames rather than attempting to understand the trainees’ perceptions. Supervisors and trainees welcomed the feedback opportunity and agreed that the conversations were useful and comprehensive. Conclusions The content of the feedback conversations reflected the contents of the tool and the feedback was considered useful and comprehensive. However, supervisors talked primarily about their own frames, so in order for the feedback to reach its full potential, supervisors may benefit from training techniques to stimulate a deeper reflection among trainees. PMID:25602262

  2. A comprehensive review of dynamic voltage restorers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farhadi-Kangarlu, Mohammad; Babaei, Ebrahim; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    has been done in the field of DVR and the field is rather mature now. But, a survey on the published papers showed that there is not any published paper that reviews the DVR technology. This paper tends to provide a comprehensive review on the DVR topologies, control strategies and applications. We...

  3. Hair camouflage: A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saed, Stephanie; Ibrahim, Omer; Bergfeld, Wilma F

    2017-03-01

    Hair is venerated, cherished, and desired in societies throughout the world. Both women and men express their individual identities through their hairstyles. Healthy hair contributes to successful social assimilation, employment, and overall quality of life. Therefore, hair loss can have detrimental effects on almost every aspect of a person's life. In this review, we discuss the myriad of options that aid in concealing and camouflaging hair loss to facilitate a healthier-appearing scalp. Camouflage options for patients who suffer from hair loss include full or partial wigs, hair extensions, concealing powders and sprays, surgical tattoos, and hair transplants. We describe these modalities in detail and discuss their respective advantages and disadvantages.

  4. Guidelines for technical reviews of software products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilburn, N.P.

    1982-03-01

    A guideline is given for technical review of products developed during a software life cycle. Purposes and benefits of reviews are given. Varieties of reviews, when they should take place, roles of the reviewers and products of the review are described.

  5. Guidelines for technical reviews of software products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilburn, N.P.

    1982-03-01

    A guideline is given for technical review of products developed during a software life cycle. Purposes and benefits of reviews are given. Varieties of reviews, when they should take place, roles of the reviewers and products of the review are described

  6. Astrobee Periodic Technical Review (PTR) Delta 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provencher, Christopher; Smith, Marion F.; Smith, Ernest Everett; Bualat, Maria Gabriele; Barlow, Jonathan Spencer

    2017-01-01

    Astrobee is a free flying robot for the inside of the International Space Station (ISS). The Periodic Technical Review (PTR) delta 3 is the final design review of the system presented to stakeholders.

  7. A comprehensive review of agrimoniin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grochowski, Daniel M; Skalicka-Woźniak, Krystyna; Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan; Xiao, Jianbo; Locatelli, Marcello; Piwowarski, Jakub P; Granica, Sebastian; Tomczyk, Michał

    2017-08-01

    Plant tannins are a unique class of polyphenols with relatively high molecular weights. Within the ellagitannins group, agrimoniin--dimeric ellagitannin--is one of the most representative compounds found in many plant materials belonging to the Rosaceae family. Agrimoniin was first isolated in 1982 from roots of Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. (Rosaceae), a plant traditionally used in Japan and China as an antidiarrheal, hemostatic, and antiparasitic agent. Agrimoniin is a constituent of medicinal plants, which are often applied orally in the form of infusions, decoctions, or tinctures. It is also present in commonly consumed food products, such as strawberries and raspberries. It is metabolized by human gut microbiota into a series of low-molecular-weight urolithins with proven anti-inflammatory and anticancer in vivo and in vitro bioactivities. The compound has received widespread interest owing to some interesting biological effects and therapeutic activities, which we elaborate in the present review. Additionally, we present an overview of the techniques used for the analysis, isolation, and separation of agrimoniin from the practical perspective. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  8. Regenerative endodontics: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S G; Malek, M; Sigurdsson, A; Lin, L M; Kahler, B

    2018-05-19

    The European Society of Endodontology and the American Association for Endodontists have released position statements and clinical considerations for regenerative endodontics. There is increasing literature on this field since the initial reports of Iwaya et al. (Dental Traumatology, 17, 2001, 185) and Banchs & Trope (Journal of Endodontics, 30, 2004, 196). Endogenous stem cells from an induced periapical bleeding and scaffolds using blood clot, platelet rich plasma or platelet-rich fibrin have been utilized in regenerative endodontics. This approach has been described as a 'paradigm shift' and considered the first treatment option for immature teeth with pulp necrosis. There are three treatment outcomes of regenerative endodontics; (i) resolution of clinical signs and symptoms; (ii) further root maturation; and (iii) return of neurogenesis. It is known that results are variable for these objectives, and true regeneration of the pulp/dentine complex is not achieved. Repair derived primarily from the periodontal and osseous tissues has been shown histologically. It is hoped that with the concept of tissue engineering, namely stem cells, scaffolds and signalling molecules, that true pulp regeneration is an achievable goal. This review discusses current knowledge as well as future directions for regenerative endodontics. Patient-centred outcomes such as tooth discolouration and possibly more appointments with the potential for adverse effects needs to be discussed with patients and parents. Based on the classification of Cvek (Endodontics and Dental Traumatology, 8, 1992, 45), it is proposed that regenerative endodontics should be considered for teeth with incomplete root formation although teeth with near or complete root formation may be more suited for conventional endodontic therapy or MTA barrier techniques. However, much is still not known about clinical and biological aspects of regenerative endodontics. © 2018 International Endodontic Journal. Published by

  9. Late Abortion: A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Chiang

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Late termination of pregnancy (LTOP is defined as an abortion carried out beyond 24 gestational weeks, when the fetus has arguably attained viability. In Taiwan, the current abortion law, bearing a eugenic title, allows LTOP on certain medical grounds. However, the fetal and maternal conditions that constitute medical grounds are not clarified and remain legally untested. Professional debate on the abortion issue is also lacking in academia in Taiwan, despite societal concerns. With the advent of technology to detect fetal abnormalities, obstetricians are now confronted more frequently with acute dilemmas regarding LTOP. Quite often, they sail in an uncharted sea with no clinical guidelines from their professional societies or affiliated hospitals. Recently, LTOP at 35 gestational weeks for a fetus with Down syndrome, complicated with polyhydramnios and tetralogy of Fallot, triggered media scrutiny and aroused much public attention. Although the clinical decision making for pregnancies with fetal abnormalities entails increasingly balanced information and consideration in terms of the medical, ethical, legal, psychologic, and societal aspects, society at large is unaware of the complexity and intertwined nature of various abortion issues, especially LTOP. Obstetricians are now in a vulnerable position in Taiwanese society, where litigations relevant to the practice of early abortions are not rare. Therefore, a global and in-depth look into abortion issues from legal and ethical dimensions is indispensable for modern obstetric practice. This review considers the core issues in LTOP, including what conditions constitute a “serious” fetal abnormality to justify LTOP, the incidence of LTOP, legislation regarding LTOP in Western countries, and recent research on ambivalent fetal pain. It will also present procedures, some under the auspices of the ethical committee of a Presbyterian hospital in Taiwan, for clinical decision making, particularly

  10. Comprehensive review of the maritime safety regimes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Knapp (Sabine); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis report presents a comprehensive review of the maritime safety regimes and provides recommendations on how to improve the system. The results show a complex legal framework which generates a high amount of inspections and overlapping of inspection areas where no cross-recognition is

  11. Why avoid the hippocampus? A comprehensive review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gondi, Vinai; Tome, Wolfgang A.; Mehta, Minesh P.

    2010-01-01

    In this review article, we provide a detailed and comprehensive discussion of the rationale for using modern IMRT techniques to spare the subgranular zone of the hippocampus during cranial irradiation. We review the literature on neurocognitive effects of cranial irradiation; discuss clinical and preclinical data associating damage to neural progrenitor cells located in subgranular zone of the hippocampus with radiation-induced neurocognitive decline, specifically in terms of short-term memory formation and recall; and present a review of our pilot investigations into the feasibility and risks of sparing the subgranular zone of the hippocampus during whole-brain radiotherapy for brain metastases. We also introduce our phase II cooperative group clinical trial (RTOG 0933) designed to prospectively evaluate the postulated neurocognitive benefit of hippocampal subgranular zone sparing and scheduled to open in 2010.

  12. Drilling of bone: A comprehensive review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Rupesh Kumar; Panda, S.S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Bone fracture treatment usually involves restoring of the fractured parts to their initial position and immobilizing them until the healing takes place. Drilling of bone is common to produce hole for screw insertion to fix the fractured parts for immobilization. Orthopaedic drilling during surgical process causes increase in the bone temperature and forces which can cause osteonecrosis reducing the stability and strength of the fixation. Methods A comprehensive review of all the relevant investigations carried on bone drilling is conducted. The experimental method used, results obtained and the conclusions made by the various researchers are described and compared. Result Review suggests that the further improvement in the area of bone drilling is possible. The systematic review identified several consequential factors (drilling parameters and drill specifications) affecting bone drilling on which there no general agreement among investigators or are not adequately evaluated. These factors are highlighted and use of more advanced methods of drilling is accentuated. The use of more precise experimental set up which resembles the actual situation and the development of automated bone drilling system to minimize human error is addressed. Conclusion In this review, an attempt has been made to systematically organize the research investigations conducted on bone drilling. Methods of treatment of bone fracture, studies on the determination of the threshold for thermal osteonecrosis, studies on the parameters influencing bone drilling and methods of the temperature measurement used are reviewed and the future work for the further improvement of bone drilling process is highlighted. PMID:26403771

  13. Independent technical review of the Pinellas Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    This report documents an Independent Technical Review (ITR) of facilities, organizations, plans, activities and various other elements required to successfully transition the Pinellas Plant from Defense Program (DP) funded operation to either community developed reuse or safe deactivation leading to decontamination and decommissioning (D&D). The review was conducted at the request of the Department of Energy (DOE) Deputy Assistant Secretary for Facility Transition and Management (EM-60) and is a consensus of the nine member ITR Team.

  14. A Comprehensive Review of Hypertension in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reem Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is the most common medical disorder encountered during pregnancy. Hypertensive disorders are one of the major causes of pregnancy-related maternal deaths in the United States. We will present a comprehensive update of the literature pertinent to hypertension in pregnancy. The paper begins by defining and classifying hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. The normal vascular and renal physiological changes which occur during pregnancy are detailed. We will summarize the intriguing aspects of pathophysiology of preeclampsia, emphasizing on recent advances in this field. The existing diagnostic tools and the tests which have been proposed for screening preeclampsia are comprehensively described. We also highlight the short- and long-term implications of preeclampsia. Finally, we review the current management guidelines, goals of treatment and describe the potential risks and benefits associated with various antihypertensive drug classes. Preeclampsia still remains an enigma, and the present management focuses on monitoring and treatment of its manifestations. We are hopeful that this in depth critique will stimulate the blossoming research in the field and assist practitioners to identify women at risk and more effectively treat affected individuals.

  15. A comprehensive review of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Sara; Carr, Karen; Reiley, Luz; Diaz, Kelvin; Guerra, Orleiquis; Altamirano, Pablo Fernandez; Pagani, Wilfredo; Lodin, Daud; Orozco, Gloria; Chinea, Angel

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a late-onset fatal neurodegenerative disease affecting motor neurons with an incidence of about 1/100,000. Most ALS cases are sporadic, but 5–10% of the cases are familial ALS. Both sporadic and familial ALS (FALS) are associated with degeneration of cortical and spinal motor neurons. The etiology of ALS remains unknown. However, mutations of superoxide dismutase 1 have been known as the most common cause of FALS. In this study, we provide a comprehensive review of ALS. We cover all aspects of the disease including epidemiology, comorbidities, environmental risk factor, molecular mechanism, genetic factors, symptoms, diagnostic, treatment, and even the available supplement and management of ALS. This will provide the reader with an advantage of receiving a broad range of information about the disease. PMID:26629397

  16. Book Review: New Perspectives on Technical Editing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, A. J. (Ed.); Sterken, Christiaan

    2012-08-01

    New Perspectives on Technical Editing by Avon J. Murphy (ed.) ISBN : 978-0895033949 (2010) Baywood Publishing Company Inc, Hardcover, 210 pages, 35.5 GBP This book presents a collection of 10 chapters dealing with diverse aspects of technical editing (ie, editorial planning, and analysis and structural changes made to other people's technological documents): research in technical editing, trends and teaching of technical editing, copyediting, and technical journal editing. The role and function of the modern journal and book editor is also dealt with in detail. Each chapter is written by an expert in the field: senior editors, university professors in technical communication, technical writers and linguists. The ever-evolving role of the editor is clearly elucidated in several historical reviews, and in the descriptions of the expectations for the future. A very striking aspect of this book is its extensive collection of bibliographic resources: every chapter lists dozens of very useful references, and the closing chapter, and annotated bibliography, contain many not so well known references, and are most useful. All in all, the book is a treasure trove listing more than 400 references, in addition to numerous webpage URLs embedded in the texts. The book is designed to help the reader to understand current practices and norms in technical editing, and to help to take action in editing as well as in teaching and educating would-be editors. The audience for this book thus includes editors and teachers, but also writers, researchers and students. A deep reading of this book will result in a better understanding of the difference between full technical editing and its much narrower component so well known as copyediting, and will convince any prospective editor that editing should not be undertaken if the people involved do not master the art of precision and accuracy in technical (as well as in human) communication, do not possess the technical know how and computer

  17. Lean in healthcare: A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andreamatteo, Antonio; Ianni, Luca; Lega, Federico; Sargiacomo, Massimo

    2015-09-01

    Lean seems to be the next revolution for a better, improved, value-based healhcare. In the last 15 years Lean has been increasingly adapted and adopted in healthcare. Accordingly, Lean healthcare has been developing into a major strand of research since the early 2000s. The aim of this work is to present a comprehensive overview of the main issues highlighted by research on implementation of Lean in a complex contest such as the healthcare one. Comprehensive literature review was conducted in order to identify empirical and theoretical articles published up to September 2013. Thematic analysis was performed in order to extract and synthesis data. 243 articles were selected for analysis. Lean is best understood as a means to increase productivity. Hospital is the more explored setting, with emergency and surgery as the pioneer departments. USA appears to be the leading country for number of applications. The theoretical works have been focused mainly on barriers, challenges and success factors. Sustainability, framework for measurement and critical appraisal remain underestimated themes. Evaluations of "system wide approach" are still low in number. Even though Lean results appear to be promising, findings so far do not allow to draw a final word on its positive impacts or challenges when introduced in the healthcare sector. Scholars are called to explore further the potentiality and the weaknesses of Lean, above all as for the magnitude of investments required and for the engagement of the whole organization it represents increasingly strategic choice, whilst health professionals, managers and policy makers could and should learn from research how to play a pivotal role for a more effective implementation of lean in different health contexts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Comprehensive feedback on trainee surgeons' non-technical skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanager, Lene; Dieckmann, Peter; Beier-Holgersen, Randi

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore the content of conversations, feedback style, and perceived usefulness of feedback to trainee surgeons when conversations were stimulated by a tool for assessing surgeons' non-technical skills. METHODS: Trainee surgeons and their supervisors used the Non...... qualitatively analyzed for content and feedback style. Usefulness was investigated using a scale from 1 to 5 and written comments were qualitatively analyzed. RESULTS: Six trainees and six supervisors participated in eight feedback conversations. Eighty questionnaires (response rate 83 percent) were collected...

  19. Extracorporeal photopheresis: Review of technical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Satyam; Setia, Rasika

    2017-01-01

    Extracorporeal photochemotherapy (ECP) is considered as an immune modulating therapy majorly targeting the T cells of the Immune system. ECP induces an anti-inflammatory condition with tolerogenic responses without inducing a global immunosuppression state which is a typical feature of other therapeutic options such as steroids. Clinical indication of ECP has grown over time since its initial applications. Our review discusses the technical aspects of the concept of photopheresis with the available methods for its clinical applications.

  20. Aircraft digital flight control technical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Otha B.; Leggett, David B.

    1993-01-01

    The Aircraft Digital Flight Control Technical Review was initiated by two pilot induced oscillation (PIO) incidents in the spring and summer of 1992. Maj. Gen. Franklin (PEO) wondered why the Air Force development process for digital flight control systems was not preventing PIO problems. Consequently, a technical review team was formed to examine the development process and determine why PIO problems continued to occur. The team was also to identify the 'best practices' used in the various programs. The charter of the team was to focus on the PIO problem, assess the current development process, and document the 'best practices.' The team reviewed all major USAF aircraft programs with digital flight controls, specifically, the F-15E, F-16C/D, F-22, F-111, C-17, and B-2. The team interviewed contractor, System Program Office (SPO), and Combined Test Force (CTF) personnel on these programs. The team also went to NAS Patuxent River to interview USN personnel about the F/A-18 program. The team also reviewed experimental USAF and NASA systems with digital flight control systems: X-29, X-31, F-15 STOL and Maneuver Technology Demonstrator (SMTD), and the Variable In-Flight Stability Test Aircraft (VISTA). The team also discussed the problem with other experts in the field including Ralph Smith and personnel from Calspan. The major conclusions and recommendations from the review are presented.

  1. Pediatric blunt splenic trauma: a comprehensive review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynn, Karen N.; Werder, Gabriel M.; Callaghan, Rachel M.; Jafri, Zafar H. [William Beaumont Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Sullivan, Ashley N. [St. George' s University School of Medicine, Grenada, West Indies (Grenada); Bloom, David A. [William Beaumont Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Royal Oak, MI (United States); William Beaumont Hospital, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology, Royal Oak, MI (United States)

    2009-09-15

    Abdominal trauma is a leading cause of death in children older than 1 year of age. The spleen is the most common organ injured following blunt abdominal trauma. Pediatric trauma patients present unique clinical challenges as compared to adults, including different mechanisms of injury, physiologic responses, and indications for operative versus nonoperative management. Splenic salvage techniques and nonoperative approaches are preferred to splenectomy in order to decrease perioperative risks, transfusion needs, duration/cost of hospitalization, and risk of overwhelming postsplenectomy infection. Early and accurate detection of splenic injury is critical in both adults and children; however, while imaging findings guide management in adults, hemodynamic stability is the primary determinant in pediatric patients. After initial diagnosis, the primary role of imaging in pediatric patients is to determine the level and duration of care. We present a comprehensive literature review regarding the mechanism of injury, imaging, management, and complications of traumatic splenic injury in pediatric patients. Multiple patients are presented with an emphasis on the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma organ injury grading system. Clinical practice guidelines from the American Pediatric Surgical Association are discussed and compared with our experience at a large community hospital, with recommendations for future practice guidelines. (orig.)

  2. Pediatric blunt splenic trauma: a comprehensive review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynn, Karen N.; Werder, Gabriel M.; Callaghan, Rachel M.; Jafri, Zafar H.; Sullivan, Ashley N.; Bloom, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Abdominal trauma is a leading cause of death in children older than 1 year of age. The spleen is the most common organ injured following blunt abdominal trauma. Pediatric trauma patients present unique clinical challenges as compared to adults, including different mechanisms of injury, physiologic responses, and indications for operative versus nonoperative management. Splenic salvage techniques and nonoperative approaches are preferred to splenectomy in order to decrease perioperative risks, transfusion needs, duration/cost of hospitalization, and risk of overwhelming postsplenectomy infection. Early and accurate detection of splenic injury is critical in both adults and children; however, while imaging findings guide management in adults, hemodynamic stability is the primary determinant in pediatric patients. After initial diagnosis, the primary role of imaging in pediatric patients is to determine the level and duration of care. We present a comprehensive literature review regarding the mechanism of injury, imaging, management, and complications of traumatic splenic injury in pediatric patients. Multiple patients are presented with an emphasis on the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma organ injury grading system. Clinical practice guidelines from the American Pediatric Surgical Association are discussed and compared with our experience at a large community hospital, with recommendations for future practice guidelines. (orig.)

  3. Apps for Radiation Oncology. A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J. Calero

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Software applications executed on a smart-phone or mobile device (“Apps” are increasingly used by oncologists in their daily work. A comprehensive critical review was conducted on Apps specifically designed for Radiation Oncology, which aims to provide scientific support for these tools and to guide users in choosing the most suited to their needs. Material and methods: A systematic search was conducted in mobile platforms, iOS and Android, returning 157 Apps. Excluding those whose purpose did not match the scope of the study, 31 Apps were methodically analyzed by the following items: Objective Features, List of Functionalities, Consistency in Outcomes and Usability. Results: Apps are presented in groups of features, as Dose Calculators (7 Apps, Clinical Calculators (4, Tools for Staging (7, Multipurpose (7 and Others (6. Each App is presented with the list of attributes and a brief comment. A short summary is provided at the end of each group. Discussion and Recommendations: There are numerous Apps with useful tools at the disposal of radiation oncologists. The most advisable Apps do not match the more expensive. Three all-in-one apps seem advisable above all: RadOnc Reference (in English, Easy Oncology (in German and iOncoR (in Spanish. Others recommendations are suggested for specific tasks: dose calculators, treatment-decision and staging.

  4. Quantification of liver fat: A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goceri, Evgin; Shah, Zarine K; Layman, Rick; Jiang, Xia; Gurcan, Metin N

    2016-04-01

    Fat accumulation in the liver causes metabolic diseases such as obesity, hypertension, diabetes or dyslipidemia by affecting insulin resistance, and increasing the risk of cardiac complications and cardiovascular disease mortality. Fatty liver diseases are often reversible in their early stage; therefore, there is a recognized need to detect their presence and to assess its severity to recognize fat-related functional abnormalities in the liver. This is crucial in evaluating living liver donors prior to transplantation because fat content in the liver can change liver regeneration in the recipient and donor. There are several methods to diagnose fatty liver, measure the amount of fat, and to classify and stage liver diseases (e.g. hepatic steatosis, steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis): biopsy (the gold-standard procedure), clinical (medical physics based) and image analysis (semi or fully automated approaches). Liver biopsy has many drawbacks: it is invasive, inappropriate for monitoring (i.e., repeated evaluation), and assessment of steatosis is somewhat subjective. Qualitative biomarkers are mostly insufficient for accurate detection since fat has to be quantified by a varying threshold to measure disease severity. Therefore, a quantitative biomarker is required for detection of steatosis, accurate measurement of severity of diseases, clinical decision-making, prognosis and longitudinal monitoring of therapy. This study presents a comprehensive review of both clinical and automated image analysis based approaches to quantify liver fat and evaluate fatty liver diseases from different medical imaging modalities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Executive Function and Reading Comprehension: A Meta-Analytic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follmer, D. Jake

    2018-01-01

    This article presents a meta-analytic review of the relation between executive function and reading comprehension. Results (N = 6,673) supported a moderate positive association between executive function and reading comprehension (r = 0.36). Moderator analyses suggested that correlations between executive function and reading comprehension did not…

  6. Technical review of externalities issues. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemeyer, V.

    1994-12-01

    Externalities has become the catchword for a major experiment in electric utility regulation. Together with increased competition as a means for economic regulation, this experiment represents a potential revolution in how electric utilities are regulated. It is very important for utilities and policy makers to understand the technical issues and arguments driving the externality experiment. This Technical Review presents four papers covering topics in economics that may play important roles in this revolution. The four papers are: Economic Issues in the Application of Externalities to Electricity Resource Selection; Climate Change, the Marginal Cost of Carbon Dioxide Emissions and the Implications for Carbon Dioxide Emissions Adders; Positive Externalities and Benefits from Electricity; and Socioeconomic Effects of Externality Adders for Electric Utility Emissions

  7. Listening Comprehension Strategies: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berne, Jane E.

    2004-01-01

    Numerous studies related to listening comprehension strategies have been published in the past two decades. The present study seeks to build upon two previous reviews of listening comprehension strategies research. Of particular interest in this review are studies dealing with the types of cues used by listeners, the sequence of listening,…

  8. Independent technical review of the Mound Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This report documents an Independent Technical Review (ITR) of the facilities, organizations, plans, and activities required to transition particular elements of the Mound Plant from Defense Program (DP) funded operation as appropriate either to community developed reuse or safe deactivation leading to decontamination and decommissioning (D&D). The review was conducted at the request of the Dr. Willis Bixby, Deputy Assistant Secretary, U.S. Department of Energy EM-60, Office of Facility Transition and Management and is a consensus of the nine member ITR Team. Information for the review was drawn from documents provided to the ITR Team by the Miamisburg Area Office (MB) of the DOE, EG&G, the City of Miamisburg, and others; and from presentations, discussions, interviews, and facility inspections at the Mound Plant during the weeks of March 14 and March 28, 1994. During the week of April 25, 1994, the ITR Team met at Los Alamos, New Mexico to develop consensus recommendations. A presentation of the core recommendations was made at the Mound Plant on May 5, 1994. This is an independent assessment of information available to, and used by, the Mound Plant personnel. Repetition of the information is not meant to imply discovery by the ITR Team. Team members, however, acting as independent reviewers, frequently assess the information from a perspective that differs significantly from that of the Mound Plant personnel. The report is based on information obtained and conditions observed during the March 1994 review interval. The ITR process and normal site work often initiate rapid, beneficial changes in understanding and organization immediately following the review. These changes frequently alter conditions observed during the review, but the report does not address changes subsequent to the review interval.

  9. Reviews of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty and U.S. security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanloz, Raymond

    2017-11-01

    Reviews of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) by the National Academy of Sciences concluded that the United States has the technical expertise and physical means to i) maintain a safe, secure and reliable nuclear-weapons stockpile without nuclear-explosion testing, and ii) effectively monitor global compliance once the Treaty enters into force. Moreover, the CTBT is judged to help constrain proliferation of nuclear-weapons technology, so it is considered favorable to U.S. security. Review of developments since the studies were published, in 2002 and 2012, show that the study conclusions remain valid and that technical capabilities are better than anticipated.

  10. Analyzing the Reliability of the easyCBM Reading Comprehension Measures: Grade 2. Technical Report #1201

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Cheng-Fei; Irvin, P. Shawn; Alonzo, Julie; Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    In this technical report, we present the results of a reliability study of the second-grade multiple choice reading comprehension measures available on the easyCBM learning system conducted in the spring of 2011. Analyses include split-half reliability, alternate form reliability, person and item reliability as derived from Rasch analysis,…

  11. Analyzing the Reliability of the easyCBM Reading Comprehension Measures: Grade 3. Technical Report #1202

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Cheng-Fei; Irvin, P. Shawn; Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    In this technical report, we present the results of a reliability study of the third-grade multiple choice reading comprehension measures available on the easyCBM learning system conducted in the spring of 2011. Analyses include split-half reliability, alternate form reliability, person and item reliability as derived from Rasch analysis,…

  12. Analyzing the Reliability of the easyCBM Reading Comprehension Measures: Grade 5. Technical Report #1204

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Irvin, P. Shawn; Lai, Cheng-Fei; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    In this technical report, we present the results of a reliability study of the fifth-grade multiple choice reading comprehension measures available on the easyCBM learning system conducted in the spring of 2011. Analyses include split-half reliability, alternate form reliability, person and item reliability as derived from Rasch analysis,…

  13. Analyzing the Reliability of the easyCBM Reading Comprehension Measures: Grade 4. Technical Report #1203

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Irvin, P. Shawn; Alonzo, Julie; Lai, Cheng-Fei; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    In this technical report, we present the results of a reliability study of the fourth-grade multiple choice reading comprehension measures available on the easyCBM learning system conducted in the spring of 2011. Analyses include split-half reliability, alternate form reliability, person and item reliability as derived from Rasch analysis,…

  14. Analyzing the Reliability of the easyCBM Reading Comprehension Measures: Grade 6. Technical Report #1205

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvin, P. Shawn; Alonzo, Julie; Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Lai, Cheng-Fei; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    In this technical report, we present the results of a reliability study of the sixth-grade multiple choice reading comprehension measures available on the easyCBM learning system conducted in the spring of 2011. Analyses include split-half reliability, alternate form reliability, person and item reliability as derived from Rasch analysis,…

  15. Analyzing the Reliability of the easyCBM Reading Comprehension Measures: Grade 7. Technical Report #1206

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvin, P. Shawn; Alonzo, Julie; Lai, Cheng-Fei; Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    In this technical report, we present the results of a reliability study of the seventh-grade multiple choice reading comprehension measures available on the easyCBM learning system conducted in the spring of 2011. Analyses include split-half reliability, alternate form reliability, person and item reliability as derived from Rasch analysis,…

  16. Comprehensive metabolomic profiling and incident cardiovascular disease: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Metabolomics is a promising tool of cardiovascular biomarker discovery. We systematically reviewed the literature on comprehensive metabolomic profiling in association with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods and Results: We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE from inception to Janua...

  17. 44 CFR 12.14 - Annual comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... should be abolished. (b) Pertinent factors to be considered in the comprehensive review required by... programs or operations; (4) An evaluation of the utilization by the Agency of the committee's policy...

  18. Intracoronary Optical Coherence Tomography: A Comprehensive Review: Clinical and Research Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Bezerra, Hiram G.; Costa, Marco A.; Guagliumi, Giulio; Rollins, Andrew M.; Simon, Daniel I.

    2009-01-01

    Cardiovascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a catheter-based invasive imaging system. Using light rather than ultrasound, OCT produces high-resolution in vivo images of coronary arteries and deployed stents. This comprehensive review will assist practicing interventional cardiologists in understanding the technical aspects of OCT based upon the physics of light and will also highlight the emerging research and clinical applications of OCT. Semi-automated imaging analyses of OCT syste...

  19. A comprehensive review on solar cookers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuce, Erdem; Cuce, Pinar Mert

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a thorough review of the available literature on solar cookers is presented. The review is performed in a thematic way in order to allow an easier comparison, discussion and evaluation of the findings obtained by researchers, especially on parameters affecting the performance of solar cookers. The review covers a historic overview of solar cooking technology, detailed description of various types of solar cookers, geometry parameters affecting performance of solar cookers such as booster mirrors, glazing, absorber plate, cooking pots, heat storage materials and insulation. Moreover, thermodynamic assessment of solar cooking systems and qualitative evaluation of thermal output offered by solar cookers are analyzed in detail. Complex designs of solar cookers/ovens with and without heat storage material are illustrated and furthermore possible methods to be able to enhance the power outputs of solar cooking systems are presented. Feasibility analysis, environmental impacts and future potential of solar cookers are also considered in the study.

  20. Erdheim-Chester disease: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelfattah, Ahmed Maher; Arnaout, Karim; Tabbara, Imad A

    2014-07-01

    Erdheim-Chester disease is a rare form of non-Langerhans' cell histiocytosis characterized by multi-system infiltration by xanthogranulomas composed of foamy histiocytes surrounded by fibrosis. Approximately 400 cases have been reported in the literature, and the recent increase in the number of cases is likely due to the increased awareness of its associated morbidity and mortality. The etiology of this disease remains unknown, the clinical course is variable and treatment is still not well-established. The objective of this review is to describe the pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis of this rare disorder, and to review its prognosis and treatment. Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) is a rare form of non-Langerhans' cell histiocytosis. It was first described in 1930. Approximately 400 cases have been reported in the literature. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  1. A comprehensive review on Primary gallbladder tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ashish; Gupta, Amit; Anjum, Rohik; Agrawal, Saumya; Mallik, Dhiraj

    2018-04-30

    Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease that can affect any organ system of the body. Abdominal TB can be gastrointestinal, lymph nodal, visceral or peritoneal. The gallbladder (GB) is rarely involved in abdominal TB as a primary organ. Extensive research literature on gallbladder TB is limited to case reports. There has been no review on this rare abdominal pathology. GB tuberculosis is a difficult diagnosis preoperatively. It is a rare differential among the more common gallbladder pathologies such as cholelithiasis, or a gallbladder malignancy. Typical histopathology of the resected specimen helps to establish this rare diagnosis. Subjecting every specimen to histopathological examination followed by medical treatment offers the chance of cure. Through this review, the authors attempt to provide an insight into this disease entity.

  2. Cleft Lip – A Comprehensive Review

    OpenAIRE

    Shkoukani, Mahdi A.; Chen, Michael; Vong, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Orofacial clefts comprise a range of congenital deformities and are the most common head and neck congenital malformation. Clefting has significant psychological and socio- economic effects on patient quality of life and require a multidisciplinary team approach for management. The complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors play a significant role in the incidence and cause of clefting. In this review, the embryology, classification, epidemiology, and etiology of cleft lip ar...

  3. The genus Artemisia: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Kundan Singh; Sharma, Anupam

    2011-01-01

    Medicinal plants are nature's gift to human beings to make disease free healthy life, and play a vital role to preserve our health. They are believed to be much safer and proven elixir in the treatment of various ailments. The genus Artemisia (Astraceae) consists of about 500 species, occurring throughout the world. The present review comprises the ethnopharmacological, phytochemical and therapeutic potential of various species of Artemisia. The aim of this this review is to bring together most of the available scientific research conducted on the genus Artemisia, which is currently scattered across various publications. Through this review the authors hope to attract the attention of natural product researchers throughout the world to focus on the unexplored potential of Artemisia species. This review has been compiled using references from major databases such as Chemical Abstracts, Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Abstracts, ScienceDirect, SciFinder, PubMed, King's American Dispensatory, Henriette's Herbal Homepage, Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. An exhaustive survey of literature revealed that the different species of Artemisia have a vast range of biological activities including antimalarial, cytotoxic, antihepatotoxic, antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activity. Some very important drug leads have been discovered from this genus, notably artemisinin, the well known antimalarial drug isolated from the Chinese herb Artemisia annua. Terpenoids, flavonoids, coumarins, caffeoylquinic acids, sterols and acetylenes constitute major classes of phytoconstituents of the genus. Various species of Artemisia seems to hold great potential for in-depth investigation for various biological activities, especially their effects on the central nervous and cardiovascular systems.

  4. A Comprehensive Review of Thermal Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Sarbu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal energy storage (TES is a technology that stocks thermal energy by heating or cooling a storage medium so that the stored energy can be used at a later time for heating and cooling applications and power generation. TES systems are used particularly in buildings and in industrial processes. This paper is focused on TES technologies that provide a way of valorizing solar heat and reducing the energy demand of buildings. The principles of several energy storage methods and calculation of storage capacities are described. Sensible heat storage technologies, including water tank, underground, and packed-bed storage methods, are briefly reviewed. Additionally, latent-heat storage systems associated with phase-change materials for use in solar heating/cooling of buildings, solar water heating, heat-pump systems, and concentrating solar power plants as well as thermo-chemical storage are discussed. Finally, cool thermal energy storage is also briefly reviewed and outstanding information on the performance and costs of TES systems are included.

  5. Note taking, review, memory, and comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohay, Mark; Blakely, Daniel P; Tamplin, Andrea K; Radvansky, Gabriel A

    2011-01-01

    In previous work assessing memory at various levels of representation, namely the surface form, textbase, and situation model levels, participants read texts but were otherwise not actively engaged with the texts. The current study tested the influence of active engagement with the material via note taking, along with the opportunity to review such notes, and the modality of presentation (text vs. spoken). The influence of these manipulations was assessed both immediately and 1 week later. In Experiment 1 participants read a text, whereas in Experiment 2 participants watched a video recording of the material being read as a lecture. For each experiment the opportunity to take notes was manipulated within participants, and the opportunity to review these notes before the test was manipulated between participants. Note taking improved performance at the situation model level in both experiments, although there was also some suggestion of benefit for the surface form. Thus, active engagement with material, such as note taking, appears to have the greatest benefit at the deeper levels of understanding.

  6. Mycoviruses in Aspergilli: A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioly Kotta-Loizou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Fungi, similar to all species, are susceptible to viral infection. Aspergillus is arguably the most well studied fungal genus because of its medical, ecological and economical significance. Mycoviruses were initially detected in Aspergillus species almost 50 years ago and the field continues to be active today with ground-breaking discoveries. The aim of the present review is to cover the scientific progress in all aspects of mycovirology as exemplified by Aspergillus-focused research. Initially an overview of the population studies illustrating the presence of mycoviruses in numerous important Aspergillus species, such as A. niger, A. flavus, and A. fumigatus with be presented. Moreover the intricacies of mycovirus transmission, both inter- and intra-species, will be discussed together with the methodologies used to investigate viral dispersion in a laboratory setting. Subsequently, the genomic features of all molecularly characterized mycoviruses to date will be analyzed in depth. These include members of established viral families, such as Partitiviridae, Chrysoviridae and Totiviridae, but also more recent, novel discoveries that led to the proposal of new viral families, such as Polymycoviridae, Alternaviridae and, in the context of the present review, Exartaviridae. Finally, the major issue of phenotypic effects of mycoviral infection on the host is addressed, including aflatoxin production in A. flavus, together with growth and virulence in A. fumigatus. Although the molecular mechanisms behind these phenomena are yet to be elucidated, recent studies suggest that by implication, RNA silencing may be involved.

  7. Lumbar Facet Tropism: A Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Fernando; Kirkpatrick, Christina M; Jeong, William; Fisahn, Christian; Usman, Sameera; Rustagi, Tarush; Loukas, Marios; Chapman, Jens R; Oskouian, Rod J; Tubbs, R Shane

    2017-06-01

    Scattered reports exist in the medical literature regarding facet tropism. However, this finding has had mixed conclusions regarding its origin and impact on the normal spine. We performed a literature review of the anatomy, embryology, biomechanics, and pathology related to lumbar facet tropism. Facet tropism is most commonly found at L4-L5 vertebral segments and there is some evidence that this condition may lead to facet degenerative spondylolisthesis, intervertebral disc disease, and other degenerative conditions. Long-term analyses of patients are necessary to elucidate relationships between associated findings and facet tropism. In addition, a universally agreed definition that is more precise should be developed for future investigative studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Bamboo reinforced polymer composite - A comprehensive review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslan, S. A. H.; Rasid, Z. A.; Hassan, M. Z.

    2018-04-01

    Bamboo has greatly attention of researchers due to their advantages over synthetic polymers. It is entirely renewable, environmentally-friendly, non-toxic, cheap, non-abrasive and fully biodegradable. This review paper summarized an oveview of the bamboo, fiber extraction and mechanical behavior of bamboo reinforced composites. A number of studies proved that mechanical properties of bamboo fibers reinforced reinforced polymer composites are excellent and competent to be utilized in high-tech applications. The properties of the laminate are influenced by the fiber loading, fibre orientation, physical and interlaminar adhesion between fibre and matrix. In contrast, the presence of chemical constituents such as cellulose, lignin, hemicellulose and wax substances in natural fibres preventing them from firmly binding with polymer resin. Thus, led to poor mechanical properties for composites. Many attempt has been made in order to overcome this issue by using the chemical treatment.

  9. State technical review of the HLNW program and the peer review process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, G.R.

    1986-01-01

    Millions of dollars are being spent on state governments' review of the Department of Energy (DOE) high level waste (HLW) repository program. A significant portion of the review efforts focus on technical issues surrounding the development and installment of HLW disposal technologies. Some view the states' technical review efforts as part of a peer review process. However, this interpretation reveals a misunderstanding of the concept of peer review and the purposes of state technical review

  10. Comprehensive stroke units: a review of comparative evidence and experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Daniel K Y; Cordato, Dennis; O'Rourke, Fintan; Chan, Daniel L; Pollack, Michael; Middleton, Sandy; Levi, Chris

    2013-06-01

    Stroke unit care offers significant benefits in survival and dependency when compared to general medical ward. Most stroke units are either acute or rehabilitation, but comprehensive (combined acute and rehabilitation) model (comprehensive stroke unit) is less common. To examine different levels of evidence of comprehensive stroke unit compared to other organized inpatient stroke care and share local experience of comprehensive stroke units. Cochrane Library and Medline (1980 to December 2010) review of English language articles comparing stroke units to alternative forms of stroke care delivery, different types of stroke unit models, and differences in processes of care within different stroke unit models. Different levels of comparative evidence of comprehensive stroke units to other models of stroke units are collected. There are no randomized controlled trials directly comparing comprehensive stroke units to other stroke unit models (either acute or rehabilitation). Comprehensive stroke units are associated with reduced length of stay and greatest reduction in combined death and dependency in a meta-analysis study when compared to other stroke unit models. Comprehensive stroke units also have better length of stay and functional outcome when compared to acute or rehabilitation stroke unit models in a cross-sectional study, and better length of stay in a 'before-and-after' comparative study. Components of stroke unit care that improve outcome are multifactorial and most probably include early mobilization. A comprehensive stroke unit model has been successfully implemented in metropolitan and rural hospital settings. Comprehensive stroke units are associated with reductions in length of stay and combined death and dependency and improved functional outcomes compared to other stroke unit models. A comprehensive stroke unit model is worth considering as the preferred model of stroke unit care in the planning and delivery of metropolitan and rural stroke services

  11. Robotics in Arthroplasty: A Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacofsky, David J; Allen, Mark

    2016-10-01

    Robotic-assisted orthopedic surgery has been available clinically in some form for over 2 decades, claiming to improve total joint arthroplasty by enhancing the surgeon's ability to reproduce alignment and therefore better restore normal kinematics. Various current systems include a robotic arm, robotic-guided cutting jigs, and robotic milling systems with a diversity of different navigation strategies using active, semiactive, or passive control systems. Semiactive systems have become dominant, providing a haptic window through which the surgeon is able to consistently prepare an arthroplasty based on preoperative planning. A review of previous designs and clinical studies demonstrate that these robotic systems decrease variability and increase precision, primarily focusing on component positioning and alignment. Some early clinical results indicate decreased revision rates and improved patient satisfaction with robotic-assisted arthroplasty. The future design objectives include precise planning and even further improved consistent intraoperative execution. Despite this cautious optimism, many still wonder whether robotics will ultimately increase cost and operative time without objectively improving outcomes. Over the long term, every industry that has seen robotic technology be introduced, ultimately has shown an increase in production capacity, improved accuracy and precision, and lower cost. A new generation of robotic systems is now being introduced into the arthroplasty arena, and early results with unicompartmental knee arthroplasty and total hip arthroplasty have demonstrated improved accuracy of placement, improved satisfaction, and reduced complications. Further studies are needed to confirm the cost effectiveness of these technologies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Histamine (Scombroid) Fish Poisoning: a Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Charles; Teuber, Suzanne; Gershwin, M Eric

    2016-02-01

    Histamine fish poisoning, also known as scombroid poisoning, is the most common cause of ichythyotoxicosis worldwide and results from the ingestion of histamine-contaminated fish in the Scombroidae and Scomberesocidae families, including mackerel, bonito, albacore, and skipjack. This disease was first described in 1799 in Britain and re-emerged in the medical literature in the 1950s when outbreaks were reported in Japan. The symptoms associated with histamine fish poisoning are similar to that of an allergic reaction. In fact, such histamine-induced reactions are often misdiagnosed as IgE-mediated fish allergy. Indeed, histamine fish poisoning is still an underrecognized disease. In this review, we discuss the epidemiology, pathophysiology, evaluation, and treatment of scombroid disease. Because more than 80% of fish consumed in the USA is now imported from other countries, the disease is intimately linked with the global fish trade (National Marine Fisheries Service, 2012). Preventing future scombroid outbreaks will require that fishermen, public health officials, restaurant workers, and medical professionals work together to devise international safety standards and increase awareness of the disease. The implications of scombroid poisoning go far beyond that of fish and have broader implications for the important issues of food safety.

  13. Nanopharmaceuticals to target antifilarials: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammad; Afzal, Mohammad; Bhattacharya, Shailja Misra; Ahmad, Farhan Jalees; Dinda, Amit Kumar

    2013-05-01

    Currently emphasized conventional chemotherapies for the elimination of lymphatic filariasis (LF) are imperfect due to unfocused targeting of poorly water-soluble antifilarial drugs. The profound location of drug targets (filarial parasites or wolbachia) within the complex anatomy of lymphatic tissues often necessitates prolonged treatment schedules with high doses leading to undesired side effects and poor patient compliance. Therefore, we need to reformulate antifilarial drugs taking the advantages of nanotechnology through a wide range of nanomedical carriers, which improve drug efficacy, increase bioavailability, and diminish toxicity. Connotations of drug delivery systems (DDSs) to target lymphatic filaroids or wolbachia and systemic microfilaria have been discussed. The potentials of liposomes and solid lipid nanoparticles for the treatment of LF are highlighted. Various critical factors, viz optimal size range, surface properties, preferred pH, mechanism of reticuloendothelial avoidance, and control of the release of antifilarial agents for safe elimination of parasites, are enclosed to design a novel DDS for LF. The review of nanotechnological approaches to improve antifilarial chemotherapy will help to resolve existing technological gaps. Precincts in the antifilarial discovery programs can never be overcome by conventional methods. Nanomedicine encompasses wide-range solution for each single problem (i.e., from poor solubility to nonspecific targeting of antifilarial agents) for the cure of LF at low costs and may reduce the economic burden of LF diseases. Advances in nanotechnology loom will certainly come forward as silver bullets in the near future for quick diagnosis, control, and elimination of this tropically neglected disease.

  14. A Comprehensive Review on Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaspinder Kaur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is defined by a constellation of interconnected physiological, biochemical, clinical, and metabolic factors that directly increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and all cause mortality. Insulin resistance, visceral adiposity, atherogenic dyslipidemia, endothelial dysfunction, genetic susceptibility, elevated blood pressure, hypercoagulable state, and chronic stress are the several factors which constitute the syndrome. Chronic inflammation is known to be associated with visceral obesity and insulin resistance which is characterized by production of abnormal adipocytokines such as tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-1 (IL-1, IL-6, leptin, and adiponectin. The interaction between components of the clinical phenotype of the syndrome with its biological phenotype (insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, etc. contributes to the development of a proinflammatory state and further a chronic, subclinical vascular inflammation which modulates and results in atherosclerotic processes. Lifestyle modification remains the initial intervention of choice for such population. Modern lifestyle modification therapy combines specific recommendations on diet and exercise with behavioural strategies. Pharmacological treatment should be considered for those whose risk factors are not adequately reduced with lifestyle changes. This review provides summary of literature related to the syndrome’s definition, epidemiology, underlying pathogenesis, and treatment approaches of each of the risk factors comprising metabolic syndrome.

  15. Biological degradation of plastics: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Aamer Ali; Hasan, Fariha; Hameed, Abdul; Ahmed, Safia

    2008-01-01

    Lack of degradability and the closing of landfill sites as well as growing water and land pollution problems have led to concern about plastics. With the excessive use of plastics and increasing pressure being placed on capacities available for plastic waste disposal, the need for biodegradable plastics and biodegradation of plastic wastes has assumed increasing importance in the last few years. Awareness of the waste problem and its impact on the environment has awakened new interest in the area of degradable polymers. The interest in environmental issues is growing and there are increasing demands to develop material which do not burden the environment significantly. Biodegradation is necessary for water-soluble or water-immiscible polymers because they eventually enter streams which can neither be recycled nor incinerated. It is important to consider the microbial degradation of natural and synthetic polymers in order to understand what is necessary for biodegradation and the mechanisms involved. This requires understanding of the interactions between materials and microorganisms and the biochemical changes involved. Widespread studies on the biodegradation of plastics have been carried out in order to overcome the environmental problems associated with synthetic plastic waste. This paper reviews the current research on the biodegradation of biodegradable and also the conventional synthetic plastics and also use of various techniques for the analysis of degradation in vitro.

  16. Cystic fibrosis chronic rhinosinusitis: A comprehensive review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaaban, Mohamad R.; Kejner, Alexandra; Rowe, Steven M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Advances in the care of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) have improved pulmonary outcomes and survival. In addition, rapid developments regarding the underlying genetic and molecular basis of the disease have led to numerous novel targets for treatment. However, clinical and basic scientific research focusing on therapeutic strategies for CF-associated chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) lags behind the evidence-based approaches currently used for pulmonary disease. Methods: This review evaluates the available literature and provides an update concerning the pathophysiology, current treatment approaches, and future pharmaceutical tactics in the management of CRS in patients with CF. Results: Optimal medical and surgical strategies for CF CRS are lacking because of a dearth of well-performed clinical trials. Medical and surgical interventions are supported primarily by level 2 or 3 evidence and are aimed at improving clearance of mucus, infection, and inflammation. A number of novel therapeutics that target the basic defect in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator channel are currently under investigation. Ivacaftor, a corrector of the G551D mutation, was recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration. However, sinonasal outcomes using this and other novel drugs are pending. Conclusion: CRS is a lifelong disease in CF patients that can lead to substantial morbidity and decreased quality of life. A multidisciplinary approach will be necessary to develop consistent and evidence-based treatment paradigms. PMID:24119602

  17. Bruxism in Movement Disorders: A Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ella, Bruno; Ghorayeb, Imad; Burbaud, Pierre; Guehl, Dominique

    2017-10-01

    Bruxism is an abnormal repetitive movement disorder characterized by jaw clenching and tooth gnashing or grinding. It is classified into two overlapping types: awake bruxism (AB) and sleep bruxism (SB). Theories on factors causing bruxism are a matter of controversy, but a line of evidence suggests that it may to some extent be linked to basal ganglia dysfunction although so far, this topic has received little attention. The purpose of this article was to review cases of bruxism reported in various movement disorders. The biomedical literature was searched for publications reporting the association of bruxism with various types of movement disorders. As a whole, very few series were found, and most papers corresponded to clinical reports. In Parkinsonian syndromes, AB was rarely reported, but seems to be exacerbated by medical treatment, whereas SB is mainly observed during non-REM sleep, as in restless leg syndrome. AB is occasionally reported in Huntington's disease, primary dystonia, and secondary dystonia; however, its highest incidence and severity is reported in syndromes combining stereotypies and cognitive impairment, such as Rett's syndrome (97%), Down syndrome (42%), and autistic spectrum disorders (32%). Taken as a whole, AB seems to be more frequent in hyperkinetic movement disorders, notably those with stereotypies, and is influenced by anxiety, suggesting an involvement of the limbic part of the basal ganglia in its pathophysiology. © 2016 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  18. L-arginine biosensors: A comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam Verma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Arginine has been considered as the most potent nutraceutics discovered ever, due to its powerful healing property, and it's been known to scientists as the Miracle Molecule. Arginine detection in fermented food products is necessary because, high level of arginine in foods forms ethyl carbamate (EC during the fermentation process. Therefore, L-arginine detection in fermented food products is very important as a control measure for quality of fermented foods, food supplements and beverages including wine. In clinical analysis arginine detection is important due to their enormous inherent versatility in various metabolic pathways, topmost in the synthesis of Nitric oxide (NO and tumor growth. A number of methods are being used for arginine detection, but biosensors technique holds prime position due to rapid response, high sensitivity and high specificity. However, there are many problems still to be addressed, including selectivity, real time analysis and interference of urea presence in the sample. In the present review we aim to emphasize the significant role of arginine in human physiology and foods. A small attempt has been made to discuss the various techniques used for development of arginine biosensor and how these techniques affect their performance. The choice of transducers for arginine biosensor ranges from optical, pH sensing, ammonia gas sensing, ammonium ion-selective, conductometric and amperometric electrodes because ammonia is formed as a final product.

  19. Medical Complications of Tattoos: A Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Parvez S; Chang, Christopher; Selmi, Carlo; Generali, Elena; Huntley, Arthur; Teuber, Suzanne S; Gershwin, M Eric

    2016-04-01

    Tattoos are defined as the introduction of exogenous pigments into the dermis in order to produce a permanent design. This process may occur unintentional or may be deliberately administered for cosmetic or medical reasons. Tattoos have been around for over 5000 years and over time have evolved to represent a common cosmetic practice worldwide. Currently, adverse reactions are relatively rare and generally unpredictable and predominantly include immune-mediated reactions and skin infections. Along with better healthcare standards and more stringent public health mandates such as the provision of disposable needles, major infectious complications related to hepatitis and human retroviral infections have decreased significantly. When they do occur, skin infections are most frequently associated with Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus pyogenes. The aim of this study is to review the types and rates of medical complications of permanent tattoos. PubMed search and search dates were open ended. Acute local inflammation is the most common complication, but infections, allergic contact dermatitis, and other inflammatory or immune responses that are not well-characterized may occur. As many patients with immune reactions to tattoos do not react on skin or patch testing, it is postulated that the antigens contained in dyes or pigments are such small molecules that they need to be haptenized in order to become immunogenic. Red ink is associated more frequently with long-term reactions, including granulomatous and pseudolymphomatous phenomena or morphea-like lesions and vasculitis. Exacerbation of preexisting psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, and pyoderma gangrenosum may occur after tattooing. There is no well-defined association between cancer and tattoos. The treatment of tattoo-related complications may include local destructive measures (cryotherapy, electro-surgery, dermabrasion, chemical destruction, ablative laser destruction), surgical excision, and thermolysis of the

  20. Anthracycline extravasation: a comprehensive review of experimental and clinical treatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, S.W.; Sehested, M.; Jensen, P.B.

    2009-01-01

    , and is the only approved treatment against anthracyline extravasation. It is thus now widely recommended. The present article represents a comprehensive review of, and historical insight to, the experimental and clinical studies of surgical and non-surgical treatments of extravasation during forty years...

  1. From technical quality assurance of radiotherapy to a comprehensive quality of service management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kehoe, T.; Rugg, L.

    1999-01-01

    A hierarchy of dosimetry, planning and machine performance checks and evaluations of clinical outcomes have been widely used in radiotherapy for decades. Procedures, codes of practice and guidance are readily available on the technical aspects of radiotherapy treatments, maintenance of which is achieved by quality control checks within a quality assurance approach to radiotherapy. Recently a series of high profile, well-publicised treatment accidents resulting in damage to patients have focused the attention of both professionals and the public. There is now pressure to introduce formal quality management systems. Patients and their relatives/carers are having their expectations raised but their definition of a quality service differs from that generally considered by the oncology professionals. Most departmental managers and staff have wide experience of quality control checks. They understand the philosophy of quality assurance. However the idea of formal quality systems/quality management is alien to them. What is a professional/departmental manager to do? This paper addresses that question by discussing the underlying principles of quality management covering service provision as well as technical radiotherapy treatment delivery and by providing some guidance based on experience in the practical implementation of quality management through three stages of development: a QA programme incorporating checks on essential parts of the technical treatment delivery, a formal documented certified QA system focusing on technical treatment delivery, a comprehensive quality management system covering all parts of a service. One possible action plan is provided indicating progress through the three stages of development based on experience in one large Radiation Oncology Department. With planning, resources and commitment. a comprehensive quality of service management system is achievable in radiotherapy. (author.)

  2. Tanks Focus Area FY98 midyear technical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlahta, S.N.; Brouns, T.M.

    1998-06-01

    The Tanks Focus Area (TFA) serves as the DOE`s Office of Environmental Management`s national technology and solution development program for radioactive waste tank remediation. Its technical scope covers the major functions that comprise a complete tank remediation system: waste retrieval, waste pretreatment, waste immobilization, tank closure, and characterization of both the waste and tank with safety integrated into all the functions. In total, 17 technologies and technical solutions were selected for review. The purpose of each review was to understand the state of development of each technology selected for review and to identify issues to be resolved before the technology or technical solution progressed to the next level of maturity. The reviewers provided detailed technical and programmatic recommendations and comments. The disposition of these recommendations and comments and their impact on the program is documented in this report.

  3. Tanks Focus Area FY98 midyear technical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlahta, S.N.; Brouns, T.M.

    1998-06-01

    The Tanks Focus Area (TFA) serves as the DOE's Office of Environmental Management's national technology and solution development program for radioactive waste tank remediation. Its technical scope covers the major functions that comprise a complete tank remediation system: waste retrieval, waste pretreatment, waste immobilization, tank closure, and characterization of both the waste and tank with safety integrated into all the functions. In total, 17 technologies and technical solutions were selected for review. The purpose of each review was to understand the state of development of each technology selected for review and to identify issues to be resolved before the technology or technical solution progressed to the next level of maturity. The reviewers provided detailed technical and programmatic recommendations and comments. The disposition of these recommendations and comments and their impact on the program is documented in this report

  4. Mental Models for Mechanical Comprehension. A Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    models, constructionism , infinirm t - ,’a f.mrfn.~ gl 19 ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) 4 This literature...review describes the recent research on mental models of mechanical comprehension. Three methodological approaches ( constructionism , information...things for a teacher to do to aid students’ attempts at understanding the forces involved: 1. Prepare an engaging social context. 2. Juxtapose several

  5. Independent Technical (open-quotes Red Teamclose quotes) Reviews

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thullen, P.; Bennett, D.R.; Kosiewicz, S.T.; Weaver, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    Offices under the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) in the Department of Energy (DOE) and some National Laboratories are using Independent Technical or open-quotes Red Teamclose quotes Reviews to understand and improve the performance of major projects, major system acquisitions, programs and organizations. A core group formed in 1991 by Los Alamos National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories, has organized teams of commercial and private consultants to perform over fifteen Independent Technical Reviews (ITRs) throughout the DOE Complex. This paper discusses: review initiation, team formation, methodology, site response, and observations gathered over the past three years

  6. HFBR: Review of the technical specifications against the FSAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, D.V.; Boss, S.B.; Claiborne, E.R.; Darby, J.L.; Clark, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to determine the adequacy of the High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR) Technical Specifications for 40 MW operation by comparison with the HFBR Final Safety Analysis Report, particularly the accident analyses chapter. Specifically, the Technical Specifications were compared against the Design Basis Accident (DBA) Analyses presented in the Addendum to the HFBR FSAR for 60 MW Operation. The 60 MW DBA analyses was used since it is more current and complete than the analyses presented in the original FSAR which is considered obsolete. A listing of the required systems and equipment was made for each of the accidents analyzed. Additionally, the Technical Specification instrument setpoints were compared to the DBA analyses parametric values. Also included in this review was a comparison of the Technical Specification Bases against the FSAR and the identification of any differences. The HFBR Operations Procedures Manual (OPM) was also reviewed for any inconsistencies between the FSAR or the Technical Specifications. Upon completion of this review it was determined that the Technical Specifications are well written and the items commented on should not delay the low power restart (40 MW). Additionally, the OPM is also well written and does not require further modification before restart

  7. Spaceflight and Neurosurgery: A Comprehensive Review of the Relevant Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinney, Christian C; Allison, Zain

    2018-01-01

    Spaceflight and the associated gravitational fluctuations may impact various components of the central nervous system. These include changes in intracranial pressure, the spine, and neurocognitive performance. The implications of altered astronaut performance on critical spaceflight missions are potentially significant. The current body of research on this important topic is extremely limited, and a comprehensive review has not been published. Herein, the authors address this notable gap, as well as the role of the neurosurgeon in optimizing potential diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. A literature search was conducted using the PubMed, EMBASE, and Google Scholar databases, with no time constraints. Significant manuscripts on physiologic changes associated with spaceflight and microgravity were identified and reviewed. Manifestations were separated into 1 of 3 general categories, including changes in intracranial pressure, the spine, and neurocognitive performance. A comprehensive literature review yielded 27 studies with direct relevance to the impact of microgravity and spaceflight on nervous system physiology. This included 7 studies related to intracranial pressure fluctuations, 17 related to changes in the spinal column, and 3 related to neurocognitive change. The microgravity environment encountered during spaceflight impacts intracranial physiology. This includes changes in intracranial pressure, the spinal column, and neurocognitive performance. Herein, we present a systematic review of the published literature on this issue. Neurosurgeons should have a key role in the continued study of this important topic, contributing to both diagnostic and therapeutic understanding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Paramedics' non-technical skills: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Allan; Flin, Rhona

    2013-05-01

    Healthcare organisations have started to examine the impact that the human worker has on patient safety. Adopting the Crew Resource Management (CRM) approach, used in aviation, the CRM or non-technical skills of anaesthetists, surgeons, scrub practitioners and emergency physicians have recently been identified to assist in their training and assessment. Paramedics are exposed to dynamic and dangerous situations where patients have to be managed, often with life-threatening injuries or illness. As in other safety-critical domains, the technical skills of paramedics are complemented by effective non-technical skills. The aim of this paper was to review the literature on the non-technical (social and cognitive) skills used by paramedics. This review was undertaken as part of a task analysis to identify the non-technical skills used by paramedics. Of the seven papers reviewed, the results have shown very little research on this topic and so reveal a gap in the understanding of paramedic non-technical skills.

  9. A Study of Technical Engineering Peer Reviews at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Lawrence P.; Tumer, Irem Y.; Bell, David G.

    2003-01-01

    This report describes the state of practices of design reviews at NASA and research into what can be done to improve peer review practices. There are many types of reviews at NASA: required and not, formalized and informal, programmatic and technical. Standing project formal reviews such as the Preliminary Design Review and Critical Design Review are a required part of every project and mission development. However, the technical, engineering peer reviews that support teams' work on such projects are informal, some times ad hoc, and inconsistent across the organization. The goal of this work is to identify best practices and lessons learned from NASA's experience, supported by academic research and methodologies to ultimately improve the process. This research has determined that the organization, composition, scope, and approach of the reviews impact their success. Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) can identify key areas of concern before or in the reviews. Product definition tools like the Project Priority Matrix, engineering-focused Customer Value Chain Analysis (CVCA), and project or system-based Quality Function Deployment (QFD) help prioritize resources in reviews. The use of information technology and structured design methodologies can strengthen the engineering peer review process to help NASA work towards error-proofing the design process.

  10. Alcohol Fuels Program technical review, Spring 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-10-01

    The alcohol fuels program consists of in-house and subcontracted research for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into fuel alcohols via thermoconversion and bioconversion technologies. In the thermoconversion area, the SERI gasifier has been operated on a one-ton per day scale and produces a clean, medium-Btu gas that can be used to manufacture methanol with a relatively small gas-water shift reaction requirement. Recent research has produced catalysts that make methanol and a mixture of higher alcohols from the biomass-derived synthetic gas. Three hydrolysis processes have emerged as candidates for more focused research. They are: a high-temperature, dilute-acid, plug-flow approach based on the Dartmouth reactor; steam explosion pretreatment followed by hydrolysis using the RUT-C30 fungal organism; and direct microbial conversion of the cellulose to ethanol using bacteria in a single or mixed culture. Modeling studies, including parametric and sensitivity analyses, have recently been completed. The results of these studies will lead to a better definition of the present state-of-the-art for these processes and provide a framework for establishing the research and process engineering issues that still need resolution. In addition to these modeling studies, economic feasibility studies are being carried out by commercial engineering firms. Their results will supplement and add commercial validity to the program results. The feasibility contractors will provide input at two levels: Technical and economic assessment of the current state-of-the-art in alcohol production from lignocellulosic biomass via thermoconversion to produce methanol and higher alcohol mixtures and bioconversion to produce ethanol; and identification of research areas having the potential to significantly reduce the cost of production of alcohols.

  11. WIND ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS - A TECHNICAL REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. RAMESH BABU

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Wind power production has been under the main focus for the past decade in power production and tremendous amount of research work is going on renewable energy, specifically on wind power extraction. Wind power provides an eco-friendly power generation and helps to meet the national energy demand when there is a diminishing trend in terms of non-renewable resources. This paper reviews the modeling of Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS, control strategies of controllers and various Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT technologies that are being proposed for efficient production of wind energy from the available resource.

  12. Arterial supply of the lower cranial nerves: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, Philipp; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Foreman, Paul; Loukas, Marios; Fisher, Winfield S; Rizk, Elias; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane

    2014-01-01

    The lower cranial nerves receive their arterial supply from an intricate network of tributaries derived from the external carotid, internal carotid, and vertebrobasilar territories. A contemporary, comprehensive literature review of the vascular supply of the lower cranial nerves was performed. The vascular supply to the trigeminal, facial, vestibulocochlear, glossopharyngeal, vagus, spinal accessory, and hypoglossal nerves are illustrated with a special emphasis on clinical issues. Frequently the external carotid, internal carotid, and vertebrobasilar territories all contribute to the vascular supply of an individual cranial nerve along its course. Understanding of the vasculature of the lower cranial nerves is of great relevance for skull base surgery. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Arterial supply of the upper cranial nerves: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, Philipp; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Foreman, Paul; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Loukas, Marios; Tubbs, R Shane

    2014-11-01

    The arterial supply to the upper cranial nerves is derived from a complex network of branches derived from the anterior and posterior cerebral circulations. We performed a comprehensive literature review of the arterial supply of the upper cranial nerves with an emphasis on clinical considerations. Arteries coursing in close proximity to the cranial nerves regularly give rise to small vessels that supply the nerve. Knowledge of the arteries supplying the cranial nerves is of particular importance during surgical approaches to the skull base. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Assessing Technical Competence in Surgical Trainees: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szasz, Peter; Louridas, Marisa; Harris, Kenneth A; Aggarwal, Rajesh; Grantcharov, Teodor P

    2015-06-01

    To systematically examine the literature describing the methods by which technical competence is assessed in surgical trainees. The last decade has witnessed an evolution away from time-based surgical education. In response, governing bodies worldwide have implemented competency-based education paradigms. The definition of competence, however, remains elusive, and the impact of these education initiatives in terms of assessment methods remains unclear. A systematic review examining the methods by which technical competence is assessed was conducted by searching MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, and the Cochrane database of systematic reviews. Abstracts of retrieved studies were reviewed and those meeting inclusion criteria were selected for full review. Data were retrieved in a systematic manner, the validity and reliability of the assessment methods was evaluated, and quality was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation classification. Of the 6814 studies identified, 85 studies involving 2369 surgical residents were included in this review. The methods used to assess technical competence were categorized into 5 groups; Likert scales (37), benchmarks (31), binary outcomes (11), novel tools (4), and surrogate outcomes (2). Their validity and reliability were mostly previously established. The overall Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation for randomized controlled trials was high and low for the observational studies. The definition of technical competence continues to be debated within the medical literature. The methods used to evaluate technical competence predominantly include instruments that were originally created to assess technical skill. Very few studies identify standard setting approaches that differentiate competent versus noncompetent performers; subsequently, this has been identified as an area with great research potential.

  15. A review of teaching second/ foreign language listening comprehension research(Part 5 Text production and comprehension)

    OpenAIRE

    尹, 松

    2002-01-01

    Among the four skills of the language acquisition, it has been pointed out that listening comprehension is the most difficult skill. The research on effective methods of teaching listening comprehension has been carried out from various viewpoints. After introducing the theory of listening comprehension, this review will describe recent trends in the teach-ing of listening as a second/foreign language. This will be done by focusing primarily on schema activator and strategy-instruction in tea...

  16. Technical review of Molten Salt Oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    The process was reviewed for destruction of mixed low-level radioactive waste. Results: extensive development work and scaleup has been documented on coal gasification and hazardous waste which forms a strong experience base for this MSO process; it is clearly applicable to DOE wastes such as organic liquids and low-ash wastes. It also has potential for processing difficult-to-treat wastes such as nuclear grade graphite and TBP, and it may be suitable for other problem waste streams such as sodium metal. MSO operating systems may be constructed in relatively small units for small quantity generators. Public perceptions could be favorable if acceptable performance data are presented fairly; MSO will likely require compliance with regulations for incineration. Use of MSO for offgas treatment may be complicated by salt carryover. Figs, tabs, refs

  17. Acoustic emission: technical review for PWR applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, P.G.

    1981-07-01

    Acoustic emission has been studied since the early 1960's, particularly with a view to periodic or continuous monitoring of steel pressure vessels. In the years 1970-75 it was realised that ductile steels, used in nuclear vessels, give small amplitude signals which are barely detectable by available instruments. The technique for application in periodic or continuous monitoring and also as applied to leak detection and weld fabrication monitoring is reviewed. It is concluded that manufacturing defects may be detectable during pre-service hydrotest, but that there is insufficient evidence on which to base an estimate of detection probability. In-service hydrotest or continuous monitoring is unlikely to detect growing cracks because of the quiet nature of the material and the noisy reactor background. Both leak detection and fabrication weld monitoring show some promise of successful application in the future. (author)

  18. Review of the ideas of the EGRP: comprehensive authorization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborne, R.V.; Turvey, F.J.

    2004-01-01

    One of the questions addressed in the review of the ideas of the EGRP was whether the process of comprehensive authorization as described in 'The Way Forward: a Contribution to the Evolution of the System of Radiological Protection' would lead to a better system of protection. The process can be seen as a particular application of the general approach taken in assessing and managing health risks of all kinds. Such an approach is to define the problem and put it in context; to analyse the risks; to examine the options for addressing the risk; to decide which option to implement - i.e., the optimum solution; to implement the decision; and to evaluate the results. The EGRP ideas cover the first four steps. In the review we have tested the process of characterisation, screening, and optimisation called here 'comprehensive authorization' - on a variety of sources and exposures, ranging from cosmic ray exposures of the public to radioactive releases from nuclear facilities. Our finding has been that the scores obtained in the characterisation range from less than 35% to more then 65%, the values suggested (see Part 1 of this presentation) as the criteria for excusing from regulatory action and for indicating the need for stakeholder involvement. The comprehensive authorization process would appear to lead to the same general outcomes as does the present system but in a more unified way without some of the confusing terminology. Characterisation looks to be a helpful way of triggering stakeholder involvement, though there may be some difficulty in arriving at a common set of attributes - some 'tuning' is needed. There is still a need for international recommendations on dose constraints and other quantitative guidelines for consideration in the optimisation process. The process of comprehensive authorization appears to be an evolution of the present system, able to take advantage of those parts of the current system that work well. With the comprehensive authorization

  19. Control strategies for crane systems: A comprehensive review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Liyana; Mohamed, Z.; Abdullahi, Auwalu M.; Jaafar, H. I.; Lazim, Izzuddin M.

    2017-10-01

    Crane systems are tremendously utilised in numerous heavy load transportation industries, and therefore, the control of crane systems is a well-established research field. As the last review paper was published more than a decade ago, there is a lack of collected and organised information regarding the latest and the newest updates on control strategies for crane control systems. Hence, this paper presents a comprehensive review of crane control strategies discussing the latest research works during the years from 2000 to 2016. Various crane types and control issues are highlighted, followed by the main focus of this paper, an extensive review of the control schemes for diverse types of crane systems that have been carried out in the 21st century. A brief review on modelling of single-pendulum and double-pendulum crane systems is also given. In addition, anti-sway control systems for industrial cranes that are available on the market is described. This paper summarises most of the related work and also pays a special focus on research trends regarding the control of crane systems that have been previously published in the literature. It is envisaged that this review paper will be helpful to new researchers when identifying research directions for this particular area of interest.

  20. Utilization of a technical review group during a BWR owners group technical specification improvement study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansell, H.F.; Moyer, D.P.

    1986-01-01

    A BWR Owners' Group Technical Specification Improvement (TSI) Committee was formed in late 1983. A primary goal of this Committee was to encourage the development of a probabilistic methodology for technical specification improvements which could be readily applied by utilities. The TSI Committee elected to hire a Contractor to develop and demonstrate a method. After the Contractor was selected and has started work, the committee decided to establish a Technical Review Group (TRG) to efficiently and effectively review the Contractor's analyses. The TRG met frequently with the Contractor as the analyses were being performed. These meetings were held at the Contractor's facility in order to allow direct contact between reviewers and individuals performing the work. The TRG was also involved with all major interactions with the NRC. The significance and merit of using a peer review group in this manner is the theme of this paper. In order to present a discussion of the significance and merit of the TRG, the activities are described. The summary of the analytical approach is provided to more full understand the TRG activities

  1. The Role of Elaboration in the Comprehension and Retention of Prose: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reder, Lynne M.

    1980-01-01

    Recent research in the area of prose comprehension is reviewed, including factors that affect amount of recall, representations of text structures, and use of world knowledge to aid comprehension. The need for more information processing models of comprehension is emphasized. Elaboration is considered important for comprehension and retention.…

  2. Caffeine Use Disorder: A Comprehensive Review and Research Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Steven E; Juliano, Laura M; Hughes, John R; Griffiths, Roland R

    2013-09-01

    Caffeine is the most commonly used drug in the world. Although consumption of low to moderate doses of caffeine is generally safe, an increasing number of clinical studies are showing that some caffeine users become dependent on the drug and are unable to reduce consumption despite knowledge of recurrent health problems associated with continued use. Thus, the World Health Organization and some health care professionals recognize caffeine dependence as a clinical disorder. In this comprehensive literature review, we summarize published research on the biological evidence for caffeine dependence; we provide a systematic review of the prevalence of caffeine dependence and rates of endorsement of clinically meaningful indicators of distress and functional impairment among habitual caffeine users; we discuss the diagnostic criteria for Caffeine Use Disorder-a condition for further study included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders ( 5 th ed .); and we outline a research agenda to help guide future clinical, epidemiological, and genetic investigations of caffeine dependence. Numerous controlled laboratory investigations reviewed in this article show that caffeine produces behavioral and physiological effects similar to other drugs of dependence. Moreover, several recent clinical studies indicate that caffeine dependence is a clinically meaningful disorder that affects a nontrivial proportion of caffeine users. Nevertheless, more research is needed to determine the reliability, validity, and prevalence of this clinically important health problem.

  3. 24 CFR 902.68 - Technical review of results of PHAS Indicators #1 or #4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... both reviews, a request for technical review must be submitted in writing to the Director of the Real... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Technical review of results of PHAS... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC HOUSING ASSESSMENT SYSTEM PHAS Scoring § 902.68 Technical review of...

  4. The bioink: A comprehensive review on bioprintable materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hospodiuk, Monika; Dey, Madhuri; Sosnoski, Donna; Ozbolat, Ibrahim T

    This paper discusses "bioink", bioprintable materials used in three dimensional (3D) bioprinting processes, where cells and other biologics are deposited in a spatially controlled pattern to fabricate living tissues and organs. It presents the first comprehensive review of existing bioink types including hydrogels, cell aggregates, microcarriers and decellularized matrix components used in extrusion-, droplet- and laser-based bioprinting processes. A detailed comparison of these bioink materials is conducted in terms of supporting bioprinting modalities and bioprintability, cell viability and proliferation, biomimicry, resolution, affordability, scalability, practicality, mechanical and structural integrity, bioprinting and post-bioprinting maturation times, tissue fusion and formation post-implantation, degradation characteristics, commercial availability, immune-compatibility, and application areas. The paper then discusses current limitations of bioink materials and presents the future prospects to the reader. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Concepts and measures of patient empowerment: a comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Garcimartín Cerezo

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE Analyze the definitions and dimensions of empowerment. Identify the strengths and weaknesses of empowerment measures based on the conceptual model. METHOD This was a comprehensive literature review of publications on the MEDLINE and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL databases. RESULTS Twenty-nine articles were selected. Seventeen definitions and seven dimensions of empowerment, and 10 empowerment measures were selected. Empowerment can be seen as an enabling process involving a shift in the balance of power, or as an outcome of this process. The dimensions reflect outcome indicators, such as participation in decision-making and control, and process indicators, such as knowledge acquisition and coping skills. Six of the tools analyzed by this study could be said to provide a robust measure of patient empowerment. CONCLUSION we propose a definition of empowerment that helps to deepen understanding of the term and, therefore, its operationalization.

  6. Wideband and UWB Antennas for Wireless Applications: A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Cicchetti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive review concerning the geometry, the manufacturing technologies, the materials, and the numerical techniques, adopted for the analysis and design of wideband and ultrawideband (UWB antennas for wireless applications, is presented. Planar, printed, dielectric, and wearable antennas, achievable on laminate (rigid and flexible, and textile dielectric substrates are taken into account. The performances of small, low-profile, and dielectric resonator antennas are illustrated paying particular attention to the application areas concerning portable devices (mobile phones, tablets, glasses, laptops, wearable computers, etc. and radio base stations. This information provides a guidance to the selection of the different antenna geometries in terms of bandwidth, gain, field polarization, time-domain response, dimensions, and materials useful for their realization and integration in modern communication systems.

  7. A comprehensive review of telementoring applications in laparoscopic general surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, Stavros A; Antoniou, George A; Franzen, Jan; Bollmann, Stefan; Koch, Oliver O; Pointner, Rudolf; Granderath, Frank A

    2012-08-01

    Incorporation of advanced laparoscopic procedures in the practice of institutions without respective experience is a significant impediment in the dissemination of minimally invasive techniques. On-site mentoring programs carry several cost-related and practical constraints. Telementoring has emerged as a practical and cost-effective alternative mentoring tool. The present study aimed to review the pertinent literature on telementoring applications in laparoscopic general surgery. A systematic review using the Medline database was performed. Articles reporting on clinical experience with telementoring applications in general surgery were included. Variations in methodology, study design, and operative procedures precluded cumulative outcome evaluation. Instead, a critical appraisal of current evidence was undertaken. Seventy-five articles were identified in the primary search, and ten studies were considered eligible. No randomized studies comparing on-site mentoring with telementoring were identified. The included studies reported on a total of 96 laparoscopic telementored procedures: 50 cholecystectomies, 23 colorectal resections, 7 fundoplications, 9 adrenalectomies, 6 hernia repairs, and 2 splenectomies. Completion of remotely assisted procedures was feasible in the vast majority of cases, whereas technical difficulties included video and audio latency with low transfer rates (programs in general surgery. Their clinical effectiveness as teaching alternatives to traditional mentoring programs remains to be further evaluated.

  8. Dynamic Tensile Experimental Techniques for Geomaterials: A Comprehensive Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, W.; Song, B.; Williams, B.; Martin, B.; Sparks, P.; Nie, X.

    2018-01-01

    This review article is dedicated to the Dynamic Behavior of Materials Technical Division for celebrating the 75th anniversary of the Society for Experimental Mechanics (SEM). Understanding dynamic behavior of geomaterials is critical for analyzing and solving engineering problems of various applications related to underground explosions, seismic, airblast, and penetration events. Determining the dynamic tensile response of geomaterials has been a great challenge in experiments due to the nature of relatively low tensile strength and high brittleness. Various experimental approaches have been made in the past century, especially in the most recent half century, to understand the dynamic behavior of geomaterials in tension. In this review paper, we summarized the dynamic tensile experimental techniques for geomaterials that have been developed. The major dynamic tensile experimental techniques include dynamic direct tension, dynamic split tension, and spall tension. All three of the experimental techniques are based on Hopkinson or split Hopkinson (also known as Kolsky) bar techniques and principles. Uniqueness and limitations for each experimental technique are also discussed.

  9. Response to 'Burden of proof: A comprehensive review of the feasibility of 100% renewable-electricity systems'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Tom; Bischof-Niemz, Tobias; Breyer, Christian

    2018-01-01

    A recent article 'Burden of proof: A comprehensive review of the feasibility of 100% renewable-electricity systems' claims that many studies of 100% renewable electricity systems do not demonstrate sufficient technical feasibility, according to the criteria of the article's authors (henceforth 'the...... authors'). Here we analyse the authors' methodology and find it problematic. The feasibility criteria chosen by the authors are important, but are also easily addressed at low economic cost, while not affecting the main conclusions of the reviewed studies and certainly not affecting their technical...... feasibility. A more thorough review reveals that all of the issues have already been addressed in the engineering and modelling literature. Nuclear power, as advocated by some of the authors, faces other, genuine feasibility problems, such as the finiteness of uranium resources and a reliance on unproven...

  10. Advances in Immunotherapy for Melanoma: A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Rodríguez-Cerdeira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Melanomas are tumors originating from melanocytes and tend to show early metastasis secondary to the loss of cellular adhesion in the primary tumor, resulting in high mortality rates. Cancer-specific active immunotherapy is an experimental form of treatment that stimulates the immune system to recognize antigens on the surface of cancer cells. Current experimental approaches in immunotherapy include vaccines, biochemotherapy, and the transfer of adoptive T cells and dendritic cells. Several types of vaccines, including peptide, viral, and dendritic cell vaccines, are currently under investigation for the treatment of melanoma. These treatments have the same goal as drugs that are already used to stimulate the proliferation of T lymphocytes in order to destroy tumor cells; however, immunotherapies aim to selectively attack the tumor cells of each patient. In this comprehensive review, we describe recent advancements in the development of immunotherapies for melanoma, with a specific focus on the identification of neoantigens for the prediction of their elicited immune responses. This review is expected to provide important insights into the future of immunotherapy for melanoma.

  11. A comprehensive and quantitative review of dark fermentative biohydrogen production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rittmann Simon

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Biohydrogen production (BHP can be achieved by direct or indirect biophotolysis, photo-fermentation and dark fermentation, whereof only the latter does not require the input of light energy. Our motivation to compile this review was to quantify and comprehensively report strains and process performance of dark fermentative BHP. This review summarizes the work done on pure and defined co-culture dark fermentative BHP since the year 1901. Qualitative growth characteristics and quantitative normalized results of H2 production for more than 2000 conditions are presented in a normalized and therefore comparable format to the scientific community. Statistically based evidence shows that thermophilic strains comprise high substrate conversion efficiency, but mesophilic strains achieve high volumetric productivity. Moreover, microbes of Thermoanaerobacterales (Family III have to be preferred when aiming to achieve high substrate conversion efficiency in comparison to the families Clostridiaceae and Enterobacteriaceae. The limited number of results available on dark fermentative BHP from fed-batch cultivations indicates the yet underestimated potential of this bioprocessing application. A Design of Experiments strategy should be preferred for efficient bioprocess development and optimization of BHP aiming at improving medium, cultivation conditions and revealing inhibitory effects. This will enable comparing and optimizing strains and processes independent of initial conditions and scale.

  12. SRTC criticality safety technical review of SRT-CMA-930039

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathbun, R.

    1993-01-01

    Review of SRT-CMA-930039, ''Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation (NCSE): DWPF Melter-Batch 1,'' December 1, 1993, has been performed by the Savannah River Technical Center (SRTC) Applied Physics Group. The NCSE is a criticality assessment of the Melt Cell in the DWPF. Additionally, this pertains only to Batch 1 operation, which differs from batches to follow. Plans for subsequent batch operations call for fissile material in the Salt Cell feed-stream, which necessitates a separate criticality evaluation in the future. The NCSE under review concludes that the process is safe from criticality events, even in the event that all lithium and boron neutron poisons are lost, provided uranium enrichments are less than 40%. Furthermore, if all the lithium and as much as 98% of the boron would be lost, uranium enrichments of 100% would be allowable. After a thorough review of the NCSE, this reviewer agrees with that conclusion. This technical review consisted of: an independent check of the methods and models employed, independent calculations application of ANSI/ANS 8.1, verification of WSRC Nuclear Criticality Safety Manual( 2 ) procedures

  13. REQUIREMENT VERIFICATION AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING TECHNICAL REVIEW (SETR) ON A COMMERCIAL DERIVATIVE AIRCRAFT (CDA) PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    VERIFICATION AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING TECHNICAL REVIEW (SETR) ON A COMMERCIAL DERIVATIVE AIRCRAFT (CDA) PROGRAM by Theresa L. Thomas September... ENGINEERING TECHNICAL REVIEW (SETR) ON A COMMERCIAL DERIVATIVE AIRCRAFT (CDA) PROGRAM 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Theresa L. Thomas 7...CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) The Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) systems engineering technical review (SETR) process does not

  14. Technical review of the da Vinci surgical telemanipulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freschi, C; Ferrari, V; Melfi, F; Ferrari, M; Mosca, F; Cuschieri, A

    2013-12-01

    The da Vinci robotic surgical telemanipulator has been utilized in several surgical specialties for varied procedures, and the users' experiences have been widely published. To date, no detailed system technical analyses have been performed. A detailed review was performed of all publications and patents about the technical aspects of the da Vinci robotic system. Published technical literature on the da Vinci system highlight strengths and weaknesses of the robot design. While the system facilitates complex surgical operations and has a low malfunction rate, the lack of haptic (especially tactile) feedback and collisions between the robotic arms remain the major limitations of the system. Accurate, preplanned positioning of access ports is essential. Knowledge of the technical aspects of the da Vinci robot is important for optimal use. We confirmed the excellent system functionality and ease of use for surgeons without an engineering background. Research and development of the surgical robot has been predominant in the literature. Future trends address robot miniaturization and intelligent control design. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Independent technical review of Savannah River Site Defense Waste Processing Facility technical issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will vitrify high-level radioactive waste that is presently stored as liquid, salt-cake, and sludge in 51 waste-storage tanks. Construction of the DWPF began in 1984, and the Westinghouse Savannah Company (WSRC) considers the plant to be 100% turned over from construction and 91% complete. Cold-chemical runs are scheduled to begin in November 1992, and hot start up is projected for June 1994. It is estimated that the plant lifetime must exceed 15 years to complete the vitrification of the current, high-level tank waste. In a memo to the Assistant Secretary for Defense Programs (DP-1), the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Restoration and Waste management (EM-1) established the need for an Independent Technical Review (ITR), or the Red Team, to ''review process technology issues preventing start up of the DWPF.'' This report documents the findings of an Independent Technical Review (ITR) conducted by the Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM), at the request of the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, of specified aspects of Defense Waste Process Facility (DWPF) process technology. Information for the assessment was drawn from documents provided to the ITR Team by the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC), and presentations, discussions, interviews, and tours held at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during the weeks of February and March 9, 1992

  16. A comprehensive review on utilization of wastewater from coffee processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattan, Supriya; Parande, A K; Nagaraju, V D; Ghiwari, Girish K

    2015-05-01

    The coffee processing industry is one of the major agro-based industries contributing significantly in international and national growth. Coffee fruits are processed by two methods, wet and dry process. In wet processing, coffee fruits generate enormous quantities of high strength wastewater requiring systematic treatment prior to disposal. Different method approach is used to treat the wastewater. Many researchers have attempted to assess the efficiency of batch aeration as posttreatment of coffee processing wastewater from an upflow anaerobic hybrid reactor (UAHR)-continuous and intermittent aeration system. However, wet coffee processing requires a high degree of processing know-how and produces large amounts of effluents which have the potential to damage the environment. Characteristics of wastewater from coffee processing has a biological oxygen demand (BOD) of up to 20,000 mg/l and a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of up to 50,000 mg/l as well as the acidity of pH below 4. In this review paper, various methods are discussed to treat coffee processing wastewaters; the constitution of wastewater is presented and the technical solutions for wastewater treatment are discussed.

  17. Clinical efficacy of turmeric use in gingivitis: A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyell, Karissa A; Mappus, Jennifer L; Gandhi, Mona A

    2016-11-01

    Gingivitis affects an estimated 80% of the population, and is characterized as the world's most predominant inflammatory periodontal disease. Without intervention, gingivitis can advance to alveolar bone loss. Therefore, the primary goal in patients suffering with gingivitis is to control plaque buildup and soft tissue inflammation. Current guidelines consider chlorhexidine as the gold standard in the prevention and treatment of gingivitis. However, negative side effects of chlorhexidine, including oral mucosal erosion, discoloration of teeth, and bitter taste, provide an opportunity for alternative medications. Turmeric, a commonly used herb, possesses anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal properties. By virtue of these properties, multiple controlled trials have been performed to investigate the efficacy of turmeric in gingivitis. The aim of this comprehensive review is to summarize and evaluate the evidence on the efficacy of turmeric as compared to chlorhexidine in the prevention and treatment of gingivitis. PubMed, MedLine (Web of Science), and EBSCO (academic search complete) were utilized as primary literature search tools. The following search strategy was used: ((turmeric OR curcumin OR curcuma) AND (gingivitis OR "gum inflammation")). Five reviewed studies show that both turmeric and chlorhexidine significantly decrease plaque index (PI) and gingival index (GI), and can therefore be used in the prevention and treatment of gingivitis. Both chlorhexidine and turmeric can be used as an adjunct to mechanical means in preventing and treating gingivitis. However, trials longer than 21 days with a greater number of patients are necessary to further evaluate the comparison between turmeric and chlorhexidine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Genetic background in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: A comprehensive review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaluso, Fabio Salvatore; Maida, Marcello; Petta, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    In the Western world, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered as one of the most significant liver diseases of the twenty-first century. Its development is certainly driven by environmental factors, but it is also regulated by genetic background. The role of heritability has been widely demonstrated by several epidemiological, familial, and twin studies and case series, and likely reflects the wide inter-individual and inter-ethnic genetic variability in systemic metabolism and wound healing response processes. Consistent with this idea, genome-wide association studies have clearly identified Patatin-like phosholipase domain-containing 3 gene variant I148M as a major player in the development and progression of NAFLD. More recently, the transmembrane 6 superfamily member 2 E167K variant emerged as a relevant contributor in both NAFLD pathogenesis and cardiovascular outcomes. Furthermore, numerous case-control studies have been performed to elucidate the potential role of candidate genes in the pathogenesis and progression of fatty liver, although findings are sometimes contradictory. Accordingly, we performed a comprehensive literature search and review on the role of genetics in NAFLD. We emphasize the strengths and weaknesses of the available literature and outline the putative role of each genetic variant in influencing susceptibility and/or progression of the disease. PMID:26494964

  19. The drivers of tropical deforestation: a comprehensive review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, T. J.; Boucher, D.; Elias, P.; Lininger, K.; May-Tobin, C.; Roquemore, S.; Saxon, E.; Martin, J.; Mulik, K.

    2011-12-01

    Tropical forests are disappearing around the world. This clearing causes around 15% of global carbon emissions, leads to the rapid loss of biodiversity, and destroys the livelihoods of many indigenous peoples. We comprehensively reviewed the literature on drivers of tropical deforestation and found a number of trends. While deforestation was predominately driven by small farmers and government action in the 1970s and 1980s, since the 1990s most deforestation has been driven by large scale commercial agriculture. In Latin America, and Brazil in particular, forest clearing has mostly been due to expansion of cattle pastures and for a period in the late 1990s and early 2000s soy bean expansion. In Southeast Asia, deforestation has mainly been due to expansion of oil palm plantations and timber harvesting. In Africa small farmers and wood fuel collection still play a role, although deforestation rates are considerably lower there than in other regions. Additionally, increased urbanization and trends toward a diet based on meat, particularly beef, have help drive deforestation. Biofuels policies around the world are also adding demand, both directly for vegetable oil, and by expanding demand for competing crops such as corn. We examine the extent to which biofuels demand directly and indirectly acts as a driver of deforestation, and the policies that can mitigate this problem by analyzing alternative scenarios of biofuel expansion and their impact on land use change, commodity prices and green house gas emissions.

  20. ECO-TOURISM SUSTAINABILITY THROUGH PV TECHNOLOGY: A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARAVIND C. V

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Through the Economic Transformation program the Malaysian Government aims to consider tourism as one of the major contributors to the country’s economy and as an industry that imbibe on the principles of environmental responsibility and sustainable development. The growing challenges in the prevention of expansion in agriculture, forestry and aquaculture, and over-exploitation of the natural resources, have made ecotourism extremely popular as a solution for developing tourism sites. Ecotourism attracts many people who wish not only to explore natural wonders but also to protect them for future generations. Most of the ecotourism sites are presumably situated far from the conventional energy resources and thus transporting electricity to those areas are discussed as inefficient and unsustainable. However, solar Photo-voltaic (PV system is clean and alternative energy to suffice the energy demands of eco-tourist sites. This paper puts statements of the energy demand in global and its impact on the traditional fossil fuels and proposes PV as an alternative renewable technology pertaining to the eco-tourism application. The paper especially focuses on solar PV systems which not only could supply the energy demand of tourist sites but can also maintain the image of the ecotourism. A case of a model lodge is used for the study, through the energy demand analysis. A comprehensive review on the PV architecture is presented that derive interest in the implementation of such structure for the case presented.

  1. Lipid Extraction Methods from Microalgae: A Comprehensive Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranjith Kumar, Ramanathan [Department of Plant Biology and Plant Biotechnology, Shree Chandraprabhu Jain College, Chennai (India); Hanumantha Rao, Polur [Department of Microbiology, Madras Christian College, Chennai (India); Arumugam, Muthu, E-mail: arumugam@niist.res.in [Division of Biotechnology, CSIR – National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology (NIIST), Trivandrum (India)

    2015-01-08

    Energy security has become a serious global issue and a lot of research is being carried out to look for economically viable and environment-friendly alternatives. The only solution that appears to meet futuristic needs is the use of renewable energy. Although various forms of renewable energy are being currently used, the prospects of producing carbon-neutral biofuels from microalgae appear bright because of their unique features such as suitability of growing in open ponds required for production of a commodity product, high CO{sub 2}-sequestering capability, and ability to grow in wastewater/seawater/brackish water and high-lipid productivity. The major process constraint in microalgal biofuel technology is the cost-effective and efficient extraction of lipids. The objective of this article is to provide a comprehensive review on various methods of lipid extraction from microalgae available, to date, as well as to discuss their advantages and disadvantages. The article covers all areas of lipid extraction procedures including solvent extraction procedures, mechanical approaches, and solvent-free procedures apart from some of the latest extraction technologies. Further research is required in this area for successful implementation of this technology at the production scale.

  2. Lipid Extraction Methods from Microalgae: A Comprehensive Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranjith Kumar, Ramanathan; Hanumantha Rao, Polur; Arumugam, Muthu

    2015-01-01

    Energy security has become a serious global issue and a lot of research is being carried out to look for economically viable and environment-friendly alternatives. The only solution that appears to meet futuristic needs is the use of renewable energy. Although various forms of renewable energy are being currently used, the prospects of producing carbon-neutral biofuels from microalgae appear bright because of their unique features such as suitability of growing in open ponds required for production of a commodity product, high CO 2 -sequestering capability, and ability to grow in wastewater/seawater/brackish water and high-lipid productivity. The major process constraint in microalgal biofuel technology is the cost-effective and efficient extraction of lipids. The objective of this article is to provide a comprehensive review on various methods of lipid extraction from microalgae available, to date, as well as to discuss their advantages and disadvantages. The article covers all areas of lipid extraction procedures including solvent extraction procedures, mechanical approaches, and solvent-free procedures apart from some of the latest extraction technologies. Further research is required in this area for successful implementation of this technology at the production scale.

  3. Eosinophils from Physiology to Disease: A Comprehensive Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoub, Mona-Rita; Ripa, Marco; Mannina, Daniele; Cariddi, Adriana; Saporiti, Nicoletta; Ciceri, Fabio; Castagna, Antonella; Dagna, Lorenzo

    2018-01-01

    Despite being the second least represented granulocyte subpopulation in the circulating blood, eosinophils are receiving a growing interest from the scientific community, due to their complex pathophysiological role in a broad range of local and systemic inflammatory diseases as well as in cancer and thrombosis. Eosinophils are crucial for the control of parasitic infections, but increasing evidence suggests that they are also involved in vital defensive tasks against bacterial and viral pathogens including HIV. On the other side of the coin, eosinophil potential to provide a strong defensive response against invading microbes through the release of a large array of compounds can prove toxic to the host tissues and dysregulate haemostasis. Increasing knowledge of eosinophil biological behaviour is leading to major changes in established paradigms for the classification and diagnosis of several allergic and autoimmune diseases and has paved the way to a “golden age” of eosinophil-targeted agents. In this review, we provide a comprehensive update on the pathophysiological role of eosinophils in host defence, inflammation, and cancer and discuss potential clinical implications in light of recent therapeutic advances. PMID:29619379

  4. Carcinosarcoma of the Pancreas: Case Report With Comprehensive Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruess, Dietrich A; Kayser, Claudia; Neubauer, Jakob; Fichtner-Feigl, Stefan; Hopt, Ulrich T; Wittel, Uwe A

    2017-10-01

    Carcinosarcomas are rare biphasic neoplasms with distinct malignant epithelial and mesenchymal components. Most commonly, carcinosarcomas arise in the uterus as malignant mixed müllerian tumors, but also infrequently appear in other organs such as the ovaries and breast, the prostate and urinary tract, the lungs, or in the gastrointestinal system, among others. Pancreatic carcinosarcomas are exceedingly rare; only a few cases are reported in the English literature. Their pathogenesis remains to be fully clarified. We present here the case of a pancreatic carcinosarcoma with evidence for monoclonality via determination of Kras mutational status after microdissection and suggest a common origin of the 2 tumor components. Comprehensive review of the available literature allows the conclusion that most pancreatic carcinosarcomas appear to be of monoclonal origin and seem to have arisen from a carcinoma via metaplastic transformation of 1 part or subclone of the tumor, probably by epithelial-mesenchymal transition. All reported patients were treated with surgery. Adjuvant therapy, if administered, consisted predominantly of gemcitabine. Prognosis for this neoplasm occurs to be similar or even worse compared with classic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Despite the lack of evidence-based recommendations for its treatment, resection should be performed, if possible.

  5. Report From the International Linear Collider Technical Review Committee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loew, Gregory A.

    2003-01-01

    The International Linear Collider Technical Review Committee (ILC-TRC), formed in 1994, was reconvened in February 2001 by the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA) to assess the current technical status of all electron-positron linear collider designs at hand in the world: TESLA, JLC-C, JLC-X/NLC and CLIC. The ILC-TRC worked for exactly two years and submitted its report to ICFA in February 2003. This paper presents the motivation behind the study, the charge to the committee and its organization, a table of machine parameters for 500 GeV c.m. energy and later upgrades to higher energies, the methodology used to assess the designs, and a ranked list of R and D tasks still deemed necessary between now and the time any one of the projects is selected by the HEP community and begins construction. Possible future developments are briefly discussed

  6. ESAP Students' Comprehension of Multiple Technical Reading Texts: Insights from Personal Epistemological Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Mohammad Nabi; Atai, Mohamood Reza

    2014-01-01

    Given the importance associated with multiple-document literacy in the present-day knowledge societies and the dearth of research in English Language Teaching in general and English for Specific/Academic Purposes (ESAP) contexts in particular on multiple-document comprehension and the significance of reader beliefs in this type of comprehension,…

  7. A Comprehensive Review of Celiac Disease/Gluten-Sensitive Enteropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Brian P; Williams, Emmanuelle; Clarke, Kofi

    2018-06-02

    Celiac disease is a complex immune-mediated gluten-sensitive enteropathy with protean clinical manifestations. It is manifest in genetically predisposed individuals who ingest gluten in varying amounts. In broad terms, it is thought to affect 1% of the population in the USA. More specifically, the prevalence increases drastically from 1:133 in patients not-at-risk, to 1:56 in symptomatic patients, to 1:39 in patients with a second-degree relative with the diagnosis, and to 1:22 in patients with a first-degree relative with the diagnosis. It may be associated with several immune-mediated phenomena, autoimmune diseases, and complicated by vitamin and other trace element deficiencies, bone disease, and malignancy. Our understanding of celiac disease has evolved rapidly over the past two decades. This has led to several lines of enquiry on the condition and potential treatment options. More recently, several entities including gluten intolerance, non-celiac gluten sensitivity, and seronegative celiac disease have been described. These conditions are distinct from allergies or intolerance to wheat or wheat products. There are challenges in defining some of these entities since a large number of patients self-report these conditions. The absence of confirmatory diagnostic tests poses an added dilemma in distinguishing these entities. The differences in spectrum of symptoms and highlights of the variability between the pediatric and adult populations have been studied in some detail. The role of screening for celiac disease is examined in both the general population and "at risk" populations. Diagnostic strategies including the best available serologic testing, utility of HLA haplotypes DQ2 and DQ8 which are seen in over 90% of patients with celiac disease as compared with approximately 40% of the general population, and endoscopic evaluation are also reviewed. Comprehensive nutritional management after diagnosis is key to sustained health in patients with celiac disease

  8. Proceedings of the 24th NSRR technical review meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uetsuka, Hiroshi; Fuketa, Toyoshi; Suzuki, Motoe [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] [and others

    2001-09-01

    The 24th NSRR Technical Review Meeting was held at Tranomon Pastoral, Tokyo, on November 13 and 14, 2000. The purpose of the meeting was to present and discuss the recent progress of the NSRR program and other LWR fuel safety researches at JAERI. Twenty-one papers, including five by foreign institutes, were presented and discussed regarding fuel behavior during normal operation, reactivity initiated accident (RIA) and loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) and FP release behavior during severe accident. The meeting was a great help in planning future research and promoting research cooperation. This proceeding contains the papers presented in the meeting. (author)

  9. Technical review of the Sandia Laboratories' Particle Beam Fusion Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This report considers the technical aspects of Sandia Laboratories' Particle Beam Fusion Program and examines the program's initial goals, the progress made to date towards reaching those goals, and the future plans or methods of reaching those original or modified goals. A summary of Sandia Laboratories' effort, which seeks to demonstrate that high voltage pulsed power generated high-current electron or light ion beams can be used to ignite a deuterium or tritium pellet, is provided. A brief review and assessment of the Sandia Pulse Power Program is given. Several critical issues and summaries of the committee members' opinions are discussed

  10. Pregnancy and radiotherapy : management options for minimising risk, case series and comprehensive literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luis, S. A.; Christie, D. R. H.; Peres, M. H.; Kaminski, A.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: This article reviews the efficacy and safety of radiotherapy in patients with cancer who are pregnant. Our review provided extended follow-up results in nine cases, presents a technical discussion on measures taken to minimise foetal radiation exposure and provides a comprehensive summary of the literature. Nine patients who received radiotherapy while pregnant are described. The clinical presentation and outcomes of these and 100 additional cases identified on a systematic literature review are presented. Comparisons of scattered radiation doses from three linear accelerators are presented. The average maternal follow-up in our series was 8.9 years with one patient having a recurrence of their astrocytoma. In terms of foetal outcome, there were one death in utero, one elective termination of pregnancy and one on which no data were available. Six children, on whom long-term follow-up (average 10.3 years) was obtainable, were in good health. Overall, there had been 109 cases of radiotherapy in pregnancy that met our search criteria with 13 adverse outcomes and a median follow-up of 37 months. Comparisons of three linear accelerators demonstrated significant differences in the amount of scattered radiation to the abdominal surface. In summary radiotherapy during pregnancy can be associated with a significant number of adverse outcomes. While it may be difficult for a patient not to attribute these effects to radiotherapy, it is also difficult to define the mechanisms by which radiotherapy would have caused them, if that were the case.

  11. Concepts and measures of patient empowerment: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerezo, Paloma Garcimartín; Juvé-Udina, Maria-Eulália; Delgado-Hito, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Analyze the definitions and dimensions of empowerment. Identify the strengths and weaknesses of empowerment measures based on the conceptual model. This was a comprehensive literature review of publications on the MEDLINE and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) databases. Twenty-nine articles were selected. Seventeen definitions and seven dimensions of empowerment, and 10 empowerment measures were selected. Empowerment can be seen as an enabling process involving a shift in the balance of power, or as an outcome of this process. The dimensions reflect outcome indicators, such as participation in decision-making and control, and process indicators, such as knowledge acquisition and coping skills. Six of the tools analyzed by this study could be said to provide a robust measure of patient empowerment. we propose a definition of empowerment that helps to deepen understanding of the term and, therefore, its operationalization. Analizar definiciones y dimensiones de empoderamiento. Identificar fortalezas y debilidades de los instrumentos de medida de empoderamiento respecto al modelo conceptual. Revisión integrativa de la literatura en las bases de datos MEDLINE y Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL). Fueram seleccionados 29 artículos . Se identificaron 17 definiciones, 7 propuestas de dimensiones y 10 instrumentos de medida. Empoderamiento puede ser un proceso de capacitación o habilitación en el que se transfiere el poder de un individuo a otro, o bien un resultado producto de ese proceso. Las dimensiones reflejan indicadores de resultados como son la participación en la toma de decisiones y tomar el control, e indicadores relativos al proceso como son la adquisición de conocimientos y las habilidades de afrontamiento. De los instrumentos analizados seis son los instrumentos que presentan mayor robustez. Se propone una definición de empoderamiento que puede ayudar a mejorar la comprensión del t

  12. Independent technical review of the Hanford Tank Farm Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    The Independent Technical Assessment of the Hanford Tank Farm Operations was commissioned by the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management on November 1, 1991. The Independent Technical Assessment team conducted on-site interviews and inspections during the following periods: November 18 to 22,1991; April 13 to 17; and April 27 to May 1, 1992. Westinghouse Hanford Company is the management and operating contractor for the Department of Energy at the Hanford site. The Hanford Tank Farm Operations consists of 177 underground storage tanks containing 61 million gallons of high-level radioactive mixed wastes from the chemical reprocessing of nuclear fuel. The Tank Farm Operations also includes associated transfer lines, ancillary equipment, and instrumentation. The Independent Technical Assessment of the Hanford Tank Farm Operations builds upon the prior assessments of the Hanford Waste Vitrification System and the Hanford Site Tank Waste Disposal Strategy.The objective of this technical assessment was to determine whether an integrated and sound program exists to manage the tank-waste storage and tankfarm operations consistent with the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management's guidance of overall risk minimization. The scope of this review includes the organization, management, operation, planning, facilities, and mitigation of the safety-concerns of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System. The assessments presented in the body of this report are based on the detailed observations discussed in the appendices. When the assessments use the term ''Hanford'' as an organizational body it means DOE-RL and Westinghouse Hanford Company as a minimum, and in many instances all of the stake holders for the Hanford site

  13. Nuclear Fuel Safety Criteria Technical Review - Second edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, Winfried; Blanpain, Patrick; Fuketa, Toyoshi; Gorzel, Andreas; Hozer, Zoltan; Kamimura, Katsuichiro; Koo, Yang-Hyun; Maertens, Dietmar; Nechaeva, Olga; Petit, Marc; Rehacek, Radomir; Rey-Gayo, Jose Maria; Sairanen, Risto; Sonnenburg, Heinz-Guenther; Valach, Mojmir; Waeckel, Nicolas; Yueh, Ken; Zhang, Jinzhao; Voglewede, John

    2012-01-01

    Most of the current nuclear fuel safety criteria were established during the 1960's and early 1970's. Although these criteria were validated against experiments with fuel designs available at that time, a number of tests were based on unirradiated fuels. Additional verification was performed as these designs evolved, but mostly with the aim of showing that the new designs adequately complied with existing criteria, and not to establish new limits. In 1996, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) reviewed existing fuel safety criteria, focusing on new fuel and core designs, new cladding materials and industry manufacturing processes. The results were published in the Nuclear Fuel Safety Criteria Technical Review of 2001. The NEA has since re-examined the criteria. A brief description of each criterion and its rationale are presented in this second edition, which will be of interest to both regulators and industry (fuel vendors, utilities)

  14. Peer Collaboration: Improving Teaching through Comprehensive Peer Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Shelley L.

    2014-01-01

    This article includes a brief rationale and review of the literature on peer review of teaching (PRT). Based on that literature review, it offers a proposal for an optimal formative review process that results in a teaching portfolio that would reflect a faculty member's efforts and successes in a critically reflective PRT process, and contributes…

  15. Effectiveness of Comprehensive Tobacco Control Programs in Reducing Teenage Smoking: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Wakefield, Melanie A PhD; Chaloupka, Frank J. PhD

    1999-01-01

    This review focuses on the extent to which comprehensive, statewide, tobacco control programs in the United States have induced change in teenage smoking or made progress towards this goal and under what circumstances such programs are likely to be most effective. The sources for this review include published journal articles, reports and documents, rather than any primary data analysis. We review evidence for the extent to which individual strategies that comprise a comprehensive tobacco con...

  16. Models for waste life cycle assessment: Review of technical assumptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentil, Emmanuel; Damgaard, Anders; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2010-01-01

    A number of waste life cycle assessment (LCA) models have been gradually developed since the early 1990s, in a number of countries, usually independently from each other. Large discrepancies in results have been observed among different waste LCA models, although it has also been shown that results...... from different LCA studies can be consistent. This paper is an attempt to identify, review and analyse methodologies and technical assumptions used in various parts of selected waste LCA models. Several criteria were identified, which could have significant impacts on the results......, such as the functional unit, system boundaries, waste composition and energy modelling. The modelling assumptions of waste management processes, ranging from collection, transportation, intermediate facilities, recycling, thermal treatment, biological treatment, and landfilling, are obviously critical when comparing...

  17. A Technical Review on Biomass Processing: Densification, Preprocessing, Modeling and Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Christopher T. Wright

    2010-06-01

    It is now a well-acclaimed fact that burning fossil fuels and deforestation are major contributors to climate change. Biomass from plants can serve as an alternative renewable and carbon-neutral raw material for the production of bioenergy. Low densities of 40–60 kg/m3 for lignocellulosic and 200–400 kg/m3 for woody biomass limits their application for energy purposes. Prior to use in energy applications these materials need to be densified. The densified biomass can have bulk densities over 10 times the raw material helping to significantly reduce technical limitations associated with storage, loading and transportation. Pelleting, briquetting, or extrusion processing are commonly used methods for densification. The aim of the present research is to develop a comprehensive review of biomass processing that includes densification, preprocessing, modeling and optimization. The specific objective include carrying out a technical review on (a) mechanisms of particle bonding during densification; (b) methods of densification including extrusion, briquetting, pelleting, and agglomeration; (c) effects of process and feedstock variables and biomass biochemical composition on the densification (d) effects of preprocessing such as grinding, preheating, steam explosion, and torrefaction on biomass quality and binding characteristics; (e) models for understanding the compression characteristics; and (f) procedures for response surface modeling and optimization.

  18. Comprehensive School-Based Physical Activity Promotion: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Heather; Beighle, Aaron; Carson, Russell L.; Castelli, Darla M.

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) participation levels among youth remain well below national recommendations. Thus, a variety of strategies to promote youth PA have been advocated, including multifaceted, school-based approaches. One identified as having great potential is a comprehensive school physical activity program (CSPAP). The goal of a CSPAP is to…

  19. Charter Schools, Civil Rights and School Discipline: A Comprehensive Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losen, Daniel J.; Keith, Michael A., II; Hodson, Cheri L.; Martinez, Tia E.

    2016-01-01

    This report, along with the companion spreadsheet, provides the first comprehensive description ever compiled of charter school discipline. In 2011-12, every one of the nation's 95,000 public schools was required to report its school discipline data, including charter schools. This analysis, which includes more than 5,250 charter schools, focuses…

  20. Technical Feasibility and Comprehensive Sustainability Assessment of Sweet Sorghum for Bioethanol Production in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Yang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Under dual pressures of energy and environmental security, sweet sorghum is becoming one of the most promising feedstocks for biofuel production. In the present study, the technical feasibility of sweet sorghum production was assessed in eight agricultural regions in China using the Sweet Sorghum Production Technique Maturity Model. Three top typical agricultural zones were then selected for further sustainability assessment of sweet sorghum production: Northeast China (NEC, Huang-Huai-Hai Basin (HHHB and Ganxin Region (GX. Assessment results demonstrated that NEC exhibited the best sustainable production of sweet sorghum, with a degree of technical maturity value of 0.8066, followed by HHHB and GX, with corresponding values of 0.7531 and 0.6594, respectively. Prospective economic profitability analysis indicated that bioethanol production from sweet sorghum was not feasible using current technologies in China. More efforts are needed to dramatically improve feedstock mechanization logistics while developing new bioethanol productive technology to reduce the total cost. This study provides insight and information to guide further technological development toward profitable industrialization and large-scale sweet sorghum bioethanol production.

  1. Technical Review of the Characteristics of Spent Nuclear Fuel Scrap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, William L.; Abrefah, John; Pitner, Allen L.; Damschen, Dennis W.

    2000-01-01

    Spent Nuclear Fuel scrap generated while washing the SNF in Hanford's K-Basins to prepare it for cold vacuum drying differed significantly from that envisioned during project design. Therefore, a technical review panel evaluated the new information about the physical characteristics of scrap generated during processing by characterizing it based on measured weights and digital photographic images. They examined images of the scrap and from them estimated the volume and hence the masses of inert material and of large fragments of spent fuel. The panel estimated the area of these particles directly from images and by fitting a lognormal distribution to the relative number particles in four size ranges and then obtaining the area-to-volume ratio from the distribution. The estimated area is 0.3 m2 for the mass of scrap that could be loaded into a container for drying, which compares to a value of 4.5 m2 assumed for safe operation of the baseline process. The small quantity of scrap genera ted is encouraging. However, the size and mass of the scrap depend both on processes degrading the fuel while in the basin and on processes catching the scrap during washing, the latter including essentially unintentional filtration as debris accumulates. Therefore, the panel concluded that the estimated surface area meets the criterion for loading scrap into an MCO for drying, but because it did not attempt to evaluate the criterion itself, it is not in a position to actually recommend loading the scrap. Further, this is not a sufficiently strong technical position from which to extrapolate the results from the examined scrap to all future scrap generated by the existing process

  2. Caltrans use of scrap tires in asphalt rubber products: a comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiping Zhou

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The California Department of Transportation (Caltrans has been using scrap tire rubber in asphalt pavements since the 1970s in chip seals and the 1980s in rubberized hot mix asphalt(RHMA. Both the wet (field blend and dry processes were used in early trials. Caltrans has also used rubber modified binders containing both crumb rubber modifier and polymer modifier that could be manufactured at a refinery facility, a terminal blend wet process. Since the beginning of this century, Caltrans increased the use of scrap tire rubber in paving projects and invested considerable resources in developing technically sound, cost effective, and environmentally friendly strategies for using scrap tire rubber in roadway applications. By the end of year 2010, approximately 31%of all hot mix asphalt (HMA placed by Caltrans was rubberized HMA, roughly 1.2 million tons. Caltrans efforts in using asphalt rubber products were also demonstrated in its research and technology development. These included the construction of two full-scale field experiments, five warranty projects, and an accelerated pavement study using a heavy vehicle simulator. Additionally, terminal blend asphalt rubber and rubberized warm mix asphalts began to be experimented on trial basis. This paper provides a comprehensive review of Caltrans experience over four decades with asphalt rubber products. Current practices and future outlook are also discussed.

  3. Independent Technical Review of the X-740 Groundwater Remedy, Portsmouth, Ohio: Technical Evaluation and Recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looney, B.; Rhia, B.; Jackson, D.; Eddy-Dilek, C.

    2010-01-01

    Environmental Management (EM-32) to provide an independent technical panel to review previous and ongoing remedial activities designed to address TCE contamination in groundwater at X-740. In 1999, a corrective action was implemented at X-740 to address contamination in the groundwater. The DOE planted poplar trees over 2.6 acres of the groundwater plume. After several years of groundwater monitoring, the results indicated that the benefits of phytoremediation were limited and insufficient to meet remedial objectives. In 2007, an alternative remedial strategy based on in situ oxidative treatment was negotiated with Ohio EPA. During FY2008, three treatment phases of chemical oxidation were completed. The general charter for the independent technical review team is to review the results of s previous and ongoing remedial actions to determine whether the current strategy will be effective in meeting the end points specified in the regulatory work plan.

  4. Comprehensive Deployment Method for Technical Characteristics Base on Multi-failure Modes Correlation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, W.; Gao, J. M.; Wang, R. X.; Chen, K.; Jiang, Y.

    2017-12-01

    This paper put forward a new method of technical characteristics deployment based on Reliability Function Deployment (RFD) by analysing the advantages and shortages of related research works on mechanical reliability design. The matrix decomposition structure of RFD was used to describe the correlative relation between failure mechanisms, soft failures and hard failures. By considering the correlation of multiple failure modes, the reliability loss of one failure mode to the whole part was defined, and a calculation and analysis model for reliability loss was presented. According to the reliability loss, the reliability index value of the whole part was allocated to each failure mode. On the basis of the deployment of reliability index value, the inverse reliability method was employed to acquire the values of technology characteristics. The feasibility and validity of proposed method were illustrated by a development case of machining centre’s transmission system.

  5. Technical Report: TG-142 compliant and comprehensive quality assurance tests for respiratory gating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, Kyle [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Rong, Yi, E-mail: yrong@ucdavis.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Davis Comprehensive Cancer Center, Sacramento, California 95817 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: To develop and establish a comprehensive gating commissioning and quality assurance procedure in compliance with TG-142. Methods: Eight Varian TrueBeam Linacs were used for this study. Gating commissioning included an end-to-end test and baseline establishment. The end-to-end test was performed using a CIRS dynamic thoracic phantom with a moving cylinder inside the lung, which was used for carrying both optically simulated luminescence detectors (OSLDs) and Gafchromic EBT2 films while the target is moving, for a point dose check and 2D profile check. In addition, baselines were established for beam-on temporal delay and calibration of the surrogate, for both megavoltage (MV) and kilovoltage (kV) beams. A motion simulation device (MotionSim) was used to provide periodic motion on a platform, in synchronizing with a surrogate motion. The overall accuracy and uncertainties were analyzed and compared. Results: The OSLD readings were within 5% compared to the planned dose (within measurement uncertainty) for both phase and amplitude gated deliveries. Film results showed less than 3% agreement to the predicted dose with a standard sinusoid motion. The gate-on temporal accuracy was averaged at 139 ± 10 ms for MV beams and 92 ± 11 ms for kV beams. The temporal delay of the surrogate motion depends on the motion speed and was averaged at 54.6 ± 3.1 ms for slow, 24.9 ± 2.9 ms for intermediate, and 23.0 ± 20.1 ms for fast speed. Conclusions: A comprehensive gating commissioning procedure was introduced for verifying the output accuracy and establishing the temporal accuracy baselines with respiratory gating. The baselines are needed for routine quality assurance tests, as suggested by TG-142.

  6. Technical Report: TG-142 compliant and comprehensive quality assurance tests for respiratory gating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, Kyle; Rong, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and establish a comprehensive gating commissioning and quality assurance procedure in compliance with TG-142. Methods: Eight Varian TrueBeam Linacs were used for this study. Gating commissioning included an end-to-end test and baseline establishment. The end-to-end test was performed using a CIRS dynamic thoracic phantom with a moving cylinder inside the lung, which was used for carrying both optically simulated luminescence detectors (OSLDs) and Gafchromic EBT2 films while the target is moving, for a point dose check and 2D profile check. In addition, baselines were established for beam-on temporal delay and calibration of the surrogate, for both megavoltage (MV) and kilovoltage (kV) beams. A motion simulation device (MotionSim) was used to provide periodic motion on a platform, in synchronizing with a surrogate motion. The overall accuracy and uncertainties were analyzed and compared. Results: The OSLD readings were within 5% compared to the planned dose (within measurement uncertainty) for both phase and amplitude gated deliveries. Film results showed less than 3% agreement to the predicted dose with a standard sinusoid motion. The gate-on temporal accuracy was averaged at 139 ± 10 ms for MV beams and 92 ± 11 ms for kV beams. The temporal delay of the surrogate motion depends on the motion speed and was averaged at 54.6 ± 3.1 ms for slow, 24.9 ± 2.9 ms for intermediate, and 23.0 ± 20.1 ms for fast speed. Conclusions: A comprehensive gating commissioning procedure was introduced for verifying the output accuracy and establishing the temporal accuracy baselines with respiratory gating. The baselines are needed for routine quality assurance tests, as suggested by TG-142

  7. Commercial Crew Program and the Safety Technical Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Macy

    2016-01-01

    The Commercial Crew Program (CCP) is unique to any other program office at NASA. After the agency suffered devastating budget cuts and the Shuttle Program retired, the U.S. gave up its human spaceflight capabilities. Since 2011 the U.S. has been dependent on Russia to transport American astronauts and cargo to the International Space Station (ISS) and back. NASA adapted and formed CCP, which gives private, domestic, aerospace companies unprecedented reign over America's next ride to space. The program began back in 2010 with 5 companies and is now in the final phase of certification with 2 commercial partners. The Commercial Crew Program is made up of 7 divisions, each working rigorously with the commercial providers to complete the certification phase. One of these 7 divisions is Systems Engineering and Integration (SE&I) which is partly comprised of the Safety Technical Review Board (STRB). The STRB is primarily concerned with mitigating improbable, but catastrophic hazards. It does this by identifying, managing, and tracking these hazards in reports. With the STRB being in SE&I, it significantly contributes to the overall certification of the partners' vehicles. After the partners receive agency certification approval, they will have the capability to provide the U.S. with a reliable, safe, and cost-effective means of human spaceflight and cargo transport to the ISS and back.

  8. Typing of Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus: A technical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P L Mehndiratta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing prevalence of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA worldwide is a growing public health concern. MRSA typing is an essential component of an effective surveillance system to describe epidemiological trends and infection control strategies. Current challenges for MRSA typing are focused on selecting the most appropriate technique in terms of efficiency, reliability, ease of performance and cost involved. This review summarises the available information on application, potential and problems of various typing techniques in discriminating the strains and understanding the epidemiology of MRSA strains. The phenotypic methods in general are easier to perform, easier to interpret, cost effective and are widely available, however less discriminatory. The genotypic methods are expensive and technically demanding, however more discriminatory. Newer technologies involving sequencing of various genes are coming up as broadly applicable and high throughput typing systems. Still there is no consensus regarding the single best method for typing of MRSA strains. Phage typing is recommended as first line approach in epidemiological investigation of MRSA strains. PFGE remains the gold standard for characterisation of outbreak strains. DNA sequencing methods including MLST, spa typing, SCCmec typing and toxin gene profile typing are more practical methods for detecting evolutionary changes and transmission events. The choice of typing technique further depends on the purpose of the study, the facilities available and the utility of data generated to answer a desirable research question. A need for harmonisation of typing techniques by following standard protocols is emphasised to establish surveillance networks and facilitate global MRSA control.

  9. International Linear Collider Technical Review Committee Report, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    This 1995 report of the International Linear Collider Technical Review Committee is the first attempt to gather in one document the current status of all major e + e - linear collider projects in the world. The report is the result of a collaborative effort of scientists from many laboratories working together over a period of about one year. A short description of the organization, origins and history of the report is given below. To get an idea of the organization, the reader should first refer to the Table of Contents. Chapter 1 is an introduction and general overview of the respective 500 GeV c.m. energy machines. In contrast, Chapter 2, cutting across individual machine boundaries, gives a comparative description and discussion of all the major machine sub-systems as well as particle physics experimentation, showing where these subjects stand today and what additional work needs to be done in the next few years to reach the point where complete design reports can be prepared. Chapter 3 describes the various paths to energy upgrades, and other experimental options (γγ, e - e - , etc.). Chapter 4 gives a short status report of the machine experiments and test facilities being built in the world. Chapter 5 outlines current and other possible areas of collaboration and finally., Chapter 6 summarizes our principal conclusions

  10. Remote monitoring technical review for light water reactors (Phase 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seung Sik; Yoon, Wan Ki; Na, Won Woo; Kwack, Eun Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-10-01

    The IAEA has been conducting a field trial of a Remote Monitoring System (RMS) at the spent fuel storage, Younggwang 3 nuclear power plant. The system installation plan was initiated after the agreement in the 7th ROK-IAEA safeguards Implementation Review Meeting that was held in Soul, 1998. It describes that IAEA and Korea proceed RM tasks Implementation of RMS at LWRs in the ROK for field trials. The project of RMS is conducting through 3 stages with timing. RMS has been installed for the Phase I of field trial, one of two stages at Younggwang Unit 3 in October 1998. The RMS consists of video systems and a seal at the spent fuel pond area. This report provides a description of the monitoring system and its functions focusing on several technical points of the installation and its 6 month operation at Younggwang Unit 3. Subjects are selected and analyzed in the three chapters, IAEA safeguards policy on Remote Monitoring, the technology, and field test experiences. 8 refs., 12 figs., 12 tabs. (Author)

  11. Robotic liver surgery: technical aspects and review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Francesco Maria; Daskalaki, Despoina; Gonzalez-Ciccarelli, Luis Fernando; Kim, Jihun; Benedetti, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery for liver resections has a defined role and represents an accepted alternative to open techniques for selected cases. Robotic technology can overcome some of the disadvantages of the laparoscopic technique, mainly in the most complex cases. Precise dissection and microsuturing is possible, even in narrow operative fields, allowing for a better dissection of the hepatic hilum, fine lymphadenectomy, and biliary reconstruction even with small bile ducts and easier bleeding control. This technique has the potential to allow for a greater number of major resections and difficult segmentectomies to be performed in a minimally invasive fashion. The implementation of near-infrared fluorescence with indocyanine green (ICG) also allows for a more accurate recognition of vascular and biliary anatomy. The perspectives of this kind of virtually implemented imaging are very promising and may be reflected in better outcomes. The overall data present in current literature suggests that robotic liver resections are at least comparable to both open and laparoscopic surgery in terms of perioperative and postoperative outcomes. This article provides technical details of robotic liver resections and a review of the current literature. PMID:27500143

  12. Early site reviews for nuclear power facilities: procedures and possible technical review options. Draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-02-01

    The document provides guidance for utility companies, State and other governmental agencies, and others who may request or may wish to participate in an early review of site suitability issues related to a site proposed for a nuclear power or test reactor. Although the emphasis of this document is on a nuclear electric generating station, the guidance provided can be used for a test reactor or other kinds of reactors. The procedures to be followed by applicants for construction permits and by others are described and the possible significant areas of technical review are delineated

  13. Counselling users of hearing technology: a comprehensive literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meibos, Alex; Muñoz, Karen; Schultz, Jared; Price, Tanner; Whicker, John J; Caballero, Ana; Graham, Laurel

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this review is to determine the scope of peer-reviewed empirical research related to counselling in audiology with patients using hearing technology and to identify limitations and gaps to guide recommendations for future research. A rapid evidence assessment was used to identify relevant articles for the review. Eighteen articles met the inclusion criteria. Three themes were identified: (1) audiologist counselling perspectives, (2) counselling communication trends in practice and (3) audiologist experiences with professional training and reported patient outcomes. Findings revealed audiologists are more confident providing information than counselling that addresses adjustment aspects, and other communication gaps have been observed. There is limited research related to counselling in audiology. Audiologists continue to report a need for more training in counselling in their graduate programmes. Additional research is needed to determine effective ways to implement counselling in practice and to improve graduate student supervision for the development of counselling competencies and confidence in using skills in practice.

  14. International Linear Collider Technical Review Committee: Second Report, 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loew, Gregory

    2003-02-21

    As this report is being published, the international high energy physics (HEP) community finds itself confronting a set of fascinating discoveries and new questions regarding the nature of matter and its fundamental particles and forces. The observation of neutrino oscillations that indicates that neutrinos have mass, measurements of the accelerating expansion of the universe that may be due to dark energy, and evidence for a period of rapid inflation at the beginning of the Big Bang are stimulating the entire field. Looming on the horizon are the potential discoveries of a Higgs particle that may reveal the origin of mass and of a whole family of supersymmetric particles that may be part of the cosmic dark matter. For the HEP community to elucidate these mysteries, new accelerators are indispensable. At this time, after careful deliberations, all three regional organizations of the HEP community (ACFA in Asia, HEPAP in North America, and ECFA in Europe) have reached the common conclusion that the next accelerator should be an electron-positron linear collider with an initial center-of-mass energy of 500 Giga-electronvolts (GeV), later upgradable to higher energies, and that it should be built and operated in parallel with the Large Hadron Collider under construction at CERN. Hence, this second report of the International Linear Collider Technical Review Committee (ILC-TRC) comes at a very timely moment. The report was requested by the International Committee on Future Accelerators (ICFA) in February 2001 to assess the current technical status of electron-positron linear collider designs in the various regions. Note that the ILC-TRC was not asked to concern itself with either cost studies or the ultimate selection process of a machine. This Executive Summary gives a short outline of the genesis of the report, the charge given to the committee, and its organization. It then presents a brief description of four electron-positron linear collider designs at hand. The

  15. INDEPENDENT REVIEW OF THE X-701B GROUNDWATER REMEDY, PORTSMOUTH, OHIO: TECHNICAL EVALUATION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney, B.; Eddy-Dilek, C.; Costanza, J.; Rossabi, J.; Early, T.; Skubal, K.; Magnuson, C.

    2008-12-15

    recommended, the team should identify the type of injection and target soil horizon for these injections; (2) Consider the feasibility of declaring Technical Impracticability and proceeding with the RCRA Cap for the X-701B; and (3) Provide a summary of other cost-effective technologies that could be implemented (especially for the lower Gallia). The Independent Technical Review team focused its evaluation solely on the X-701B source zone and contaminant plume. It did not review current or planned remedial activities at other plumes, waste areas, or landfills at the Portsmouth site, nor did it attempt to integrate such activities into its recommendations for X-701B. However, the ultimate selection of a remedy for X-701B by site personnel and regulators should take into account potentially synergistic efforts at other waste areas. Assessment of remedial alternatives in the context of site-wide management practices may reveal opportunities for leveraging and savings that would not otherwise be identified. For example, the cost of source-zone excavation or construction of a permeable reactive barrier at X-701B might be substantially reduced if contaminated soil could be buried on site at an existing or planned landfill. This allowance would improve the feasibility and competitiveness of both remedies. A comprehensive examination of ongoing and future environmental activities across the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant is necessary to optimize the selection and timing of X-701B remediation with respect to cleanup efficiency, safety, and economics. A selected group of technical experts attended the technical workshop at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant from November 18 through 21, 2008. During the first day of the workshop, both contractor and DOE site personnel briefed the workshop participants and took them on a tour of the X-701B site. The initial briefing was attended by representatives of Ohio EPA who participated in the discussions. On subsequent days, the team

  16. Amitriptyline for the treatment of fibromyalgia: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico-Villademoros, Fernando; Slim, Mahmoud; Calandre, Elena P

    2015-10-01

    Fibromyalgia is characterized by chronic generalized pain accompanied by a wide range of clinical manifestations. Most clinical practice guidelines recommend multidisciplinary treatment using a combination of pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies. The tricyclic antidepressant amitriptyline has been most thoroughly studied in fibromyalgia. Amitriptyline has been evaluated in placebo-controlled studies, and it has served as an active comparator to other therapeutic interventions in the treatment of fibromyalgia. In addition, several systematic reviews and meta-analyses have evaluated its efficacy and safety for the treatment of fibromyalgia. Data from individual studies as well as from systematic reviews indicate that low doses (10-75 mg/day) of amitriptyline are effective for the treatment of fibromyalgia and, despite the limited quality of the data, they do not seem to be associated with relevant tolerability or safety issues. Consistent with some clinical guidelines, we believe amitriptyline in low doses should be considered a first-line drug for the treatment of fibromyalgia.

  17. Exercise and ankle sprain injuries: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calatayud, Joaquin; Borreani, Sebastien; Colado, Juan Carlos; Flandez, Jorge; Page, Phil; Andersen, Lars L

    2014-02-01

    Ankle sprains are common in team sports and sports played on courts, and often result in structural and functional alterations that lead to a greater reinjury risk. Specific exercises are often used to promote neuromuscular improvements in the prevention and rehabilitation of ankle injuries. This literature review summarizes the neuromuscular characteristics of common ankle sprains and the effectiveness of exercise as an intervention for improving neuromuscular function and preventing reinjury. Our review found that appropriate exercise prescription can increase static and dynamic balance and decrease injury recurrence. In particular, the addition of dynamic activities in the exercise program can be beneficial because of the anticipatory postural adjustments identified as a key factor in the injury mechanism.

  18. A Comprehensive Review of Tourette Syndrome and Complementary Alternative Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashutosh; Duda, L; Mainali, G; Asghar, S; Byler, D

    2018-01-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neuropsychiatric condition defined by both motor and phonic tics over a period of at least 1 year with the onset before 18 years of age. The purpose of this article is to review the use of complementary alternative medicine (CAM) in children and adults with Tourette syndrome with emphasis on recent research. Most patients do not tell their physician about the use of CAM unless if specifically asked. Of the studies reviewed, description of the treatment and the frequency of use were most often reported. Few studies examine the role or effectiveness of CAM in the treatment of TS specifically. Practitioners should be aware of current research regarding various CAM modalities used for TS patients, including efficacy, potential adverse effects, and interactions with medications. Robust data about the use of CAM, efficacy, and potential side effects is lacking and requires further research to clarify optimal use.

  19. Autism and family home movies: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomo, Rubén; Belinchón, Mercedes; Ozonoff, Sally

    2006-04-01

    In this article, we focus on the early development of autism studied through family home movies. We review all investigations published in English that met specific methodological standards, including the use of comparison samples, coding blind to group membership, and adequate levels of interrater reliability. After discussing in detail the pros and cons of the home-movie methodology, we review the results of all empirical studies conducted to date. We then present a summary of the features found consistently across studies that differentiate autism from typical development and mental retardation in the first 2 years of life. How family home movies can contribute to our understanding of the regression phenomenon is also addressed. Finally, the results are interpreted from both a theoretical and clinical point of view.

  20. Comprehensive Review on Divisible Load Theory: Concepts, Strategies, and Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsollah Ghanbari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is extensive literature concerning the divisible load theory. The divisible load theory is mainly applied for scheduling in the area of distributed computing. It is based on the fact that the load can be divided into some arbitrarily independent parts, in which each part can be processed independently by a processor. This paper reviews the literature concerning the divisible load theory, while focusing on the details of the basic concepts, approaches, strategies, typologies, and open problems.

  1. Cancer, Fertility Preservation, and Future Pregnancy: A Comprehensive Review

    OpenAIRE

    Matthews, Michelle L.; Hurst, Bradley S.; Marshburn, Paul B.; Usadi, Rebecca S.; Papadakis, Margaret A.; Sarantou, Terry

    2012-01-01

    Given the increases in 5-year cancer survival and recent advances in fertility preserving technologies, an increasing number of women with cancer are presenting for discussion of fertility preserving options. This review will summarize the risk of infertility secondary to cancer treatment, available treatment options for fertility preservation, and techniques to reduce future risks for patients. Concerns that will be addressed include the risk of the medications and procedures, the potential ...

  2. Synthetic Approaches to the Lamellarins—A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Imbri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present review discusses the known synthetic routes to the lamellarin alkaloids published until 2014. It begins with syntheses of the structurally simpler type-II lamellarins and then focuses on the larger class of the 5,6-saturated and -unsaturated type-I lamellarins. The syntheses are grouped by the strategy employed for the assembly of the central pyrrole ring.

  3. Management of uveal tract melanoma: A comprehensive review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapoor, A.; Kumar, H.S.; Beniwal, V.; Beniwal, S.; Mathur, H.

    2016-01-01

    Uveal tract melanoma is the most common primary intraocular malignancy in adults, accounting for about 5–10% of all the melanomas. Since there are no lymphatic vessels in the eye, uveal melanoma can only spread hematogenously leading to liver metastasis. A wide variety of treatment modalities are available for its management, leading to dilemma in selecting the appropriate therapy. This article reviews the diagnostic and therapeutic modalities available and thus, can help to individualize the treatment plan for each patient

  4. A comprehensive review on biodiesel purification and upgrading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Bateni

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Serious environmental concerns regarding the use of fossil-based fuels have raised awareness regarding the necessity of alternative clean fuels and energy carriers. Biodiesel is considered a clean, biodegradable, and non-toxic diesel substitute produced via the transesterification of triglycerides with an alcohol in the presence of a proper catalyst. After initial separation of the by-product (glycerol, the crude biodiesel needs to be purified to meet the standard specifications prior to marketing. The presence of impurities in the biodiesel not only significantly affects its engine performance but also complicates its handling and storage. Therefore, biodiesel purification is an essential step prior to marketing. Biodiesel purification methods can be classified based on the nature of the process into equilibrium-based, affinity-based, membrane-based, reaction-based, and solid-liquid separation processes. The main adverse properties of biodiesel – namely moisture absorption, corrosiveness, and high viscosity – primarily arise from the presence of oxygen. To address these issues, several upgrading techniques have been proposed, among which catalytic (hydrodeoxygenation using conventional hydrotreating catalysts, supported metallic materials, and most recently transition metals in various forms appear promising. Nevertheless, catalyst deactivation (via coking and/or inadequacy of product yields necessitate further research. This paper provides a comprehensive overview on the techniques and methods used for biodiesel purification and upgrading.

  5. Siderophore: Structural And Functional Characterisation – A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sah Stuti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Plants and microbes have enormous importance in our daily life. Iron is said to be the fourth most abundant element in the earth's crust from soil, still many plants face problem in uptaking iron because it is found in insoluble form, which severely restricts the bioavailability of this metal. In response to this, microorganisms present in soil such as Pseudomonas sp., Enterobacter genera, Bacillus and Rhodococcus produce special iron carriers or iron-binding compounds called as ‘siderphores’ or ‘siderochromes’. This paper is an attempt to review the importance of siderphores in enhancing plants’ iron utilisation strategies, the mode of transport of siderophores along with iron across the memberane and depending on the difference in their chemical structure, functional moiety and their source of isolation of four different types of siderophore (hydroxamates, catecholates, carboxylates and siderophore with mixed ligand. Siderophore and their derivative have large application in agriculture as to increase soil fertility and as biocontrol for fungal pathogen. This review unlike other reviews includes (1 types of siderophore, (2 the structural difference amongst them, (3 siderophore biosynthesis, (4 transport mechanism, (5 the genetics of siderophore and (6 their efficacy in human life.

  6. Mur Ligase Inhibitors as Anti-bacterials: A Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangshetti, Jaiprakash N; Joshi, Suyog S; Patil, Rajendra H; Moloney, Mark G; Shinde, Devanand B

    2017-01-01

    Exploring a new target for antibacterial drug discovery has gained much attention because of the emergence of Multidrug Resistance (MDR) strains of bacteria. To overcome this problem the development of novel antibacterial was considered as highest priority task and was one of the biggest challenge since multiple factors were involved. The bacterial peptidoglycan biosynthetic pathway has been well documented in the last few years and has been found to be imperative source for the development of novel antibacterial agents with high target specificity as they are essential for bacterial survival and have no homologs in humans. We have therefore reviewed the process of peptidoglycan biosynthesis which involves various steps like formation of UDP-Nacetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), UDP-N-acetylmuramic acid (MurNAc) and lipid intermediates (Lipid I and Lipid II) which are controlled by various enzymes like GlmS, GlmM, GlmU enzyme, followed by Mur Ligases (MurAMurF) and finally by MraY and MurG respectively. These four amide ligases MurC-MurF can be used as the source for the development of novel multi-target antibacterial agents as they shared and conserved amino acid regions, catalytic mechanisms and structural features. This review begins with the need for novel antibacterial agents and challenges in their development even after the development of bacterial genomic studies. An overview of the peptidoglycan monomer formation, as a source of disparity in this process is presented, followed by detailed discussion of structural and functional aspects of all Mur enzymes and different chemical classes of their inhibitors along with their SAR studies and inhibitory potential. This review finally emphasizes on different patents and novel Mur inhibitors in the development phase. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. Specific learning disability in mathematics: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Neelkamal; Evans, Teresa; Patel, Dilip R

    2018-01-01

    Math skills are necessary for success in the childhood educational and future adult work environment. This article reviews the changing terminology for specific learning disabilities (SLD) in math and describes the emerging genetics and neuroimaging studies that relate to individuals with math disability (MD). It is important to maintain a developmental perspective on MD, as presentation changes with age, instruction, and the different models (educational and medical) of identification. Intervention requires a systematic approach to screening and remediation that has evolved with more evidence-based literature. Newer directions in behavioral, educational and novel interventions are described.

  8. A Comprehensive Review of Serious Games in Health Professions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Ricciardi

    2014-01-01

    learner oriented approach and providing a stealth mode of teaching. In some fields it represents an ideal instrument for continuous health professions education also in terms of costs because it is cheaper than traditional training methods that use cadavers or mannequins. In this paper we make a scoping review of serious games developed for health professions and health related fields in order to understand if they are useful tools for health related fields training. Many papers confirmed that serious gaming is a useful technology that improves learning and skills development for health professionals.

  9. Management of uveal tract melanoma: A comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhil Kapoor

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Uveal tract melanoma is the most common primary intraocular malignancy in adults, accounting for about 5–10% of all the melanomas. Since there are no lymphatic vessels in the eye, uveal melanoma can only spread hematogenously leading to liver metastasis. A wide variety of treatment modalities are available for its management, leading to dilemma in selecting the appropriate therapy. This article reviews the diagnostic and therapeutic modalities available and thus, can help to individualize the treatment plan for each patient.

  10. Humidity Sensors Principle, Mechanism, and Fabrication Technologies: A Comprehensive Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahani, Hamid; Wagiran, Rahman; Hamidon, Mohd Nizar

    2014-01-01

    Humidity measurement is one of the most significant issues in various areas of applications such as instrumentation, automated systems, agriculture, climatology and GIS. Numerous sorts of humidity sensors fabricated and developed for industrial and laboratory applications are reviewed and presented in this article. The survey frequently concentrates on the RH sensors based upon their organic and inorganic functional materials, e.g., porous ceramics (semiconductors), polymers, ceramic/polymer and electrolytes, as well as conduction mechanism and fabrication technologies. A significant aim of this review is to provide a distinct categorization pursuant to state of the art humidity sensor types, principles of work, sensing substances, transduction mechanisms, and production technologies. Furthermore, performance characteristics of the different humidity sensors such as electrical and statistical data will be detailed and gives an added value to the report. By comparison of overall prospects of the sensors it was revealed that there are still drawbacks as to efficiency of sensing elements and conduction values. The flexibility offered by thick film and thin film processes either in the preparation of materials or in the choice of shape and size of the sensor structure provides advantages over other technologies. These ceramic sensors show faster response than other types. PMID:24784036

  11. Rice methylmercury exposure and mitigation: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, Sarah E; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie; Creswell, Joel E

    2014-08-01

    Rice cultivation practices from field preparation to post-harvest transform rice paddies into hot spots for microbial mercury methylation, converting less-toxic inorganic mercury to more-toxic methylmercury, which is likely translocated to rice grain. This review includes 51 studies reporting rice total mercury and/or methylmercury concentrations, based on rice (Orzya sativa) cultivated or purchased in 15 countries. Not surprisingly, both rice total mercury and methylmercury levels were significantly higher in polluted sites compared to non-polluted sites (Wilcoxon rank sum, p<0.001). However, rice percent methylmercury (of total mercury) did not differ statistically between polluted and non-polluted sites (Wilcoxon rank sum, p=0.35), suggesting comparable mercury methylation rates in paddy soil across these sites and/or similar accumulation of mercury species for these rice cultivars. Studies characterizing the effects of rice cultivation under more aerobic conditions were reviewed to determine the mitigation potential of this practice. Rice management practices utilizing alternating wetting and drying (instead of continuous flooding) caused soil methylmercury levels to spike, resulting in a strong methylmercury pulse after fields were dried and reflooded; however, it is uncertain whether this led to increased translocation of methylmercury from paddy soil to rice grain. Due to the potential health risks, it is advisable to investigate this issue further, and to develop separate water management strategies for mercury polluted and non-polluted sites, in order to minimize methylmercury exposure through rice ingestion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A comprehensive review on pool boiling of nanofluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciloglu, Dogan; Bolukbasi, Abdurrahim

    2015-01-01

    Nanofluids are nanoparticle suspensions of small particle size and low concentration dispersed in base fluids such as water, oil and ethylene glycol. These fluids have been considered by researchers as a unique heat transfer carrier because of their thermophysical properties and a great number of potential benefits in traditional thermal engineering applications, including power generation, transportation, air conditioning, electronics devices and cooling systems. Many attempts have been made in the literature on nanofluid boiling; however, data on the boiling heat transfer coefficient (HTC) and the critical heat flux (CHF) have been inconsistent. This paper presents a review of recent researches on the pool boiling heat transfer behaviour of nanofluid. First, the development of nanofluids and their potential applications are briefly given. Then, the effects of various parameters on nanofluids pool boiling are discussed in detail. - Highlights: • A review on the pool boiling heat transfer of nanofluid is presented and discussed. • Nanoparticle deposition considerably affects the boiling heat transfer. • The HTC decreases due to the low contact angle and the high adhesion energy. • The HTC increases due to the formation of the new cavities and liquid suction. • The CHF increases due to the increase in roughness, wettability and capillarity

  13. Recent advances in enzyme extraction strategies: A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadar, Shamraja S; Pawar, Rohini G; Rathod, Virendra K

    2017-08-01

    The increasing interest of industrial enzymes demands for development of new downstream strategies for maximizing enzyme recovery. The significant efforts have been focused on the development of newly adapted technologies to purify enzymes in catalytically active form. Recently, an aqueous two phase system (ATPS) is emerged as powerful tools for efficient extraction and purification of enzymes due to their versatility, lower cost, process integration capability and easy scale-up. The present review gives an overview of effect of parameters such as tie line length, pH, neutral salts, properties of polymer and salt involved in traditional polymer/polymer and polymer/salt ATPS for enzyme recovery. Further, advanced ATPS have been developed based on alcohols, surfactants, micellar compounds to avoid tedious recovery steps for getting desired enzyme. In order to improve the selectivity and efficiency of ATPS, recent approaches of conventional ATPS combined with different techniques like affinity ligands, ionic liquids, thermoseparating polymers and microfluidic device based ATPS have been reviewed. Moreover, three phase partitioning is also highlighted for enzymes enrichment as a blooming technology for efficiently integrated bioseparation techniques. At the end, it includes an overview of CLEAs technology and organic-inorganic nanoflowers preparation as novel strategies for simultaneous extraction, purification and immobilization of enzymes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Humidity Sensors Principle, Mechanism, and Fabrication Technologies: A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Farahani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Humidity measurement is one of the most significant issues in various areas of applications such as instrumentation, automated systems, agriculture, climatology and GIS. Numerous sorts of humidity sensors fabricated and developed for industrial and laboratory applications are reviewed and presented in this article. The survey frequently concentrates on the RH sensors based upon their organic and inorganic functional materials, e.g., porous ceramics (semiconductors, polymers, ceramic/polymer and electrolytes, as well as conduction mechanism and fabrication technologies. A significant aim of this review is to provide a distinct categorization pursuant to state of the art humidity sensor types, principles of work, sensing substances, transduction mechanisms, and production technologies. Furthermore, performance characteristics of the different humidity sensors such as electrical and statistical data will be detailed and gives an added value to the report. By comparison of overall prospects of the sensors it was revealed that there are still drawbacks as to efficiency of sensing elements and conduction values. The flexibility offered by thick film and thin film processes either in the preparation of materials or in the choice of shape and size of the sensor structure provides advantages over other technologies. These ceramic sensors show faster response than other types.

  15. A comprehensive review of metal-induced cellular transformation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiao Yi; Costa, Max

    2017-09-15

    In vitro transformation assays not only serve practical purposes in screening for potential carcinogenic substances in food, drug, and cosmetic industries, but more importantly, they provide a means of understanding the critical biological processes behind in vivo cancer development. In resemblance to cancer cells in vivo, successfully transformed cells display loss of contact inhibition, gain of anchorage independent growth, resistant to proper cell cycle regulation such as apoptosis, faster proliferation rate, potential for cellular invasion, and ability to form tumors in experimental animals. Cells purposely transformed using metal exposures enable researchers to examine molecular changes, dissect various stages of tumor formation, and ultimately elucidate metal induced cancer mode of action. For practical purposes, this review specifically focuses on studies incorporating As-, Cd-, Cr-, and Ni-induced cell transformation. Through investigating and comparing an extensive list of studies using various methods of metal-induced transformation, this review serves to bridge an information gap and provide a guide for avoiding procedural discrepancies as well as maximizing experimental efficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Fear of Falling in Older Adults: Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dukyoo Jung, PhD, RN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Fear of falling has been reported in a high percentage of community-dwelling elderly who both do and don't have a history of falling. The aims of this review are to: (a elucidate the definition of fear of falling; (b clarify measurements of fear of falling based on its definition; and (c describe the risk factors for fear of falling. Despite the importance of the percentage and the consequences of fear of falling, its definition is still vague and warrants clarification. Based on a literature review, major fear of falling measurements involve the evaluation of fear of falling and use of a fall efficacy scale. Using a correct definition of fear of falling, nurses working close with older adults need to identify the different definitions of fear of falling and fall efficacy scale. In addition, nurses who work closely with older adults should encourage them to increase or maintain modifiable factors by maximizing their basic health status and enhancing their physical activity to decrease fear of falling.

  17. Rice methylmercury exposure and mitigation: a comprehensive review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, Sarah E.; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie; Creswell, Joel E.

    2014-01-01

    Rice cultivation practices from field preparation to post-harvest transform rice paddies into hot spots for microbial mercury methylation, converting less-toxic inorganic mercury to more-toxic methylmercury, which is likely translocated to rice grain. This review includes 51 studies reporting rice total mercury and/or methylmercury concentrations, based on rice (Orzya sativa) cultivated or purchased in 15 countries. Not surprisingly, both rice total mercury and methylmercury levels were significantly higher in polluted sites compared to non-polluted sites (Wilcoxon rank sum, price percent methylmercury (of total mercury) did not differ statistically between polluted and non-polluted sites (Wilcoxon rank sum, p=0.35), suggesting comparable mercury methylation rates in paddy soil across these sites and/or similar accumulation of mercury species for these rice cultivars. Studies characterizing the effects of rice cultivation under more aerobic conditions were reviewed to determine the mitigation potential of this practice. Rice management practices utilizing alternating wetting and drying (instead of continuous flooding) caused soil methylmercury levels to spike, resulting in a strong methylmercury pulse after fields were dried and reflooded; however, it is uncertain whether this led to increased translocation of methylmercury from paddy soil to rice grain. Due to the potential health risks, it is advisable to investigate this issue further, and to develop separate water management strategies for mercury polluted and non-polluted sites, in order to minimize methylmercury exposure through rice ingestion.

  18. Sighten Final Technical Report DEEE0006690 Deploying an integrated and comprehensive solar financing software platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Leary, Conlan [Sighten, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2017-10-15

    Over the project, Sighten built a comprehensive software-as-a-service (Saas) platform to automate and streamline the residential solar financing workflow. Before the project period, significant time and money was spent by companies on front-end tools related to system design and proposal creation, but comparatively few resources were available to support the many back-end calculations and data management processes that underpin third party financing. Without a tool like Sighten, the solar financing processes involved passing information from the homeowner prospect into separate tools for system design, financing, and then later to reporting tools including Microsoft Excel, CRM software, in-house software, outside software, and offline, manual processes. Passing data between tools and attempting to connect disparate systems results in inefficiency and inaccuracy for the industry. Sighten was built to consolidate all financial and solar-related calculations in a single software platform. It significantly improves upon the accuracy of these calculations and exposes sophisticated new analysis tools resulting in a rigorous, efficient and cost-effective toolset for scaling residential solar. Widely deploying a platform like Sighten’s significantly and immediately impacts the residential solar space in several important ways: 1) standardizing and improving the quality of all quantitative calculations involved in the residential financing process, most notably project finance, system production and reporting calculations; 2) representing a true step change in terms of reporting and analysis capabilities by maintaining more accurate data and exposing sophisticated tools around simulation, tranching, and financial reporting, among others, to all stakeholders in the space; 3) allowing a broader group of developers/installers/finance companies to access the capital markets by providing an out-of-the-box toolset that handles the execution of running investor capital through a

  19. Clostridium difficile in Food and Animals: A Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, C; Taminiau, B; Van Broeck, J; Delmée, M; Daube, G

    2016-01-01

    Zoonoses are infections or diseases that can be transmitted between animals and humans through direct contact, close proximity or the environment. Clostridium difficile is ubiquitous in the environment, and the bacterium is able to colonise the intestinal tract of both animals and humans. Since domestic and food animals frequently test positive for toxigenic C. difficile, even without showing any signs of disease, it seems plausible that C. difficile could be zoonotic. Therefore, animals could play an essential role as carriers of the bacterium. In addition, the presence of the spores in different meats, fish, fruits and vegetables suggests a risk of foodborne transmission. This review summarises the current available data on C. difficile in animals and foods, from when the bacterium was first described up to the present.

  20. Entropy in the Critical Zone: A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Quijano

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Thermodynamic entropy was initially proposed by Clausius in 1865. Since then it has been implemented in the analysis of different systems, and is seen as a promising concept to understand the evolution of open systems in non-equilibrium conditions. Information entropy was proposed by Shannon in 1948, and has become an important concept to measure information in different systems. Both thermodynamic entropy and information entropy have been extensively applied in different fields related to the Critical Zone, such as hydrology, ecology, pedology, and geomorphology. In this study, we review the most important applications of these concepts in those fields, including how they are calculated, and how they have been utilized to analyze different processes. We then synthesize the link between thermodynamic and information entropies in the light of energy dissipation and organizational patterns, and discuss how this link may be used to enhance the understanding of the Critical Zone.

  1. A Comprehensive Literature Review of the ERP research field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kræmmergaard, Pernille; Schlichter, Bjarne Rerup

    During the past decade ERP has attracted attention from both academic and industrial communities (Shehab, Sharp et al. 2004) and we feel that now is an opportune time for the ERP field to ask how the field has evolved and what its present state is (Chen and Hirschheim 2004). The purpose...... of this paper is to address these questions, which is done by providing an overview of the Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) research field regardless of research discipline, research topic and research traditions. Abstracts from 723 peer-reviewed journal publications from 2000 up till 2007 have been analyzed...... according to journal, authors and year of publication, and further categorized into research discipline, research topic and methods used. The paper demonstrates that the body of academic knowledge about ERP systems has reached a certain level of maturity and several different research disciplines have...

  2. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a comprehensive review and 2017 update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terwilliger, T; Abdul-Hay, M

    2017-01-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the second most common acute leukemia in adults, with an incidence of over 6500 cases per year in the United States alone. The hallmark of ALL is chromosomal abnormalities and genetic alterations involved in differentiation and proliferation of lymphoid precursor cells. In adults, 75% of cases develop from precursors of the B-cell lineage, with the remainder of cases consisting of malignant T-cell precursors. Traditionally, risk stratification has been based on clinical factors such age, white blood cell count and response to chemotherapy; however, the identification of recurrent genetic alterations has helped refine individual prognosis and guide management. Despite advances in management, the backbone of therapy remains multi-agent chemotherapy with vincristine, corticosteroids and an anthracycline with allogeneic stem cell transplantation for eligible candidates. Elderly patients are often unable to tolerate such regimens and carry a particularly poor prognosis. Here, we review the major recent advances in the treatment of ALL. PMID:28665419

  3. Micro-particles in ITER: A comprehensive review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grisolia, C.; Rosanvallon, S.; Sharpe, Ph.; Winter, J.

    2009-01-01

    In a fusion reactor like ITER, in-vessel materials are subjected to interactions with the plasma. One of the main consequences of these plasma-material interactions is the creation of co-deposited layers. Due to internal stresses, part of these layers can crack leading to micro particle creation. The purpose of the following paper is to review the Tokamak operation processes which lead to erosion and layer creation. Then, the proportion of these layers that is converted into micro-particles will be evaluated in the case of Tore Supra experiments and extrapolated for ITER. It is major importance to measure the ITER mobilizable dusts present in the Vacuum Vessel and compare the measured quantity with the safety limits. When approaching these limits, removal systems must be used in order to control the in-vessel dust inventory. In the second part of the paper, diagnostics and removal system under development will be presented.

  4. A comprehensive review of milk fouling on heated surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghinezhad, E; Kazi, S N; Dahari, M; Safaei, Mohammad Reza; Sadri, Rad; Badarudin, A

    2015-01-01

    Heat exchanger performance degrades rapidly during operation due to formation of deposits on heat transfer surfaces which ultimately reduces service life of the equipment. Due to scaling, product deteriorates which causes lack of proper heating. Chemistry of milk scaling is qualitatively understood and the mathematical models for fouling at low temperatures have been produced but the behavior of systems at ultra high temperature processing has to be studied further to understand in depth. In diversified field, the effect of whey protein fouling along with pressure drop in heat exchangers were conducted by many researchers. Adding additives, treatment of heat exchanger surfaces and changing of heat exchanger configurations are notable areas of investigation in milk fouling. The present review highlighted information about previous work on fouling, influencing parameters of fouling and its mitigation approach and ends up with recommendations for retardation of milk fouling and necessary measures to perform the task.

  5. Thoracostomy tubes: A comprehensive review of complications and related topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatt, Michael; Tarbox, Abigail; Seamon, Mark J.; Swaroop, Mamta; Cipolla, James; Allen, Charles; Hallenbeck, Stacinoel; Davido, H. Tracy; Lindsey, David E.; Doraiswamy, Vijay A.; Galwankar, Sagar; Tulman, David; Latchana, Nicholas; Papadimos, Thomas J.; Cook, Charles H.; Stawicki, Stanislaw P.

    2014-01-01

    Tube thoracostomy (TT) placement belongs among the most commonly performed procedures. Despite many benefits of TT drainage, potential for significant morbidity and mortality exists. Abdominal or thoracic injury, fistula formation and vascular trauma are among the most serious, but more common complications such as recurrent pneumothorax, insertion site infection and nonfunctioning or malpositioned TT also represent a significant source of morbidity and treatment cost. Awareness of potential complications and familiarity with associated preventive, diagnostic and treatment strategies are fundamental to satisfactory patient outcomes. This review focuses on chest tube complications and related topics, with emphasis on prevention and problem-oriented approaches to diagnosis and treatment. The authors hope that this manuscript will serve as a valuable foundation for those who wish to become adept at the management of chest tubes. PMID:25024942

  6. Growth hormone therapy and craniofacial bones: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litsas, G

    2013-09-01

    Growth hormone (GH) has significant effects on linear bone growth, bone mass and bone metabolism. The primary role of GH supplementation in children with GH deficiency, those born small for gestational age or with other types of disorders in somatic development is to increase linear growth. However, GH therapy seems to elicit varying responses in the craniofacial region. Whereas the effects of GH administration on somatic development are well documented, comparatively little is known of its effects on the craniofacial region. The purpose of this review was to search the literature and compile results from both animal and human studies related to the impact of GH on craniofacial growth. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Comprehensive Review on Ebola (EBOV) Virus: Future Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sajad; Muhammad; Rauf, Abdur; Khan, Ahsan; Rizwan, Muhammad; Patel, Seema; Khan, Haroon; Mahasneh, Adel M; Mubarak, Mohammad S

    2018-01-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV) was discovered for the first time in 1976. It belongs to the family Filoviridae, which causes hemorrhagic fever that could lead to death in a few days. West Africa faced a major outbreak where symptoms appeared in the form of chills, myalgia, fever, diarrhea, and vomiting, and the disease finally reached a severe state as a result of hemorrhagic complications and failure of multiple organs. EBOV spreads by contact with body fluids of an infected person such as blood, saliva, urine, and seminal fluid, and also spreads by a contact with contaminated surfaces. Viral infection depends on the virus and host defenses. When the virus invades the body, the immune system becomes activated in an attempt to neutralize it. However, if this fails, EBOV viral infection spreads and leads to impaired innate and adaptive immune responses and uncontrollable viral replication. Consequently, the symptomatic patient is isolated and various medicinal regimens such as BCX-4430n TKM- EBOV are used, to cure EBOV, though, a specific treatment is not available. Accordingly, the aim of the present review is to survey and summarize the recent literature pertaining to the outbreak of EBOV, systematic infection of the human body, along with transmission and treatment. In addition, the review also aims to identify areas that need more research and development in combatting this dangerous virus. In the meantime, it should be noted that there is no fully FDA approved drug to treat infections by this virus. Therefore, there is a pressing need to focus on drug discovery along with public awareness to effectively manage any outbreaks in the future. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  8. Review of technical issues related to the failure of Rosemount pressure transmitters due to fill oil loss. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, R.W.; Gaertner, J.P.; Burns, E.T.; Horn, A.; Lee, L.K.

    1994-08-01

    Rosemount pressure transmitters are extensively used in both safety and non-safety applications in US nuclear power plants. They are used to measure pressure, flow, and water level. Rosemount pressure transmitter models 1151, 1152, 1153A, 1153, and 1154 use a fill oil to hydraulically transmit process pressure exerted on outer isolating diaphragms to internal diaphragms. The resulting deflection of the internal diaphragms changes the distance between them and a central diaphragm separating the transmitter interior into two volumes. The change in distance is measured as a change in electrical capacitance between the isolating diaphragms and the central diaphragm and can be related to differential pressure. The fill oil also functions as a dielectric. It has been well established that this fill oil can potentially leak over time, decreasing transmitter accuracy and increasing transmitter response time. Ultimately, the transmitter can fail. An extensive effort has been expended by the nuclear power industry collectively to analyze this issue and develop technically sound and reasonable requirements to mitigate the effects of oil loss in Rosemount pressure transmitters. Despite this, technical concerns have still been raised regarding the technical validity of the past analyses of this problem and its scope. In May 1993, the NRC created an internal group to comprehensively review the Rosemount issue and the NRC's action in addressing it to ensure that all available technical information has been considered. Because this issue remains of active technical interest and because the past work on this subject has been done by many different groups and organizations, EPRI has prepared this report to thoroughly document the current technical understanding of this issue, to perform additional analysis, and to identify any appropriate additional technical research activities regarding oil loss in Rosemount pressure transmitters

  9. The Videofluorographic Swallowing Study in Rheumatologic Diseases: A Comprehensive Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Piazza, Ambra; Costanzo, Massimo; Scopelliti, Laura; Salvaggi, Francesco; Cupido, Francesco; Salerno, Sergio; Lo Casto, Antonio; Midiri, Massimo; Lo Re, Giuseppe; Lagalla, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Autoimmune connective tissue diseases are a heterogeneous group of pathologies that affect about 10% of world population with chronic evolution in 20%–80%. Inflammation in autoimmune diseases may lead to serious damage to other organs including the gastrointestinal tract. Gastrointestinal tract involvement in these patients may also due to both a direct action of antibodies against organs and pharmacological therapies. Dysphagia is one of the most important symptom, and it is caused by failure of the swallowing function and may lead to aspiration pneumonia, malnutrition, dehydration, weight loss, and airway obstruction. The videofluorographic swallowing study is a key diagnostic tool in the detection of swallowing disorders, allowing to make an early diagnosis and to reduce the risk of gastrointestinal and pulmonary complications. This technique helps to identify both functional and structural anomalies of the anatomic chain involved in swallowing function. The aim of this review is to systematically analyze the basis of the pathological involvement of the swallowing function for each rheumatological disease and to show the main features of the videofluorographic study that may be encountered in these patients. PMID:28706536

  10. A Comprehensive Review on Pharmacotherapeutics of Herbal Bioenhancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghanshyam B. Dudhatra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In India, Ayurveda has made a major contribution to the drug discovery process with new means of identifying active compounds. Recent advancement in bioavailability enhancement of drugs by compounds of herbal origin has produced a revolutionary shift in the way of therapeutics. Thus, bibliographic investigation was carried out by analyzing classical text books and peer-reviewed papers, consulting worldwide-accepted scientific databases from last 30 years. Herbal bioenhancers have been shown to enhance bioavailability and bioefficacy of different classes of drugs, such as antibiotics, antituberculosis, antiviral, antifungal, and anticancerous drugs at low doses. They have also improved oral absorption of nutraceuticals like vitamins, minerals, amino acids, and certain herbal compounds. Their mechanism of action is mainly through absorption process, drug metabolism, and action on drug target. This paper clearly indicates that scientific researchers and pharmaceutical industries have to give emphasis on experimental studies to find out novel active principles from such a vast array of unexploited plants having a role as a bioavailability and bioefficacy enhancer. Also, the mechanisms of action by which bioenhancer compounds exert bioenhancing effects remain to be explored.

  11. Tobacco smoking: From 'glamour' to 'stigma'. A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaldelli-Maia, João Mauricio; Ventriglio, Antonio; Bhugra, Dinesh

    2016-01-01

    In this narrative review, we explore the history of tobacco smoking, its associations and portrayal of its use with luxury and glamour in the past, and intriguingly, its subsequent transformation into a mass consumption industrialized product encouraged by advertising and film. Then, we describe the next phase where tobacco in parts of the world has become an unwanted product. However, the number of smokers is still increasing, especially in new markets, and increasingly younger individuals are being attracted to it, despite the well-known health consequences of tobacco use. We also explore current smoking behaviors, looking at trends in the prevalence of consumption throughout the world, discrimination against smokers, light and/or intermittent smokers, and the electronic cigarette (e-cigarette). We place these changes in the context of neuroscience, which may help explain why the cognitive effects of smoking can be important reinforcers for its consumption despite strong anti-smoking pressure in Western countries. © 2015 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2015 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  12. Leishmaniases in Ecuador: Comprehensive review and current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Velez, Lenin N; Villegas, Nancy V; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Gomez, Eduardo A L; Kato, Hirotomo

    2017-02-01

    This article reviews current knowledge about leishmaniases in Ecuador, proceeding from 1920, when the first human case was described, to the present, mainly focusing on the recent research events published. Regarding basic situations, it appears that 23 of Ecuador's 24 provinces have leishmaniasis-case reports. The disease is one of the mandatory notification infectious diseases in the country since 2005. All the 21,305 cases notified to the Ministry of Public Health, during the period from 2001 through 2014, were said to involve different clinical features of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) but not visceral (VL). Eight Leishmania species, L. (Viannia) guyanensis, L. (V.) panamensis, L. (V.) braziliensis, L. (Leishmania) mexicana, L. (L.) amazonensis, L. (L.) major-like, L. (V.) naiffiand L. (V.) lainsoni were characterized. The last two species were most recently reported from the Ecuadorian Amazon regions. Of the 73 Ecuadorian Lutzomyia species (43 man-biting species) recorded, only four, Lu. trapidoi, Lu. gomezi, Lu. ayacuchensis, and Lu. tortura were incriminated as vectors of the Leishmania parasites. Current knowledge on the reservoir hosts of Leishmania in Ecuador is extremely poor. Recently, in Ecuador different kinds of molecular techniques were developed for diagnosis and mass screening of the disease, employing various materials derived from patients and sand fly vectors. These are PCR-RFLP, colorimetric FTA-LAMP etc. Brief comments and recommendations were also given, for future research and control of leishmaniases in Ecuador. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A Comprehensive Review on Clinical Applications of Comet Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekarana, Vidya; Chand, Parkash

    2015-01-01

    Increased levels of DNA damage and ineffective repair mechanisms are the underlying bio-molecular events in the pathogenesis of most of the life-threatening diseases like cancer and degenerative diseases. The sources of DNA damage can be either exogenous or endogenous in origin. Imbalance between the oxidants and antioxidants resulting in increased reactive oxygen species mostly accounts for the endogenously derived attacks on DNA. Among the various methods employed in the estimation of DNA damage, alkaline comet assay is proven to be a relatively simple and versatile tool in the assessment of DNA damage and also in determining the efficacy of DNA repair mechanism. The aim of this article is to review the application of comet assay in the field of medicine towards human biomonitoring, understanding the pathogenesis of cancer and progression of chronic and degenerative diseases, prediction of tumour radio & chemosensitivity and in male infertility. A standardized protocol and analysis system of various variants of comet assay in different types of cells, across the labs will be of useful and reliable clinical tool in the field of Medicine for the estimation of levels of DNA damage and repair mechanisms. PMID:25954633

  14. Brachiomedian artery (arteria brachiomediana revisited: a comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Kachlik

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews in detail the superficial brachiomedian artery (arteria brachiomediana superficialis, a very rare variant of the main arterial trunks of the upper limb. It branches either from the axillary artery or the brachial artery, descends superficially in the arm (similar to the course of the superficial brachial artery and continues across the cubital fossa, runs superficially in the forearm, approaches the median nerve and enters the carpal canal to reach the hand. It usually terminates in the superficial palmar arch. The first drawing was published, in 1830, and the first description was published, in 1844. Altogether, to our knowledge, only 31 cases of a true, superficial brachiomedian artery have been reported (Some cases are incorrectly reported as superficial brachioradiomedian artery or superficial brachioulnomedian artery. Based on a meta-analysis of known, available studies, the incidence is 0.23% in Caucasians and 1.48% in Mongolians. Knowing whether or not this arterial variant is present is important in clinical medicine and relevant for: The catheterization via the radial or ulnar artery; harvesting the vascular pedicle for a forearm flap based on the radial, ulnar or superficial brachiomedian arteries; the possible collateral circulation in cases of the arterial closure; and the surgical management of carpal tunnel syndrome. Its presence can elevate the danger of an injury to the superficially located variant artery or of an accidental injection.

  15. A Comprehensive Review of the Pharmacologic Management of Uterine Leiomyoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terrence D. Lewis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Uterine leiomyomata are the most common benign tumors of the gynecologic tract impacting up to 80% of women by 50 years of age. It is well established that these tumors are the leading cause for hysterectomy with an estimated total financial burden greater than $30 billion per year in the United States. However, for the woman who desires future fertility or is a poor surgical candidate, definitive management with hysterectomy is not an optimal management plan. Typical gynecologic symptoms of leiomyoma include infertility, abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB/heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB and/or intermenstrual bleeding (IMB with resulting iron-deficiency anemia, pelvic pressure and pain, urinary incontinence, and dysmenorrhea. The morbidity caused by these tumors is directly attributable to increases in tumor burden. Interestingly, leiomyoma cells within a tumor do not rapidly proliferate, but rather the increase in tumor size is secondary to production of an excessive, stable, and aberrant extracellular matrix (ECM made of disorganized collagens and proteoglycans. As a result, medical management should induce leiomyoma cells toward dissolution of the extracellular matrix, as well as halting or inhibiting cellular proliferation. Herein, we review the current literature regarding the medical management of uterine leiomyoma.

  16. Epidemiology, treatment and prevention of herpes zoster: A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshy, Elsam; Mengting, Lu; Kumar, Hanasha; Jianbo, Wu

    2018-01-01

    Herpes zoster is a major health burden that can affect individuals of any age. It is seen more commonly among individuals aged ≥50 years, those with immunocompromised status, and those on immunosuppressant drugs. It is caused by a reactivation of varicella zoster virus infection. Cell-mediated immunity plays a role in this reactivation. Fever, pain, and itch are common symptoms before the onset of rash. Post-herpetic neuralgia is the most common complication associated with herpes zoster. Risk factors and complications associated with herpes zoster depend on the age, immune status, and the time of initializing treatment. Routine vaccination for individuals over 60 years has shown considerable effect in terms of reducing the incidence of herpes zoster and post-herpetic neuralgia. Treatment with antiviral drugs and analgesics within 72 hours of rash onset has been shown to reduce severity and complications associated with herpes zoster and post-herpetic neuralgia. This study mainly focuses on herpes zoster using articles and reviews from PubMed, Embase, Cochrane library, and a manual search from Google Scholar. We cover the incidence of herpes zoster, gender distribution, seasonal and regional distribution of herpes zoster, incidence of herpes zoster among immunocompromised individuals, incidence of post-herpetic neuralgia following a zoster infection, complications, management, and prevention of herpes zoster and post-herpetic neuralgia.

  17. The Safety of Ingested Caffeine: A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Temple

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine is the most widely consumed psychoactive drug in the world. Natural sources of caffeine include coffee, tea, and chocolate. Synthetic caffeine is also added to products to promote arousal, alertness, energy, and elevated mood. Over the past decade, the introduction of new caffeine-containing food products, as well as changes in consumption patterns of the more traditional sources of caffeine, has increased scrutiny by health authorities and regulatory bodies about the overall consumption of caffeine and its potential cumulative effects on behavior and physiology. Of particular concern is the rate of caffeine intake among populations potentially vulnerable to the negative effects of caffeine consumption: pregnant and lactating women, children and adolescents, young adults, and people with underlying heart or other health conditions, such as mental illness. Here, we review the research into the safety and safe doses of ingested caffeine in healthy and in vulnerable populations. We report that, for healthy adults, caffeine consumption is relatively safe, but that for some vulnerable populations, caffeine consumption could be harmful, including impairments in cardiovascular function, sleep, and substance use. We also identified several gaps in the literature on which we based recommendations for the future of caffeine research.

  18. Comprehensive review on herbal medicine for energy intake suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliana, N D; Jahangir, M; Korthout, H; Choi, Y H; Kim, H K; Verpoorte, R

    2011-07-01

    The obesity drug development is present not a bright and successful story. So far, drugs reported to be effective, either from synthetic or natural sources, mostly stimulated controversy because of serious adverse effects, which ended with stopping clinical trials or even withdrawal from the market. However, obesity and its comorbidities have become rapidly a major problem in both developed and developing countries. This has encouraged pharmaceutical companies and academia to keep on struggling on developing novel effective but safe obesity drugs, and on characterizing novel obesity drug targets. From existing scientific work on obesity drug discovery and commercial slimming preparations, compounds originating from nature, especially from plants, seem to be the first choice. Traditional belief that herbal medicine is safer than synthetic ones is one of the classical arguments, although scientifically this is not always true (e.g. ban on Ephedra). But in general, it has been widely acknowledged that a plant compound, with its unique scaffolds and rich diversity is an unlimited source of novel lead compounds. This paper aims to summarize all works focused on screening plant materials by targeting important pathways related to energy intake regulation, either by in vivo or in vitro experiments. © 2010 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2010 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  19. Immunotherapy in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachna Raman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Localized renal cell carcinoma (RCC is often curable by surgery alone. However, metastatic RCC is generally incurable. In the 1990s, immunotherapy in the form of cytokines was the mainstay of treatment for metastatic RCC. However, responses were seen in only a minority of highly selected patients with substantial treatment-related toxicities. The advent of targeted agents such as vascular endothelial growth factor tyrosine kinase inhibitors VEGF-TKIs and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR inhibitors led to a change in this paradigm due to improved response rates and progression-free survival, a better safety profile, and the convenience of oral administration. However, most patients ultimately progress with about 12% being alive at 5 years. In contrast, durable responses lasting 10 years or more are noted in a minority of those treated with cytokines. More recently, an improved overall survival with newer forms of immunotherapy in other malignancies (such as melanoma and prostate cancer has led to a resurgence of interest in immune therapies in metastatic RCC. In this review we discuss the rationale for immunotherapy and recent developments in immunotherapeutic strategies for treating metastatic RCC.

  20. Salicylic acid as a peeling agent: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Tasleem

    2015-01-01

    Salicylic acid has been used to treat various skin disorders for more than 2,000 years. The ability of salicylic acid to exfoliate the stratum corneum makes it a good agent for peeling. In particular, the comedolytic property of salicylic acid makes it a useful peeling agent for patients with acne. Once considered as a keratolytic agent, the role of salicylic acid as a desmolytic agent, because of its ability to disrupt cellular junctions rather than breaking or lysing intercellular keratin filaments, is now recognized and is discussed here. Salicylic acid as a peeling agent has a number of indications, including acne vulgaris, melasma, photodamage, freckles, and lentigines. The efficacy and safety of salicylic acid peeling in Fitzpatrick skin types I-III as well as in skin types V and VI have been well documented in the literature. This paper reviews the available data and literature on salicylic acid as a peeling agent and its possible indications. Its properties, efficacy and safety, the peeling procedure, and possible side effects are discussed in detail. An account of salicylism is also included.

  1. Salicylic acid as a peeling agent: a comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif T

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tasleem Arif Postgraduate Department of Dermatology, STD and Leprosy, Government Medical College, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India Abstract: Salicylic acid has been used to treat various skin disorders for more than 2,000 years. The ability of salicylic acid to exfoliate the stratum corneum makes it a good agent for peeling. In particular, the comedolytic property of salicylic acid makes it a useful peeling agent for patients with acne. Once considered as a keratolytic agent, the role of salicylic acid as a desmolytic agent, because of its ability to disrupt cellular junctions rather than breaking or lysing intercellular keratin filaments, is now recognized and is discussed here. Salicylic acid as a peeling agent has a number of indications, including acne vulgaris, melasma, photodamage, freckles, and lentigines. The efficacy and safety of salicylic acid peeling in Fitzpatrick skin types I–III as well as in skin types V and VI have been well documented in the literature. This paper reviews the available data and literature on salicylic acid as a peeling agent and its possible indications. Its properties, efficacy and safety, the peeling procedure, and possible side effects are discussed in detail. An account of salicylism is also included. Keywords: acne vulgaris, desmolytic agent, melasma, photodamage, salicylic acid 

  2. Hydrogels for precision meniscus tissue engineering: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey-Rico, Ana; Cucchiarini, Magali; Madry, Henning

    The meniscus plays a pivotal role to preserve the knee joint homeostasis. Lesions to the meniscus are frequent, have a reduced ability to heal, and may induce tibiofemoral osteoarthritis. Current reconstructive therapeutic options mainly focus on the treatment of lesions in the peripheral vascularized region. In contrast, few approaches are capable of stimulating repair of damaged meniscal tissue in the central, avascular portion. Tissue engineering approaches are of high interest to repair or replace damaged meniscus tissue in this area. Hydrogel-based biomaterials are of special interest for meniscus repair as its inner part contains relatively high proportions of proteoglycans which are responsible for the viscoelastic compressive properties and hydration grade. Hydrogels exhibiting high water content and providing a specific three-dimensional (3D) microenvironment may be engineered to precisely resemble this topographical composition of the meniscal tissue. Different polymers of both natural and synthetic origins have been manipulated to produce hydrogels hosting relevant cell populations for meniscus regeneration and provide platforms for meniscus tissue replacement. So far, these compounds have been employed to design controlled delivery systems of bioactive molecules involved in meniscal reparative processes or to host genetically modified cells as a means to enhance meniscus repair. This review describes the most recent advances on the use of hydrogels as platforms for precision meniscus tissue engineering.

  3. A comprehensive review on the colorless carotenoids phytoene and phytofluene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meléndez-Martínez, Antonio J; Mapelli-Brahm, Paula; Benítez-González, Ana; Stinco, Carla M

    2015-04-15

    Carotenoids and their derivatives are versatile isoprenoids involved in many varied actions, hence their importance in the agri-food industry, nutrition, health and other fields. All carotenoids are derived from the colorless carotenes phytoene and phytofluene, which are oddities among carotenoids due to their distinct chemical structure. They occur together with lycopene in tomato and other lycopene-containing foods. Furthermore, they are also present in frequently consumed products like oranges and carrots, among others. The intake of phytoene plus phytofluene has been shown to be higher than that of lycopene and other carotenoids in Luxembourg. This is likely to be common in other countries. However, they are not included in food carotenoid databases, hence they have not been linked to health benefits in epidemiological studies. Interestingly, there are evidences in vitro, animal models and humans indicating that they may provide health benefits. In this sense, the study of these colorless carotenes in the context of food science, nutrition and health should be further encouraged. In this work, we review much of the existing knowledge concerning their chemical characteristics, physico-chemical properties, analysis, distribution in foods, bioavailability and likely biological activities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Clinical spectrum of food allergies: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Marco H-K; Wong, Wilfred H-S; Chang, Christopher

    2014-06-01

    Food allergy is defined as an adverse immune response towards food proteins or as a form of a food intolerance associated with a hypersensitive immune response. It should also be reproducible by a double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge. Many reported that food reactions are not allergic but are intolerances. Food allergy often presents to clinicians as a symptom complex. This review focuses on the clinical spectrum and manifestations of various forms of food allergies. According to clinical presentations and allergy testing, there are three types of food allergy: IgE mediated, mixed (IgE/Non-IgE), and non-IgE mediated (cellular, delayed type hypersensitivity). Recent advances in food allergy in early childhood have highlighted increasing recognition of a spectrum of delayed-onset non-IgE-mediated manifestation of food allergy. Common presentations of food allergy in infancy including atopic eczema, infantile colic, and gastroesophageal reflux. These clinical observations are frequently associated with food hypersensitivity and respond to dietary elimination. Non-IgE-mediated food allergy includes a wide range of diseases, from atopic dermatitis to food protein-induced enterocolitis and from eosinophilic esophagitis to celiac disease. The most common food allergies in children include milk, egg, soy, wheat, peanut, treenut, fish, and shellfish. Milk and egg allergies are usually outgrown, but peanut and treenut allergy tends to persist. The prevalence of food allergy in infancy is increasing and may affect up to 15-20 % of infants. The alarming rate of increase calls for a public health approach in the prevention and treatment of food allergy in children.

  5. Acute Graft Versus Host Disease: A Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassereddine, Samah; Rafei, Hind; Elbahesh, Ehab; Tabbara, Imad

    2017-04-01

    Acute graft versus host disease (aGVHD) remains the second leading cause of death following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (AHSCT). Over the last five years, the progress in understanding the pathophysiology of this immune based-process helped redefine graft versus host reaction and opened new possibilities for novel preventive and therapeutic approaches. The evolution in the field of immunology widened the horizons for hematopoietic stem cell transplant leading to the availability of different stem cell sources for potential graft and incorporation of novel conditioning regimens. There is conflicting data about the impact of the graft source and the conditioning regimen used in the process of AHSCT on the incidence of aGVHD. Many studies have reported increased risk of chronic GVHD (cGVHD) and to a less extent aGVHD with the use of peripheral blood stem cell and bone marrow compared to umbilical cord stem cell. The conditioning regimen, either myeloablative, non-myeloablative or reduced intensity may have different impact on the incidence of GVHD. Several preventive modalities have been adopted by different transplant centers but, to date, there is no standardized regimen. As for treatment, immunosuppression using steroids remains the first line of intervention. Several novel therapeutic options are being investigated for treatment of steroid-refractory aGVHD including the use of mesenchymal stem cells, anti thymocyte globulin and extra corporeal photophoresis. This review discusses the pathophysiology, risk factors, clinical features, and advances in the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of aGVHD. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  6. Air ions and respiratory function outcomes: a comprehensive review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background From a mechanistic or physical perspective there is no basis to suspect that electric charges on clusters of air molecules (air ions) would have beneficial or deleterious effects on respiratory function. Yet, there is a large lay and scientific literature spanning 80 years that asserts exposure to air ions affects the respiratory system and has other biological effects. Aims This review evaluates the scientific evidence in published human experimental studies regarding the effects of exposure to air ions on respiratory performance and symptoms. Methods We identified 23 studies (published 1933–1993) that met our inclusion criteria. Relevant data pertaining to study population characteristics, study design, experimental methods, statistical techniques, and study results were assessed. Where relevant, random effects meta-analysis models were utilized to quantify similar exposure and outcome groupings. Results The included studies examined the therapeutic benefits of exposure to negative air ions on respiratory outcomes, such as ventilatory function and asthmatic symptoms. Study specific sample sizes ranged between 7 and 23, and studies varied considerably by subject characteristics (e.g., infants with asthma, adults with emphysema), experimental method, outcomes measured (e.g., subjective symptoms, sensitivity, clinical pulmonary function), analytical design, and statistical reporting. Conclusions Despite numerous experimental and analytical differences across studies, the literature does not clearly support a beneficial role in exposure to negative air ions and respiratory function or asthmatic symptom alleviation. Further, collectively, the human experimental studies do not indicate a significant detrimental effect of exposure to positive air ions on respiratory measures. Exposure to negative or positive air ions does not appear to play an appreciable role in respiratory function. PMID:24016271

  7. Regulatory dendritic cells in autoimmunity: A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juan; Cao, Xuetao

    2015-09-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells (APC) with significant phenotypic heterogeneity and functional plasticity. DCs play crucial roles in initiating effective adaptive immune responses for elimination of invading pathogens and also in inducing immune tolerance toward harmless components to maintain immune homeostasis. The regulatory capacity of DCs depends on their immature state and distinct subsets, yet not restricted to the immature state and one specialized subset. The tolerogenicity of DC is controlled by a complex network of environmental signals and cellular intrinsic mechanisms. Regulatory DCs play an important role in the maintenance of immunological tolerance via the induction of T cell unresponsiveness or apoptosis, and generation of regulatory T cells. DCs play essential roles in driving autoimmunity via promoting the activation of effector T cells such as T helper 1 and T helper 17 cells, and/or suppressing the generation of regulatory T cells. Besides, a breakdown of DCs-mediated tolerance due to abnormal environmental signals or breakdown of intrinsic regulatory mechanisms is closely linked with the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Novel immunotherapy taking advantage of the tolerogenic potential of regulatory DCs is being developed for treatment of autoimmune diseases. In this review, we will describe the current understanding on the generation of regulatory DC and the role of regulatory DCs in promoting tolerogenic immune responses and suppressing autoimmune responses. The emerging roles of DCs dysfunction in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases and the potential application of regulatory DCs in the treatment of autoimmune diseases will also be discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A systematic review and comprehensive classification of pectoralis major tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElMaraghy, Amr W; Devereaux, Moira W

    2012-03-01

    Reported descriptions of pectoralis major (PM) injury are often inconsistent with the actual musculotendinous morphology. The literature lacks an injury classification system that is consistently applied and accurately reflects surgically relevant anatomic injury patterns, making meaningful comparison of treatment techniques and outcomes difficult. Published cases of PM injury between 1822 and 2010 were analyzed to identify incidence and injury patterns and the extent to which these injuries fit into a classification category. Recent work outlining the 3-dimensional anatomy of the PM muscle and tendon, as well as biomechanical studies of PM muscle segments, were reviewed to identify the aspects of musculotendinous anatomy that are clinically and surgically relevant to injury classification. We identified 365 cases of PM injury, with 75% occurring in the last 20 years; of these, 83% were a result of indirect trauma, with 48% occurring during weight-training activities. Injury patterns were not classified in any consistent way in timing, location, or tear extent, particularly with regard to affected muscle segments contributing to the PM's bilaminar tendon. A contemporary injury classification system is proposed that includes (1) injury timing (acute vs chronic), (2) injury location (at the muscle origin or muscle belly, at or between the musculotendinous junction and the tendinous insertion, or bony avulsion), and (3) standardized terminology addressing tear extent (anterior-to-posterior thickness and complete vs incomplete width) to more accurately reflect the musculotendinous morphology of PM injuries and better inform surgical management, rehabilitation, and research. Copyright © 2012 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. 75 FR 64120 - Technical Amendments to Forms N-CSR and N-SAR in Connection With the Comprehensive Iran Sanctions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... to make Forms N-CSR and N-SAR consistent with the Iran Divestment Act. Thus, any costs and benefits...] Technical Amendments to Forms N-CSR and N-SAR in Connection With the Comprehensive Iran Sanctions... Forms N-CSR and N-SAR under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and the Investment Company Act of 1940...

  10. A comprehensive review and update on Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajendran, Mahesh; Loganathan, Priyadarshini; Catinella, Anthony P; Hashash, Jana G

    2018-02-01

    in postoperative CD patients, as defined by Rutgeers score i2-i4 occur in 30-90% of the patients at the neoterminal ileum within 12 months of surgery and almost universally by 5 years. Treating CD requires a comprehensive care team including the patient, primary care provider, and gastroenterologist. In summary CD is a chronic inflammatory condition with a remitting and relapsing course primarily affecting relatively younger population with significant socioeconomic effects. Copyright © 2018 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Factors that affect scrub practitioner non-technical skills: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Guy

    2018-04-01

    Non-technical skills are the cognitive and interpersonal behaviours that compliment clinical competence in surgery. Effective use of non-technical skills is essential for scrub practice, because they facilitate anticipation of the surgeon's requirements and promote appropriate communication behaviours. This literature review analyses the factors that may influence a scrub practitioner's use of non-technical skills during surgery. Recommendations are made that are intended to improve their use by reducing behavioural variations during surgery.

  12. Technical Review Guidelines for Environmental Impact Assessments in the Tourism, Energy and Mining Sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA coordinated a regional collaborative process with Central America and Dominican Republic Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR) partners to develop Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Technical Review Guidelines for three sectors.

  13. [Classification and review of technical devices for hypoxia therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopata, V O; Berezovs'kyĭ, V Ia; Levashov, M I; Kyienko, V M

    2003-01-01

    In the report there considered and compared the functional and constructive features of hipoxicators, divided in classification groups. The complex of medico-technical requirements to hipoxicators is formulated; prospects of perfection of therapeutic and diagnostic methods for hypoxitherapy and their hardware are estimated.

  14. A Review of Technical Communication Programs Outside the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alred, Gerald J.

    2001-01-01

    Examines technical communication programs outside the United States and comments on such features as their location in the university structure, links with public relations, the inclusion of internships or practicums, the balance of theory and practice, and typical course offerings. Lists a dozen major programs in seven countries. Concludes that…

  15. Improving English Reading Comprehension Ability through Survey, Questions, Read, Record, Recite, Review Strategy (SQ4R)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khusniyah, Nurul Lailatul; Lustyantie, Ninuk

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the effect of the survey, questions, read, record, recite, review (SQ4R) strategy of the reading comprehension ability students of 2nd semester. The research study was used action research method. The sampling was taken by 34 students. The validity of data used credibility, transferability, dependability, and…

  16. From Compromise to Concept? – A Review of ‘Other Comprehensive Income’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Detzen, D.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews how ‘other comprehensive income’ (OCI) entered financial reporting by tracing major Financial Accounting Standard Board (FASB) and International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) projects that required direct entries to equity and describing recent efforts to make sense of the

  17. Review of the technical bases of 40 CFR Part 190.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, John E.; McMahon, Kevin A.; Siegel, Malcolm Dean; Weiner, Ruth F.; Bixler, Nathan E.; Klein, Keith A. (Longenecker and Associates)

    2010-07-01

    The dose limits for emissions from the nuclear fuel cycle were established by the Environmental Protection Agency in 40 CFR Part 190 in 1977. These limits were based on assumptions regarding the growth of nuclear power and the technical capabilities of decontamination systems as well as the then-current knowledge of atmospheric dispersion and the biological effects of ionizing radiation. In the more than thirty years since the adoption of the limits, much has changed with respect to the scale of nuclear energy deployment in the United States and the scientific knowledge associated with modeling health effects from radioactivity release. Sandia National Laboratories conducted a study to examine and understand the methodologies and technical bases of 40 CFR 190 and also to determine if the conclusions of the earlier work would be different today given the current projected growth of nuclear power and the advances in scientific understanding. This report documents the results of that work.

  18. Technical review of process heat applications using the HTGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brierley, G.

    1976-06-01

    The demand for process heat applications is surveyed. Those applications which can be served only by the high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) are identified and the status of process heat applications in Europe, USA, and Japan in December 1975 is discussed. Technical problems associated with the HTGR for process heat applications are outlined together with an appraisal of the safety considerations involved. (author)

  19. Systems for deep brain stimulation: review of technical features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amon, A; Alesch, F

    2017-09-01

    The use of deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an important treatment option for movement disorders and other medical conditions. Today, three major manufacturers provide implantable systems for DBS. Although the underlying principle is basically the same for all available systems, the differences in the technical features vary considerably. This article outlines aspects regarding the technical features of DBS systems. The differences between voltage and current sources are addressed and their effect on stimulation is shown. To maintain clinical benefit and minimize side effects the stimulation field has to be adapted to the requirements of the patient. Shaping of the stimulation field can be achieved by the electrode design and polarity configuration. Furthermore, the electric signal consisting of stimulation rate, stimulation amplitude and pulse width affect the stimulation field. Interleaving stimulation is an additional concept, which permits improved treatment outcomes. Therefore, the electrode design, the polarity, the electric signal, and the concept of interleaving stimulation are presented. The investigated systems can be also categorized as rechargeable and non-rechargeable, which is briefly discussed. Options for interconnecting different system components from various manufacturers are presented. The present paper summarizes the technical features and their combination possibilities, which can have a major impact on the therapeutic effect.

  20. Control of autonomous ground vehicles: a brief technical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babak, Shahian-Jahromi; Hussain, Syed A.; Karakas, Burak; Cetin, Sabri

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a brief review of the developments achieved in autonomous vehicle systems technology. A concise history of autonomous driver assistance systems is presented, followed by a review of current state of the art sensor technology used in autonomous vehicles. Standard sensor fusion method that has been recently explored is discussed. Finally, advances in embedded software methodologies that define the logic between sensory information and actuation decisions are reviewed.

  1. Spatial abilities and technical skills performance in health care: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Jean; Bellemare, Christian; Toulouse, Josée; Wells, George A

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the relationship between spatial abilities and technical skills performance in health care in beginners and to compare this relationship with those in intermediate and autonomous learners. Search criteria included 'spatial abilities' and 'technical skills'. Keywords related to these criteria were defined. A literature search was conducted to 20 December, 2013 in Scopus (including MEDLINE) and in several databases on EBSCOhost platforms (CINAHL Plus with Full Text, ERIC, Education Source and PsycINFO). Citations were obtained and reviewed by two independent reviewers. Articles related to retained citations were reviewed and a final list of eligible articles was determined. Articles were assessed for quality using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network-50 assessment instrument. Data were extracted from articles in a systematic way. Correlations between spatial abilities test scores and technical skills performance were identified. A series of 8289 citations was obtained. Eighty articles were retained and fully reviewed, yielding 36 eligible articles. The systematic review found a tendency for spatial abilities to be negatively correlated with the duration of technical skills and positively correlated with the quality of technical skills performance in beginners and intermediate learners. Pooled correlations of studies were -0.46 (p = 0.03) and -0.38 (95% confidence interval [CI] -0.53 to -0.21) for duration and 0.33 (95% CI 0.20-0.44) and 0.41 (95% CI 0.26-0.54) for quality of technical skills performance in beginners and intermediate learners, respectively. However, correlations between spatial abilities test scores and technical skills performance were not statistically significant in autonomous learners. Spatial abilities are an important factor to consider in selecting and training individuals in technical skills in health care. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Sustainable Mining Environment: Technical Review of Post-mining Plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restu Juniah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The mining industry exists because humans need mining commodities to meet their daily needs such as motor vehicles, mobile phones, electronic equipment and others. Mining commodities as mentioned in Government Regulation No. 23 of 2010 on Implementation of Mineral and Coal Mining Business Activities are radioactive minerals, metal minerals, nonmetallic minerals, rocks and coal. Mineral and coal mining is conducted to obtain the mining commodities through production operations. Mining and coal mining companies have an obligation to ensure that the mining environment in particular after the post production operation or post mining continues. The survey research aims to examine technically the post-mining plan in coal mining of PT Samantaka Batubara in Indragiri Hulu Regency of Riau Province towards the sustainability of the mining environment. The results indicate that the post-mining plan of PT Samantaka Batubara has met the technical aspects required in post mining planning for a sustainable mining environment. Postponement of post-mining land of PT Samantaka Batubara for garden and forest zone. The results of this study are expected to be useful and can be used by stakeholders, academics, researchers, practitioners and associations of mining, and the environment.

  3. Comprehensive adolescent health programs that include sexual and reproductive health services: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kågesten, Anna; Parekh, Jenita; Tunçalp, Ozge; Turke, Shani; Blum, Robert William

    2014-12-01

    We systematically reviewed peer-reviewed and gray literature on comprehensive adolescent health (CAH) programs (1998-2013), including sexual and reproductive health services. We screened 36 119 records and extracted articles using predefined criteria. We synthesized data into descriptive characteristics and assessed quality by evidence level. We extracted data on 46 programs, of which 19 were defined as comprehensive. Ten met all inclusion criteria. Most were US based; others were implemented in Egypt, Ethiopia, and Mexico. Three programs displayed rigorous evidence; 5 had strong and 2 had modest evidence. Those with rigorous or strong evidence directly or indirectly influenced adolescent sexual and reproductive health. The long-term impact of many CAH programs cannot be proven because of insufficient evaluations. Evaluation approaches that take into account the complex operating conditions of many programs are needed to better understand mechanisms behind program effects.

  4. A Comprehensive Look at the Possibilities of Edible Insects as Food in Europe – a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mlcek Jiri

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Possibilities of edible insects use in European countries, are now an increasingly debated issue. Insects in Asian, African, Central American and South Central American cultures are mainly nutritional components. This review mainly describes the species of insects that are suitable as food in Europe and other developed countries. This comprehensive work addresses the issue of eating insects, especially considering the nutritionally important factors. Risks are also mentioned, as well as allergies, toxicity, and other aspects of the breeding and use of edible insects. Insects play and will play important roles in the future in various fields of research, exploitation, breeding, etc. This review provides a comprehensive current and future view of insects as a valuable foodstuff.

  5. Towards a Comprehensive Conceptual Framework of Active Travel Behavior: a Review and Synthesis of Published Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götschi, Thomas; de Nazelle, Audrey; Brand, Christian; Gerike, Regine

    2017-09-01

    This paper reviews the use of conceptual frameworks in research on active travel, such as walking and cycling. Generic framework features and a wide range of contents are identified and synthesized into a comprehensive framework of active travel behavior, as part of the Physical Activity through Sustainable Transport Approaches project (PASTA). PASTA is a European multinational, interdisciplinary research project on active travel and health. Along with an exponential growth in active travel research, a growing number of conceptual frameworks has been published since the early 2000s. Earlier frameworks are simpler and emphasize the distinction of environmental vs. individual factors, while more recently several studies have integrated travel behavior theories more thoroughly. Based on the reviewed frameworks and various behavioral theories, we propose the comprehensive PASTA conceptual framework of active travel behavior. We discuss how it can guide future research, such as data collection, data analysis, and modeling of active travel behavior, and present some examples from the PASTA project.

  6. Review of TSOs technical needs in safety research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rintamaa, R.; Bruna, G.

    2012-01-01

    ETSON is the network of European Technical Safety Organizations. The ETSON members have elaborated together a position paper which identifies and ranks the main research and development fields of endeavor in a short, mid and long term perspective. The main research areas and major needs are grouped in 7 areas: 1) safety assessment methods, 2) multi-physics safety approach (several disciplines, macroscopic and microscopic level), 3) Ageing of materials, 4) fuel behaviour, 5) human and organisational factors, 6) instrumentation and control, 7) Severe accidents: phenomenology and methodology, and severe accidents: crisis preparedness and major needs. ETSON has coordinated the activities with other European platforms and has widely contributed to the NUGENIA (Nuclear Generation 2 and 3 Association) topic research and development areas. The next step will be a prioritization of these needs

  7. Scientific and technical aspects of yogurt fortification: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Hashemi Gahruie

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Food fortification is one of the most important processes for improvement of the nutrients quality and quantity in food. It can be a very cost effective public health intervention. Due to the high consumption rate of dairy products such as yogurt, fortification of these products will effectively reduce or prevent diseases associated with nutritional deficiencies. The aim of this investigation is to study the technical aspects involved in production of different types of fortified yogurts and their role in disease prevention and correction of deficiencies. In this paper, firstly, fortification is defined and the main reasons behind carrying out this process are presented and then yogurt production process and a variety of minerals, vitamins, and functional ingredients which are used in the process are briefly discussed.

  8. Technical review of the dispersion and dose models used in the MILDOS computer program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horst, T.W.; Soldat, J.K.; Bander, T.J.

    1982-05-01

    The MILDOS computer code is used to estimate impacts of radioactive emissions from uranium milling facilities. This report reviews the technical basis of the models used in the MILDOS computer code. The models were compared with state-of-the-art predictions, taking into account the intended uses of the MILDOS code. Several suggested modifications are presented and the technical basis for those changes are given

  9. Independent technical review of the Bin and Alcove test programs at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    This Independent Technical Review (ITR) assessed the need for and technical validity of the proposed Bin and Alcove test programs using TRU-waste at the WIPP site. The ITR Team recommends that the planned Bin and Alcove tests be abandoned, and that new activities be initiated in support of the WIPP regulatory compliance processes. Recommendations in this report offer an alternate path for expeditiously attaining disposal certification and permitting

  10. Technical training: Comprehensive VHDL for FPGA Design' and 'Introduction au VHDL et utilisation du simulateur NCVHDL de CADENCE' course sessions, May-June 2006

    CERN Multimedia

    Davide Vitè

    2006-01-01

    The next session of the course 'Comprehensive VHDL for FPGA Design'given in English by Doulos Ltd (UK) will take place at CERN from May 29 through June 2nd (5 days), for a maximum of 14 participants. It will be preceded by an optional, refresher session of the two-day course 'Introduction au VHDL et utilisation du simulateur NCVHDL de CADENCE', given on 23-24 May, in French, by Serge Brobecker of IT/DES. For more information, please visit the Technical Training CTA website, http://cta.cern.ch/cta2/f?p=300, to consult the detailed course descriptions and to apply via EDH. Organiser: Davide Vitè / HR-PMD / 75141 Davide.Vite@cern.ch ENSEIGNEMENT TECHNIQUE TECHNICAL TRAINING technical.training@cern.ch

  11. CERN Technical Training 2006: 'Comprehensive VHDL for FPGA Design' and 'Introduction au VHDL et utilisation du simulateur NCVHDL de CADENCE' course sessions, May-June 2006

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Learning for the LHC! The next session of the course 'Comprehensive VHDL for FPGA Design' given in English by Doulos Ltd (UK) will take place at CERN from May 29 through June 2nd (5 days), for a maximum of 14 participants. It will be preceded by an optional, refresher session of the two-day course 'Introduction au VHDL et utilisation du simulateur NCVHDL de CADENCE', given on 23-24 May, in French, by Serge Brobecker of IT/DES. For more information, please visit the Technical Training CTA website, http://cta.cern.ch/cta2/f?p=300, to consult the detailed course descriptions and to apply via EDH. Organiser: Davide Vitè / HR-PMD / 75141 Davide.Vite@cern.ch ENSEIGNEMENT TECHNIQUE TECHNICAL TRAINING technical.training@cern.ch

  12. Duplication of the superficial femoral artery: comprehensive review of imaging literature and insight into embryology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hapugoda, Sachintha; Hsu, Charlie Chia-Tsong; Kwan, Gigi Nga Chi; Watkins, Trevor William; Rophael, John A

    2016-01-01

    An extremely rare case of duplicated superficial femoral artery (SFA) was incidentally observed on computed tomography angiogram (CTA) of the lower limbs for presurgical planning for an osteomyocutaneous fibula flap in a patient with T4a oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). To our knowledge, this is the sixth reported case in the imaging literature. We performed a comprehensive review of the English literature and discuss the underlying embryological origin underpinning this rare anatomical variant

  13. Is comprehensive income required by IAS 1 relevant for users? A review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Le Manh-Béna , Anne

    2009-01-01

    Professional accountants have accepted for decades net income a the key performance measure of a business. The IASB decision in 2007 to require the publication of comprehensive income as it has been the case since 1997 in the United States, has fed the long time debate regarding the concept of income. In this paper, we will go through some background about both approaches of income and their consequences in terms of financial reporting. We will then review the related literature, classified a...

  14. A comprehensive look at the possibilities of edible insects as food in Europe - A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Mlček, Jiří; Rop, Otakar; Borkovcová, Marie; Bednářová, Martina

    2014-01-01

    Possibilities of edible insects use in European countries, are now an increasingly debated issue. Insects in Asian, African, Central American and South Central American cultures are mainly nutritional components. This review mainly describes the species of insects that are suitable as food in Europe and other developed countries. This comprehensive work addresses the issue of eating insects, especially considering the nutritionally important factors. Risks are also mentioned, as well as aller...

  15. Developing and Improving Student Non-Technical Skills in IT Education: A Literature Review and Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Hagen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to identify portions of the literature in the areas of Information Technology (IT management, skills development, and curriculum development that support the design of a holistic conceptual framework for instruction in non-technical skills within the IT higher education context. This article review provides a framework for understanding how the critical success factors related to IT and Information Systems (IS professional success is impacted by developing students’ non-technical skills. The article culminates in a holistic conceptual framework for developing non-technical skills within the IT higher education context. Implications for theory and research are provided.

  16. Imaging Characteristics of Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas Involving the Vein of Galen: A Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Mohammad W; Choi, Paul J; Iwanaga, Joe; Mortazavi, Martin M; Tubbs, R Shane

    2018-02-11

    Vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation (VGAM) is a rare angiopathy, which most commonly presents in infancy. Although very rare, it is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. In order to minimize such morbid rates, a prompt diagnosis followed by a timely initiation of management is crucial. Multiple antenatal and postnatal imaging techniques for the diagnosis have been described and discussed in the literature. However, to our knowledge, a comprehensive review exploring such a list of imaging options for VGAM has never been established. We aim to review the diagnostic tools to aid in better understanding of the investigative modalities physicians may choose from when treating patients with a VGAM.

  17. Report of the LOFT special review group. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, D.F. Jr.

    1981-02-01

    This report represents the results of the LOFT Special Review Group (LSRG) evaluation of the LOFT program and is submitted to the Commission as an aid in its decision whether to continue NRC support of the LOFT project beyond FY 1982. The principal consensus reached by the LSRG recommends continued NRC support of the LOFT program through FY 1983

  18. Intermediate Technical Review Report : Deliverable D0.4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygholm, Ann; Buus, Lillian; Svendsen, Brian Møller

    This report provides a coprehensivi overview of the activities of the Mediterranean Virtual Univeristy Project from the contract start for December 2005. It provides a review of the achievements so far and a discussion of issues currently being adressed along with remedial actions. The report also...

  19. RESIDENTIAL WOOD COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY REVIEW VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report gives results of a review of the current state-of-the-art of residential wood combustion (RWC). The key environmental parameter of concern was the air emission of particles. The technological status of all major RWC categories -- cordwood stoves, fireplaces, masonry h...

  20. Intermediate Technical Review Report : Deliverable D0.4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygholm, Ann; Buus, Lillian; Svendsen, Brian Møller

    This report provides a coprehensivi overview of the activities of the Mediterranean Virtual Univeristy Project from the contract start for December 2005. It provides a review of the achievements so far and a discussion of issues currently being adressed along with remedial actions. The report als...

  1. A Comprehensive Review of Permanent Magnet Transverse Flux Machines for Direct Drive Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, Eduard [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Husain, Tausif [University of Akron; Hasan, Iftekhar [University of Akron; Sozer, Yilmaz [University of Akron; Husain, Iqbal [North Carolina State University

    2017-11-07

    The use of direct drive machines in renewable and industrial applications are increasing at a rapid rate. Transverse flux machines (TFM) are ideally suited for direct drive applications due to their high torque density. In this paper, a comprehensive review of the permanent magnet (PM) TFMs for direct drive applications is presented. The paper introduces TFMs and their operating principle and then reviews the different type of TFMs proposed in the literature. The TFMs are categorized according to the number of stator sides, types of stator cores and magnet arrangement in the rotor. The review covers different design topologies, materials used for manufacturing, structural and thermal analysis, modeling and design optimization and cogging torque minimization in TFMs. The paper also reviews various applications and comparisons for TFMs that have been presented in the literature.

  2. Cytological preparations for molecular analysis: A review of technical procedures, advantages and limitations for referring samples for testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha Santos, G; Saieg, M A; Troncone, G; Zeppa, P

    2018-04-01

    Minimally invasive procedures such as endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) must yield not only good quality and quantity of material for morphological assessment, but also an adequate sample for analysis of molecular markers to guide patients to appropriate targeted therapies. In this context, cytopathologists worldwide should be familiar with minimum requirements for refereeing cytological samples for testing. The present manuscript is a review with comprehensive description of the content of the workshop entitled Cytological preparations for molecular analysis: pre-analytical issues for EBUS TBNA, presented at the 40th European Congress of Cytopathology in Liverpool, UK. The present review emphasises the advantages and limitations of different types of cytology substrates used for molecular analysis such as archival smears, liquid-based preparations, archival cytospin preparations and FTA (Flinders Technology Associates) cards, as well as their technical requirements/features. These various types of cytological specimens can be successfully used for an extensive array of molecular studies, but the quality and quantity of extracted nucleic acids rely directly on adequate pre-analytical assessment of those samples. In this setting, cytopathologists must not only be familiar with the different types of specimens and associated technical procedures, but also correctly handle the material provided by minimally invasive procedures, ensuring that there is sufficient amount of material for a precise diagnosis and correct management of the patient through personalised care. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Investigation and technical reviews on the long term stability of buffer. Document prepared by other institute, based on the contract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takasu, Aki

    2003-03-01

    The main objectives of future research and development of geological disposal are to confirm that previous investigation and assessment method which have been arranged for generic geological environment will apply to real geological disposal environment, and the margin of system performance, which was assessed under simple and conservative viewpoint in the past, with assessment and recognition long term behavior of realistic system. Under present condition, we organized clay science specialist committee in Nuclear Safety Research Association and considered following themes comprehensively. To confirm the assessment methods for log term stability of the buffer in H12: Project to establish the scientific and technical basis for HLW disposal in Japan' and in other performance assessment reports, and to pick up subjects from them. Review on the research for long term stability assessment in Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute and in other researchers. This report is summarized the result of investigation. (author)

  4. Technical progress review of extraction of uranium from fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Renxi; Gao Junning; Wu Qingming; Chen Gang; Wan Hongjin; Zhang Ziyue

    2014-01-01

    The increasing of fly ash in coal-fired power plants at home and abroad year by year and the potential impacts to the environment attracted media attention. Although the extraction of uranium from the fly ash in coal-fired power plants had optional process from technique aspect and sufficient preliminary researches, but considering the low grade of the uranium in fly ash and particularity of the mineral composition, it is easy to have a high cost of extraction. As a consequence, it is not included in the development plan of uranium mining and metallurgy. The present applications of fly ash are only building materials, building roads and pit valley backfill, the resource utilization rate was low and was still in its early stages of development and application. In view of this, the research advances and the latest development trends of extraction of uranium from fly ash at home and abroad were introduced from the technical aspect, and the beneficial analyzes of the prospect and advices to this industry were given. (authors)

  5. Development of a comprehensive hospital-based elder abuse intervention: an initial systematic scoping review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Du Mont

    Full Text Available Elder abuse, a universal human rights problem, is associated with many negative consequences. In most jurisdictions, however, there are no comprehensive hospital-based interventions for elder abuse that address the totality of needs of abused older adults: psychological, physical, legal, and social. As the first step towards the development of such an intervention, we undertook a systematic scoping review.Our primary objective was to systematically extract and synthesize actionable and applicable recommendations for components of a multidisciplinary intersectoral hospital-based elder abuse intervention. A secondary objective was to summarize the characteristics of the responses reviewed, including methods of development and validation.The grey and scholarly literatures were systematically searched, with two independent reviewers conducting the title, abstract and full text screening. Documents were considered eligible for inclusion if they: 1 addressed a response (e.g., an intervention to elder abuse, 2 contained recommendations for responding to abused older adults with potential relevance to a multidisciplinary and intersectoral hospital-based elder abuse intervention; and 3 were available in English.The extracted recommendations for care were collated, coded, categorized into themes, and further reviewed for relevancy to a comprehensive hospital-based response. Characteristics of the responses were summarized using descriptive statistics.649 recommendations were extracted from 68 distinct elder abuse responses, 149 of which were deemed relevant and were categorized into 5 themes: Initial contact; Capacity and consent; Interview with older adult, caregiver, collateral contacts, and/or suspected abuser;physical/forensic, mental, psychosocial, and environmental/functional; and care plan. Only 6 responses had been evaluated, suggesting a significant gap between development and implementation of recommendations.To address the lack of evidence to

  6. Development of a Comprehensive Hospital-Based Elder Abuse Intervention: An Initial Systematic Scoping Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Mont, Janice; Macdonald, Sheila; Kosa, Daisy; Elliot, Shannon; Spencer, Charmaine; Yaffe, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Elder abuse, a universal human rights problem, is associated with many negative consequences. In most jurisdictions, however, there are no comprehensive hospital-based interventions for elder abuse that address the totality of needs of abused older adults: psychological, physical, legal, and social. As the first step towards the development of such an intervention, we undertook a systematic scoping review. Objectives Our primary objective was to systematically extract and synthesize actionable and applicable recommendations for components of a multidisciplinary intersectoral hospital-based elder abuse intervention. A secondary objective was to summarize the characteristics of the responses reviewed, including methods of development and validation. Methods The grey and scholarly literatures were systematically searched, with two independent reviewers conducting the title, abstract and full text screening. Documents were considered eligible for inclusion if they: 1) addressed a response (e.g., an intervention) to elder abuse, 2) contained recommendations for responding to abused older adults with potential relevance to a multidisciplinary and intersectoral hospital-based elder abuse intervention; and 3) were available in English. Analysis The extracted recommendations for care were collated, coded, categorized into themes, and further reviewed for relevancy to a comprehensive hospital-based response. Characteristics of the responses were summarized using descriptive statistics. Results 649 recommendations were extracted from 68 distinct elder abuse responses, 149 of which were deemed relevant and were categorized into 5 themes: Initial contact; Capacity and consent; Interview with older adult, caregiver, collateral contacts, and/or suspected abuser; Assessment: physical/forensic, mental, psychosocial, and environmental/functional; and care plan. Only 6 responses had been evaluated, suggesting a significant gap between development and implementation of

  7. Tailoring the Systems Engineering Technical Review Implementation Within Naval Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Chapter 1 is the introductory and background information. Chapter II is an overview of the SETR implementation which includes potential ways in...addition, fewer SETR events should indicate less time and resources spent preparing for unneeded reviews. Additional statistical analysis should be...time as shown in Table 9. Future research should include statistical analysis in this area. Table 8. Categorization of “Other” Survey Responses for

  8. Nuclear Safety: Technical progress review, January--March 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, E. G. [ed.

    1989-01-01

    This review journal covers significant developments in the field of nuclear safety. Its scope includes the analysis and control of hazards associated with nuclear energy, operations involving fissionable materials, and the products of nuclear fission and their effects on the environment. Primary emphasis is on safety in reactor design, construction, and operation; however, the safety aspects of the entire fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing, nuclear waste disposal, handling of radioisotopes, and environmental effects of these operations, are also treated.

  9. Independent Technical Review of In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    An Independent Technical Review of In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) and Extended Sludge Processing (ESP) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) was carried out in March, 1993. The review focused on ITP/ESP equipment and chemical processes, integration of ITP/ESP within the High Level Waste (HLW) and Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) systems, and management and regulatory concerns. Following the ITR executive summary, this report includes: Chapter I--summary assessment; Chapter II--recommendations; and Chapter III--technical evaluations

  10. Non-technical skills of the operating theatre scrub nurse: literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Lucy; Flin, Rhona

    2008-07-01

    This paper is a report of a review to identify the non-technical (cognitive and social) skills used by scrub nurses. Recognition that failures in non-technical skills contributed to accidents in high-risk industries led to the development of research programmes to study the role of cognition and social interactions in operational safety. Recently, psychological research in operating theatres has revealed the importance of non-technical skills in safe and efficient performance. Most of the studies to date have focused on anaesthetists and surgeons. On-line sources and university library catalogues, publications of the Association for Perioperative Practice, National Association of Theatre Nurses and Association of Peri-Operative Registered Nurses were searched in 2007. Studies were included in the review if they presented data from scrub nurses on one or more of their non-technical skills. These findings were examined in relation to an existing medical non-technical skills framework with categories of communication, teamwork, leadership, situation awareness and decision-making. Of 424 publications retrieved, 13 were reviewed in detail. Ten concerned communication and eight of those also had data on teamwork. In 11 papers teamwork was examined, and one focused on nurses' situation awareness, teamwork and communication. None of the papers we reviewed examined leadership or decision-making by scrub nurses. Further work is needed to identify formally the non-technical skills which are important to the role of scrub nurse and then to design training in the identified non-technical skills during the education and development of scrub nurses.

  11. The Objective Measurement of Reading Comprehension: In Response to Technical Questions Raised by the California Department of Education Technical Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenner, A. Jackson; Burdick, Donald S.

    This document discusses in depth the theoretical background of the Lexile Framework, which is based on the assumption that reading comprehension is the best predictor of success in higher education and job performance, and that it is the most tested construct in education. The first section defines measurement and differentiates between specific…

  12. Technical Review of the Laboratory Biosphere Closed Ecological System Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempster, W.; van Thillo, M.; Alling, A.; Allen, J.; Silverstone, S.; Nelson, M.

    The "Laboratory Biosphere", a new closed ecological system facility in Santa Fe, New Mexico (USA) has been constructed and became operational in May 2002. Built and operated by the Global Ecotechnics consortium (Biosphere Technologies and Biosphere Foundation with Biospheric Design Inc., and the Institute of Ecotechnics), the research apparatus for intensive crop growth, biogeochemical cycle dynamics and recycling of inedible crop biomass comprises a sealed cylindrical steel chamber and attached variable volume chamber (lung) to prevent pressures caused by the expansion and contraction of the contained air. The cylindrical growing chamber is 3.7m (12 feet) long and 3.7m (12 foot) diameter, giving an internal volume of 34 m3 (1200 ft 3 ). The two crop growth beds cover 5.5 m2, with a soil depth of 0.3m (12 inches), with 12 x 1000 watt high-pressure sodium lights capable of variable lighting of 40-70 mol per m2 per day. A small soil bed reactor in the chamber can be activated to help with metabolism of chamber trace gases. The volume of the attached variable volume chamber (lung) can range between 0-11 m3 (0-400 ft 3 ). Evapotranspired and soil leachate water are collected, combined and recycled to water the planting beds. Sampling ports enable testing of water quality of leachate, condensate and irrigation water. Visual inspection windows provide views of the entire interior and growing beds. The chamber is also outfitted with an airlock to minimize air exchange when people enter and work in the chamber. Continuous sensors include atmospheric CO2 and oxygen, temperature, humidity, soil moisture, light level and water levels in reservoirs. Both "sniffer" (air ports) and "sipper" (water ports) will enable collection of water or air samples for detailed analysis. This paper reports on the development of this new soil-based bioregenerative life support closed system apparatus and its technical challenges and capabilities.

  13. A review of IAEA's technical co-operation programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samiei, M.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The Technical Co-operation (TC) Programme is part of the Agency's mandate 'to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world.' The IAEA's role under this Programme is that of a scientific and technical agency making a discrete but significant contribution to sustainable development goals through the transfer of nuclear science and technology. TC is a high impact programme focusing on development needs with about 800 active projects annually with a budget of over $70M, 30% of which is targeted on training and capacity building in over 100 Member States. Since 1970, over 80,000 scientists and specialists from developing countries have been trained in nuclear science and technology and in nuclear power and safety. A number of trends in the world at large will be likely to influence the Agency's TC programme in the next several years: The use of nuclear technologies in developing countries is growing as local infrastructures improve and technology transfer increases, especially among developing countries; Some countries and institutions are becoming more self-reliant as viable markets develop for nuclear technology, based on an increased awareness of their benefits; As facilities age, safe strategies for life extension and for decommissioning are assuming increasing importance, while there is some renewed positive attention to nuclear power in several parts of the world. Concern is increasing related to the potential for malicious acts involving nuclear facilities or unsecured nuclear and other radioactive material. As the nuclear workforce ages, the management of nuclear knowledge is gaining increasing importance, including the need to maintain the safety and security of nuclear installations and their continued reliable operation. It is difficult to forecast precisely how these trends will influence the assistance requested by Member States, but it is already clear that there will be increased

  14. Metaphor-related figurative language comprehension in clinical populations: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maity Siqueira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to critically review current studies with respect to definitions,methods, and results on the comprehension of metaphor, metonymy,idioms, and proverbs under the following clinical conditions: aphasia,Alzheimer’s disease, autism, brain injuries, specific language impairment,and Williams Syndrome. A comprehensive search of experimentalpsycholinguistic research was conducted using EBSCOhost, PsychInfo,PUBMED, and Web of Science databases. Thirty-eight studies met thereview inclusion criteria. Results point to deficits in figurative languagecomprehension in all conditions considered, lack of clear definitions ofthe phenomena investigated, and varied methods throughout the sample.Patients’ difficulties are attributed to multiple factors, such as a lack ofTheory of Mind, executive dysfunctions, and poor semantic knowledge.The study of nonliteral aspects of language comprehension in clinicalpopulations reveals a range of disparate impairments. There was no specificfeature about metaphor-related phenomena identified that could, on its own,account for the difficulty some populations have to understand figurativelanguage. Rather, metaphor-related language comprehension difficultiesare often part of pragmatic, linguistic, and/or cognitive impairments.Keywords: Figurative language. Metaphor. Metonymy. Proverb. Clinicalpopulations

  15. Technical Packages in Injury and Violence Prevention to Move Evidence into Practice: Systematic Reviews and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haegerich, Tamara M.; David-Ferdon, Corinne; Noonan, Rita K.; Manns, Brian J.; Billie, Holly C.

    2016-01-01

    Injury and violence prevention strategies have greater potential for impact when they are based on scientific evidence. Systematic reviews of the scientific evidence can contribute key information about which policies and programs might have the greatest impact when implemented. However, systematic reviews have limitations, such as lack of implementation guidance and contextual information, that can limit the application of knowledge. “Technical packages,” developed by knowledge brokers such as the federal government, nonprofit agencies, and academic institutions, have the potential to be an efficient mechanism for making information from systematic reviews actionable. Technical packages provide information about specific evidence-based prevention strategies, along with the estimated costs and impacts, and include accompanying implementation and evaluation guidance to facilitate adoption, implementation, and performance measurement. We describe how systematic reviews can inform the development of technical packages for practitioners, provide examples of technical packages in injury and violence prevention, and explain how enhancing review methods and reporting could facilitate the use and applicability of scientific evidence. PMID:27604301

  16. Status review of CHEMVAL2 technical areas, June 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, J.; Crawford, M.; Fabriol, R.; Jamet, Ph.; Lang, H.; Read, D.; Tweed, C.; Warwick, P.

    1993-01-01

    The second phase of the CHEMVAL project has the principal aim of advancing the state of validation of predictive geochemical models in defined areas. Target areas are those known to be of concern in radiological assessment, namely temperature effects, ionic strength effects, organic complexation, sorption processes, coprecipitation and solid solution formation, and coupled chemical transport modelling. The first stage of CHEMVAL2 involved production of status reviews, which are now complete and combined in this report. The two remaining stages comprise the execution of the main research programme on code verification and model validation, followed by a more detailed comparison with experimental data, model refinement and final reporting. (author)

  17. Nulcear Safety: Technical progress review, October--December 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, E G [ed.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear Safety is a review journal that covers significant developments in the field of nuclear safety. Its scope includes the analysis and control of hazards associated with nuclear energy, operations involving fissionable materials, and the products of nuclear fission and their effects on the environment. Primary emphasis is on safety in reactor design, construction, and operation; however, the safety aspects of the entire fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing, nuclear waste disposal, handling of radioisotopes, and environmental effects of these operations, are also treated.

  18. Nuclear Safety: Volume 29, No. 3: Technical progress review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, E G [ed.

    1988-07-01

    Nuclear Safety is a review journal that covers significant development in the field of nuclear safety. Its scope included the analysis and control of hazards associated with nuclear energy, operations involving fissionable materials and the products of nuclear fission and their effects on the environment. Primary emphasis is on safety in reactor design, construction, and operation; however, the safety aspects of the entire fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing, nuclear waste disposal, handling of radioisotopes, and environmental effects of these operations, are also treated. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  19. Waste management assessment and technical review programme. WATRP. An international peer review service for radioactive waste management activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    International Atomic Energy Agency provides international peer review services in radioactive waste management to those Member States that have established radioactive waste management programmes. Such services are provided within Waste Management Assessment and Technical Review Programme (WATRP). The main objective of WATRP is to provide international expertise and information on a requested subject in the field of radioactive waste management and to validate that programmes and activities are sound and performing well. Refs, figs and tabs

  20. Immobilization of l-Asparaginase on Carrier Materials: A Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulu, Ahmet; Ates, Burhan

    2017-06-21

    There are two major applications of l-asparaginase (L-ASNase): leukemia therapy and the food industry. Especially, its chemotherapeutic effect has attracted interest from the scientific community and individual scientists. Therefore, to protect the intrinsic activity and half-time of L-ASNase, several carriers and immobilization techniques for immobilization of L-ASNase have been described in articles. Unfortunately, a comprehensive review about immobilization of L-ASNase has not been written until now. In this review, we have thoroughly discussed the carriers for L-ASNase by illustrating immobilization findings including both past and present applications. In addition, we have revealed advantages and disadvantages of immobilized enzyme and related it to free form. We believe that this review will not only provide background information, but also guide future developments.

  1. Robust Nucleus/Cell Detection and Segmentation in Digital Pathology and Microscopy Images: A Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Fuyong; Yang, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Digital pathology and microscopy image analysis is widely used for comprehensive studies of cell morphology or tissue structure. Manual assessment is labor intensive and prone to interobserver variations. Computer-aided methods, which can significantly improve the objectivity and reproducibility, have attracted a great deal of interest in recent literature. Among the pipeline of building a computer-aided diagnosis system, nucleus or cell detection and segmentation play a very important role to describe the molecular morphological information. In the past few decades, many efforts have been devoted to automated nucleus/cell detection and segmentation. In this review, we provide a comprehensive summary of the recent state-of-the-art nucleus/cell segmentation approaches on different types of microscopy images including bright-field, phase-contrast, differential interference contrast, fluorescence, and electron microscopies. In addition, we discuss the challenges for the current methods and the potential future work of nucleus/cell detection and segmentation.

  2. Technical issues related to NUREG 0800, Chapter 18: Human Factors Engineering/Standard Review Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savage, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    The revision of Chapter 18 of NUREG 0800, Human Factors Engineering Standard Review Plan (SRP) will be based on SECY 82-111 and guidance contained in NUREG 0700, NUREG 0801 and NUREG 0835, plus other references. In conducting field reviews of control rooms, the NRC has identified technical issues which can be used to enhance the development of the revised version of NUREG 0800, and to establish priorities among the list of possible Branch Technical Positions (BTP) in NUREG 0800, Rev. 0, Table 18.0-2. This report is a compilation of comments and suggestions from the people who used NUREG 0700 in the Control Room field reviews. This information was used to establish possible BTP topic priorities so that the most important BTPs could be issued first. The comments and suggestions are included for HFEB review in conjunction with the table of priorities

  3. The Effects of Peer Tutoring on the Reading Comprehension Performance of Secondary Students with Disabilities: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzahrani, Turkey; Leko, Melinda

    2018-01-01

    The purposes of this review were to examine the effects of peer tutoring models on the reading comprehension performance of secondary students with disabilities and to provide evidence of the extent to which peer tutoring can be considered an evidence-based practice (EBP) for improving reading comprehension performance among secondary students…

  4. Measuring the Value Added by Technical Documentation: A Review of Research and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Jay

    1998-01-01

    Reviews existing work on establishing value of technical documentation to determine its principles. States that value can be returned by reducing internal investment, increasing sales, and reducing after-sales costs. Argues that further research will improve the understanding of information as the product itself, rather than simply a supporting…

  5. 75 FR 16461 - Meeting of the Mobile Sources Technical Review Subcommittee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Committee Act, Public Law 92- 463, notice is hereby given that the Mobile Sources Technical Review... Hotel Crystal City-National Airport, 300 Army Navy Drive, Arlington, VA 22202-2891. Phone 703-416-4100. The hotel is located three blocks from the Pentagon City Metro station, and shuttle buses are...

  6. PNL technical review of pressurized thermal-shock issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, L.T.; Apley, W.J.; Bian, S.H.; Defferding, L.J.; Morgenstern, M.H.; Pelto, P.J.; Simonen, E.P.; Simonen, F.A.; Stevens, D.L.; Taylor, T.T.

    1982-07-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was asked to develop and recommend a regulatory position that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) should adopt regarding the ability of reactor pressure vessels to withstand the effects of pressurized thermal shock (PTS). Licensees of eight pressurized water reactors provided NRC with estimates of remaining effective full power years before corrective actions would be required to prevent an unsafe operating condition. PNL reviewed these responses and the results of supporting research and concluded that none of the eight reactors would undergo vessel failure from a PTS event before several more years of operation. Operator actions, however, were often required to terminate a PTS event before it deteriorated to the point where failure could occur. Therefore, the near-term (less than one year) recommendation is to upgrade, on a site-specific basis, operational procedures, training, and control room instrumentation. Also, uniform criteria should be developed by NRC for use during future licensee analyses. Finally, it was recommended that NRC upgrade nondestructive inspection techniques used during vessel examinations and become more involved in the evaluation of annealing requirements

  7. Dynamics and ethics of comprehensive preimplantation genetic testing: a review of the challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hens, Kristien; Dondorp, Wybo; Handyside, Alan H; Harper, Joyce; Newson, Ainsley J; Pennings, Guido; Rehmann-Sutter, Christoph; de Wert, Guido

    2013-01-01

    Genetic testing of preimplantation embryos has been used for preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) and preimplantation genetic screening (PGS). Microarray technology is being introduced in both these contexts, and whole genome sequencing of blastomeres is also expeted to become possible soon. The amount of extra information such tests will yield may prove to be beneficial for embryo selection, will also raise various ethical issues. We present an overview of the developments and an agenda-setting exploration of the ethical issues. The paper is a joint endeavour by the presenters at an explorative 'campus meeting' organized by the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology in cooperation with the department of Health, Ethics & Society of the Maastricht University (The Netherlands). The increasing amount and detail of information that new screening techniques such as microarrays and whole genome sequencing offer does not automatically coincide with an increasing understanding of the prospects of an embryo. From a technical point of view, the future of comprehensive embryo testing may go together with developments in preconception carrier screening. From an ethical point of view, the increasing complexity and amount of information yielded by comprehensive testing techniques will lead to challenges to the principle of reproductive autonomy and the right of the child to an open future, and may imply a possible larger responsibility of the clinician towards the welfare of the future child. Combinations of preconception carrier testing and embryo testing may solve some of these ethical questions but could introduce others. As comprehensive testing techniques are entering the IVF clinic, there is a need for a thorough rethinking of traditional ethical paradigms regarding medically assisted reproduction.

  8. A Comprehensive Review on Handcrafted and Learning-Based Action Representation Approaches for Human Activity Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allah Bux Sargano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Human activity recognition (HAR is an important research area in the fields of human perception and computer vision due to its wide range of applications. These applications include: intelligent video surveillance, ambient assisted living, human computer interaction, human-robot interaction, entertainment, and intelligent driving. Recently, with the emergence and successful deployment of deep learning techniques for image classification, researchers have migrated from traditional handcrafting to deep learning techniques for HAR. However, handcrafted representation-based approaches are still widely used due to some bottlenecks such as computational complexity of deep learning techniques for activity recognition. However, approaches based on handcrafted representation are not able to handle complex scenarios due to their limitations and incapability; therefore, resorting to deep learning-based techniques is a natural option. This review paper presents a comprehensive survey of both handcrafted and learning-based action representations, offering comparison, analysis, and discussions on these approaches. In addition to this, the well-known public datasets available for experimentations and important applications of HAR are also presented to provide further insight into the field. This is the first review paper of its kind which presents all these aspects of HAR in a single review article with comprehensive coverage of each part. Finally, the paper is concluded with important discussions and research directions in the domain of HAR.

  9. A technical review of flexible endoscopic multitasking platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Baldwin Po Man; Gourlay, Terence

    2012-01-01

    Further development of advanced therapeutic endoscopic techniques and natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) requires a powerful flexible endoscopic multitasking platform. Medline search was performed to identify literature relating to flexible endoscopic multitasking platform from year 2004-2011 using keywords: Flexible endoscopic multitasking platform, NOTES, Instrumentation, Endoscopic robotic surgery, and specific names of various endoscopic multitasking platforms. Key articles from articles references were reviewed. Flexible multitasking platforms can be classified as either mechanical or robotic. Purely mechanical systems include the dual channel endoscope (DCE) (Olympus), R-Scope (Olympus), the EndoSamurai (Olympus), the ANUBIScope (Karl-Storz), Incisionless Operating Platform (IOP) (USGI), and DDES system (Boston Scientific). Robotic systems include the MASTER system (Nanyang University, Singapore) and the Viacath (Hansen Medical). The DCE, the R-Scope, the EndoSamurai and the ANUBIScope have integrated visual function and instrument manipulation function. The IOP and DDES systems rely on the conventional flexible endoscope for visualization, and instrument manipulation is integrated through the use of a flexible, often lockable, multichannel access device. The advantage of the access device concept is that it allows optics and instrument dissociation. Due to the anatomical constrains of the pharynx, systems are designed to have a diameter of less than 20 mm. All systems are controlled by traction cable system actuated either by hand or by robotic machinery. In a flexible system, this method of actuation inevitably leads to significant hysteresis. This problem will be accentuated with a long endoscope such as that required in performing colonic procedures. Systems often require multiple operators. To date, the DCE, the R-Scope, the IOP, and the Viacath system have data published relating to their application in human. Alternative forms of

  10. Technical review of the high energy gas stimulation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haney, B.; Cuthill, D. [Computalog Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1997-08-01

    High Energy Gas Stimulation (HEGS) or propellant stimulation is a process that enhances production of oil wells by decreasing wellbore damage and increasing near wellbore permeability. The technique has been used on about 7,000 wells with varying results. The HEGS tool is a cast cylinder of solid rocket propellant with a central ignition system. The propellant is fired and as it burns it produces a pressure load on the formation, increasing fracture volume which enhances the flow channels. Background information on the development and application of this stimulation technique was provided. The introduction of fractures around a wellbore is dependent on the pressure loading rate and the dynamic response of the rock. Propellant stimulation relies on controlling the pressure-time behaviour to maximize fracture growth by fluid pressurization. The process is composed of 3 sequential phases: (1) wellbore pressurization, (2) fracture initiation, and (3) fracture extension. A full description of each of these phases was provided. Geologic and well-tool factors that have a significant influence on the fracturing process such as in-situ stress, natural fractures and flaws, formation mechanical properties, formation fluid and flow properties, formation thermal properties, and wellbore, tool, and tamp configuration, were also reviewed. The many applications for HEGS were presented. It was emphasized that the success of HEGS is dependent on pre-stimulation problem evaluation and on proper charge design. Since HEGS will decrease near-wellbore restrictions and initiate formation breakdown, it should only be used in cases where this will be beneficial to the well. Careful attention to engineering will optimize results. 21 refs., 13 figs.

  11. Technical and tactical skills related to performance levels in tennis: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolman, Nikki S; Kramer, Tamara; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; Huijgen, Barbara C H; Visscher, Chris

    2018-06-11

    The aim of this systematic review is to provide an overview of outcome measures and instruments identified in the literature for examining technical and tactical skills in tennis related to performance levels. Such instruments can be used to identify talent or the specific skill development training needs of particular players. Searches for this review were conducted using the PubMed, Web of Science, and PsycInfo databases. Out of 733 publications identified through these searches, 40 articles were considered relevant and included in this study. They were divided into three categories: (1) technical skills, (2) tactical skills and (3) integrated technical and tactical skills. There was strong evidence that technical skills (ball velocity and to a lesser extent ball accuracy) and tactical skills (decision making, anticipation, tactical knowledge and visual search strategies) differed among players according to their performance levels. However, integrated measurement of these skills is required, because winning a point largely hinges on a tactical decision to perform a particular stroke (i.e., technical execution). Therefore, future research should focus on examining the relationship between these skills and tennis performance and on the development of integrated methods for measuring these skills.

  12. The impact of nontechnical skills on technical performance in surgery: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Louise; Arora, Sonal; Aggarwal, Rajesh; Darzi, Ara; Vincent, Charles; Sevdalis, Nick

    2012-02-01

    Failures in nontechnical and teamwork skills frequently lie at the heart of harm and near-misses in the operating room (OR). The purpose of this systematic review was to assess the impact of nontechnical skills on technical performance in surgery. MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO databases were searched, and 2,041 articles were identified. After limits were applied, 341 articles were retrieved for evaluation. Of these, 28 articles were accepted for this review. Data were extracted from the articles regarding sample population, study design and setting, measures of nontechnical skills and technical performance, study findings, and limitations. Of the 28 articles that met inclusion criteria, 21 articles assessed the impact of surgeons' nontechnical skills on their technical performance. The evidence suggests that receiving feedback and effectively coping with stressful events in the OR has a beneficial impact on certain aspects of technical performance. Conversely, increased levels of fatigue are associated with detriments to surgical skill. One article assessed the impact of anesthesiologists' nontechnical skills on anesthetic technical performance, finding a strong positive correlation between the 2 skill sets. Finally, 6 articles assessed the impact of multiple nontechnical skills of the entire OR team on surgical performance. A strong relationship between teamwork failure and technical error was empirically demonstrated in these studies. Evidence suggests that certain nontechnical aspects of performance can enhance or, if lacking, contribute to deterioration of surgeons' technical performance. The precise extent of this effect remains to be elucidated. Copyright © 2012 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A systematic literature review on security and privacy of electronic health record systems: technical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeibagha, Fatemeh; Win, Khin Than; Susilo, Willy

    Even though many safeguards and policies for electronic health record (EHR) security have been implemented, barriers to the privacy and security protection of EHR systems persist. This article presents the results of a systematic literature review regarding frequently adopted security and privacy technical features of EHR systems. Our inclusion criteria were full articles that dealt with the security and privacy of technical implementations of EHR systems published in English in peer-reviewed journals and conference proceedings between 1998 and 2013; 55 selected studies were reviewed in detail. We analysed the review results using two International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards (29100 and 27002) in order to consolidate the study findings. Using this process, we identified 13 features that are essential to security and privacy in EHRs. These included system and application access control, compliance with security requirements, interoperability, integration and sharing, consent and choice mechanism, policies and regulation, applicability and scalability and cryptography techniques. This review highlights the importance of technical features, including mandated access control policies and consent mechanisms, to provide patients' consent, scalability through proper architecture and frameworks, and interoperability of health information systems, to EHR security and privacy requirements.

  14. Yoga and heart rate variability: A comprehensive review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupama Tyagi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Heart rate variability (HRV has been used as a proxy for health and fitness and indicator of autonomic regulation and therefore, appears well placed to assess the changes occurring with mind.-body practices that facilitate autonomic balance. While many studies suggest that yoga influences HRV, such studies have not been systematically reviewed. We aimed to systematically review all published papers that report on yoga practices and HRV. A comprehensive search of multiple databases was conducted and all studies that reported a measure of HRV associated with any yoga practice were included. Studies were categorized by the study design and type of yoga practice. A total of 59 studies were reviewed involving a total of 2358 participants. Most studies were performed in India on relatively small numbers of healthy male yoga practitioners during a single laboratory session. Of the reviewed studies, 15 were randomized controlled trials with 6 having a Jadad score of 3. The reviewed studies suggest that yoga can affect cardiac autonomic regulation with increased HRV and vagal dominance during yoga practices. Regular yoga practitioners were also found to have increased vagal tone at rest compared to non-yoga practitioners. It is premature to draw any firm conclusions about yoga and HRV as most studies were of poor quality, with small sample sizes and insufficient reporting of study design and statistical methods. Rigorous studies with detailed reporting of yoga practices and any corresponding changes in respiration are required to determine the effect of yoga on HRV.

  15. Automation of the Comprehensive Science Library: Promotion of Scientific and Technological Information Service, Republic of Korea. [Restricted Technical Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, A. Graham

    This technical report presents recommendations and plans which are the result of a mission undertaken as part of a project to promote a scientific and technological information service and establish a popular science resource center in Korea. The mission's main emphasis was to help Korean authorities and the United Nations Development Programme…

  16. A Review of the New European Technical Recommendations for Monitoring Individuals Occupationally Exposed to External Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dijk, J.W.E. van; Alves, J.G.; Ambrosi, P.; Bartlett, D.T.; Currivan, L.; Fantuzzi, E.; Kamenopoulou, V.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the revised Technical Recommendations for Monitoring Individuals Occupationally Exposed to External Radiation as issued by the European Commission as Radiation Protection 160. These recommendations are aimed at all stakeholders in radiation protection dosimetry with an emphasis in the responsible technical staff of approved dosimetry services. This paper briefly touches each Chapter and ends with a more in depth section on the uncertainty evaluation of dose measurements. -- Highlights: ► Recommendations on all aspects of running an approved dosimetry service. ► Radiation protection framework. ► Metrology of personal dosimeters. ► QC and QA of individual monitoring

  17. Comprehensive Review in Current Developments of Benzimidazole-Based Medicinal Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keri, Rangappa S; Hiremathad, Asha; Budagumpi, Srinivasa; Nagaraja, Bhari Mallanna

    2015-07-01

    The properties of benzimidazole and its derivatives have been studied over more than one hundred years. Benzimidazole derivatives are useful intermediates/subunits for the development of molecules of pharmaceutical or biological interest. Substituted benzimidazole derivatives have found applications in diverse therapeutic areas such as antiulcer, anticancer agents, and anthelmintic species to name just a few. This work systematically gives a comprehensive review in current developments of benzimidazole-based compounds in the whole range of medicinal chemistry as anticancer, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, analgesic agents, anti-HIV, antioxidant, anticonvulsant, antitubercular, antidiabetic, antileishmanial, antihistaminic, antimalarial agents, and other medicinal agents. This review will further be helpful for the researcher on the basis of substitution pattern around the nucleus with an aim to help medicinal chemists for developing an SAR on benzimidazole drugs/compounds. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. A Comprehensive Literature Review of 50 Years of Fuzzy Set Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz Kahraman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available fuzzy sets have a great progress in every scientific research area. it found many application areas in both theoretical and practical studies from engineering area to arts and humanities, from computer science to health sciences, and from life sciences to physical sciences. in this paper, a comprehensive literature review on the fuzzy set theory is realized. in the recent years, ordinary fuzzy sets have been extended to new types and these extensions have been used in many areas such as energy, medicine, material, economics and pharmacology sciences. this literature review also analyzes the chronological development of these extensions. in the last section of the paper, we present our interpretations on the future of fuzzy sets.

  19. Towards a contemporary, comprehensive scoring system for determining technical outcomes of hybrid percutaneous chronic total occlusion treatment: The RECHARGE score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeremans, Joren; Spratt, James C; Knaapen, Paul; Walsh, Simon; Agostoni, Pierfrancesco; Wilson, William; Avran, Alexandre; Faurie, Benjamin; Bressollette, Erwan; Kayaert, Peter; Bagnall, Alan J; Smith, Dave; McEntegart, Margaret B; Smith, William H T; Kelly, Paul; Irving, John; Smith, Elliot J; Strange, Julian W; Dens, Jo

    2018-02-01

    This study sought to create a contemporary scoring tool to predict technical outcomes of chronic total occlusion (CTO) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) from patients treated by hybrid operators with differing experience levels. Current scoring systems need regular updating to cope with the positive evolutions regarding materials, techniques, and outcomes, while at the same time being applicable for a broad range of operators. Clinical and angiographic characteristics from 880 CTO-PCIs included in the REgistry of CrossBoss and Hybrid procedures in FrAnce, the NetheRlands, BelGium and UnitEd Kingdom (RECHARGE) were analyzed by using a derivation and validation set (2:1 ratio). Variables significantly associated with technical failure in the multivariable analysis were incorporated in the score. Subsequently, the discriminatory capacity was assessed and the validation set was used to compare with the J-CTO score and PROGRESS scores. Technical success in the derivation and validation sets was 83% and 85%, respectively. Multivariate analysis identified six parameters associated with technical failure: blunt stump (beta coefficient (b) = 1.014); calcification (b = 0.908); tortuosity ≥45° (b = 0.964); lesion length 20 mm (b = 0.556); diseased distal landing zone (b = 0.794), and previous bypass graft on CTO vessel (b = 0.833). Score variables remained significant after bootstrapping. The RECHARGE score showed better discriminatory capacity in both sets (area-under-the-curve (AUC) = 0.783 and 0.711), compared to the J-CTO (AUC = 0.676) and PROGRESS (AUC = 0.608) scores. The RECHARGE score is a novel, easy-to-use tool for assessing the risk for technical failure in hybrid CTO-PCI and has the potential to perform well for a broad community of operators. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Entropy in bimolecular simulations: A comprehensive review of atomic fluctuations-based methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Summer; Ahmed, Marawan; El-Sheikh, Salah; Barakat, Khaled H

    2015-11-01

    Entropy of binding constitutes a major, and in many cases a detrimental, component of the binding affinity in biomolecular interactions. While the enthalpic part of the binding free energy is easier to calculate, estimating the entropy of binding is further more complicated. A precise evaluation of entropy requires a comprehensive exploration of the complete phase space of the interacting entities. As this task is extremely hard to accomplish in the context of conventional molecular simulations, calculating entropy has involved many approximations. Most of these golden standard methods focused on developing a reliable estimation of the conformational part of the entropy. Here, we review these methods with a particular emphasis on the different techniques that extract entropy from atomic fluctuations. The theoretical formalisms behind each method is explained highlighting its strengths as well as its limitations, followed by a description of a number of case studies for each method. We hope that this brief, yet comprehensive, review provides a useful tool to understand these methods and realize the practical issues that may arise in such calculations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. SUPPLEMENTAL COLUMBIA RIVER PROTECTION ACTIVITIES AT THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY HANFORD SITE: 2006 TECHNICAL PEER REVIEW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looney, B; Dawn Kaback; Gene Leboeuf; Jason Mulvihill-Kuntz; Lynn Lefkoff

    2006-01-01

    Prompted by a $10 million Congressional allocation to identify supplemental actions to protect the Columbia River from groundwater contamination beneath the Hanford Reservation, the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) Office of Clean-up Technology identified twenty-three potential technical projects and then down-selected ten of these for further evaluation. An independent expert peer review was conducted for the ten down-selected proposals. The review panel consisted of twenty-three recognized subject matter experts that broadly represented academia, industry, and federal laboratories. Of the initial ten proposals reviewed, one was given unconditional support, six were given conditional support, and three were not supported as proposed. Three additional proposals were then submitted by DOE for review--these proposals were structured, in part, to respond to the initial round of technical peer review comments. Peer reviews of these additional proposals provided conditional support. For those proposals that received conditional support, DOE requested specific implementation and work plans and assessed whether the plans adequately addressed the technical conditions identified by the review panel. The final list of technology proposals receiving support, or conditional support, primarily focused on understanding and reducing the potential impacts of uranium, chromium, and strontium from facilities adjacent to the Columbia River, with a secondary focus on understanding and limiting the future Columbia River impacts from the large carbon tetrachloride groundwater plume underlying and downgradient of the Hanford Central Plateau facilities. The results and recommendations of the peer reviews informed the final DOE project selections and supported implementation of the selected projects to protect the Columbia River and address groundwater contamination at Hanford

  2. SUPPLEMENTAL COLUMBIA RIVER PROTECTION ACTIVITIES AT THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY HANFORD SITE: 2006 TECHNICAL PEER REVIEW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney, B; Dawn Kaback; Gene Leboeuf; Jason Mulvihill-Kuntz; Lynn Lefkoff

    2006-12-20

    Prompted by a $10 million Congressional allocation to identify supplemental actions to protect the Columbia River from groundwater contamination beneath the Hanford Reservation, the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) Office of Clean-up Technology identified twenty-three potential technical projects and then down-selected ten of these for further evaluation. An independent expert peer review was conducted for the ten down-selected proposals. The review panel consisted of twenty-three recognized subject matter experts that broadly represented academia, industry, and federal laboratories. Of the initial ten proposals reviewed, one was given unconditional support, six were given conditional support, and three were not supported as proposed. Three additional proposals were then submitted by DOE for review--these proposals were structured, in part, to respond to the initial round of technical peer review comments. Peer reviews of these additional proposals provided conditional support. For those proposals that received conditional support, DOE requested specific implementation and work plans and assessed whether the plans adequately addressed the technical conditions identified by the review panel. The final list of technology proposals receiving support, or conditional support, primarily focused on understanding and reducing the potential impacts of uranium, chromium, and strontium from facilities adjacent to the Columbia River, with a secondary focus on understanding and limiting the future Columbia River impacts from the large carbon tetrachloride groundwater plume underlying and downgradient of the Hanford Central Plateau facilities. The results and recommendations of the peer reviews informed the final DOE project selections and supported implementation of the selected projects to protect the Columbia River and address groundwater contamination at Hanford.

  3. Interprofessional non-technical skills for surgeons in disaster response: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Anneliese; Waxman, Bruce; Bacon, Andrew K; Smith, Julian; Kitto, Simon

    2013-09-01

    Natural disasters impose a significant burden on society. Current disaster training programmes do not place an emphasis on equipping surgeons with non-technical skills for disaster response. This literature review sought to identify non-technical skills required of surgeons in disaster response through an examination of four categories of literature: "disaster"; "surgical"; "organisational management"; and "interprofessional". Literature search criteria included electronic database searches, internet searches, hand searching, ancestry searching and networking strategies. Various potential non-technical skills for surgeons in disaster response were identified including: interpersonal skills such as communication, teamwork and leadership; cognitive strategies such flexibility, adaptability, innovation, improvisation and creativity; physical and psychological self-care; conflict management, collaboration, professionalism, health advocacy and teaching. Such skills and the role of interprofessionalism should be considered for inclusion in surgical disaster response training course curricula.

  4. Independent technical reviews for groundwater and soil remediation projects at US Department Of Energy sites - 59188

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaback, Dawn S.; Chamberlain, Grover; Morse, John G.; Petersen, Scott W.

    2012-01-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management has supported independent technical reviews of soil and groundwater projects at multiple DOE sites over the last 10 years. These reviews have resulted in significant design improvements to remedial plans that have accelerated cleanup and site closure. Many have also resulted in improved understanding of complex subsurface conditions, promoting better approaches to design and implementation of new technologies. Independent technical reviews add value, because they provide another perspective to problem solving and act as a check for especially challenging problems. By bringing in a team of independent experts with a broad experience base, alternative solutions are recommended for consideration and evaluation. In addition, the independence of the panel is significant, because it is able to address politically sensitive issues. The expert panel members typically bring lessons learned from other sites to help solve the DOE problems. In addition, their recommendations at a particular site can often be applied at other sites, making the review even more valuable. The review process can vary, but some common lessons ensure a successful review: - Use a multi-disciplinary broadly experienced team; - Engage the panel early and throughout the project; - Involve regulators and stakeholders in the workshop, if appropriate. - Provide sufficient background information; - Close the workshop with a debriefing followed by a written report. Many groundwater remediation challenges remain at DOE sites. Independent technical reviews have and will ensure that the best capabilities and experience are applied to reduce risks and uncertainties. Even though the groundwater remediation industry has developed significantly over the last twenty years, advancements are needed to address the complexities of the subsurface at the DOE sites. These advancements have tremendous potential to save millions of dollars and to accelerate the

  5. [Review comments on the Draft DOE Area Recommendation Report for the Crystalline Repository Project]: Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutch, S.I.; Stiegliltz, R.D.

    1986-03-01

    Research performed under the grant primarily involved review and comment on the Draft Area Recommendations Report (DARR). However, because data and ''recommendations'' included in the DARR are unquestionably tied to years of research and dozens of technical reports and documents, i.e., Screening Methodologies, Regional characterization Reports, etc., it is essential that consultants to the Menominee Tribe review all the relevant DOE documents, working papers, etc. Given the short period provided for technical comment and limited funds available to the Tribe, a well designed and thorough technical review was (and is) without question impossible. What review and comment that did occur on a geotechnical level is included in this report

  6. Reviewing PSA-based analyses to modify technical specifications at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, P.K.; Martinez-Guridi, G.; Vesely, W.E.

    1995-12-01

    Changes to Technical Specifications (TSs) at nuclear power plants (NPPs) require review and approval by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC). Currently, many requests for changes to TSs use analyses that are based on a plant's probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). This report presents an approach to reviewing such PSA-based submittals for changes to TSs. We discuss the basic objectives of reviewing a PSA-based submittal to modify NPP TSs; the methodology of reviewing a TS submittal, and the differing roles of a PSA review, a PSA Computer Code review, and a review of a TS submittal. To illustrate this approach, we discuss our review of changes to allowed outage time (AOT) and surveillance test interval (STI) in the TS for the South Texas Project Nuclear Generating Station. Based on this experience gained, a check-list of items is given for future reviewers; it can be used to verify that the submittal contains sufficient information, and also that the review has addressed the relevant issues. Finally, recommended steps in the review process and the expected findings of each step are discussed

  7. A comprehensive review of the SLMTA literature part 2: Measuring success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luman, Elizabeth T; Yao, Katy; Nkengasong, John N

    2014-01-01

    Since its introduction in 2009, the Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA) programme has been implemented in 617 laboratories in 47 countries. We completed a systematic review of the published literature on SLMTA. The review consists of two companion papers; this article examines quantitative evidence presented in the publications along with a meta-analysis of selected results. We identified 28 published articles with data from SLMTA implementation. The SLMTA programme was evaluated through audits based on a standard checklist, which is divided into 12 sections corresponding to the 12 Quality System Essentials (QSEs). Several basic service delivery indicators reported by programmes were also examined. Results for various components of the programme were reviewed and summarised; a meta-analysis of QSE results grouped by the three stages of the quality cycle was conducted for 126 laboratories in 12 countries. Global programme data show improved quality in SLMTA laboratories in every country, with average improvements on audit scores of 25 percentage points. Meta-analysis identified Improvement Management as the weakest stage, with internal audit (8%) and occurrence management (16%) showing the lowest scores. Studies documented 19% - 95% reductions in turn-around times, 69% - 93% reductions in specimen rejection rates, 76% - 81% increases in clinician satisfaction rates, 67% - 85% improvements in external quality assessment results, 50% - 66% decreases in nonconformities and 67% increases in staff punctuality. The wide array of results reported provides a comprehensive picture of the SLMTA programme overall, suggesting a substantive impact on provision of quality laboratory services and patient care. These comprehensive results establish a solid data-driven foundation for program improvement and further expansion.

  8. A comprehensive review of the SLMTA literature part 2: Measuring success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth T. Luman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since its introduction in 2009, the Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA programme has been implemented in 671 laboratories in 47 countries. Objective: We completed a systematic review of the published literature on SLMTA. The review consists of two companion papers; this article examines quantitative evidence presented in the publications along with a meta-analysis of selected results. Methods: We identified 28 published articles with data from SLMTA implementation. The SLMTA programme was evaluated through audits based on a standard checklist, which is divided into 12 sections corresponding to the 12 Quality System Essentials (QSEs. Several basic service delivery indicators reported by programmes were also examined. Results for various components of the programme were reviewed and summarised; a meta-analysis of QSE results grouped by the three stages of the quality cycle was conducted for 126 laboratories in 12 countries. Results: Global programme data show improved quality in SLMTA laboratories in every country, with average improvements on audit scores of 25 percentage points. Meta-analysis identified Improvement Management as the weakest stage, with internal audits (8% and occurrence management (16% showing the lowest scores. Studies documented 19% – 95% reductions in turn-around times, 69% – 93% reductions in specimen rejection rates, 76% – 81% increases in clinician satisfaction rates, 67% – 85% improvements in external quality assessment results, 50% – 66% decreases in nonconformities and 67% increases in staff punctuality. Conclusions: The wide array of results reported provides a comprehensive picture of the SLMTA programme overall, suggesting a substantive impact on provision of quality laboratory services and patient care. These comprehensive results establish a solid data-driven foundation for program improvement and further expansion.

  9. An Approach to Tailoring Major Technical Reviews Based on Project Characteristics and Stakeholder Interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richstein, Alan B.; Nolte, Jerome T.; Pfarr, Barbara B.

    2004-01-01

    There are numerous technical reviews that occur throughout the systems engineering process life cycle. Many are well known by project managers and stakeholders such as developers and end users, an example of much is the critical design review (CDR). This major milestone for a large, complex new project may last two or more days, include an extensive agenda of topics, and entail hundreds of hours of developer time to prepare presentation materials and associated documents. Additionally, the weeks of schedule spent on review preparation is at least partly at the expense of other work. This paper suggests an approach for tailoring technical reviews, based on the project characteristics and the project manager s identification of the key stakeholders and understanding of their most important issues and considerations. With this insight the project manager can communicate to, manage expectations oc and establish formal agreement with the stakeholders as to which reviews, and at what depth, are most appropriate to achieve project success. The authors, coming from diverse organizations and backgrounds, have drawn on their personal experiences and summarized the best practices of their own organizations to create a common framework to provide guidance on the adaptation of design reviews to other system engineers.

  10. Influence of technical maintenance measures on ecological status of agricultural lowland rivers - Systematic review and implications for river management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bączyk, Anna; Wagner, Maciej; Okruszko, Tomasz; Grygoruk, Mateusz

    2018-06-15

    Intensification of agriculture and ongoing urban sprawl exacerbate pressures on rivers. Small rivers in agricultural landscapes are especially exposed to excessive technical actions implemented in order to allow for harvesting river water for irrigation, draining agricultural water and receiving sewage. Regular dredging and macrophyte removal strongly interfere with the global need for preserving river biodiversity that allows agricultural lowland rivers to remain refuges for a variety of species, and-accordingly-to keep water bodies resilient for the benefit of society. In order to provide a comprehensive look at the influence of agricultural lowland river management on the ecological status of these water bodies, we conducted a literature review and a meta-analysis. For the structured literature review we selected 203 papers reflecting on the response of aquatic ecosystems to dredging and macrophyte management actions. The database of scientific contributions developed for our study consists of papers written by the authors from 33 countries (first authorship) addressing dredging, macrophyte removal, status of fish and macroinvertebrates as well as the general ecological status of lowland agricultural rivers. We revealed that 96% of the analyzed papers indicated unilateral, negative responses of aquatic ecosystems, particularly macroinvertebrates, ichthyofauna and macrophyte composition, to maintenance measures. We revealed that studies conducted in the European Union on the ecological status of rivers appeared to significantly increase in quantity after the implementation of the Water Framework Directive. Finally, we concluded that day-to-day management of lowland agricultural rivers requires revision in terms of compliance with environmental conservation requirements and the recurrent implementation of technical measures for river maintenance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The safety of Ontario's nuclear power reactors. A scientific and technical review. Vol. 2: Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hare, F.K.

    1988-01-01

    These appendices contain seven detailed elaborations of matters covered more superficially in the Technical Report. They have been written by well-known authorities, or by the professional staff of the Review. They are essential supplements to the condensed material of the Technical Report. Several of the appendices contain detailed recommendations. Some of these have been incorporated into the Review's overall conclusions and recommendations. Others stand alone, as the opinions of the appendices' authors. I am in broad agreement with most of them, but have preferred to leave them within the authors' material. I hope that they will be given detailed study by appropriate bodies, especially Ontario Hydro and the Atomic Energy Control Board

  12. Comprehensive Review of Preschool Age Anemia in the Pacific Island Jurisdictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tiffany F; Huang, James N; Cash, Haley L

    2017-12-01

    Anemia can be an indicator of poor nutrition and health, and it can have significant consequences. Children are disproportionately affected by anemia. This comprehensive review summarizes the available literature on anemia prevalence in young children in the islands of the Oceania region. The anemia prevalence, the criteria used for diagnosis, the date the data was reported, and the types of samples collected were reviewed. Anemia prevalence estimates were reported for eighteen of the Pacific Island Jurisdictions. From the fifteen data sources that were evaluable, anemia prevalence ranged from 12.3% to over 70%. A major limitation in the data is a lack of representative primary data from many of the jurisdictions in the region. Prevalance estimates reported for those jurisdictions are estimated by regression analysis from the World Health Organization (WHO). Moreover, the primary data available does not use standardized reporting criteria. Nevertheless, this review serves as a new baseline for further investigations on the prevalence of anemia and a baseline for evaluating public health prevention and treatment measures to detect and improve anemia prevalence in the Pacific.

  13. A comprehensive review of radon emanation measurements for mineral, rock, soil, mill tailing and fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakoda, Akihiro; Ishimori, Yuu; Yamaoka, Kiyonori

    2011-01-01

    To our knowledge, this paper is the most comprehensive review to cover most studies, published in the past three decades at least, of radon emanation measurements. The radon emanation fraction, a possibility of radon atoms generated in a material escaping from its grains, has been widely measured for a variety of materials. The aim of this review is to organize a huge number of such data accumulated. The representative values of the emanation fraction for minerals, rocks, soils, mill tailings and fly ashes were derived to be 0.03, 0.13, 0.20, 0.17 and 0.03, respectively. Current knowledge of the emanation processes was also summarized to discuss their affected factors. - Highlights: → Recent radon emanation measurements were thoroughly reviewed. → Averages of radon emanation fractions: 0.03 (mineral), 0.13 (rock), 0.20 (soil), 0.17 (mill tailing) and 0.03 (fly ash). → Grain-size effect was not significantly found for size larger than 1 μm. → Pore water generally enhances the emanation fraction by a factor of 5 or less. → Definition of 'radon emanation' should be shared among researchers.

  14. Impact of sugars and sugar taxation on body weight control: A comprehensive literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Sayon-Orea, Carmen; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel A

    2016-07-01

    To conduct a comprehensive literature review in the field of added-sugar consumption on weight gain including the effect of fructose-containing caloric sweeteners and sugar taxation. A search of three databases was conducted in the time period from the inception of the databases to August 2015. Sensitive search strategies were used in order to retrieve systematic reviews (SR) of fructose, sucrose, or sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) on weight gain and metabolic adverse effects, conducted on humans and written in English, Spanish, or French. In addition, a review about SSB taxation and weight outcomes was conducted. The search yielded 24 SRs about SSBs and obesity, 23 SRs on fructose or SSBs and metabolic adverse effects, and 24 studies about SSB taxation and weight control. The majority of SRs, especially the most recent ones, with the highest quality and without any disclosed conflict of interest, suggested that the consumption of SSBs is a risk factor for obesity. The effect of fructose-containing caloric sweeteners, on weight gain is mediated by overconsumption of beverages with these sweeteners, leading to an extra provision of energy intake. The tax tool alone on added sugars appears insufficient to curb the obesity epidemic, but it needs to be included in a multicomponent structural strategy. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  15. Nonphysical effects of exergames on child and adolescent well-being: a comprehensive systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joronen, Katja; Aikasalo, Anna; Suvitie, Anne

    2017-09-01

    Exergames have the potential to promote physical activity among children and adolescents. They also have other important benefits, but knowledge about other than the physical effects of exergaming remains thin. To report the findings of a review of ten studies on the nonphysical effects of exergames on child and adolescent well-being. A broad search strategy was employed to identify relevant studies in CINAHL Ebsco Host, Ovid MEDLINE, Psycinfo ProQuest, Eric ProQuest, Scopus and Cochrane Library. The search timeframe was from January 2004 to April 2015. A comprehensive systematic review without meta-analysis was conducted on 10 quantitative, qualitative and mixed-methods intervention studies. The quality of these studies was assessed following the guidelines of the Joanna Briggs Institute. The data were analysed using a narrative synthesis approach. Exergaming was found to have some positive effects on self-concept, situational interest and motivation, enjoyment, psychological and social well-being, symptomatology and different learning experiences. However, two studies reported no effect on self-efficacy, and one study showed no intervention effect on self-esteem. The only follow-up study indicated that the enjoyment effect lasted for a few months. Most of the studies reviewed found that exergaming had positive effects. However, more research evidence is still needed. In particular, there is a need for better-validated instruments and follow-up research. © 2016 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  16. Determinants of adherence to treatment in first-episode psychosis: a comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Leclerc

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To conduct a comprehensive review of current evidence on factors for nonadherence to treatment in individuals with first-episode psychosis (FEP.Methods:MEDLINE, LILACS, PsycINFO, and SciELO databases were searched with the keywords first episode psychosis, factor, adherence, nonadherence, engagement, disengagement, compliance, and intervention. References of selected studies were consulted for relevant articles.Results:A total of 157 articles were screened, of which 33 articles were retained for full review. The factors related to nonadherence were: a patient-related (e.g., lower education level, persistent substance use, forensic history, unemployment, history of physical abuse; b environment-related (e.g., no family involved in treatment, social adjustment difficulties; c medication-related (e.g., rapid remission of negative symptoms when starting treatment, therapeutic alliance; and d illness-related (e.g., more positive symptoms, more relapses. Treatment factors that improve adherence include a good therapeutic alliance and a voluntary first admission when hospitalization occurs.Conclusion:The results of this review suggest that nonadherence to treatment in FEP is multifactorial. Many of these factors are modifiable and can be specifically targeted in early intervention programs. Very few studies have assessed strategies to raise adherence in FEP.

  17. Robust Nucleus/Cell Detection and Segmentation in Digital Pathology and Microscopy Images: A Comprehensive Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Fuyong; Yang, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Digital pathology and microscopy image analysis is widely used for comprehensive studies of cell morphology or tissue structure. Manual assessment is labor intensive and prone to inter-observer variations. Computer-aided methods, which can significantly improve the objectivity and reproducibility, have attracted a great deal of interest in recent literatures. Among the pipeline of building a computer-aided diagnosis system, nucleus or cell detection and segmentation play a very important role to describe the molecular morphological information. In the past few decades, many efforts have been devoted to automated nucleus/cell detection and segmentation. In this review, we provide a comprehensive summary of the recent state-of-the-art nucleus/cell segmentation approaches on different types of microscopy images including bright-field, phase-contrast, differential interference contrast (DIC), fluorescence, and electron microscopies. In addition, we discuss the challenges for the current methods and the potential future work of nucleus/cell detection and segmentation. PMID:26742143

  18. A comprehensive model for executing knowledge management audits in organizations: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahmoradi, Leila; Ahmadi, Maryam; Sadoughi, Farahnaz; Piri, Zakieh; Gohari, Mahmood Reza

    2015-01-01

    A knowledge management audit (KMA) is the first phase in knowledge management implementation. Incomplete or incomprehensive execution of the KMA has caused many knowledge management programs to fail. A study was undertaken to investigate how KMAs are performed systematically in organizations and present a comprehensive model for performing KMAs based on a systematic review. Studies were identified by searching electronic databases such as Emerald, LISA, and the Cochrane library and e-journals such as the Oxford Journal and hand searching of printed journals, theses, and books in the Tehran University of Medical Sciences digital library. The sources used in this study consisted of studies available through the digital library of the Tehran University of Medical Sciences that were published between 2000 and 2013, including both Persian- and English-language sources, as well as articles explaining the steps involved in performing a KMA. A comprehensive model for KMAs is presented in this study. To successfully execute a KMA, it is necessary to perform the appropriate preliminary activities in relation to the knowledge management infrastructure, determine the knowledge management situation, and analyze and use the available data on this situation.

  19. Big data handling mechanisms in the healthcare applications: A comprehensive and systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashazadeh, Asma; Jafari Navimipour, Nima

    2018-04-12

    Healthcare provides many services such as diagnosing, treatment, prevention of diseases, illnesses, injuries, and other physical and mental disorders. Large-scale distributed data processing applications in healthcare as a basic concept operates on large amounts of data. Therefore, big data application functions are the main part of healthcare operations, but there was not any comprehensive and systematic survey about studying and evaluating the important techniques in this field. Therefore, this paper aims at providing the comprehensive, detailed, and systematic study of the state-of-the-art mechanisms in the big data related to healthcare applications in five categories, including machine learning, cloud-based, heuristic-based, agent-based, and hybrid mechanisms. Also, this paper displayed a systematic literature review (SLR) of the big data applications in the healthcare literature up to the end of 2016. Initially, 205 papers were identified, but a paper selection process reduced the number of papers to 29 important studies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A Review of Warm Mix Asphalt Technology: Technical, Eco-nomical and Enviromental Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Alexander Rondón

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In general terms, warm mix asphalt (WMA technology presents a wide potential for successful use in road works construction projects. However, concerns remain regarding the durability and behavior of WMA mixtures in the long term, which need to be addressed. This review focuses on the technical, economic and environmental advantages and disadvantages. The review concludes that the main advantage, at the moment, of this technology concerns the environment. At the end of this work, the authors include certain recommendations for future works to continue strengthening the development of WMA technology.

  1. [Review of draft Crystalline Repository Project reports]: Technical progress report, CY 1985-1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    During the period (CY 1985-86) of this report, the Wisconsin Radioactive Waste Review Board provided technical services under the contract with DOE. These included Participation in the development of variables and screening techniques that would be used in identifying those rock bodies in the Area Recommendation Report (ARR); reviewing and commenting on the report and developing a procedure in which local residents could have input into the process; sought resumption of negotiations with DOE on a full Consultation and Cooperation (CandC) agreement; and Participating in workshops and provided comments on two major DOE transportation documents, ''Transportation Business Plan: Strategy Options Document,'' and ''Transportation Institutional Plan.''

  2. Reading Level and Comprehension of Research Consent Forms: An Integrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foe, Gabriella; Larson, Elaine L

    2016-02-01

    Consent forms continue to be at a higher reading level than the recommended sixth to eighth grade, making it difficult for participants to comprehend information before enrolling in research. To assess and address the extent of the problem regarding the level of literacy of consent forms and update previously published reports, we conducted an integrative literature review of English language research published between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2013; 35 descriptive and eight intervention studies met inclusion criteria. Results confirmed that developing forms at eighth-grade level was attainable though not practiced. It was found that risks of participation was the section most poorly understood. There was also a lack of consensus regarding the most effective method to increase comprehension. Further research using standardized tools is needed to determine the best approach for improving consent forms and processes. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. The efficacy of hypnosis as an intervention for labor and delivery pain: a comprehensive methodological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landolt, Alison S; Milling, Leonard S

    2011-08-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive methodological review of research on the efficacy of hypnosis for reducing labor and delivery pain. To be included, studies were required to use a between-subjects or mixed model design in which hypnosis was compared with a control condition or alternative intervention in reducing labor pain. An exhaustive search of the PsycINFO and PubMed databases produced 13 studies satisfying these criteria. Hetero-hypnosis and self-hypnosis were consistently shown to be more effective than standard medical care, supportive counseling, and childbirth education classes in reducing pain. Other benefits included better infant Apgar scores and shorter Stage 1 labor. Common methodological limitations of the literature include a failure to use random assignment, to specify the demographic characteristics of samples, and to use a treatment manual. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Real time elastography endoscopic ultrasound (RTE-EUS), a comprehensive review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietrich, C.F., E-mail: christoph.dietrich@ckbm.de [Med. Klinik 2, Caritas-Krankenhaus Bad Mergentheim (Germany); Department of Gastroenterology, Research Center of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova (Romania); Klinik für Innere Medizin, Krankenhaus Märkisch Oderland (Germany); Săftoiu, A.; Jenssen, C. [Med. Klinik 2, Caritas-Krankenhaus Bad Mergentheim (Germany); Department of Gastroenterology, Research Center of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova (Romania); Klinik für Innere Medizin, Krankenhaus Märkisch Oderland (Germany)

    2014-03-15

    Real-time elastography (RTE) performed during endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is a relatively new technique which allows the evaluation of tissue stiffness, with the intent of better characterising lesions during EUS examinations. The aim of this comprehensive review was to describe the technique of RTE-EUS, as well as the clinical applications, including the study of pancreatic lesions, but also hepatobiliary, gastrointestinal (GI) tract pathology (including anal canal), lymph nodes, adrenal glands, lung and mediastinum, as well as urogenital applications. One of the advantages of the RTE-EUS technique is especially the possibility to be used in various locations accessible from the GI tract. Future developments are also briefly discussed, as elastography is a tissue characterising technique that will certainly not replace biopsy, but will rather be an adjunct during EUS examinations, due to its ease of use and low cost.

  5. Real time elastography endoscopic ultrasound (RTE-EUS), a comprehensive review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, C.F.; Săftoiu, A.; Jenssen, C.

    2014-01-01

    Real-time elastography (RTE) performed during endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is a relatively new technique which allows the evaluation of tissue stiffness, with the intent of better characterising lesions during EUS examinations. The aim of this comprehensive review was to describe the technique of RTE-EUS, as well as the clinical applications, including the study of pancreatic lesions, but also hepatobiliary, gastrointestinal (GI) tract pathology (including anal canal), lymph nodes, adrenal glands, lung and mediastinum, as well as urogenital applications. One of the advantages of the RTE-EUS technique is especially the possibility to be used in various locations accessible from the GI tract. Future developments are also briefly discussed, as elastography is a tissue characterising technique that will certainly not replace biopsy, but will rather be an adjunct during EUS examinations, due to its ease of use and low cost

  6. Role of polyphenols and nonpolyphenols against toxicity induced by fluoride: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudio, Samuel R; Handan, Bianca A; Gomes de Moura, Carolina F; Viana, Milena de Barros; Yamauchi, Liria Y; Aguiar, Odair; Oshima, Celina T F; Ribeiro, Daniel A

    2018-04-17

    Since its discovery as an antimicrobial agent, fluoride has been used in the control of dental caries. Many studies have shown that the chronic exposure of fluoride in high concentrations causes adverse effects in multiple organs; the use of bioactive compounds present in foods as a tool to mitigate the effects of fluoride could potentially be useful for populations in different parts of the world are exposed to fluoride in a chronic and systemic way. Thus, the aim of this comprehensive review is to present and discuss the published papers that focused on the use of polyphenols and nonpolyphenols that can mitigate the harmful activities promoted by fluoride exposure. Certainly, these data will contribute toward a better understanding of the role of food compounds in the pathological outcomes induced by fluoride. The new information will be added to that already available for regulatory purposes as a safe way to promote oral healthcare and prevent oral carcinogenesis.

  7. Generic dynamic wind turbine models for power system stability analysis: A comprehensive review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honrubia-Escribano, A.; Gómez-Lázaro, E.; Fortmann, J.

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, international working groups, mainly from the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC), have made a major effort to develop generic —also known as simplified or standard— dynamic wind turbine models to be used for power...... system stability analysis. These models are required by power system operators to conduct the planning and operation activities of their networks since the use of detailed manufacturer models is not practical. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the work done in this field, based on the results...... obtained by IEC and WECC working groups in the course of their research, which have motivated the publication of the IEC 61400-27 in February 2015. The final published versions of the generic models developed according to the existing four wind turbine technology types are detailed, highlighting...

  8. A Comprehensive Review of US FDA-Approved Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in Urothelial Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Shun Hsu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Few effective treatment options are available for patients with advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma (UC after unsuccessful first-line platinum-based chemotherapy. To date, immune checkpoint inhibitors are novel therapeutic agents for UC treatment. From May 2016 to May 2017, five anti-PD-1/PD-L1 monoclonal antibodies received accelerated or regular approval from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA for the treatment of patients with locally advanced or metastatic UC. The present comprehensive review presents the background information of these five US FDA-approved anticancer agents to provide a basic but concise understanding of these agents for advanced studies. We summarize their immune checkpoint mechanisms, clinical efficacy, recommended usage protocols, adverse events, and the limitations of the PD-L1 biomarker assays.

  9. Flux-lock type of superconducting fault current limiters: A comprehensive review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badakhshan, M.; Mousavi G., S. M.

    2018-04-01

    Power systems must be developed and extended to supply the continuous enhancement of demands for electrical energy. This development of systems in addition to the integration of distributed generation (DG) units to the power systems results higher capacity of system. Hence, short circuit current of network is confronted with persistent increasing. Since exploration of high temperature superconducting (HTS) materials, superconducting fault current limiters (SFCLs) have attracted a lot of attention all over the world. There are different types of SFCLs. Flux-lock type of SFCL because of its characteristics in fault current limitation is an important category of SFCLs. This paper aims to present a comprehensive review of research activities and applications of Flux-lock type of SFCLs in power systems.

  10. A review of the studies on listening comprehension in the second language

    OpenAIRE

    Fukuda, Michiko

    2003-01-01

    Few studies have been done on the listening comprehension processing, especially in second language. However, recent studies show that listening comprehension is considered as an active and cognitive process. This paper overviews studies on listening comprehension in the second language by presenting some models of listening comprehension processing. Then, listening comprehension was studied from cognitive psychology and educational point of view. Finally, the direction of future researches o...

  11. An integrative review of comprehensive sex education for adolescent girls in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbemenu, Kafuli; Schlenk, Elizabeth A

    2011-03-01

    The purposes of this article are to identify and review comprehensive sex education programs (CSEPs) available to adolescent females in Kenya, East Africa, to discuss barriers to implementing CSEPs in Kenya, and to highlight the role of nurses in improving and institutionalizing available CSEPs in Kenya. Integrative review. A systematic search of six databases and other Internet sources was conducted to identify CSEPs currently available to adolescent girls in Kenya. Five CSEPs were identified. The CSEPs were evaluated using established criteria. All of the CSEPs were well designed and almost all were implemented with fidelity. Four of the five CSEPs met all of the criteria for well-designed CSEPs with only one showing lack of sustainability. Tuko Pamoja (We Are One) shows promise for wider implementation. CSEPs are a valid intervention leading to the reduction of teenage pregnancy, HIV/AIDS, and sexually transmitted infections. The reach of the identified CSEPs varies, and sustainability is challenging due to lack of government and community support, lack of funding, and unsustainable teaching modalities. Nurses can serve as liaisons between adolescents, the community, and the Kenyan government in promoting CSEPs. Nurses should be more readily utilized in educating community members and policy makers about the need for CSEPs in all Kenyan high schools. Nursing students can also be utilized in their community health role to teach curricula of CSEPs. Nurses should advocate for all adolescents to access reproductive health services and for all healthcare providers to provide comprehensive reproductive health care to them. © 2011 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  12. Efficacy of simulation-based trauma team training of non-technical skills. A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjeraa, K; Møller, T P; Østergaard, D

    2014-08-01

    Trauma resuscitation is a complex situation, and most organisations have multi-professional trauma teams. Non-technical skills are challenged during trauma resuscitation, and they play an important role in the prevention of critical incidents. Simulation-based training of these is recommended. Our research question was: Does simulation-based trauma team training of non-technical skills have effect on reaction, learning, behaviour or patient outcome? The authors searched PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library and found 13 studies eligible for analysis. We described and compared the educational interventions and the evaluations of effect according to the four Kirkpatrick levels: reaction, learning (knowledge, skills, attitudes), behaviour (in a clinical setting) and patient outcome. No studies were randomised, controlled and blinded, resulting in a moderate to high risk of bias. The multi-professional trauma teams had positive reactions to simulation-based training of non-technical skills. Knowledge and skills improved in all studies evaluating the effect on learning. Three studies found improvements in team performance (behaviour) in the clinical setting. One of these found difficulties in maintaining these skills. Two studies evaluated on patient outcome, of which none showed improvements in mortality, complication rate or duration of hospitalisation. A significant effect on learning was found after simulation-based training of the multi-professional trauma team in non-technical skills. Three studies demonstrated significantly increased clinical team performance. No effect on patient outcome was found. All studies had a moderate to high risk of bias. More comprehensive randomised studies are needed to evaluate the effect on patient outcome. © 2014 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Review of Sodium and Plutonium related Technical Standards in Trans-Uranium Fuel Fabrication Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Misuk; Jeon, Jong Seon; Kang, Hyun Sik; Kim, Seoung Rae

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we would introduce and review technical standards related to sodium fire and plutonium criticality safety. This paper may be helpful to identify considerations in the development of equipment, standards, and etc., to meet the safety requirements in the design, construction and operating of TFFF, KAPF and SFR. The feasibility and conceptual designs are being examined on related facilities, for example, TRU Fuel Fabrication Facilities (TFFF), Korea Advanced Pyro-process Facility (KAPF), and Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR), in Korea. However, the safety concerns of these facilities have been controversial in part because of the Sodium fire accident and Plutonium related radiation safety caused by transport and handling accident. Thus, many researches have been performed to ensure safety and various documents including safety requirements have been developed. In separating and reducing the long-lived radioactive transuranic(TRU) in the spent nuclear fuel, reusing as the potential energy of uranium fuel resources and reducing the high level wastes, TFFF would be receiving the attention of many people. Thus, people would wonder whether compliance with technical standards that ensures safety. For new facility design, one of the important tasks is to review of technical standards, especially for sodium and Plutonium because of water related highly reactive characteristics and criticality hazard respectively. We have introduced and reviewed two important technical standards for TFFF, which are sodium fire and plutonium criticality safety, in this paper. This paper would provide a brief guidance, about how to start and what is important, to people who are responsible for the initial design to operation of TFFF

  14. Review of Sodium and Plutonium related Technical Standards in Trans-Uranium Fuel Fabrication Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Misuk; Jeon, Jong Seon; Kang, Hyun Sik; Kim, Seoung Rae [NESS, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In this paper, we would introduce and review technical standards related to sodium fire and plutonium criticality safety. This paper may be helpful to identify considerations in the development of equipment, standards, and etc., to meet the safety requirements in the design, construction and operating of TFFF, KAPF and SFR. The feasibility and conceptual designs are being examined on related facilities, for example, TRU Fuel Fabrication Facilities (TFFF), Korea Advanced Pyro-process Facility (KAPF), and Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR), in Korea. However, the safety concerns of these facilities have been controversial in part because of the Sodium fire accident and Plutonium related radiation safety caused by transport and handling accident. Thus, many researches have been performed to ensure safety and various documents including safety requirements have been developed. In separating and reducing the long-lived radioactive transuranic(TRU) in the spent nuclear fuel, reusing as the potential energy of uranium fuel resources and reducing the high level wastes, TFFF would be receiving the attention of many people. Thus, people would wonder whether compliance with technical standards that ensures safety. For new facility design, one of the important tasks is to review of technical standards, especially for sodium and Plutonium because of water related highly reactive characteristics and criticality hazard respectively. We have introduced and reviewed two important technical standards for TFFF, which are sodium fire and plutonium criticality safety, in this paper. This paper would provide a brief guidance, about how to start and what is important, to people who are responsible for the initial design to operation of TFFF.

  15. ENSI's technical view on the periodic safety review 2008 of the nuclear power plant Goesgen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-08-01

    The owner of a license for a nuclear power plant operation in Switzerland has to undergo every 10 years a comprehensive safety check called 'periodic safety review' (PSR). The regulatory authority, the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI), reviews the documents supplied by the licensee. The Goesgen power plant (KKG) obtained its operation license and started operation in 1978. A first PSR was performed in the years 1996 to 1998 (PSR 1998) and reported. KKG delivered an analysis of the safety status, an evaluation of subsystems as well as test reports. The new PSR covers the period 1998 to 2007. The basis of the evaluation by ENSI is the new nuclear energy law in force since 1 February 2005. In comparison to PSR 1998, new aspects have to be considered like the description of the safety concept, including the technical safety classification of buildings, systems and components, or consideration of the protection objective 'limitation of the radiation exposure'. The PSR 2008 is focussed on the estimate of the nuclear safety of KKG. Basically, for the operation of a nuclear power plant, a sufficient protection has to be guaranteed against the release of radioactive materials to the environment as well as the irradiation of persons, during normal operation as well as in the case of accidents. The licensee of a nuclear power plant in operation must retrofit his plant according to the experience already gained and the state-of-the-art. The purpose of the PSR is to check the quality of the plant in the domain of safety. A probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) study must prove that the probability of damages to the reactor core is smaller than 10 -5 /year. In Switzerland the life time of a nuclear power plant is not limited by a fixed maximum time of operation. On the contrary, the limitation proceeds from safety criteria. Insufficiencies in the plant design are often recognized only through the evolution of the technique or some unexpected events. Ageing

  16. Exploring China’s offshore wind energy potential in a comprehensive perspectives of technical, environmental and economic constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hong, Lixuan; Möller, Bernd

    with projections of current wind turbine technology development to calculate the maximum amount of offshore wind energy that could be generated. Secondly, to calculate practical potential, the migratory path of an endangered bird and existing shipping lanes and submarine cables are excluded from the calculated......Adequate recognition of offshore wind energy potential may have far-reaching influence on the development of future energy strategies. This study aims to investigate available offshore wind energy resource in China’s exclusive economic zones (EEZs) with the aid of a Geographical Information System...... (GIS), which allows the influence of technical, spatial and economic constraints on raw offshore wind potential being reflected in a continuous space. Firstly, based on ocean wind speed data gained from satellite QuikSCAT, raw potential are identified. Those findings are then used along...

  17. Economic evaluations of comprehensive geriatric assessment in surgical patients: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eamer, Gilgamesh; Saravana-Bawan, Bianka; van der Westhuizen, Brenden; Chambers, Thane; Ohinmaa, Arto; Khadaroo, Rachel G

    2017-10-01

    Seniors presenting with surgical disease face increased risk of postoperative morbidity and mortality and have increased treatment costs. Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA) is proposed to reduce morbidity, mortality, and the cost after surgery. A systematic review of CGA in emergency surgical patients was conducted. The primary outcome was cost-effectiveness; secondary outcomes were length of stay, return of function, and mortality. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were predefined. Systematic searches of MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane, and National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database were performed. Text screening, bias assessment, and data extraction were performed by two authors. There were 560 articles identified; abstract review excluded 499 articles and full-text review excluded 53 articles. Eight studies were included; one nonorthopedic trauma and seven orthopedic trauma studies. Bias assessment revealed moderate to high risk of bias for all studies. Economic evaluation assessment identified two high-quality studies and six moderate or low quality studies. Pooled analysis from four studies assessed loss of function; loss of function decreased in the experimental arm (odds ratio 0.92, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.88-0.97). Pooled results for length of stay from five studies found a significant decrease (mean difference: -1.17, 95% CI: -1.63 to -0.71) after excluding the nonorthopedic trauma study. Pooled mortality was significantly decreased in seven studies (risk ratio: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.67-0.90). All studies decreased cost and improved health outcomes in a cost-effective manner. CGA improved return of function and mortality with reduced cost or improved utility. Our review suggests that CGA is economically dominant and the most cost-effective care model for orthogeriatric patients. Further research should examine other surgical fields. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Quality Primary Care and Family Planning Services for LGBT Clients: A Comprehensive Review of Clinical Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, David A; Malcolm, Nikita M; Berry-Bibee, Erin N; Paradise, Scott L; Coulter, Jessica S; Keglovitz Baker, Kristin; Schvey, Natasha A; Rollison, Julia M; Frederiksen, Brittni N

    2018-04-01

    LGBT clients have unique healthcare needs but experience a wide range of quality in the care that they receive. This study provides a summary of clinical guideline recommendations related to the provision of primary care and family planning services for LGBT clients. In addition, we identify gaps in current guidelines, and inform future recommendations and guidance for clinical practice and research. PubMed, Cochrane, and Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality electronic bibliographic databases, and relevant professional organizations' websites, were searched to identify clinical guidelines related to the provision of primary care and family planning services for LGBT clients. Information obtained from a technical expert panel was used to inform the review. Clinical guidelines meeting the inclusion criteria were assessed to determine their alignment with Institute of Medicine (IOM) standards for the development of clinical practice guidelines and content relevant to the identified themes. The search parameters identified 2,006 clinical practice guidelines. Seventeen clinical guidelines met the inclusion criteria. Two of the guidelines met all eight IOM criteria. However, many recommendations were consistent regarding provision of services to LGBT clients within the following themes: clinic environment, provider cultural sensitivity and awareness, communication, confidentiality, coordination of care, general clinical principles, mental health considerations, and reproductive health. Guidelines for the primary and family planning care of LGBT clients are evolving. The themes identified in this review may guide professional organizations during guideline development, clinicians when providing care, and researchers conducting LGBT-related studies.

  19. A comprehensive review on recent progress in aluminum–air batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yisi Liu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aluminum–air battery is considered to be an attractive candidate as a power source for electric vehicles (EVs because of its high theoretical energy density (8100 Wh kg−1, which is significantly greater than that of the state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries (LIBs. However, some technical and scientific problems preventing the large-scale development of Al–air batteries have not yet to be resolved. In this review, we present the fundamentals, challenges and the recent advances in Al–air battery technology from aluminum anode, air cathode and electrocatalysts to electrolytes and inhibitors. Firstly, the alloying of aluminum with transition metal elements is reviewed and shown to reduce the self-corrosion of Al and improve battery performance. Additionally for the cathode, extensive studies of electrocatalytic materials for oxygen reduction/evolution including Pt and Pt alloys, nonprecious metal catalysts, and carbonaceous materials at the air cathode are highlighted. Moreover, for the electrolyte, the application of aqueous and nonaqueous electrolytes in Al–air batteries are discussed. Meanwhile, the addition of inhibitors to the electrolyte to enhance electrochemical performance is also explored. Finally, the challenges and future research directions are proposed for the further development of Al–air batteries. Keywords: Aluminum–air battery, Aluminum anode, Air cathode, Oxygen reduction reaction, Electrolytes

  20. Analysis of the frequency of technical-tactical actions in taekwondo: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Avakian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Taekwondo (TKD is a combat sport, focusing on head-height kicks, spinning kicks and skipping. The emphasis on technical-tactical combinations with speed and agility is an essential characteristic of this modality. Therefore, this review aims to contribute to the critical analysis of technical-tactical actions of TKD athletes, using relative effort and pause moments of official competitions. This review investigated tactical arrangements (i.e., attacks, defenses and blocks, technical performance (points, kicks and punches, regarding to weight category, age class and gender. In fact, rule changes in recent years have increased defensive actions in the senior category, with about 50% of actions in attacks, followed by 30% in defenses and 20% in blocking actions. While juniors tend to adopt an offensive strategy, with about 90% of the actions in attacks. Since the introduction of the scoring electronic system, high-performance athletes need to perform accurate and correct techniques to achieve scoring, so elite athletes have used short-distance techniques with kicks from the back leg. This action shows effectiveness in scoring and assists competitors in increasing defensive capability and counter-attacks. Consequently, training programs need to be specific to the rules, weight divisions, gender and age categories in elite athletes in TKD.

  1. Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Dorsal Hand: An Update and Comprehensive Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Tiffany Y; Rubin, Ashley G; Brian Jiang, Shang I

    2016-04-01

    Excessive ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure is the primary predisposing factor for basal cell carcinoma (BCC). However, surprisingly, BCCs occur very rarely on the dorsal hand, which is subject to intense sun exposure, and their infrequent presentation in this location suggests that other factors besides UVR may play a role in BCC pathogenesis. Because dorsal hand BCCs are uncommon, knowledge of their characteristics is limited, and more data are needed to describe their clinical presentation and treatment. To perform an updated review of the literature on the management of dorsal hand BCCs. The authors conducted a comprehensive literature review by searching the PubMed database with the key phrases "basal cell carcinoma dorsal hand," "basal cell carcinoma hand," and "basal cell carcinoma finger," and "basal cell carcinoma thumb." The authors identified 176 cases of dorsal hand BCCs in the literature, 120 of which had sufficient data for analysis. Only 4 cases were treated with Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS). The authors present 14 additional cases of dorsal hand BCCs treated with MMS. Basal cell carcinomas on the dorsal hand occur infrequently, and potential risk factors include being a male of white descent and personal history of skin cancer. Mohs micrographic surgery seems to be an effective treatment method.

  2. Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Dorsal Foot: An Update and Comprehensive Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Tiffany Y; Rubin, Ashley G; Jiang, Shang I Brian

    2017-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation is a well-known risk factor for basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Therefore, the high incidence of BCCs in sun-exposed areas such as the head and neck is unsurprising. However, unexpectedly, BCCs on the sun-protected dorsal foot have also been reported, and tumor occurrence here suggests that other factors besides ultraviolet radiation may play a role in BCC pathogenesis. Because only few dorsal foot BCCs have been reported, data on their clinical features and management are limited. To perform an updated review of the literature on clinical characteristics and treatment of dorsal foot BCCs. We conducted a comprehensive literature review by searching the PubMed database with the key phrases "basal cell carcinoma dorsal foot," "basal cell carcinoma foot," and "basal cell carcinoma toe." We identified 20 cases of dorsal foot BCCs in the literature, 17 of which had sufficient data for analysis. Only 1 case was treated with Mohs micrographic surgery. We present 8 additional cases of dorsal foot BCCs treated with Mohs micrographic surgery. Basal cell carcinomas on the dorsal foot are rare, and potential risk factors include Caucasian descent and personal history of skin cancer. Mohs micrographic surgery seems to be an effective treatment option.

  3. Comprehensive review on the development of high mobility in oxide thin film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jun Young; Lee, Sang Yeol

    2017-11-01

    Oxide materials are one of the most advanced key technology in the thin film transistors (TFTs) for the high-end of device applications. Amorphous oxide semiconductors (AOSs) have leading technique for flat panel display (FPD), active matrix organic light emitting display (AMOLED) and active matrix liquid crystal display (AMLCD) due to their excellent electrical characteristics, such as field effect mobility ( μ FE ), subthreshold swing (S.S) and threshold voltage ( V th ). Covalent semiconductor like amorphous silicon (a-Si) is attributed to the anti-bonding and bonding states of Si hybridized orbitals. However, AOSs have not grain boundary and excellent performances originated from the unique characteristics of AOS which is the direct orbital overlap between s orbitals of neighboring metal cations. High mobility oxide TFTs have gained attractive attention during the last few years and today in display industries. It is progressively developed to increase the mobility either by exploring various oxide semiconductors or by adopting new TFT structures. Mobility of oxide thin film transistor has been rapidly increased from single digit to higher than 100 cm2/V·s in a decade. In this review, we discuss on the comprehensive review on the mobility of oxide TFTs in a decade and propose bandgap engineering and novel structure to enhance the electrical characteristics of oxide TFTs.

  4. Global complication rates of type 2 diabetes in Indigenous peoples: A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqshbandi, Mariam; Harris, Stewart B; Esler, James G; Antwi-Nsiah, Fred

    2008-10-01

    The world's Indigenous peoples are experiencing an unprecedented epidemic of type 2 diabetes [T2DM] but little has been published describing the complications burden. The objective of this paper was to conduct a systematic review of T2DM complications in Indigenous populations worldwide. A literature review was conducted using PubMed and EMBASE to examine available complications data. Country, Indigenous population, authors, publication year, total sample size, Indigenous sample size, age, methodology, and prevalence of nephropathy, end-stage renal disease, retinopathy, neuropathy, lower extremity amputations, cardiovascular disease, hospitalizations and mortality due to diabetes were recorded. One-hundred and eleven studies were selected. Results revealed a disproportionate burden of disease complications among all Indigenous peoples regardless of their geographic location. Complication rates were seen to vary widely across Indigenous groups. Gaps were found in the published literature on complications among Indigenous populations, especially those living in underdeveloped countries. These gaps may be in part due to the challenges caused by varying operational practices, research methodologies, and definitions of the term Indigenous, making documentation of rates among these peoples problematic. Comprehensive surveillance applying standardized definitions and methodologies is needed to design targeted prevention and disease management strategies for Indigenous peoples with T2DM.

  5. Neurobehavioral morbidity associated with disordered breathing during sleep in children: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Dean W

    2006-09-01

    To comprehensively review research on the association between childhood sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and neurobehavioral functioning. Qualitative and quantitative literature review. N/A. N/A. N/A. The findings of 61 studies of the relationship between childhood SDB and neurobehavioral functioning were critically evaluated and synthesized. There is strong evidence that childhood SDB is associated with deficits in behavior and emotion regulation, scholastic performance, sustained attention, selective attention, and alertness. There is also evidence that SDB has minimal association with a child's typical mood, expressive language skills, visual perception, and working memory. Findings have been insufficient to draw conclusions about intelligence, memory, and some aspects of executive functioning. Mechanisms by which SDB might result in neurobehavioral morbidity are being explored, but clinical symptoms such as chronic snoring remain the best predictors of morbidity. Short-term SDB treatment outcome studies are encouraging, but the long-term outcomes are not known. Failing to treat SDB appears to leave children at risk for long-term neurobehavioral deficits. Childhood SDB is associated with neurobehavioral morbidity. Applying commonly used guidelines for causal inference, even in the absence of a much-needed randomized clinical trial, there is strong evidence of association, consistent findings, and specificity of effect. There is suggestive evidence that this association fits the expected temporal pattern and that SDB is a biologically plausible cause of neurobehavioral deficits. Clinicians should be alert to the coexistence of SDB symptoms and concerns about a child's academic progress, attention, arousal, or behavior or emotion regulation.

  6. A comprehensive review of thermo-physical properties and convective heat transfer to nanofluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solangi, K.H.; Kazi, S.N.; Luhur, M.R.; Badarudin, A.; Amiri, A.; Sadri, Rad; Zubir, M.N.M.; Gharehkhani, Samira; Teng, K.H.

    2015-01-01

    Nanofluids are fluid nanoparticle suspensions that exhibit enhanced properties at modest nanoparticle concentrations. Nanofluids have unique heat transfer properties and are utilized in high heat flux systems (e.g., electronic cooling systems, heat exchanger liquids, solar collectors, and nuclear reactors). However, suspension stability is critical in the development and application of these heat transfer fluids. Reynolds number, mass concentration, and particle size control the heat transfer behavior of fluids. Sedimentation and agglomeration of nanoparticles in nanofluids and their dispersion have rarely been investigated. Therefore, this paper explains the parameters that affect the stability of nanofluids and the different techniques used to evaluate the stability of nanofluids. This paper also presents an updated review of properties of nanofluids, such as physical (thermal conductivity) and rheological properties, with emphasis on their heat transfer enhancement characteristics. Studies on zeta potential as a function of pH are discussed and extended further to identify opportunities for future research. - Highlights: • Comprehensive review of nanofluids and latest methods of preparation. • Parameters that affect the stability of nanofluids and the different techniques are discussed. • Effect of different surfactants on the rheological properties of nanofluids has been presented. • Sedimentation and agglomeration of nanoparticles in nanofluids are discussed in detail. • zeta potential as a function of pH is discussed and opportunities for future research

  7. Children of Parents With Chronic Noncancer Pain: A Comprehensive Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umberger, Wendy

    2014-02-01

    Chronic noncancer pain (CNCP) is a prevalent occurrence and is experienced by adults in their child-rearing years. Somatic or psychiatric illness in a parent constitutes a potential threat to the physical, mental health, and normative development in children. A comprehensive review of the literature was performed to answer the question: What are the effects of parental CNCP on children in the family system? The search was performed using the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Medline, PsycINFO, and Academic Search Premier. Search terms used were "parent pain or parent chronic pain or parent illness or parent chronic illness" and "child or adolescent or teenager." Inclusion and exclusion criteria were developed a priori. Eighteen articles (n = 18) met criteria and were included in the sample. Three clusters were identified: (a) child/adolescent somatic complaints or behavior; (b) child/adolescent internalizing or externalizing symptoms; and (c) important mediating and moderating variables. The results of this review show that children and adolescents whose parents suffer from CNCP are at risk for more and similar-to-parent pain complaints and greater degree of internalizing and externalizing symptoms than those with healthy parents. Implications for clinical nursing practice and research are given. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. A comprehensive review in current developments of benzothiazole-based molecules in medicinal chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keri, Rangappa S; Patil, Mahadeo R; Patil, Siddappa A; Budagumpi, Srinivasa

    2015-01-07

    Benzothiazole (BTA) and its derivatives are the most important heterocyclic compounds, which are common and integral feature of a variety of natural products and pharmaceutical agents. BTA shows a variety of pharmacological properties, and its analogs offer a high degree of structural diversity that has proven useful for the search of new therapeutic agents. The broad spectrum of pharmacological activity in individual BTA derivative indicates that, this series of compounds is of an undoubted interest. The related research and developments in BTA-based medicinal chemistry have become a rapidly developing and increasingly active topic. Particularly, numerous BTA-based compounds as clinical drugs have been extensively used in practice to treat various types of diseases with high therapeutic potency. This work systematically gives a comprehensive review in current developments of BTA-based compounds in the whole range of medicinal chemistry as anticancer, antibacterial, antifungal, antiinflammatory, analgesic, anti-HIV, antioxidant, anticonvulsant, antitubercular, antidiabetic, antileishmanial, antihistaminic, antimalarial and other medicinal agents. It is believed that, this review article is helpful for new thoughts in the quest for rational designs of more active and less toxic BTA-based drugs, as well as more effective diagnostic agents and pathologic probes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Comprehensive review in current developments of imidazole-based medicinal chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Peng, Xin-Mei; Damu, Guri L V; Geng, Rong-Xia; Zhou, Cheng-He

    2014-03-01

    Imidazole ring is an important five-membered aromatic heterocycle widely present in natural products and synthetic molecules. The unique structural feature of imidazole ring with desirable electron-rich characteristic is beneficial for imidazole derivatives to readily bind with a variety of enzymes and receptors in biological systems through diverse weak interactions, thereby exhibiting broad bioactivities. The related research and developments of imidazole-based medicinal chemistry have become a rapidly developing and increasingly active topic. Particularly, numerous imidazole-based compounds as clinical drugs have been extensively used in the clinic to treat various types of diseases with high therapeutic potency, which have shown the enormous development value. This work systematically gives a comprehensive review in current developments of imidazole-based compounds in the whole range of medicinal chemistry as anticancer, antifungal, antibacterial, antitubercular, anti-inflammatory, antineuropathic, antihypertensive, antihistaminic, antiparasitic, antiobesity, antiviral, and other medicinal agents, together with their potential applications in diagnostics and pathology. It is hoped that this review will be helpful for new thoughts in the quest for rational designs of more active and less toxic imidazole-based medicinal drugs, as well as more effective diagnostic agents and pathologic probes. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. A comprehensive review of electrocoagulation for water treatment: Potentials and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, Dina T; El-Naas, Muftah H; Nasser, Mustafa; Al-Marri, Mohammed J

    2017-01-15

    Electrocoagulation is an effective electrochemical approach for the treatment of different types of contaminated water and has received considerable attention in recent years due its high efficiency in dealing with numerous stubborn pollutants. It has been successful in dealing with organic and inorganic contaminants with negligible or almost no generation of by-product wastes. During the past decade, vast amount of research has been devoted to utilizing electrocoagulation for the treatment of several types of wastewater, ranging from polluted groundwater to highly contaminated refinery wastewater. This paper offers a comprehensive review of recent literature that has been dedicated to utilizing electrocoagulation for water treatment, focusing on current successes on specific applications in water and wastewater treatment, as well as potentials for future applications. The paper examines such aspects as theory, potential applications, current challenges, recent developments as well as economical concerns associated with the technology. Most of the recent EC research has been focusing on pollutant-specific evaluation without paying attention to cell design, process modeling or industrial applications. This review attempts to highlight the main achievements in the area and outlines the major shortcomings with recommendations for promising research options that can enhance the technology and broaden its range of applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Application of soft computing based hybrid models in hydrological variables modeling: a comprehensive review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahimi, Farzad; Yaseen, Zaher Mundher; El-shafie, Ahmed

    2017-05-01

    Since the middle of the twentieth century, artificial intelligence (AI) models have been used widely in engineering and science problems. Water resource variable modeling and prediction are the most challenging issues in water engineering. Artificial neural network (ANN) is a common approach used to tackle this problem by using viable and efficient models. Numerous ANN models have been successfully developed to achieve more accurate results. In the current review, different ANN models in water resource applications and hydrological variable predictions are reviewed and outlined. In addition, recent hybrid models and their structures, input preprocessing, and optimization techniques are discussed and the results are compared with similar previous studies. Moreover, to achieve a comprehensive view of the literature, many articles that applied ANN models together with other techniques are included. Consequently, coupling procedure, model evaluation, and performance comparison of hybrid models with conventional ANN models are assessed, as well as, taxonomy and hybrid ANN models structures. Finally, current challenges and recommendations for future researches are indicated and new hybrid approaches are proposed.

  12. Management of spondylolysis and low-grade spondylolisthesis in fine athletes. A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouras, Theodoros; Korovessis, Panagiotis

    2015-07-01

    To provide evidence-based data about the aetiology, incidence, diagnosis and treatment of isthmic lumbar spondylolysis and low-grade spondylolisthesis and return to athletic activities in fine athlete. This is a comprehensive literature review. A thorough MEDLINE search in the period from 1973 to 2014 with the keywords: athlete, spondylolysis, low-grade spondylolisthesis, treatment and return to athletic activities was conducted. A total of 228 articles were initially enrolled from the search, and 74 case series and reviews were finally included because they referred to incidence, diagnosis, treatment and return to play in fine athletes with symptomatic isthmic spondylolysis and low-grade (Meyerding I and II) spondylolisthesis. There were 13 studies reporting surgical treatment (194 patients of average age 19 years) and 14 studies with conservative treatment (589 patients of average age 15.7). The percentage of athletes who were successfully treated with conservative or operative treatment was 85 and 87.8%, respectively. Conservative treatment including physiotherapy and bracing is the mainstay in the treatment of symptomatic spondylolysis and low-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis in fine athletes. If consequent treatment fails, the operative treatment (pars repair and short fusion) is decided. Return to play following surgery varies from 6 to 12 months with prohibition in collision sports. Return to play is mostly depended on specific sport activity.

  13. A comprehensive review on anti-diabetic property of rice bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagavathi Sundaram Sivamaruthi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice bran (RB is one of the nutrient-rich agricultural byproducts. It is a composite of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, fibers, minerals, and trace elements such as phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, calcium and manganese. The extraction and purification process influences the quality and quantity of rice bran oil, which is rich in tocopherols, tocotrienols, γ-oryzanol, and unsaturated fatty acids. The bioactive components of RB have been reported for exhibiting antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hypocholesterolemic, anti-cancer, anti-colitis, and antidiabetic properties. In vitro and in vivo studies, and clinical trials in human volunteers revealed the anti-hyperglycemic activity of RB derived compounds. An updated comprehensive review on the antidiabetic property of RB and its derivative is required to appraise the current knowledge in the particular field. Thus, the present paper covered the composition and bioactivities of RB, and influence of extraction methods on the biological property of rice bran oil and rice bran extract. And the current review also focused on the reported anti-hyperglycemia activity of rice bran derivatives, and its probable mechanism.

  14. Large-scale retrieval for medical image analytics: A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongyu; Zhang, Xiaofan; Müller, Henning; Zhang, Shaoting

    2018-01-01

    Over the past decades, medical image analytics was greatly facilitated by the explosion of digital imaging techniques, where huge amounts of medical images were produced with ever-increasing quality and diversity. However, conventional methods for analyzing medical images have achieved limited success, as they are not capable to tackle the huge amount of image data. In this paper, we review state-of-the-art approaches for large-scale medical image analysis, which are mainly based on recent advances in computer vision, machine learning and information retrieval. Specifically, we first present the general pipeline of large-scale retrieval, summarize the challenges/opportunities of medical image analytics on a large-scale. Then, we provide a comprehensive review of algorithms and techniques relevant to major processes in the pipeline, including feature representation, feature indexing, searching, etc. On the basis of existing work, we introduce the evaluation protocols and multiple applications of large-scale medical image retrieval, with a variety of exploratory and diagnostic scenarios. Finally, we discuss future directions of large-scale retrieval, which can further improve the performance of medical image analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Cell-derived microparticles and vascular pregnancy complications: a systematic and comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alijotas-Reig, Jaume; Palacio-Garcia, Carles; Llurba, Elisa; Vilardell-Tarres, Miquel

    2013-02-01

    To assess current studies on the relationship between cell-derived microparticles (cMP) and recurrent miscarriages (RM) and pre-eclampsia (PE), and review the relationships between cMP and inflammatory and clot pathways, antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL), cytokines, and pregnancy complications. Systematic and comprehensive review of the literature from January 2000 to January 2012. Vall d'Hebron University Hospital. Women with recurrent miscarriages or PE, healthy nonpregnant women, and healthy pregnant women. None. Comparison of cMP numbers and types among groups. Platelet and endothelial cMP are increased in women with normal pregnancies compared with nonpregnant healthy women. Only five case-control studies regarding cMP and RM and 16 on cMP and PE were found to match our objective. Three of five articles referring to RM showed differences in cMP numbering, and 13 of 16 on cMP and PE showed differences in some type of cMP compared with controls. Cell-derived microparticles were raised in normal pregnancy. Recurrent miscarriage seems to be related to endothelial and platelet cell activation and/or consumption. An increase in almost all cMP types was observed in PE. A relationship between cMP and endothelial activation and proinflammatory status seems to exist. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Using Model-Based System Engineering to Provide Artifacts for NASA Project Life-Cycle and Technical Reviews Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Edith L.; Weiland, Karen J.

    2017-01-01

    This is the presentation for the AIAA Space conference in September 2017. It highlights key information from Using Model-Based Systems Engineering to Provide Artifacts for NASA Project Life-cycle and Technical Reviews paper.

  17. Properties of meshes used in hernia repair: a comprehensive review of synthetic and biologic meshes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed M S; Vargas, Christina R; Colakoglu, Salih; Nguyen, John T; Lin, Samuel J; Lee, Bernard T

    2015-02-01

    Data on the mechanical properties of the adult human abdominal wall have been difficult to obtain rendering manufacture of the ideal mesh for ventral hernia repair a challenge. An ideal mesh would need to exhibit greater biomechanical strength and elasticity than that of the abdominal wall. The aim of this study is to quantitatively compare the biomechanical properties of the most commonly used synthetic and biologic meshes in ventral hernia repair and presents a comprehensive literature review. A narrative review of the literature was performed using the PubMed database spanning articles from 1982 to 2012 including a review of company Web sites to identify all available information relating to the biomechanical properties of various synthetic and biologic meshes used in ventral hernia repair. There exist differences in the mechanical properties and the chemical nature of different meshes. In general, most synthetic materials have greater stiffness and elasticity than what is required for abdominal wall reconstruction; however, each exhibits unique properties that may be beneficial for clinical use. On the contrary, biologic meshes are more elastic but less stiff and with a lower tensile strength than their synthetic counterparts. The current standard of practice for the treatment of ventral hernias is the use of permanent synthetic mesh material. Recently, biologic meshes have become more frequently used. Most meshes exhibit biomechanical properties over the known abdominal wall thresholds. Augmenting strength requires increasing amounts of material contributing to more stiffness and foreign body reaction, which is not necessarily an advantage. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  18. A Comprehensive Review of Tropical Milky White Mushroom (Calocybe indica P&C).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbiah, Krishnamoorthy Akkanna; Balan, Venkatesh

    2015-09-01

    A compressive description of tropical milky white mushroom (Calocybe indica P&C var. APK2) is provided in this review. This mushroom variety was first identified in the eastern Indian state of West Bengal and can be cultivated on a wide variety of substrates, at a high temperature range (30~38℃). However, no commercial cultivation was made until 1998. Krishnamoorthy 1997 rediscovered the fungus from Tamil Nadu, India and standardized the commercial production techniques for the first time in the world. This edible mushroom has a long shelf life (5~7 days) compared to other commercially available counterparts. A comprehensive and critical review on physiological and nutritional requirements viz., pH, temperature, carbon to nitrogen ratio, best carbon source, best nitrogen source, growth period, growth promoters for mycelia biomass production; substrate preparation; spawn inoculation; different supplementation and casing requirements to increase the yield of mushrooms has been outlined. Innovative and inexpensive methods developed to commercially cultivate milky white mushrooms on different lignocellulosic biomass is also described in this review. The composition profiles of milky white mushroom, its mineral contents and non-enzymatic antioxidants are provided in comparison with button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) and oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus). Antioxidant assay results using methanol extract of milky white mushroom has been provided along with the information about the compounds that are responsible for flavor profile both in fresh and dry mushrooms. Milky white mushroom extracts are known to have anti-hyperglycemic effect and anti-lipid peroxidation effect. The advantage of growing at elevated temperature creates newer avenues to explore milky white mushroom cultivation economically around the world, especially, in humid tropical and sub-tropical zones. Because of its incomparable productivity and shelf life to any other cultivated mushrooms in the

  19. The Comprehensive School in Spain: A Review of Its Development Cycle and Crises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolívar, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe, analyse and evaluate the successive comprehensive reforms in Spain as a "paradigmatic" example of the emergence, evolution and crisis of the comprehensive school. In the first part, we describe the development of the comprehensive school project (1970-2013), using the image of the life cycle,…

  20. Technical note. A review of the mechanical integrity of the canister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segle, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Background: The Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM) reviews the Swedish Nuclear Fuel Company's (SKB) applications under the Act on Nuclear Activities (SFS 1984:3) for the construction and operation of a repository for spent nuclear fuel and for an encapsulation facility. As part of the review, SSM commissions consultants to carry out work in order to obtain information on specific issues. The results from the consultants' tasks are reported in SSM's Technical Note series. Objectives of the project: This project is part of SSM:s review of SKB:s license application for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The assignment concerns a review of the mechanical integrity of the canister. Summary by the author: An introductory review of SR-Site has been conducted with respect to the mechanical integrity of the canister. The review is focused on the copper canister and the nodular cast iron insert. Review results show that a number of loads and loading scenarios for the copper canister has not been analysed by SKB. The importance of sufficient creep ductility of the copper material and sufficient ductility and fracture toughness of the nodular cast iron material is pointed out in the review. A sensitivity study is suggested where the impact of these properties on the mechanical integrity of the canister is investigated. It is also suggested that potential damage mechanisms influencing these properties are further investigated. SKB's modelling of creep elongation at rupture under repository conditions is questioned. Needs for complementary information from SKB for the main review of SR-Site is listed. A list of review topics for SSM is also suggested

  1. Technical Letter Report: Evaluation and Analysis of a Few International Periodic Safety Review Summary Reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopra, Omesh K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Science Division; Diercks, Dwight R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Ma, David Chia-Chiun [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Science Division; Garud, Yogendra S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Science Division

    2013-12-17

    and 1988. All of the reports reviewed were the regulator’s assessment of the PSR findings rather than the original PSR report, and all but one were English translations from the original language. In these reviews, it was found that most of the countries base their regulatory guidance to some extent (and often to a large extent) on U.S. design codes and standards, NRC regulatory guidance, and U.S. industry guidance. In addition, many of the observed operational technical issues and OpE events reported for U.S. reactors are also cited in the PSR reports. The PSR reports also identified a number of potential technical material/component performance issues and OpE events that are not commonly reported for U.S. plants.

  2. Technical Letter Report: Evaluation and Analysis of a Few International Periodic Safety Review Summary Reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, Omesh K.; Diercks, Dwight R.; Ma, David Chia-Chiun; Garud, Yogendra S.

    2013-01-01

    1988. All of the reports reviewed were the regulator's assessment of the PSR findings rather than the original PSR report, and all but one were English translations from the original language. In these reviews, it was found that most of the countries base their regulatory guidance to some extent (and often to a large extent) on U.S. design codes and standards, NRC regulatory guidance, and U.S. industry guidance. In addition, many of the observed operational technical issues and OpE events reported for U.S. reactors are also cited in the PSR reports. The PSR reports also identified a number of potential technical material/component performance issues and OpE events that are not commonly reported for U.S. plants

  3. Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project melter system preliminary design technical review meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddy, T.L.; Raivo, B.D.; Soelberg, N.R.; Wiersholm, O.

    1995-02-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project sponsored a plasma are melter technical design review meeting to evaluate high-temperature melter system configurations for processing heterogeneous alpha-contaminated low-level radioactive waste (ALLW). Thermal processing experts representing Department of Energy contractors, the Environmental Protection Agency, and private sector companies participated in the review. The participants discussed issues and evaluated alternative configurations for three areas of the melter system design: plasma torch melters and graphite arc melters, offgas treatment options, and overall system configuration considerations. The Technical Advisory Committee for the review concluded that graphite arc melters are preferred over plasma torch melters for processing ALLW. Initiating involvement of stakeholders was considered essential at this stage of the design. For the offgas treatment system, the advisory committee raised the question whether to a use wet-dry or a dry-wet system. The committee recommended that the waste stream characterization, feed preparation, and the control system are essential design tasks for the high-temperature melter treatment system. The participants strongly recommended that a complete melter treatment system be assembled to conduct tests with nonradioactive surrogate waste material. A nonradioactive test bed would allow for inexpensive design and operational changes prior to assembling a system for radioactive waste treatment operations

  4. A technical review and assessment of the BEIR V [Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation V] report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    This report was prepared by the DOE BEIR V Technical Review Committee (TRC) to provide a technical review and assessment of the National Research Council's Bilogical Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR) Committee's Report entitled ''Health Effects of Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation'' (BEIR V). This report contains seven sections. The first section serves as an introduction and reviews the charge to the TRC. The second section is a chapter-by- chapter summary of the BEIR V Report. The third section is a summary of the risk estimates and conclusions of the BEIR V Committee for genetic effects, cancer induction, and in utero effects. The fourth section is a summary and analysis of the new scientific information used by the BEIR V Committee in developing its risk recommendations and conclusions. The fifth section is an assessment of the scientific information and methods used by the BEIR V Committee in developing their risk estimates and conclusions and an analysis of the key assumptions underlying the use of these risk estimates in risk assessment. The sixth section is the TRC'S assessment of the regulatory implications of the BEIR V risk estimates and conclusions for DOE nuclear operations. The seventh and final section is the TRC'S recommended actions for DOE's consideration concerning the BEIR V Report risk estimates and conclusions. 23 refs., 5 tabs

  5. Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project melter system preliminary design technical review meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy, T.L.; Raivo, B.D.; Soelberg, N.R.; Wiersholm, O.

    1995-02-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project sponsored a plasma are melter technical design review meeting to evaluate high-temperature melter system configurations for processing heterogeneous alpha-contaminated low-level radioactive waste (ALLW). Thermal processing experts representing Department of Energy contractors, the Environmental Protection Agency, and private sector companies participated in the review. The participants discussed issues and evaluated alternative configurations for three areas of the melter system design: plasma torch melters and graphite arc melters, offgas treatment options, and overall system configuration considerations. The Technical Advisory Committee for the review concluded that graphite arc melters are preferred over plasma torch melters for processing ALLW. Initiating involvement of stakeholders was considered essential at this stage of the design. For the offgas treatment system, the advisory committee raised the question whether to a use wet-dry or a dry-wet system. The committee recommended that the waste stream characterization, feed preparation, and the control system are essential design tasks for the high-temperature melter treatment system. The participants strongly recommended that a complete melter treatment system be assembled to conduct tests with nonradioactive surrogate waste material. A nonradioactive test bed would allow for inexpensive design and operational changes prior to assembling a system for radioactive waste treatment operations.

  6. Final report of the UMTRA independent technical review of TAC audit programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    This report details the findings of an Independent Technical Review (ITR) of practices and procedures for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project audit program. The audit program is conducted by Jacobs Engineering Group Inc., the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) for the UMTRA Project. The purpose of the ITR was to ensure that the TAC audit program is effective and is conducted efficiently. The ITR was conducted from May 16-20, 1994. A review team observed audit practices in the field, reviewed the TAC audit program's documentation, and discussed the program with TAC staff and management. The format of this report has been developed around EPA guidelines; they comprise most of the major section headings. Each section begins by identifying the criteria that the TAC program is measured against, then describing the approach used by the ITR team to measure each TAC audit program against the criteria. An assessment of each type of audit is then summarized for each component in the following order: Radiological audit summary; Health and safety audit summary; Environmental audit summary; Quality assurance audit summary

  7. Interventions to build resilience in family caregivers of people living with dementia: a comprehensive systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petriwskyj, Andrea; Parker, Deborah; O'Dwyer, Siobhan; Moyle, Wendy; Nucifora, Nikki

    2016-06-01

    considered for inclusion if they explicitly related the aims of the intervention to resilience. Eleven electronic databases were searched for research studies published in English in or after 1990. Quantitative and qualitative studies selected for retrieval were assessed by two independent reviewers for methodological validity using standardized critical appraisal instruments from the Joanna Briggs Institute Meta-Analysis of Statistics Assessment and Review Instrument (JBI-MAStARI) and Joanna Briggs Institute Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument (JBI-QARI). Quantitative and qualitative data were extracted from publications included in the review using the standardized data extraction tools from JBI-MAStARI and JBI-QARI. It was not possible to pool quantitative findings for statistical meta-analysis using JBI-MAStARI. Qualitative research findings were too limited to be pooled using the JBI-QARI. The findings are presented in narrative form. The review included three publications reporting one quantitative intervention study and one mixed-method intervention study. There was a lack of available studies and, of the two intervention studies that were identified, neither found any statistically significant change in quantitative measures of resilience. Qualitative data suggested positive impacts of a poetry writing intervention and a positive experience of the intervention. The studies differed in both the nature of the intervention and the way resilience was conceptualized and operationalized. Consequently, it was not possible to offer any recommendations for practice. Implications for research relate to the development of a more comprehensive theory of resilience in family caregivers that can be used to develop and rigorously evaluate reliable and valid measures of resilience in line with that theory. Further, well-designed, sufficiently powered intervention studies informed by theory are needed.

  8. Technical basis for the ITER final design report, cost review and safety analysis (FDR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The ITER final design report, cost review and safety analysis (FDR) is the 4th major milestone, representing the progress made in the ITER Engineering Design Activities. With the approval of the Detailed Design Report (DDR), the design work was concentrated on the requirements of operation, with only relatively minor changes to design concepts of major components. The FDR is the culmination of almost 6 years collaborative design and supporting technical work by the ITER Joint Central Team and Home Teams under the terms of the ITER EDA Agreement. Refs, figs, tabs

  9. Technical basis for the ITER final design report, cost review and safety analysis (FDR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The ITER final design report, cost review and safety analysis (FDR) is the 4th major milestone, representing the progress made in the ITER Engineering Design Activities. With the approval of the Detailed Design Report (DDR), the design work was concentrated on the requirements of operation, with only relatively minor changes to design concepts of major components. The FDR is the culmination of almost 6 years collaborative design and supporting technical work by the ITER Joint Central Team and Home Teams under the terms of the ITER EDA Agreement

  10. Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of InternationalExperience-- Technical Appendix: Market Descriptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grayson Heffner, Charles Goldman, Kintner-Meyer, M; Kirby, Brendan

    2007-05-01

    In this study, we examine the arrangements for andexperiences of end-use loads providing ancillary services (AS) in fiveelectricity markets: Australia, the United Kingdom (UK), the Nordicmarket, and the ERCOT and PJM markets in the United States. Our objectivein undertaking this review of international experience was to identifyspecific approaches or market designs that have enabled customer loads toeffectively deliver various ancillary services (AS) products. We hopethat this report will contribute to the ongoing discussion in the U.S.and elsewhere regarding what institutional and technical developments areneeded to ensure that customer loads can meaningfully participate in allwholesale electricity markets.

  11. Role of magnetic resonance imaging in guiding thermal therapies. A brief technical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, Kagayaki

    2007-01-01

    For a number of reasons, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a unique tool for interventional use. It has a spatial resolution which is independent of the wavelength of the electromagnetic field used for imaging, has various imaging parameters which are related to the physical properties of the subject; provides a superior soft-tissue contrast; provides freedom in determining the slicing or viewing angle; and it utilizes non-ionizing radiation. This technology offers assistance in therapeutic applications such as lesion identification, treatment planning, device tracking, temperature imaging and treatment evaluation. In this article, the role of MRI in assisting thermal therapy is briefly reviewed from a technical point of view. (author)

  12. A comprehensive review of prostate cancer brachytherapy: defining an optimal technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicini, Frank A.; Kini, Vijay R.; Edmundson, Gregory B.S.; Gustafson, Gary S.; Stromberg, Jannifer; Martinez, Alvaro

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: A comprehensive review of prostate cancer brachytherapy literature was performed to determine if an optimal method of implantation could be identified, and to compare and contrast techniques currently in use. Methods and Materials: A MEDLINE search was conducted to obtain all articles in the English language on prostate cancer brachytherapy from 1985 through 1998. Articles were reviewed and grouped to determine the primary technique of implantation, the method or philosophy of source placement and/or dose specification, the technique to evaluate implant quality, overall treatment results (based upon pretreatment prostate specific antigen, (PSA), and biochemical control) and clinical, pathological or biochemical outcome based upon implant quality. Results: A total of 178 articles were identified in the MEDLINE database. Of these, 53 studies discussed evaluable techniques of implantation and were used for this analysis. Of these studies, 52% used preoperative ultrasound to determine the target volume to be implanted, 16% used preoperative computerized tomography (CT) scans, and 18% placed seeds with an open surgical technique. An additional 11% of studies placed seeds or needles under ultrasound guidance using interactive real-time dosimetry. The number and distribution of radioactive sources to be implanted or the method used to prescribe dose was determined using nomograms in 27% of studies, a least squares optimization technique in 11%, or not stated in 35%. In the remaining 26%, sources were described as either uniformly, differentially, or peripherally placed in the gland. To evaluate implant quality, 28% of studies calculated some type of dose-volume histogram, 21% calculated the matched peripheral dose, 19% the minimum peripheral dose, 14% used some type of CT-based qualitative review and, in 18% of studies, no implant quality evaluation was mentioned. Six studies correlated outcome with implant dose. One study showed an association of implant dose

  13. Oral hygiene and oral health in older people with dementia: a comprehensive review with focus on oral soft tissues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delwel, S.; Binnekade, T.T.; Perez, Roberto; Hertogh, Cees M. P. M.; Scherder, Erik; Lobbezoo, Frank

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The number of older people with dementia and a natural dentition is growing. Recently, a systematic review concerning the oral health of older people with dementia with the focus on diseases of oral hard tissues was published. OBJECTIVE: To provide a comprehensive literature overview

  14. A Comprehensive Review of Low-Voltage-Ride-Through Methods for Fixed-Speed Wind Power Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghadasi, Amirhasan; Sarwat, Arif; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive review of various techniques employed to enhance the low voltage ride through (LVRT) capability of the fixed-speed induction generators (FSIGs)-based wind turbines (WTs), which has a non-negligible 20% contribution of the existing wind energy in the world...

  15. Reading Comprehension and Phonics Research: Review of Correlational Analyses with Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luft, Pamela

    2018-01-01

    This manuscript reviews 28 studies of reading research on deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) students published since 2000 that used correlational analyses. The examination focused on assessment issues affecting measurement and analysis of relationships between early phonological or orthographic skills and reading comprehension. Mixed outcomes…

  16. Test Review: Naglieri, J. A., Goldstein, S. (2013), "Comprehensive Executive Function Inventory." North Tonawanda, NY: Multi-Health Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenwick, Melanie; McCrimmon, Adam W.

    2015-01-01

    This article provides a description and review of the "Comprehensive Executive Function Inventory" (CEFI; Naglieri & Goldstein, 2013), published by Multi-Health Systems Inc. (MHS). It is a rating scale developed to measure a wide array of Executive Function (EF) abilities in individuals aged 5 through 18 years. Completed by a parent,…

  17. A comprehensive review of biomass resources and biofuel production in Nigeria: potential and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokan-Adeaga, Adewale Allen; Ana, Godson R E E

    2015-01-01

    The quest for biofuels in Nigeria, no doubt, represents a legitimate ambition. This is so because the focus on biofuel production has assumed a global dimension, and the benefits that may accrue from such effort may turn out to be enormous if the preconditions are adequately satisfied. As a member of the global community, it has become exigent for Nigeria to explore other potential means of bettering her already impoverished economy. Biomass is the major energy source in Nigeria, contributing about 78% of Nigeria's primary energy supply. In this paper, a comprehensive review of the potential of biomass resources and biofuel production in Nigeria is given. The study adopted a desk review of existing literatures on major energy crops produced in Nigeria. A brief description of the current biofuel developmental activities in the country is also given. A variety of biomass resources exist in the country in large quantities with opportunities for expansion. Biomass resources considered include agricultural crops, agricultural crop residues, forestry resources, municipal solid waste, and animal waste. However, the prospects of achieving this giant stride appear not to be feasible in Nigeria. Although the focus on biofuel production may be a worthwhile endeavor in view of Nigeria's development woes, the paper argues that because Nigeria is yet to adequately satisfy the preconditions for such program, the effort may be designed to fail after all. To avoid this, the government must address key areas of concern such as food insecurity, environmental crisis, and blatant corruption in all quarters. It is concluded that given the large availability of biomass resources in Nigeria, there is immense potential for biofuel production from these biomass resources. With the very high potential for biofuel production, the governments as well as private investors are therefore encouraged to take practical steps toward investing in agriculture for the production of energy crops and the

  18. Complexity testing techniques for time series data: A comprehensive literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Ling; Lv, Huiling; Yang, Fengmei; Yu, Lean

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A literature review of complexity testing techniques for time series data is provided. • Complexity measurements can generally fall into fractality, methods derived from nonlinear dynamics and entropy. • Different types investigate time series data from different perspectives. • Measures, applications and future studies for each type are presented. - Abstract: Complexity may be one of the most important measurements for analysing time series data; it covers or is at least closely related to different data characteristics within nonlinear system theory. This paper provides a comprehensive literature review examining the complexity testing techniques for time series data. According to different features, the complexity measurements for time series data can be divided into three primary groups, i.e., fractality (mono- or multi-fractality) for self-similarity (or system memorability or long-term persistence), methods derived from nonlinear dynamics (via attractor invariants or diagram descriptions) for attractor properties in phase-space, and entropy (structural or dynamical entropy) for the disorder state of a nonlinear system. These estimations analyse time series dynamics from different perspectives but are closely related to or even dependent on each other at the same time. In particular, a weaker self-similarity, a more complex structure of attractor, and a higher-level disorder state of a system consistently indicate that the observed time series data are at a higher level of complexity. Accordingly, this paper presents a historical tour of the important measures and works for each group, as well as ground-breaking and recent applications and future research directions.

  19. Radiofrequency Ablation in Coccydynia: A Case Series and Comprehensive, Evidence-Based Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yian; Huang-Lionnet, Julie H Y; Cohen, Steven P

    2017-06-01

    Coccydynia is a condition with a multitude of different causes, characterized by ill-defined management. There are multiple prospective studies, including several controlled trials, that have evaluated conservative therapies. Additionally, a plethora of observational studies have assessed coccygectomy, but few studies have reported results for nonsurgical interventional procedures. In this report, we describe the treatment results of 12 patients who received conventional or pulsed radiofrequency for coccydynia and systematically review the literature on management. We performed a retrospective data analysis evaluating patients who underwent pulsed or conventional radiofrequency treatment at Johns Hopkins Hospital and Walter Reed National Military Medical Center. A comprehensive literature review was also performed to contextualize these results. The mean age of patients treated was 50.25 years (SD = 11.20 years, range = 32-72 years), with the mean duration of symptoms being 3.6 years (SD = 3.36 years, range 1-10 years). There were 10 males and two females in this cohort. Among patients who received radiofrequency treatment, the average benefit was 55.5% pain relief (SD = 30.33%, range = 0-100%). Those who underwent conventional (vs pulsed radiofrequency) and who received prognostic blocks were more likely to experience a positive outcome. There were two cases of neuritis, which resolved spontaneously after several weeks. Radiofrequency ablation of the sacrococcygeal nerves may serve as a useful treatment option for patients with coccydynia who have failed more conservative measures. Further research into this therapeutic approach and its benefit for coccydynia should incorporate a control group for comparison. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  20. A comprehensive review on the stinging nettle effect and efficacy profiles. Part II: urticae radix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrubasik, Julia E; Roufogalis, Basil D; Wagner, Hildebert; Chrubasik, Sigrun

    2007-08-01

    Nettle root is recommended for complaints associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). We therefore conducted a comprehensive review of the literature to summarise the pharmacological and clinical effects of this plant material. Only a few components of the active principle have been identified and the mechanism of action is still unclear. It seems likely that sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), aromatase, epidermal growth factor and prostate steroid membrane receptors are involved in the anti-prostatic effect, but less likely that 5alpha-reductase or androgen receptors are involved. Extract and a polysaccharide fraction were shown to exert anti-inflammatory activity. A proprietary methanolic nettle root extract and particular fractions inhibited cell proliferation. Isolated lectins (UDA) were shown to be promising immunomodulatory agents, having also anti-viral and fungistatic effects. However, despite these in vitro studies it is unclear whether the in-vitro or animal data are a surrogate for clinical effects. The clinical evidence of effectiveness for nettle root in the treatment of BPH is based on many open studies. A small number of randomised controlled studies indicate that a proprietary methanolic extract is effective in improving BPH complaints. However, the significance and magnitude of the effect remains to be established in further confirmatory studies before nettle root treatment may be accepted in the guidelines for BPH treatment. The risk for adverse events during nettle root treatment is very low, as is its toxicity. Pre-clinical safety data remain to be completed.

  1. Hypnosis Treatment of Gastrointestinal Disorders: A Comprehensive Review of the Empirical Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palsson, Olafur S

    2015-10-01

    Hypnotherapy has been investigated for 30 years as a treatment for gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. There are presently 35 studies in the published empirical literature, including 17 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that have assessed clinical outcomes of such treatment. This body of research is reviewed comprehensively in this article. Twenty-four of the studies have tested hypnotherapy for adult irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and 5 have focused on IBS or abdominal pain in children. All IBS hypnotherapy studies have reported significant improvement in gastrointestinal symptoms, and 7 out of 10 RCTs in adults and all 3 RCTs in pediatric patient samples found superior outcomes for hypnosis compared to control groups. Collectively this body of research shows unequivocally that for both adults and children with IBS, hypnosis treatment is highly efficacious in reducing bowel symptoms and can offer lasting and substantial symptom relief for a large proportion of patients who do not respond adequately to usual medical treatment approaches. For other GI disorders the evidence is more limited, but preliminary indications of therapeutic potential can be seen in the single randomized controlled trials published to date on hypnotherapy for functional dyspepsia, functional chest pain, and ulcerative colitis. Further controlled hypnotherapy trials in those three disorders should be a high priority. The mechanisms underlying the impact of hypnosis on GI problems are still unclear, but findings from a number of studies suggest that they involve both modulation of gut functioning and changes in the brain's handling of sensory signals from the GI tract.

  2. A comprehensive review and update on the biologic treatment of adult noninfectious uveitis: part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyungmin; Bajwa, Asima; Freitas-Neto, Clovis A; Metzinger, Jamie Lynne; Wentworth, Bailey A; Foster, C Stephen

    2014-11-01

    Treatment of adult, noninfectious uveitis remains a major challenge for ophthalmologists around the world, especially in regard to recalcitrant cases. It is reported to comprise approximately 10% of preventable blindness in the USA. The cause of uveitis can be idiopathic or associated with infectious and systemic disorders. The era of biologic medical therapies provides new options for patients with otherwise treatment-resistant inflammatory eye disease. This two-part review gives a comprehensive overview of the existing medical treatment options for patients with adult, noninfectious uveitis, as well as important advances for the treatment ocular inflammation. Part I covers classic immunomodulation and latest information on corticosteroid therapy. In part II, emerging therapies are discussed, including biologic response modifiers, experimental treatments and ongoing clinical studies for uveitis. The hazard of chronic corticosteroid use in the treatment of adult, noninfectious uveitis is well documented. Corticosteroid-sparing therapies, which offer a very favorable risk-benefit profile when administered properly, should be substituted. Although nothing is currently approved for on-label use in this indication, many therapies, through either translation or novel basic science research, have the potential to fill the currently exposed gaps.

  3. A Comprehensive Review of Semiconductor Ultraviolet Photodetectors: From Thin Film to One-Dimensional Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liwen Sang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet (UV photodetectors have drawn extensive attention owing to their applications in industrial, environmental and even biological fields. Compared to UV-enhanced Si photodetectors, a new generation of wide bandgap semiconductors, such as (Al, In GaN, diamond, and SiC, have the advantages of high responsivity, high thermal stability, robust radiation hardness and high response speed. On the other hand, one-dimensional (1D nanostructure semiconductors with a wide bandgap, such as β-Ga2O3, GaN, ZnO, or other metal-oxide nanostructures, also show their potential for high-efficiency UV photodetection. In some cases such as flame detection, high-temperature thermally stable detectors with high performance are required. This article provides a comprehensive review on the state-of-the-art research activities in the UV photodetection field, including not only semiconductor thin films, but also 1D nanostructured materials, which are attracting more and more attention in the detection field. A special focus is given on the thermal stability of the developed devices, which is one of the key characteristics for the real applications.

  4. Exosomes in Cancer Development, Metastasis and Drug Resistance: A Comprehensive Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Asfar S.; Bao, Bin; Sarkar, Fazlul H.

    2013-01-01

    Trafficking of biological material across membranes is an evolutionary conserved mechanism and is part of any normal cell homeostasis. Such transport is comprised of active, passive, export through microparticles and vesicular transport (exosomes) that collectively maintain proper compartmentalization of important micro and macromolecules. In pathological states, such as cancer, aberrant activity of export machinery results in expulsion of a number of key proteins and microRNAs resulting in their misexpression. Exosome mediated expulsion of intracellular drugs could be another barrier in the proper action of most of the commonly used therapeutics, targeted agents and their intracellular metabolites. Over the last decade, a number of studies have revealed that exosomes cross-talk and/or influence major tumor related pathways such as hypoxia driven EMT, cancer stemness, angiogenesis and metastasis involving many cell types within the tumor microenvironment. Emerging evidence suggest that exosome secreted proteins can also propel fibroblast growth, resulting in Desmoplastic reaction (DR); a major barrier in effective cancer drug delivery. This comprehensive review highlights the advancements in the understanding of the biology of exosomes secretions and the consequence on cancer drug resistance. We propose that the successful combination of cancer treatments to tackle exosome mediated drug resistance requires an interdisciplinary understanding of these cellular exclusion mechanisms, and how secreted biomolecules are involved in cellular cross-talk within the tumor microenvironment. PMID:23709120

  5. Comprehensive geriatric assessment for older women with early breast cancer – a systematic review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parks Ruth M

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA is an analytical tool increasingly implemented in clinical practice. Breast cancer is primarily a disease of older people; however, most evidence-based research is aimed at younger patients. Methods A systematic review of literature was carried out to assess the use of CGA in older breast cancer patients for clinical decision making. The PubMed, Embase and Cochrane databases were searched. Results A total of nine useful full text article results were found. Only five of these were exclusively concerned with early breast cancer; thus, studies involving a variety of cancer types, stages and treatments were accepted, as long as they included early breast cancer.The results comprised a series of low sources of evidence. However, all results shared a common theme: the CGA has a use in determining patient suitability for different types of cancer treatment and subsequently maximizing the patient’s quality of life. Conclusions There is not yet sufficient high level evidence to instate CGA guidelines as a mandatory practice in the management of breast cancer, due to the heterogeneity of available studies. More studies need to be conducted to cement current work on the benefits of the CGA. An area of particular interest is with regard to treatment options, especially surgery and chemotherapy, and identifying patients who may be suitable for these treatments.

  6. Neurovascular structures of the mandibular angle and condyle: a comprehensive anatomical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hun-Mu; Won, Sung-Yoon; Kim, Hee-Jin; Hu, Kyung-Seok

    2015-11-01

    Various surgical interventions including esthetic surgery, salivary gland excision, and open reduction of fracture have been performed in the area around the mandibular angle and condyle. This study aimed to comprehensively review the anatomy of the neurovascular structures on the angle and condyle with recent anatomic and clinical research. We provide detailed information about the branching and distributing patterns of the neurovascular structures at the mandibular angle and condyle, with reported data of measurements and proportions from previous anatomical and clinical research. Our report should serve to help practitioners gain a better understanding of the area in order or reduce potential complications during local procedures. Reckless manipulation during mandibular angle reduction could mutilate arterial branches, not only from the facial artery, but also from the external carotid artery. The transverse facial artery and superficial temporal artery could be damaged during approach and incision in the condylar area. The marginal mandibular branch of the facial nerve can be easily damaged during submandibular gland excision or facial rejuvenation treatment. The main trunk of the facial nerve and its upper and lower distinct divisions have been damaged during parotidectomy, rhytidectomy, and open reductions of condylar fractures. By revisiting the information in the present study, surgeons will be able to more accurately prevent procedure-related complications, such as iatrogenic vascular accidents on the mandibular angle and condyle, complete and partial facial palsy, gustatory sweating (Frey syndrome), and traumatic neuroma after parotidectomy.

  7. A comprehensive review on droplet-based bioprinting: Past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudapati, Hemanth; Dey, Madhuri; Ozbolat, Ibrahim

    2016-09-01

    Droplet-based bioprinting (DBB) offers greater advantages due to its simplicity and agility with precise control on deposition of biologics including cells, growth factors, genes, drugs and biomaterials, and has been a prominent technology in the bioprinting community. Due to its immense versatility, DBB technology has been adopted by various application areas, including but not limited to, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, transplantation and clinics, pharmaceutics and high-throughput screening, and cancer research. Despite the great benefits, the technology currently faces several challenges such as a narrow range of available bioink materials, bioprinting-induced cell damage at substantial levels, limited mechanical and structural integrity of bioprinted constructs, and restrictions on the size of constructs due to lack of vascularization and porosity. This paper presents a first-time review of DBB and comprehensively covers the existing DBB modalities including inkjet, electrohydrodynamic, acoustic, and micro-valve bioprinting. The recent notable studies are highlighted, the relevant bioink biomaterials and bioprinters are expounded, the application areas are presented, and the future prospects are provided to the reader. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Toward a comprehensive, theoretical model of compassion fatigue: An integrative literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzee, Siedine K; Laschinger, Heather K S

    2018-03-01

    This study was an integrative literature review in relation to compassion fatigue models, appraising these models, and developing a comprehensive theoretical model of compassion fatigue. A systematic search on PubMed, EbscoHost (Academic Search Premier, E-Journals, Medline, PsycINFO, Health Source Nursing/Academic Edition, CINAHL, MasterFILE Premier and Health Source Consumer Edition), gray literature, and manual searches of included reference lists was conducted in 2016. The studies (n = 11) were analyzed, and the strengths and limitations of the compassion fatigue models identified. We further built on these models through the application of the conservation of resources theory and the social neuroscience of empathy. The compassion fatigue model shows that it is not empathy that puts nurses at risk of developing compassion fatigue, but rather a lack of resources, inadequate positive feedback, and the nurse's response to personal distress. By acting on these three aspects, the risk of developing compassion fatigue can be addressed, which could improve the retention of a compassionate and committed nurse workforce. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  9. New Ways to Detect Pediatric Sickle Cell Retinopathy: A Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahl, Daniel A; Green, Nancy S; Bhatia, Monica; Chen, Royce W S

    2017-11-01

    Sickle retinopathy reflects disease-related vascular injury of the eye, which can potentially result in visual loss from vitreous hemorrhage or retinal detachment. Here we review sickle retinopathy among children with sickle cell disease, describe the epidemiology, pediatric risk factors, pathophysiology, ocular findings, and treatment. Newer, more sensitive ophthalmological imaging modalities are available for retinal imaging, including ultra-widefield fluorescein angiography, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, and optical coherence tomography angiography. Optical coherence tomography angiography provides a noninvasive view of retinal vascular layers that could previously not be imaged and can be quantified for comparative or prospective analyses. Ultra-widefield fluorescein angiography provides a more comprehensive view of the peripheral retina than traditional imaging techniques. Screening for retinopathy by standard fundoscopic imaging modalities detects a prevalence of approximately 10%. In contrast, these more sensitive methods allow for more sensitive examination that includes the retina perimeter where sickle retinopathy is often first detectable. Use of these new imaging modalities may detect a higher prevalence of early sickle pathology among children than has previously been reported. Earlier detection may help in better understanding the pathogenesis of sickle retinopathy and guide future screening and treatment paradigms.

  10. The Socio-Demographic and Psychological Predictors of Residential Energy Consumption: A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisha R. Frederiks

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a comprehensive review of theory and research on the individual-level predictors of household energy usage. Drawing on literature from across the social sciences, we examine two broad categories of variables that have been identified as potentially important for explaining variability in energy consumption and conservation: socio-demographic factors (e.g., income, employment status, dwelling type/size, home ownership, household size, stage of family life cycle and psychological factors (e.g., beliefs and attitudes, motives and intentions, perceived behavioral control, cost-benefit appraisals, personal and social norms. Despite an expanding literature, we find that empirical evidence of the impact of these variables has been far from consistent and conclusive to date. Such inconsistency poses challenges for drawing generalizable conclusions, and underscores the complexity of consumer behavior in this domain. In this article, we propose that a multitude of factors—whether directly, indirectly, or in interaction—influence how householders consume and conserve energy. Theory, research and practice can be greatly advanced by understanding what these factors are, and how, when, where, why and for whom they operate. We conclude by outlining some important practical implications for policymakers and directions for future research.

  11. Additional Treatments for High-Risk Obstetric Antiphospholipid Syndrome: a Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffatti, Amelia; Hoxha, Ariela; Favaro, Maria; Tonello, Marta; Colpo, Anna; Cucchini, Umberto; Banzato, Alessandra; Pengo, Vittorio

    2017-08-01

    Most investigators currently advocate prophylactic-dose heparin plus low-dose aspirin as the preferred treatment of otherwise healthy women with obstetric antiphospholipid syndrome, whilst women with a history of vascular thrombosis alone or associated with pregnancy morbidity are usually treated with therapeutic heparin doses in association with low-dose aspirin in an attempt to prevent both thrombosis and pregnancy morbidity. However, the protocols outlined above fail in about 20 % of pregnant women with antiphospholipid syndrome. Identifying risk factors associated with pregnancy failure when conventional therapies are utilized is an important step in establishing guidelines to manage these high-risk patients. Some clinical and laboratory risk factors have been found to be related to maternal-foetal complications in pregnant women on conventional therapy. However, the most efficacious treatments to administer to high-risk antiphospholipid syndrome women in addition to conventional therapy in order to avoid pregnancy complications are as yet unestablished. This is a comprehensive review on this topic and an invitation to participate in a multicentre study in order to identify the best additional treatments to be used in this subset of antiphospholipid syndrome patients.

  12. Advances in consolidated bioprocessing systems for bioethanol and butanol production from biomass: a comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Salehi Jouzani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, lignocellulosic biomass as the most abundant renewable resource has been widely considered for bioalcohols production. However, the complex structure of lignocelluloses requires a multi-step process which is costly and time consuming. Although, several bioprocessing approaches have been developed for pretreatment, saccharification and fermentation, bioalcohols production from lignocelluloses is still limited because of the economic infeasibility of these technologies. This cost constraint could be overcome by designing and constructing robust cellulolytic and bioalcohols producing microbes and by using them in a consolidated bioprocessing (CBP system. This paper comprehensively reviews potentials, recent advances and challenges faced in CBP systems for efficient bioalcohols (ethanol and butanol production from lignocellulosic and starchy biomass. The CBP strategies include using native single strains with cellulytic and alcohol production activities, microbial co-cultures containing both cellulytic and ethanologenic microorganisms, and genetic engineering of cellulytic microorganisms to be alcohol-producing or alcohol producing microorganisms to be cellulytic. Moreover, high-throughput techniques, such as metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, next generation sequencing and synthetic biology developed to explore novel microorganisms and powerful enzymes with high activity, thermostability and pH stability are also discussed. Currently, the CBP technology is in its infant stage, and ideal microorganisms and/or conditions at industrial scale are yet to be introduced. So, it is essential to bring into attention all barriers faced and take advantage of all the experiences gained to achieve a high-yield and low-cost CBP process.

  13. Foeniculum vulgare: A comprehensive review of its traditional use, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzoor A. Rather

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Foeniculum vulgare (Apiaceae commonly known as fennel is a well known and important medicinal and aromatic plant widely used as carminative, digestive, lactogogue and diuretic and in treating respiratory and gastrointestinal disorders. Its seeds are used as flavourings in baked goods, meat and fish dishes, ice cream, alcoholic beverages and herb mixtures. Phenols, phenolic glycosides and volatile aroma compounds such as trans-anethole, estragole and fenchone have been reported as the major phytoconstituents of this species. Different pharmacological experiments in a number of in vitro and in vivo models have convincingly demonstrated the ability of F. vulgare to exhibit antifungal, antibacterial, antioxidant, antithrombotic and hepatoprotective activities, lending support to the rationale behind several of its therapeutic uses. Phenolic compounds isolated from F. vulgare are considered to be responsible for its antioxidant activity while the volatile aroma compounds make it an excellent flavouring agent. The present review is an up-to-date and comprehensive analysis of the chemistry, pharmacology, traditional uses and safety of F. vulgare.

  14. The experience of Chinese American parents of children with life-limiting illness: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinjiao; Kearney, Joan A

    2013-07-01

    Life-limiting childhood illness is a traumatic experience presenting parents with psychological, physical, and social challenges. While cultural influences affect all parents coping with the life-limiting illness and end-of-life period of their child, little is known about the experiences of Chinese American parents. The purpose of this comprehensive literature review was to describe Chinese American parents' experiences during their children's end-of-life period from a culturally informed perspective. Important themes in the literature are revealed including culture-based phenomena regarding philosophy of life and illness that can affect treatment choices, cultural mores that influence parental behaviour in Western health-care systems, specific communication patterns within families and between families and providers, certain coping risks, and gender-based roles and caregiving activities that have implications for provider communication patterns. The findings are consonant with the larger literature regarding the impact of traditional culture and values on Chinese family and health behaviours. Health professionals must be sensitive to Chinese American parents' communication styles, unspoken concerns, and unresolved cultural conflicts in American health-care settings. Educational interventions may be very helpful in this regard.

  15. Primary undifferentiated sarcoma of the meninges: A case report and comprehensive review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wapshott, Taylor; Schammel, Christine M G; Schammel, David P; Rezeanu, Luminita; Lynn, Michael

    2018-05-21

    Sarcomas make up 1% of all cases of adult cancer, with 5-10% of those classified as undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcomas (UPS/PUS) and 0.1-4.3% primary intracranial sarcomas. Intracranial undifferentiated sarcoma is characterized by an earlier age of onset and generally poorer prognosis compared to extracranial undifferentiated sarcomas. Current therapies involve surgical excision with wide margins and radiotherapy, with minimal data available regarding the efficacy of chemotherapy. A 79-year-old man with a history of remote superficial bladder cancer presented with a large frontal scalp lesion. A biopsy was initially attempted by a dermatologist in the outpatient setting, but a follow-up CT scan revealed a skull-eroding, enhancing soft tissue lesion. Neurosurgical treatment revealed an undifferentiated sarcoma. The patient underwent adjuvant radiation therapy of 59.4 Gy fractionated over 45 days following surgery. Follow-up brain MRIs at 1-, 6-, 9-, 12-, 15-, 21-, and 27 months after surgery have not shown any indications of local recurrence or tumor metastasis. Despite the high propensity that undifferentiated sarcomas have for recurrence and metastasis and the patient's advanced age, this patient remains uniquely disease-free. We provide a description of an unusual case and comprehensive literature review of UPS to clarify the hallmarks of the disease, identify the difficulties in diagnosis, and provide a summary of therapies employed in the literature with their corresponding patient outcomes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Review of Technical Studies in the United States in Support of Burnup Credit Regulatory Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, John C.; Parks, Cecil V.; Mueller, Don; Gauld, Ian C.

    2010-01-01

    Taking credit for the reduction in reactivity associated with fuel depletion can enable more cost-effective, higher-density storage, transport, disposal, and reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) while maintaining sufficient subcritical margin to establish an adequate safety basis. Consequently, there continues to be considerable interest in the United States (U.S.), as well as internationally, in the increased use of burnup credit in SNF operations, particularly related to storage, transport, and disposal of commercial SNF. This interest has motivated numerous technical studies related to the application of burnup credit, both domestically and internationally, as well as the design of SNF storage, transport and disposal systems that rely on burnup credit for maintaining subcriticality. Responding to industry requests and needs, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated a burnup credit research program in 1999, with support from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), to develop regulatory guidance and the supporting technical bases for allowing and expanding the use of burnup credit in pressurized-water reactor SNF storage and transport applications. Although this NRC research program has not been continuous since its inception, considerable progress has been achieved in many key areas in terms of increased understanding of relevant phenomena and issues, availability of relevant information and data, and subsequently updated regulatory guidance for expanded use of burnup credit. This paper reviews technical studies performed by ORNL for the U.S. NRC burnup credit research program. Examples of topics include reactivity effects associated with reactor operating characteristics, fuel assembly characteristics, burnable absorbers, control rods, spatial burnup distributions, cooling time, and assembly misloading; methods and data for validation of isotopic composition predictions; methods and data for validation of criticality calculations; and

  17. A review of technical options for solar charging stations in Asia and Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. Almeida

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Charging stations are an attractive solution to provide access to electricity to low income populations with low energy consumption in remote and off-grid areas. This paper reviews the state of the art of charging stations, with special focus on the technical options. Forty-five different actors in this field were analysed, based on academic publications, reports, online search and surveys. Results show that most stations are run in Sub Saharan Africa and South Asia, are powered by solar energy and although there are many different energy services targeted, the most popular services are charging batteries, mobile phones and lamps. The first charging station was installed in 1992 but most activities happen after 2005. This recent growth has been enabled by the falling cost of photovoltaic modules, learning effect, economies of scale, financial innovation, private sector involvement and worldwide dissemination of mobile phones. While in the first system the only purpose was to charge solar photovoltaic lanterns, the first multi-purpose station appeared in 2008. As expected, the technical challenges are mostly related to the use of batteries not only because they represent the component with shortest lifetime but also because if the battery is not for individual use, social questions arise due to poor definition of rights and duties of the customers. Furthermore, the development of a sustainable business model is also a challenge since this requires technical skills and system monitoring that are not usually available locally. Finally, it is also suggested that the minimum technical quality standards for charging stations should be defined and implemented.

  18. Technical Survey and Feasibility Review for Development of IV-CEAPI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Yongtae; Park, Jinseok; Lee, Myounggoo; Cho, Yeonho; Kim, Hyunmin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to establish the development direction of the IV-CEAPI(Control element assembly position indicator). The paper presents the technologies of the existing CEAPI and other linear displacement sensors. The paper also presents feasibility review of those technologies for the IV-CEAPI considering its environmental conditions as shown in Table 1. an instrument to monitor vertical position of the control element assembly (CEA) in nuclear reactors. The CEAPI is installed in each control element drive mechanism (CEDM). The conventional CEDMs are installed outside the reactor vessel (RV) with nozzles penetrating the RV head. To select the type of the IV-CEAPI, technical surveys on linear displacement sensors were performed. Feasibility of those sensors was reviewed considering the environment conditions, experience, reliability and simplicity. The result is summarized in Table 2 which implies that the solenoid type is considered to be the best suitable types for the IV-CEAPI

  19. Independent technical review of the Sandia National Laboratories Environmental Restoration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    An Independent Technical Review was conducted of the Environmental Restoration Project. The objective of the review was recommendations, from a commercial perspective, on a systems level path forward to safe, minimum cost and schedule project completion. The work presented represents the consensus analysis and recommendations of thirteen individuals with varied backgrounds, expertise, and experience. The ITR team recommends that the barriers to the opportunity described in the diagnosis be eliminated using an integrated DOE-Sandia system approach. Piecemeal changes will not result in the desired commercial efficiency. DOE needs to operate as the contracting agency for a Major System Acquisition. If it does not, commercial performance will not be achieved regardless of the contractor. Likewise, Sandia needs to establish and implement the necessary project structure and management systems to operate with commercial contractor like efficiency

  20. Selective prevention programs for children from substance-affected families: a comprehensive systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bröning Sonja

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Children from substance-affected families show an elevated risk for developing own substance-related or other mental disorders. Therefore, they are an important target group for preventive efforts. So far, such programs for children of substance-involved parents have not been reviewed together. We conducted a comprehensive systematic review to identify and summarize evaluations of selective preventive interventions in childhood and adolescence targeted at this specific group. From the overall search result of 375 articles, 339 were excluded, 36 full texts were reviewed. From these, nine eligible programs documented in 13 studies were identified comprising four school-based interventions (study 1–6, one community-based intervention (study 7–8, and four family-based interventions (study 9–13. Studies’ levels of evidence were rated in accordance with the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN methodology, and their quality was ranked according to a score adapted from the area of meta-analytic family therapy research and consisting of 15 study design quality criteria. Studies varied in program format, structure, content, and participants. They also varied in outcome measures, results, and study design quality. We found seven RCT’s, two well designed controlled or quasi-experimental studies, three well-designed descriptive studies, and one qualitative study. There was preliminary evidence for the effectiveness of the programs, especially when their duration was longer than ten weeks and when they involved children’s, parenting, and family skills training components. Outcomes proximal to the intervention, such as program-related knowledge, coping-skills, and family relations, showed better results than more distal outcomes such as self-worth and substance use initiation, the latter due to the comparably young age of participants and sparse longitudinal data. However, because of the small overall number of studies found

  1. Outdoor human thermal perception in various climates: A comprehensive review of approaches, methods and quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potchter, Oded; Cohen, Pninit; Lin, Tzu-Ping; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2018-08-01

    Over the past century, many research studies have been conducted in an attempt to define thermal conditions for humans in the outdoor environment and to grade thermal sensation. Consequently, a large number of indices have been proposed. The examination of human thermal indices by thermal subjective perception has become recently a methodical issue to confirm the accuracy, applicability and validation of human thermal indices. The aims of this study are: (a) to review studies containing both calculated human thermal conditions and subjective thermal perception in the outdoor environment (b) to identify the most used human thermal indices for evaluating human thermal perception (c) to examine the relation between human thermal comfort range and outdoor thermal environment conditions and (d) to compare between categories of thermal sensation in different climatic zones based on subjective perception and levels of thermal strain. A comprehensive literature review identified 110 peer-reviewed articles which investigated in-situ thermal conditions versus subjective thermal perception during 2001-2017. It seems that out of 165 human thermal indices that have been developed, only 4 (PET, PMV, UTCI, SET*) are widely in use for outdoor thermal perception studies. Examination of the relation between human thermal comfort range and outdoor thermal environment conditions for selective indices in different climatic zones shows that the range of the thermal comfort or dis-comfort is affected by the outdoor thermal environment. For the PET index, the "neutral" range for hot climates of 24-26°C is agreed by 95% of the studies where for cold climate, the "neutral" range of 15-20°C is agreed by 89% of the studies. For the UTCI, the "no thermal stress" category is common to all climates. The "no stress category" of 16-23°C is agreed by 80% of the case studies, while 100% of the case studies agreed that the range is between 18 and 23°C. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  2. A comprehensive review of cryogels and their roles in tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hixon, Katherine R; Lu, Tracy; Sell, Scott A

    2017-10-15

    niche within biomaterials and tissue engineering research. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first comprehensive review of cryogel applications in tissue engineering that includes specific looks at their growing roles as extracellular matrix analogues, incubators, and in bioseparation processes. Copyright © 2017 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Advanced human-system interface design review guideline. General evaluation model, technical development, and guideline description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, J.M.

    1994-07-01

    Advanced control rooms will use advanced human-system interface (HSI) technologies that may have significant implications for plant safety in that they will affect the operator's overall role in the system, the method of information presentation, and the ways in which operators interact with the system. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the HSI aspects of control rooms to ensure that they are designed to good human factors engineering principles and that operator performance and reliability are appropriately supported to protect public health and safety. The principal guidance available to the NRC, however, was developed more than ten years ago, well before these technological changes. Accordingly, the human factors guidance needs to be updated to serve as the basis for NRC review of these advanced designs. The purpose of this project was to develop a general approach to advanced HSI review and the human factors guidelines to support NRC safety reviews of advanced systems. This two-volume report provides the results of the project. Volume I describes the development of the Advanced HSI Design Review Guideline (DRG) including (1) its theoretical and technical foundation, (2) a general model for the review of advanced HSIs, (3) guideline development in both hard-copy and computer-based versions, and (4) the tests and evaluations performed to develop and validate the DRG. Volume I also includes a discussion of the gaps in available guidance and a methodology for addressing them. Volume 2 provides the guidelines to be used for advanced HSI review and the procedures for their use

  4. Advanced human-system interface design review guideline. General evaluation model, technical development, and guideline description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Hara, J.M.

    1994-07-01

    Advanced control rooms will use advanced human-system interface (HSI) technologies that may have significant implications for plant safety in that they will affect the operator`s overall role in the system, the method of information presentation, and the ways in which operators interact with the system. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the HSI aspects of control rooms to ensure that they are designed to good human factors engineering principles and that operator performance and reliability are appropriately supported to protect public health and safety. The principal guidance available to the NRC, however, was developed more than ten years ago, well before these technological changes. Accordingly, the human factors guidance needs to be updated to serve as the basis for NRC review of these advanced designs. The purpose of this project was to develop a general approach to advanced HSI review and the human factors guidelines to support NRC safety reviews of advanced systems. This two-volume report provides the results of the project. Volume I describes the development of the Advanced HSI Design Review Guideline (DRG) including (1) its theoretical and technical foundation, (2) a general model for the review of advanced HSIs, (3) guideline development in both hard-copy and computer-based versions, and (4) the tests and evaluations performed to develop and validate the DRG. Volume I also includes a discussion of the gaps in available guidance and a methodology for addressing them. Volume 2 provides the guidelines to be used for advanced HSI review and the procedures for their use.

  5. 76 FR 4115 - Request for the Technical Review of the Draft Current Intelligence Bulletin (CIB): Derivation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-24

    ... NIOSH-156] Request for the Technical Review of the Draft Current Intelligence Bulletin (CIB): Derivation... public review of the draft, Current Intelligence Bulletin (CIB): Derivation of Immediately Dangerous to... established and (3) an overview of the analysis applied by NIOSH to develop a scientifically-based approach...

  6. Reading Comprehension II. Bibliographies and Summaries of Selected Articles. Volume 6. Research Review Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGinitie, Walter H.; And Others

    Summaries of several papers are presented to develop a working theoretical analysis of reading comprehension and an understanding of development in language comprehension based upon empirical studies. Contributions from the areas of assessment, artificial intelligence, cognition (including schema theory), instruction, linguistics, learning…

  7. Human-system Interfaces to Automatic Systems: Review Guidance and Technical Basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OHara, J.M.; Higgins, J.C.

    2010-01-31

    Automation has become ubiquitous in modern complex systems and commercial nuclear power plants are no exception. Beyond the control of plant functions and systems, automation is applied to a wide range of additional functions including monitoring and detection, situation assessment, response planning, response implementation, and interface management. Automation has become a 'team player' supporting plant personnel in nearly all aspects of plant operation. In light of the increasing use and importance of automation in new and future plants, guidance is needed to enable the NRC staff to conduct safety reviews of the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of modern automation. The objective of the research described in this report was to develop guidance for reviewing the operator's interface with automation. We first developed a characterization of the important HFE aspects of automation based on how it is implemented in current systems. The characterization included five dimensions: Level of automation, function of automation, modes of automation, flexibility of allocation, and reliability of automation. Next, we reviewed literature pertaining to the effects of these aspects of automation on human performance and the design of human-system interfaces (HSIs) for automation. Then, we used the technical basis established by the literature to develop design review guidance. The guidance is divided into the following seven topics: Automation displays, interaction and control, automation modes, automation levels, adaptive automation, error tolerance and failure management, and HSI integration. In addition, we identified insights into the automaton design process, operator training, and operations.

  8. Human-system Interfaces to Automatic Systems: Review Guidance and Technical Basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, J.M.; Higgins, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    Automation has become ubiquitous in modern complex systems and commercial nuclear power plants are no exception. Beyond the control of plant functions and systems, automation is applied to a wide range of additional functions including monitoring and detection, situation assessment, response planning, response implementation, and interface management. Automation has become a 'team player' supporting plant personnel in nearly all aspects of plant operation. In light of the increasing use and importance of automation in new and future plants, guidance is needed to enable the NRC staff to conduct safety reviews of the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of modern automation. The objective of the research described in this report was to develop guidance for reviewing the operator's interface with automation. We first developed a characterization of the important HFE aspects of automation based on how it is implemented in current systems. The characterization included five dimensions: Level of automation, function of automation, modes of automation, flexibility of allocation, and reliability of automation. Next, we reviewed literature pertaining to the effects of these aspects of automation on human performance and the design of human-system interfaces (HSIs) for automation. Then, we used the technical basis established by the literature to develop design review guidance. The guidance is divided into the following seven topics: Automation displays, interaction and control, automation modes, automation levels, adaptive automation, error tolerance and failure management, and HSI integration. In addition, we identified insights into the automaton design process, operator training, and operations.

  9. SRTC criticality safety technical review: Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation 93-04 enriched uranium receipt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathbun, R.

    1993-01-01

    Review of NMP-NCS-930087, open-quotes Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation 93-04 Enriched Uranium Receipt (U), July 30, 1993, close quotes was requested of SRTC (Savannah River Technology Center) Applied Physics Group. The NCSE is a criticality assessment to determine the mass limit for Engineered Low Level Trench (ELLT) waste uranium burial. The intent is to bury uranium in pits that would be separated by a specified amount of undisturbed soil. The scope of the technical review, documented in this report, consisted of (1) an independent check of the methods and models employed, (2) independent HRXN/KENO-V.a calculations of alternate configurations, (3) application of ANSI/ANS 8.1, and (4) verification of WSRC Nuclear Criticality Safety Manual procedures. The NCSE under review concludes that a 500 gram limit per burial position is acceptable to ensure the burial site remains in a critically safe configuration for all normal and single credible abnormal conditions. This reviewer agrees with that conclusion

  10. Methodological Note: Neurofeedback: A Comprehensive Review on System Design, Methodology and Clinical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hengameh Marzbani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Neurofeedback is a kind of biofeedback, which teaches self-control of brain functions to subjects by measuring brain waves and providing a feedback signal. Neurofeedback usually provides the audio and or video feedback. Positive or negative feedback is produced for desirable or undesirable brain activities, respectively. In this review, we provided clinical and technical information about the following issues: (1 Various neurofeedback treatment protocols i.e. alpha, beta, alpha/theta, delta, gamma, and theta; (2 Different EEG electrode placements i.e. standard recording channels in the frontal, temporal, central, and occipital lobes; (3 Electrode montages (unipolar, bipolar; (4 Types of neurofeedback i.e. frequency, power, slow cortical potential, functional magnetic resonance imaging, and so on; (5 Clinical applications of neurofeedback i.e. treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, anxiety, depression, epilepsy, insomnia, drug addiction, schizophrenia, learning disabilities, dyslexia and dyscalculia, autistic spectrum disorders and so on as well as other applications such as pain management, and the improvement of musical and athletic performance; and (6 Neurofeedback softwares. To date, many studies have been conducted on the neurofeedback therapy and its effectiveness on the treatment ofmany diseases. Neurofeedback, like other treatments, has its own pros and cons. Although it  is a non-invasive procedure, its validity has been questioned in terms of conclusive scientific evidence. For example, it is expensive, time-consuming and its benefits are not long-lasting. Also, it might take months to show the desired improvements. Nevertheless, neurofeedback is known as a complementary and alternative treatment of many brain dysfunctions. However, current research does not support conclusive results about its efficacy.

  11. Neurofeedback: A Comprehensive Review on System Design, Methodology and Clinical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzbani, Hengameh; Marateb, Hamid Reza; Mansourian, Marjan

    2016-01-01

    Neurofeedback is a kind of biofeedback, which teaches self-control of brain functions to subjects by measuring brain waves and providing a feedback signal. Neurofeedback usually provides the audio and or video feedback. Positive or negative feedback is produced for desirable or undesirable brain activities, respectively. In this review, we provided clinical and technical information about the following issues: (1) Various neurofeedback treatment protocols i.e. alpha, beta, alpha/theta, delta, gamma, and theta; (2) Different EEG electrode placements i.e. standard recording channels in the frontal, temporal, central, and occipital lobes; (3) Electrode montages (unipolar, bipolar); (4) Types of neurofeedback i.e. frequency, power, slow cortical potential, functional magnetic resonance imaging, and so on; (5) Clinical applications of neurofeedback i.e. treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, anxiety, depression, epilepsy, insomnia, drug addiction, schizophrenia, learning disabilities, dyslexia and dyscalculia, autistic spectrum disorders and so on as well as other applications such as pain management, and the improvement of musical and athletic performance; and (6) Neurofeedback softwares. To date, many studies have been conducted on the neurofeedback therapy and its effectiveness on the treatment of many diseases. Neurofeedback, like other treatments, has its own pros and cons. Although it is a non-invasive procedure, its validity has been questioned in terms of conclusive scientific evidence. For example, it is expensive, time-consuming and its benefits are not long-lasting. Also, it might take months to show the desired improvements. Nevertheless, neurofeedback is known as a complementary and alternative treatment of many brain dysfunctions. However, current research does not support conclusive results about its efficacy. PMID:27303609

  12. A gist of comprehensive review of hadronic chemistry and its applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tangde, Vijay M. [Post Graduate Teaching Department of Chemistry, Rashtrasant Tukadoji Maharaj Nagpur University, Amravati Road Campus, NAGPUR - 440 033, India, Email: vijaytn6@gmail.com (India)

    2015-03-10

    20{sup th} century theories of Quantum Mechanics and Quantum Chemistry are exactly valid only when considered to represent the atomic structures. While considering the more general aspects of atomic combinations these theories fail to explain all the related experimental data from first unadulterated axiomatic principles. According to Quantum Chemistry two valence electrons should repel each other and as such there is no mathematical representation of a strong attractive forces between such valence electrons. In view of these and other insufficiencies of Quantum Chemistry, an Italian-American Scientist Professor Ruggero Maria Santilli during his more than five decades of dedicated and sustained research has denounced the fact that quantum chemistry is mostly based on mere nomenclatures. Professor R M Santilli first formulated the iso-, geno- and hyper- mathematics [1, 2, 3, 4] that helped in understanding numerous diversified problems and removing inadequacies in most of the established and celebrated theories of 20th century physics and chemistry. This involves the isotopic, genotopic, etc. lifting of Lie algebra that generated Lie admissible mathematics to properly describe irreversible processes. The studies on Hadronic Mechanics in general and chemistry in particular based on Santilli’s mathematics[3, 4, 5] for the first time has removed the very fundamental limitations of quantum chemistry [2, 6, 7, 8]. In the present discussion, a comprehensive review of Hadronic Chemistry is presented that imparts the completeness to the Quantum Chemistry via an addition of effects at distances of the order of 1 fm (only) which are assumed to be Non-linear, Non-local, Non-potential, Non-hamiltonian and thus Non-unitary, stepwise successes of Hadronic Chemistry and its application in development of a new chemical species called Magnecules.

  13. A comprehensive review on self-healing of asphalt materials: Mechanism, model, characterization and enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Daquan; Sun, Guoqiang; Zhu, Xingyi; Guarin, Alvaro; Li, Bin; Dai, Ziwei; Ling, Jianming

    2018-05-09

    Self-healing has great potential to extend the service life of asphalt pavement, and this capability has been regarded as an important strategy when designing a sustainable infrastructure. This review presents a comprehensive summary of the state-of-the-art investigations concerning the self-healing mechanism, model, characterization and enhancement, ranging from asphalt to asphalt pavement. Firstly, the self-healing phenomenon as a general concept in asphalt materials is analyzed including its definition and the differences among self-healing and some viscoelastic responses. Additionally, the development of self-healing in asphalt pavement design is introduced. Next, four kinds of possible self-healing mechanism and corresponding models are presented. It is pointed out that the continuum thermodynamic model, considering the whole process from damage initiation to healing recovery, can be a promising study field. Further, a set of self-healing multiscale characterization methods from microscale to macroscale as well as computational simulation scale, are summed up. Thereinto, the computational simulation shows great potential in simulating the self-healing behavior of asphalt materials from mechanical and molecular level. Moreover, the factors influencing self-healing capability are discussed, but the action mechanisms of some factors remain unclear and need to be investigated. Finally, two extrinsic self-healing technologies, induction heating and capsule healing, are recommended as preventive maintenance applications in asphalt pavement. In future, more effective energy-based healing systems or novel material-based healing systems are expected to be developed towards designing sustainable long-life asphalt pavement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Effect of Plan Type and Comprehensive Medication Reviews on High-Risk Medication Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almodovar, Armando Silva; Axon, David Rhys; Coleman, Ashley M; Warholak, Terri; Nahata, Milap C

    2018-05-01

    In 2007, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) instituted a star rating system using performance outcome measures to assess Medicare Advantage Prescription Drug (MAPD) and Prescription Drug Plan (PDP) providers. To assess the relationship between 2 performance outcome measures for Medicare insurance providers, comprehensive medication reviews (CMRs), and high-risk medication use. This cross-sectional study included Medicare Part C and Part D performance data from the 2014 and 2015 calendar years. Performance data were downloaded per Medicare contract from the CMS. We matched Medicare insurance provider performance data with the enrollment data of each contract. Mann Whitney U and Spearman rho tests and a hierarchical linear regression model assessed the relationship between provider characteristics, high-risk medication use, and CMR completion rate outcome measures. In 2014, an inverse correlation between CMR completion rate and high-risk medication use was identified among MAPD plan providers. This relationship was further strengthened in 2015. No correlation was detected between the CMR completion rate and high-risk medication use among PDP plan providers in either year. A multivariate regression found an inverse association with high-risk medication use among MAPD plan providers in comparison with PDP plan providers in 2014 (beta = -0.358, P plan providers and higher CMR completion rates were associated with lower use of high-risk medications among beneficiaries. No outside funding supported this study. Silva Almodovar reports a fellowship funded by SinfoniaRx, Tucson, Arizona, during the time of this study. The other authors have nothing to disclose.

  15. Atmospheric HULIS: How humic-like are they? A comprehensive and critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. R. Graber

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A class of organic molecules extracted from atmospheric aerosol particles and isolated from fog and cloud water has been termed HUmic-LIke Substances (HULIS due to a certain resemblance to terrestrial and aquatic humic and fulvic acids. In light of the interest that this class of atmospheric compounds currently attracts, we comprehensively review HULIS properties, as well as laboratory and field investigations concerning their formation and characterization in atmospheric samples. While sharing some important features such as polyacidic nature, accumulating evidence suggests that atmospheric HULIS differ substantially from terrestrial and aquatic humic substances. Major differences between HULIS and humic substances, including smaller average molecular weight, lower aromatic moiety content, greater surface activity, better droplet activation ability, as well as others, are highlighted. Several alternatives are proposed that may explain such differences: (1 the possibility that mono- and di-carboxylic acids and mineral acids abundant in the atmosphere prevent the formation of large humic 'supramolecular associations'; (2 that large humic macromolecules are destroyed in the atmosphere by UV radiation, O3, and OH- radicals; (3 that 'HULIS' actually consists of a complex, unresolved mixture of relatively small molecules rather than macromolecular entities; and (4 that HULIS formed via abiotic and short-lived oxidative reaction pathways differ substantially from humic substances formed over long time periods via biologically-mediated reactions. It should also be recalled that the vast majority of studies of HULIS relate to the water soluble fraction, which would include only the fulvic acid fraction of humic substances, and exclude the humic acid (base-soluble and humin (insoluble fractions of humic substances. A significant effort towards adopting standard extraction and characterization methods is required to develop a better and meaningful

  16. Critical Review of Rasaratna Samuccaya: A Comprehensive Treatise of Indian Alchemy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhirajsingh Rajput Sumersingh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rasaratna Samuccaya (RRS a 13th century C.E. alchemical treatise, authored by Vāgbhaṭa, is a useful compilation related to preparation and properties of drugs of mineral and metallic origin. This text throws light on the state of Indian expertise in the field of alchemy regarding the extraction, purification, conversion of metals/minerals into therapeutically suitable forms, various instruments developed for alchemical purposes and treatment of numerous diseases by using herbo-mineral preparations. The present work is an attempt to summarize the key features of RRS to highlight its utility and contribution in the development of Indian alchemy. To study and summarize the important, comprehensive and specific points mentioned in RRS and to elaborate the contribution of RRS in the field of Indian alchemy. A critical review of RRS from Suratnojjvalā Hindi commentary by Ambikadatta Shastri was done and the collected information was compared with other available literature of Rasaśāstra. Research of modern science was also utilized to explore some facts mentioned by Vāgbhaṭa. RRS is a precise treatise among available ancient literature. It comprises of all eight branches of Ayurveda, although it mainly deals with therapeutic aspects of Rasaśāstra and emphasizes the use of metals and minerals in treating nearly 68 types of ailments. It contains 30 chapters, 3871 verses and detailed description of 960 formulations. Classification of metals and minerals; description of some new instruments, formulations and averting use of metals and minerals in pregnancy are the key features of RRS.

  17. Structure and dynamics of molecular networks: A novel paradigm of drug discovery: A comprehensive review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csermely, Peter; Korcsmáros, Tamás; Kiss, Huba J.M.; London, Gábor; Nussinov, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Despite considerable progress in genome- and proteome-based high-throughput screening methods and in rational drug design, the increase in approved drugs in the past decade did not match the increase of drug development costs. Network description and analysis not only gives a systems-level understanding of drug action and disease complexity, but can also help to improve the efficiency of drug design. We give a comprehensive assessment of the analytical tools of network topology and dynamics. The state-of-the-art use of chemical similarity, protein structure, protein-protein interaction, signaling, genetic interaction and metabolic networks in the discovery of drug targets is summarized. We propose that network targeting follows two basic strategies. The “central hit strategy” selectively targets central node/edges of the flexible networks of infectious agents or cancer cells to kill them. The “network influence strategy” works against other diseases, where an efficient reconfiguration of rigid networks needs to be achieved. It is shown how network techniques can help in the identification of single-target, edgetic, multi-target and allo-network drug target candidates. We review the recent boom in network methods helping hit identification, lead selection optimizing drug efficacy, as well as minimizing side-effects and drug toxicity. Successful network-based drug development strategies are shown through the examples of infections, cancer, metabolic diseases, neurodegenerative diseases and aging. Summarizing >1200 references we suggest an optimized protocol of network-aided drug development, and provide a list of systems-level hallmarks of drug quality. Finally, we highlight network-related drug development trends helping to achieve these hallmarks by a cohesive, global approach. PMID:23384594

  18. Breast Cancer Survivorship: A Comprehensive Review of Long-Term Medical Issues and Lifestyle Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodai, Balazs I; Tuso, Phillip

    2015-01-01

    Long-term survival rates after a diagnosis of breast cancer are steadily rising. This is good news, but clinicians must also recognize that this brings new challenges to the medical community. As breast cancer becomes a chronic condition rather than a life-threatening illness owing to advances in early diagnosis and more effective treatments, health care practitioners must recognize and manage the long-term sequelae of the constellation of therapeutic modalities. Survivors of breast cancer represent a unique and extremely complex group of patients; not only do they have the challenge of dealing with multiple long-term side effects of treatment protocols, but many are also forced to address the preexisting comorbidities of their therapies, which often include multiple other issues. Therapies have additional and/or additive side effects that may interfere with treatments directed toward the new primary diagnosis of breast cancer. Our mandate is to establish a smooth transition from patient with breast cancer to survivor of breast cancer while providing ongoing and future guidance. Certainly, the information and resources to accomplish this transition are readily available; however, they are scattered throughout the literature and therefore are not easily accessible or available to the primary care physician. It is imperative that the information available regarding survivorship issues be accessible in an organized and useful format. This article is a modest attempt to provide a comprehensive review of the long-term medical issues relevant to survivorship after the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. A predicted shortage of oncologists by 2020 is well-recognized. Therefore, the bulk of long-term care will become dependent on the primary care physician. This shift of care means that these physicians will need to be well educated in the long-term medical issues related to breast cancer treatment. PMID:25902343

  19. Pembrolizumab-Induced Thyroiditis: Comprehensive Clinical Review and Insights Into Underlying Involved Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delivanis, Danae A; Gustafson, Michael P; Bornschlegl, Svetlana; Merten, Michele M; Kottschade, Lisa; Withers, Sarah; Dietz, Allan B; Ryder, Mabel

    2017-08-01

    Thyroid immune-related adverse events (irAEs) in patients treated with programmed death receptor-1 (PD-1) blockade are increasingly recognized as one of the most common adverse effects. Our aim was to determine the incidence and examine the potential mechanisms of anti-PD-1-induced thyroid irAEs. Single-center, retrospective cohort study. We studied 93 patients with advanced cancer (ages 24 to 82 years; 60% males) who received at least one infusion of pembrolizumab. Thyroid test results and thyroid imaging modalities were reviewed. Comprehensive 10-color flow cytometry of peripheral blood was performed. Thirteen (14%) thyroid irAEs were observed. Thyroiditis occurred in seven patients (54%), from which four recovered. New onset of hypothyroidism overt/subclinical developed in three patients. Levothyroxine dosing required doubling in three patients with a known history of hypothyroidism. Thyroperoxidase antibodies were positive in the minority of the patients [4/13 (31%)] and diffuse increased 18fludeoxyglucose uptake of the thyroid gland was observed in the majority [7/11 (64%)] of patients. We observed more circulating CD56+CD16+ natural killer (NK) cells and an elevated HLA-DR surface expression in the inflammatory intermediate CD14+CD16+ monocytes in anti-PD-1-treated patients. Thyroid dysfunction is common in cancer patients treated with pembrolizumab. Reversible destructive thyroiditis and overt hypothyroidism are the most common clinical presentations. The mechanism of thyroid destruction appears independent of thyroid autoantibodies and may include T cell, NK cell, and/or monocyte-mediated pathways. Because the thyroid is a frequent target of anti-PD-1 therapies, patients with therapeutically refractory thyroid cancer may be ideal candidates for this treatment. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  20. A gist of comprehensive review of hadronic chemistry and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tangde, Vijay M.

    2015-01-01

    20 th century theories of Quantum Mechanics and Quantum Chemistry are exactly valid only when considered to represent the atomic structures. While considering the more general aspects of atomic combinations these theories fail to explain all the related experimental data from first unadulterated axiomatic principles. According to Quantum Chemistry two valence electrons should repel each other and as such there is no mathematical representation of a strong attractive forces between such valence electrons. In view of these and other insufficiencies of Quantum Chemistry, an Italian-American Scientist Professor Ruggero Maria Santilli during his more than five decades of dedicated and sustained research has denounced the fact that quantum chemistry is mostly based on mere nomenclatures. Professor R M Santilli first formulated the iso-, geno- and hyper- mathematics [1, 2, 3, 4] that helped in understanding numerous diversified problems and removing inadequacies in most of the established and celebrated theories of 20th century physics and chemistry. This involves the isotopic, genotopic, etc. lifting of Lie algebra that generated Lie admissible mathematics to properly describe irreversible processes. The studies on Hadronic Mechanics in general and chemistry in particular based on Santilli’s mathematics[3, 4, 5] for the first time has removed the very fundamental limitations of quantum chemistry [2, 6, 7, 8]. In the present discussion, a comprehensive review of Hadronic Chemistry is presented that imparts the completeness to the Quantum Chemistry via an addition of effects at distances of the order of 1 fm (only) which are assumed to be Non-linear, Non-local, Non-potential, Non-hamiltonian and thus Non-unitary, stepwise successes of Hadronic Chemistry and its application in development of a new chemical species called Magnecules

  1. Technical Issues and Proposes on the Legislation of Probabilistic Safety Assessment in Periodic Safety Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Seok-Won; Jeon, Ho-Jun; Na, Jang-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Korean Nuclear Power Plants have performed a comprehensive safety assessment reflecting design and procedure changes and using the latest technology every 10 years. In Korea, safety factors of PSR are revised to 14 by revision of IAEA Safety Guidelines in 2003. In the revised safety guidelines, safety analysis field was subdivided into deterministic safety analysis, PSA (Probabilistic safety analysis), and hazard analysis. The purpose to examine PSA as a safety factor on PSR is to make sure that PSA results and assumptions reflect the latest state of NPPs, validate the level of computer codes and analytical models, and evaluate the adequacy of PSA instructions. In addition, its purpose is to derive the plant design change, operating experience of other plants and safety enhancement items as well. In Korea, PSA is introduced as a new factor. Thus, the overall guideline development and long-term implementation strategy are needed. Today in Korea, full-power PSA model revision and low-power and shutdown (LPSD) PSA model development is being performed as a part of the post Fukushima action items for operating plants. The scope of the full-power PSA is internal/external level 1, 2 PSA. But in case of fire PSA, the scope is level 1 PSA using new method, NUREG/CR-6850. In case of LPSD PSA, level 1 PSA for all operating plants, and level 2 PSA for 2 demonstration plants are under development. The result of the LPSD PSA will be used as major input data for plant specific SAMG (Severe Accident Management Guideline). The scope of PSA currently being developed in Korea cannot fulfill 'All Mode, All Scope' requirements recommended in the IAEA Safety Guidelines. Besides the legislation of PSA, step-by-step development strategy for non-performed scopes such as level 3 PSA and new fire PSA is one of the urgent issues in Korea. This paper suggests technical issues and development strategies for each PSA technical elements.

  2. Management of disruptive behaviour within nursing work environments: a comprehensive systematic review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers-Clark, Catherine; Pearce, Susanne; Cameron, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    methods as well as opinion based papers were considered for this systematic review.Types of outcomes - Outcomes were assessed in relation to the effect of interventions on patient safety and quality of care, quality of team work and work environment, levels of job satisfaction and nursing staff morale as well as levels of staff retention. Searches were conducted including any published and unpublished material, including grey literature, in the English language. A search of CINAHL, Medline, Medline-in Process, PsychINFO, Emerald and TRIP was undertaken using specifically defined terms and synonyms. Scirus, OpenSIGLE and Google Scholar were also searched. A search of electronic dissertations via Dissertation Abstracts was undertaken. Each paper was assessed by two independent reviewers for methodological quality prior to inclusion in the review using an appropriate critical appraisal instrument from the System for the Unified Management, Assessment and Review of Information' (SUMARI) developed by JBI. Data was identified as quantitative or qualitative data or opinion based and data extraction tools developed by the Joanna Briggs Institute were used to extract the data, where possible. Where this was not possible, findings were presented in narrative form. Data were synthesised according to their methodological approach. Qualitative data were pooled using the QARI instrument and a set of statements were developed that represented a broader overview of a specific aggregation RESULTS: A total of 24 papers, descriptive quantitative, qualitative and textual in approach, were included in the review. The majority of the papers were textual, with a variety of expert opinion provided in relation to managing disruptive clinician behaviour. Comprehensive review of the literature identified that there has been very little research evaluating the effectiveness of interventions to manage disruptive clinician behaviour in nursing, or more broadly within the health care system. A handful

  3. Epidemiology, management, complications and costs associated with type 2 diabetes in Brazil: a comprehensive literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background With an estimated 74% of all deaths attributable to non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in 2010, NCDs have become a major health priority in Brazil. The objective of the study was to conduct a comprehensive literature review on diabetes in Brazil; specifically: the epidemiology of type 2 diabetes, the availability of national and regional sources of data (particularly in terms of direct and indirect costs) and health policies for the management of diabetes and its complications. Methods A literature search was conducted using PubMed to identify articles containing information on diabetes in Brazil. Official documents from the Brazilian government and the World Health Organization, as well as other grey literature and official government websites were also reviewed. Results From 2006 to 2010, an approximate 20% increase in the prevalence of self-reported diabetes was observed. In 2010, it was estimated that 6.3% of Brazilians aged 18 years or over had diabetes. Diabetes was estimated to be responsible for 278,778 years of potential life lost for every 100,000 people. In 2013, it is estimated that about 7% of patients with diabetes has had one or more of the following complications: diabetic foot ulcers, amputation, kidney disease, and fundus changes. The estimated annual direct cost of diabetes was USD $3.952 billion in 2000; the estimated annual indirect cost was USD $18.6 billion. The two main sources of data on diabetes are the information systems of the Ministry of Health and surveys. In the last few years, the Brazilian Ministry of Health has invested considerably in improving surveillance systems for NCDs as well as implementing specific programmes to improve diagnosis and access to treatment. Conclusions Brazil has the capacity to address and respond to NCDs due to the leadership of the Ministry of Health in NCD prevention activities, including an integrated programme currently in place for diabetes. Strengthening the surveillance of NCDs is a

  4. Home hemodialysis: a comprehensive review of patient-centered and economic considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker RC

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Rachael C Walker,1,2 Kirsten Howard,1 Rachael L Morton3 1School of Public Health, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia; 2Hawke’s Bay District Health Board, Hastings, New Zealand; 3NHMRC Clinical Trials Centre, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia Abstract: Internationally, the number of patients requiring treatment for end-stage kidney disease (ESKD continues to increase, placing substantial burden on health systems and patients. Home hemodialysis (HD has fluctuated in its popularity, and the rates of home HD vary considerably between and within countries although there is evidence suggesting a number of clinical, survival, economic, and quality of life (QoL advantages associated with this treatment. International guidelines encourage shared decision making between patients and clinicians for the type of dialysis, with an emphasis on a treatment that aligned to the patients’ lifestyle. This is a comprehensive literature review of patient-centered and economic impacts of home HD with the studies published between January 2000 and July 2016. Data from the primary studies representing both efficiency and equity of home HD were presented as a narrative synthesis under the following topics: advantages to patients, barriers to patients, economic factors influencing patients, cost-effectiveness of home HD, and inequities in home HD delivery. There were a number of advantages for patients on home HD including improved survival and QoL and flexibility and potential for employment, compared to hospital HD. Similarly, there were several barriers to patients preferring or maintaining home HD, and the strategies to overcome these barriers were frequently reported. Good evidence reported that indigenous, low-income, and other socially disadvantaged individuals had reduced access to home HD compared to other forms of dialysis and that this situation compounds already-poor health outcomes on renal

  5. Technical review of WSRC-TR-93-614 criticality safety evaluation for disassembly basin sand filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    The study documented in WSRC-TR-93-614 performed an evaluation of the criticality potential associated with the Disassembly Basin Sand Filter for K and L Areas. The document reviewed incorporated results of calculations documented in the engineering calculation N-CLC-K-00151. Analyses of the contents of disassembly basin sludge has indicated that the sludge contains fissile material in excess of subcritical mass limits as specified in ANSI/ANS standards. Previous studies had determined that the fissile material can not collect into a critical configuration in the basin. Since the sand filter is intended to remove suspended particles from the basin water and could serve as a mechanism to collect the fissile material into a critical configuration, the study examined conditions under which criticality could occur in the sand filter. The study shows that criticality is not considered possible in the sand filter. This review emphasized the technical accuracy and presentation of the evaluation. The evaluation was also examined for the elements required for NCSEs. The review was performed in accordance with the NRTSC technical review requirements and procedures and the E7 Manual technical review requirements. The technical review (per the E7 manual) of the engineering calculation (N-CLC-K-0 1 5 1) was previously performed by this reviewer

  6. Comprehensive review of an accelerated nursing program: a quality improvement project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Elinor; LaRocco, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Accelerated second-degree programs are designed to provide entry into baccalaureate nursing program for people who have achieved bachelor's degree in another field. These programs were often designed to respond to nursing shortages at local and national levels. Programs commonly use a cohort model and move students through an intensive structure combining classroom and clinical requirement with a 2-year period. The accelerated second-degree nursing program, Accelerated Entry Level to Nursing program at our small liberal arts college, was considered to be successful. The program had excellent graduation rates and National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses pass rates, indicating that the program was preparing the graduate to thrive in the practice setting. The program had been in existence for more than 7 years, with highly competitive admissions and high student satisfaction. The objective of this study was to provide a quality improvement assessment process to capture quantitative and qualitative information about the graduates. This information would be used to inform our own nursing education department and would provide metrics and information for nurse leaders regarding the rigor of these programs and the potential of graduates. Continuous quality improvement is a vital component in nursing education as well as in the clinical setting. With this in mind, a comprehensive review was undertaken by the nursing faculty during the eighth year of the highly successful accelerated nursing program in a small liberal arts college. This quality improvement project was designed to review existing metrics and to collect additional data through survey and focus groups in order to capture experiences of the program graduates. Graduates of the accelerated program from 2005 to 2011 were included in this study. Faculty who teach in the program participated in focus groups. From 2005 to 2011, there have been a total of 196 graduates in 8 cohorts; 194 surveys

  7. The Experience and Effectiveness of Nurse Practitioners in Orthopaedic Settings: A Comprehensive Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Anita; Staruchowicz, Lynda

    identified a published systematic review protocol in the JBI Library for a qualitative systematic review by Ramis looking broadly at the experience of advanced practice nurses working in acute settings. The JBI Library of Systematic Reviews also contains a systematic review examining the effectiveness of nurse practitioners in residential aged care. Whilst these publications provide valuable context to this review neither specifically examines the clinical practice of orthopaedic nurse practitioners.Similarly a search of the Cochrane Library revealed a review on the topic of substitution of doctors by nurses in primary care. The focus of this particular intervention review was neither specific to nurse practitioners nor the acute care setting, but the topic of 'doctor substitution' complements the practice of nurse practitioners and may be a consideration in this review. Doctor substitution or care provided by a nurse other than an orthopaedic nurse practitioner is a natural comparator when examining the role and practice of orthopaedic nurse practitioners.Given the breadth of this topic a comprehensive approach has been chosen to systematically review the evidence as it relates to orthopaedic nurse practitioner role and practice.

  8. Review of Comprehensive Evaluation Methods for Power Quality and Its Trend in New Generation Energy System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruihua; Wang, Rong; Liu, Qunying; Yang, Li; Xi, Chuan; Wang, Wei; Li, Lingzhou; Zhao, Zhoufang; Zhou, Ying

    2018-02-01

    With China’s new energy generation grid connected capacity being in the forefront of the world and the uncertainty of new energy sources, such as wind energy and solar energy, it is be of great significance to study scientific and comprehensive assessment of power quality. On the foundation of analysizing the current power quality index systematically and objectively, the new energy grid power quality analysis method and comprehensive evaluation method, this paper tentatively explored the trend of the new generation of energy system power quality comprehensive evaluation.

  9. Technical skills assessment toolbox: a review using the unitary framework of validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaderi, Iman; Manji, Farouq; Park, Yoon Soo; Juul, Dorthea; Ott, Michael; Harris, Ilene; Farrell, Timothy M

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to create a technical skills assessment toolbox for 35 basic and advanced skills/procedures that comprise the American College of Surgeons (ACS)/Association of Program Directors in Surgery (APDS) surgical skills curriculum and to provide a critical appraisal of the included tools, using contemporary framework of validity. Competency-based training has become the predominant model in surgical education and assessment of performance is an essential component. Assessment methods must produce valid results to accurately determine the level of competency. A search was performed, using PubMed and Google Scholar, to identify tools that have been developed for assessment of the targeted technical skills. A total of 23 assessment tools for the 35 ACS/APDS skills modules were identified. Some tools, such as Operative Performance Rating System (OSATS) and Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skill (OPRS), have been tested for more than 1 procedure. Therefore, 30 modules had at least 1 assessment tool, with some common surgical procedures being addressed by several tools. Five modules had none. Only 3 studies used Messick's framework to design their validity studies. The remaining studies used an outdated framework on the basis of "types of validity." When analyzed using the contemporary framework, few of these studies demonstrated validity for content, internal structure, and relationship to other variables. This study provides an assessment toolbox for common surgical skills/procedures. Our review shows that few authors have used the contemporary unitary concept of validity for development of their assessment tools. As we progress toward competency-based training, future studies should provide evidence for various sources of validity using the contemporary framework.

  10. Non-technical skills and gastrointestinal endoscopy: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchins, Charlotte R; Metzner, Magdalena; Edworthy, Judy; Ward, Catherine

    2018-04-01

    Non-technical skills (NTS) have gained increasing recognition in recent years for their role in safe, effective team performance in healthcare. Gastrointestinal endoscopy is a procedure-based specialty with rapidly advancing technology, significant operational pressures and rapidly changing 'teams of experts'. However, to date there has been little focus on the effect of NTS in this field. This review aims to examine the existing literature on NTS in gastrointestinal endoscopy and identify areas for further research. A systematic search of MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library, PsychINFO, CINAHL Plus and PubMed databases was performed using search terms Non-Technical Skills, Team Performance or Team Skills, and Endoscopy, Colonoscopy, OGD, Gastroscopy, Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangio-Pancreatography or Endoscopic Ultrasound. Eighteen relevant publications were found. NTS are deemed an essential component of practice, but so far there is little evidence of their integration into training or competency assessment. Those studies examining the effects of NTS and team training in endoscopy are small and have variable outcome measures with limited evidence of improvement in skills or clinical outcomes. NTS assessment in endoscopy is in its early phases with a few tools in development. The current literature on NTS in gastrointestinal endoscopy is limited. NTS, however, are deemed an essential component of practice, with potential positive effects on team performance and clinical outcomes. A validated reliable tool would enable evaluation of training and investigation into the effects of NTS on outcomes. There is a clear need for further research in this field.

  11. Review on technical issues influencing the performance of chemical barriers of TRU waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Tomonari; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Tsukamoto, Masaki; Yokoyama, Hayaichi

    1997-01-01

    Studies of technical issues influencing the performance assessment of TRU waste disposal which is occurred from the nuclear fuel reprocessing were reviewed in related to the development of safety analysis method. Especially, the chemical containment was investigated as a key barrier to radionuclide migration. TRU waste including long-lived radionuclides need long-term performance assessment which could be assumed only by the chemical barrier. The description of technical issues concerned with the performance of TRU waste repository has been divided into the following categories: long-term degradation of cementitious materials as engineered barrier for radionuclide migration, effect of colloids, organic macromolecules and organic degradation products on chemical behavior of radionuclides, gas generation by corrosion of metallic wastes, and effects of microbial activity. Preliminary performance assessment indicated that important factors affecting performance of chemical barriers in near-field were the distribution coefficient and the solubility of radionuclides in near-field groundwater. Therefore, it was identified that key issues associated with performance of chemical barrier were evaluation of (a) the long-term change of distribution coefficient of cementitious material through the degradation under repository condition and (b) chemical speciation change of radionuclides such as increase of solubility by the presence of colloidal-size materials. (author)

  12. The potential impacts of grid-connected distributed generation and how to address them: A review of technical and non-technical factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passey, Robert; Spooner, Ted; MacGill, Iain; Watt, Muriel; Syngellakis, Katerina

    2011-01-01

    Distributed generation is being deployed at increasing levels of penetration on electricity grids worldwide. It can have positive impacts on the network, but also negative impacts if integration is not properly managed. This is especially true of photovoltaics, in part because it's output fluctuates significantly and in part because it is being rapidly deployed in many countries. Potential positive impacts on grid operation can include reduced network flows and hence reduced losses and voltage drops. Potential negative impacts at high penetrations include voltage fluctuations, voltage rise and reverse power flow, power fluctuations, power factor changes, frequency regulation and harmonics, unintentional islanding, fault currents and grounding issues. This paper firstly reviews each of these impacts in detail, along with the current technical approaches available to address them. The second section of this paper discusses key non-technical factors, such as appropriate policies and institutional frameworks, which are essential to effectively coordinate the development and deployment of the different technical solutions most appropriate for particular jurisdictions. These frameworks will be different for different jurisdictions, and so no single approach will be appropriate worldwide. - Highlights: → Distributed generation can have both positive and negative impacts on networks. → Technical solutions to address these negative impacts are discussed. → The required appropriate policies and institutional frameworks are discussed.

  13. Report of the technical review team on the Catalytic Extraction Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    The TRT was impressed with the quality and volume of laboratory and pilot scale development work that had been conducted over the past year. Many of the doubts and questions raised by the TRP on technical details had been examined, either by theoretical calculations or in the pilot facility. Moreover, a more open and forthcoming attitude was evident among the MMT staff who either presented briefings or responded to the Team's questions. Of special note to DOE, the TRP recognized a year ago that the pilot facility at Fall River was not designed for radioactive pilot tests. However, from the dialogue surrounding the TRP review, it was evident that not much thought had been given to the hazards, concerns, and special requirements incumbent with radioactive operations -- everything from doing pours of hot radioactive metal from a vessel to remote-handling equipment and operations. This year the TRT noticed a significant improvement in this respect

  14. Review of design approaches of advanced pressurized LWRs. Report of a technical committee meeting and workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The Technical Committee Meeting and Workshop was devoted to review and discuss differences and commonalties in the various design approaches with the aim of increasing the understanding of the design decisions taken, and a number of general conclusions were drawn. Though many differences in design approaches were found in the presentations, a number of common features could also be identified. These included design approaches to achieve further improvements with respect to safety, design simplification, reduction in cost, incorporation of feedback from operating experience, and control room improvements regarding human factors and digitization. Design approaches to achieve further improvements in safety included consideration of severe accidents in the design process, increased thermal margins and water inventories, longer grace periods and double containments. Refs, figs and tabs

  15. Investigation and technical reviews of the long term stability and corrosion resistance of engineering barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachikawa, Hirokazu

    2004-03-01

    The Japan Nuclear Fuel Cycle Development Institute submitted 'Second Progress Report on Research and Development for the Geological Disposal of HLW in Japan' to the Japanese government. This report contains investigations of the long term behavior of alteration of bentonite, and of the corrosion life time of overpack on the basis of experimental data and past research, assuming the ranging geological environment of Japan. However some subjects, such as the behavior of the bentonite and overpack under high pH conditions and the behavior of the engineering barrier with change of near-field environmental condition with time for promoting reliability have still been left. To take into account these conditions, expert committees composed of clay science and metal corrosion science experts were established in the Nuclear Safety Research Association and past research outcomes and the theory of safety assessment were investigated and technically reviewed from the view points of long term stability and corrosion resistance of engineering buffer materials. (author)

  16. Report of the technical review team on the Catalytic Extraction Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The TRT was impressed with the quality and volume of laboratory and pilot scale development work that had been conducted over the past year. Many of the doubts and questions raised by the TRP on technical details had been examined, either by theoretical calculations or in the pilot facility. Moreover, a more open and forthcoming attitude was evident among the MMT staff who either presented briefings or responded to the Team`s questions. Of special note to DOE, the TRP recognized a year ago that the pilot facility at Fall River was not designed for radioactive pilot tests. However, from the dialogue surrounding the TRP review, it was evident that not much thought had been given to the hazards, concerns, and special requirements incumbent with radioactive operations -- everything from doing pours of hot radioactive metal from a vessel to remote-handling equipment and operations. This year the TRT noticed a significant improvement in this respect.

  17. Advanced Fast Reactor - 100 (AFR-100) Report for the Technical Review Panel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandy, Christopher [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sienicki, James J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Moisseytsev, Anton [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Krajtl, Lubomir [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Farmer, Mitchell T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kim, Taek K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Middleton, B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-06-04

    This report is written to provide an overview of the Advanced Fast Reactor-100 in the requested format for a DOE technical review panel. This report was prepared with information that is responsive to the DOE Request for Information, DE-SOL-0003674 Advanced Reactor Concepts, dated February 27, 2012 from DOE’s Office of Nuclear Energy, Office of Nuclear Reactor Technologies. The document consists of two main sections. The first section is a summary of the AFR-100 design including the innovations that are incorporated into the design. The second section contains a series of tables that respond to the various questions requested of the reactor design team from the subject DOE RFI.

  18. Greater-than-Class C low-level waste characterization technical review process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchison, D.; Magleby, M.

    1990-01-01

    Existing volume projections of greater-than-Class C low-level waste (GTCC LLW) vary significantly. The Department of Energy (DOE) National Low-Level Waste Management Program (NLLWMP) has undertaken activities to develop a best estimate of GTCC LLW volumes and activities for use as the planning basis. Initial information about the generation of GTCC LLW was obtained through a DOE Energy Information Administration survey. That information, combined with information from other related literature, formed the basis of a computer model, which projects potential GTCC LLW. This paper describes uncertainties in existing GTCC LLW characterization and volume projections data and describes the technical review process that is being used to assist in projections of GTCC LLW expected for storage and disposal. 8 refs., 2 tabs.

  19. Greater-than-Class C low-level waste characterization technical review process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchison, D.; Magleby, M.

    1990-01-01

    Existing volume projections of greater-than-Class C low-level waste (GTCC LLW) vary significantly. The Department of Energy (DOE) National Low-Level Waste Management Program (NLLWMP) has undertaken activities to develop a best estimate of GTCC LLW volumes and activities for use as the planning basis. Initial information about the generation of GTCC LLW was obtained through a DOE Energy Information Administration survey. That information, combined with information from other related literature, formed the basis of a computer model, which projects potential GTCC LLW. This paper describes uncertainties in existing GTCC LLW characterization and volume projections data and describes the technical review process that is being used to assist in projections of GTCC LLW expected for storage and disposal. 8 refs., 2 tabs

  20. Fitness for duty in the nuclear power industry: A review of technical issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, C.; Barnes, V.; Hauth, J.

    1989-05-01

    This report presents information gathered and analyzed in support of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) efforts to develop a rule that will ensure that workers with unescorted access to protected areas of nuclear power plants are fit for duty. This report supplements information previously published in NUREG/CR-5227, Fitness for Duty in the Nuclear Power Industry: A Review of Technical Issues (Barnes et al., 1988). The primary potential fitness-for-duty concern addressed in both of these reports is impairment caused by substance abuse, although other fitness concerns are discussed. This report addresses issues pertaining to workers' use and misuse of alcohol, prescription drugs, and over-the-counter drugs as fitness-for-duty concerns; responds to several questions raised by NRC Commissioners; discusses subversion of the chemical testing process and methods of preventing such subversion; and examines concerns about the urinalysis cutoff levels used when testing for marijuana metabolites, amphetamines, and phencyclidine

  1. Review of design approaches of advanced pressurized LWRs. Report of a technical committee meeting and workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    The Technical Committee Meeting and Workshop was devoted to review and discuss differences and commonalties in the various design approaches with the aim of increasing the understanding of the design decisions taken, and a number of general conclusions were drawn. Though many differences in design approaches were found in the presentations, a number of common features could also be identified. These included design approaches to achieve further improvements with respect to safety, design simplification, reduction in cost, incorporation of feedback from operating experience, and control room improvements regarding human factors and digitization. Design approaches to achieve further improvements in safety included consideration of severe accidents in the design process, increased thermal margins and water inventories, longer grace periods and double containments. Refs, figs and tabs.

  2. Investigations and technical reviews on the reliability of prediction for migration behavior of radionuclides (H15)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachikawa, Hirokazu

    2004-02-01

    The research plan of the validation on effects of colloids and organic materials drawn up by the Japan Nuclear Fuel Cycle Development Institute and its' research outcome were reviewed comprehensively by an expert committee established in the Nuclear Safety Research Association. Additionally, experimental investigations for the migration behavior of actinide elements and fission products in engineering barrier and natural barrier medias, and for solution chemistry of them were carried out and discussed by the committee, in order to enhance the reliability of prediction for migration behavior of radionuclides. The subjects investigated by the expert committee are as follows: (1) Research on solubility products of An(III) hydroxide. (2) Diffusion and electromigration behavior of plutonium in buffer material. (3) Analysis of the nuclide solubility in compacted bentonite. (4) Survey of the actual contamination by alpha emitters in steel materials. (author)

  3. A comprehensive literature review reflecting fifteen years of debate regarding the representativity of reverse circulation vs blast hole drill sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engström, Karin

    2017-01-01

    Blast hole sampling is widely used for grade control by the mining industry all over the world, both in precious and base metal open pit mining. Blast hole (BH) samples are often regarded as inferior in comparison to “proper drill sampling” like reverse circulation (RC) and diamond (core) drilling...... (DD), and are accused of lacking representativity by the sampling community. The present paper aims at collecting all peer reviewed publications from 2000 onwards that concern open pit mine sampling performance of BH, RC and/or DD drill sampling. This will form a comprehensive literature review...

  4. Comprehensive care programs for patients with multiple chronic conditions: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Simone R; Versnel, Nathalie; Lemmens, Lidwien C; Molema, Claudia C M; Schellevis, François G; Nijpels, Giel; Baan, Caroline A

    2012-10-01

    To provide insight into the characteristics of comprehensive care programs for patients with multiple chronic conditions and their impact on patients, informal caregivers, and professional caregivers. Systematic literature search in multiple electronic databases for English language papers published between January 1995 and January 2011, supplemented by reference tracking and a manual search on the internet. Wagner's chronic care model (CCM) was used to define comprehensive care. After inclusion, the methodological quality of each study was assessed. A best-evidence synthesis was applied to draw conclusions. Forty-two publications were selected describing thirty-three studies evaluating twenty-eight comprehensive care programs for multimorbid patients. Programs varied in the target patient groups, implementation settings, number of included interventions, and number of CCM components to which these interventions related. Moderate evidence was found for a beneficial effect of comprehensive care on inpatient healthcare utilization and healthcare costs, health behavior of patients, perceived quality of care, and satisfaction of patients and caregivers. Insufficient evidence was found for a beneficial effect of comprehensive care on health-related quality of life in terms of mental functioning, medication use, and outpatient healthcare utilization and healthcare costs. No evidence was found for a beneficial effect of comprehensive care on cognitive functioning, depressive symptoms, functional status, mortality, quality of life in terms of physical functioning, and caregiver burden. Because of the heterogeneity of comprehensive care programs, it is as yet too early to draw firm conclusions regarding their effectiveness. More rigorous evaluation studies are necessary to determine what constitutes best care for the increasing number of people with multiple chronic conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. UMTRA water sampling technical (peer) review: Responses to observations, comments, and recommendations submitted by Don Messinger (Roy F. Weston, Inc.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    An independent technical review (peer review) was conducted during the period of September 15--17, 1992. The review was conducted by C. Warren Ankerberg (Geraghty and Miller, Inc., Tampa, Florida) and Don Messinger (Roy F. Weston, Inc., West Chester, Pennsylvania). The review was held at Jacobs Engineering in Albuquerque, New Mexico, and at the Shiprock, New Mexico, site. The peer review included a review of written documentation [water sampling standard operating procedures (SOP)], an inspection of technical reports and other deliverables, a review of staff qualifications and training, and a field visit to evaluate the compliance of field procedures with SOPS. Upon completion of the peer review, each reviewer independently prepared a report of findings from the review. The reports listed findings and recommended actions. This document responds to the observations, comments, and recommendations submitted by Don Messinger following his review. The format of this document is to present the findings and recommendations verbatim from Mr. Messinger's report, followed by responses from the UMTRA Project staff. Included in the responses from the UMTRA Project staff are recommended changes in SOPs and strategies for implementing the charges

  6. Technical note 2. A review of the creep ductility of copper for nuclear waste canister application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettersson, Kjell

    2011-03-01

    Background: The Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM) reviews the Swedish Nuclear Fuel Company's (SKB) applications under the Act on Nuclear Activities (SFS 1984:3) for the construction and operation of a repository for spent nuclear fuel and for an encapsulation facility. As part of the review, SSM commissions consultants to carry out work in order to obtain information on specific issues. The results from the consultants' tasks are reported in SSM's Technical Note series. Objectives of the project: This project is part of SSM:s review of SKB:s license application for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The assignment concerns review of creep mechanisms for copper material used as a corrosion barrier in canisters for nal disposal of nuclear fuel in Sweden. Summary by the author: SKB has presented insufficient evidence to justify their position that the OFP copper has an adequate creep ductility during long term storage. Their large body of experiments only serves to prove that the creep ductility is sufficient for much shorter time spans than the intended storage times. There is a clear need for a credible theory of creep brittleness of OFP copper which will permit extrapolations to long term storage. The theory presented by SKB does not in its present state permit credible extrapolations. Alternatively SKB needs to find an explanation to the effect of phosphorus on the creep ductility and that it ensures the absence of creep brittleness in OFP copper. It is interesting to note that SKB has presented experimental evidence that intergranular cracks can form in OFP material tested in cracked specimens. Perhaps it is possible to more systematically study formation and growth of intergranular cracks in specimens of OFP copper with cracks

  7. Improving biobank consent comprehension: a national randomized survey to assess the effect of a simplified form and review/retest intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Beskow, Laura M.; Lin, Li; Dombeck, Carrie B.; Gao, Emily; Weinfurt, Kevin P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the individual and combined effects of a simplified form and a review/retest intervention on biobanking consent comprehension. Methods: We conducted a national online survey in which participants were randomized within four educational strata to review a simplified or traditional consent form. Participants then completed a comprehension quiz; for each item answered incorrectly, they reviewed the corresponding consent form section and answered another quiz item on that to...

  8. Minutes of the IFMIF technical meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, H.; Takeda, M.; Ida, M.; Maebara, S.; Yutani, T.; Sugimoto, M.

    2004-03-01

    The IFMIF Technical Meeting was held on December 4-5, 2003 at Shiran-kaikan, Kyoto University. The main objectives are 1) to finalize the Comprehensive Design Report (CDR), 2) to discuss IFMIF cost and organization, 3) to review technical status of major systems, transition phase activities and EVEDA plan. This report presents a brief summary of the results of the meeting. Agenda, participants list and presentation materials are attached as Appendix. (author)

  9. Technical cooperation on nuclear security between the United States and China : review of the past and opportunities for the future.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pregenzer, Arian Leigh

    2011-12-01

    The United States and China are committed to cooperation to address the challenges of the next century. Technical cooperation, building on a long tradition of technical exchange between the two countries, can play an important role. This paper focuses on technical cooperation between the United States and China in the areas of nonproliferation, arms control and other nuclear security topics. It reviews cooperation during the 1990s on nonproliferation and arms control under the U.S.-China Arms Control Exchange, discusses examples of ongoing activities under the Peaceful Uses of Technology Agreement to enhance security of nuclear and radiological material, and suggests opportunities for expanding technical cooperation between the defense nuclear laboratories of both countries to address a broader range of nuclear security topics.

  10. How comprehensive are research studies investigating the efficacy of technology-enhanced learning resources in anatomy education? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clunie, Lauren; Morris, Neil P; Joynes, Viktoria C T; Pickering, James D

    2018-05-06

    Anatomy education is at the forefront of integrating innovative technologies into its curricula. However, despite this rise in technology numerous authors have commented on the shortfall in efficacy studies to assess the impact such technology-enhanced learning (TEL) resources have on learning. To assess the range of evaluation approaches to TEL across anatomy education, a systematic review was conducted using MEDLINE, the Educational Resources Information Centre (ERIC), Scopus, and Google Scholar, with a total of 3,345 articles retrieved. Following the PRISMA method for reporting items, 153 articles were identified and reviewed against a published framework-the technology-enhanced learning evaluation model (TELEM). The model allowed published reports to be categorized according to evaluations at the level of (1) learner satisfaction, (2) learning gain, (3) learner impact, and (4) institutional impact. The results of this systematic review reveal that most evaluation studies into TEL within anatomy curricula were based on learner satisfaction, followed by module or course learning outcomes. Randomized controlled studies assessing learning gain with a specific TEL resource were in a minority, with no studies reporting a comprehensive assessment on the overall impact of introducing a specific TEL resource (e.g., return on investment). This systematic review has provided clear evidence that anatomy education is engaged in evaluating the impact of TEL resources on student education, although it remains at a level that fails to provide comprehensive causative evidence. Anat Sci Educ 11: 303-319. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.

  11. SUPPLEMENTAL COLUMBIA RIVER PROTECTION ACTIVITIES AT THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY HANFORD SITE 2008 TECHNICAL REVIEW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney, B; Dawn S. Kaback, D; Eugene L. LeBoeuf, E; Joe Rossabi, J; Karen L. Skubal, K; David L. Cocke, D; Paul C. Deutsch, P

    2008-09-30

    Beginning in 2006, the US Department of Energy (DOE) supported nine applied research projects to improve the protection of the Columbia River and mitigate the impacts of Hanford Site groundwater. These projects were funded through a supplemental Congressional budget allocation, and are now in various stages of completion in accordance with the research plans. The DOE Office of Environmental Management Groundwater and Soil Cleanup Technologies (EM-22) sponsored a technical peer review meeting for these projects in Richland WA, July 28-31, 2008. The overall objective of the peer review is to provide information to support DOE decisions about the status and potential future application of the various technologies. The charge for the peer review panel was to develop recommendations for each of the nine 'technologies'. Team members for the July 2008 review were Brian Looney, Gene LeBoeuf, Dawn Kaback, Karen Skubal, Joe Rossabi, Paul Deutsch, and David Cocke. Previous project reviews were held in May 2007 and March-May of 2006. The team used the following four rating categories for projects: (a) Incorporate the technology/strategy in ongoing and future EM activities; (b) Finish existing scope of applied research and determine potential for EM activities when research program is finished; (c) Discontinue current development activities and do not incorporate technology/strategy into ongoing and future EM activities unless a significant and compelling change in potential viability is documented; and (d) Supplement original funded work to obtain the data needed to support a DOE decision to incorporate the technology into ongoing and future EM activities. The supplemental funding portfolio included two projects that addressed strontium, five projects that addressed chromium, one project that addressed uranium and one project that addressed carbon tetrachloride. The projects ranged from in situ treatment methods for immobilizing contaminants using chemical

  12. A comprehensive review of the use of computational intelligence methods in mineral exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibollah Bazdar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Mineral exploration is a process by which it is decided whether or not continuing explorations at the end of each stage t will be cost-effective or not. This decision is dependent upon many factors including technical factors, economic, social and other related factors. All new methods used in mineral exploration are meant to make this decision making more simplified. In recent years, advanced computational intelligence methods for modeling along with many other disciplines of science, including the science of mineral exploration have been used. Although the results of the application of these methods show a good performance, it is essential to determine the mineral potential in terms of geology, mineralogy, petrology and other factors for a final decision. The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive set of mineral exploration research and different applications of computational intelligence techniques in this respect during the last decades. Materials and methods Artificial neural network and its application in mineral exploration Artificial neural network (ANN is a series of communications between the units or nodes that try to function like neurons of the human brain (Jorjani et al., 2008. The network processing capability of communication between the units and the weights connection originates or comes from learning or are predetermined (Monjezi and Dehghani, 2008. The ANN method has been applied in different branches of mining exploration in the last decades (Brown et al., 2000; Leite and de Souza Filho, 2009; Porwal et al., 2003. Support vector machines (SVM and its application in mineral exploration SVM uses a set of examples with known class of information to build a linear hyperplane separating samples of different classes. This initial dataset is known as a training set and every sample within it is characterized by features upon which the classification is based (Smirnoff et al., 2008. The SVM classifier is a

  13. Learners' Listening Comprehension Difficulties in English Language Learning: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilakjani, Abbas Pourhosein; Sabouri, Narjes Banou

    2016-01-01

    Listening is one of the most important skills in English language learning. When students listen to English language, they face a lot of listening difficulties. Students have critical difficulties in listening comprehension because universities and schools pay more attention to writing, reading, and vocabulary. Listening is not an important part…

  14. The Effectiveness of the Comprehension Hypothesis: A Review on the Current Research on Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponniah, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    The Comprehension Hypothesis (CH) is the most powerful hypothesis in the field of Second Language Acquisition despite the presence of the rivals the skill-building hypothesis, the output hypothesis, and the interaction hypothesis. The competing hypotheses state that consciously learned linguistic knowledge is a necessary step for the development…

  15. Theories to support method development in comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography - A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bedani, F.; Schoenmakers, P.J.; Janssen, H.-G.

    2012-01-01

    On-line comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography techniques promise to resolve samples that current one-dimensional liquid chromatography methods cannot adequately deal with. To make full use of the potential of two-dimensional liquid chromatography, optimization is required. Optimization

  16. Figurative Language Comprehension in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Meta-Analytic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalandadze, Tamar; Norbury, Courtenay; Naerland, Terje; Naess, Kari-Anne B.

    2018-01-01

    We present a meta-analysis of studies that compare figurative language comprehension in individuals with autism spectrum disorder and in typically developing controls who were matched based on chronological age or/and language ability. A total of 41 studies and 45 independent effect sizes were included based on predetermined inclusion criteria.…

  17. Review of scientific and technical options for the Superconducting Super Collider Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dombeck, T.

    1993-11-01

    This document is a review of options for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Program. It is the result of an informal study by an ad-hoc working group consisting of Laboratory physicists and engineers who investigated the physics and technical implications of a number of possible alternative SSC programs. Previous studies have shown, and early in this study it was confirmed, that a collider of approximately 20 TeV protons on 20 TeV protons with a luminosity of 10{sup 33} cm{sup {minus}2}s{sup {minus}1} at each interaction region is needed to support a physics program that is guaranteed to answer existing particle physics questions and make new discoveries. Therefore, all options considered in this document were consistent with attainment of these original goals for the SSC. One promising option considered was a program of colliding anti-protons on protons as a possible means to reduce the cost of the SSC by eliminating one of the Collider rings. However, the luminosity requirements to obtain the SSC physics goals remains the same as for protons colliding with protons and this study confirms that even though progress has been made over the last ten years in obtaining the high intensity anti-proton beams necessary, a luminosity higher than 10{sup 32} cannot be guaranteed. Other options were examined to see what advantages could be derived by departing from the SSC baseline program, either in schedule, in parameters, by staging, or by combinations of these options. Even though we considered re-examination of the cost of the baseline program to be beyond the scope of this document, differential cost savings were estimated. Finally, a brief survey of progress over the last ten years in various technical areas that might lead to more cost effective engineering designs was included in this study, such as higher magnetic field magnets resulting from lower operating temperatures or higher current-carrying superconducting materials.

  18. Review of scientific and technical options for the Superconducting Super Collider Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dombeck, T.

    1993-11-01

    This document is a review of options for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Program. It is the result of an informal study by an ad-hoc working group consisting of Laboratory physicists and engineers who investigated the physics and technical implications of a number of possible alternative SSC programs. Previous studies have shown, and early in this study it was confirmed, that a collider of approximately 20 TeV protons on 20 TeV protons with a luminosity of 10 33 cm -2 s -1 at each interaction region is needed to support a physics program that is guaranteed to answer existing particle physics questions and make new discoveries. Therefore, all options considered in this document were consistent with attainment of these original goals for the SSC. One promising option considered was a program of colliding anti-protons on protons as a possible means to reduce the cost of the SSC by eliminating one of the Collider rings. However, the luminosity requirements to obtain the SSC physics goals remains the same as for protons colliding with protons and this study confirms that even though progress has been made over the last ten years in obtaining the high intensity anti-proton beams necessary, a luminosity higher than 10 32 cannot be guaranteed. Other options were examined to see what advantages could be derived by departing from the SSC baseline program, either in schedule, in parameters, by staging, or by combinations of these options. Even though we considered re-examination of the cost of the baseline program to be beyond the scope of this document, differential cost savings were estimated. Finally, a brief survey of progress over the last ten years in various technical areas that might lead to more cost effective engineering designs was included in this study, such as higher magnetic field magnets resulting from lower operating temperatures or higher current-carrying superconducting materials

  19. 76 FR 17970 - Board Meeting: April 27, 2011-Amherst, New York; the U.S. Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... the 2008-9 study on Quantitative Risk Assessment of the State Licensed Radioactive Waste Disposal Area... of vitrified high-level radioactive waste (HLW); determination of waste classification of the melter... NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD Board Meeting: April 27, 2011--Amherst, New York; the U.S...

  20. 75 FR 26743 - Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Notice of Environmental Site Review and Technical Meetings To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 12779-005] Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Notice of Environmental Site Review and Technical Meetings To Discuss Information and Monitoring Needs for a License Application for a Pilot Project May 5, 2010. a. Type of Application: Draft Pilot License Application. b. Project N...

  1. 48 CFR 801.602-80 - Legal and technical review-Office of Construction and Facilities Management and National Cemetery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-Office of Construction and Facilities Management and National Cemetery Administration. 801.602-80 Section... Responsibilities 801.602-80 Legal and technical review-Office of Construction and Facilities Management and National Cemetery Administration. An Office of Construction and Facilities Management or National Cemetery...

  2. 1?10 kW Stationary Combined Heat and Power Systems Status and Technical Potential: Independent Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maru, H. C.; Singhal, S. C.; Stone, C.; Wheeler, D.

    2010-11-01

    This independent review examines the status and technical potential of 1-10 kW stationary combined heat and power fuel cell systems and analyzes the achievability of the DOE cost, efficiency, and durability targets for 2012, 2015, and 2020.

  3. Constructing a Validity Argument for the Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS): A Systematic Review of Validity Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatala, Rose; Cook, David A.; Brydges, Ryan; Hawkins, Richard

    2015-01-01

    In order to construct and evaluate the validity argument for the Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS), based on Kane's framework, we conducted a systematic review. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ERIC, Web of Science, Scopus, and selected reference lists through February 2013. Working in duplicate, we selected…

  4. ATS-6 - Technical aspects of the Health/Education Telecommunications Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boor, J. L.; Braunstein, J.; Janky, J. M.; Ogden, D.; Potter, J. G.; Harper, E. L.; Volkmer, E.; Whalen, A. A.; Henderson, E.; Hupe, H. H.

    1975-01-01

    An overview is given of the HET experiment on ATS-6. The paper is divided into nine parts, including a technical overview, a preliminary evaluation of the HET demonstration, a review of operations at the Denver uplink terminal, a discussion of remote ground terminals, a review of C-band comprehensive terminals and of S-band comprehensive terminals, and parts devoted to general network operations, technical management and effectiveness of the network, and the site equipment operator.

  5. Inferential comprehension of 3-6 year olds within the context of story grammar: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filiatrault-Veilleux, Paméla; Bouchard, Caroline; Trudeau, Natacha; Desmarais, Chantal

    2015-01-01

    The ability to make inferences plays a crucial role in reading comprehension and the educational success of school-aged children. However, it starts to unfold much earlier than school entry and literacy. Given that it is likely to be targeted in speech language therapy, it would be useful for clinicians to have access to information about a developmental sequence of inferential comprehension. Yet, at this time, there is no clear proposition of the way in which this ability develops in young children prior to school entry. To reduce the knowledge gap with regards to inferential comprehension in young children by conducting a scoping review of the literature. The two objectives of this research are: (1) to describe typically developing children's comprehension of causal inferences targeting elements of story grammar, with the goal of proposing milestones in the development of this ability; and (2) to highlight key elements of the methodology used to gather this information in a paediatric population. A total of 16 studies from six databases that met the inclusion criteria were qualitatively analysed in the context of a scoping review. This methodological approach was used to identify common themes and gaps in the knowledge base to achieve the intended objectives. Results permit the description of key elements in the development of six types of causal inference targeting elements of story grammar in children between 3 and 6 years old. Results also demonstrate the various methods used to assess this ability in young children and highlight particularly interesting procedures for use with this younger population. These findings point to the need for additional studies to understand this ability better and to develop strategies to stimulate an evidence-based developmental sequence in children from an early age. © 2015 The Authors. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Royal College of Speech and

  6. Comprehensive and Critical Literature Review on Insitu Micro-Sensors for Application in Tribology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-01

    Tsugai, Masahiro; Bessho, Mikio ; Araki, Toru; Onishi, Masayoshi; Sesekura, Takashi Source: SAE Technical Paper Series. Publ by SAE, Warrendale, PA, USA...MONITORING OF HYDROGEN ASSISTED CRACKING OF LOW ALLOY STEEL. Author. Hayashi, Yasuhisa; Takemoto, Mikio Source: Boshoku Gijutsu/Corrosion Engineering v...METALS AND ITS APPLICATION TO AE SENSOR. Author. Shimizu, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Sato , Michio Source:. Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, Supplement

  7. Radiation-Induced Carotid Artery Stenosis: A Comprehensive Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Jiaping; Cao, Yongjun

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, with the improvement of radiotherapy (RT) technology and comprehensive treatment, the survival rate of head and neck malignancies has gained remarkable progress. Vascular injury and subsequent carotid stenosis following RT, as the backbone of treatment, have received increasing attention. Many investigations have demonstrated that radiation can result in the increase in carotid intima-media thickness, carotid stenosis and consequently lead to a higher risk of cerebrovascula...

  8. Improvements to Technical Specifications surveillance requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobel, R.; Tjader, T.R.

    1992-12-01

    In August 1983 an NRC task group was formed to investigate problems with surveillance testing required by Technical Specifications, and to recommend approaches to effect improvements. NUREG-1024 (''Technical Specifications-Enhancing Safety Impact'') resulted, and it contained recommendations to review the basis for test frequencies; to ensure that the tests promote safety and do not degrade equipment; and to review surveillance tests so that they do not unnecessarily burden personnel. The Technical Specifications Improvement Program (TSIP) was established in December 1984 to provide the framework for rewriting and improving the Technical Specifications. As an element of the TSIP, all Technical Specifications surveillance requirements were comprehensively examined as recommended in NUREG-1024. The results of that effort are presented in this report. The study found that while some testing at power is essential to verify equipment and system operability, safety can be improved, equipment degradation decreased, and unnecessary personnel burden relaxed by reducing the amount of testing at power

  9. The quality of work life of registered nurses in Canada and the United States: a comprehensive literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowrouzi, Behdin; Giddens, Emilia; Gohar, Basem; Schoenenberger, Sandrine; Bautista, Mary Christine; Casole, Jennifer

    2016-10-01

    Workplace environment is related to the physical and psychological well-being, and quality of work life (QWL) for nurses. The aim of this paper was to perform a comprehensive literature review on nurses' quality of work life to identify a comprehensive set of QWL predictors for nurses employed in the United States and Canada. Using publications from 2004-2014, contributing factors to American and Canadian nurses' QWL were analyzed. The review was structured using the Work Disability Prevention Framework. Sixty-six articles were selected for analysis. Literature indicated that changes are required within the workplace and across the health care system to improve nurses' QWL. Areas for improvement to nurses' quality of work life included treatment of new nursing graduates, opportunities for continuing education, promotion of positive collegial relationships, stress-reduction programs, and increased financial compensation. This review's findings support the importance of QWL as an indicator of nurses' broader work-related experiences. A shift in health care systems across Canada and the United States is warranted where health care delivery and services are improved in conjunction with the health of the nurses working in the system.

  10. Review of occupational safety and health activities in Southern Africa funded under the DANIDA/ILO framework agreement on technical cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Jørgensen, Claus

    2003-01-01

    A review of occupational safety and health activities in Southern Africa (SADC region) which have been funded under the DANIDA/ILO framework agreement on technical cooperation.......A review of occupational safety and health activities in Southern Africa (SADC region) which have been funded under the DANIDA/ILO framework agreement on technical cooperation....

  11. Improving biobank consent comprehension: a national randomized survey to assess the effect of a simplified form and review/retest intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beskow, Laura M.; Lin, Li; Dombeck, Carrie B.; Gao, Emily; Weinfurt, Kevin P.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the individual and combined effects of a simplified form and a review/retest intervention on biobanking consent comprehension. Methods: We conducted a national online survey in which participants were randomized within four educational strata to review a simplified or traditional consent form. Participants then completed a comprehension quiz; for each item answered incorrectly, they reviewed the corresponding consent form section and answered another quiz item on that topic. Results: Consistent with our first hypothesis, comprehension among those who received the simplified form was not inferior to that among those who received the traditional form. Contrary to expectations, receipt of the simplified form did not result in significantly better comprehension compared with the traditional form among those in the lowest educational group. The review/retest procedure significantly improved quiz scores in every combination of consent form and education level. Although improved, comprehension remained a challenge in the lowest-education group. Higher quiz scores were significantly associated with willingness to participate. Conclusion: Ensuring consent comprehension remains a challenge, but simplified forms have virtues independent of their impact on understanding. A review/retest intervention may have a significant effect, but assessing comprehension raises complex questions about setting thresholds for understanding and consequences of not meeting them. Genet Med advance online publication 13 October 2016 PMID:27735922

  12. Review of the Technical Status on the Debris Bed Cooling Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eui Kwang; Cho, Chung Ho; Lee, Yong Bum

    2007-09-15

    Preliminary safety analyses of the KALIMER-600 design have shown that the design has inherent safety characteristics and is capable of accommodating double-fault initiators such as ATWS events without coolant boiling or fuel melting. However, for the future design of sodium cooled fast reactor, the evaluation of the safety performance and the determination of containment requirements may be worth due consideration of triple-fault accident sequences of extremely low probability of occurrence that leads to core melting. For any postulated accident sequence which leads to core melting, in-vessel retention of the core debris will be required as a design requirement for the future design of sodium cooled fast reactor. Also, proof of the capacity of the debris bed cooling is an essential condition to solve the problem of in-vessel retention of the core debris. In this study, review of the technical status on the debris bed cooling model was carried out for in-vessel retention of the core debris0.

  13. Review of the Technical Status on the Debris Bed Cooling Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eui Kwang; Cho, Chung Ho; Lee, Yong Bum

    2007-09-01

    Preliminary safety analyses of the KALIMER-600 design have shown that the design has inherent safety characteristics and is capable of accommodating double-fault initiators such as ATWS events without coolant boiling or fuel melting. However, for the future design of sodium cooled fast reactor, the evaluation of the safety performance and the determination of containment requirements may be worth due consideration of triple-fault accident sequences of extremely low probability of occurrence that leads to core melting. For any postulated accident sequence which leads to core melting, in-vessel retention of the core debris will be required as a design requirement for the future design of sodium cooled fast reactor. Also, proof of the capacity of the debris bed cooling is an essential condition to solve the problem of in-vessel retention of the core debris. In this study, review of the technical status on the debris bed cooling model was carried out for in-vessel retention of the core debris

  14. Which non-technical skills do junior doctors require to prescribe safely? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearden, Effie; Mellanby, Edward; Cameron, Helen; Harden, Jeni

    2015-12-01

    Prescribing errors are a major source of avoidable morbidity and mortality. Junior doctors write most in-hospital prescriptions and are the least experienced members of the healthcare team. This puts them at high risk of error and makes them attractive targets for interventions to improve prescription safety. Error analysis has shown a background of complex environments with multiple contributory conditions. Similar conditions in other high risk industries, such as aviation, have led to an increased understanding of so-called human factors and the use of non-technical skills (NTS) training to try to reduce error. To date no research has examined the NTS required for safe prescribing. The aim of this review was to develop a prototype NTS taxonomy for safe prescribing, by junior doctors, in hospital settings. A systematic search identified 14 studies analyzing prescribing behaviours and errors by junior doctors. Framework analysis was used to extract data from the studies and identify behaviours related to categories of NTS that might be relevant to safe and effective prescribing performance by junior doctors. Categories were derived from existing literature and inductively from the data. A prototype taxonomy of relevant categories (situational awareness, decision making, communication and team working, and task management) and elements was constructed. This prototype will form the basis of future work to create a tool that can be used for training and assessment of medical students and junior doctors to reduce prescribing error in the future. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  15. Technical review and evaluation for the installation of cold neutron source facility at HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Chang Woong; Kim, Dong Hoon; Lee, Mu Woong; Cho, Man Soon; Oh, Yun Woo; Park, Sun Hee; Park, Kuk Nam; Lee, Chang Hee

    1996-01-01

    The principle subjects of this study are to analyze the technical characteristics of cold neutron source(CNS) and take measures to cope with the matters regarding the installation of CNS facility at HANARO. This report, thus, reviews the current status of the CNS facilities that are now in operation worldwide and classifies the system and equipment to select the appropriate type for HANARO and provides advice and guidance for the future basic and detail design. As we have none of CNS facility here and very few experienced persons yet, this report provides some information for domestic users through the investigation of the utilization fields and experimental facilities of CNS, and presents the estimated total cost for the project based on JRR-3M. In addition, the work scope of the conceptual design, which will be performed in advance of the basic and detail design, and cooperative program with the countries having the advanced technology of CNS is presented in this report. 43 tabs., 57 figs., 22 refs. (Author)

  16. A comprehensive review of on-board State-of-Available-Power prediction techniques for lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmann, Alexander; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2016-10-01

    This study provides an overview of available techniques for on-board State-of-Available-Power (SoAP) prediction of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) in electric vehicles. Different approaches dealing with the on-board estimation of battery State-of-Charge (SoC) or State-of-Health (SoH) have been extensively discussed in various researches in the past. However, the topic of SoAP prediction has not been explored comprehensively yet. The prediction of the maximum power that can be applied to the battery by discharging or charging it during acceleration, regenerative braking and gradient climbing is definitely one of the most challenging tasks of battery management systems. In large lithium-ion battery packs because of many factors, such as temperature distribution, cell-to-cell deviations regarding the actual battery impedance or capacity either in initial or aged state, the use of efficient and reliable methods for battery state estimation is required. The available battery power is limited by the safe operating area (SOA), where SOA is defined by battery temperature, current, voltage and SoC. Accurate SoAP prediction allows the energy management system to regulate the power flow of the vehicle more precisely and optimize battery performance and improve its lifetime accordingly. To this end, scientific and technical literature sources are studied and available approaches are reviewed.

  17. Reviewing for "Beyond Behavior": An Editor's Guide for Submitting a Comprehensive and Meaningful Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Paul; Ryan, Joseph B.

    2018-01-01

    Reviewing manuscripts is an integral part of the publication process. Unfortunately, few scholars receive training in this skill. This article provides an overview of what it takes to conduct a quality review of a manuscript submission for a practitioner journal. The editors describe the manuscript types published by "Beyond Behavior"…

  18. Research progress in hepatic cavernous hemangiomas: a comprehensive review with graphics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang Yong; Zhang Xuejun; Ouyang Xuehui; Chao Lumeng

    2012-01-01

    The common benign tumor of the liver, cavernous hemangioma, has already been confirmed, both embryologically and pathologically, to be not a neoplasm, but a congenital vascular malformation of the liver which is resulted from the arrested development of hepatic sinusoids at embryologic stage. This paper aims to make a comprehensive description of the cavernous hemangiomas of the liver, including the lesion's blood supply, the hemodynamics, the imaging features, the classification and its interventional therapy. The relevant example illustrations, figures and graphics are accompanied with the text in order to provide the readers with an complete and up-to-date understanding of the hepatic cavernous hemangiomas. (authors)

  19. Condition monitoring using empirical models: technical review and prospects for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heo, Gyun Young

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to extensively review the Condition Monitoring (CM) techniques using empirical models in an effort to reduce or eliminate unexpected downtimes in general industry, and to illustrate the feasibility of applying them to the nuclear industry. CM provides on-time warnings of system states to enable the optimal scheduling of maintenance and, ultimately, plant uptime is maximized. Currently, most maintenance processes tend to be either reactive, or part of scheduled, or preventive maintenance. Such maintenance is being increasingly reported as a poor practice for two reasons: first, the component does not necessarily require maintenance, thus the maintenance cost is wasted, and secondly, failure catalysts are introduced into properly working components, which is worse. This paper first summarizes the technical aspects of CM including state estimation and state monitoring. The mathematical background of CM is mature enough even for commercial use in the nuclear industry. Considering the current computational capabilities of CM, its application is not limited by technical difficulties, but by a lack of desire on the part of industry to implement it. For practical applications in the nuclear industry, it may be more important to clarify and quantify the negative impact of unexpected outcomes or failures in CM than it is to investigate its advantages. In other words, while issues regarding accuracy have been targeted to date, the concerns regarding robustness should now be concentrated on. Standardizing the anticipated failures and the possibly harsh operating conditions, and then evaluating the impact of the proposed CM under those conditions may be necessary. In order to make the CM techniques practical for the nuclear industry in the future, it is recommended that a prototype CM system be applied to a secondary system in which most of the components are non-safety grade. Recently, many activities to enhance the safety and efficiency of the

  20. Independent Technical Review of the C-400 Interim Remedial Project Phase I Results, Paducah, Kentucky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looney, B.; Rossabi, J.; Stewart, L.; Richards, W.

    2010-01-01

    The groundwater and soil in the vicinity of the C-400 Building at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), is contaminated with substantial quantities of industrial solvents, primarily trichoroethene (TCE). This solvent 'source' is recognized as a significant challenge and an important remediation target in the overall environmental cleanup strategy for PGDP. Thus, the cleanup of the C-400 TCE Source is a principal focus for the Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors, and for PGDP regulators and stakeholders. Using a formal investigation, feasibility study and decision process, Electrical Resistance Heating (ERH) was selected for the treatment of the soil and groundwater in the vicinity of C-400. ERH was selected as an interim action to remove 'a significant portion of the contaminant mass of TCE at the C-400 Cleaning Building area through treatment' with the longer term goal of reducing 'the period the TCE concentration in groundwater remains above its Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL).' ERH is a thermal treatment that enhances the removal of TCE and related solvents from soil and groundwater. The heterogeneous conditions at PGDP, particularly the high permeability regional gravel aquifer (RGA), are challenging to ERH. Thus, a phased approach is being followed to implement this relatively expensive and complex remediation technology. Conceptually, the phased approach encourages safety and efficiency by providing a 'lessons learned' process and allowing appropriate adjustments to be identified and implemented prior to follow-on phase(s) of treatment. More specifically, early deployment targeted portions of the challenging RGA treatment zone with relatively little contamination reducing the risk of adverse collateral impacts from underperformance in terms of heating and capture. Because of the importance and scope of the C-400 TCE source remediation activities, DOE chartered an Independent Technical Review (ITR) in 2007 to assess the C-400 ERH plans prior

  1. INDEPENDENT TECHNICAL REVIEW OF THE C-400 INTERIM REMEDIAL PROJECT PHASE I RESULTS, PADUCAH, KENTUCKY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney, B.; Rossabi, J.; Stewart,L.; Richards, W.

    2010-10-29

    The groundwater and soil in the vicinity of the C-400 Building at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), is contaminated with substantial quantities of industrial solvents, primarily trichoroethene (TCE). This solvent 'source' is recognized as a significant challenge and an important remediation target in the overall environmental cleanup strategy for PGDP. Thus, the cleanup of the C-400 TCE Source is a principal focus for the Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors, and for PGDP regulators and stakeholders. Using a formal investigation, feasibility study and decision process, Electrical Resistance Heating (ERH) was selected for the treatment of the soil and groundwater in the vicinity of C-400. ERH was selected as an interim action to remove 'a significant portion of the contaminant mass of TCE at the C-400 Cleaning Building area through treatment' with the longer term goal of reducing 'the period the TCE concentration in groundwater remains above its Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL).' ERH is a thermal treatment that enhances the removal of TCE and related solvents from soil and groundwater. The heterogeneous conditions at PGDP, particularly the high permeability regional gravel aquifer (RGA), are challenging to ERH. Thus, a phased approach is being followed to implement this relatively expensive and complex remediation technology. Conceptually, the phased approach encourages safety and efficiency by providing a 'lessons learned' process and allowing appropriate adjustments to be identified and implemented prior to follow-on phase(s) of treatment. More specifically, early deployment targeted portions of the challenging RGA treatment zone with relatively little contamination reducing the risk of adverse collateral impacts from underperformance in terms of heating and capture. Because of the importance and scope of the C-400 TCE source remediation activities, DOE chartered an Independent Technical Review (ITR) in

  2. Grid-connected photovoltaic power systems. Technical and potential problems. A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eltawil, Mohamed A.; Zhao, Zhengming

    2010-01-01

    Traditional electric power systems are designed in large part to utilize large baseload power plants, with limited ability to rapidly ramp output or reduce output below a certain level. The increase in demand variability created by intermittent sources such as photovoltaic (PV) presents new challenges to increase system flexibility. This paper aims to investigate and emphasize the importance of the grid-connected PV system regarding the intermittent nature of renewable generation, and the characterization of PV generation with regard to grid code compliance. The investigation was conducted to critically review the literature on expected potential problems associated with high penetration levels and islanding prevention methods of grid tied PV. According to the survey, PV grid connection inverters have fairly good performance. They have high conversion efficiency and power factor exceeding 90% for wide operating range, while maintaining current harmonics THD less than 5%. Numerous large-scale projects are currently being commissioned, with more planned for the near future. Prices of both PV and balance of system components (BOS) are decreasing which will lead to further increase in use. The technical requirements from the utility power system side need to be satisfied to ensure the safety of the PV installer and the reliability of the utility grid. Identifying the technical requirements for grid interconnection and solving the interconnect problems such as islanding detection, harmonic distortion requirements and electromagnetic interference are therefore very important issues for widespread application of PV systems. The control circuit also provides sufficient control and protection functions like maximum power tracking, inverter current control and power factor control. Reliability, life span and maintenance needs should be certified through the long-term operation of PV system. Further reduction of cost, size and weight is required for more utilization of PV

  3. Spent Nuclear Fuel Cold Vacuum Drying facility comprehensive formal design review report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HALLER, C.S.

    1999-01-01

    The majority of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) design and construction is complete; isolated portions are still in the design and fabrication process. The project commissioned a formal design review to verify the sufficiency and accuracy of current design media to assure that: (1) the design completely and accurately reflects design criteria, (2) design documents are consistent with one another, and (3) the design media accurately reflects the current design. This review is a key element in the design validation and verification activities required by SNF-4396, ''Design Verification and Validation Plan For The Cold Vacuum Drying Facility''. This report documents the results of the formal design review

  4. Exercise program for children and adolescents with leukemia and lymphoma during treatment: A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchetti, Giulia; Rossi, Francesca; Chamorro Vina, Carolina; Bertorello, Nicoletta; Fagioli, Franca

    2018-05-01

    An exercise program (EP) during cancer treatment seems to be a valid strategy against physiological and quality-of-life impairments, but scientific evidence of benefits among pediatric patients is still limited. This review summarizes the literature focused on randomized controlled trials of EP offered to patients during leukemia and lymphoma treatment. Studies published up to June 2017 were selected from multiple databases and assessed by three independent reviewers for methodological validity. The review identified eight studies, but several types of bias have to be avoided to provide evidence-based recommendations accessible to patients, families, and professionals. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Immunoglobulin G4 -related kidney disease: A comprehensive pictorial review of the imaging spectrum, Mimickers, and clinicopathological characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Ni Eun; Kim, Jin Hee; Byun, Jae Ho; Lee, Seung Soo; Kim, Hyoung Jung; Lee, Moon Gyu

    2015-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related kidney disease (IgG4-KD) has recently been demonstrated to be an important part of IgG4-related sclerosing disease (IgG4-SD). However, since IgG4-KD is still relatively unfamiliar to radiologists and physicians as compared to IgG4-SD involving other organs, it could, therefore, be easily missed. In this article, we present a comprehensive pictorial review of IgG4-KD with regards to the imaging spectrum, mimickers, and clinicopathologic characteristics, based on our clinical experience with 48 patients during the past 13 years, as well as a literature review. Awareness of the broad imaging spectrum of IgG4-KD and differential diagnosis from its mimickers will thus facilitate its early diagnosis and treatment

  6. Impact of Pharmacist-Conducted Comprehensive Medication Reviews for Older Adult Patients to Reduce Medication Related Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Whitney J; Phillips, Shaun W

    2017-12-31

    Older adults are demanding increased healthcare attention with regards to prescription use due in large part to highly complex medication regimens. As patients age, medications often have a more pronounced effect on older adults, negatively impacting patient safety and increasing healthcare costs. Comprehensive medication reviews (CMRs) optimize medications for elderly patients and help to avoid inappropriate medication use. Previous literature has shown that such CMRs can successfully identify and reduce the number of medication-related problems and improve acute healthcare utilization. The purpose of this pharmacy resident research study is to examine the impact of pharmacist-conducted geriatric medication reviews to reduce medication-related problems within a leading community health system in southwest Michigan. Furthermore, the study examines type of pharmacist interventions made during medication reviews, acute healthcare utilization, and physician assessment of the pharmacist's value. The study was conducted as a retrospective post-hoc analysis on ambulatory patients who received a CMR by a pharmacist at a primary care practice. Inclusion criteria included patients over 65 years of age with concurrent use of at least five medications who were a recent recipient of a CMR. Exclusion criteria included patients with renal failure, or those with multiple providers involved in primary care. The primary outcome was the difference in number of medication-related problems, as defined by the START and STOPP Criteria (Screening Tool to Alert doctors to Right Treatment/Screening Tool of Older Persons' Prescriptions). Secondary outcomes included hospitalizations, emergency department visits, number and type of pharmacist interventions, acceptance rate of pharmacist recommendations, and assessment of the pharmacist's value by clinic providers. There were a total of 26 patients that received a comprehensive medication review from the pharmacist and were compared to a

  7. An Exploratory Study of the Relationships between Reported Imagery and the Comprehension and Recall of a Story in Fifth Graders. Instructional Research Laboratory Technical Paper # R82007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadoski, Mark C.

    A study investigated the role of visual imagery in the comprehension and retention of prose. Subjects were 48 fifth grade students who orally read a story and then completed three comprehension tasks directly related to the story: a retelling, an oral reading cloze test, and a multiple choice question test comprised of items demonstrated to be…

  8. Effects of Cereal, Fruit and Vegetable Fibers on Human Fecal Weight and Transit Time: A Comprehensive Review of Intervention Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan de Vries

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cereal fibers are known to increase fecal weight and speed transit time, but far less data are available on the effects of fruits and vegetable fibers on regularity. This study provides a comprehensive review of the impact of these three fiber sources on regularity in healthy humans. We identified English-language intervention studies on dietary fibers and regularity and performed weighted linear regression analyses for fecal weight and transit time. Cereal and vegetable fiber groups had comparable effects on fecal weight; both contributed to it more than fruit fibers. Less fermentable fibers increased fecal weight to a greater degree than more fermentable fibers. Dietary fiber did not change transit time in those with an initial time of <48 h. In those with an initial transit time ≥48 h, transit time was reduced by approximately 30 min per gram of cereal, fruit or vegetable fibers, regardless of fermentability. Cereal fibers have been studied more than any other kind in relation to regularity. This is the first comprehensive review comparing the effects of the three major food sources of fiber on bowel function and regularity since 1993.

  9. Effects of Cereal, Fruit and Vegetable Fibers on Human Fecal Weight and Transit Time: A Comprehensive Review of Intervention Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Jan; Birkett, Anne; Hulshof, Toine; Verbeke, Kristin; Gibes, Kernon

    2016-03-02

    Cereal fibers are known to increase fecal weight and speed transit time, but far less data are available on the effects of fruits and vegetable fibers on regularity. This study provides a comprehensive review of the impact of these three fiber sources on regularity in healthy humans. We identified English-language intervention studies on dietary fibers and regularity and performed weighted linear regression analyses for fecal weight and transit time. Cereal and vegetable fiber groups had comparable effects on fecal weight; both contributed to it more than fruit fibers. Less fermentable fibers increased fecal weight to a greater degree than more fermentable fibers. Dietary fiber did not change transit time in those with an initial time of <48 h. In those with an initial transit time ≥48 h, transit time was reduced by approximately 30 min per gram of cereal, fruit or vegetable fibers, regardless of fermentability. Cereal fibers have been studied more than any other kind in relation to regularity. This is the first comprehensive review comparing the effects of the three major food sources of fiber on bowel function and regularity since 1993.

  10. A review and evaluation of the Langley Research Center's Scientific and Technical Information Program: Results of phase 6: The technical report. A survey and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccullough, R. A.; Pinelli, T. E.; Pilley, D. D.; Stohrer, F. F.

    1982-01-01

    Current practice and usage using selected technical reports; literature relative to the sequential, language, and presentation components of technical reports; and NASA technical report publications standards are discussed. The effctiveness of the technical report as a product for information dissemination is considered.

  11. Using Model-Based Systems Engineering To Provide Artifacts for NASA Project Life-Cycle and Technical Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Edith L.; Weiland, Karen J.

    2017-01-01

    The ability of systems engineers to use model-based systems engineering (MBSE) to generate self-consistent, up-to-date systems engineering products for project life-cycle and technical reviews is an important aspect for the continued and accelerated acceptance of MBSE. Currently, many review products are generated using labor-intensive, error-prone approaches based on documents, spreadsheets, and chart sets; a promised benefit of MBSE is that users will experience reductions in inconsistencies and errors. This work examines features of SysML that can be used to generate systems engineering products. Model elements, relationships, tables, and diagrams are identified for a large number of the typical systems engineering artifacts. A SysML system model can contain and generate most systems engineering products to a significant extent and this paper provides a guide on how to use MBSE to generate products for project life-cycle and technical reviews. The use of MBSE can reduce the schedule impact usually experienced for review preparation, as in many cases the review products can be auto-generated directly from the system model. These approaches are useful to systems engineers, project managers, review board members, and other key project stakeholders.

  12. Management of radioactive waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory: a technical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This review was performed for the US Department of Energy by a panel of the Board on Radioactive Waste Management under the National Research Council's Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Resources. In summary, ORNL's waste management practices have kept offsite doses low; some of the practices are temporary and improvised - they may not be as satisfactory in the future; reducing anticipated future releases will be difficult because the limited number of candidate waste disposal locations are characterized by topographic peculiarities; and a major ORNL accomplishment has been the demonstration that hydrofracture can be a successful method of disposal for at least low- and intermediate-level waste. The panel obtained its information over a 2-year period by examining a large body of technical literature, by making six visits to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and through briefings by representatives of government agencies and their subcontractors. Chapter 2 contains the charge to the panel. Chapters 3, 4, and 5 describe the site, the waste that is present, and the methods used to handle it. Chapters 6 through 10 treat the manner in which the performance of the waste-handling system is monitored, the criteria against which performance is assessed, the panel's assessment of performance, and consideration of alternative methods for future handling of radioactive waste. Chapter 11 contains a brief comparison of ORNL with other sites. The panel's principal conclusions and recommendations are summarized below and treated in detail in subsequent chapters. In general, the conclusions and recommendations considered by the panel to be the most important are provided first. 123 refs., 30 figs., 24 tabs

  13. Polymer Combustion as a Basis for Hybrid Propulsion: A Comprehensive Review and New Numerical Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasily Novozhilov

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid Propulsion is an attractive alternative to conventional liquid and solid rocket motors. This is an active area of research and technological developments. Potential wide application of Hybrid Engines opens the possibility for safer and more flexible space vehicle launching and manoeuvring. The present paper discusses fundamental combustion issues related to further development of Hybrid Rockets. The emphasis is made on the two aspects: (1 properties of potential polymeric fuels, and their modification, and (2 implementation of comprehensive CFD models for combustion in Hybrid Engines. Fundamentals of polymeric fuel combustion are discussed. Further, steps necessary to accurately describe their burning behaviour by means of CFD models are investigated. Final part of the paper presents results of preliminary CFD simulations of fuel burning process in Hybrid Engine using a simplified set-up.

  14. Dengue viral infections in Pakistan and other Asian countries: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubair, Muhammad; Ashraf, Muhammad; Ahsan, Aitezaz; Nazir, Noor-Ul-Ain; Hanif, Hina; Khan, Haider Ali

    2016-07-01

    Infections due to Dengue virus are widespread throughout the world. Disease starts with mild flu like sickness to a severe intricate condition which results in the death of the patient. Dengue illness has high morbidity and mortality in Pakistan as well as in other Asian countries. The Review article is a discourse analysis that explores the facts about the history, emergence and impact of dengue in Pakistan and other Asian countries. Data was collected from internet sources, mainly using Science Direct and PubMed. The final literature was reviewed and summarised. About 150 articles were identified and 47 articles were shortlisted for final review. Aedesaegypti was found to be a major vector for the transmission and spread of dengue illness. Treatment comprises supportive therapy as no specific treatment was available. During the last couple of years, the incidence of dengue fever was extraordinary in metropolitan cities of Pakistan.

  15. L5 spondylolysis/spondylolisthesis: a comprehensive review with an anatomic focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Paul; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Watanabe, Koichi; Conklin, Michael; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Rozzelle, Curtis J; Loukas, Marios; Tubbs, R Shane

    2013-02-01

    Spondylolysis is most commonly observed in the lumbar spine, particularly L5, and is associated with spondylolisthesis, or anterior "slippage" of a vertebra in relation to an adjacent vertebra. Isthmic spondylolisthesis is the result of a pars interarticularis defect and will be the only type of spondylolisthesis addressed in this review. Spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis represent a relatively common cause of low back pain, especially in young athletes, and a less common cause of neurologic compromise. When discovered in a symptomatic patient with corroborating imaging findings, early intervention provides an excellent prognosis. Herein, we review the anatomy and pathology of spondylosis and spondylolisthesis of the L5 vertebra.

  16. A comprehensive review on two-stage integrative schemes for the valorization of dark fermentative effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivagurunathan, Periyasamy; Kuppam, Chandrasekhar; Mudhoo, Ackmez; Saratale, Ganesh D; Kadier, Abudukeremu; Zhen, Guangyin; Chatellard, Lucile; Trably, Eric; Kumar, Gopalakrishnan

    2017-12-21

    This review provides the alternative routes towards the valorization of dark H 2 fermentation effluents that are mainly rich in volatile fatty acids such as acetate and butyrate. Various enhancement and alternative routes such as photo fermentation, anaerobic digestion, utilization of microbial electrochemical systems, and algal system towards the generation of bioenergy and electricity and also for efficient organic matter utilization are highlighted. What is more, various integration schemes and two-stage fermentation for the possible scale up are reviewed. Moreover, recent progress for enhanced performance towards waste stabilization and overall utilization of useful and higher COD present in the organic source into value-added products are extensively discussed.

  17. Use of the Menopause-Specific Quality of Life (MENQOL) questionnaire in research and clinical practice: a comprehensive scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydora, Beate C; Fast, Hilary; Campbell, Sandy; Yuksel, Nese; Lewis, Jacqueline E; Ross, Sue

    2016-09-01

    The Menopause-Specific Quality of Life (MENQOL) questionnaire was developed as a validated research tool to measure condition-specific QOL in early postmenopausal women. We conducted a comprehensive scoping review to explore the extent of MENQOL's use in research and clinical practice to assess its value in providing effective, adequate, and comparable participant assessment information. Thirteen biomedical and clinical databases were systematically searched with "menqol" as a search term to find articles using MENQOL or its validated derivative MENQOL-Intervention as investigative or clinical tools from 1996 to November 2014 inclusive. Review articles, conference abstracts, proceedings, dissertations, and incomplete trials were excluded. Additional articles were collected from references within key articles. Three independent reviewers extracted data reflecting study design, intervention, sample characteristics, MENQOL questionnaire version, modifications and language, recall period, and analysis detail. Data analyses included categorization and descriptive statistics. The review included 220 eligible papers of various study designs, covering 39 countries worldwide and using MENQOL translated into more than 25 languages. A variety of modifications to the original questionnaire were identified, including omission or addition of items and alterations to the validated methodological analysis. No papers were found that described MENQOL's use in clinical practice. Our study found an extensive and steadily increasing use of MENQOL in clinical and epidemiological research over 18 years postpublication. Our results stress the importance of proper reporting and validation of translations and variations to ensure outcome comparison and transparency of MENQOL's use. The value of MENQOL in clinical practice remains unknown.

  18. Non-technical skills assessment for prelicensure nursing students: An integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Sara; Monteiro, Sara; Pereira, Anabela; Chaló, Daniela; Melo, Elsa; Rodrigues, Alexandre

    2017-11-01

    In nursing, non-technical skills are recognized as playing an important role to increase patient safety and successful clinical outcomes (Pearson and McLafferty, 2011). Non-technical skills are cognitive and social resource skills that complement technical skills and contribute to safe and efficient task performance (Flin et al., 2008). In order to effectively provide non-technical skills training, it is essential to have an instrument to measure these skills. An online search was conducted. Articles were selected if they referred to and/or described instruments assessing non-technical skills for nurses and/or prelicensure nursing students in educational, clinical and/or simulated settings with validation evidence (inclusion criteria). Of the 53 articles located, 26 met the inclusion criteria. Those referred to and/or described 16 instruments with validation evidence developed to assess non-technical skills in multidisciplinary teams including nurses. Although articles have shown 16 valid and reliable instruments, to our knowledge, no instrument has been published or developed and validated for the assessment of non-technical skills of only nurses in general, relevant for use in high-fidelity simulation-based training for prelicensure nursing students. Therefore, there is a need for the development of such an instrument. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A comprehensive review on graphene nanofluids: Recent research, development and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghinezhad, Emad; Mehrali, Mohammad; Saidur, R.; Mehrali, Mehdi; Tahan Latibari, Sara; Akhiani, Amir Reza; Metselaar, Hendrik Simon Cornelis

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Recent advances in graphene nanofluids are reviewed. • Reviews heat transfer and critical heat flux of graphene nanofluid. • Identifies important results, inconsistence and contradictions of the topics. • Needs in future research in this subject are discussed. - Abstract: An overview of experimental results about the heat transfer capabilities of graphene nanofluids is reviewed. It shows that a number of publications are available on this issue and only few studies provide quantitative estimates on a complete set of experimental conditions so far. This research work includes experimental results about the capabilities of graphene nanofluids and summarizes the recent progress on preparation and evaluation methods, the ways to enhance the stability of graphene nanofluids and future applications in various fields of energy. Thermo-physical and optical properties of graphene nanofluids along with the heat transfer performance have also been reported in this review paper. Various challenges associated with the use of graphene nanofluids in actual applications has also been reported. It is expected that it could be a quick reference guide to have an overview of the different heat transfer phenomena in graphene nanofluids and the most essential parameters that influence the expected thermal performance of graphene nanofluids.

  20. Social-Skill Interventions for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students with Disabilities: A Comprehensive Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunyoung; Yan, Min-Chi; Kulkarni, Saili S.

    2017-01-01

    Teachers and researchers have considered social-skill interventions to be an essential component in the development and progress of students with disabilities. However, there is still relatively limited research on these interventions for individuals from culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) backgrounds. This literature review was conducted…

  1. Comprehensive Technical Report of the Inquiry into the Application of Living Systems Theory to 41 U. S. Army Battalions: Executive Summary. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-11-01

    information such as statutory and executive directives, regulations, and technical manuals is blended with matter/energy (people, equipment, and...which might be initiated in order to counteract these potential pathologies. An organizacion , like an organism, cannot survive when its basic processes...Normative Tables and Performance Indicator Scales presented in the study. The Tables and Scales, much like the specification in a technical ,. manual , permit

  2. Review and comment on the advanced spent fuel management process (1): Technical aspects and non-proliferation concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Yo Taik

    2001-01-01

    Efforts are made to analyze the project, the Advanced Spent Fuel Management Technology (ASFMT), which is currently carried out at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, on the technical feasibility and validity as well as on the nuclear non-proliferation concerns. The project is a part of a program under the 'Long and Midterm Nuclear Development Program'. On the technical analysis, reviewed the papers presented at the national and international meetings on the subject by KAERI staffs, and also participated to various technical discussions on the 'Mock-up Test', currently in progress. On the non-proliferation concerns, the ASFMT project was reviewed and analyzed in reference to various programs currently in progress or in a formulation stages in US, such as the DOE TOPS and ATW. Further reviewed the past JASNEC process and programs for possible application of the ASFMT project for JASNEC project. Provided a few thoughts for effectively carrying out the ASFMT project, and a plan for the next phase is presented

  3. Review and comment on the advanced spent fuel management process (1): Technical aspects and non-proliferation concerns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Yo Taik

    2001-01-01

    Efforts are made to analyze the project, the Advanced Spent Fuel Management Technology (ASFMT), which is currently carried out at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, on the technical feasibility and validity as well as on the nuclear non-proliferation concerns. The project is a part of a program under the 'Long and Midterm Nuclear Development Program'. On the technical analysis, reviewed the papers presented at the national and international meetings on the subject by KAERI staffs, and also participated to various technical discussions on the 'Mock-up Test', currently in progress. On the non-proliferation concerns, the ASFMT project was reviewed and analyzed in reference to various programs currently in progress or in a formulation stages in US, such as the DOE TOPS and ATW. Further reviewed the past JASNEC process and programs for possible application of the ASFMT project for JASNEC project. Provided a few thoughts for effectively carrying out the ASFMT project, and a plan for the next phase is presented.

  4. A comment on Farwell : brain fingerprinting: a comprehensive tutorial review of detection of concealed information with event-related brain potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, E.H.; Ben-Shakhar, G.; Verschuere, B.; Donchin, E.

    2013-01-01

    In a recent issue of Cognitive Neurodynamics Farwell (Cogn Neurodyn 6:115-154, 2012) published a comprehensive tutorial review of the use of Event Related Brain Potentials (ERP) in the detection of concealed information. Farwell’s review covered much of his own work employing his ‘‘brain

  5. Follow the Money: A Comprehensive Review of the Funding Mechanisms of Voucher Programs in Six Cases. Informing Policy & Improving Practice Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Molly S.; Moon, Jodi S.

    2016-01-01

    This comprehensive review is part of a three-part report, Follow the "Money: A Detailed Analysis of the Funding Mechanisms of Voucher Programs in Six Cases"; this review contains the cross-case analysis and findings of the funding mechanisms of voucher programs across five states (Arizona, Indiana, Louisiana, Ohio, and Wisconsin) and the…

  6. Skull base tumors: a comprehensive review of transfacial swing osteotomy approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira-Gonzalez, Andrea; Pieper, Daniel R; Cambra, Jorge Balaguer; Simman, Richard; Jackson, Ian T

    2005-03-01

    Numerous techniques have been proposed for the resection of skull base tumors, each one unique with regard to the region exposed and degree of technical complexity. This study describes the use of transfacial swing osteotomies in accessing lesions located at various levels of the cranial base. Eight patients who underwent transfacial swings for exposure and resection of cranial base lesions between 1996 and 2002 were studied. The mandible was the choice when wide exposure of nasopharyngeal and midline skull base tumors was necessary, especially when they involved the infratemporal fossa. The midfacial swing osteotomy was an option when access to the entire clivus was necessary. An orbital swing approach was used to access large orbital tumors lying inferior to the optic nerve and posterior to the globe, a region that is often difficult to visualize. Gross total tumor excision was possible in all patients. Six patients achieved disease control and two had recurrences. The complications of cerebrospinal fluid leak, infection, hematoma, or cranial nerve damage did not occur. After surgery, some patients experienced temporary symptoms caused by local swelling. The aesthetic result was considered good. Transfacial swing osteotomies provide a wide exposure to tumors that occur in the central skull base area. Excellent knowledge of the detailed anatomy of this region is paramount to the success of this surgery. The team concept is essential; it is built around the craniofacial surgeon and an experienced skull base neurosurgeon.

  7. Digital Mapping Charting and Geodesy analysis Program (DMAP) Review of Technical Initiatives for FY03

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Breckenridge, John

    2003-01-01

    The Naval DMAP serves as a technical representative for the Oceanographer of the Navy, NO96 to address significant issues relevant to the Navy's use and development of digital Mapping, Charting & Geodesy (MC&G) data...

  8. A study on technical efficiency of a DMU (review of literature)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswarlu, B.; Mahaboob, B.; Subbarami Reddy, C.; Sankar, J. Ravi

    2017-11-01

    In this research paper the concept of technical efficiency (due to Farell) [1] of a decision making unit (DMU) has been introduced and the measure of technical and cost efficiencies are derived. Timmer’s [2] deterministic approach to estimate the Cobb-Douglas production frontier has been proposed. The idea of extension of Timmer’s [2] method to any production frontier which is linear in parameters has been presented here. The estimation of parameters of Cobb-Douglas production frontier by linear programming approach has been discussed in this paper. Mark et al. [3] proposed a non-parametric method to assess efficiency. Nuti et al. [4] investigated the relationships among technical efficiency scores, weighted per capita cost and overall performance Gahe Zing Samuel Yank et al. [5] used Data envelopment analysis to assess technical assessment in banking sectors.

  9. Vitamin D and its effects on cardiovascular diseases: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Hernández, Nonanzit; Aptilon-Duque, Gad; Nostroza-Hernández, María Cristina; Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto; Rodríguez-Pérez, José Manuel; Blachman-Braun, Ruben

    2016-11-01

    Vitamin D is a molecule that is actively involved in multiple metabolic pathways. It is mostly known for its implications related to calcium metabolism. It has also been determined that it actively participates in the cardiovascular system, influencing blood pressure, coronary artery disease and other vascular diseases, such as heart failure and atrial fibrillation. Furthermore, it has been established that this vitamin is extensively involved in the regulation of both the renin angiotensin aldosterone system and the immune system. In this review, we present the different vitamin D metabolic pathways associated with the cardiovascular pathophysiology, and we include studies in animal and human models, as well as some of the controversies found in the literature. This review also incorporates an overview of the implications in the molecular biology and public health fields.

  10. The Clinical Interview for Depression: A Comprehensive Review of Studies and Clinimetric Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guidi, Jenny; Fava, Giovanni A; Bech, Per

    2011-01-01

    electronic databases: Medline, PsychINFO, EMBASE, and Web of Science. A manual search of the literature was also performed. Results: The initial strategies yielded 169 published reports for potential inclusion in the review: 98 are discussed here. The CID has been used extensively in a variety of studies....... The purpose of this paper is to review the clinimetric characteristics of Paykel's Clinical Interview for Depression (CID) and to examine the results of the studies in which the interview has been used. Methods: Published reports which involved the use of the CID were identified by searching the following......, including descriptive studies, classification by means of factor analysis and cluster analysis, and predictor variables of response to treatment or relapse. The CID has also been used as an outcome measure in several controlled clinical trials and follow-up studies of pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy...

  11. A Comprehensive Review of the Evidence of the Impact of Surface Water Quality on Property Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Nicholls

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The desirability of living on or close to water is reflected in sometimes substantial property price premiums. Water quality has an important influence on property prices, since it impacts a water body’s appearance, capacity to support wildlife, and recreational potential. As water quality continues to be altered by human use and activity, and in light of new threats posed by projected climate and associated environmental change, understanding the impact of changing quality on property prices, and the associated property tax base, is paramount. This paper reviews the body of evidence on this topic to date. Of the 43 distinct studies represented in the 48 publications reviewed, the expected, statistically significant relationship between water quality and property price was demonstrated in at least one of the models developed in all but two studies. As a whole, they provide convincing evidence that clean water has a positive effect on property values.

  12. Access to Orphan Drugs: A Comprehensive Review of Legislations, Regulations and Policies in 35 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammie, Todd

    2015-01-01

    Objective To review existing regulations and policies utilised by countries to enable patient access to orphan drugs. Methods A review of the literature (1998 to 2014) was performed to identify relevant, peer-reviewed articles. Using content analysis, we synthesised regulations and policies for access to orphan drugs by type and by country. Results Fifty seven articles and 35 countries were included in this review. Six broad categories of regulation and policy instruments were identified: national orphan drug policies, orphan drug designation, marketing authorization, incentives, marketing exclusivity, and pricing and reimbursement. The availability of orphan drugs depends on individual country’s legislation and regulations including national orphan drug policies, orphan drug designation, marketing authorization, marketing exclusivity and incentives such as tax credits to ensure research, development and marketing. The majority of countries (27/35) had in place orphan drug legislation. Access to orphan drugs depends on individual country’s pricing and reimbursement policies, which varied widely between countries. High prices and insufficient evidence often limit orphan drugs from meeting the traditional health technology assessment criteria, especially cost-effectiveness, which may influence access. Conclusions Overall many countries have implemented a combination of legislations, regulations and policies for orphan drugs in the last two decades. While these may enable the availability and access to orphan drugs, there are critical differences between countries in terms of range and types of legislations, regulations and policies implemented. Importantly, China and India, two of the largest countries by population size, both lack national legislation for orphan medicines and rare diseases, which could have substantial negative impacts on their patient populations with rare diseases. PMID:26451948

  13. Comprehensive Medical Management of Rosacea: An Interim Study Report and Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Del Rosso, James Q.; Baum, Eric W.

    2008-01-01

    Rosacea is a common inflammatory facial dermatosis seen in adults that exhibits considerable variety in clinical presentation. Multiple medical therapeutic options are available including topical and oral treatments. Optimal medical management of rosacea includes assessment of subtype and disease severity and use of appropriate skin care to reduce epidermal barrier dysfunction. This article provides an overall discussion of the medical management of rosacea and reviews interim results from a ...

  14. Access to Orphan Drugs: A Comprehensive Review of Legislations, Regulations and Policies in 35 Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammie, Todd; Lu, Christine Y; Babar, Zaheer Ud-Din

    2015-01-01

    To review existing regulations and policies utilised by countries to enable patient access to orphan drugs. A review of the literature (1998 to 2014) was performed to identify relevant, peer-reviewed articles. Using content analysis, we synthesised regulations and policies for access to orphan drugs by type and by country. Fifty seven articles and 35 countries were included in this review. Six broad categories of regulation and policy instruments were identified: national orphan drug policies, orphan drug designation, marketing authorization, incentives, marketing exclusivity, and pricing and reimbursement. The availability of orphan drugs depends on individual country's legislation and regulations including national orphan drug policies, orphan drug designation, marketing authorization, marketing exclusivity and incentives such as tax credits to ensure research, development and marketing. The majority of countries (27/35) had in place orphan drug legislation. Access to orphan drugs depends on individual country's pricing and reimbursement policies, which varied widely between countries. High prices and insufficient evidence often limit orphan drugs from meeting the traditional health technology assessment criteria, especially cost-effectiveness, which may influence access. Overall many countries have implemented a combination of legislations, regulations and policies for orphan drugs in the last two decades. While these may enable the availability and access to orphan drugs, there are critical differences between countries in terms of range and types of legislations, regulations and policies implemented. Importantly, China and India, two of the largest countries by population size, both lack national legislation for orphan medicines and rare diseases, which could have substantial negative impacts on their patient populations with rare diseases.

  15. Access to Orphan Drugs: A Comprehensive Review of Legislations, Regulations and Policies in 35 Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Gammie

    Full Text Available To review existing regulations and policies utilised by countries to enable patient access to orphan drugs.A review of the literature (1998 to 2014 was performed to identify relevant, peer-reviewed articles. Using content analysis, we synthesised regulations and policies for access to orphan drugs by type and by country.Fifty seven articles and 35 countries were included in this review. Six broad categories of regulation and policy instruments were identified: national orphan drug policies, orphan drug designation, marketing authorization, incentives, marketing exclusivity, and pricing and reimbursement. The availability of orphan drugs depends on individual country's legislation and regulations including national orphan drug policies, orphan drug designation, marketing authorization, marketing exclusivity and incentives such as tax credits to ensure research, development and marketing. The majority of countries (27/35 had in place orphan drug legislation. Access to orphan drugs depends on individual country's pricing and reimbursement policies, which varied widely between countries. High prices and insufficient evidence often limit orphan drugs from meeting the traditional health technology assessment criteria, especially cost-effectiveness, which may influence access.Overall many countries have implemented a combination of legislations, regulations and policies for orphan drugs in the last two decades. While these may enable the availability and access to orphan drugs, there are critical differences between countries in terms of range and types of legislations, regulations and policies implemented. Importantly, China and India, two of the largest countries by population size, both lack national legislation for orphan medicines and rare diseases, which could have substantial negative impacts on their patient populations with rare diseases.

  16. Epidemiology of brucellosis in Iran: A comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirnejad, Reza; Jazi, Faramarz Masjedian; Mostafaei, Shayan; Sedighi, Mansour

    2017-08-01

    Brucellosis is still one of the most challenging issues for health and the economy in many developing countries such as Iran. Considering the high prevalence of brucellosis, the aim of the current study was to systematically review published data about the annual incidence rate of this infection from different parts of Iran and provide an overall relative frequency (RF) for Iran using meta-analysis. We searched several databases including PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Scopus, google scholar, IranMedex and Iranian Scientific Information Database (SID) by using the following keywords: "Brucella", "Brucellosis", "Malta fever", "Mediterranean fever", "undulant fever", "zoonosis" and "Iran" in Title/Abstract/Keywords fields. Articles/Abstracts, which used clinical specimens and reported the incidence of brucellosis, were included in this review. Quality of studies was assessed by STROB and PRISMA forms. All statistical analyses were performed using STATA 11.0 (STATA Corp, College Station, TX) and P-values under 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Out of the 8326 results, we found 34 articles suitable, according to inclusion and exlusion criteria, for inclusion in this systematic review and meta-analysis. The pooled incidence of brucellosis was estimated 0.001% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.0005-0.0015%) annually. Relative frequency of brucellosis in different studies varied from 7.0/100000 to 276.41/100000 in Qom and Kermanshah provinces, respectively. This systematic-review and meta-analysis study showed that the highest incidences of brucellosis are occurred in west and northwest regions of Iran. Totally, the incidence of the disease in Iran is in the high range. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Clinical Utility of Virtual Reality in Pain Management: A Comprehensive Research Review from 2009 to 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Matsangidou, Maria; Ang, Chee Siang; Sakel, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Virtual Reality is a technology that allows users to experience a computer-simulated reality with visual, auditory, tactile and olfactory interactions. In the past decades, there have been considerable interests in using Virtual Reality for clinical purposes, including pain management. This article provides a systematic review of research on Virtual Reality and pain management, with an aim to understand the feasibilities of current Virtual Reality technologies and content design approaches in...

  18. Role of strain imaging in right heart disease: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Arun; Poongkunran, Chithra; Jayaraj, Mahendran; Janardhanan, Rajesh

    2014-10-01

    Advances in the imaging techniques of the heart have fueled the interest in understanding of right heart pathology. Recently, speckle tracking echocardiography has shown to aid in understanding various right heart diseases and better management. Its role is well established in diagnosing right heart failure, pulmonary artery hypertension, arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia and congenital heart disease. We review the basic mechanics of speckle tracking and analyze its role in various right heart conditions.

  19. Association between Mastication, the Hippocampus, and the HPA Axis: A Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Kagaku; Zhou, Qian; Niwa, Masami; Kubo, Kin-Ya

    2017-08-03

    Mastication is mainly involved in food intake and nutrient digestion with the aid of teeth. Mastication is also important for preserving and promoting general health, including hippocampus-dependent cognition. Both animal and human studies indicate that mastication influences hippocampal functions through the end product of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, glucocorticoid (GC). Epidemiologic studies suggest that masticatory dysfunction in aged individuals, such as that resulting from tooth loss and periodontitis, acting as a source of chronic stress, activates the HPA axis, leading to increases in circulating GCs and eventually inducing various physical and psychological diseases, such as cognitive impairment, cardiovascular disorders, and osteoporosis. Recent studies demonstrated that masticatory stimulation or chewing during stressful conditions suppresses the hyperactivity of the HPA axis via GCs and GC receptors within the hippocampus, and ameliorates chronic stress-induced hippocampus-dependent cognitive deficits. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of current research regarding the association between mastication, the hippocampus, and HPA axis activity. We also discuss several potential molecular mechanisms involved in the interactions between mastication, hippocampal function, and HPA axis activity.

  20. A comprehensive review on pre-treatment strategy for lignocellulosic food industry waste: Challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, Rajeev; Jaiswal, Amit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Lignocellulose is a generic term used to describe plant biomass. It is the most abundant renewable carbon resource in the world and is mainly composed of lignin, cellulose and hemicelluloses. Most of the food and food processing industry waste are lignocellulosic in nature with a global estimate of up to 1.3 billion tons/year. Lignocellulose, on hydrolysis, releases reducing sugars which is used for the production of bioethanol, biogas, organic acids, enzymes and biosorbents. However, structural conformation, high lignin content and crystalline cellulose hinder its use for value addition. Pre-treatment strategies facilitate the exposure of more cellulose and hemicelluloses for enzymatic hydrolysis. The present article confers about the structure of lignocellulose and how it influences enzymatic degradation emphasising the need for pre-treatments along with a comprehensive analysis and categorisation of the same. Finally, this article concludes with a detailed discussion on microbial/enzymatic inhibitors that arise post pre-treatment and strategies to eliminate them. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.