WorldWideScience

Sample records for comprehensive polymorphism survey

  1. Comprehensive Survey on Dynamic Graph Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aya Zaki

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Most of the critical real-world networks are con-tinuously changing and evolving with time. Motivated by the growing importance and widespread impact of this type of networks, the dynamic nature of these networks have gained a lot of attention. Because of their intrinsic and special characteristics, these networks are best represented by dynamic graph models. To cope with their evolving nature, the representation model must keep the historical information of the network along with its temporal time. Storing such amount of data, poses many problems from the perspective of dynamic graph data management. This survey provides an in-depth overview on dynamic graph related problems. Novel categorization and classification of the state of the art dynamic graph models are also presented in a systematic and comprehensive way. Finally, we discuss dynamic graph processing including the output representation of its algorithms.

  2. Desktop Virtualization Solutions-A Comprehensive Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasuprada Vijayakumar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Virtualization has become apparent in the 1960s as a practice to enhance the use of expensive computing hardware. Virtualization targets to reduce the complexity associated with deployment and maintenance of client devices, which eventually helps IT Companies to reduce system management costs. In this paper, we propose the virtualization concept expanding into many aspects of IT world. There are various virtualization technologies which include storage, desktop virtual platforms, server consolidation, virtual desktop infrastructure and application virtualization. This is the basic prerequisite for cloud computing and its applications. This paper highlights the benefits of virtualization and provides a comparative study on the various products that have been derived from it. This paper also describes how to create a virtualization strategy introducing comprehensive desktop-virtualization solutions, thereby providing a high-level guidance to help develop a desktop-virtualization strategy.

  3. Obsessive-compulsive disorder and related disorders: a comprehensive survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solano Paola

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Our aim was to present a comprehensive, updated survey on obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD and obsessive-compulsive related disorders (OCRDs and their clinical management via literature review, critical analysis and synthesis. Information on OCD and OCRD current nosography, clinical phenomenology and etiology, may lead to a better comprehension of their management. Clinicians should become familiar with the broad spectrum of OCD disorders, since it is a pivotal issue in current clinical psychiatry.

  4. Cognitive Relay Networks: A Comprehensive Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayesha Naeem

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive radio is an emerging technology to deal with the scarcity and requirement of radio spectrum by dynamically assigning spectrum to unlicensed user . This revolutionary technology shifts the paradigm in the wireless system design by all owing unlicensed user the ability to sense, adapt and share the dynamic spectrum. Cognitive radio technology have been applied to different networks and applications ranging from wireless to public saf ety, smart grid, medical, rela y and cellular applications to increase the throughput and spectrum efficiency of the network. Among these applications, cognitive relay networks is one of the application where cognitive radio technology has been applied. Cognitiv e rela y network increases the network throughput by reducing the complete pa th loss and also by ensuring cooper ation among secondary users and cooperation among primary and secondary users. In this paper , our aim is to provide a survey on cognitive relay network. We also provide a detailed review on existing schemes in cognitive relay networks on the basis of relaying protocol, relay cooperation and channel model.

  5. Designing and conducting survey research a comprehensive guide

    CERN Document Server

    Rea, Louis M

    2014-01-01

    The industry standard guide, updated with new ideas and SPSS analysis techniques Designing and Conducting Survey Research: A Comprehensive Guide Fourth Edition is the industry standard resource that covers all major components of the survey process, updated to include new data analysis techniques and SPSS procedures with sample data sets online. The book offers practical, actionable guidance on constructing the instrument, administrating the process, and analyzing and reporting the results, providing extensive examples and worksheets that demonstrate the appropriate use of survey and data tech

  6. Comprehension and engagement in survey interviews with virtual agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Frederick G; Schober, Michael F; Jans, Matt; Orlowski, Rachel A; Nielsen, Daniel; Levenstein, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates how an onscreen virtual agent's dialog capability and facial animation affect survey respondents' comprehension and engagement in "face-to-face" interviews, using questions from US government surveys whose results have far-reaching impact on national policies. In the study, 73 laboratory participants were randomly assigned to respond in one of four interviewing conditions, in which the virtual agent had either high or low dialog capability (implemented through Wizard of Oz) and high or low facial animation, based on motion capture from a human interviewer. Respondents, whose faces were visible to the Wizard (and videorecorded) during the interviews, answered 12 questions about housing, employment, and purchases on the basis of fictional scenarios designed to allow measurement of comprehension accuracy, defined as the fit between responses and US government definitions. Respondents answered more accurately with the high-dialog-capability agents, requesting clarification more often particularly for ambiguous scenarios; and they generally treated the high-dialog-capability interviewers more socially, looking at the interviewer more and judging high-dialog-capability agents as more personal and less distant. Greater interviewer facial animation did not affect response accuracy, but it led to more displays of engagement-acknowledgments (verbal and visual) and smiles-and to the virtual interviewer's being rated as less natural. The pattern of results suggests that a virtual agent's dialog capability and facial animation differently affect survey respondents' experience of interviews, behavioral displays, and comprehension, and thus the accuracy of their responses. The pattern of results also suggests design considerations for building survey interviewing agents, which may differ depending on the kinds of survey questions (sensitive or not) that are asked.

  7. Comprehension and Engagement in Survey Interviews with Virtual Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick eConrad

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates how an onscreen virtual agent's dialog capability and facial animation affect survey respondents' comprehension and engagement in face-to-face interviews, using questions from US government surveys whose results have far-reaching impact on national policies. In the study, 73 laboratory participants were randomly assigned to respond in one of four interviewing conditions, in which the virtual agent had either high or low dialog capability (implemented through Wizard of Oz and high or low facial animation, based on motion capture from a human interviewer. Respondents, whose faces were visible to the Wizard (and videorecorded during the interviews, answered 12 questions about housing, employment, and purchases on the basis of fictional scenarios designed to allow measurement of comprehension accuracy, defined as the fit between responses and US government definitions. Respondents answered more accurately with the high-dialog-capability agents, requesting clarification more often particularly for ambiguous scenarios; and they generally treated the high-dialog-capability interviewers more socially, looking at the interviewer more and judging high-dialog-capability agents as more personal and less distant. Greater interviewer facial animation did not affect response accuracy, but it led to more displays of engagement—acknowledgements (verbal and visual and smiles—and to the virtual interviewer's being rated as less natural. The pattern of results suggests that a virtual agent’s dialog capability and facial animation differently affect survey respondents' experience of interviews, behavioral displays, and comprehension, and thus the accuracy of their responses. The pattern of results also suggests design considerations for building survey interviewing agents, which may differ depending on the kinds of survey questions (sensitive or not that are asked.

  8. Text Detection, Tracking and Recognition in Video: A Comprehensive Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xu-Cheng; Zuo, Ze-Yu; Tian, Shu; Liu, Cheng-Lin

    2016-04-14

    Intelligent analysis of video data is currently in wide demand because video is a major source of sensory data in our lives. Text is a prominent and direct source of information in video, while recent surveys of text detection and recognition in imagery [1], [2] focus mainly on text extraction from scene images. Here, this paper presents a comprehensive survey of text detection, tracking and recognition in video with three major contributions. First, a generic framework is proposed for video text extraction that uniformly describes detection, tracking, recognition, and their relations and interactions. Second, within this framework, a variety of methods, systems and evaluation protocols of video text extraction are summarized, compared, and analyzed. Existing text tracking techniques, tracking based detection and recognition techniques are specifically highlighted. Third, related applications, prominent challenges, and future directions for video text extraction (especially from scene videos and web videos) are also thoroughly discussed.

  9. Human Pose Estimation from Monocular Images: A Comprehensive Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjuan Gong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Human pose estimation refers to the estimation of the location of body parts and how they are connected in an image. Human pose estimation from monocular images has wide applications (e.g., image indexing. Several surveys on human pose estimation can be found in the literature, but they focus on a certain category; for example, model-based approaches or human motion analysis, etc. As far as we know, an overall review of this problem domain has yet to be provided. Furthermore, recent advancements based on deep learning have brought novel algorithms for this problem. In this paper, a comprehensive survey of human pose estimation from monocular images is carried out including milestone works and recent advancements. Based on one standard pipeline for the solution of computer vision problems, this survey splits the problem into several modules: feature extraction and description, human body models, and modeling methods. Problem modeling methods are approached based on two means of categorization in this survey. One way to categorize includes top-down and bottom-up methods, and another way includes generative and discriminative methods. Considering the fact that one direct application of human pose estimation is to provide initialization for automatic video surveillance, there are additional sections for motion-related methods in all modules: motion features, motion models, and motion-based methods. Finally, the paper also collects 26 publicly available data sets for validation and provides error measurement methods that are frequently used.

  10. The herschel comprehensive (u)lirg emission survey (hercules)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, M. J F; Van Der Werf, P. P.; Aalto, S.;

    2015-01-01

    (Ultra) luminous infrared galaxies ((U)LIRGs) are objects characterized by their extreme infrared (8-1000 μm) luminosities (L⊙LIRG > 1011 L⊙ and L⊙ULIRG > 1012 L⊙). The Herschel Comprehensive ULIRG Emission Survey (PI: van der Werf) presents a representative flux-limited sample of 29 (U)LIRGs tha......(Ultra) luminous infrared galaxies ((U)LIRGs) are objects characterized by their extreme infrared (8-1000 μm) luminosities (L⊙LIRG > 1011 L⊙ and L⊙ULIRG > 1012 L⊙). The Herschel Comprehensive ULIRG Emission Survey (PI: van der Werf) presents a representative flux-limited sample of 29 (U...... ratio and to far infrared luminosity, we find that the CO excitation is more correlated to the far infrared colors. We present cooling budgets for the galaxies and find fine-structure line flux deficits in the [C II], [Si II], [O I], and [C I] lines in the objects with the highest far IR fluxes, but do...

  11. Fault Location Based on Synchronized Measurements: A Comprehensive Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Al-Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comprehensive survey on transmission and distribution fault location algorithms that utilize synchronized measurements. Algorithms based on two-end synchronized measurements and fault location algorithms on three-terminal and multiterminal lines are reviewed. Series capacitors equipped with metal oxide varistors (MOVs, when set on a transmission line, create certain problems for line fault locators and, therefore, fault location on series-compensated lines is discussed. The paper reports the work carried out on adaptive fault location algorithms aiming at achieving better fault location accuracy. Work associated with fault location on power system networks, although limited, is also summarized. Additionally, the nonstandard high-frequency-related fault location techniques based on wavelet transform are discussed. Finally, the paper highlights the area for future research.

  12. Versatility of immunohistochemical reactions: comprehensive survey of detection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokrý, J

    1996-01-01

    The field of immunohistochemistry comprises histological methods enabling detection of tissue antigens via specific antibodies. Although all these techniques take an advantage of a large specificity of antibody to a particular tissue antigen there are many different approaches for enhancement and visualization of the signal. The aim of the present review article was to briefly outline the historical milestones that made the rapid progress of this discipline possible and give a comprehensive survey of immunohistochemical methods applicable to biomedical research. The survey starts with a description of the direct immunohistochemical method and then pays attention to a huge number of indirect methods. For better explanation of principles of individual techniques, the text is accompanied with graphical schemes. The highest attention is given to immunohistochemical methods that are most generally used, i.e. enzyme anti-enzyme complex methods (e.g. Peroxidase Anti-Peroxidase/PAP/ or Alkaline Phosphatase Anti-Alkaline Phosphatase /APAAP/) and methods based on avidin-biotin interactions (Bridged Avidin-Biotin/BRAB/, Avidin-Biotin Complex /ABC/, Labelled Avidin-Biotin/LAB/). Nevertheless, the principles of other immunohistochemical methods like two- or three-step indirect immunohistochemical methods, methods based on protein A-antibody interaction and Hapten Antibody Anti-Hapten method (HAAH), are also thoroughly characterized. Usefulness of each method for a specific utilization, its advantages and disadvantages are mentioned and compared with the latest immunohistochemical techniques, like Multi-Layered Peroxidase-Labelled Antibody (MLP) and water soluble polymer conjugates, e.g. Enhanced Polymer One-Step staining (EPOS) or EnVision. The last paragraphs are devoted to immunohistochemical amplification systems (Catalyzed Signal Amplification/CSA/ and label anti-label) that dramatically increase sensitivity of detection systems and enable to compare sensitivity of

  13. Comprehensive survey of SNPs in the Affymetrix exon array using the 1000 Genomes dataset.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric R Gamazon

    Full Text Available Microarray gene expression data has been used in genome-wide association studies to allow researchers to study gene regulation as well as other complex phenotypes including disease risks and drug response. To reach scientifically sound conclusions from these studies, however, it is necessary to get reliable summarization of gene expression intensities. Among various factors that could affect expression profiling using a microarray platform, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in target mRNA may lead to reduced signal intensity measurements and result in spurious results. The recently released 1000 Genomes Project dataset provides an opportunity to evaluate the distribution of both known and novel SNPs in the International HapMap Project lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs. We mapped the 1000 Genomes Project genotypic data to the Affymetrix GeneChip Human Exon 1.0ST array (exon array, which had been used in our previous studies and for which gene expression data had been made publicly available. We also evaluated the potential impact of these SNPs on the differentially spliced probesets we had identified previously. Though the 1000 Genomes Project data allowed a comprehensive survey of the SNPs in this particular array, the same approach can certainly be applied to other microarray platforms. Furthermore, we present a detailed catalogue of SNP-containing probesets (exon-level and transcript clusters (gene-level, which can be considered in evaluating findings using the exon array as well as benefit the design of follow-up experiments and data re-analysis.

  14. A Systematic Survey of Program Comprehension through Dynamic Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, B.; Zaidman, A.; Van Deursen, A.; Moonen, L.; Koschke, R.

    2009-01-01

    Program comprehension is an important activity in software maintenance, as software must be sufficiently understood before it can be properly modified. The study of a program's execution, known as dynamic analysis, has become a common technique in this respect and has received substantial attention

  15. A comprehensive survey of nuclear reactions; Panorama des reactions nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cugnon, J. [Liege Univ., IFPA, AGO Dept. (Belgium)

    2007-07-01

    The various mechanisms of nuclear reactions are surveyed and classified in different regimes, based on the notions of coherent mechanisms and hard versus soft processes. The emphasis is put on the concepts at the basis of the understanding of these regimes and on the elements of nuclear structure which are involved in these different regimes, as well as the on the possibility of extracting this information. Due to lack of space and for pedagogical reasons, the discussion is limited to nucleon-induced and light-ion-induced reactions. However, a few remarks are given concerning some specific probes, such as weakly bound projectiles or neutron-rich nuclei. (author)

  16. Magnetic reconnection in Saturn's magnetotail: A comprehensive magnetic field survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A. W.; Jackman, C. M.; Thomsen, M. F.

    2016-04-01

    Reconnection within planetary magnetotails is responsible for locally energizing particles and changing the magnetic topology. Its role in terms of global magnetospheric dynamics can involve changing the mass and flux content of the magnetosphere. We have identified reconnection related events in spacecraft magnetometer data recorded during Cassini's exploration of Saturn's magnetotail. The events are identified from deflections in the north-south component of the magnetic field, significant above a background level. Data were selected to provide full tail coverage, encompassing the dawn and dusk flanks as well as the deepest midnight orbits. Overall 2094 reconnection related events were identified, with an average rate of 5.0 events per day. The majority of events occur in clusters (within 3 h of other events). We examine changes in this rate in terms of local time and latitude coverage, taking seasonal effects into account. The observed reconnection rate peaks postmidnight with more infrequent but steady loss seen on the dusk flank. We estimate the mass loss from the event catalog and find it to be insufficient to balance the input from the moon Enceladus. Several reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. The reconnection X line location appears to be highly variable, though a statistical separation between events tailward and planetward of the X line is observed at a radial distance of between 20 and 30RS downtail. The small sample size at dawn prevents comprehensive statistical comparison with the dusk flank observations in terms of flux closure.

  17. A Comprehensive Study of Educational Timetabling - a Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Simon; Stidsen, Thomas Riis

    Educational timetabling is one of the most researched subjects within the range of timetabling problems. There has been a significant increase in effcient planning problems within educational timetabling the last couple of decades. In this paper we will highlight some of the main trends...... and research achievements within educational planning problems. Furthermore it is an aim to make a differentiation between the different planning problems. This survey is concentrated on the four main education planning problems; University Course Timetabling, High School Timetabling, Examination Timetabling...... and Student Sectioning. Firstly a presentation of educational timetabling and the main components is given. For each problem a description is given with appertaining benchmark data and recent research. The literature presented is mainly solution tested on real-life data or better yet implemented. Summarizing...

  18. A comprehensive survey of retracted articles from the scholarly literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieneisen, Michael L; Zhang, Minghua

    2012-01-01

    The number of retracted scholarly articles has risen precipitously in recent years. Past surveys of the retracted literature each limited their scope to articles in PubMed, though many retracted articles are not indexed in PubMed. To understand the scope and characteristics of retracted articles across the full spectrum of scholarly disciplines, we surveyed 42 of the largest bibliographic databases for major scholarly fields and publisher websites to identify retracted articles. This study examines various trends among them. We found, 4,449 scholarly publications retracted from 1928-2011. Unlike Math, Physics, Engineering and Social Sciences, the percentages of retractions in Medicine, Life Science and Chemistry exceeded their percentages among Web of Science (WoS) records. Retractions due to alleged publishing misconduct (47%) outnumbered those due to alleged research misconduct (20%) or questionable data/interpretations (42%). This total exceeds 100% since multiple justifications were listed in some retraction notices. Retraction/WoS record ratios vary among author affiliation countries. Though widespread, only miniscule percentages of publications for individual years, countries, journals, or disciplines have been retracted. Fifteen prolific individuals accounted for more than half of all retractions due to alleged research misconduct, and strongly influenced all retraction characteristics. The number of articles retracted per year increased by a factor of 19.06 from 2001 to 2010, though excluding repeat offenders and adjusting for growth of the published literature decreases it to a factor of 11.36. Retracted articles occur across the full spectrum of scholarly disciplines. Most retracted articles do not contain flawed data; and the authors of most retracted articles have not been accused of research misconduct. Despite recent increases, the proportion of published scholarly literature affected by retraction remains very small. Articles and editorials

  19. A comprehensive survey of M(2)AX phase elastic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cover, M F; Warschkow, O; Bilek, M M M; McKenzie, D R

    2009-07-29

    M(2)AX phases are a family of nanolaminate, ternary alloys that are composed of slabs of transition metal carbide or nitride (M(2)X) separated by single atomic layers of a main group element. In this combination, they manifest many of the beneficial properties of both ceramic and metallic compounds, making them attractive for many technological applications. We report here the results of a large scale computational survey of the elastic properties of all 240 elemental combinations using first-principles density functional theory calculations. We found correlations revealing the governing role of the A element and its interaction with the M element on the c axis compressibility and shearability of the material. The role of the X element is relatively minor, with the strongest effect seen in the in-plane constants C(11) and C(12). We identify several elemental compositions with extremal properties such as W(2)SnC, which has by far the lowest value of C(44), suggesting potential applications as a high-temperature dry lubricant.

  20. Comprehensive identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with beta-lactam resistance within pneumococcal mosaic genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chewapreecha, Claire; Marttinen, Pekka; Croucher, Nicholas J; Salter, Susannah J; Harris, Simon R; Mather, Alison E; Hanage, William P; Goldblatt, David; Nosten, Francois H; Turner, Claudia; Turner, Paul; Bentley, Stephen D; Parkhill, Julian

    2014-08-01

    Traditional genetic association studies are very difficult in bacteria, as the generally limited recombination leads to large linked haplotype blocks, confounding the identification of causative variants. Beta-lactam antibiotic resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae arises readily as the bacteria can quickly incorporate DNA fragments encompassing variants that make the transformed strains resistant. However, the causative mutations themselves are embedded within larger recombined blocks, and previous studies have only analysed a limited number of isolates, leading to the description of "mosaic genes" as being responsible for resistance. By comparing a large number of genomes of beta-lactam susceptible and non-susceptible strains, the high frequency of recombination should break up these haplotype blocks and allow the use of genetic association approaches to identify individual causative variants. Here, we performed a genome-wide association study to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and indels that could confer beta-lactam non-susceptibility using 3,085 Thai and 616 USA pneumococcal isolates as independent datasets for the variant discovery. The large sample sizes allowed us to narrow the source of beta-lactam non-susceptibility from long recombinant fragments down to much smaller loci comprised of discrete or linked SNPs. While some loci appear to be universal resistance determinants, contributing equally to non-susceptibility for at least two classes of beta-lactam antibiotics, some play a larger role in resistance to particular antibiotics. All of the identified loci have a highly non-uniform distribution in the populations. They are enriched not only in vaccine-targeted, but also non-vaccine-targeted lineages, which may raise clinical concerns. Identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms underlying resistance will be essential for future use of genome sequencing to predict antibiotic sensitivity in clinical microbiology.

  1. Comprehensive identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with beta-lactam resistance within pneumococcal mosaic genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Chewapreecha

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Traditional genetic association studies are very difficult in bacteria, as the generally limited recombination leads to large linked haplotype blocks, confounding the identification of causative variants. Beta-lactam antibiotic resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae arises readily as the bacteria can quickly incorporate DNA fragments encompassing variants that make the transformed strains resistant. However, the causative mutations themselves are embedded within larger recombined blocks, and previous studies have only analysed a limited number of isolates, leading to the description of "mosaic genes" as being responsible for resistance. By comparing a large number of genomes of beta-lactam susceptible and non-susceptible strains, the high frequency of recombination should break up these haplotype blocks and allow the use of genetic association approaches to identify individual causative variants. Here, we performed a genome-wide association study to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and indels that could confer beta-lactam non-susceptibility using 3,085 Thai and 616 USA pneumococcal isolates as independent datasets for the variant discovery. The large sample sizes allowed us to narrow the source of beta-lactam non-susceptibility from long recombinant fragments down to much smaller loci comprised of discrete or linked SNPs. While some loci appear to be universal resistance determinants, contributing equally to non-susceptibility for at least two classes of beta-lactam antibiotics, some play a larger role in resistance to particular antibiotics. All of the identified loci have a highly non-uniform distribution in the populations. They are enriched not only in vaccine-targeted, but also non-vaccine-targeted lineages, which may raise clinical concerns. Identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms underlying resistance will be essential for future use of genome sequencing to predict antibiotic sensitivity in clinical microbiology.

  2. Polymorphic toxin systems: Comprehensive characterization of trafficking modes, processing, mechanisms of action, immunity and ecology using comparative genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Dapeng

    2012-06-01

    polymorphic toxin systems predicts the presence of novel trafficking-related components, and also the organizational logic that allows toxin diversification through recombination. Domain architecture and protein-length analysis revealed that these toxins might be deployed as secreted factors, through directed injection, or via inter-cellular contact facilitated by filamentous structures formed by RHS/YD, filamentous hemagglutinin and other repeats. Phyletic pattern and life-style analysis indicate that polymorphic toxins and polyimmunity loci participate in cooperative behavior and facultative ‘cheating’ in several ecosystems such as the human oral cavity and soil. Multiple domains from these systems have also been repeatedly transferred to eukaryotes and their viruses, such as the nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses. Conclusions Along with a comprehensive inventory of toxins and immunity proteins, we present several testable predictions regarding active sites and catalytic mechanisms of toxins, their processing and trafficking and their role in intra-specific and inter-specific interactions between bacteria. These systems provide insights regarding the emergence of key systems at different points in eukaryotic evolution, such as ADP ribosylation, interaction of myosin VI with cargo proteins, mediation of apoptosis, hyphal heteroincompatibility, hedgehog signaling, arthropod toxins, cell-cell interaction molecules like teneurins and different signaling messengers. Reviewers This article was reviewed by AM, FE and IZ.

  3. Polymorphic toxin systems: Comprehensive characterization of trafficking modes, processing, mechanisms of action, immunity and ecology using comparative genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    predicts the presence of novel trafficking-related components, and also the organizational logic that allows toxin diversification through recombination. Domain architecture and protein-length analysis revealed that these toxins might be deployed as secreted factors, through directed injection, or via inter-cellular contact facilitated by filamentous structures formed by RHS/YD, filamentous hemagglutinin and other repeats. Phyletic pattern and life-style analysis indicate that polymorphic toxins and polyimmunity loci participate in cooperative behavior and facultative ‘cheating’ in several ecosystems such as the human oral cavity and soil. Multiple domains from these systems have also been repeatedly transferred to eukaryotes and their viruses, such as the nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses. Conclusions Along with a comprehensive inventory of toxins and immunity proteins, we present several testable predictions regarding active sites and catalytic mechanisms of toxins, their processing and trafficking and their role in intra-specific and inter-specific interactions between bacteria. These systems provide insights regarding the emergence of key systems at different points in eukaryotic evolution, such as ADP ribosylation, interaction of myosin VI with cargo proteins, mediation of apoptosis, hyphal heteroincompatibility, hedgehog signaling, arthropod toxins, cell-cell interaction molecules like teneurins and different signaling messengers. Reviewers This article was reviewed by AM, FE and IZ. PMID:22731697

  4. A comprehensive experiment for molecular biology: Determination of single nucleotide polymorphism in human REV3 gene using PCR-RFLP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Shao, Meng; Gao, Lu; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Sun, Zixuan; Zhou, Liping; Yan, Yongmin; Shao, Qixiang; Xu, Wenrong; Qian, Hui

    2017-07-08

    Laboratory exercise is helpful for medical students to understand the basic principles of molecular biology and to learn about the practical applications of molecular biology. We have designed a lab course on molecular biology about the determination of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in human REV3 gene, the product of which is a subunit of DNA polymerase ζ and SNPs in this gene are associated with altered susceptibility to cancer. This newly designed experiment is composed of three parts, including genomic DNA extraction, gene amplification by PCR, and genotyping by RFLP. By combining these activities, the students are not only able to learn a series of biotechniques in molecular biology, but also acquire the ability to link the learned knowledge with practical applications. This comprehensive experiment will help the medical students improve the conceptual understanding of SNP and the technical understanding of SNP detection. © 2017 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(4):299-304, 2017. © 2017 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  5. A comprehensive study of tumor necrosis factor-alpha genetic polymorphisms, its expression in skin and relation to histopathological features in psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil N Moorchung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα is an important inflammatory mediator in psoriasis and several genetic polymorphisms of this cytokine have been reported. Majority of studies have focused on the increased G- A polymorphism at the -308 position in psoriasis. There has been no comprehensive study evaluating the genetic polymorphisms, TNFα expression in the skin and histopathology. We are undertaking this study to outline TNFα genetic polymorphisms, its skin expression and histopathological correlation to help determine its role at the genetic and protein level. Materials and Methods : 112 patients of psoriasis and 243 healthy controls were included in this prospective study. 5 ml of peripheral blood was collected to study the TNFα genetic polymorphisms by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Histopathological analysis of biopsies from the 112 patients were done using visual analogue scale and correlated with the findings. 61 of these cases were analyzed for TNFα expression by immunohistochemistry. The results of study were statistically analyzed using SPSS 13.0 statistical package program. Results: A strong association of TNFα -308 G/A polymorphism in psoriasis cases was detected. The A allele of the TNFα -308 G/A polymorphism occurs rarely in the Indian population, however there is an over representation of this allele in psoriatic patients. There was no association seen between TNFα genotype and histopathological severity of psoriasis. Conclusion: The study emphasized the central role of TNFα in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. TNFα genotyping may be helpful in identifying subjects in whom anti-TNFα therapeutic strategies may be tried.

  6. Emotion word comprehension from 4 – 16 years old: A developmental survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Baron-Cohen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Whilst previous studies have examined comprehension of the emotional lexicon at different ages in typically developing children, no survey has been conducted looking at this across different ages from childhood to adolescence. Purpose: To report how the emotion lexicon grows with age. Method: Comprehension of 336 emotion words was tested in n = 377 children and adolescents, aged 4 to16 years old, divided into 6 age-bands. Parents or teachers of children under 12, or adolescents themselves, were asked to indicate which words they knew the meaning of. Results: Between 4 and 11 years old, the size of the emotional lexicon doubled every 2 years, but between 12 and 16 years old, developmental rate of growth of the emotional lexicon levelled off. This survey also allows emotion words to be ordered in terms of difficulty. Conclusions: Studies using emotion terms in English need to be developmentally sensitive, since during childhood there is considerable change. The absence of change after adolescence may be an artefact of the words included in this study. This normative developmental data-set for emotion vocabulary comprehension may be useful when testing for delays in this ability, as might arise for environmental or neurodevelopmental reasons.

  7. Helicopter emergency medical service registrars do not comprehensively document primary surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Sandra; Reid, Cliff; Burns, Brian J; Habig, Karel

    2013-06-01

    In-hospital primary surveys undertaken on traumatically injured patients can be inaccurate and incomplete. This study examined the documentation of prehospital primary surveys conducted by Greater Sydney Area Helicopter Emergency Medical Service registrars on trauma patients. A retrospective case sheet review of prehospital trauma primary surveys documented by Greater Sydney Area Helicopter Emergency Medical Service registrars was carried out using previously published methodologies. A 13-item prehospital primary survey score was created and analysed by registrar specialty. A linear mixed model was used to determine whether differences in prehospital primary survey score existed between specialties. A one-point difference in the mean scores was considered clinically significant. A total of 75 charts were reviewed. An unadjusted mean of 9.5±1.6 (SD) items, out of a possible 13, was documented. Documentation was found to be less complete for anaesthetic trainees (adjusted mean score=9.10) than for emergency medicine trainees (adjusted mean score=10.34). The difference in the mean scores was 1.24 (95% confidence interval, 0.25-2.23, t53d.f.=2.52, P=0.01). A significant clustering effect was identified for individual registrars (χ1d.f.=6.03, P=0.01). A very good level of agreement was obtained between the PPSS raters (κ=0.93, 95% confidence interval, 0.87-0.99). Helicopter emergency medical service registrars do not comprehensively document prehospital primary surveys on traumatically injured patients. However, emergency medicine trainees document more completely than anaesthetic trainees. Individual registrar variation contributes significantly towards the completeness of prehospital primary survey documentation.

  8. Simulation of Astronomical Images from Optical Survey Telescopes using a Comprehensive Photon Monte Carlo Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Peterson, J R; Kahn, S M; Rasmussen, A P; Peng, E; Ahmad, Z; Bankert, J; Chang, C; Claver, C; Gilmore, D K; Grace, E; Hannel, M; Hodge, M; Lorenz, S; Lupu, A; Meert, A; Nagarajan, S; Todd, N; Winans, A; Young, M

    2015-01-01

    We present a comprehensive methodology for the simulation of astronomical images from optical survey telescopes. We use a photon Monte Carlo approach to construct images by sampling photons from models of astronomical source populations, and then simulating those photons through the system as they interact with the atmosphere, telescope, and camera. We demonstrate that all physical effects for optical light that determine the shapes, locations, and brightnesses of individual stars and galaxies can be accurately represented in this formalism. By using large scale grid computing, modern processors, and an efficient implementation that can produce 400,000 photons/second, we demonstrate that even very large optical surveys can be now be simulated. We demonstrate that we are able to: 1) construct kilometer scale phase screens necessary for wide-field telescopes, 2) reproduce atmospheric point-spread-function moments using a fast novel hybrid geometric/Fourier technique for non-diffraction limited telescopes, 3) ac...

  9. Trends in the nursing doctoral comprehensive examination process: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawn, Barbara E; Goldberg, Shari

    2012-01-01

    The doctoral comprehensive or qualifying examination (CE/QE) is a traditional rite of passage into the community of scholars for the nursing profession. This exploratory, descriptive cross-sectional study examined trends in the process, timing, and methodology of comprehensive and qualifying examinations in nursing doctoral programs in the United States. Administrators from 45 schools responded to an online survey from 27 states across the country (37% response rate). Participants reported wide variations in the process. The most common method of implementation was the written take-home test (47%), two thirds of which had a subsequent oral examination. Eleven survey respondents (24%) reported using a form of the traditional written, timed, on-site examination; however, only 4 of these also followed up with an oral defense. Nine schools (20%) moved to a requirement for a written publishable paper; three schools consider the written proposal and its defense as the CE/QE. Approximately half had changed their policy in the past 5 years. With the increase in nursing doctor of philosophy programs over the past decade, information is needed to facilitate the development of methods to achieve program outcomes. An understanding of national CE/QE trends can provide a starting point for discussion and allow innovative ideas to meet the need of individual programs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. SIMULATION OF ASTRONOMICAL IMAGES FROM OPTICAL SURVEY TELESCOPES USING A COMPREHENSIVE PHOTON MONTE CARLO APPROACH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, J. R.; Peng, E.; Ahmad, Z.; Bankert, J.; Grace, E.; Hannel, M.; Hodge, M.; Lorenz, S.; Lupu, A.; Meert, A.; Nagarajan, S.; Todd, N.; Winans, A.; Young, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Jernigan, J. G. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Kahn, S. M.; Rasmussen, A. P.; Chang, C.; Gilmore, D. K. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Claver, C., E-mail: peters11@purdue.edu [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    We present a comprehensive methodology for the simulation of astronomical images from optical survey telescopes. We use a photon Monte Carlo approach to construct images by sampling photons from models of astronomical source populations, and then simulating those photons through the system as they interact with the atmosphere, telescope, and camera. We demonstrate that all physical effects for optical light that determine the shapes, locations, and brightnesses of individual stars and galaxies can be accurately represented in this formalism. By using large scale grid computing, modern processors, and an efficient implementation that can produce 400,000 photons s{sup −1}, we demonstrate that even very large optical surveys can be now be simulated. We demonstrate that we are able to (1) construct kilometer scale phase screens necessary for wide-field telescopes, (2) reproduce atmospheric point-spread function moments using a fast novel hybrid geometric/Fourier technique for non-diffraction limited telescopes, (3) accurately reproduce the expected spot diagrams for complex aspheric optical designs, and (4) recover system effective area predicted from analytic photometry integrals. This new code, the Photon Simulator (PhoSim), is publicly available. We have implemented the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope design, and it can be extended to other telescopes. We expect that because of the comprehensive physics implemented in PhoSim, it will be used by the community to plan future observations, interpret detailed existing observations, and quantify systematics related to various astronomical measurements. Future development and validation by comparisons with real data will continue to improve the fidelity and usability of the code.

  11. Role of the APOE ε2/ε3/ε4 polymorphism in the development of primary open-angle glaucoma: evidence from a comprehensive meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinglu Song

    Full Text Available Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG is one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide. The association between the APOE ε2/ε3/ε4 polymorphism and the risk of POAG has been widely reported, but the results of previous studies remain controversial. To comprehensively evaluate the APOE ε2/ε3/ε4 polymorphism on the genetic risk for POAG, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of previously published studies. The PubMed and Web of Science databases were systematically searched to identify relevant studies. Data were extracted from these studies and odds ratios with corresponding 95% confidence intervals were computed to estimate the strength of the association. Stratified analyses according to ethnicity and sensitivity analyses were also conducted for further confirmation. A total of nine studies were eligible for the meta-analysis, and these studies included data on 1928 POAG cases and 1793 unrelated match controls. The combined results showed that there were no associations between the APOE ε2/ε3/ε4 polymorphism and POAG risk in any of the 10 comparison models. The analysis that was stratified by ethnicity subgroups also failed to reveal a significant association. The sensitivity analysis confirmed the stability and reliability of the findings. There was no risk of publication bias. Our meta-analysis provides strong evidence that the APOE ε2/ε3/ε4 polymorphism is not associated with POAG susceptibility in any populations.

  12. A Comprehensive Survey on Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm and Its Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudong Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Particle swarm optimization (PSO is a heuristic global optimization method, proposed originally by Kennedy and Eberhart in 1995. It is now one of the most commonly used optimization techniques. This survey presented a comprehensive investigation of PSO. On one hand, we provided advances with PSO, including its modifications (including quantum-behaved PSO, bare-bones PSO, chaotic PSO, and fuzzy PSO, population topology (as fully connected, von Neumann, ring, star, random, etc., hybridization (with genetic algorithm, simulated annealing, Tabu search, artificial immune system, ant colony algorithm, artificial bee colony, differential evolution, harmonic search, and biogeography-based optimization, extensions (to multiobjective, constrained, discrete, and binary optimization, theoretical analysis (parameter selection and tuning, and convergence analysis, and parallel implementation (in multicore, multiprocessor, GPU, and cloud computing forms. On the other hand, we offered a survey on applications of PSO to the following eight fields: electrical and electronic engineering, automation control systems, communication theory, operations research, mechanical engineering, fuel and energy, medicine, chemistry, and biology. It is hoped that this survey would be beneficial for the researchers studying PSO algorithms.

  13. The Validity and reliability of the Comprehensive Home Environment Survey (CHES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinard, Courtney A; Yaroch, Amy L; Hart, Michael H; Serrano, Elena L; McFerren, Mary M; Estabrooks, Paul A

    2014-01-01

    Few comprehensive measures exist to assess contributors to childhood obesity within the home, specifically among low-income populations. The current study describes the modification and psychometric testing of the Comprehensive Home Environment Survey (CHES), an inclusive measure of the home food, physical activity, and media environment related to childhood obesity. The items were tested for content relevance by an expert panel and piloted in the priority population. The CHES was administered to low-income parents of children 5 to 17 years (N = 150), including a subsample of parents a second time and additional caregivers to establish test-retest and interrater reliabilities. Children older than 9 years (n = 95), as well as parents (N = 150) completed concurrent assessments of diet and physical activity behaviors (predictive validity). Analyses and item trimming resulted in 18 subscales and a total score, which displayed adequate internal consistency (α = .74-.92) and high test-retest reliability (r ≥ .73, ps environment were correlated (r = .37, p environment related to childhood obesity, including healthy diet and physical activity.

  14. A survey of genomic properties for the detection of regulatory polymorphisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen B Montgomery

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Advances in the computational identification of functional noncoding polymorphisms will aid in cataloging novel determinants of health and identifying genetic variants that explain human evolution. To date, however, the development and evaluation of such techniques has been limited by the availability of known regulatory polymorphisms. We have attempted to address this by assembling, from the literature, a computationally tractable set of regulatory polymorphisms within the ORegAnno database (http://www.oreganno.org. We have further used 104 regulatory single-nucleotide polymorphisms from this set and 951 polymorphisms of unknown function, from 2-kb and 152-bp noncoding upstream regions of genes, to investigate the discriminatory potential of 23 properties related to gene regulation and population genetics. Among the most important properties detected in this region are distance to transcription start site, local repetitive content, sequence conservation, minor and derived allele frequencies, and presence of a CpG island. We further used the entire set of properties to evaluate their collective performance in detecting regulatory polymorphisms. Using a 10-fold cross-validation approach, we were able to achieve a sensitivity and specificity of 0.82 and 0.71, respectively, and we show that this performance is strongly influenced by the distance to the transcription start site.

  15. Towards the development of a comprehensive framework: Qualitative systematic survey of definitions of clinical research quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Niederhäusern, Belinda; Schandelmaier, Stefan; Mi Bonde, Marie; Brunner, Nicole; Hemkens, Lars G; Rutquist, Marielle; Bhatnagar, Neera; Guyatt, Gordon H; Pauli-Magnus, Christiane; Briel, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    To systematically survey existing definitions, concepts, and criteria of clinical research quality, both developed by stakeholder groups as well as in the medical literature. This study serves as a first step in the development of a comprehensive framework for the quality of clinical research. We systematically and in duplicate searched definitions, concepts and criteria of clinical research quality on websites of stakeholders in clinical research until no further insights emerged and in MEDLINE up to February 2015. Stakeholders included governmental bodies, regulatory agencies, the pharmaceutical industry, academic and commercial contract research organizations, initiatives, research ethics committees, patient organizations and funding agencies from 13 countries. Data synthesis involved descriptive and qualitative analyses following the Framework Method on definitions, concepts, and criteria of clinical research quality. Descriptive codes were applied and grouped into clusters to identify common and stakeholder-specific quality themes. Stakeholder concepts on how to assure quality throughout study conduct or articles on quality assessment tools were common, generally with no a priori definition of the term quality itself. We identified a total of 20 explicit definitions of clinical research quality including varying quality dimensions and focusing on different stages in the clinical research process. Encountered quality dimensions include ethical conduct, patient safety/rights/priorities, internal validity, precision of results, generalizability or external validity, scientific and societal relevance, transparency and accessibility of information, research infrastructure and sustainability. None of the definitions appeared to be comprehensive either in terms of quality dimensions, research stages, or stakeholder perspectives. Clinical research quality is often discussed but rarely defined. A framework defining clinical research quality across stakeholders

  16. Comprehensive Survey of Intestinal Microbiota Changes in Offspring of Human Microbiota-Associated Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Klitzing, Eliane; Öz, Fulya; Ekmekciu, Ira; Escher, Ulrike; Bereswill, Stefan; Heimesaat, Markus M.

    2017-01-01

    Secondary abiotic mice generated by broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment provide a valuable tool for association studies with microbiota derived from different vertebrate hosts. We here generated human microbiota-associated (hma) mice by human fecal microbiota transplantation of secondary abiotic mice and performed a comprehensive survey of the intestinal microbiota dynamics in offspring of hma mice over 18 weeks following weaning as compared to their mothers applying both cultural and molecular methods. Mice were maintained under standard hygienic conditions with open cages, handled under aseptic conditions, and fed autoclaved chow and water. Within 1 week post weaning, fecal loads of commensal enterobacteria and enterococci had decreased, whereas obligate anaerobic bacteria such as Bacteroides/Prevotella species and clostridia were stably colonizing the intestines of hma offspring at high loads. Lactobacilli numbers were successively increasing until 18 weeks post weaning in both hma offspring and mothers, whereas by then, bifidobacteria were virtually undetectable in the former only. Interestingly, fecal lactobacilli and bifidobacteria were higher in mothers as compared to their offspring at 5 and 18 weeks post weaning. We conclude that the intestinal microbiota composition changes in offspring of hma mice, but also their mothers over time particularly affecting aerobic and microaerobic species. PMID:28386472

  17. Precarious employment and health: analysis of the Comprehensive National Survey in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurugano, Shinobu; Inoue, Mariko; Yano, Eiji

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that unstable employment contracts may affect the health of workers. Many Japanese workers working full time in ostensibly permanent positions actually operate within unstable and precarious employment conditions. We compared the health status of Japanese workers with precarious employment contracts with that of permanent workers using the 2007 Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions of the People on Health and Welfare (n=205,994). We classified their employment status as 'permanent' vs. 'precarious' (part-time, dispatch, or contract/non-regular) and compared their health conditions. Among both sexes, precarious workers were more likely than permanent workers to have poor self-rated health or more subjective symptoms, with more workers in full-time employment suffering from serious psychological distress (SPD) and more female workers who smoke. Using logistic regression, we identified a positive association between precarious employment and SPD and current smoking among workers engaged in full-time employment after adjusting for age, marital status, and work-related conditions. This study demonstrates that precarious employment contracts are associated with poor self-rated health, psychological distress, and tobacco use, especially among people working full-time jobs. These results suggest that engagement in full-time work under unstable employment status impairs workers' health.

  18. Comprehensive review of genetic association studies and meta-analyses on miRNA polymorphisms and cancer risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kshitij Srivastava

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small RNA molecules that regulate the expression of corresponding messenger RNAs (mRNAs. Variations in the level of expression of distinct miRNAs have been observed in the genesis, progression and prognosis of multiple human malignancies. The present study was aimed to investigate the association between four highly studied miRNA polymorphisms (mir-146a rs2910164, mir-196a2 rs11614913, mir-149 rs2292832 and mir-499 rs3746444 and cancer risk by using a two-sided meta-analytic approach. METHODS: An updated meta-analysis based on 53 independent case-control studies consisting of 27573 cancer cases and 34791 controls was performed. Odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (95% CI were used to investigate the strength of the association. RESULTS: Overall, the pooled analysis showed that mir-196a2 rs11614913 was associated with a decreased cancer risk (OR = 0.846, P = 0.004, TT vs. CC while other miRNA SNPs showed no association with overall cancer risk. Subgroup analyses based on type of cancer and ethnicity were also performed, and results indicated that there was a strong association between miR-146a rs2910164 and overall cancer risk in Caucasian population under recessive model (OR = 1.274, 95%CI = 1.096-1.481, P = 0.002. Stratified analysis by cancer type also associated mir-196a2 rs11614913 with lung and colorectal cancer at allelic and genotypic level. CONCLUSIONS: The present meta-analysis suggests an important role of mir-196a2 rs11614913 polymorphism with overall cancer risk especially in Asian population. Further studies with large sample size are needed to evaluate and confirm this association.

  19. A New Comprehensive Short-form Health Literacy Survey Tool for Patients in General

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuyen Van Duong, RN, MSN, PhD

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: The comprehensive HL-SF12 was a valid and easy to use tool for assessing patients’ health literacy in the hospitals to facilitate healthcare providers in enhancing patients’ health literacy and healthcare qualities.

  20. Physical mapping, expression analysis and polymorphism survey of resistance gene analogues on chromosome 11 of rice

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Irfan A Ghazi; Prem S Srivastava; Vivek Dalal; Kishor Gaikwad; Ashok K Singh; Tilak R Sharma; Nagendra K Singh; Trilochan Mohapatra

    2009-06-01

    Rice is the first cereal genome with a finished sequence and a model crop that has important syntenic relationships with other cereal species. The objectives of our study were to identify resistance gene analogue (RGA) sequences from chromosome 11 of rice, understand their expression in other cereals and dicots by in silico analysis, determine their presence on other rice chromosomes, and evaluate the extent of polymorphism and actual expression in a set of rice genotypes. A total of 195 RGAs were predicted and physically localised. Of these, 91.79% expressed in rice, and 51.28% expressed in wheat, which was the highest among other cereals. Among monocots, sugarcane showed the highest (78.92%) expression, while among dicots, RGAs were maximally expressed in Arabidopsis (11.79%). Interestingly, two of the chromosome 11-specific RGAs were found to be expressing in all the organisms studied. Eighty RGAs of chromosome 11 had significant homology with chromosome 12, which was the maximum among all the rice chromosomes. Thirty-one per cent of the RGAs used in polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification showed polymorphism in a set of rice genotypes. Actual gene expression analysis revealed post-inoculation induction of one RGA in the rice line IRBB-4 carrying the bacterial blight resistance gene Xa-4. Our results have implications for the development of sequence-based markers and functional validation of specific RGAs in rice.

  1. Identification, validation and survey of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associated with pungency in Capsicum spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcés-Claver, Ana; Fellman, Shanna Moore; Gil-Ortega, Ramiro; Jahn, Molly; Arnedo-Andrés, María S

    2007-11-01

    A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associated with pungency was detected within an expressed sequence tag (EST) of 307 bp. This fragment was identified after expression analysis of the EST clone SB2-66 in placenta tissue of Capsicum fruits. Sequence alignments corresponding to this new fragment allowed us to identify an SNP between pungent and non-pungent accessions. Two methods were chosen for the development of the SNP marker linked to pungency: tetra-primer amplification refractory mutation system-PCR (tetra-primer ARMS-PCR) and cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence. Results showed that both methods were successful in distinguishing genotypes. Nevertheless, tetra-primer ARMS-PCR was chosen for SNP genotyping because it was more rapid, reliable and less cost-effective. The utility of this SNP marker for pungency was demonstrated by the ability to distinguish between 29 pungent and non-pungent cultivars of Capsicum annuum. In addition, the SNP was also associated with phenotypic pungent character in the tested genotypes of C. chinense, C. baccatum, C. frutescens, C. galapagoense, C. eximium, C. tovarii and C. cardenasi. This SNP marker is a faster, cheaper and more reproducible method for identifying pungent peppers than other techniques such as panel tasting, and allows rapid screening of the trait in early growth stages.

  2. Validation of the Comprehensive ICF Core Set for Vocational Rehabilitation From the Perspective of Physical Therapists: International Delphi Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaech Moll, Veronika M; Escorpizo, Reuben; Portmann Bergamaschi, Ruth; Finger, Monika E

    2016-08-01

    The Comprehensive ICF Core Set for vocational rehabilitation (VR) is a list of essential categories on functioning based on the World Health Organization (WHO) International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), which describes a standard for interdisciplinary assessment, documentation, and communication in VR. The aim of this study was to examine the content validity of the Comprehensive ICF Core Set for VR from the perspective of physical therapists. A 3-round email survey was performed using the Delphi method. A convenience sample of international physical therapists working in VR with work experience of ≥2 years were asked to identify aspects they consider as relevant when evaluating or treating clients in VR. Responses were linked to the ICF categories and compared with the Comprehensive ICF Core Set for VR. Sixty-two physical therapists from all 6 WHO world regions responded with 3,917 statements that were subsequently linked to 338 ICF categories. Fifteen (17%) of the 90 categories in the Comprehensive ICF Core Set for VR were confirmed by the physical therapists in the sample. Twenty-two additional ICF categories were identified that were not included in the Comprehensive ICF Core Set for VR. Vocational rehabilitation in physical therapy is not well defined in every country and might have resulted in the small sample size. Therefore, the results cannot be generalized to all physical therapists practicing in VR. The content validity of the ICF Core Set for VR is insufficient from solely a physical therapist perspective. The results of this study could be used to define a physical therapy-specific set of ICF categories to develop and guide physical therapist clinical practice in VR. © 2016 American Physical Therapy Association.

  3. A Comprehensive Survey of Data Mining-based Fraud Detection Research

    CERN Document Server

    Phua, Clifton; Smith, Kate; Gayler, Ross

    2010-01-01

    This survey paper categorises, compares, and summarises from almost all published technical and review articles in automated fraud detection within the last 10 years. It defines the professional fraudster, formalises the main types and subtypes of known fraud, and presents the nature of data evidence collected within affected industries. Within the business context of mining the data to achieve higher cost savings, this research presents methods and techniques together with their problems. Compared to all related reviews on fraud detection, this survey covers much more technical articles and is the only one, to the best of our knowledge, which proposes alternative data and solutions from related domains.

  4. A Comprehensive Survey on Cyberbullying Perceptions at a Major Metropolitan University--Faculty Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molluzzo, John C.; Lawler, James; Manneh, Jerry

    2013-01-01

    Cyberbullying is a concern for any college or university. Digital harassment incidents are featured daily in the news. The authors of this study examine the perceptions of faculty on cyberbullying at a major metropolitan university. From the findings of a survey distributed to faculty in all schools of the university, the authors learn of high…

  5. A Comprehensive Survey on Student Perceptions of Cyberbullying at a Major Metropolitan University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, James P.; Molluzzo, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Cyberbullying is a concern for any college or university. Digital harassment incidents are featured daily in the news. The authors of this study examine the perceptions of students on cyberbullying at a major metropolitan university. From the findings of a student survey, the authors learn of high levels of perceptions on incidents as an issue but…

  6. Comprehensive Condition Survey and Storm Waves, Circulation, and Sediment Study, Dana Point Harbor, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    tasks that were performed in this study include the following: • A hydrographic survey using a multibeam sonar to collect bathymetric data and to...Imaging System) 3D LiDAR Scanner system mounted on top of the vessel was used for collecting above- water data. The LiDAR system is an optical remote

  7. A comprehensive survey on selective breeding programs and seed market in the European aquaculture fish industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chavanne, Hervé; Janssen, K.P.E.; Hofherr, Johann; Contini, Franca; Haffray, P.; Komen, J.; Nielsen, E.E.; Bargelloni, L.

    2016-01-01

    The use of selective breeding is still relatively limited in aquaculture species. Information on such activities is sparse, hindering an overall evaluation of their success. Here, we report on the results of an online survey of the major aqua-culture breeding companies operating in Europe. Six main

  8. National survey of comprehensive pharmacy services provided in cancer clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandoobhai, Anand; Poi, Ming; Kelley, Katherine; Mirtallo, Jay; Lopez, Ben; Griffith, Niesha

    2017-06-01

    Pharmacy services provided in clinical trials at National Cancer Institute (NCI)-designated centers were assessed. This was a cross-sectional survey of 61 NCI-designated cancer centers. Directors of pharmacy were contacted and data were collected electronically via Qualtrics over 2 months. Trial participants were asked to estimate the frequency that their sites performed 26 services and the perceived importance of these services. Services were examined with respect to the difference between their reported performance and their reported importance. Eight of the 26 services showed a difference of at least 40% between the proportion of respondents performing the activities "often" or "almost always" and the proportion considering them "important" or "very important." Demographic information was collected, as well as perceived barriers. Survey response rate was 59% (36 out of 61). The majority of services for clinical trials (19 out of 26) were viewed as important for pharmacists to perform; however, less than half (10 out of 26) were performed more than 50% of the time. Eight services had a gap of more than 40% when comparing the importance versus extent of implementation. Some of the largest gaps were reported in investigator-initiated trials development, medication reconciliation, therapeutic drug monitoring, and oral chemotherapy adherence assessment. Future studies can assist with cost justification by demonstrating the regulatory, safety, and financial benefits of pharmacist involvement in cancer trials. A survey of pharmacy directors at cancer centers revealed gaps between what respondents considered important pharmacist services in the provision of cancer clinical trials and the actual performance of those services in their institution. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevalence of Obesity in Hail Region, KSA: In a Comprehensive Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Gadelkarim Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obesity contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality rates worldwide. We, therefore, aimed to provide epidemiological data on the prevalence of obesity in Hail, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. Methodology. Data were collected during cross-sectional survey which included 5000 Saudi selected from 30 primary health care centers (PHCs in Hail Region. Results. The overall prevalence of obesity in Hail was 63.6%. Moreover, the prevalence of males was 56.2% and the prevalence of females was 71%. Conclusion. Obesity is prevalent in the Hail Region which necessitates urgent interventions including health education.

  10. Prevalence of obesity in Hail region, KSA: in a comprehensive survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Hussain Gadelkarim; Ginawi, Ibrahim Abdelmajeed; Elasbali, Abdelbaset Mohamed; Ashankyty, Ibraheem M; Al-Hazimi, Awdah M

    2014-01-01

    Obesity contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality rates worldwide. We, therefore, aimed to provide epidemiological data on the prevalence of obesity in Hail, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Data were collected during cross-sectional survey which included 5000 Saudi selected from 30 primary health care centers (PHCs) in Hail Region. The overall prevalence of obesity in Hail was 63.6%. Moreover, the prevalence of males was 56.2% and the prevalence of females was 71%. Obesity is prevalent in the Hail Region which necessitates urgent interventions including health education.

  11. Information presentation features and comprehensibility of hospital report cards: design analysis and online survey among users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Uwe; Emmert, Martin; Dickel, Jochen; Meszmer, Nina; Kolb, Benjamin

    2015-03-16

    Improving the transparency of information about the quality of health care providers is one way to improve health care quality. It is assumed that Internet information steers patients toward better-performing health care providers and will motivate providers to improve quality. However, the effect of public reporting on hospital quality is still small. One of the reasons is that users find it difficult to understand the formats in which information is presented. We analyzed the presentation of risk-adjusted mortality rate (RAMR) for coronary angiography in the 10 most commonly used German public report cards to analyze the impact of information presentation features on their comprehensibility. We wanted to determine which information presentation features were utilized, were preferred by users, led to better comprehension, and had similar effects to those reported in evidence-based recommendations described in the literature. The study consisted of 5 steps: (1) identification of best-practice evidence about the presentation of information on hospital report cards; (2) selection of a single risk-adjusted quality indicator; (3) selection of a sample of designs adopted by German public report cards; (4) identification of the information presentation elements used in public reporting initiatives in Germany; and (5) an online panel completed an online questionnaire that was conducted to determine if respondents were able to identify the hospital with the lowest RAMR and if respondents' hospital choices were associated with particular information design elements. Evidence-based recommendations were made relating to the following information presentation features relevant to report cards: evaluative table with symbols, tables without symbols, bar charts, bar charts without symbols, bar charts with symbols, symbols, evaluative word labels, highlighting, order of providers, high values to indicate good performance, explicit statements of whether high or low values indicate

  12. Information Presentation Features and Comprehensibility of Hospital Report Cards: Design Analysis and Online Survey Among Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Background Improving the transparency of information about the quality of health care providers is one way to improve health care quality. It is assumed that Internet information steers patients toward better-performing health care providers and will motivate providers to improve quality. However, the effect of public reporting on hospital quality is still small. One of the reasons is that users find it difficult to understand the formats in which information is presented. Objective We analyzed the presentation of risk-adjusted mortality rate (RAMR) for coronary angiography in the 10 most commonly used German public report cards to analyze the impact of information presentation features on their comprehensibility. We wanted to determine which information presentation features were utilized, were preferred by users, led to better comprehension, and had similar effects to those reported in evidence-based recommendations described in the literature. Methods The study consisted of 5 steps: (1) identification of best-practice evidence about the presentation of information on hospital report cards; (2) selection of a single risk-adjusted quality indicator; (3) selection of a sample of designs adopted by German public report cards; (4) identification of the information presentation elements used in public reporting initiatives in Germany; and (5) an online panel completed an online questionnaire that was conducted to determine if respondents were able to identify the hospital with the lowest RAMR and if respondents’ hospital choices were associated with particular information design elements. Results Evidence-based recommendations were made relating to the following information presentation features relevant to report cards: evaluative table with symbols, tables without symbols, bar charts, bar charts without symbols, bar charts with symbols, symbols, evaluative word labels, highlighting, order of providers, high values to indicate good performance, explicit statements

  13. Cultivation-independent comprehensive survey of bacterial diversity in Tulsi Shyam Hot Springs, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjana Ghelani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A taxonomic description of bacteria was deduced from 5.78 Mb metagenomic sequence retrieved from Tulsi Shyam hot spring, India using bacterial tag-encoded FLX amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP. Metagenome contained 10,893 16S rDNA sequences that were analyzed by MG-RAST server to generate the comprehensive profile of bacteria. Metagenomic data are available at EBI under EBI Metagenomics database with accession no. ERP009559. Metagenome sequences represented the 98.2% bacteria origin, 1.5% of eukaryotic and 0.3% were unidentified. A total of 16 bacterial phyla demonstrating 97 families and 287 species were revealed in the hot spring metagenome. Most abundant phyla were Firmicutes (65.38%, Proteobacteria (21.21% and unclassified bacteria (10.69%. Whereas, Peptostreptococcaceae (37.33%, Clostridiaceae (23.36%, and Enterobacteriaceae (16.37% were highest reported families in metagenome. Ubiquitous species were Clostridium bifermentans (17.47%, Clostridium lituseburense (13.93% and uncultured bacterium (10.15%. Our data provide new information on hot spring bacteria and shed light on their abundance, diversity, distribution and coexisting organisms.

  14. Cultivation-independent comprehensive survey of bacterial diversity in Tulsi Shyam Hot Springs, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghelani, Anjana; Patel, Rajesh; Mangrola, Amitsinh; Dudhagara, Pravin

    2015-06-01

    A taxonomic description of bacteria was deduced from 5.78 Mb metagenomic sequence retrieved from Tulsi Shyam hot spring, India using bacterial tag-encoded FLX amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP). Metagenome contained 10,893 16S rDNA sequences that were analyzed by MG-RAST server to generate the comprehensive profile of bacteria. Metagenomic data are available at EBI under EBI Metagenomics database with accession no. ERP009559. Metagenome sequences represented the 98.2% bacteria origin, 1.5% of eukaryotic and 0.3% were unidentified. A total of 16 bacterial phyla demonstrating 97 families and 287 species were revealed in the hot spring metagenome. Most abundant phyla were Firmicutes (65.38%), Proteobacteria (21.21%) and unclassified bacteria (10.69%). Whereas, Peptostreptococcaceae (37.33%), Clostridiaceae (23.36%), and Enterobacteriaceae (16.37%) were highest reported families in metagenome. Ubiquitous species were Clostridium bifermentans (17.47%), Clostridium lituseburense (13.93%) and uncultured bacterium (10.15%). Our data provide new information on hot spring bacteria and shed light on their abundance, diversity, distribution and coexisting organisms.

  15. A Comprehensive Survey on Evaluation of Lightweight Symmetric Ciphers: Hardware and Software Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaber Hosseinzadeh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Low-resource devices like wireless sensor networks have some limitations on memory, power and energy. Using common encryption algorithms are not appropriate for these devices due to their hard limitations and leads to a waste of energy and power. Here, lightweight symmetric ciphers have been evaluated in hardware and software implementations. Comprehensive Evaluation of lightweight ciphers in this work is performed based on cost, speed, efficiency and balance criterion. In each of the criteria, evaluation is done based on a specific measure and the best ciphers have been introduced in each. Evaluation in terms of hardware and software implementation indicates the superiority of SPECK and SIMON ciphers. Evaluation in terms of speed in hardware implementation indicates the superiority of Trivium and Grain, and it shows the superiority of MASHA and SPECK in software implementation. Results of the Evaluation in terms of efficiency express the superiority of SIMON and SPECK. The results of these evaluations helps finding ciphers appropriate to the user based on requirements and restrictions. The user sets his desired system and then obtains the system needs; at the final step, based on the type of requirements, the results of our work help the system to select the appropriate cipher.

  16. Content Validity of the Comprehensive ICF Core Set for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases: An International Delphi Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobst, Andrea; Kirchberger, Inge; Cieza, Alarcos; Stucki, Gerold; Stucki, Armin

    2013-01-01

    The "Comprehensive ICF Core Set for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases (COPD)" is an application of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and represents the typical spectrum of problems in functioning of patients with COPD. The objective of this study was to validate this ICF Core Set from the perspective of physicians. Physicians experienced in COPD treatment were asked about the patients' problems treated by physicians in patients with COPD in a three-round electronic mail survey using the Delphi technique. Responses were linked to the ICF. Seventy-six physicians in 44 countries gave a total of 1330 responses that were linked to 148 different ICF categories. Nine ICF categories were not represented in the Comprehensive ICF Core Set for COPD although at least 75% of the participants have rated them as important. Nineteen concepts were linked to the not yet developed ICF component personal factors and seventeen concepts were not covered by the ICF. The high percentage of ICF categories represented in the ICF Core Set for COPD indicates satisfactory content validity from the perspective of the physicians. However, some issues were raised that were not covered and need to be investigated further.

  17. A comprehensive survey on selective breeding programs and seed market in the European aquaculture fish industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chavanne, Hervé; Janssen, Kasper; Hofherr, Johann

    2016-01-01

    reared fish species were targeted. A total of 31 respondents contributed to the survey, representing 75 % of European breeding organizations. Family-based breeding schemes were predominant, but individual selection was more frequently applied in marine species. Artificial fertilization is the preferred...... of molecular tools is now common in all programs, mainly for pedigree traceability. An increasing number of programs use either genomic or marker-assisted selection. Results related to the seed production market confirmed that for Atlantic salmon there are a few dominant players at the European level, with 30......–50 % market share. Only part of the European fish aquaculture industry today fully exploits selective breeding to the best advantage. A larger impact assessment still needs to be made by the remainder, particularly on the market share of fish seed (eggs, larvae or juveniles) and its consequences for hatchery...

  18. Cultural diversity training for UK healthcare professionals: a comprehensive nationwide cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Paul; Jovanovic, Ana; Sharma, Pankaj

    2008-10-01

    Healthcare inequalities within the UK based on patients' ethnicity have been found over the last five years in a large number of medical specialties. One possible explanation for this lies in ignorance of ethnic minority healthcare needs among professionals. Cultural diversity programmes have been shown to improve patient outcomes including compliance, yet these are not as yet requirements for any UK healthcare professionals with the exception of psychiatrists. This paper documents the frequency, regional variation, characteristics and motivations for cultural diversity training through a questionnaire survey of the educational leads of every UK medical school, postgraduate deanery and schools of nursing, physiotherapy, occupational therapy, speech and language therapy, and pharmacy. The results showed a wide variation in teaching practices between healthcare professions and geographical regions. This study provides evidence for the need for national guidelines to incorporate cultural competency training by all UK healthcare professional training bodies.

  19. A Comprehensive Approach to WSN-Based ITS Applications: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Garcia-Haro

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to perform sensing tasks, most current Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS rely on expensive sensors, which offer only limited functionality. A more recent trend consists of using Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN for such purpose, which reduces the required investment and enables the development of new collaborative and intelligent applications that further contribute to improve both driving safety and traffic efficiency. This paper surveys the application of WSNs to such ITS scenarios, tackling the main issues that may arise when developing these systems. The paper is divided into sections which address different matters including vehicle detection and classification as well as the selection of appropriate communication protocols, network architecture, topology and some important design parameters. In addition, in line with the multiplicity of different technologies that take part in ITS, it does not consider WSNs just as stand-alone systems, but also as key components of heterogeneous systems cooperating along with other technologies employed in vehicular scenarios.

  20. A Comprehensive approach to WSN-based ITS applications: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losilla, Fernando; Garcia-Sanchez, Antonio-Javier; Garcia-Sanchez, Felipe; Garcia-Haro, Joan; Haas, Zygmunt J

    2011-01-01

    In order to perform sensing tasks, most current Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) rely on expensive sensors, which offer only limited functionality. A more recent trend consists of using Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) for such purpose, which reduces the required investment and enables the development of new collaborative and intelligent applications that further contribute to improve both driving safety and traffic efficiency. This paper surveys the application of WSNs to such ITS scenarios, tackling the main issues that may arise when developing these systems. The paper is divided into sections which address different matters including vehicle detection and classification as well as the selection of appropriate communication protocols, network architecture, topology and some important design parameters. In addition, in line with the multiplicity of different technologies that take part in ITS, it does not consider WSNs just as stand-alone systems, but also as key components of heterogeneous systems cooperating along with other technologies employed in vehicular scenarios.

  1. Practice patterns in venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis in thoracic surgery: a comprehensive Canadian Delphi survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agzarian, John; Linkins, Lori-Ann; Schneider, Laura; Hanna, Waël C.; Finley, Christian J.; Schieman, Colin; De Perrot, Marc; Crowther, Mark; Douketis, James

    2017-01-01

    Background The incidence of venous thromboembolic events (VTE) after resection of thoracic malignancies can reach 15%, but prophylaxis guidelines are yet to be established. We aimed to survey Canadian practitioners regarding perioperative risk factors for VTE, impact of those factors on extended prophylaxis selection, type of preferred prophylaxis, and timing of initiation and duration of thromboprophylaxis. Methods A modified Delphi survey was undertaken over three rounds with thoracic surgeons, thoracic anesthesiologists and thrombosis experts across Canada. Participants were asked to rate each parameter on a ten-point scale. Agreement was determined a priori as an item reaching a coefficient of variation of ≤30% (0.3), with the item then discontinued from later rounds. Results In total, 72, 57 and 50 respondents participated in three consecutive rounds, respectively. Consensus was reached on previous VTE, age, cancer diagnosis, thrombophilia, poor mobilization, extended resections, and pre-operative chemotherapy as risk factors. Consensus on risk factors impacting extended prophylaxis decisions was achieved on cancer diagnosis, obesity, previous VTE and poor mobilization. With respect to perioperative prophylaxis, once daily low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) was the only parameter that demonstrated agreement as a common practice pattern. No agreement was achieved regarding the role of mechanical prophylaxis, unfractionated heparin (UFH) or timing of initiation of peri-operative treatment. VTE prophylaxis until discharge reached agreement but there was substantial variability regarding the role of extended prophylaxis. Conclusions There is agreement between Canadian clinicians treating patients with thoracic malignancies regarding most risk factors for VTE, but there is no agreement on timing of initiation of prophylaxis, the agents used or factors mandating usage of extended prophylaxis. PMID:28203409

  2. A comprehensive survey of government auditors' self-efficacy and professional development for improving audit quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shue-Ching; Su, Jau-Ming; Tsai, Sang-Bing; Lu, Tzu-Li; Dong, Weiwei

    2016-01-01

    Government audit authorities supervise the implementation of government budgets and evaluate the use of administrative resources to ensure that funding is used wisely, economically, and effectively. A quality audit involves reviewing policies according to international standards and perspectives, and provides insight, predictions, and warnings to related organizations. Such practice can reflect the effectiveness of a government. Professional development and self-efficacy have strong influence upon the performance of auditors. To further understand the factors that may enhance their performance and to ultimately provide practical recommendations for the audit authorities, we have surveyed about 50 % of all the governmental auditors in Taiwan using the stratified random sampling method. The result showed that any auditing experience and professionalization can positively influence the professional awareness. Also, acquired knowledge and skillset of an auditor can effectively improve ones professional judgment. We also found that professional development (including organizational culture and training opportunities) and self-efficacy (including profession and experience as well as trends and performance) may significantly impact audit quality. We concluded that to retain auditors, audit authorities must develop an attractive future outlook emphasizing feedback and learning within an organization. Our study provides a workable management guidelines for strengthening the professional development and self-efficacy of audit authorities in Taiwan.

  3. A comprehensive survey of energy-aware routing protocols in wireless body area sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effatparvar, Mehdi; Dehghan, Mehdi; Rahmani, Amir Masoud

    2016-09-01

    Wireless body area sensor network is a special purpose wireless sensor network that, employing wireless sensor nodes in, on, or around the human body, makes it possible to measure biological parameters of a person for specific applications. One of the most fundamental concerns in wireless body sensor networks is accurate routing in order to send data promptly and properly, and therefore overcome some of the challenges. Routing protocols for such networks are affected by a large number of factors including energy, topology, temperature, posture, the radio range of sensors, and appropriate quality of service in sensor nodes. Since energy is highly important in wireless body area sensor networks, and increasing the network lifetime results in benefiting greatly from sensor capabilities, improving routing performance with reduced energy consumption presents a major challenge. This paper aims to study wireless body area sensor networks and the related routing methods. It also presents a thorough, comprehensive review of routing methods in wireless body area sensor networks from the perspective of energy. Furthermore, different routing methods affecting the parameter of energy will be classified and compared according to their advantages and disadvantages. In this paper, fundamental concepts of wireless body area sensor networks are provided, and then the advantages and disadvantages of these networks are investigated. Since one of the most fundamental issues in wireless body sensor networks is to perform routing so as to transmit data precisely and promptly, we discuss the same issue. As a result, we propose a classification of the available relevant literature with respect to the key challenge of energy in the routing process. With this end in view, all important papers published between 2000 and 2015 are classified under eight categories including 'Mobility-Aware', 'Thermal-Aware', 'Restriction of Location and Number of Relays', 'Link-aware', 'Cluster- and Tree

  4. Sleep Stage Classification Using EEG Signal Analysis: A Comprehensive Survey and New Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khald Ali I. Aboalayon

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Sleep specialists often conduct manual sleep stage scoring by visually inspecting the patient’s neurophysiological signals collected at sleep labs. This is, generally, a very difficult, tedious and time-consuming task. The limitations of manual sleep stage scoring have escalated the demand for developing Automatic Sleep Stage Classification (ASSC systems. Sleep stage classification refers to identifying the various stages of sleep and is a critical step in an effort to assist physicians in the diagnosis and treatment of related sleep disorders. The aim of this paper is to survey the progress and challenges in various existing Electroencephalogram (EEG signal-based methods used for sleep stage identification at each phase; including pre-processing, feature extraction and classification; in an attempt to find the research gaps and possibly introduce a reasonable solution. Many of the prior and current related studies use multiple EEG channels, and are based on 30 s or 20 s epoch lengths which affect the feasibility and speed of ASSC for real-time applications. Thus, in this paper, we also present a novel and efficient technique that can be implemented in an embedded hardware device to identify sleep stages using new statistical features applied to 10 s epochs of single-channel EEG signals. In this study, the PhysioNet Sleep European Data Format (EDF Database was used. The proposed methodology achieves an average classification sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 89.06%, 98.61% and 93.13%, respectively, when the decision tree classifier is applied. Finally, our new method is compared with those in recently published studies, which reiterates the high classification accuracy performance.

  5. Comprehensive Survey of Domiciliary Triatomine Species Capable of Transmitting Chagas Disease in Southern Ecuador.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario J Grijalva

    Full Text Available Chagas disease is endemic to the southern Andean region of Ecuador, an area with one of the highest poverty rates in the country. However, few studies have looked into the epidemiology, vectors and transmission risks in this region. In this study we describe the triatomine household infestation in Loja province, determine the rate of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in triatomines and study the risk factors associated with infestation.An entomological survey found four triatomine species (Rhodnius ecuadoriensis, Triatoma carrioni, Panstrongylus chinai, and P. rufotuberculatus infesting domiciles in 68% of the 92 rural communities examined. Nine percent of domiciles were infested, and nymphs were observed in 80% of the infested domiciles. Triatomines were found in all ecological regions below 2,200 masl. We found R. ecuadoriensis (275 to 1948 masl and T. carrioni (831 to 2242 masl mostly in bedrooms within the domicile, and they were abundant in chicken coops near the domicile. Established colonies of P. chinai (175 to 2003 masl and P. rufotuberculatus (404 to 1613 masl also were found in the domicile. Triatomine infestation was associated with surrogate poverty indicators, such as poor sanitary infrastructure (lack of latrine/toilet [w = 0.95], sewage to environment [w = 1.0]. Vegetation type was a determinant of infestation [w = 1.0] and vector control program insecticide spraying was a protective factor [w = 1.0]. Of the 754 triatomines analyzed, 11% were infected with Trypanosoma cruzi and 2% were infected with T. rangeli.To date, only limited vector control efforts have been implemented. Together with recent reports of widespread sylvatic triatomine infestation and frequent post-intervention reinfestation, these results show that an estimated 100,000 people living in rural areas of southern Ecuador are at high risk for T. cruzi infection. Therefore, there is a need for a systematic, sustained, and monitored vector control intervention that is

  6. Determining Possible Professionals and Respective Roles and Responsibilities for a Model Comprehensive Elder Abuse Intervention: A Delphi Consensus Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Du Mont

    Full Text Available We have undertaken a multi-phase, multi-method program of research to develop, implement, and evaluate a comprehensive hospital-based nurse examiner elder abuse intervention that addresses the complex functional, social, forensic, and medical needs of older women and men. In this study, we determined the importance of possible participating professionals and respective roles and responsibilities within the intervention.Using a modified Delphi methodology, recommended professionals and their associated roles and responsibilities were generated from a systematic scoping review of relevant scholarly and grey literatures. These items were reviewed, new items added for review, and rated/re-rated for their importance to the intervention on a 5-point Likert scale by an expert panel during a one day in-person meeting. Items that did not achieve consensus were subsequently re-rated in an online survey.Those items that achieved a mean Likert rating of 4+ (rated important to very important, and an interquartile range<1 in the first or second round, and/or for which 80% of ratings were 4+ in the second round were retained for the model elder abuse intervention.Twenty-two of 31 recommended professionals and 192 of 229 recommended roles and responsibilities rated were retained for our model elder abuse intervention. Retained professionals were: public guardian and trustee (mean rating = 4.88, geriatrician (4.87, police officer (4.87, GEM (geriatric emergency management nurse (4.80, GEM social worker (4.78, community health worker (4.76, social worker/counsellor (4.74, family physician in community (4.71, paramedic (4.65, financial worker (4.59, lawyer (4.59, pharmacist (4.59, emergency physician (4.57, geriatric psychiatrist (4.33, occupational therapist (4.29, family physician in hospital (4.28, Crown prosecutor (4.24, neuropsychologist (4.24, bioethicist (4.18, caregiver advocate (4.18, victim support worker (4.18, and respite care worker (4.12.A large and

  7. An analysis of global youth tobacco survey for developing a comprehensive national smoking policy in Timor-Leste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro Sarmento, Decio; Yehadji, Degninou

    2016-01-22

    Smoking is a global public health concern. Timor-Leste is facing a rapidly growing epidemic of tobacco use. The trend of smoking in Timor-Leste seems to be increasing and the magnitude of the problem affects people who smoke before reaching adulthood. One of the factors implicated in the continuously rising trend of smoking among young people in Timor-Leste is clearly due to unavailability of restrictive laws and regulations. Therefore, our study sought to analyze available dataset from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) for developing a comprehensive national smoking policy in order to lower smoking risks among young people in Timor-Leste. We conducted a secondary analysis of the 2009 GYTS in Timor-Leste. The 2009 GYTS assessed 1657 in-school students aged 13-15 years for current smoking prevalence and determinants of tobacco use. We used IBM SPSS version 21 software to analyze the data. Frequency analyses were computed to identify demographic characteristics of study participants. Bivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the association between each demographic characteristic as well as each independent variable and the outcome of being current smokers. Out of 1657 in-school students, 51 % were of ages less than 15; 53 % were girls; and 45 % were in grade 2. Prevalence of current cigarette smoking was found to be 51 %. The prevalence of current smoking among in-school students increased with ages (from 46 % in less than 15 to 57 % in 15 plus). Boys were more likely to be smokers than girls (59 % versus 28 %). Significant factors positively associated with current smoking included parental smoking; closed-peer smoking; number of days people smoked in the house; having family discussion about harmful effects of smoking; being smoking in areas such as school, public places and home; and having seen cigarette advertisements on billboard. Timor-Leste has higher prevalence of cigarette smoking among minors, especially among boys. Our analysis

  8. Comprehensive mutation analysis of 17 Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat polymorphisms included in the AmpF lSTR® Yfiler® PCR amplification kit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Goedbloed (Miriam); M. Vermeulen (Mark); R.N. Fang (Rixun); M. Lembring (Maria); A. Wollstein (Andreas); K. Ballantyne (Kaye); O. Lao Grueso (Oscar); S. Brauer (Silke); C. Krüger (Carmen); L. Roewer (Lutz); R. Lessig (Rüdiger); R. Ploski (Rafal); T. Dobosz (Tadeusz); J. Henke (Jürgen); M.R. Furtado (Manohar); M.H. Kayser (Manfred)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (Y-STR) polymorphisms included in the AmpF lSTR® Yfiler® polymerase chain reaction amplification kit have become widely used for forensic and evolutionary applications where a reliable knowledge on mutation properties is necessary for correct data in

  9. ACE (I/D polymorphism and response to treatment in coronary artery disease: a comprehensive database and meta-analysis involving study quality evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitsios Georgios

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE gene insertion/deletion (I/D polymorphism in modifying the response to treatment modalities in coronary artery disease is controversial. Methods PubMed was searched and a database of 58 studies with detailed information regarding ACE I/D polymorphism and response to treatment in coronary artery disease was created. Eligible studies were synthesized using meta-analysis methods, including cumulative meta-analysis. Heterogeneity and study quality issues were explored. Results Forty studies involved invasive treatments (coronary angioplasty or coronary artery by-pass grafting and 18 used conservative treatment options (including anti-hypertensive drugs, lipid lowering therapy and cardiac rehabilitation procedures. Clinical outcomes were investigated by 11 studies, while 47 studies focused on surrogate endpoints. The most studied outcome was the restenosis following coronary angioplasty (34 studies. Heterogeneity among studies (p ACE I/D polymorphism on the response to treatment for the rest outcomes (coronary events, endothelial dysfunction, left ventricular remodeling, progression/regression of atherosclerosis, individual studies showed significance; however, results were discrepant and inconsistent. Conclusion In view of available evidence, genetic testing of ACE I/D polymorphism prior to clinical decision making is not currently justified. The relation between ACE genetic variation and response to treatment in CAD remains an unresolved issue. The results of long-term and properly designed prospective studies hold the promise for pharmacogenetically tailored therapy in CAD.

  10. Association of Interleukin-10 -3575T>A and -1082A>G polymorphisms with non-Hodgkin lymphoma susceptibility: a comprehensive review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Xia, Zu-Guang; Zhu, Jin-Hong; Chen, Min-Bin; Wang, Tong-Min; Shen, Wen-Xiang; He, Jing

    2015-12-01

    A number of studies have investigated the associations between IL-10 polymorphisms and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) susceptibility; however, the conclusions were still contradictory. To acquire a more precise estimation of the association, we performed the current meta-analysis. We systematically searched publications from EMBASE and MEDLINE, and calculated pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) using either fixed-effects or random-effects model. Genotype-based IL-10 mRNA expression analysis was performed using online public database of 270 individuals with three different ethnicities. A total of 10,703 cases and 11,823 controls from 10 studies were included for the -3575T>A polymorphism, 10,226 cases and 12,215 controls from 17 studies for the -1082A>G polymorphism. Pooled results indicated that IL-10 -3575T>A was associated with increased risk of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and follicular lymphoma (FL), especially for Caucasians and hospital-based population. There was no association between IL-10 -1082A>G and NHL risk. However, subgroup analysis showed that IL-10 -1082GG might confer increased susceptibility to FL. In summary, this meta-analysis indicated that -3575T>A polymorphism was associated with altered NHL susceptibility for Caucasians and hospital-based population, especially for DLBCL and FL subtypes. The -1082A>G polymorphism may contribute to increased FL risk. Further large-scale population studies among different ethnicities are needed to validate these results.

  11. Use of Videos Improves Informed Consent Comprehension in Web-Based Surveys Among Internet-Using Men Who Have Sex With Men: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Eric William; Sanchez, Travis H; Stein, Aryeh D; Stephenson, Rob; Zlotorzynska, Maria; Sineath, Robert Craig; Sullivan, Patrick S

    2017-03-06

    Web-based surveys are increasingly used to capture data essential for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention research. However, there are challenges in ensuring the informed consent of Web-based research participants. The aim of our study was to develop and assess the efficacy of alternative methods of administering informed consent in Web-based HIV research with men who have sex with men (MSM). From July to September 2014, paid advertisements on Facebook were used to recruit adult MSM living in the United States for a Web-based survey about risk and preventive behaviors. Participants were randomized to one of the 4 methods of delivering informed consent: a professionally produced video, a study staff-produced video, a frequently asked questions (FAQs) text page, and a standard informed consent text page. Following the behavior survey, participants answered 15 questions about comprehension of consent information. Correct responses to each question were given a score of 1, for a total possible scale score of 15. General linear regression and post-hoc Tukey comparisons were used to assess difference (P<.001) in mean consent comprehension scores. A mediation analysis was used to examine the relationship between time spent on consent page and consent comprehension. Of the 665 MSM participants who completed the comprehension questions, 24.2% (161/665) received the standard consent, 27.1% (180/665) received the FAQ consent, 26.8% (178/665) received the professional consent video, and 22.0% (146/665) received the staff video. The overall average consent comprehension score was 6.28 (SD=2.89). The average consent comprehension score differed significantly across consent type (P<.001), age (P=.04), race or ethnicity (P<.001), and highest level of education (P=.001). Compared with those who received the standard consent, comprehension was significantly higher for participants who received the professional video consent (score increase=1.79; 95% CI 1.02-2.55) and

  12. Use of Videos Improves Informed Consent Comprehension in Web-Based Surveys Among Internet-Using Men Who Have Sex With Men: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Travis H; Stein, Aryeh D; Stephenson, Rob; Zlotorzynska, Maria; Sineath, Robert Craig; Sullivan, Patrick S

    2017-01-01

    Background Web-based surveys are increasingly used to capture data essential for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention research. However, there are challenges in ensuring the informed consent of Web-based research participants. Objective The aim of our study was to develop and assess the efficacy of alternative methods of administering informed consent in Web-based HIV research with men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods From July to September 2014, paid advertisements on Facebook were used to recruit adult MSM living in the United States for a Web-based survey about risk and preventive behaviors. Participants were randomized to one of the 4 methods of delivering informed consent: a professionally produced video, a study staff-produced video, a frequently asked questions (FAQs) text page, and a standard informed consent text page. Following the behavior survey, participants answered 15 questions about comprehension of consent information. Correct responses to each question were given a score of 1, for a total possible scale score of 15. General linear regression and post-hoc Tukey comparisons were used to assess difference (Ptype (Peducation (P=.001). Compared with those who received the standard consent, comprehension was significantly higher for participants who received the professional video consent (score increase=1.79; 95% CI 1.02-2.55) and participants who received the staff video consent (score increase=1.79; 95% CI 0.99-2.59). There was no significant difference in comprehension for those who received the FAQ consent. Participants spent more time on the 2 video consents (staff video median time=117 seconds; professional video median time=115 seconds) than the FAQ (median=21 seconds) and standard consents (median=37 seconds). Mediation analysis showed that though time spent on the consent page was partially responsible for some of the differences in comprehension, the direct effects of the professional video (score increase=0.93; 95% CI 0

  13. The challenge of comprehensively mapping children's health in a nation-wide health survey: Design of the German KiGGS-Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlack Robert

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background From May 2003 to May 2006, the Robert Koch Institute conducted the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS. Aim of this first nationwide interview and examination survey was to collect comprehensive data on the health status of children and adolescents aged 0 to 17 years. Methods/Design Participants were enrolled in two steps: first, 167 study locations (sample points were chosen; second, subjects were randomly selected from the official registers of local residents. The survey involved questionnaires filled in by parents and parallel questionnaires for children aged 11 years and older, physical examinations and tests, and a computer assisted personal interview performed by study physicians. A wide range of blood and urine testing was carried out at central laboratories. A total of 17 641 children and adolescents were surveyed – 8985 boys and 8656 girls. The proportion of sample neutral drop-outs was 5.3%. The response rate was 66.6%. Discussion The response rate showed little variation between age groups and sexes, but marked variation between resident aliens and Germans, between inhabitants of cities with a population of 100 000 or more and sample points with fewer inhabitants, as well as between the old West German states and the former East German states. By analysing the short non-responder questionnaires it was proven that the collected data give comprehensive and nationally representative evidence on the health status of children and adolescents aged 0 to 17 years.

  14. Comprehensive Survey of Genetic Diversity in Chloroplast Genomes and 45S nrDNAs within Panax ginseng Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyunghee; Lee, Sang-Choon; Lee, Junki; Lee, Hyun Oh; Joh, Ho Jun; Kim, Nam-Hoon; Park, Hyun-Seung; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2015-01-01

    We report complete sequences of chloroplast (cp) genome and 45S nuclear ribosomal DNA (45S nrDNA) for 11 Panax ginseng cultivars. We have obtained complete sequences of cp and 45S nrDNA, the representative barcoding target sequences for cytoplasm and nuclear genome, respectively, based on low coverage NGS sequence of each cultivar. The cp genomes sizes ranged from 156,241 to 156,425 bp and the major size variation was derived from differences in copy number of tandem repeats in the ycf1 gene and in the intergenic regions of rps16-trnUUG and rpl32-trnUAG. The complete 45S nrDNA unit sequences were 11,091 bp, representing a consensus single transcriptional unit with an intergenic spacer region. Comparative analysis of these sequences as well as those previously reported for three Chinese accessions identified very rare but unique polymorphism in the cp genome within P. ginseng cultivars. There were 12 intra-species polymorphisms (six SNPs and six InDels) among 14 cultivars. We also identified five SNPs from 45S nrDNA of 11 Korean ginseng cultivars. From the 17 unique informative polymorphic sites, we developed six reliable markers for analysis of ginseng diversity and cultivar authentication. PMID:26061692

  15. 城市综合交通调查的规范与创新%Regulation and Innovation of Urban Comprehensive Transportation Survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴子啸; 付凌峰

    2016-01-01

    Urban comprehensive transportation survey has been extensively practiced for more than 30 years in China. It is experiencing development and changes under the impact from information technology and big data. Based on the analysis of the current situation, this paper discusses the necessity of drafting ur-ban comprehensive transportation survey guideline,and further proposes the primary framework and con-tents within proposed guideline. Later on, future development trend and innovations of urban comprehen-sive transportation survey are demonstrated as well.%城市综合交通调查在中国已有30余年的广泛实践,当前的信息化和大数据背景下正历经发展与变革.在分析城市综合交通调查现状问题的基础上,提出制定《城市综合交通体系规划交通调查导则》(以下简称《导则》)的必要性.从目标与总体框架、调查项目分类、术语定义、调查内容与问题选项分类、调查流程规范几个层面对《导则》的主要思想与关键内容进行解析.提出城市综合交通调查未来发展方向应是将信息化技术与传统调查手段结合,提高调查效率与质量,关注信息化手段未能涵盖的交通特征.

  16. Whole-Genome Characteristics and Polymorphic Analysis of Vietnamese Rice Landraces as a Comprehensive Information Resource for Marker-Assisted Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Hien; Nguyen, Khoa Truong; Nguyen, Lam Van; Pham, Huy Quang; Huong, Can Thu; Xuan, Tran Dang; Anh, La Hoang; Caccamo, Mario; Ayling, Sarah; Diep, Nguyen Thuy; Trung, Khuat Huu

    2017-01-01

    Next generation sequencing technologies have provided numerous opportunities for application in the study of whole plant genomes. In this study, we present the sequencing and bioinformatic analyses of five typical rice landraces including three indica and two japonica with potential blast resistance. A total of 688.4 million 100 bp paired-end reads have yielded approximately 30-fold coverage to compare with the Nipponbare reference genome. Among them, a small number of reads were mapped to both chromosomes and organellar genomes. Over two million and eight hundred thousand single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertions and deletions (InDels) in indica and japonica lines have been determined, which potentially have significant impacts on multiple transcripts of genes. SNP deserts, contiguous SNP-low regions, were found on chromosomes 1, 4, and 5 of all genomes of rice examined. Based on the distribution of SNPs per 100 kilobase pairs, the phylogenetic relationships among the landraces have been constructed. This is the first step towards revealing several salient features of rice genomes in Vietnam and providing significant information resources to further marker-assisted selection (MAS) in rice breeding programs. PMID:28265566

  17. A genome-wide survey reveals a deletion polymorphism associated with resistance to gastrointestinal nematodes in Angus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lingyang; Hou, Yali; Bickhart, Derek M; Song, Jiuzhou; Van Tassell, Curtis P; Sonstegard, Tad S; Liu, George E

    2014-06-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) nematode infections are a worldwide threat to human health and animal production. In this study, we performed a genome-wide association study between copy number variations (CNVs) and resistance to GI nematodes in an Angus cattle population. Using a linear regression analysis, we identified one deletion CNV which reaches genome-wide significance after Bonferroni correction. With multiple mapped human olfactory receptor genes but no annotated bovine genes in the region, this significantly associated CNV displays high population frequencies (58.26 %) with a length of 104.8 kb on chr7. We further investigated the linkage disequilibrium (LD) relationships between this CNV and its nearby single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and genes. The underlining haplotype blocks contain immune-related genes such as ZNF496 and NLRP3. As this CNV co-segregates with linked SNPs and associated genes, we suspect that it could contribute to the detected variations in gene expression and thus differences in host parasite resistance.

  18. Comprehensive survey of 3,000 acres of Atlantic white cedar clearcut tracts on the Dare County Peninsula, North Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this study was to perform extensive regeneration surveys on 3,000 acres of land held by the U.S. Air Force Dare County Bombing Range and Alligator...

  19. A Comprehensive Survey on the Status of Social and Professional Issues in United States Undergraduate Computer Science Programs and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spradling, Carol; Soh, Leen-Kiat; Ansorge, Charles J.

    2009-01-01

    A national web-based survey was administered to 700 undergraduate computer science (CS) programs in the United States as part of a stratified random sample of 797 undergraduate CS programs. The 251 program responses (36% response rate) regarding social and professional issues are presented. This article describes the demographics of the…

  20. Chemical Composition of Ferromanganese Crusts in the World Ocean: A Review and Comprehensive Database. U.S. Geological Survey.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The USGS Ferromanganese Crust data set was compiled by F.T. Manheim and C.M. Lane-Bostwick of the U.S. Geological Survey, Woods Hole, MA. The data set consists of...

  1. Development of a comprehensive survey of sexuality issues including a self-report version of the International Spinal Cord Injury sexual function basic data sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New, P W; Currie, K E

    2016-08-01

    Questionnaire development, validation and completion. Develop comprehensive survey of sexuality issues including validated self-report versions of the International Spinal Cord Injury male sexual function and female sexual and reproductive function basic data sets (SR-iSCI-sexual function). People with spinal cord damage (SCD) living in the community, Australia from August 2013 to June 2014. An iterative process involving rehabilitation medicine clinicians, a nurse specialising in sexuality issues in SCD and people with SCD who developed a comprehensive survey that included the SR-iSCI-sexual function. Participants recruitment through spinal rehabilitation review clinic and community organisations that support people with SCD. Surveys completed by 154 people. Most were male (n=101, 65.6%). Respondents' median age was 50 years (interquartile range (IQR) 38-58), and they were a median of 10 years (IQR 4-20) after the onset of SCD. Sexual problems unrelated to SCD were reported by 12 (8%) respondents, and 114 (n=75.5%) reported sexual problems because of SCD. Orgasms were much less likely (χ(2)=13.1, P=0.006) to be normal in males (n=5, 5%) compared with females (n=11, 22%). Males had significantly worse (χ(2)=26.0, P=0.001) psychogenic genital functioning (normal n=9, 9%) than females (normal n=13, 26%) and worse (χ(2)=10.8, P=0.013) reflex genital functioning. Normal ejaculation was reported in only three (3%) men. Most (n=26, 52%) women reported reduced or absent menstruation pattern since SCD. The SR-iSCI-sexual function provides a useful tool for researchers and clinicians to collect information regarding patient-reported sexual functioning after SCD and to facilitate comparative studies.

  2. A Comprehensive Survey of Pelagic Megafauna: Their Distribution, Densities, and Taxonomic Richness in the Tropical Southwest Indian Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Laran

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and density of pelagic megafauna (marine mammals, seabirds, elasmobranches, and sea turtles are important indicators of marine biodiversity, reflecting the condition of the underlying ecosystems. A dedicated aerial survey was conducted in the tropical Southwest Indian Ocean to map their distribution, the taxonomic diversity, and to estimate their densities to serve as a baseline for the area. This large survey across three ecological sub-regions revealed contrasting spatial distributions: maps of taxonomic richness of marine mammals and seabirds revealed different “hotspots” in the area. Densities were estimated for eight cetacean taxa with small and large Delphininae, or small Globicephalinae dominating, and for seven seabird taxa, with terns and noddies dominating. At the community level, the Southwest Indian Ocean megafauna was structured by the marine environment with strong differences between the Mozambique Channel and the Mascarene Islands, or between shelf and slope/oceanic habitats. Our results illustrate how multi-taxa aerial surveys are relevant and cost-effective monitoring tools for marine megafauna, allowing a community-wide approach.

  3. Technology acceptance for an Intelligent Comprehensive Interactive Care (ICIC) system for care of the elderly: a survey-questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Alice M K; Chang, Wei-Han; Ke, Pei-Chih; Huang, Chun-Kai; Tsai, Tsai-Hsuan; Chang, Hsien-Tsung; Shieh, Wann-Yun; Chan, Hsiao-Lung; Chen, Chih-Kuang; Pei, Yu-Cheng

    2012-01-01

    The key components of caring for the elderly are diet, living, transportation, education, and safety issues, and telemedical systems can offer great assistance. Through the integration of personal to community information technology platforms, we have developed a new Intelligent Comprehensive Interactive Care (ICIC) system to provide comprehensive services for elderly care. The ICIC system consists of six items, including medical care (physiological measuring system, Medication Reminder, and Dr. Ubiquitous), diet, living, transportation, education (Intelligent Watch), entertainment (Sharetouch), and safety (Fall Detection). In this study, we specifically evaluated the users' intention of using the Medication Reminder, Dr. Ubiquitous, Sharetouch, and Intelligent Watch using a modified technological acceptance model (TAM). A total of 121 elderly subjects (48 males and 73 females) were recruited. The modified TAM questionnaires were collected after they had used these products. For most of the ICIC units, the elderly subjects revealed great willingness and/or satisfaction in using this system. The elderly users of the Intelligent Watch showed the greatest willingness and satisfaction, while the elderly users of Dr. Ubiquitous revealed fair willingness in the dimension of perceived ease of use. The old-old age group revealed greater satisfaction in the dimension of result demonstrability for the users of the Medication Reminder as compared to the young-old and oldest-old age groups. The women revealed greater satisfaction in the dimension of perceived ease of use for the users of Dr. Ubiquitous as compared to the men. There were no statistically significant differences in terms of gender, age, and education level in the other dimensions. The modified TAM showed its effectiveness in evaluating the acceptance and characteristics of technologic products for the elderly user. The ICIC system offers a user-friendly solution in telemedical care and improves the quality of

  4. A survey of single nucleotide polymorphisms identified from whole-genome sequencing and their functional effect in the porcine genome().

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keel, B N; Nonneman, D J; Rohrer, G A

    2017-08-01

    Genetic variants detected from sequence have been used to successfully identify causal variants and map complex traits in several organisms. High and moderate impact variants, those expected to alter or disrupt the protein coded by a gene and those that regulate protein production, likely have a more significant effect on phenotypic variation than do other types of genetic variants. Hence, a comprehensive list of these functional variants would be of considerable interest in swine genomic studies, particularly those targeting fertility and production traits. Whole-genome sequence was obtained from 72 of the founders of an intensely phenotyped experimental swine herd at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center (USMARC). These animals included all 24 of the founding boars (12 Duroc and 12 Landrace) and 48 Yorkshire-Landrace composite sows. Sequence reads were mapped to the Sscrofa10.2 genome build, resulting in a mean of 6.1 fold (×) coverage per genome. A total of 22 342 915 high confidence SNPs were identified from the sequenced genomes. These included 21 million previously reported SNPs and 79% of the 62 163 SNPs on the PorcineSNP60 BeadChip assay. Variation was detected in the coding sequence or untranslated regions (UTRs) of 87.8% of the genes in the porcine genome: loss-of-function variants were predicted in 504 genes, 10 202 genes contained nonsynonymous variants, 10 773 had variation in UTRs and 13 010 genes contained synonymous variants. Approximately 139 000 SNPs were classified as loss-of-function, nonsynonymous or regulatory, which suggests that over 99% of the variation detected in our pigs could potentially be ignored, allowing us to focus on a much smaller number of functional SNPs during future analyses. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  5. A Comprehensive Survey on Hierarchical-Based Routing Protocols for Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks: Review, Taxonomy, and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil Sabor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducing mobility to Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs puts new challenges particularly in designing of routing protocols. Mobility can be applied to the sensor nodes and/or the sink node in the network. Many routing protocols have been developed to support the mobility of WSNs. These protocols are divided depending on the routing structure into hierarchical-based, flat-based, and location-based routing protocols. However, the hierarchical-based routing protocols outperform the other routing types in saving energy, scalability, and extending lifetime of Mobile WSNs (MWSNs. Selecting an appropriate hierarchical routing protocol for specific applications is an important and difficult task. Therefore, this paper focuses on reviewing some of the recently hierarchical-based routing protocols that are developed in the last five years for MWSNs. This survey divides the hierarchical-based routing protocols into two broad groups, namely, classical-based and optimized-based routing protocols. Also, we present a detailed classification of the reviewed protocols according to the routing approach, control manner, mobile element, mobility pattern, network architecture, clustering attributes, protocol operation, path establishment, communication paradigm, energy model, protocol objectives, and applications. Moreover, a comparison between the reviewed protocols is investigated in this survey depending on delay, network size, energy-efficiency, and scalability while mentioning the advantages and drawbacks of each protocol. Finally, we summarize and conclude the paper with future directions.

  6. The need for a comprehensive response to HIV/ AIDS in north-western Somalia: evidence from a seroprevalence survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, E; Ekanem, E; Said, D; Arube, P; Gboun, M; Mohammed, F

    2010-02-01

    The prolonged civil strife in the North-West Zone of Somalia (Somaliland) has hampered the development of social infrastructure and public health services. There are limited data on HIV/AIDS. In 2004, a sentinel HIV seroprevalence survey was conducted. Blood samples were collected from 1561 women attending antenatal care clinics, 249 tuberculosis (TB) patients and 243 people attending sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics. Samples were tested for syphilis and HIV. Overall HIV prevalence was 1.4%, significantly higher than that observed in many other countries in the Region. Prevalence was 1.2% among pregnant women 15-24 years, 12.3% among patients with STD and 5.6% among TB patients. The prevalence of syphilis was 1.3% in the pregnant women.

  7. Gene Polymorphisms in Chronic Periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marja L. Laine

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to conduct a review of the literature for gene polymorphisms associated with chronic periodontitis (CP susceptibility. A comprehensive search of the literature in English was performed using the keywords: periodontitis, periodontal disease, combined with the words genes, mutation, or polymorphism. Candidate gene polymorphism studies with a case-control design and reported genotype frequencies in CP patients were searched and reviewed. There is growing evidence that polymorphisms in the IL1, IL6, IL10, vitamin D receptor, and CD14 genes may be associated with CP in certain populations. However, carriage rates of the rare (-allele of any polymorphism varied considerably among studies and most of the studies appeared under-powered and did not correct for other risk factors. Larger cohorts, well-defined phenotypes, control for other risk factors, and analysis of multiple genes and polymorphisms within the same pathway are needed to get a more comprehensive insight into the contribution of gene polymorphisms in CP.

  8. Family Polymorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2001-01-01

    safety and flexibility at the level of multi-object systems. We are granted the flexibility of using different families of kinds of objects, and we are guaranteed the safety of the combination. This paper highlights the inability of traditional polymorphism to handle multiple objects, and presents family...... polymorphism as a way to overcome this problem. Family polymorphism has been implemented in the programming language gbeta, a generalized version of Beta, and the source code of this implementation is available under GPL....

  9. Family Polymorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2001-01-01

    safety and flexibility at the level of multi-object systems. We are granted the flexibility of using different families of kinds of objects, and we are guaranteed the safety of the combination. This paper highlights the inability of traditional polymorphism to handle multiple objects, and presents family...... polymorphism as a way to overcome this problem. Family polymorphism has been implemented in the programming language gbeta, a generalized version of Beta, and the source code of this implementation is available under GPL....

  10. The Herschel Planetary Nebula Survey (HerPlaNS): A Comprehensive Dusty Photoionization Model of NGC6781

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Masaaki; Ueta, Toshiya; van Hoof, Peter A. M.; Sahai, Raghvendra; Aleman, Isabel; Zijlstra, Albert A.; Chu, You-Hua; Villaver, Eva; Leal-Ferreira, Marcelo L.; Kastner, Joel; Szczerba, Ryszard; Exter, Katrina M.

    2017-08-01

    We perform a comprehensive analysis of the planetary nebula (PN) NGC 6781 to investigate the physical conditions of each of its ionized, atomic, and molecular gas and dust components and the object’s evolution, based on panchromatic observational data ranging from UV to radio. Empirical nebular elemental abundances, compared with theoretical predictions via nucleosynthesis models of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, indicate that the progenitor is a solar-metallicity, 2.25{--}3.0 {M}⊙ initial-mass star. We derive the best-fit distance of 0.46 kpc by fitting the stellar luminosity (as a function of the distance and effective temperature of the central star) with the adopted post-AGB evolutionary tracks. Our excitation energy diagram analysis indicates high-excitation temperatures in the photodissociation region (PDR) beyond the ionized part of the nebula, suggesting extra heating by shock interactions between the slow AGB wind and the fast PN wind. Through iterative fitting using the Cloudy code with empirically derived constraints, we find the best-fit dusty photoionization model of the object that would inclusively reproduce all of the adopted panchromatic observational data. The estimated total gas mass (0.41 {M}⊙ ) corresponds to the mass ejected during the last AGB thermal pulse event predicted for a 2.5 {M}⊙ initial-mass star. A significant fraction of the total mass (about 70%) is found to exist in the PDR, demonstrating the critical importance of the PDR in PNe that are generally recognized as the hallmark of ionized/H+ regions. Herschel is an ESA Space Observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  11. 1998 Annual Study Report. New industry supporting type international standard development program (Comprehensive survey); 1998 nendo seika hokokusho. Shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo (sogo chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Summarized herein are results of the survey on a total of 13 themes for international standardization. These themes are for standardization of (1) color control, (2) securing interoperability between optical disk systems, (3) digital image processing for home digital electronic appliances, (4) securing interconnectability between home electronic information appliances, (5) production process systems, (6) testing and evaluation methods for fine ceramic materials for communications, (7) evaluation methods for high-temperature properties of new glass melts, (8) corrosion testing and evaluation methods for surface-treated steel plates, (9) testing and evaluation methods for high-purity titanium, (10) testing and evaluation methods for plastic optical fibers, (11) evaluation methods for high-strength, large-size steel pipe characteristics for superhigh-pressure natural gas pipelines, (12) methods for measuring mileage of hybrid electric vehicles, and (13) methods for determining recycle ratios of automobile components. This comprehensive survey also includes overseas trends for the standardization, establishment/expansion of the international standardization processes, and standardization for determining recycle ratios of home electric appliances. (NEDO)

  12. Spectroscopic Survey of {\\gamma} Doradus Stars I. Comprehensive atmospheric parameters and abundance analysis of {\\gamma} Doradus stars

    CERN Document Server

    Kahraman-Alicavus, F; De Cat, P; Soydugan, E; Kolaczkowski, Z; Ostrowski, J; Telting, J H; Uytterhoeven, K; Poretti, E; Rainer, M; Suarez, J C; Mantegazza, L; Kilmartin, P; Pollard, K R

    2016-01-01

    We present a spectroscopic survey of {\\gamma} Doradus stars. The high-resolution, high signal-to-noise spectra of fifty-two objects were collected by five different spectrographs. The spectral classification, atmospheric parameters ($T_{\\rm eff}$ , $\\log g$, {\\xi}), vsini and chemical composition of the stars were derived. The spectral and luminosity classes of the stars were found between A7 - G0 and IV - V, respectively. The initial values for $T_{\\rm eff}$ and $\\log g$ were determined from photometric indices and spectral energy distribution. Those parameters were improved by the analysis of hydrogen lines. The final values of $T_{\\rm eff}$, $\\log g$ and {\\xi} were derived from the iron lines analysis. For the whole sample, $T_{\\rm eff}$ values were found between 6000 K and 7900 K, while logg values range from 3.8 to 4.5 dex. Chemical abundances and v sin i values were derived by the spectrum synthesis method. The $v \\sin i$ values were found between 5 and 240 km s$^{-1}$. The chemical abundance pattern of...

  13. Development and measurement properties of the Orthotics and Prosthetics Users' Survey (OPUS): a comprehensive set of clinical outcome instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, A W; Bode, R K; O'Reilly, C

    2003-12-01

    The need to measure and evaluate orthotics and prosthetics (O&P) practice has received growing recognition in the past several years. Reliable and valid self-report instruments are needed that can help facilities evaluate patient outcomes. The objective of this project was to develop a set of self-report instruments that assess functional status, quality of life, and satisfaction with devices and services that can be used in an orthotics and prosthetics clinic. Selecting items from a variety of existing instruments, the authors developed and revised four instruments that differentiate patients with varying levels of lower limb function, quality of life, and satisfaction with devices and services. Evidence of construct validity is provided by hierarchies of item difficulty that are consistent with clinical experience. For example, with the lower limb function instrument, running one block was much more difficult than walking indoors. The instruments demonstrate adequate internal consistency (0.88 for lower limb function, 0.88 for quality of life, 0.74 for service satisfaction, 0.78 for device satisfaction). The next steps in their research programme are to evaluate sensitivity and construct validity. The Orthotics and Prosthetics Users' Survey (OPUS) is a promising self-report instrument which may, with further development, allow orthotic and prosthetic practitioners to evaluate the quality and effectiveness of their services as required by accreditation standards such as those of the American Board for Certification in Orthotics and Prosthetics that mandate quality assessment.

  14. Assessing the Determinants of Renewable Electricity Acceptance Integrating Meta-Analysis Regression and a Local Comprehensive Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Bigerna

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In dealing with renewable electricity (RE, individuals are involved both as end-consumers on the demand side and as stakeholders (citizens in the local production process on the supply side. Empirical evidence shows that in many countries, consumers are willing to pay a significant amount to facilitate adoption of RE. By contrast, environmental externalities are often the cause of strong opposition to RE adoption if local communities are involved as stakeholders in wind, solar or biomass investment projects. Looking at the literature on willingness to pay and on willingness to accept, we have investigated RE acceptance mechanisms. First, we have used the meta-analysis to assess the major determinants of RE acceptance on both demand and supply sides. Meta-analysis has provided some insights useful for managing field research on an onshore wind farm enlargement project located in the Umbria region. Meta-analysis and survey results confirm that the local community plays a central role in local RE acceptance. Furthermore, people who have previous experience with windmills require less compensation, or are willing to pay more, for RE development. Results suggest that these attributes should be included in future research to improve understanding of determinants of RE acceptance.

  15. History of the great Kanto earthquakes inferred from the ages of Holocene marine terraces revealed by a comprehensive drilling survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komori, Junki; Shishikura, Masanobu; Ando, Ryosuke; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Miyairi, Yosuke

    2017-08-01

    We measured the emergence ages of four marine terraces in the Chikura lowland, which lies to the southeast of the Boso Peninsula, in eastern Japan, to reevaluate the history of the great earthquake occurrences along the Sagami Trough over the past 10,000 years. The dates of the marine terraces are measured via radiocarbon dating of shell fossils obtained from the marine deposits. The sampling method employed in this study collects core samples using a dense and systematic drilling survey, which increased the reliability when correlating shell fossils with marine terraces. In addition, radiocarbon dating was performed with accelerator mass spectrometry, which produces more highly accurate measurements than those measured in previous studies. Moreover, we explored the surface profiles of the terraces with detailed digital elevation model (DEM) data obtained using LiDAR. The maximum emergence ages of the marine terraces were dated at 6300 cal yBP, 3000 cal yBP, and 2200 cal yBP from the top terrace excepting the lowest terrace (which was estimated at AD1703). In addition, another previously unrecognized terrace was detected between the highest and the second terrace in both the dating and the geomorphological analyses and was dated at 5800 cal yBP. The newly obtained ages are nearly a thousand of years younger than previously estimated ages; consequently, the intervals of the great earthquakes that occurred along the Sagami Trough are estimated to be much shorter and more varied than those of previous estimations. This result revises the data used in the current assessment of the probabilities of earthquakes along the Sagami Trough, which could devastate the Tokyo metropolitan area. Furthermore, it demonstrates that the current approach could be a powerful tool to increase the accuracy of assessments of the other areas with depositional marine terraces.

  16. Spectroscopic survey of γ Doradus stars - I. Comprehensive atmospheric parameters and abundance analysis of γ Doradus stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahraman Aliçavuş, F.; Niemczura, E.; De Cat, P.; Soydugan, E.; Kołaczkowski, Z.; Ostrowski, J.; Telting, J. H.; Uytterhoeven, K.; Poretti, E.; Rainer, M.; Suárez, J. C.; Mantegazza, L.; Kilmartin, P.; Pollard, K. R.

    2016-05-01

    We present a spectroscopic survey of known and candidate γ Doradus stars. The high-resolution, high signal-to-noise spectra of 52 objects were collected by five different spectrographs. The spectral classification, atmospheric parameters (Teff, log g, ξ), vsin i and chemical composition of the stars were derived. The stellar spectral and luminosity classes were found between G0-A7 and IV-V, respectively. The initial values for Teff and log g were determined from the photometric indices and spectral energy distribution. Those parameters were improved by the analysis of hydrogen lines. The final values of Teff, log g and ξ were derived from the iron lines analysis. The Teff values were found between 6000 K and 7900 K, while log g values range from 3.8 to 4.5 dex. Chemical abundances and vsin i values were derived by the spectrum synthesis method. The vsin i values were found between 5 and 240 km s-1. The chemical abundance pattern of γ Doradus stars were compared with the pattern of non-pulsating stars. It turned out that there is no significant difference in abundance patterns between these two groups. Additionally, the relations between the atmospheric parameters and the pulsation quantities were checked. A strong correlation between the vsin i and the pulsation periods of γ Doradus variables was obtained. The accurate positions of the analysed stars in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram have been shown. Most of our objects are located inside or close to the blue edge of the theoretical instability strip of γ Doradus.

  17. SURVEY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SURVEY er en udbredt metode og benyttes inden for bl.a. samfundsvidenskab, humaniora, psykologi og sundhedsforskning. Også uden for forskningsverdenen er der mange organisationer som f.eks. konsulentfirmaer og offentlige institutioner samt marketingsafdelinger i private virksomheder, der arbejder...... med surveys. Denne bog gennemgår alle surveyarbejdets faser og giver en praktisk indføring i: • design af undersøgelsen og udvælgelse af stikprøver, • formulering af spørgeskemaer samt indsamling og kodning af data, • metoder til at analysere resultaterne...

  18. The "Comprehensive ICF Core Set for Head and Neck Cancer": a Delphi consensus survey among German speaking speech and language therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbarts, Matthias; Schuster, Vanessa; Kisser, Ulrich; Sabariego, Carla; Stier-Jarmer, Marita; Coenen, Michaela; Ernst, Benjamin Philipp; Strieth, Sebastian; Harréus, Ulrich; Becker, Sven

    2017-02-24

    The "Comprehensive ICF Core Set for Head and Neck Cancer" (ICF-HNC) is an application of the "International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health" (ICF), representing the characteristic spectrum of issues in patients with head and neck cancer (HNC). Our primary aim was to evaluate which categories of the ICF-HNC are dealt with by speech and language therapists (SLTs) in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland. The secondary aim was to identify outcome measures used by SLTs to measure the categories of the ICF-HNC in clinical practice. SLTs experienced in the treatment of HNC patients evaluated the categories of the ICF-HNC in a three-round Delphi survey. They were asked whether the listed categories represented issues treated by SLTs in HNC patients, and what outcome measures were used to assess them. Altogether, 31 SLTs completed the survey. 47 of 108 previously selected categories of the ICF-HNC achieved the cut-off value. Out of these, 40.4% were derived from the component "Body Functions", 36.2% from "Body Structures", 12.8% from "Environmental Factors", and 10.6% from "Activities and Participation". Altogether, 82 of the mentioned outcome measures were considered as reasonable from the perspective of SLTs. Of these, only 37 achieved more than 50% approval. This study emphasises the importance of "Body Structures" and "Body Functions" for SLTs in Germany and Switzerland in treating patients with HNC. Moreover, the results highlighted the need to agree on evidence-based outcome measures in speech and language therapy.

  19. Association of APOE polymorphism with chronic kidney disease in a nationally representative sample: a Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III Genetic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berthier-Schaad Yvette

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Apolipoprotein E polymorphisms (APOE have been associated with lowered glomerular filtration rate (GFR and chronic kidney disease (CKD with e2 allele conferring risk and e4 providing protection. However, few data are available in non-European ethnic groups or in a population-based cohort. Methods The authors analyzed 5,583 individuals from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III to determine association with estimated GFR by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD equation and low-GFR cases. Low-GFR cases were defined as GFR 2; additionally, GFR was analyzed continuously. Results In univariate analysis, the e4 allele was negatively associated with low-GFR cases in non-Hispanic whites, odds ratio (OR: 0.76, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.60, 0.97. In whites, there was a significant association between increasing APOE score (indicating greater number of e2 alleles and higher prevalence of low-GFR cases (OR: 1.21, 95%CI: 1.01, 1.45. Analysis of continuous GFR in whites found the e4 allele was associated with higher levels of continuous GFR (β-coefficient: 2.57 ml/min/1.73 m2, 95%CI: 0.005, 5.14; in non-Hispanic blacks the e2 allele was associated with lower levels of continuous GFR (β-coefficient: -3.73 ml/min/1.73 m2, 95%CI: -6.61, -0.84. APOE e2 and e4 alleles were rare and not associated with low-GFR cases or continuous GFR in Mexican Americans. Conclusion In conclusion, the authors observed a weak association between the APOE e4 allele and low-GFR cases and continuous GFR in non-Hispanic whites, and the APOE e2 allele and continuous GFR in non-Hispanic blacks, but found no association with either measure of kidney function in Mexican Americans. Larger studies including multiethnic groups are needed to determine the significance of this association.

  20. A comprehensive survey of miRNA repertoire and 3' addition events in the placentas of patients with pre-eclampsia from high-throughput sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Guo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To gain insight into potential roles of isomiR spectrum and isomiRs with 3' additions in pre-eclampsia, we performed a comprehensive survey of miRNA repertoire and 3' addition events from placental samples with different degrees of pre-eclampsia by applying SOLiD sequencing platform. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Over 30% isomiRs were detected with 3' non-template additional nucleotides, especially for additional nucleotide of adenosine. However, these modified isomiRs showed a lower percentage of total miRNA expression (<15%. Generally, 1-3 abundant isomiRs from a given miRNA locus were identified, but none of them was detected with 3' additions. Different miRNAs indicated various isomiR spectrums and expression patterns. The most abundant isomiR spectrum, isomiR profile and expression pattern always were stability, but herein we found several exceptions across samples, especially between normal and diseased samples. At isomiR level, we detected a distinct subset of differentially expressed modified isomiRs between normal and diseased samples or between mild and severe samples. Gene Ontology analysis of their experimentally validated target genes revealed enrichment for specific biological process categories. CONCLUSIONS: The phenomenon of multiple isomiRs, especially for isomiRs with 3' additions, is not a random event during pre-miRNA processing. Varieties of isomiRs and expression patterns reveal potential functional implication and should be taken into account. The study enriches association of miRNAs and human disease, including potential roles of various miRNA variants and 3' addition events.

  1. A populational survey of 45S rDNA polymorphism in the Jefferson salamander Ambystoma jeffersonianum revealed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ke BI; James P.BOGART; Jinzhong FU

    2009-01-01

    The chromosomal localization of 45S ribosomal RNA genes in Ambystoma jeffersonianum was determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization with 18S rDNA fragment as a probe (FISH-rDNA). Our results revealed the presence of rDNA polymorphism among A.jeffersonianum populations in terms of number, location and FISH signal intensity on the chromosomes. Nine rDNA cytotypes were found in ten geographically isolated populations and most of them contained derivative rDNA sites. Our preliminary study provides strong indication of karyotypic diversification of A.jeffersonianum that is demonstrated by intraspecific variation of 45S rDNA cytotypes. rDNA cytotype polymorphism has been described in many other caudate amphibians. We predict that habitat isolation, low dispersal ability and decline of effective population size could facilitate the fixation and accumulation of variable rDNA cytotypes during their chromosome evolution [Current Zoology 55(2):145-149,2009].

  2. A populational survey of 45S rDNA polymorphism in the Jefferson salamander Ambystoma jeffersonianum revealed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinzhong FU

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The chromosomal localization of 45S ribosomal RNA genes in Ambystoma jeffersonianum was determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization with 18S rDNA fragment as a probe (FISH-rDNA. Our results revealed the presence of rDNA polymorphism among A.jeffersonianum populations in terms of number, location and FISH signal intensity on the chromosomes. Nine rDNA cytotypes were found in ten geographically isolated populations and most of them contained derivative rDNA sites. Our preliminary study provides strong indication of karyotypic diversification of A.jeffersonianum that is demonstrated by intraspecific variation of 45S rDNA cytotypes. rDNA cytotype polymorphism has been described in many other caudate amphibians. We predict that habitat isolation, low dispersal ability and decline of effective population size could facilitate the fixation and accumulation of variable rDNA cytotypes during their chromosome evolution.

  3. Union Makes Strength: A Worldwide Collaborative Genetic and Clinical Study to Provide a Comprehensive Survey of RD3 Mutations and Delineate the Associated Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrault, Isabelle; Estrada-Cuzcano, Alejandro; Lopez, Irma; Kohl, Susanne; Li, Shiqiang; Testa, Francesco; Zekveld-Vroon, Renate; Wang, Xia; Pomares, Esther; Andorf, Jean; Aboussair, Nisrine; Banfi, Sandro; Delphin, Nathalie; den Hollander, Anneke I.; Edelson, Catherine; Florijn, Ralph; Jean-Pierre, Marc; Leowski, Corinne; Megarbane, Andre; Villanueva, Cristina; Flores, Blanca; Munnich, Arnold; Ren, Huanan; Zobor, Ditta; Bergen, Arthur; Chen, Rui; Cremers, Frans P. M.; Gonzalez-Duarte, Roser; Koenekoop, Robert K.; Simonelli, Francesca; Stone, Edwin; Wissinger, Bernd; Zhang, Qingjiong; Kaplan, Josseline; Rozet, Jean-Michel

    2013-01-01

    Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) is the earliest and most severe retinal degeneration (RD), and the most common cause of incurable blindness diagnosed in children. It is occasionally the presenting symptom of multisystemic ciliopathies which diagnosis will require a specific care of patients. Nineteen LCA genes are currently identified and three of them account for both non-syndromic and syndromic forms of the disease. RD3 (LCA12) was implicated as a LCA gene based on the identification of homozygous truncating mutations in two LCA families despite the screening of large cohorts of patients. Here we provide a comprehensive survey of RD3 mutations and of their clinical expression through the screening of a cohort of 852 patients originating worldwide affected with LCA or early-onset and severe RD. We identified three RD3 mutations in seven unrelated consanguineous LCA families - i.e., a 2 bp deletion and two nonsense mutations – predicted to cause complete loss of function. Five families originating from the Southern Shores of the Mediterranean segregated a similar mutation (c.112C>T, p.R38*) suggesting that this change may have resulted from an ancient founder effect. Considering the low frequency of RD3 carriers, the recurrence risk for LCA in non-consanguineous unions is negligible for both heterozygote and homozygote RD3 individuals. The LCA12 phenotype in our patients is highly similar to those of patients with mutant photoreceptor-specific guanylate cyclase (GUCY2D/LCA1). This observation is consistent with the report of the role of RD3 in trafficking of GUCYs and gives further support to a common mechanism of photoreceptor degeneration in LCA12 and LCA1, i.e., inability to increase cytoplasmic cGMP concentration in outer segments and thus to recover the dark-state. Similar to LCA1, LCA12 patients have no extraocular symptoms despite complete inactivation of both RD3 alleles, supporting the view that extraocular investigations in LCA infants with RD3

  4. Union makes strength: a worldwide collaborative genetic and clinical study to provide a comprehensive survey of RD3 mutations and delineate the associated phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Perrault

    Full Text Available Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA is the earliest and most severe retinal degeneration (RD, and the most common cause of incurable blindness diagnosed in children. It is occasionally the presenting symptom of multisystemic ciliopathies which diagnosis will require a specific care of patients. Nineteen LCA genes are currently identified and three of them account for both non-syndromic and syndromic forms of the disease. RD3 (LCA12 was implicated as a LCA gene based on the identification of homozygous truncating mutations in two LCA families despite the screening of large cohorts of patients. Here we provide a comprehensive survey of RD3 mutations and of their clinical expression through the screening of a cohort of 852 patients originating worldwide affected with LCA or early-onset and severe RD. We identified three RD3 mutations in seven unrelated consanguineous LCA families - i.e., a 2 bp deletion and two nonsense mutations - predicted to cause complete loss of function. Five families originating from the Southern Shores of the Mediterranean segregated a similar mutation (c.112C>T, p.R38* suggesting that this change may have resulted from an ancient founder effect. Considering the low frequency of RD3 carriers, the recurrence risk for LCA in non-consanguineous unions is negligible for both heterozygote and homozygote RD3 individuals. The LCA12 phenotype in our patients is highly similar to those of patients with mutant photoreceptor-specific guanylate cyclase (GUCY2D/LCA1. This observation is consistent with the report of the role of RD3 in trafficking of GUCYs and gives further support to a common mechanism of photoreceptor degeneration in LCA12 and LCA1, i.e., inability to increase cytoplasmic cGMP concentration in outer segments and thus to recover the dark-state. Similar to LCA1, LCA12 patients have no extraocular symptoms despite complete inactivation of both RD3 alleles, supporting the view that extraocular investigations in LCA infants

  5. Union makes strength: a worldwide collaborative genetic and clinical study to provide a comprehensive survey of RD3 mutations and delineate the associated phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrault, Isabelle; Estrada-Cuzcano, Alejandro; Lopez, Irma; Kohl, Susanne; Li, Shiqiang; Testa, Francesco; Zekveld-Vroon, Renate; Wang, Xia; Pomares, Esther; Andorf, Jean; Aboussair, Nisrine; Banfi, Sandro; Delphin, Nathalie; den Hollander, Anneke I; Edelson, Catherine; Florijn, Ralph; Jean-Pierre, Marc; Leowski, Corinne; Megarbane, Andre; Villanueva, Cristina; Flores, Blanca; Munnich, Arnold; Ren, Huanan; Zobor, Ditta; Bergen, Arthur; Chen, Rui; Cremers, Frans P M; Gonzalez-Duarte, Roser; Koenekoop, Robert K; Simonelli, Francesca; Stone, Edwin; Wissinger, Bernd; Zhang, Qingjiong; Kaplan, Josseline; Rozet, Jean-Michel

    2013-01-01

    Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) is the earliest and most severe retinal degeneration (RD), and the most common cause of incurable blindness diagnosed in children. It is occasionally the presenting symptom of multisystemic ciliopathies which diagnosis will require a specific care of patients. Nineteen LCA genes are currently identified and three of them account for both non-syndromic and syndromic forms of the disease. RD3 (LCA12) was implicated as a LCA gene based on the identification of homozygous truncating mutations in two LCA families despite the screening of large cohorts of patients. Here we provide a comprehensive survey of RD3 mutations and of their clinical expression through the screening of a cohort of 852 patients originating worldwide affected with LCA or early-onset and severe RD. We identified three RD3 mutations in seven unrelated consanguineous LCA families - i.e., a 2 bp deletion and two nonsense mutations - predicted to cause complete loss of function. Five families originating from the Southern Shores of the Mediterranean segregated a similar mutation (c.112C>T, p.R38*) suggesting that this change may have resulted from an ancient founder effect. Considering the low frequency of RD3 carriers, the recurrence risk for LCA in non-consanguineous unions is negligible for both heterozygote and homozygote RD3 individuals. The LCA12 phenotype in our patients is highly similar to those of patients with mutant photoreceptor-specific guanylate cyclase (GUCY2D/LCA1). This observation is consistent with the report of the role of RD3 in trafficking of GUCYs and gives further support to a common mechanism of photoreceptor degeneration in LCA12 and LCA1, i.e., inability to increase cytoplasmic cGMP concentration in outer segments and thus to recover the dark-state. Similar to LCA1, LCA12 patients have no extraocular symptoms despite complete inactivation of both RD3 alleles, supporting the view that extraocular investigations in LCA infants with RD3 mutations

  6. A comprehensive survey of faults, breccias, and fractures in and flanking the eastern Española Basin, Rio Grande rift, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine, Jonathan S.; Minor, Scott A.; Grauch, V.J.S.; Budahn, James R.; Keren, Tucker T.

    2017-01-01

    A comprehensive survey of geologic structures formed in the Earth’s brittle regime in the eastern Española Basin and flank of the Rio Grande rift, New Mexico, reveals a complex and protracted record of multiple tectonic events. Data and analyses from this representative rift flank-basin pair include measurements from 53 individual fault zones and 22 other brittle structures, such as breccia zones, joints, and veins, investigated at a total of just over 100 sites. Structures were examined and compared in poorly lithified Tertiary sediments, as well as in Paleozoic sedimentary and Proterozoic crystalline rocks. Data and analyses include geologic maps; field observations and measurements; orientation, kinematic, and paleostress analyses; statistical examination of fault trace lengths derived from aeromagnetic data; mineralogy and chemistry of host and fault rocks; and investigation of fault versus bolide-impact hypotheses for the origin of enigmatic breccias found in the Proterozoic basement rocks. Fault kinematic and paleostress analyses suggest a record of transitional, and perhaps partitioned, strains from the Laramide orogeny through Rio Grande rifting. Normal faults within Tertiary basin-fill sediments are consistent with more typical WNW-ESE Rio Grande rift extension, perhaps decoupled from bedrock structures due to strength contrasts favoring the formation of new faults in the relatively weak sediments. Analyses of the fault-length data indicate power-law length distributions similar to those reported from many geologic settings globally. Mineralogy and chemistry in Proterozoic fault-related rocks reveal geochemical changes tied to hydrothermal alteration and nearly isochemical transformation of feldspars to clay minerals. In sediments, faulted minerals are characterized by mechanical entrainment with minor secondary chemical changes. Enigmatic breccias in rift-flanking Proterozoic rocks are autoclastic and isochemical with respect to their protoliths and

  7. Platelet glycoprotein gene Ia C807T, HPA-3, and Ibα VNTR polymorphisms are associated with increased ischemic stroke risk: Evidence from a comprehensive meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hua; Wang, Yi; Zheng, Jian; Li, Guangming; Chen, Tao; Lei, Jianguo; Mao, Yiting; Wang, Jun; Liu, Wei; Zhao, Ge; Tacey, Mark; Yan, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    Background/aims Platelet glycoproteins play a crucial role in the initial stage of thrombus formation and may contribute to the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis. Polymorphisms in glycoprotein genes alter the function of the protein, possibly leading to increased risk of ischemic stroke. However, previous genetic association studies that examined the relationship between glycoprotein genes polymorphisms and ischemic stroke have yielded inconsistent results. This study aimed to evaluate the association between glycoprotein genes and ischemic stroke by the application of meta-analysis. Methods Relevant studies were identified by an extensive search through databases. The quality of included studies was assessed independently using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Allele and genotype frequencies for each included study were extracted. The odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (95%CI) was calculated using a random-effects or fixed-effects model. Q statistic was used to evaluate homogeneity, and a meta-regression model was used to explore the study-level variables and to describe the heterogeneity in included studies. Egger's test and funnel plot were used to assess publication bias. Results A total of 60 studies (9 polymorphisms) were included and identified in the current meta-analysis. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale scores ranged from 7 to 9 except for two studies with Newcastle-Ottawa Scale scores of 6. The T allele or TT genotype of the glycoprotein Ia C807T polymorphism were associated with an increased susceptibility to ischemic stroke in combined population (807T allele: OR, 95%CI: 1.24, 1.03-1.50, p = 0.02) or Asian populations (807T allele: OR, 95%CI: 1.31, 1.10-1.54, p = 0.002 and 807TT genotype: OR, 95%CI: 1.53, 1.13-2.08, p = 0.006, respectively), and the Ser allele of HPA-3 was associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke in combined population or in Asians (OR, 95%CI: 1.21, 1.04-1.40, p = 0.01 or 1.54, 1.18-2.01, p = 0.001). Of

  8. SURVEY ON HUMAN INTERACTIVE BEHAVIOUR RECOGNITION AND COMPREHENSION%人的交互行为识别与理解研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴联世; 夏利民; 罗大庸

    2011-01-01

    Human interactive behaviour recognition and comprehension is a front direction in computer vision research area with much concerns. This paper provides the up-to-date research results in regard to human-object interactive behaviour recognition, two-person interactive behaviour recognition and multi-person interactive behaviour (group activities) recognition and comprehension, as well as the introduction on some related public datasets in the research area. Moreover, the difficult problems at present existing in the research of human interactive behaviour recognition and comprehension are also summarised, and the possible directions of the future work are discussed as well.%人的交互行为识别和理解是计算机视觉研究领域一个备受关注的前沿方向.介绍人与物体的交互行为识别、双人交互行为识别以及多人交互(人群)行为识别和理解方面的最新研究成果和该研究领域的公共数据集.总结了人的交互行为识别与理解研究目前存在的难点问题.并展望了未来可能的发展方向.

  9. Crystal Structures of Polymorphic Prion Protein β1 Peptides Reveal Variable Steric Zipper Conformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lu; Lee, Seung-Joo; Yee, Vivien C

    2015-06-16

    The pathogenesis of prion diseases is associated with the conformational conversion of normal, predominantly α-helical prion protein (PrP(C)) into a pathogenic form that is enriched with β-sheets (PrP(Sc)). Several PrP(C) crystal structures have revealed β1-mediated intermolecular sheets, suggesting that the β1 strand may contribute to a possible initiation site for β-sheet-mediated PrP(Sc) propagation. This β1 strand contains the polymorphic residue 129 that influences disease susceptibility and phenotype. To investigate the effect of the residue 129 polymorphism on the conformation of amyloid-like continuous β-sheets formed by β1, crystal structures of β1 peptides containing each of the polymorphic residues were determined. To probe the conformational influence of the peptide construct design, four different lengths of β1 peptides were studied. From the 12 peptides studied, 11 yielded crystal structures ranging in resolution from 0.9 to 1.4 Å. This ensemble of β1 crystal structures reveals conformational differences that are influenced by both the nature of the polymorphic residue and the extent of the peptide construct, indicating that comprehensive studies in which peptide constructs vary are a more rigorous approach to surveying conformational possibilities.

  10. Fiscal 1992 comprehensive survey of geothermal resource in Japan (tertiary). Report on a deep-seated geothermal resource survey (summary); 1992 nendo zenkoku chinetsu shigen sogo chosa (dai sanji). Shinbu chinetsu shigen chosa hokokusho (yoyaku)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    Drilling and survey were conducted of deep geothermal exploration wells to grasp the existing situation of deep geothermal resource and the whole image of geothermal systems in the area where geothermal resource was already developed. Exploration wells are planned to be drilled down to a depth of 4000m in five years. In fiscal 1992, 24-inch pits were drilled down to 605m. In the survey, data were obtained on microscopic observation of cores and cuttings, X-ray diffraction analysis, survey of fluid inclusion, survey of geology and underground gas by mud log, etc. Further conducted were temperature log, electrical log, lateral log, density log, acoustic log, FMI log, induction log, etc. In making deep geothermal models, selection and preparation of the existing data were made, and geothermal structure models and reservoir models were made as prediction models in the Kakkonda area. Besides, studies were made of a survey method using microearthquakes, etc., survey technology using resistivity, survey technology using artificial fluid inclusion, deep drilling technology, deep fluid utilization technology, etc. 72 refs., 73 figs., 33 tabs.

  11. Explanatory Meetings on Thyroid Examination for the "Fukushima Health Management Survey" after the Great East Japan Earthquake: Reduction of Anxiety and Improvement of Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hino, Yuko; Murakami, Michio; Midorikawa, Sanae; Ohtsuru, Akira; Suzuki, Shinichi; Tsuboi, Kumiko; Ohira, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    After the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident in 2011 and thyroid examinations of children in Fukushima, the Radiation Medical Science Center began "Explanatory meetings on thyroid examination" as a method of communication with residents such as the subjects themselves and their guardians. Through questionnaires, we examined the relationship between anxiety (regarding the effects of radiation on the thyroid) before the meetings and individual attributes including attitudes on radiation, and then verified the effects of the meetings using measures of anxiety, comprehension, and satisfaction, as the outcomes. Of the meetings in 2014-2015, 799 people attended 30 sessions in Kenchu, Kenpoku, Iwaki, Soso, and outside of Fukushima Prefecture, and 594 people responded the questionnaires before and after the meetings on the same day. Level of anxiety before the meetings varied depending on individual attributes (including attitudes regarding collection information on radiation, advisors on radiation, and levels of subjective understanding), highlighting the importance of presenting information about radiation in a manner that is easy to understand, as well as providing opportunities for the exchange of opinions. Participation in meetings reduced anxiety. This was largely attributed to explanations about general characteristics of cancer and objective facts, including doses; status of the Chernobyl accident; and comparison in results of thyroid examinations with other prefectures in Japan. An opportunity for a question-and-answer session also contributed to increased overall satisfaction. The lower number of meeting participants was associated with anxiety reduction and higher subjective comprehension. The present findings obtained will be useful to facilitate evidence-based risk communication.

  12. The comprehensive health care orientation process indicators explain hospital organisation's attractiveness: a Bayesian analysis of newly hired nurse and physician survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltokoski, Jaana; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, Katri; Pitkäaho, Taina; Mikkonen, Santtu; Miettinen, Merja

    2015-10-01

    To examine the relationship of a comprehensive health care orientation process with a hospital's attractiveness. Little is known about indicators of the employee orientation process that most likely explain a hospital organisation's attractiveness. Empirical data collected from registered nurses (n = 145) and physicians (n = 37) working in two specialised hospital districts. A Naive Bayes Classification was applied to examine the comprehensive orientation process indicators that predict hospital's attractiveness. The model was composed of five orientation process indicators: the contribution of the orientation process to nurses' and physicians' intention to stay; the defined responsibilities of the orientation process; interaction between newcomer and colleagues; responsibilities that are adapted for tasks; and newcomers' baseline knowledge assessment that should be done before the orientation phase. The Naive Bayes Classification was used to explore employee orientation process and related indicators. The model constructed provides insight that can be used in designing and implementing the orientation process to promote the hospital organisation's attractiveness. Managers should focus on developing fluently organised orientation practices based on the indicators that predict the hospital's attractiveness. For the purpose of personalised orientation, employees' baseline knowledge and competence level should be assessed before the orientation phase. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Leber congenital amaurosis: comprehensive survey of the genetic heterogeneity, refinement of the clinical definition, and genotype-phenotype correlations as a strategy for molecular diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanein, Sylvain; Perrault, Isabelle; Gerber, Sylvie; Tanguy, Gaëlle; Barbet, Fabienne; Ducroq, Dominique; Calvas, Patrick; Dollfus, Hélène; Hamel, Christian; Lopponen, Tuija; Munier, Francis; Santos, Louisa; Shalev, Stavit; Zafeiriou, Dimitrios; Dufier, Jean-Louis; Munnich, Arnold; Rozet, Jean-Michel; Kaplan, Josseline

    2004-04-01

    Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) is the earliest and most severe form of all inherited retinal dystrophies, responsible for congenital blindness. Disease-associated mutations have been hitherto reported in seven genes. These genes are all expressed preferentially in the photoreceptor cells or the retinal pigment epithelium but they are involved in strikingly different physiologic pathways resulting in an unforeseeable physiopathologic variety. This wide genetic and physiologic heterogeneity that could largely increase in the coming years, hinders the molecular diagnosis in LCA patients. The genotyping is, however, required to establish genetically defined subgroups of patients ready for therapy. Here, we report a comprehensive mutational analysis of the all known genes in 179 unrelated LCA patients, including 52 familial and 127 sporadic (27/127 consanguineous) cases. Mutations were identified in 47.5% patients. GUCY2D appeared to account for most LCA cases of our series (21.2%), followed by CRB1 (10%), RPE65 (6.1%), RPGRIP1 (4.5%), AIPL1 (3.4%), TULP1 (1.7%), and CRX (0.6%). The clinical history of all patients with mutations was carefully revisited to search for phenotype variations. Sound genotype-phenotype correlations were found that allowed us to divide patients into two main groups. The first one includes patients whose symptoms fit the traditional definition of LCA, i.e., congenital or very early cone-rod dystrophy, while the second group gathers patients affected with severe yet progressive rod-cone dystrophy. Besides, objective ophthalmologic data allowed us to subdivide each group into two subtypes. Based on these findings, we have drawn decisional flowcharts directing the molecular analysis of LCA genes in a given case. These flowcharts will hopefully lighten the heavy task of genotyping new patients but only if one has access to the most precise clinical history since birth.

  14. Which Obstacles Prevent Us from Recruiting into Clinical Trials: A Survey about the Environment for Clinical Studies at a German University Hospital in a Comprehensive Cancer Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Straube

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundProspective clinical studies are the most important tool in modern medicine. The standard in good clinical practice in clinical trials has constantly improved leading to more sophisticated protocols. Moreover, translational questions are increasingly addressed in clinical trials. Such trials must follow elaborate rules and regulations. This is accompanied by a significant increase in documentation issues which require substantial manpower. Furthermore, university-based clinical centers are interested in increasing the amount of patients treated within clinical trials, and this number has evolved to be a key quality criterion. The present study was initiated to elucidate the obstacles that limit clinical scientists in screening and recruiting for clinical trials.MethodsA specific questionnaire with 28 questions was developed focusing on all aspects of clinical trial design as well as trial management. This included questions on organizational issues, medical topics as well as potential patients’ preferences and physician’s goals. The questionnaire was established to collect data anonymously on a web-based platform. The survey was conducted within the Klinikum rechts der Isar, Faculty of Medicine, Technical University of Munich; physicians of all levels (Department Chairs, attending physicians, residents, as well as study nurses, and other study-related staff were addressed. The answers were analyzed using the Survio analyzing tool (http://www.survio.com/de/.ResultsWe collected 42 complete sets of answers; in total 28 physicians, 11 study nurses, and 3 persons with positions in administration answered our survey. The study centers reported to participate in a range of 3–160 clinical trials with a recruitment rate of 1–80%. Main obstacles were determined: 31/42 (74% complained about limited human resources and 22/42 (52% reported to have a lack on technical resources, too. 30/42 (71% consented to the answer, that the documentation

  15. Discourse comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graesser, A C; Millis, K K; Zwaan, R A

    1997-01-01

    The field of discourse processing has dissected many of the levels of representation that are constructed when individuals read or listen to connected discourse. These levels include the surface code, the propositional textbase, the referential situation model, the communication context, and the discourse genre. Discourse psychologists have developed models that specify how these levels are mentally represented and how they are dynamically built during comprehension. This chapter focuses on the meaning representations that are constructed when adults read written text, such as literary stories, technical expository text, and experimenter-generated "textoids." Recent psychological models have attempted to account for the identification of referents of referring expressions (e.g. which person in the text does she refer to), the connection of explicit text segments, the establishment of local and global coherence, and the encoding of knowledge-based inferences.

  16. Saturn's dynamic magnetotail: A comprehensive magnetic field and plasma survey of plasmoids and traveling compression regions and their role in global magnetospheric dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, C. M.; Slavin, J. A.; Kivelson, M. G.; Southwood, D. J.; Achilleos, N.; Thomsen, M. F.; DiBraccio, G. A.; Eastwood, J. P.; Freeman, M. P.; Dougherty, M. K.; Vogt, M. F.

    2014-07-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the magnetic field and plasma signatures of reconnection events observed with the Cassini spacecraft during the tail orbits of 2006. We examine their "local" properties in terms of magnetic field reconfiguration and changing plasma flows. We also describe the "global" impact of reconnection in terms of the contribution to mass loss, flux closure, and large-scale tail structure. The signatures of 69 plasmoids, 17 traveling compression regions (TCRs), and 13 planetward moving structures have been found. The direction of motion is inferred from the sign of the change in the Bθ component of the magnetic field in the first instance and confirmed through plasma flow data where available. The plasmoids are interpreted as detached structures, observed by the spacecraft tailward of the reconnection site, and the TCRs are interpreted as the effects of the draping and compression of lobe magnetic field lines around passing plasmoids. We focus on the analysis and interpretation of the tailward moving (south-to-north field change) plasmoids and TCRs in this work, considering the planetward moving signatures only from the point of view of understanding the reconnection x-line position and recurrence rates. We discuss the location spread of the observations, showing that where spacecraft coverage is symmetric about midnight, reconnection signatures are observed more frequently on the dawn flank than on the dusk flank. We show an example of a chain of two plasmoids and two TCRs over 3 hours and suggest that such a scenario is associated with a single-reconnection event, ejecting multiple successive plasmoids. Plasma data reveal that one of these plasmoids contains H+ at lower energy and W+ at higher energy, consistent with an inner magnetospheric source, and the total flow speed inside the plasmoid is estimated with an upper limit of 170 km/s. We probe the interior structure of plasmoids and find that the vast majority of examples at Saturn

  17. Exposure to static and time-varying magnetic fields from working in the static magnetic stray fields of MRI scanners: a comprehensive survey in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaap, Kristel; Christopher-De Vries, Yvette; Crozier, Stuart; De Vocht, Frank; Kromhout, Hans

    2014-11-01

    Clinical and research staff who work around magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners are exposed to the static magnetic stray fields of these scanners. Although the past decade has seen strong developments in the assessment of occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields from MRI scanners, there is insufficient insight into the exposure variability that characterizes routine MRI work practice. However, this is an essential component of risk assessment and epidemiological studies. This paper describes the results of a measurement survey of shift-based personal exposure to static magnetic fields (SMF) (B) and motion-induced time-varying magnetic fields (dB/dt) among workers at 15 MRI facilities in the Netherlands. With the use of portable magnetic field dosimeters, >400 full-shift and partial shift exposure measurements were collected among various jobs involved in clinical and research MRI. Various full-shift exposure metrics for B and motion-induced dB/dt exposure were calculated from the measurements, including instantaneous peak exposure and time-weighted average (TWA) exposures. We found strong correlations between levels of static (B) and time-varying (dB/dt) exposure (r = 0.88-0.92) and between different metrics (i.e. peak exposure, TWA exposure) to express full-shift exposure (r = 0.69-0.78). On average, participants were exposed to MRI-related SMFs during only 3.7% of their work shift. Average and peak B and dB/dt exposure levels during the work inside the MRI scanner room were highest among technical staff, research staff, and radiographers. Average and peak B exposure levels were lowest among cleaners, while dB/dt levels were lowest among anaesthesiology staff. Although modest exposure variability between workplaces and occupations was observed, variation between individuals of the same occupation was substantial, especially among research staff. This relatively large variability between workers with the same job suggests that exposure classification

  18. Application of Comprehensive Geological Survey Methods in Construction of Ganntas Tunnel in Algeria%综合地质勘察方法在甘塔斯隧道的应用实例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹峰; 范春林

    2011-01-01

    Research purposes: The railway project from Algiers to Oran in Algeria Constracted by China is an important part of road network ringing the Mediterranean Economic Zone in the north part of Algeria, with the total length of 55 km to connects the capital and main industrial areas. The 7. 342 km long Canntas Tunnel is an important controlling engineering and passes through the low mountain area of Canntas with complex topographic and geological conditions. Algeria had invited a number of survey institutions from Italy and France to research the geological survey for decades, but little achievements had been made. After winning the bidding by China in 2008, the comprehensive geological survey method was used for the geological survey of this railway by Chinese experienced senior technicians. Research conclusions: The stratum, geologic structure and hydrogeological condition of the tunnel was found out, and the main parameters related to the RQD, Qmax, crack development and surrounding rock classification were gained. In accordance with the France surrounding rock classification method, the rock mass quality score of RMR was obtained, achieving very good results. The comprehensive geological survey methods should be widely used in foreign projects.%研究目的:中国在阿尔及利亚承揽的阿尔及尔至奥兰铁路项目,是该国北部环地中海经济区的重要路网组成部分,铁路全长55 km,连接首都及主要工业区.甘塔斯(Ganntas)隧道是本线的重要控制性工程,全长7.342 km,穿越甘塔斯低山区,地形、地质条件复杂,该国先后邀请意大利、法国等多家勘察机构,研究数十年,一直无法实施.为了解该隧道及全线的地质概况,我国于2008年该项目中标后,选派经验丰富的高级技术人员常驻现场,重点使用了综合地质勘察方法.研究结论:查明了该隧道的地层、构造、水文地质情况,取得了RQD、Qmax、裂隙发育程度等隧道围岩分级的主要参数,依

  19. Reading Comprehension Depends on Language Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfetti, Charles A.

    A corollary of the principle that reading comprehension depends on language comprehension is that word skill plus language comprehension skill produces reading comprehension skill. This corollary points to word decoding as being the major source of differences in skilled reading. Various data supporting this claim have been collected from…

  20. Comprehensive Logistics

    CERN Document Server

    Gudehus, Timm

    2012-01-01

    Modern logistics comprises operative logistics, analytical logistics and management of logistic networks. Central task of operative logistics is the efficient supply of required goods at the right place within the right time. Tasks of analytical logistics are designing optimal networks and systems, developing strategies for planning, scheduling and operation, and organizing efficient order and performance processes. Logistic management plans, implements and operates logistic networks and schedules orders, stocks and resources. This reference-book offers a unique survey of modern logistics. It contains proven strategies, rules and tools for the solution of a multitude of logistic problems. The analytically derived algorithms and formulas can be used for the computer-based planning of logistic systems and for the dynamic scheduling of orders and resources in supply networks. They enable significant improvements of performance, quality and costs. Their application is demonstrated by several examples from industr...

  1. Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) Comprehensive Catalog

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The ANSS Comprehensive Catalog (ComCat) contains earthquake source parameters and other products produced by contributing seismic networks. Important digital...

  2. Survey on requirements of healthy diet education in comprehensive university%综合性高校健康饮食教育需求调查与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘长征; 雷波

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解综合性高校学生健康饮食教育需求状况,分析其原因,为高校开展健康饮食教育提供参考.方法 采用自行设计的调查问卷,对江西省4所综合性高校837人进行问卷调查.结果 学生健康饮食知识需求前3位分别是:日常饮食误区、食品安全知识、食物的合理搭配;健康饮食知识获取途径需求前3位分别是:开展健康饮食讲座、开设健康饮食课程、网络;开展健康饮食教育途径需求前3位分别是:选修课、专题讲座、课外活动.结论 综合性高校学生健康饮食教育需求程度高,广大高校应针对性的迅速开展健康饮食教育,满足学生对健康饮食知识的需求.%OBJECTIVE To study requirements of healthy diet education in comprehensive university students.METHODS A questionnaire survey was conducted in 837 undergraduates drawn from four comprehensive universities in Jiangxi.RESULTS The first three items involving diet knowledge needs were daily diet error,knowledge about food safety,proper food combining; the first three obtaining approaches needs included seminar,lessons and network about healthful diet; and the top three diet education approaches needs were optional course,special lecture,extracurricular activities.CONCLUSION Healthy diet education needs degree of comprehensive university students is high,so it should be promptly carried out.

  3. Polymorphous computing fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolinski, Christophe Czeslaw; Gokhale, Maya B.; McCabe, Kevin Peter

    2011-01-18

    Fabric-based computing systems and methods are disclosed. A fabric-based computing system can include a polymorphous computing fabric that can be customized on a per application basis and a host processor in communication with said polymorphous computing fabric. The polymorphous computing fabric includes a cellular architecture that can be highly parameterized to enable a customized synthesis of fabric instances for a variety of enhanced application performances thereof. A global memory concept can also be included that provides the host processor random access to all variables and instructions associated with the polymorphous computing fabric.

  4. Functional Brain Imaging: A Comprehensive Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Sarraf, Saman

    2016-01-01

    Functional brain imaging allows measuring dynamic functionality in all brain regions. It is broadly used in clinical cognitive neuroscience as, well as in research. It will allow the observation of neural activities in the brain simultaneously. From the beginning when functional brain imaging was initiated by the mapping of brain functions proposed by phrenologists, many scientists were asking why we need to image brain functionality since we have already structural information. Simply, their important question was including a great answer. Functional information of the human brain would definitely complement structural information, helping to have a better understanding of what is happening in the brain. This paper, which could be useful to those who have an interest in functional brain imaging, such as engineers, will present a quick review of modalities used in functional brain imaging. We will concentrate on the most used techniques in functional imaging which are functional magnetic resonance imaging (fM...

  5. A Comprehensive Survey of Multiagent Reinforcement Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busoniu, L.; Babuska, R.; De Schutter, B.

    2008-01-01

    Multiagent systems are rapidly finding applications in a variety of domains, including robotics, distributed control, telecommunications, and economics. The complexity ofmany tasks arising in these domains makes them difficult to solve with preprogrammed agent behaviors. The agents must, instead, di

  6. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Associated with MicroRNA Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Jin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery of microRNA (miRNA, the polymorphisms that affect miRNA regulation had been extensively investigated by many independent studies. Recently, researchers utilized bioinformatics and statistical approaches for genome-wide analysis on the human polymorphisms that reside in the miRNA genes, targets, and/or genes involved in miRNA processing. In this review, we will give an overview about the important findings of these studies from three perspectives: architecture of the polymorphisms within miRNAs or their targets, potential functional consequences of the polymorphisms on miRNA processing or targeting, and the associations of the polymorphisms with miRNA or target gene expression. The results of the previous studies demonstrated the signatures of natural selections on the miRNA genes and their targets, and proposed a collection of potentially functional, expression-associated, and/or positively selected polymorphisms that are promising for further investigations. In the meantime, a few useful resources about the polymorphic miRNA regulation have been developed and the different features of these databases were discussed in this review. Though recent research had benefited from these comprehensive studies and resources, there were still gaps in our knowledge about the polymorphisms involved in miRNA regulation, and future investigations were expected to address these questions.

  7. Gene polymorphisms of intracerebral hemorrhage in Chinese population: a systematic review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭贤佩

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the genes polymorphisms associated with intracerebral hemorrhage(ICH)in Chinese quantitatively or qualitatively by searching all case control studies related comprehensively.Methods Odds ratio(OR)and 95%confidence intervals(95%CI)were determined for each polymorphism using fixed or random model with Revman 5.1.Results Statistically significant associations with ICH were

  8. The pattern of polymorphism in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available We resequenced 876 short fragments in a sample of 96 individuals of Arabidopsis thaliana that included stock center accessions as well as a hierarchical sample from natural populations. Although A. thaliana is a selfing weed, the pattern of polymorphism in general agrees with what is expected for a widely distributed, sexually reproducing species. Linkage disequilibrium decays rapidly, within 50 kb. Variation is shared worldwide, although population structure and isolation by distance are evident. The data fail to fit standard neutral models in several ways. There is a genome-wide excess of rare alleles, at least partially due to selection. There is too much variation between genomic regions in the level of polymorphism. The local level of polymorphism is negatively correlated with gene density and positively correlated with segmental duplications. Because the data do not fit theoretical null distributions, attempts to infer natural selection from polymorphism data will require genome-wide surveys of polymorphism in order to identify anomalous regions. Despite this, our data support the utility of A. thaliana as a model for evolutionary functional genomics.

  9. Survey of MSM HIV high-risk behavior and evaluation of comprehensive intervention%男男性行为人群 HIV 高危行为调查及综合干预评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李细苟; 林培森; 唐军

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of comprehensive intervention on related awareness rate of knowledge and high-risk behavior of MSM AIDS.Methods Use the self-designed questionnaire and conduct a survey of 94 cases of MSM who seek counseling and testing services in 2014 from Zhongshan affluent rural communities HIV voluntary counseling and testing clinic, comparing the change of related awareness rate of knowledge and high-risk behavior of AIDS before and after intervention.Results After taking comprehensive intervening measures, a general increase (P <0.01) in the awareness rate of basic knowledge of AIDS after intervention compared with before, a general decrease in the incidence rate of high-risk behavior (anal sex and same-sex behavior, with two or more same-sex anal sex, etc.) after intervention compared with before (P <0.01 or P <0.05), the use of condoms was obviously improved (P <0.01 or P <0.05).Conclusions Selecting the appropriate comprehensive intervening measures can effectively improve the awareness rate of basic knowledge of AIDS among MSM, reduce high-risk behavior and help to reduce and control the spread of HIV in the crowd.%目的:观察综合干预对男男性接触者(MSM)艾滋病相关知识知晓率、高危行为的影响。方法采用自行设计的调查表,对94例2014年来自中山市富裕农村社区艾滋病自愿咨询检测门诊寻求咨询检测服务的 MSM 进行调查,比较干预前、后艾滋病相关知识知晓率、高危行为的变化。结果采取综合干预措施后,94名调查对象的艾滋病基本知识知晓率较干预前普遍上升(P <0.01),高危行为(与同性发生肛交行为、与2个或以上同性发生肛交行为等)发生率较干预前普遍下降(P <0.01或 P <0.05),安全套使用情况得到明显改善(P <0.01或 P <0.05)。结论选择合适的综合干预措施,可有效提高 MSM 人群艾滋病基本知识知晓率,减少高危行

  10. 佳木斯市医疗机构全面禁烟政策的实施状况调查%Implementation survey of comprehensive smoke-free policy in Jiamusi medical institutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡大伟; 万霞

    2011-01-01

    To study the implementation of smoke-free policy in Jiamusi medical institutions. Methods A multi-stage sampling method was used to select 14 medical institutions in Jiamusi. Personal interview, field observation and intercept survey were used to collect information of tobacco control activities, the smoke-free regulations and secondhand smoke exposure in Jiamusi medical institutions. Results Although there is no municipal level smoke-free regulation in Jiamusi, the health institutions launched a series of tobacco control activities. Most schools supported for tobacco control through policy development and relase. In 204 specific observation points, the percentage of people smoking was 9. 80% , the percentage of finding cigarette butts was 23. 04% , the percentage of finding non-smoking signs in the institutions was 28.43%. According to the intercept survey, the percentage of smokers smoking indoor reached 28. 30% , the percentage of seeing other people smoking indoor reached 15. 23% , the percentage of knowing the comprehensive smoke-free policy was 63. 79%. Conclusions Jiamusi medical institutions launched a series of tobacco control activities for the enforcement of smoke-free medical institutions by the end of 2011 and showed positive effects, but failed to meet the requirements of comprehensive smoke-free environment.%目的 研究佳木斯市医疗机构全面禁止吸烟政策的落实情况.方法 通过多阶段抽样的方法,抽取佳木斯市14个医疗机构.采用个人访谈、现场观察和拦截调查三者相结合的方法,收集佳木斯市医疗机构内全面禁烟的活动和禁烟规定、机构内人群的吸烟和二手烟暴露等相关信息.结果 佳木斯市虽然没有出台市级禁烟条例,但是针对佳木斯市医疗卫生机构内部开展了一系列的控烟活动.通过个人访谈发现,绝大多数机构的领导公开表示过对控烟的支持并制定了了全面无烟的政策.在204个现场观

  11. Comprehension of Discourse Markers and Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatib, Mohamad

    2011-01-01

    According to many research findings, the presence of discourse markers (DMs) enhances readers' comprehension of the texts they read. However, there is a paucity of research on the relationship between knowledge of DMs and reading comprehension (RC) and the present study explores the relationship between them. Knowledge of DMs is measured through…

  12. Tactics for Reading Comprehension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔祥航; 张艳荣

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, reading comprehension is taking up a larger and larger part in almost every international test or domestic examination. Knowing the basic knowledge and grasping the test - taking tactics are key factors of good reading comprehension. In this thesis, I will dwell on nine commonly used tactics for reading comprehension. This will help you to deal with the problems with reading comprehension efficiently.

  13. Identification of conserved and polymorphic STRs for personal genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Short tandem repeats (STRs) are abundant in human genomes. Numerous STRs have been shown to be associated with genetic diseases and gene regulatory functions, and have been selected as genetic markers for evolutionary and forensic analyses. High-throughput next generation sequencers have fostered new cutting-edge computing techniques for genome-scale analyses, and cross-genome comparisons have facilitated the efficient identification of polymorphic STR markers for various applications. Results An automated and efficient system for detecting human polymorphic STRs at the genome scale is proposed in this study. Assembled contigs from next generation sequencing data were aligned and calibrated according to selected reference sequences. To verify identified polymorphic STRs, human genomes from the 1000 Genomes Project were employed for comprehensive analyses, and STR markers from the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) and disease-related STR motifs were also applied as cases for evaluation. In addition, we analyzed STR variations for highly conserved homologous genes and human-unique genes. In total 477 polymorphic STRs were identified from 492 human-unique genes, among which 26 STRs were retrieved and clustered into three different groups for efficient comparison. Conclusions We have developed an online system that efficiently identifies polymorphic STRs and provides novel distinguishable STR biomarkers for different levels of specificity. Candidate polymorphic STRs within a personal genome could be easily retrieved and compared to the constructed STR profile through query keywords, gene names, or assembled contigs. PMID:25560225

  14. The associations between PD-1, CTLA-4 gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to ankylosing spondylitis: a meta-analysis and systemic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Si; Li, Yuan; Deng, Chuiwen; Li, Jing; Wen, Xiaoting; Wu, Ziyan; Hu, Chaojun; Zhang, Shulan; Li, Ping; Zhang, Xuan; Zhang, Fengchun; Li, Yongzhe

    2016-01-01

    Previous surveys had evaluated the effects of the PD-1, CTLA-4 gene polymorphisms on susceptibility to ankylosing spondylitis (AS), but the results remained controversial. To briefly examine these consequences, a comprehensive meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the relationships between PD-1 rs11568821, rs2227982, rs2227981, CTLA-4 +49 A/G and -318 C/T polymorphisms and AS risk. The available articles dated to December 2014 were searched in the PUBMED, MEDLINE and EMBASE databases. The data of the genotypes and/or alleles for the PD-1 rs11568821, rs2227982, rs2227981, CTLA-4 +49 A/G and -318 C/T polymorphisms in the AS and control subjects were extracted, and statistical analysis was conducted by STATA 11.2 software. Summary odds ratios (ORs) with their 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CIs) were calculated to determine the strength of associations with fixed-effects or random-effects models. A total of eight published studies were finally involved in this meta-analysis. Meta-analysis of PD-1 rs2227982 polymorphism under the T allele versus C allele (OR 1.744, 95 % CI 1.477-2.059, P < 0.0001), TT+TC versus CC (OR 2.292, 95 % CI 1.654-3.175, P < 0.0001), TT versus CC (OR 1.883, 95 % CI 1.299-2.729, P = 0.001) revealed a significant association with AS. Our meta-analysis demonstrated that the rs2227982 polymorphism in the PD-1 gene might contribute to AS susceptibility. However, further studies with large sample sizes and among different ethnicity populations should be required to confirm this association.

  15. Polymorphism of sorbitol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezzal, Amale; Aerts, Luc; Verspaille, Marleen; Henderickx, Geert; Redl, Andreas

    2009-07-01

    The polymorphism of sorbitol was investigated, confirming the existence of four anhydrous crystalline phases plus the hydrate. The crystallised melt (CM), the alpha form, and the gamma form were obtained via a dry route. The CM was confirmed to be a crystalline state with a spherulite morphology. The alpha form was obtained via direct conversion from the CM, in contrast to more complicated routes previously reported, and was found to have a very high crystallinity. Gamma crystals were obtained by seeding the melt at high temperature; however, crystallinity was clearly less than for alpha crystals. Despite its lower crystallinity, the gamma polymorph was found to be the most stable of the anhydrous crystalline forms; this was confirmed by its high melting point and low hygroscopicity. In contrast, the alpha polymorph has a relatively high melting point but lacks moisture stability at high relative humidity. The hydrate form has the same resistance to moisture as the gamma form, but melts at a lower temperature. The combination of both a high melting point and high stability in the presence of water makes the gamma polymorph best suited for confectionary applications.

  16. Investigation of Uranium Polymorphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweet, Lucas E.; Henager, Charles H.; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Meier, David E.; Peper, Shane M.; Schwantes, Jon M.

    2011-08-01

    The UO3-water system is complex and has not been fully characterized, even though these species are common throughout the nuclear fuel cycle. As an example, most production schemes for UO3 result in a mixture of up to six or more different polymorphic phases, and small differences in these conditions will affect phase genesis that ultimately result in measureable changes to the end product. As a result, this feature of the UO3-water system may be useful as a means for determining process history. This research effort attempts to better characterize the UO3-water system with a variety of optical techniques for the purpose of developing some predictive capability for estimating process history in polymorphic phases of unknown origin. Three commercially relevant preparation methods for the production of UO3 were explored. Previously unreported low temperature routes to β- and γ-UO3 were discovered. Raman and fluorescence spectroscopic libraries were established for pure and mixed polymorphic forms of UO3 in addition to the common hydrolysis products of UO3. An advantage of the sensitivity of optical fluorescence microscopy over XRD has been demonstrated. Preliminary aging studies of the α and γ forms of UO3 have been conducted. In addition, development of a 3-D phase field model used to predict phase genesis of the system was initiated. Thermodynamic and structural constants that will feed the model have been gathered from the literature for most of the UO3 polymorphic phases.

  17. Investigation of Uranium Polymorphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweet, Lucas E.; Henager, Charles H.; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Meier, David E.; Peper, Shane M.; Schwantes, Jon M.

    2011-08-01

    The UO3-water system is complex and has not been fully characterized, even though these species are common throughout the nuclear fuel cycle. As an example, most production schemes for UO3 result in a mixture of up to six or more different polymorphic phases, and small differences in these conditions will affect phase genesis that ultimately result in measureable changes to the end product. As a result, this feature of the UO3-water system may be useful as a means for determining process history. This research effort attempts to better characterize the UO3-water system with a variety of optical techniques for the purpose of developing some predictive capability for estimating process history in polymorphic phases of unknown origin. Three commercially relevant preparation methods for the production of UO3 were explored. Previously unreported low temperature routes to β- and γ-UO3 were discovered. Raman and fluorescence spectroscopic libraries were established for pure and mixed polymorphic forms of UO3 in addition to the common hydrolysis products of UO3. An advantage of the sensitivity of optical fluorescence microscopy over XRD has been demonstrated. Preliminary aging studies of the α and γ forms of UO3 have been conducted. In addition, development of a 3-D phase field model used to predict phase genesis of the system was initiated. Thermodynamic and structural constants that will feed the model have been gathered from the literature for most of the UO3 polymorphic phases.

  18. Polymorphous Perversity in Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Eilola, Johndan

    2012-01-01

    Here's the tricky part: If we teach ourselves and our students that texts are made to be broken apart, remixed, remade, do we lose the polymorphous perversity that brought us pleasure in the first place? Does the pleasure of transgression evaporate when the borders are opened?

  19. Teaching polymorphism early

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    Is it possible to teach dynamic polymorphism early? What techniques could facilitate teaching it in Java. This panel will bring together people who have considered this question and attempted to implement it in various ways, some more completely than others. It will also give participants an oppo...

  20. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Claus; Pereira, Vania; Andersen, Jeppe Dyrberg

    2014-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most frequent DNA sequence variations in the genome. They have been studied extensively in the last decade with various purposes in mind. In this chapter, we will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using SNPs for human identification and bri...

  1. Polymorphism in Energetic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    salicylic acid ) was first prepared by Charles Frederic Gerhardt in 1853, a second polymorph of this drug was not discovered until 2005. Studies have...the crystallization conditions post- synthesis were not recorded, reproducing the condi- tions resulting in the analyzed sample was not possible. All

  2. Teaching polymorphism early

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    Is it possible to teach dynamic polymorphism early? What techniques could facilitate teaching it in Java. This panel will bring together people who have considered this question and attempted to implement it in various ways, some more completely than others. It will also give participants...

  3. Facts and fictions about polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Cabeza, Aurora J; Reutzel-Edens, Susan M; Bernstein, Joel

    2015-12-01

    We present new facts about polymorphism based on (i) crystallographic data from the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD, a database built over 50 years of community effort), (ii) 229 solid form screens conducted at Hoffmann-La Roche and Eli Lilly and Company over the course of 8+ and 15+ years respectively and (iii) a dataset of 446 polymorphic crystals with energies and properties computed with modern DFT-d methods. We found that molecular flexibility or size has no correlation with the ability of a compound to be polymorphic. Chiral molecules, however, were found to be less prone to polymorphism than their achiral counterparts and compounds able to hydrogen bond exhibit only a slightly higher propensity to polymorphism than those which do not. Whilst the energy difference between polymorphs is usually less than 1 kcal mol(-1), conformational polymorphs are capable of differing by larger values (up to 2.5 kcal mol(-1) in our dataset). As overall statistics, we found that one in three compounds in the CSD are polymorphic whilst at least one in two compounds from the Roche and Lilly set display polymorphism with a higher estimate of up to three in four when compounds are screened intensively. Whilst the statistics provide some guidance of expectations, each compound constitutes a new challenge and prediction and realization of targeted polymorphism still remains a holy grail of materials sciences.

  4. Spectrum of Physics Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasiak, W.; Godlewska, M.; Rosiek, R.; Wcislo, D.

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the results of research on the relationship between self-assessed comprehension of physics lectures and final grades of junior high school students (aged 13-15), high school students (aged 16-18) and physics students at the Pedagogical University of Cracow, Poland (aged 21). Students' declared level of comprehension was measured…

  5. Scaffolding Reading Comprehension Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Ashraf Atta Mohamed Safein

    2017-01-01

    The current study investigates whether English language teachers use scaffolding strategies for developing their students' reading comprehension skills or just for assessing their comprehension. It also tries to demonstrate whether teachers are aware of these strategies or they use them as a matter of habit. A questionnaire as well as structured…

  6. IMPROVING LISTENING COMPREHENSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Research indicates that the factors which influence students’ listening comprehension include certain phonetic phenomena,such as weak forms, linking, elision, assimilation, rhythm and intonation. This paper puts forward some suggestions for ensuring that phonetics classes are of practical use in the development of listening comprehension.

  7. Imitation improves language comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adank, Patti; Hagoort, Peter; Bekkering, Harold

    2010-12-01

    Humans imitate each other during social interaction. This imitative behavior streamlines social interaction and aids in learning to replicate actions. However, the effect of imitation on action comprehension is unclear. This study investigated whether vocal imitation of an unfamiliar accent improved spoken-language comprehension. Following a pretraining accent comprehension test, participants were assigned to one of six groups. The baseline group received no training, but participants in the other five groups listened to accented sentences, listened to and repeated accented sentences in their own accent, listened to and transcribed accented sentences, listened to and imitated accented sentences, or listened to and imitated accented sentences without being able to hear their own vocalizations. Posttraining measures showed that accent comprehension was most improved for participants who imitated the speaker's accent. These results show that imitation may aid in streamlining interaction by improving spoken-language comprehension under adverse listening conditions.

  8. Policies and procedures related to testing for weak D phenotypes and administration of Rh immune globulin: results and recommendations related to supplemental questions in the Comprehensive Transfusion Medicine survey of the College of American Pathologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, S Gerald; Roseff, Susan D; Domen, Ronald E; Shaz, Beth; Gottschall, Jerome L

    2014-05-01

    Advances in RHD genotyping offer an opportunity to update policies and practices for testing weak D phenotypes and administration of Rh immune globulin to postpartum women. To repeat questions from a 1999 College of American Pathologists proficiency test survey, to evaluate current practices for testing for weak D and administration of Rh immune globulin, and to determine whether there is an opportunity to begin integrating RHD genotyping in laboratory practice. The College of American Pathologists Transfusion Medicine Resource Committee sent questions from the 1999 survey to laboratories that participated in the 2012 proficiency test survey. The results of the 2012 survey were compared with those from 1999. Results from published RHD genotyping studies were analyzed to determine if RHD genotyping could improve current policies and practices for serological Rh typing. More than 3100 survey participants responded to the 2012 questions. The most significant finding was a decrease in the number of transfusion services performing a serological weak D test on patients as a strategy to manage those with a weak D as Rh negative (from 58.2% to 19.8%, P Rh positive. Selective integration of RHD genotyping policies and practices could improve the accuracy of Rh typing results, reduce unnecessary administration of Rh immune globulin in women with a weak D, and decrease transfusion of Rh-negative red blood cells in most recipients with a serological weak D phenotype.

  9. Teaching reading comprehension strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majlinda Lika

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The academic debate nowadays is focused on producing an applied science of learning, aiming to teach students how to learn and be strategic in their acquisition. The aim of the study is to identify and discuss the reading comprehension instruction approach applied in the Albanian system of education. Findings from 10 classes of Albanian language and literature with students of third grade were directly observed and analyzed, in order to gather evidence based on indicators and instruments that assess the way of reading comprehension. Findings were categorized according to strategy use; the frequency of their application in different classes was counted and represented in percentages. In this paper we will try to respond to questions like: What are students' main barriers of comprehending? Does the instructional approach respond to students’ needs and level of comprehension? Are teachers prepared to teach comprehension strategies? Furthermore, examples of procedures on how to deliver instruction of comprehension strategies in natural contexts will be represented. Results from teacher practices during lessons of reading comprehension confirmed that teachers use limited teaching strategies to deliver lessons. They mainly use strategies to test comprehension; while the approach of teaching students to read independently and strategically is an unknown practice.

  10. Interruptions disrupt reading comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroughi, Cyrus K; Werner, Nicole E; Barragán, Daniela; Boehm-Davis, Deborah A

    2015-06-01

    Previous research suggests that being interrupted while reading a text does not disrupt the later recognition or recall of information from that text. This research is used as support for Ericsson and Kintsch's (1995) long-term working memory (LT-WM) theory, which posits that disruptions while reading (e.g., interruptions) do not impair subsequent text comprehension. However, to fully comprehend a text, individuals may need to do more than recognize or recall information that has been presented in the text at a later time. Reading comprehension often requires individuals to connect and synthesize information across a text (e.g., successfully identifying complex topics such as themes and tones) and not just make a familiarity-based decision (i.e., recognition). The goal for this study was to determine whether interruptions while reading disrupt reading comprehension when the questions assessing comprehension require participants to connect and synthesize information across the passage. In Experiment 1, interruptions disrupted reading comprehension. In Experiment 2, interruptions disrupted reading comprehension but not recognition of information from the text. In Experiment 3, the addition of a 15-s time-out prior to the interruption successfully removed these negative effects. These data suggest that the time it takes to process the information needed to successfully comprehend text when reading is greater than that required for recognition. Any interference (e.g., an interruption) that occurs during the comprehension process may disrupt reading comprehension. This evidence supports the need for transient activation of information in working memory for successful text comprehension and does not support LT-WM theory. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Quotient-Comprehension Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenta Cho

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Quotients and comprehension are fundamental mathematical constructions that can be described via adjunctions in categorical logic. This paper reveals that quotients and comprehension are related to measurement, not only in quantum logic, but also in probabilistic and classical logic. This relation is presented by a long series of examples, some of them easy, and some also highly non-trivial (esp. for von Neumann algebras. We have not yet identified a unifying theory. Nevertheless, the paper contributes towards such a theory by introducing the new quotient-and-comprehension perspective on measurement instruments, and by describing the examples on which such a theory should be built.

  12. Preparing Graduate Students To Teach. A Guide to Programs That Improve Undergraduate Education and Develop Tomorrow's Faculty. From a Comprehensive National Survey of Teaching Assistant Training Programs and Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Leo M., Ed.; Tice, Stacey Lane, Ed.

    This report describes and documents the state of affairs in preparing graduate students for college and university teaching responsibilities. Chapter 1 summarizes the results of a survey on teacher assistant training and publishing and provides a review of the centrality of the teaching assistantship in graduate education. The publication's two…

  13. Survey and analysis on the mental health of patients with maxillofacial trauma after comprehensive intervention%颌面创伤患者干预治疗后心理健康调查及分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭为; 王强; 黄红星

    2011-01-01

    目的 通过对51例颌面部外伤患者干预治疗后的心理健康调查,对减轻颌面部外伤患者心理障碍作出初步探讨.方法 根据实际情况采用症状自评量表(symptom check list-90,SCL-90)对51例经干预治疗后的颌面外伤患者进行独立测试,并与全国常模进行比较.结果 颌面部外伤患者经临床治疗和心理干预治疗后心理障碍有不同程度的好转,因子分值与全国常模间差别有显著性意义(P<0.01).结论 颌面外伤患者在采取相应干预治疗后效果显著.%Objective To discuss how to relieve the psychologic disorder of facial trauma patients by investigating the mental health of the 51 facial trauma patients. Methods A total of 51 patients with facial trauma after comprehensive intervention were independently assessed with SCL-90 ( symptom check list-90) , and the data were compared with the national norm. Results The psychological status of the facial traunm patients was improved by comprehensive intervention. There was significant difference between its value and the national norm( P < 0.01 ).Conclusion it is significantly effective for facial traunm patients to perform comprehensive intervention.

  14. Cellular communications a comprehensive and practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Tripathi, Nishith

    2014-01-01

    Even as newer cellular technologies and standards emerge, many of the fundamental principles and the components of the cellular network remain the same. Presenting a simple yet comprehensive view of cellular communications technologies, Cellular Communications provides an end-to-end perspective of cellular operations, ranging from physical layer details to call set-up and from the radio network to the core network. This self-contained source forpractitioners and students represents a comprehensive survey of the fundamentals of cellular communications and the landscape of commercially deployed

  15. Survey of Visitors to Bornholm 1996

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartl, Ann; Rassing, Charlotte

    The overall objective was to provide a comprehensive description of visitors to Bornholm that was in keeping with the standard analysis of destination surveys.......The overall objective was to provide a comprehensive description of visitors to Bornholm that was in keeping with the standard analysis of destination surveys....

  16. Teaching English Listening Comprehension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍鑫红

    2013-01-01

    This article outlines an attempt to bridge the gap between‘classroom English’and ‘ normal English’ , and to im⁃prove listening comprehension. The experiment is described and examples are given. The points need paying attention are listed.

  17. Assessment of Reading Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madani HABIB

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to shed light on the concept of assessment as an essential pedagogical practice for the improvement of the teaching-learning process. Particularly, it stresses the strategies and the techniques that should be used in assessing reading comprehension with reference to EFL classrooms. It describes the kinds of tasks that actually reveal students’ reading comprehension abilities and needs. Moreover, this paper aims to illustrate the types and the advantages of assessment for both teachers and learners. More importantly, this study tries to bring equitable evidence of how reading comprehension can be adequately assessed. The findings showed that assessment of reading comprehension is central to English language teaching as it provides teachers with essential information about students’ weaknesses, needs, obstacles, and deficits. Thus, teachers can implement the appropriate techniques and use the assessment results to amend their classroom instruction and enhance the learning abilities.

  18. Metacognition in Reading Comprehension

    OpenAIRE

    Ceylan, Eda; Harputlu, Leyla

    2015-01-01

    Metacognition is defined basically as thinking about thinking. It is a significant factor that affects many activities related to language use. Reading comprehension, which is an indispensable part of daily life and language classrooms, is affected by metacognition, too. Hence, this paper aims to present an overview of the recent theoretical and empirical studies about metacognition and reading comprehension. Firstly, it provides the definitions and the importance of metacognition. Secondly, ...

  19. LISTENING COMPREHENSION: MORE THAN JUST COMPREHENSIBLE INPUT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    In the ten years since the publication of Krashen’s theory on second language acquisition (SLA), the role of comprehensible input (CI) in the learning/acquiring of a language has received considerable attention (Krashen, 1982, 1985; Ellis, 1991, 1992; Long, 1983, 1985). As a result of these studies researchers now agree on the following points. Exposure to a language does not lead to acquisition; the personal accounts of so many language learners who have spent many years in a country or who have listened to endless hours of radio and television without being able to understand or speak the language attest to this fact.

  20. Disciplinary Fragmentation in Comprehensive Issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Erik Hagelskjær

    2004-01-01

    of environmental degradation of the lakes. Articles on environmental planning contain a more integrated understanding of the environmental degradation as a result of social activities. But also here the scope of the studies tend to be limited to the water related issues. The results of the literature survey...... welfare of the population at large. This paper suggests that The Lake Bassin must be described and analyzed as a comprehensive issue which integrates an understanding of the uplands of the lake as more than watersheds. A literature surevey was performed searching major international research databases...... to social and economic factors are not subjects of specific analysis in the literature. They can to some extent be derived from the assumptions of the articles on environmental planning: Socio-economic data are available as statistics for the area, but they are not related to the concrete sources...

  1. [Text Comprehensibility of Hospital Report Cards].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, U; Kolb, B; Christoph, C; Emmert, M

    2016-12-01

    Objectives: Recently, the number of hospital report cards that compare quality of hospitals and present information from German quality reports has greatly increased. Objectives of this study were to a) identify suitable methods for measuring the readability and comprehensibility of hospital report cards, b) to obtain reliable information on the comprehensibility of texts for laymen, c) to give recommendations for improvements and d) to recommend public health actions. Methods: The readability and comprehensibility of the texts were tested with a) a computer-aided evaluation of formal text characteristics (readability indices Flesch (German formula) and 1. Wiener Sachtextformel formula), b) an expert-based heuristic analysis of readability and comprehensibility of texts (counting technical terms and analysis of text simplicity as well as brevity and conciseness using the Hamburg intelligibility model) and c) a survey of subjects about the comprehensibility of individual technical terms, the assessment of the comprehensibility of the presentations and the subjects' decisions in favour of one of the 5 presented clinics due to the better quality of data. In addition, the correlation between the results of the text analysis with the results from the survey of subjects was tested. Results: The assessment of texts with the computer-aided evaluations showed poor comprehensibility values. The assessment of text simplicity using the Hamburg intelligibility model showed poor comprehensibility values (-0.3). On average, 6.8% of the words used were technical terms. A review of 10 technical terms revealed that in all cases only a minority of respondents (from 4.4% to 39.1%) exactly knew what was meant by each of them. Most subjects (62.4%) also believed that unclear terms worsened their understanding of the information offered. The correlation analysis showed that presentations with a lower frequency of technical terms and better values for the text simplicity were better

  2. Teaching a Comprehensive Orofacial Pain Course in the Dental Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonty, Arthur A.

    1990-01-01

    Two surveys about the teaching of orofacial pain in the dental curriculum are reported, and the comprehensive course taught at the University of Kentucky is described. The first survey was of 89 Kentucky course alumni. The second was of 57 dental schools concerning the status of their orofacial pain curricula. (MSE)

  3. Material Evaluation on Century Business English Comprehensive Course

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yuan-yuan

    2016-01-01

    The paper reports a survey on material evaluation on Century Business English comprehensive course of 80 students of Business English majors in Normal College. The survey covers students’and teachers’opinions and suggestions of the CBE. The result is helpful for Business English teachers to effectively improve the students’Business English learning.

  4. Teaching a Comprehensive Orofacial Pain Course in the Dental Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonty, Arthur A.

    1990-01-01

    Two surveys about the teaching of orofacial pain in the dental curriculum are reported, and the comprehensive course taught at the University of Kentucky is described. The first survey was of 89 Kentucky course alumni. The second was of 57 dental schools concerning the status of their orofacial pain curricula. (MSE)

  5. GPS satellite surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Leick, Alfred; Tatarnikov, Dmitry

    2015-01-01

    THE MOST COMPREHENSIVE, UP-TO-DATE GUIDE ON GPS TECHNOLOGY FOR SURVEYING Three previous editions have established GPS Satellite Surveying as the definitive industry reference. Now fully updated and expanded to reflect the newest developments in the field, this Fourth Edition features cutting-edge information on GNSS antennas, precise point positioning, real-time relative positioning, lattice reduction, and much more. Expert authors examine additional tools and applications, offering complete coverage of geodetic surveying using satellite technologies. The past decade has seen a major evolut

  6. Associations between PPARG polymorphisms and the risk of essential hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Weijin; Shi, Ganwei; Xue, Sheliang; Zhang, Bifeng

    2017-01-01

    Background Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) plays an important role in the pathogenesis and maintenance of essential hypertension (EH). It has been suggested that polymorphisms of PPARG are associated with the risk of EH. However, findings to date remain controversial. To elucidate the associations between the PPARG Pro12Ala and C161T polymorphisms and EH risk, a meta-analysis was carried out. Methods A comprehensive literature search of PubMed, Embase, CNKI (Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure), VIP and Wanfang databases was conducted. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated to estimate the size of the effect using the random-effects model. At the same time, the pooled standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95% CI was used for the meta-analysis of the PPARG Pro12Ala polymorphism and blood pressure. Results Finally, Fifteen papers (seventeen studies) including 4,151 cases and 4,997 controls to evaluate the association of the PPARGPro12Ala polymorphism and EH risk, were included in this study. Overall, the results suggested that Ala allele was associated with the decreased EH risk (for allelic model, OR = 0.757, 95%CI: 0.624–0.918, P = 0.005; for dominant model, OR = 0.771, 95%CI: 0.627–0.946, P = 0.013). The subgroup analysis stratified by ethnicity showed that the significant association between the PPARG Pro12Ala polymorphism and EH was only detected in the Asian subgroup. There was no difference in blood pressure values between Ala carriers and non-carriers. For the C161T polymorphism, only 5 studies comprising 1,118 cases and 1,357 controls met the inclusion criteria. The overall results showed that the PPARG C161T polymorphism was not associated with the risk of EH. But in the subgroup analysis, we found that the PPARG C161T polymorphism significantly associated with the risk of EH in the Asian subgroup (for allelic model, OR = 0.719, 95% CI: 0.537–0.963, P = 0.027; for dominant model

  7. Comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Marie; Hochstrasser, Stefan; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe O;

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The costs of comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation are established and compared to the corresponding costs of usual care. The effect on health-related quality of life is analyzed. METHODS: An unprecedented and very detailed cost assessment was carried out, as no guidelines existed...... for the situation at hand. Due to challenging circumstances, the cost assessment turned out to be ex-post and top-down. RESULTS: Cost per treatment sequence is estimated to be approximately euro 976, whereas the incremental cost (compared with usual care) is approximately euro 682. The cost estimate is uncertain...... and may be as high as euro 1.877. CONCLUSIONS: Comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation is more costly than usual care, and the higher costs are not outweighed by a quality of life gain. Comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation is, therefore, not cost-effective....

  8. Angiogenin gene polymorphism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongli Wang; Dongsheng Fan; Yingshuang Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Angiogenin is associated with the pathogenesis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Here, we se-quenced the coding region of the angiogenin gene in genomic DNA from 207 patients with type 2 diabetes mel itus (129 diabetic peripheral neuropathy patients and 78 diabetic non-neuropathy pa-tients) and 268 healthy controls. Al subjects were from the Han population of northern China. No mutations were found. We then compared the genotype and allele frequencies of the angiogenin synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism rs11701 between the diabetic peripheral neuropathy patients and controls, and between the diabetic neuropathy and non-neuropathy patients, using a case-control design. We detected no statistical y significant genetic associations. Angiogenin may not be associated with genetic susceptibility to diabetic peripheral neuropathy in the Han population of northern China.

  9. Context and Listening Comprehension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin Yingying

    2016-01-01

    Context is very important factor that can't be ignored in speech communication. Context contributes much to understanding the meaning of words. The exact and thorough interpretation of words and utterance results from contexts. The relation is discussed between context and listening comprehension, and the functions of context are analyzed in listening. It is pointed out that the analysis of contextual clues is useful in understanding listening materials and also introduces some ways on contextual clues in listening so as to improve listening comprehension.

  10. 综合化:教育学科课程体系建设的走向%A Survey on the Teacher Education Curriculum Based on Comprehensive Path

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    国晖

    2012-01-01

    Under the background of an open teacher education system being forming, it is a clear trend that normal universities have abandoned the closed training mode but choosing a comprehensive cultivation model. These universities lay particular stress on specialized disciplinary courses while ignoring teacher education courses; moreover, the curriculum structure of both is not rea- sonable. Therefore, normal universities need reconstruct the curriculum system of teacher education, which on the one hand refers to the useful experiences of multiversity, on the other hand highlights the normal characteristics.%开放式教师教育体系已经形成,高师院校不再固守封闭模式,纷纷走向综合化。高师院校的教师教育存在偏重学科课程、忽视教育课程以及两类课程结构失衡问题。达到"学术性"与"师范性"之间的平衡,高师院校须借鉴综合大学的培养模式,发展"综合性";创新职前教师教育培养模式,着力构建教育学科课程群,完善学科专业课程体系。

  11. Spectral sensitivities and color signals in a polymorphic damselfly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-chang Huang

    Full Text Available Animal communication relies on conspicuous signals and compatible signal perception abilities. Good signal perception abilities are particularly important for polymorphic animals where mate choice can be a challenge. Behavioral studies suggest that polymorphic damselflies use their varying body colorations and/or color patterns as communication signal for mate choice and to control mating frequencies. However, solid evidence for this hypothesis combining physiological with spectral and behavioral data is scarce. We investigated this question in the Australian common blue tail damselfly, Ischnura heterosticta, which has pronounced female-limited polymorphism: andromorphs have a male-like blue coloration and gynomorphs display green/grey colors. We measured body color reflectance and investigated the visual capacities of each morph, showing that I. heterosticta have at least three types of photoreceptors sensitive to UV, blue, and green wavelength, and that this visual perception ability enables them to detect the spectral properties of the color signals emitted from the various color morphs in both males and females. We further demonstrate that different color morphs can be discriminated against each other and the vegetation based on color contrast. Finally, these findings were supported by field observations of natural mating pairs showing that mating partners are indeed chosen based on their body coloration. Our study provides the first comprehensive evidence for the function of body coloration on mate choice in polymorphic damselflies.

  12. Utilizing BlueJ to Teach Polymorphism in an Advanced Object-Oriented Programming Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkazemi, Basem Y.; Grami, Grami M.

    2012-01-01

    Teaching Polymorphism can be best implemented by using a combination of bottom-up and top-down approaches. However, from our observation and students' self-reporting, the former seems to be the predominant in the Saudi context. We try to investigate whether applying a more balanced approach in teaching the comprehensive concept of Polymorphism…

  13. Cognitive Correlates of Listening Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk; Phillips, Beth

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to understand cognitive foundations of oral language comprehension (i.e., listening comprehension), we examined how inhibitory control, theory of mind, and comprehension monitoring are uniquely related to listening comprehension over and above vocabulary and age. A total of 156 children in kindergarten and first grade from…

  14. Imitation improves language comprehension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adank, P.M.; Hagoort, P.; Bekkering, H.

    2010-01-01

    Humans imitate each other during social interaction. This imitative behavior streamlines social interaction and aids in learning to replicate actions. However, the effect of imitation on action comprehension is unclear. This study investigated whether vocal imitation of an unfamiliar accent improved

  15. Painless reading comprehension

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, EdD, Darolyn "Lyn"

    2016-01-01

    Reading comprehension gets easier as students learn what kind of reader they are, discover how to keep facts in their head, and much more. Bonus Online Component: includes additional games, including Beat the Clock, a line match game, and a word scramble.

  16. COMPREHENSIVE JUNIOR COLLEGES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NIKITAS, CHRISTUS M.; AND OTHERS

    TO MEET THE STATE'S HIGHER EDUCATION NEEDS, THE NEW HAMPSHIRE JUNIOR COLLEGE COMMISSION DEVELOPED A PLAN OF (1) GRADUAL AND SELECTIVE CONVERSION OF THE STATE'S TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL SCHOOLS TO COMPREHENSIVE JUNIOR COLLEGES, (2) SELECTIVE ADDITION OF 2-YEAR PROGRAMS AT THE STATE COLLEGES AND INSTITUTES, AND (3) ESTABLISHMENT OF A STATE…

  17. Genome-wide polymorphisms show unexpected targets of natural selection

    OpenAIRE

    Pespeni, Melissa H.; Garfield, David A.; Manier, Mollie K; Palumbi, Stephen R.

    2011-01-01

    Natural selection can act on all the expressed genes of an individual, leaving signatures of genetic differentiation or diversity at many loci across the genome. New power to assay these genome-wide effects of selection comes from associating multi-locus patterns of polymorphism with gene expression and function. Here, we performed one of the first genome-wide surveys in a marine species, comparing purple sea urchins, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, from two distant locations along the species...

  18. Comparative hydrodynamics of bacterial polymorphism

    CERN Document Server

    Spagnolie, Saverio E

    2011-01-01

    Most bacteria swim through fluids by rotating helical flagella which can take one of twelve distinct polymorphic shapes. The most common helical waveform is the "normal" form, used during forward swimming runs. To shed light on the prevalence of the normal form in locomotion, we gather all available experimental measurements of the various polymorphic forms and compute their intrinsic hydrodynamic efficiencies. The normal helical form is found to be the most hydrodynamically efficient of the twelve polymorphic forms by a significant margin - a conclusion valid for both the peritrichous and polar flagellar families, and robust to a change in the effective flagellum diameter or length. The hydrodynamic optimality of the normal polymorph suggests that, although energetic costs of locomotion are small for bacteria, fluid mechanical forces may have played a significant role in the evolution of the flagellum.

  19. Preferential Nucleation during Polymorphic Transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, H.; Sietsma, J.; Offerman, S. E.

    2016-08-01

    Polymorphism is the ability of a solid material to exist in more than one phase or crystal structure. Polymorphism may occur in metals, alloys, ceramics, minerals, polymers, and pharmaceutical substances. Unresolved are the conditions for preferential nucleation during polymorphic transformations in which structural relationships or special crystallographic orientation relationships (OR’s) form between the nucleus and surrounding matrix grains. We measured in-situ and simultaneously the nucleation rates of grains that have zero, one, two, three and four special OR’s with the surrounding parent grains. These experiments show a trend in which the activation energy for nucleation becomes smaller - and therefore nucleation more probable - with increasing number of special OR’s. These insights contribute to steering the processing of polymorphic materials with tailored properties, since preferential nucleation affects which crystal structure forms, the average grain size and texture of the material, and thereby - to a large extent - the final properties of the material.

  20. Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase Locus Polymorphisms and Cancer Risk: A Field Synopsis and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdi, Daunia; Pooley, Karen A.; Landi, Maria T.; Egan, Kathleen M.; Baird, Duncan M.; Prescott, Jennifer; De Vivo, Immaculata; Nitti, Donato

    2012-01-01

    Background Several recent studies have provided evidence that polymorphisms in the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene sequence are associated with cancer development, but a comprehensive synopsis is not available. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available molecular epidemiology data regarding the association between TERT locus polymorphisms and predisposition to cancer. Methods A systematic review of the English literature was conducted by searching PubMed, Embase, Cancerlit, Google Scholar, and ISI Web of Knowledge databases for studies on associations between TERT locus polymorphisms and cancer risk. Random-effects meta-analysis was performed to pool per-allele odds ratios for TERT locus polymorphisms and risk of cancer, and between-study heterogeneity and potential bias sources (eg, publication and chasing bias) were assessed. Because the TERT locus includes the cleft lip and palate transmembrane 1-like (CLPTM1L) gene, which is in linkage disequilibrium with TERT, CLPTM1L polymorphisms were also analyzed. Cumulative evidence for polymorphisms with statistically significant associations was graded as “strong,” “moderate,” and “weak” according to the Venice criteria. The joint population attributable risk was calculated for polymorphisms with strong evidence of association. Results Eighty-five studies enrolling 490 901 subjects and reporting on 494 allelic contrasts were retrieved. Data were available on 67 TERT locus polymorphisms and 24 tumor types, for a total of 221 unique combinations of polymorphisms and cancer types. Upon meta-analysis, a statistically significant association with the risk of any cancer type was found for 22 polymorphisms. Strong, moderate, and weak cumulative evidence for association with at least one tumor type was demonstrated for 11, 9, and 14 polymorphisms, respectively. For lung cancer, which was the most studied tumor type, the estimated joint population attributable risk for three

  1. Polymorphism of tedisamil dihydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henck, J O; Finner, E; Burger, A

    2000-09-01

    The results of studies on tedisamil dihydrochloride in the solid state demonstrate that the compound occurs in three polymorphic forms. The three modifications have been characterized by thermomicroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), vibrational spectroscopy, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and X-ray powder diffractometry (XRPD). The thermodynamic relationships are illustrated in a semischematic energy/temperature diagram that gives information about the relative stability and physical properties of the three modifications between 0 K and the melting temperatures. The three modifications are enantiotropically related. Modification II, the material obtained during manufacturing, is the thermodynamically stable crystal form at 20 degrees C. The thermodynamic transition point of mod II with I (instant melting point: 248-250 degrees C) is between 100 and approximately 140 degrees C (DeltaH(t,II/I) = 4.4+/-0.8 kJ/mol (95% CI)). A phase transition of mod II (probably into mod III) was detected thermomicroscopically at about -180 degrees C. The thermodynamic transition point of mod III with I was determined to be at -9 to -6 degrees C. Because mods I and III are thermodynamically and kinetically unstable at ambient conditions, these crystal forms are of analytical interest.

  2. Polymorphism of lead oxoborate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyulyupa, A.G. [Middle School, Sablinskoe, Stavropol region, 356322 (Russian Federation); Voronov, V.V. [A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute RAS, 38 Vavilov Street, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Fedorov, P.P., E-mail: ppfedorov@yandex.ru [A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute RAS, 38 Vavilov Street, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-20

    Highlights: • Pb{sub 4}B{sub 2}O{sub 7} melt undergoes statistical undercooling. • Orthorhombic nonlinear optical crystal Pb{sub 4}O(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} is the metastable γ-polymorph. • Temperature of metastable melting of γ-Pb{sub 4}O(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} is equal to 530 °C. - Abstract: The study of lead borate melt crystallization by differential thermal analysis (DTA) and X-ray diffraction analysis has shown that, for Pb{sub 4}O(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} (or 4PbO·B{sub 2}O{sub 3}) stoichiometric compound, its well-known orthorhombic modification (non-centrosymmetric Aba2 space symmetry group (SSG), a = 15.472(1), b = 10.802(1), c = 9.9486(6) Å unit cell parameters) is metastable. It forms from the undercooled melt and has a melting point of 530 ± 5 °C.

  3. New polymorphous computing fabric.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolinski, C. (Christophe); Gokhale, M. (Maya); McCabe, K. P. (Kevin P.)

    2002-01-01

    This paper introduces a new polymorphous computing Fabric well suited to DSP and Image Processing and describes its implementation on a Configurable System on a Chip (CSOC). The architecture is highly parameterized and enables customization of the synthesized Fabric to achieve high performance for a specific class of application. For this reason it can be considered to be a generic model for hardware accelerator synthesis from a high level specification. Another important innovation is the Fabric uses a global memory concept, which gives the host processor random access to all the variables and instructions on the Fabric. The Fabric supports different computing models including MIMD, SPMD and systolic flow and permits dynamic reconfiguration. We present a specific implementation of a bank of FIR filters on a Fabric composed of 52 cells on the Altera Excalibur ARM running at 33 MHz. The theoretical performance of this Fabric is 1.8 GMACh. For the FIR application we obtain 1.6 GMAC/s real performance. Some automatic tools have been developed like the tool to provide a host access utility and assembler.

  4. Comprehensive hard materials

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive Hard Materials deals with the production, uses and properties of the carbides, nitrides and borides of these metals and those of titanium, as well as tools of ceramics, the superhard boron nitrides and diamond and related compounds. Articles include the technologies of powder production (including their precursor materials), milling, granulation, cold and hot compaction, sintering, hot isostatic pressing, hot-pressing, injection moulding, as well as on the coating technologies for refractory metals, hard metals and hard materials. The characterization, testing, quality assurance and applications are also covered. Comprehensive Hard Materials provides meaningful insights on materials at the leading edge of technology. It aids continued research and development of these materials and as such it is a critical information resource to academics and industry professionals facing the technological challenges of the future. Hard materials operate at the leading edge of technology, and continued res...

  5. 501 reading comprehension questions

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This updated edition offers the most extensive and varied practice for all types of questions students might face on standardized and in-class tests. With this guide, students will learn to develop expert reading strategies, understand how to read faster and with greater comprehension, overcome reading anxiety, and increase appreciation of reading for pleasure. This book's step-by-step approach provides graduated coverage that moves from the basics to more advanced reading.

  6. Lack of association between PCK1 polymorphisms and obesity, physical activity, and fitness in European Youth Heart Study (EYHS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vimaleswaran, Karani S; Franks, Paul W; Brage, Soren

    2010-01-01

    , waist circumference (WC), sum of four skinfolds, PA, and fitness was tested using an additive model adjusted for age, age-group, gender, maturity, and country. Interactions were tested by including interaction terms in the model. None of the polymorphisms were significantly associated with BMI, WC, sum...... of four skinfolds, PA, and fitness, and also with the risk of being overweight or obese (P > 0.05). The interactions between the polymorphisms and age-group, gender, PA, and fitness were not statistically significant. This is the first study to comprehensively examine the association of PCK1 polymorphisms...

  7. p27Kip1 V109G Polymorphism and Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Feng; Xu, Jin; Tang, Lin; Shao, Jiaqing; Wang, Yucai; Chen, Longbang; Guan, Xiaoxiang

    2012-01-01

    Relationship between the p27Kip1 (here after referred to as p27) V109G polymorphism and cancer risk has been extensively studied; however, results from different studies were not fully consistent. Therefore, we carried out a meta-analysis to comprehensively assess the correlation between the p27V109G polymorphism and the cancer risk. Articles on the relationship of the p27V109G polymorphism with cancer risk were searched from Medline, Pub Med, and Web of science databases. A total of eight el...

  8. LIG1 polymorphisms: the Indian scenario

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amit Kumar Mitra; Ashok Singh; Indian Genome Variation Consortium; Srikanta Kumar Rath

    2014-08-01

    Elucidation of the genetic diversity and relatedness of the subpopulations of India may provide a unique resource for future analysis of genetic association of several critical community-specific complex diseases.We performed a comprehensive exploration of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the gene DNA ligase 1 (LIG1) among a multiethnic panel of Indian subpopulations representative of the ethnic, linguistic and geographical diversity of India using a two-stage design involving DNA resequencing-based SNP discovery followed by SNP validation using sequenom-based genotyping. Thirty SNPs were identified in LIG1 gene using DNA resequencing including three promoter SNPs and one coding SNP. Following SNP validation, the SNPs rs20580/C19008A and rs3730862/C8804T were found to have the most widespread prevalence with noticeable variations in minor allele frequencies both between the Indian subpopulation groups and also from those reported on other major world populations. Subsequently, SNPs found in Indian subpopulations were analysed using bioinformatics-based approaches and compared with SNP data available on major world populations. Further, we also performed genotype–phenotype association analysis of LIG1 SNPs with publicly available data on LIG1 mRNA expression in HapMap samples. Results showed polymorphisms in LIG1 affect its expression and may therefore change its function. Our results stress upon the uniqueness of the Indian population with respect to the worldwide scenario and suggest that any epidemiological study undertaken on the global population should take this distinctiveness in consideration and avoid making generalized conclusions.

  9. Characterization and compilation of polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR markers of peanut from public database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Yongli

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are several reports describing thousands of SSR markers in the peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. genome. There is a need to integrate various research reports of peanut DNA polymorphism into a single platform. Further, because of lack of uniformity in the labeling of these markers across the publications, there is some confusion on the identities of many markers. We describe below an effort to develop a central comprehensive database of polymorphic SSR markers in peanut. Findings We compiled 1,343 SSR markers as detecting polymorphism (14.5% within a total of 9,274 markers. Amongst all polymorphic SSRs examined, we found that AG motif (36.5% was the most abundant followed by AAG (12.1%, AAT (10.9%, and AT (10.3%.The mean length of SSR repeats in dinucleotide SSRs was significantly longer than that in trinucleotide SSRs. Dinucleotide SSRs showed higher polymorphism frequency for genomic SSRs when compared to trinucleotide SSRs, while for EST-SSRs, the frequency of polymorphic SSRs was higher in trinucleotide SSRs than in dinucleotide SSRs. The correlation of the length of SSR and the frequency of polymorphism revealed that the frequency of polymorphism was decreased as motif repeat number increased. Conclusions The assembled polymorphic SSRs would enhance the density of the existing genetic maps of peanut, which could also be a useful source of DNA markers suitable for high-throughput QTL mapping and marker-assisted selection in peanut improvement and thus would be of value to breeders.

  10. READING COMPREHENSION RFSEARCH AND LINGUISTIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    "At present, one can hardly speak of a coherent 'science of language'. At best ... comprehension is not a special skill, separate from listening comprehension. Horowitz & .... most important pragmatic theories of utterance interpretation. Where ...

  11. A comprehensive French grammar

    CERN Document Server

    Price, Glanville

    2013-01-01

    Characterized by clear and accessible explanations, numerous examples and sample sentences, a new section on register and tone, and useful appendices covering topics including age and time, A Comprehensive French Grammar, Sixth Edition is an indispensable tool for advanced students of French language and literature.A revised edition of this established, bestselling French grammarIncludes a new section on register and medium and offers expanded treatment of French punctuationFeatures numerous examples and sample sentences, and useful appendices covering topics including age, time, and dimension

  12. Pollution Abatement and Control Expenditures Survey (PACE)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pollution Abatement Costs and Expenditures (PACE) survey is the most comprehensive national source of pollution abatement costs and expenditures related to...

  13. The LLL algorithm survey and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Phong Q

    2010-01-01

    The first book to offer a comprehensive view of the LLL algorithm, this text surveys computational aspects of Euclidean lattices and their main applications. It includes many detailed motivations, explanations and examples.

  14. Precision surveying the principles and geomatics practice

    CERN Document Server

    Ogundare, John Olusegun

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive overview of high precision surveying, including recent developments in geomatics and their applications This book covers advanced precision surveying techniques, their proper use in engineering and geoscience projects, and their importance in the detailed analysis and evaluation of surveying projects. The early chapters review the fundamentals of precision surveying: the types of surveys; survey observations; standards and specifications; and accuracy assessments for angle, distance and position difference measurement systems. The book also covers network design and 3-D coordinating systems before discussing specialized topics such as structural and ground deformation monitoring techniques and analysis, mining surveys, tunneling surveys, and alignment surveys. Precision Surveying: The Principles and Geomatics Practice: * Covers structural and ground deformation monitoring analysis, advanced techniques in mining and tunneling surveys, and high precision alignment of engineering structures *...

  15. Metacognition and Reading Comprehension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cecilia Chang

    2000-01-01

    @@ Introduction Reading is a mysterious process that has attracted attention from psychologists, reading researchers and educators alike for decades. Currently, reading is viewed as a meaningconstructing process where the reader interacts with the text by simultaneously using information from a variety of sources ranging from one's background knowledge of the content and about the world to the knowledge about the language in which the text is written (Mulling, 1994). Moreover, reading comprehension is achieved only after skillful orchestration of all the resources the reader possess when engaged in the act of reading. Among the various kinds of strategies a reader needs during the reading process are the monitoring strategies. In order to fully utilize the strategies, the reader needs to possess good metacognition. Metacognition refers to one's deliberate conscious control of one's cognition actions (Brown, 1980). Since it is crucial for success that we know what we know and what we don't know and, consequently what to do about what we know and don't know, it is not surprising to find the notion of metacognition being stressed in almost every situation of learning. Given the importance of metacognition in successful learning, the purpose of this paper is to explore the role metacognition plays in reading comprehension, and consequently, identify future research directions.

  16. Comprehensive national energy strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This Comprehensive National Energy Strategy sets forth a set of five common sense goals for national energy policy: (1) improve the efficiency of the energy system, (2) ensure against energy disruptions, (3) promote energy production and use in ways that respect health and environmental values, (4) expand future energy choices, and (5) cooperate internationally on global issues. These goals are further elaborated by a series of objectives and strategies to illustrate how the goals will be achieved. Taken together, the goals, objectives, and strategies form a blueprint for the specific programs, projects, initiatives, investments, and other actions that will be developed and undertaken by the Federal Government, with significant emphasis on the importance of the scientific and technological advancements that will allow implementation of this Comprehensive National Energy Strategy. Moreover, the statutory requirement of regular submissions of national energy policy plans ensures that this framework can be modified to reflect evolving conditions, such as better knowledge of our surroundings, changes in energy markets, and advances in technology. This Strategy, then, should be thought of as a living document. Finally, this plan benefited from the comments and suggestions of numerous individuals and organizations, both inside and outside of government. The Summary of Public Comments, located at the end of this document, describes the public participation process and summarizes the comments that were received. 8 figs.

  17. Maltsev digraphs have a majority polymorphism

    CERN Document Server

    Kazda, Alexandr

    2009-01-01

    We prove that when a digraph $G$ has a Maltsev polymorphism, then $G$ also has a majority polymorphism. We consider the consequences of this result for the structure of Maltsev graphs and the complexity of the Constraint Satisfaction Problem.

  18. The evolution of polymorphic compatibility molecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, R.J. de

    1995-01-01

    Several primitive colonial organisms distinguish self from nonself by means of polymorphic compatibility molecules bearing similarity to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). The evolution of such polymorphisms is generally explained in terms of resistance to parasites. Ignoring parasites, I d

  19. CTLA-4 polymorphisms associate with breast cancer susceptibility in Asians: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiming Dai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have investigated the association between cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4 polymorphisms and breast cancer susceptibility, but the results remained inconsistent. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between four common CTLA-4 polymorphisms and breast cancer risk by a meta-analysis, aiming to derive a comprehensive and precise conclusion. We searched EMBASE, Pubmed, Web of Science, CNKI, and Wanfang databases until July 18th, 2016. Finally, ten eligible studies involving 4,544 breast cancer patients and 4,515 cancer-free controls were included; all these studies were from Asia. Odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI were used to evaluate the breast cancer risk in five genetic models. The results indicated that the CTLA-4 +49A>G (rs231775 polymorphism had a significant association with decreased breast cancer risk in allelic, homozygous, dominant and recessive models. Also, the +6230G>A (rs3087243 polymorphism reduced breast cancer risk especially in the Chinese population under homozygous and recessive models. In contrast, the −1661A>G (rs4553808 polymorphism increased breast cancer risk in allelic, heterozygous and dominant models, whereas −1722 T>C (rs733618 did not relate to breast cancer risk. In conclusion, CTLA-4 polymorphisms significantly associate with breast cancer susceptibility in Asian populations, and different gene loci may have different effects on breast cancer development. Further large-scale studies including multi-racial populations are required to confirm our findings.

  20. PON1 L55M polymorphism might contribute to the risk of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Peizeng; Ma, Yongchen; Zhang, Lingling; Ma, Sheng

    2017-03-01

    The results involved in correlation of PON1 L55M polymorphism and cancer risk are still inconsistent and controversial. Therefore, we performed this comprehensive meta-analysis for the effects of PON1 L55M polymorphism and cancer risk. We carried out a database search in PubMed (Medline) and EMBASE covering all published articles. The strength of association between PON1 L55M polymorphism and cancer risk was estimated by pooled ORs with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). Twenty-one independent case-control studies concerned with association between PON1 L55M polymorphism and cancer risk were finally included in this meta-analysis. We found that there was a statistical significance between PON1 L55M polymorphism and cancer risk (OR=1.21, 95% CI: 1.04-1.40). In stratified analyses by site of cancer, statistically significant increased breast cancer risk was found (OR=2.04, 95% CI: 1.29-3.21). In stratified analyses by ethnicity, statistically significant increased cancer risk was found in Caucasian populations (OR=1.25, 95% CI: 1.03-1.51). In stratified analyses by source of control, significant increased cancer risk was found in hospital-based studies (OR=1.26, 95% CI: 1.10-1.44). This meta-analysis suggested that PON1 L55M polymorphism might increase the risk of cancer.

  1. CTLA-4 polymorphisms associate with breast cancer susceptibility in Asians: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinghan; Lin, Shuai; Yang, Pengtao; Liu, Kang; Zheng, Yi; Xu, Peng; Liu, Meng; Yang, Xuewen

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have investigated the association between cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) polymorphisms and breast cancer susceptibility, but the results remained inconsistent. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between four common CTLA-4 polymorphisms and breast cancer risk by a meta-analysis, aiming to derive a comprehensive and precise conclusion. We searched EMBASE, Pubmed, Web of Science, CNKI, and Wanfang databases until July 18th, 2016. Finally, ten eligible studies involving 4,544 breast cancer patients and 4,515 cancer-free controls were included; all these studies were from Asia. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to evaluate the breast cancer risk in five genetic models. The results indicated that the CTLA-4 +49A>G (rs231775) polymorphism had a significant association with decreased breast cancer risk in allelic, homozygous, dominant and recessive models. Also, the +6230G>A (rs3087243) polymorphism reduced breast cancer risk especially in the Chinese population under homozygous and recessive models. In contrast, the −1661A>G (rs4553808) polymorphism increased breast cancer risk in allelic, heterozygous and dominant models, whereas −1722 T>C (rs733618) did not relate to breast cancer risk. In conclusion, CTLA-4 polymorphisms significantly associate with breast cancer susceptibility in Asian populations, and different gene loci may have different effects on breast cancer development. Further large-scale studies including multi-racial populations are required to confirm our findings. PMID:28097051

  2. Comprehensive nuclear materials

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Todd; Stoller, Roger; Yamanaka, Shinsuke

    2012-01-01

    Comprehensive Nuclear Materials encapsulates a panorama of fundamental information on the vast variety of materials employed in the broad field of nuclear technology. The work addresses, in five volumes, 3,400 pages and over 120 chapter-length articles, the full panorama of historical and contemporary international research in nuclear materials, from Actinides to Zirconium alloys, from the worlds' leading scientists and engineers. It synthesizes the most pertinent research to support the selection, assessment, validation and engineering of materials in extreme nuclear environments. The work discusses the major classes of materials suitable for usage in nuclear fission, fusion reactors and high power accelerators, and for diverse functions in fuels, cladding, moderator and control materials, structural, functional, and waste materials.

  3. Comprehensive care of travelers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pust, R E; Peate, W F; Cordes, D H

    1986-12-01

    Travel, especially if it is international, often means major changes for the family. Family physicians should assess the epidemiologic risk and psychosocial significance of travel or relocation in light of the family's life-cycle stage and antecedent health. Using core references, which are kept current in partnership with public health agencies, family physicians are able to provide comprehensive immunization, medications, and patient education for all travel risks. Families are given medical record summaries and recommended sources of care at their destination. Eight weeks after their return patients are reassessed for newly acquired illness and helped to integrate the perspectives gained during the travel into the family's future dynamics. Taking advantage of growing travel medicine opportunities, family medicine educators should base the care of travelers and teaching of residents on defined competence priorities. Travelers' health provides a mutually rewarding model of shared care with public health consultants in the community medicine curriculum.

  4. College of the Siskiyous Comprehensive Institutional Evaluation System. Management Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Eugene; Peterson, Gary

    This special project, a fifth year review of an institution under current accrediting commission policy, was undertaken at College of the Siskiyous (COS). Its purpose was to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the institution and its programs and services through surveys of community residents, staff members, and former and current students. A…

  5. Making Comprehensive School Reform Work. Urban Diversity Series, No. 112.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desimone, Laura

    Comprehensive school reform (CSR) has the potential to help overcome inequities in education, to provide a vehicle for a combination of state and local control, and to allow reform to permeate the classroom. It is instructive and timely to survey the research on CSR models to determine how well the programs are performing. This monograph does not…

  6. The Development of Comprehension of Chance Language: Evaluation and Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jane M.; Moritz, Jonathan B.

    2003-01-01

    Comprehension of chance language, such as is found in newspapers, is a fundamental aspect of statistical literacy. In this study, students' understandings of chance language were explored through responses to two items in surveys administered to 2,726 students from grades 5 to 11. One item involved evaluating the chance expressed in phrases from…

  7. The Golden Age of Software Architecture: A Comprehensive Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-01

    its golden age, is entering a period where it can be taken for granted. We rely on it, we cannot imagine our technological culture without it, and we... Conocimiento y su Ingerieria, October 1988 (printed by Rank Xerox) (invited), pp.55-61. Reprinted in Data & Knowledge Engineering, vol. 5, no 2, July 1990, pp

  8. VLSI implementations of threshold logic-a comprehensive survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiu, V; Quintana, J M; Avedillo, M J

    2003-01-01

    This paper is an in-depth review on silicon implementations of threshold logic gates that covers several decades. In this paper, we will mention early MOS threshold logic solutions and detail numerous very-large-scale integration (VLSI) implementations including capacitive (switched capacitor and floating gate with their variations), conductance/current (pseudo-nMOS and output-wired-inverters, including a plethora of solutions evolved from them), as well as many differential solutions. At the end, we will briefly mention other implementations, e.g., based on negative resistance devices and on single electron technologies.

  9. Structure Learning of Probabilistic Graphical Models: A Comprehensive Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Yang

    2011-01-01

    Probabilistic graphical models combine the graph theory and probability theory to give a multivariate statistical modeling. They provide a unified description of uncertainty using probability and complexity using the graphical model. Especially, graphical models provide the following several useful properties: - Graphical models provide a simple and intuitive interpretation of the structures of probabilistic models. On the other hand, they can be used to design and motivate new models. - Graphical models provide additional insights into the properties of the model, including the conditional independence properties. - Complex computations which are required to perform inference and learning in sophisticated models can be expressed in terms of graphical manipulations, in which the underlying mathematical expressions are carried along implicitly. The graphical models have been applied to a large number of fields, including bioinformatics, social science, control theory, image processing, marketing analysis, amon...

  10. A Comprehensive Survey of Neptune's Small Moons and Faint Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showalter, Mark

    2009-07-01

    We will use a subarray of the WFC3/UVIS to study the inner rings, arcs and moons of Neptune with a sensitivity that exceeds that achieved by any previous observations, including Voyager 2 during its 1989 flyby. Our study will reveal any inner moons down to V magnitude 25, corresponding to a radius 20 km {assuming 9% albedo}, to address a peculiar, apparent truncation in the size distribution of inner moons and to look for the "shepherds" and source bodies for Neptune's dusty rings. {For comparison, the radius of Neptune's smallest known regular moon, Naiad, is 33 km.} Monitoring of the arcs at fine resolution and sensitivity will reveal their ongoing evolution more clearly and will enable us to assess the role of Galatea, whose resonant perturbations are widely believed to confine the arcs. Our study will also reveal any broad, faint rings with optical depth 10^-6, comparable to those now known to encircle all of the other giant planets.

  11. Chemical rocket propulsion a comprehensive survey of energetic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Shimada, Toru; Sinditskii, Valery; Calabro, Max

    2017-01-01

    Developed and expanded from the work presented at the New Energetic Materials and Propulsion Techniques for Space Exploration workshop in June 2014, this book contains new scientific results, up-to-date reviews, and inspiring perspectives in a number of areas related to the energetic aspects of chemical rocket propulsion. This collection covers the entire life of energetic materials from their conceptual formulation to practical manufacturing; it includes coverage of theoretical and experimental ballistics, performance properties, as well as laboratory-scale and full system-scale, handling, hazards, environment, ageing, and disposal. Chemical Rocket Propulsion is a unique work, where a selection of accomplished experts from the pioneering era of space propulsion and current technologists from the most advanced international laboratories discuss the future of chemical rocket propulsion for access to, and exploration of, space. It will be of interest to both postgraduate and final-year undergraduate students in...

  12. A Comprehensive Spectroscopic Survey of z > 4 Galaxies in CANDELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papovich, Casey; McLure, Ross; Dickinson, Mark; Almaini, Omar; Bowler, Rebecca; Cirasuolo, Michele; Curtis-Lake, Emma; Dunlop, James; Faber, Sandra; Fazio, Giovanni; Ferguson, Harry; Fontana, Adriano; Finkelstein, Steven; Giavalisco, Mauro; Mobasher, Bahram; Pentericci, Laura; Salmon, Brett; Stark, Daniel; Tilvi, Vithal

    2012-08-01

    The basic statistical properties of galaxies at 4 200 galaxies at 42, while theory predicts it should decline with decreasing redshift. We will refute (or confirm) this emerging contradiction. Our second main science goal is to measure accurately the evolving frequency of Ly-alpha emission in these galaxies as a measure of the rising cosmic hydrogen neutral fraction at increasing redshift. This is a resubmission of a 2011B proposal, which was highly ranked but not schedulable in the queue. It was recommended we reapply, requesting classical time, which we do here.

  13. Magnetic reconnection in Saturn's magnetotail: A comprehensive magnetic field survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A. W.; Jackman, C. M.; Thomsen, M. F.; Dougherty, M. K.

    2015-10-01

    Magnetic reconnection is a fundamental process throughout the solar system, significantly shaping and modulating the magnetospheres of the magnetized planets. Within planetary magnetotails reconnection can be responsible for energizing particles and potentially changing the total flux and mass contained within the magnetosphere. The Kronian magnetosphere is thought to be a middle ground between the rotationally dominated Jovian magnetosphere and the solar wind driven terrestrial magnetosphere. However, previous studies have not been able to find a statistical reconnection x-line, as has been possible at both Jupiter and Earth. Additionally the standard picture of magnetotail reconnection at Saturn, developed by Cowley et al. [2004], suggests a potential asymmetry between the dawn and dusk flanks, caused by different reconnection processes dominating. This work centers on the development of an algorithm designed to find reconnection related events in spacecraft magnetometer data, aiming to reduce the bias that manual searches could inherently introduce, thereby ensuring the validity of any statistical analysis. The algorithm primarily identifies the reconnection related events from deflections in the north-south component of the magnetic field, allowing an almost uninterrupted in-situ search (when the spacecraft is situated within the magnetotail). The new catalogue of candidate reconnection events, produced by the algorithm, enables a more complete statistical view of reconnection in the Kronian magnetotail. Well-studied data encompassing the deep magnetotail and dawn flank (particularly from orbits in 2006) were used to train the algorithm and develop reasonable criteria. The algorithm was then applied to data encompassing the dusk flank (including orbits from 2009, for which plasma data have been examined by Thomsen et al. [2014]). This combination enables a robust, and global, comparison of reconnection rates, signatures and properties in the Kronian magnetotail.

  14. Survey of comprehensive restorative treatment for children under general anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yai-Tin Lin

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: Although general anesthesia provides an optimal condition for treating children with high caries risk, high failure rates of composite restorations were noted. Indirect pulp capping and ferric sulfate pulpotomy followed by stainless steel crown restorations are successful techniques and can be used to treat deep carious lesions.

  15. Round robin scheduling - a survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rasmus Vinther; Trick, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive survey on the literature considering round robin tournaments. The terminology used within the area has been modified over time and today it is highly inconsistent. By presenting a coherent explanation of the various notions we hope that this paper will help to ...

  16. Cultural Knowledge in News Comprehension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathieu, David

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the main lines of the design and the findings of a reception study on news comprehension. This empirical study is a comparison of the comprehension processes of Danes and French Canadians over a set of news texts from both countries. Comprehension is explored from a cultural...... perspective, through the lens of cognition and pragmatics, revealing the role played by cultural knowledge in comprehension and the underlying relationship between a text and its intended audience. It is argued that recipients ‘problematise’ the news texts, a process by which the texts answer questions...... that take their roots in the cultural knowledge of the recipients....

  17. SITE COMPREHENSIVE LISTING (CERCLIS) (Superfund)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) (Superfund) Public Access Database contains a selected set of...

  18. Relationship of 5-HTTLPR Polymorphism with Various Factors of Pain Processing : Subjective Experience, Motor Responsiveness and Catastrophizing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunz, Miriam; Hennig, Juergen; Karmann, Anna J.; Lautenbacher, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Although serotonin is known to play an important role in pain processing, the relationship between the polymorphism in 5-HTTLPR and pain processing is not well understood. To examine the relationship more comprehensively, various factors of pain processing having putative associations with 5-HT func

  19. Comprehensive eye evaluation algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agurto, C.; Nemeth, S.; Zamora, G.; Vahtel, M.; Soliz, P.; Barriga, S.

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, several research groups have developed automatic algorithms to detect diabetic retinopathy (DR) in individuals with diabetes (DM), using digital retinal images. Studies have indicated that diabetics have 1.5 times the annual risk of developing primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) as do people without DM. Moreover, DM patients have 1.8 times the risk for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Although numerous investigators are developing automatic DR detection algorithms, there have been few successful efforts to create an automatic algorithm that can detect other ocular diseases, such as POAG and AMD. Consequently, our aim in the current study was to develop a comprehensive eye evaluation algorithm that not only detects DR in retinal images, but also automatically identifies glaucoma suspects and AMD by integrating other personal medical information with the retinal features. The proposed system is fully automatic and provides the likelihood of each of the three eye disease. The system was evaluated in two datasets of 104 and 88 diabetic cases. For each eye, we used two non-mydriatic digital color fundus photographs (macula and optic disc centered) and, when available, information about age, duration of diabetes, cataracts, hypertension, gender, and laboratory data. Our results show that the combination of multimodal features can increase the AUC by up to 5%, 7%, and 8% in the detection of AMD, DR, and glaucoma respectively. Marked improvement was achieved when laboratory results were combined with retinal image features.

  20. The 2001 Comprehensive Review

    CERN Document Server

    Åkesson, T

    A new approach for CERN to monitor the LHC-experiments' technical and scientific progress was introduced last year: The Comprehensive Reviews. A significant fraction of the full LHCC committee is mobilized during two days to review the complete project status. This event took place for ATLAS during 2-3 of July this year. With a rather exhaustive program we presented our status in 39 talks. It was a demanding and close to impossible task for the referees to comprehend the ATLAS status by listening to this massive amount of information, but from the ATLAS point-of-view we judged it important that the referees were exposed to both the progress and the remaining problem areas. The referees were satisfied with our status; probably more so this year than last year. They judged the main critical issues to be: The schedules of the barrel toroid, the end-cap TRT, the LAr barrel and end-cap A, and the MDTs. The procurement of radiation hard electronics was also thought to be a critical issue. They were informed of ...

  1. Comprehensive facilities plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory`s Comprehensive Facilities Plan (CFP) document provides analysis and policy guidance for the effective use and orderly future development of land and capital assets at the Berkeley Lab site. The CFP directly supports Berkeley Lab`s role as a multiprogram national laboratory operated by the University of California (UC) for the Department of Energy (DOE). The CFP is revised annually on Berkeley Lab`s Facilities Planning Website. Major revisions are consistent with DOE policy and review guidance. Facilities planing is motivated by the need to develop facilities for DOE programmatic needs; to maintain, replace and rehabilitate existing obsolete facilities; to identify sites for anticipated programmatic growth; and to establish a planning framework in recognition of site amenities and the surrounding community. The CFP presents a concise expression of the policy for the future physical development of the Laboratory, based upon anticipated operational needs of research programs and the environmental setting. It is a product of the ongoing planning processes and is a dynamic information source.

  2. Fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method technology innovation financing environmental assessment--Small and medium sized technology companies in Shaanxi survey%基于模糊综合评价法的技术创新融资环境评价--对陕西中小型科技企业的调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵武; 李晓华; 朱明宣; 高樱

    2014-01-01

    技术创新是企业获得竞争优势的决定力量,也是一国经济持续增长的内在动力。它需要各项制度的综合支持,金融支持尤为重要,融资环境的优劣在很大程度上反映金融支持的力度和效率。本文构建了技术创新的融资环境评价体系,通过对陕西省高新区及产业园区内中小型科技企业技术创新的走访调查及问卷调查,采用模糊综合评价法对陕西省中小型科技企业的融资环境进行综合评价。结果表明:陕西省金融支持技术创新的体系中,政府支持的评价水平远远高于其他一级因素,而银行体系融资、可供选择的融资渠道、中介机构服务的融资环境评价水平基本持平,且与政府支持的评价水平相差较多。%Technological innovation is not only the decisive force to gain a competitive advantage, but also a country's sustained economic growth inherent dynamism. It requires integrated support of various systems, and financial support is particularly important. The merits of the financing environment largely reflect the strength and efficiency of financial support. This paper builds the technology innovation financing environment evaluation system, through the Shaanxi Provincial High-tech Zone and Industrial Park, technological innovation technology SMEs visited surveys and questionnaires, the use of fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method for small and medium sized technology enterprises in Shaanxi Province financing environment comprehensive Evaluation. The results show that in the Shaanxi Provincial financial support of technological innovation system, the evaluation level of government support is much higher than other primary factors, but the evaluation level of environmental assessment of the banking system financing, alternative financing sources, financing intermediary services are basically the same, and quite different from that of the government support.

  3. 綜合高中分流政策對學生學習成就的影響:以TEPS 資料分析為例 Effects of Comprehensive High School Policy on Students’ Achievement: Evidence from Taiwan Education Panel Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    李敦義 Duen-Yi Lee

    2011-06-01

    of those in the comprehensive high schools has been rather small since the 1998 school year. Furthermore, a number of studies and on-site evaluation reports on CHS have been conducted. Thus far, these studies and reports have focused on exploring the performance of comprehensive high schools and difficulties in implementing the policy. No evaluation of the impacts of the CHS policy on student achievement has yet been performed. Hence, the main purpose of this study is to investigate the causal effects of CHS policy on students’ achievement in comprehensive high schools in Taiwan. Using the data from the public released core panel data of the Taiwan Education Panel Survey in 2001, 2003, 2005, and 2007, this study employs the method of propensity score matching to estimate the average treatment effect of CHS policy on students’ achievement in comprehensive high schools. The results show virtually no gain in students’ achievement from the CHS policy for those enrolled in comprehensive high schools in Taiwan. Finally, the present study discusses the implications of the CHS policy and suggests directions for stakeholders and future research.

  4. "Suntelligence" Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the American Academy of Dermatology's "Suntelligence" sun-smart survey. Please answer the following questions to measure ... be able to view a ranking of major cities suntelligence based on residents' responses to this survey. ...

  5. Polymorphic microsatellite markers in Euryale ferox Salisb. (Nymphaeaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Zhiwu; Pan, Lei; Ke, Weidong; Ding, Yi

    2009-01-01

    Eleven polymorphic microsatellite markers were isolated and identified in the aquatic plant Euryale ferox Salisb. (Nymphaeaceae). This species, which belongs to basal Magnoliophyta, reproduces sexually. All of these 11 microsatellite markers yielded 25 alleles in a survey of a wild population of 34 individuals. Two or three alleles per locus were detected, with expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.056 to 0.634 and observed heterozygosity from 0.000 to 0.088. These simple sequence repeat markers will be useful for evaluating the genetic structure of the E. ferox population in the future.

  6. RASSF1 Polymorphisms in Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn Gordon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ras association domain family 1A (RASSF1A is one of the most epigenetically silenced elements in human cancers. Localized on chromosome 3, it has been demonstrated to be a bone fide tumor suppressor influencing cell cycle events, microtubule stability, apoptosis, and autophagy. Although it is epigenetically silenced by promoter-specific methylation in cancers, several somatic nucleotide changes (polymorphisms have been identified in RASSF1A in tissues from cancer patients. We speculate that both nucleotide changes and epigenetic silencing result in loss of the RASSF1A tumor suppressor function and the appearance of enhanced growth. This paper will summarize what is known about the origin of these polymorphisms and how they have helped us understand the biological role of RASSF1A.

  7. The -351A>G genetic polymorphism in the estrogen receptor alpha gene and risk of endometriosis: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reihaneh Asadi

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: The results do not support the previous findings of an association between -351A>G genetic polymorphism in ESR1 gene and endometriosis. Therefore, comprehensive genetic approaches including linkage analyses and family-based tests, together with a number of replication studies with large sample size, are needed to make conclusive claims about the role of this genetic polymorphism in susceptibility to endometriosis.

  8. A novel analytical method for pharmaceutical polymorphs by terahertz spectroscopy and the optimization of crystal form at the discovery stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Yukihiro; Ishihara, Yoko; Moriwaki, Toshiya; Kato, Eiji; Terada, Katsuhide

    2010-01-01

    A novel analytical method for the determination of pharmaceutical polymorphs was developed using terahertz spectroscopy. It was found out that each polymorph of a substance showed a specific terahertz absorption spectrum. In particular, analysis of the second derivative spectrum was enormously beneficial in the discrimination of closely related polymorphs that were difficult to discern by powder X-ray diffractometry. Crystal forms that were obtained by crystallization from various solvents and stored under various conditions were specifically characterized by the second derivative of each terahertz spectrum. Fractional polymorphic transformation for substances stored under stressed conditions was also identified by terahertz spectroscopy during solid-state stability test, but could not be detected by powder X-ray diffractometry. Since polymorphs could be characterized clearly by terahertz spectroscopy, further physicochemical studies could be conducted in a timely manner. The development form of compound examined was determined by the results of comprehensive physicochemical studies that included thermodynamic relationships, as well as chemical and physicochemical stability. In conclusion, terahertz spectroscopy, which has unique power in the elucidation of molecular interaction within a crystal lattice, can play more important role in physicochemical research. Terahertz spectroscopy has a great potential as a tool for polymorphic determination, particularly since the second derivative of the terahertz spectrum possesses high sensitivity for pharmaceutical polymorphs.

  9. Explicit Polymorphism and CPS Conversion,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-01

    programming language design , the concepts of polymorphism [14, 28, 39] and continuation-passing [38, 41, 43] are of particular interest. The use of...Principles of Programming Languages, January 1991. [9] Matthias Felleisen . The Calculi of X.-CS Conversion: A Syntactic Theory of Control and State in...Imperative Higher-Order Programming Languages. PhD thesis, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, 1987. 18 [10] Matthias Felleisen and Daniel Friedman

  10. Pragmatic Comprehension Development through Telecollaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafieyan, Vahid; Sharafi-Nejad, Maryam; Khavari, Zahra; Eng, Lin Siew; Mohamed, Abdul Rashid

    2014-01-01

    Pragmatic comprehension can be ideally developed through contact with target language speakers. This contact can be provided in English as Foreign Language contexts through telecollaboration. To test the actual effect of telecollaboration on the development of pragmatic comprehension, 30 Iranian undergraduates of English as a Foreign Language…

  11. Reading comprehension in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Laura L; Rutledge, Stefanie

    2014-05-01

    Although individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) self-report reading problems and experience difficulties in cognitive-linguistic functions that support discourse-level reading, prior research has primarily focused on sentence-level processing and auditory comprehension. Accordingly, the authors investigated the presence and nature of reading comprehension in PD, hypothesizing that (a) individuals with PD would display impaired accuracy and/or speed on reading comprehension tests and (b) reading performances would be correlated with cognitive test results. Eleven adults with PD and 9 age- and education-matched control participants completed tests that evaluated reading comprehension; general language and cognitive abilities; and aspects of attention, memory, and executive functioning. The PD group obtained significantly lower scores on several, but not all, reading comprehension, language, and cognitive measures. Memory, language, and disease severity were significantly correlated with reading comprehension for the PD group. Individuals in the early stages of PD without dementia or broad cognitive deficits can display reading comprehension difficulties, particularly for high- versus basic-level reading tasks. These reading difficulties are most closely related to memory, high-level language, and PD symptom severity status. The findings warrant additional research to delineate further the types and nature of reading comprehension impairments experienced by individuals with PD.

  12. Comprehension and Representation in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐玉萍

    2010-01-01

    Transhfion is the faithful rcpresentation in one language of the thought, content, feeling and style written in another language. It involves two processes: comprehension and representation. Correct comprehension is the base for adequate representation. Criteria for good representation lies in two points: the version should be faithful to the original, and the version should be as intelligible as possible.

  13. Principles for Classroom Comprehension Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, Sheila W.; Pearson, P. David

    1988-01-01

    Principles that should guide reading comprehension assessment include acknowledging the complexity of reading, focusing on orchestrating rather than isolating skills, regarding reading as a dynamic process, developing techniques that encourage student-teacher interactions, and using a variety of reading comprehension measures. The principles are…

  14. Comprehensive mathematics for computer scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Mazzola, Guerino; Weissmann, Jody

    2005-01-01

    This two-volume textbook Comprehensive Mathematics for the Working Computer Scientist is a self-contained comprehensive presentation of mathematics including sets, numbers, graphs, algebra, logic, grammars, machines, linear geometry, calculus, ODEs, and special themes such as neural networks, Fourier theory, wavelets, numerical.

  15. Basic Chad Arabic: Comprehension Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Absi, Samir Abu; Sinaud, Andre

    This text, principally designed for use in a three-volume course on Chad Arabic, complements the pre-speech and active phases of the course in that it provides the answers to comprehension exercises students are required to complete during the course. The comprehension exercises require that students listen to an instructor or tape and write…

  16. Reading Strategies and Hypertext Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmeron, Ladislao, Canas, Jose J.; Kintsch, Walter; Fajardo, Immaculada

    2005-01-01

    The literature on assessing the cognitive processes involved in hypertext comprehension during the past 15 years has yielded contradictory results. In this article we explore a possible factor affecting this situation, mainly the fact that previous works did not control for the potential effects on comprehension of reading strategies in hypertext.…

  17. Survey Says

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Susan K.

    2005-01-01

    Survey Says is a lesson plan designed to teach college students how to access Internet resources for valid data related to the sexual health of young people. Discussion questions based on the most recent available data from two national surveys, the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance-United States, 2003 (CDC, 2004) and the National Survey of…

  18. Two orthorhombic polymorphs of hydromorphone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslaw Mazurek

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Conditions to obtain two polymorphic forms by crystallization from solution were determined for the analgesic drug hydromorphone [C17H19NO3; systematic name: (4R,4aR,7aR,12bS-9-hydroxy-3-methyl-1,2,4,4a,5,6,7a,13-octahydro-4,12-methanobenzofuro[3,2-e]isoquinolin-7-one]. These two crystalline forms, designated as I and II, belong to the P212121 orthorhombic space group. In both polymorphs, the hydromorphone molecules adopt very similar conformations with some small differences observed only in the N-methyl amine part of the molecule. The crystal structures of both polymorphs feature chains of molecules connected by hydrogen bonds; however, in form I this interaction occurs between the hydroxyl group and the tertiary amine N atom whereas in form II the hydroxyl group acts as a donor of a hydrogen bond to the O atom from the cyclic ether part.

  19. Opening up Architectures of Software-Intensive Systems: A Functional Decomposition to Support System Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-01

    as on a state-of-the- art survey on system architecture recovery and comprehension. Following the conception of this functional decomposition, a...consideration the findings contained in a state-of- the- art survey on system architecture recovery and comprehension that was carried out as a previous phase...constituantes. Synthèse Fournit la capacité de combiner plusieurs faits qui ont été extraits pour former un nouveau tout à un niveau d’abstraction

  20. The association of single nucleotide P-selectin gene polymorphism with IgA nephropathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王朝晖

    2006-01-01

    Objective IgA nephropathy is one of the most com- mon form of primary glomerulonephritis throughout the world and a main renal disease which causes renal failure. P-selectin plays an important role in the pathogenesis and development of IgA nephropathy. The purpose of this study is to find a possible relationship between P-selectin gene polymorphism and IgA nephropathy. Methods In this study,a comprehensive P-selectin gene sur-

  1. Progressive Achievement Tests in Reading: Comprehension & Vocabulary. Teacher's Handbook. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Council for Educational Research, Hawthorn.

    The teacher handbook for Progressive Achievement Tests (PATs) in Reading presents an overall description of these survey tests in reading comprehension and vocabulary knowledge for school years 3 to 9. There are two alternative forms of each test: (1) the Reading Comprehension tests are designed to measure two major aspects of reading skills…

  2. Influence of Phonological Awareness, Morphological Awareness and Non-Verbal Ability on Reading Comprehension in Malayalam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Gafoor, K.; Remia, K. R.

    2013-01-01

    In the context of observations that students lack mastery of elementary reading comprehension in Malayalam even by the end of 5-7 years of formal schooling, this study applies multiple regression analysis for reading comprehension. Longitudinal survey data from a representative sample of 159 lower primary students from grade 2 to 4 revealed…

  3. Life Stress and Reading Comprehension Test Scores in the Middle School Student.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Maryann Clementi

    A study determined the relationship between life stress and reading comprehension test scores on the IOWA Tests of Basic Skills. Subjects, 41 middle-school students attending Lincoln School in Garwood, New Jersey, were surveyed as to the amount of life stress prevalent in their lives. In addition, the Iowa scores for reading comprehension were…

  4. Templated sequence insertion polymorphisms in the human genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onozawa, Masahiro; Aplan, Peter

    2016-11-01

    Templated Sequence Insertion Polymorphism (TSIP) is a recently described form of polymorphism recognized in the human genome, in which a sequence that is templated from a distant genomic region is inserted into the genome, seemingly at random. TSIPs can be grouped into two classes based on nucleotide sequence features at the insertion junctions; Class 1 TSIPs show features of insertions that are mediated via the LINE-1 ORF2 protein, including 1) target-site duplication (TSD), 2) polyadenylation 10-30 nucleotides downstream of a “cryptic” polyadenylation signal, and 3) preference for insertion at a 5’-TTTT/A-3’ sequence. In contrast, class 2 TSIPs show features consistent with repair of a DNA double-strand break via insertion of a DNA “patch” that is derived from a distant genomic region. Survey of a large number of normal human volunteers demonstrates that most individuals have 25-30 TSIPs, and that these TSIPs track with specific geographic regions. Similar to other forms of human polymorphism, we suspect that these TSIPs may be important for the generation of human diversity and genetic diseases.

  5. Association between promoter polymorphisms of matrix metalloproteinase-1 and risk of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Qisong; Xu, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Growing evidences show that matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP1) plays important roles in tumorigenesis and cancer metastasis. The interactions between MMP1-1607 1G>2G polymorphism and risk of gastric cancer (GC) have been reported, but results remained ambiguous. To determine the association between MMP1-1607 1G>2G polymorphism and risk of GC, we conducted a meta-analysis and identified the outcome data from all the research papers estimating the association between MMP1-1607 1G>2G polymorphism and GC risk, which was based on comprehensive searches using databases such as PubMed, Elsevier Science Direct, Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). The fixed-effects model was used in this meta-analysis. Data were extracted, and pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. In this meta-analysis, six studies involving 1,377 cases and 1,543 controls were included. We identified the significant association between MMP1-1607 1G>2G polymorphism and GC risk for allele model (OR =1.05; 95% CI, 1.01-1.08), for dominant model (OR =1.11; 95% CI, 1.08-1.15), and for recessive model (OR =1.06; 95% CI, 0.98-1.14). In summary, our analysis demonstrated that MMP1-1607 1G>2G polymorphism was significantly associated with an increased risk of GC.

  6. Aspects and Polymorphism in AspectJ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenz, David Harel; Ernst, Erik

    2003-01-01

    -oriented programming (AOP). In AOP, pieces of crosscutting behavior are extracted from the base code and localized in aspects, losing as a result their polymorphic capabilities while introducing new and unexplored issues. In this paper, we explore what kinds of polymorphism AOP languages should support, using AspectJ...... as the basis for the presentation. The results are not exclusive to AspectJ---aspectual polymorphism may make aspects in any comparable AOSD language more expressive and reusable across programs, while preserving safety....

  7. Color plumage polymorphism and predator mimicry in brood parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trnka, Alfréd; Grim, Tomáš

    2013-05-10

    Plumage polymorphism may evolve during coevolution between brood parasites and their hosts if rare morph(s), by contravening host search image, evade host recognition systems better than common variant(s). Females of the parasitic common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus) are a classic example of discrete color polymorphism: gray females supposedly mimic the sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus), while rufous females are believed to mimic the kestrel (Falco tinnunculus). Despite many studies on host responses to adult cuckoos comprehensive tests of the "hawk mimicry" and "kestrel mimicry" hypotheses are lacking so far. We tested these hypotheses by examining host responses to stuffed dummies of the sparrowhawk, kestrel, cuckoo and the innocuous turtle dove (Streptopelia turtur) as a control at the nest. Our experimental data from an aggressive cuckoo host, the great reed warbler (Acrocephalus arundinaceus), showed low effectiveness of cuckoo-predator mimicry against more aggressive hosts regardless of the type of model and the degree of perfection of the mimic. Specifically, warblers discriminated gray cuckoos from sparrowhawks but did not discriminate rufous cuckoos from kestrels. However, both gray and rufous cuckoos were attacked vigorously and much more than control doves. The ratio of aggression to gray vs. rufous cuckoo was very similar to the ratio between frequencies of gray vs. rufous cuckoo morphs in our study population. Overall, our data combined with previous results from other localities suggest polymorphism dynamics are not strongly affected by local predator model frequencies. Instead, hosts responses and discrimination abilities are proportional, other things being equal, to the frequency with which hosts encounter various cuckoo morphs near their nests. This suggests that female cuckoo polymorphism is a counter-adaptation to thwart a specific host adaptation, namely an ability to not be fooled by predator mimicry. We hypothesize the dangerousness of a particular

  8. Are "functionally related polymorphisms" of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system gene polymorphisms associated with hypertension?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hahntow, I.N.; Mairuhu, G.; Valkengoed, I.G.M.; Koopmans, R.P.; Michel, M.C.

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Genotype-phenotype association studies are typically based upon polymorphisms or haplotypes comprised of multiple polymorphisms within a single gene. It has been proposed that combinations of polymorphisms in distinct genes, which functionally impact the same phenotype, may hav

  9. Polymorphism and tautomeric preference in fenobam and the utility of NLO response to detect polymorphic impurities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Sajesh P; Nagarajan, K; Row, T N Guru

    2012-11-04

    Crystal structures of polymorphs and solvatomorphs of the potential anxiolytic drug fenobam exhibit an exclusive preference for one of the two possible tautomeric structures. A novel methodology based on nonlinear optical response has been successfully employed to detect the presence of a polymorphic impurity in a mixture of polymorphs.

  10. Cultural Schema and Reading Comprehension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TanFuhong

    2004-01-01

    This paper is mainly focused on the examination of the role of cultural schema in readinghow the cultural schemacomprehension, in particular,helps or impedes reading comprehension; most important of all, the implications for teaching reading in China.

  11. Paraphrasing: An Effective Comprehension Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kletzien, Sharon B.

    2009-01-01

    Paraphrasing, somewhat different from retelling and summarizing, helps students monitor their understanding and incorporate new knowledge with what they already know about a topic. Paraphrasing helps students realize that comprehension is the goal of reading.

  12. Comprehensive Error Rate Testing (CERT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) implemented the Comprehensive Error Rate Testing (CERT) program to measure improper payments in the Medicare...

  13. Genetic polymorphisms and drug metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vita Dolžan

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is estimated that genetic factors account for 15–30 % of variability in drug response, however for some drugs this may be the major determinant in drug response. Pharmacogenetics aims to identify genetic sources of variability in response to drugs by studying genetic variations affecting drug metabolizing enzymes, transporters and drug targets thus causing interindividual variability in drug levels (pharmacokinetics, drug response (pharmacodynamics and side effects. Extensive information on genetic variability in drug metabolizing enzymes, transporters and targets is available from public databases. Drugs are metabolized in two phases. In Phase I drug is metabolically activated to reactive electrophilic form, mostly by cytochromes P450 (CYPs, to be conjugated to some endogenous compound by Phase II enzymes: UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs, N-acetyl-transferases (NATs, glutathione S-transferases (GSTs, or others. Genetic polymorphism of many enzymes involved in this process leads to inter-individual variations in metabolism and pharmacokinetics of drugs and could therefore influence drug response. Genetic polymorphism is the occurrence of two or more alleles at a given locus of which the rare allele has a frequency of at least 1 % or more in a given population. The understanding of a patient’s genotype and its corresponding effect on drug response could help distinguish between responders and non-responders of a specific drug treatment and help to choose the most effective drug and optimal dose. A large number of different methodologies have been developed for genotyping, however at present predictive genotyping for drug metabolizing enzymes does not occur routinely in the clinical practice.Conclusions: There is increasing evidence that genotyping for polymorphic drug metabolizing enzymes, in particular CYPs has potential to improve drug therapy and achieve higher response rates and reduced adverse effects. Open questions

  14. Comprehensive primer design for analysis of population genetics in non-sequenced organisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayumi Tezuka

    Full Text Available Nuclear sequence markers are useful tool for the study of the history of populations and adaptation. However, it is not easy to obtain multiple nuclear primers for organisms with poor or no genomic sequence information. Here we used the genomes of organisms that have been fully sequenced to design comprehensive sets of primers to amplify polymorphic genomic fragments of multiple nuclear genes in non-sequenced organisms. First, we identified a large number of candidate polymorphic regions that were flanked on each side by conserved regions in the reference genomes. We then designed primers based on these conserved sequences and examined whether the primers could be used to amplify sequences in target species, montane brown frog (Rana ornativentris, anole lizard (Anolis sagrei, guppy (Poecilia reticulata, and fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster, for population genetic analysis. We successfully obtained polymorphic markers for all target species studied. In addition, we found that sequence identities of the regions between the primer sites in the reference genomes affected the experimental success of DNA amplification and identification of polymorphic loci in the target genomes, and that exonic primers had a higher success rate than intronic primers in amplifying readable sequences. We conclude that this comparative genomic approach is a time- and cost-effective way to obtain polymorphic markers for non-sequenced organisms, and that it will contribute to the further development of evolutionary ecology and population genetics for non-sequenced organisms, aiding in the understanding of the genetic basis of adaptation.

  15. Comprehensive primer design for analysis of population genetics in non-sequenced organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezuka, Ayumi; Matsushima, Noe; Nemoto, Yoriko; Akashi, Hiroshi D; Kawata, Masakado; Makino, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear sequence markers are useful tool for the study of the history of populations and adaptation. However, it is not easy to obtain multiple nuclear primers for organisms with poor or no genomic sequence information. Here we used the genomes of organisms that have been fully sequenced to design comprehensive sets of primers to amplify polymorphic genomic fragments of multiple nuclear genes in non-sequenced organisms. First, we identified a large number of candidate polymorphic regions that were flanked on each side by conserved regions in the reference genomes. We then designed primers based on these conserved sequences and examined whether the primers could be used to amplify sequences in target species, montane brown frog (Rana ornativentris), anole lizard (Anolis sagrei), guppy (Poecilia reticulata), and fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster), for population genetic analysis. We successfully obtained polymorphic markers for all target species studied. In addition, we found that sequence identities of the regions between the primer sites in the reference genomes affected the experimental success of DNA amplification and identification of polymorphic loci in the target genomes, and that exonic primers had a higher success rate than intronic primers in amplifying readable sequences. We conclude that this comparative genomic approach is a time- and cost-effective way to obtain polymorphic markers for non-sequenced organisms, and that it will contribute to the further development of evolutionary ecology and population genetics for non-sequenced organisms, aiding in the understanding of the genetic basis of adaptation.

  16. Genetic polymorphism as a background of animal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue-Murayama, Miho

    2009-04-01

    Various studies have shown the associations between differences in human behavioral traits and genetic polymorphism of neurotransmitter-related proteins such as receptors, transporters and monoamine oxidase. To clarify the genetic background of animal behavior, corresponding regions in animals have been analyzed. The study has been especially focused on primates, as the evolutionally closest animal to humans, and on dogs, as the socially closest animal to humans. In primates, polymorphisms were discovered between or within species, and the functional effects on neural transmission were found to be different by alleles. Even in apes, the closest species to humans, function was different from that in humans. In dogs, allele distributions of several genes were different among breeds showing different behavioral traits, and genes associated with individual differences in aggressiveness and aptitude of working dogs were surveyed. The survey of behavior-related genes has also been carried out in other mammals such as horses and cetaceans. Genes controlling various behaviors in birds have also been reported. The marker genes for behavior will provide useful information for human evolution, welfare of zoo animals and effective selection of working dogs and industry animals.

  17. Comprehension of a Colon Cancer Pamphlet among American Adults at Least 50 Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chiung-ju

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify determinants of comprehension of an educational pamphlet on colon cancer, by adults at least 50 years of age living in the United States. Design: Data were analysed from the "2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy" survey. The survey was designed to assess functional English…

  18. Comprehension of a Colon Cancer Pamphlet among American Adults at Least 50 Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chiung-ju

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify determinants of comprehension of an educational pamphlet on colon cancer, by adults at least 50 years of age living in the United States. Design: Data were analysed from the "2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy" survey. The survey was designed to assess functional English…

  19. Leptin gene polymorphisms and their phenotypic associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lende, van der T.; Pas, te M.F.W.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Liefers, S.C.

    2005-01-01

    In an era of rapidly increasing prevalence of human obesity and associated health problems, leptin gene polymorphisms have drawn much attention in biomedical research. Leptin gene polymorphisms have furthermore drawn much attention from animal scientists for their possible roles in economically impo

  20. Leptin gene polymorphisms and their phenotypic associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lende, van der T.; Pas, te M.F.W.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Liefers, S.C.

    2005-01-01

    In an era of rapidly increasing prevalence of human obesity and associated health problems, leptin gene polymorphisms have drawn much attention in biomedical research. Leptin gene polymorphisms have furthermore drawn much attention from animal scientists for their possible roles in economically

  1. Polymorphisms in the RAS and cardiac function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinto, YM; van Berlo, Jop H.

    Since the discovery of the polymorphism in the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and the consequences of this polymorphism on the activity levels of the enzyme, numerous association studies have been performed. However, these investigations do not often adhere to the most stringent criteria for

  2. Metabolic polymorphisms and cancer susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G; Stanley, L A; Sim, E; Strange, R C; Wolf, C R

    1995-01-01

    The vast majority of cancers arise as a consequence of exposure to environmental agents that are toxic or mutagenic. In response to this, all higher organisms have evolved complex mechanisms by which they can protect themselves from environmental challenge. In many cases, this involves an adaptive response in which the levels of expression of enzymes active in the metabolism and detoxification of the foreign chemical are induced. The best characterized of these enzyme systems are the cytochrome P450s, the GSTs and the NATs. An unfortunate consequence of many of these reactions, however, is the creation of a toxic or mutagenic reaction product from chemicals that require metabolic activation before realizing their full carcinogenic potential. Altered expression of one or more of these drug metabolizing enzymes can therefore be predicted to have profound toxicological consequences. Genetic polymorphisms with well defined associated phenotypes have now been characterized in P450, GST and NAT genes. Indeed, many of these polymorphisms have been associated with decreased or increased metabolism of many tumour promoters and chemical carcinogens and hence offer protection against or increased susceptibility to many distinct tumour types.

  3. Comprehensive environmental management of asthma and pediatric preventive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Angkana; Downes, Martin J; Wisnivesky, Juan P

    2011-05-01

    Indoor environmental triggers can increase asthma morbidity. National guidelines recommend comprehensive use of environmental control practices (ECPs) as a component of asthma management. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between preventive asthma care and comprehensive ECP use among children with asthma. We used data from the National Asthma Survey, including 1,921 children with asthma. Comprehensive use was defined as using at least five of eight ECPs: (i) air filter, (ii) dehumidifier, (iii) mattress cover, (iv) pillow cover, (v) pet avoidance, (vi) smoke avoidance, (vii) removing carpets, and (viii) washing sheets in hot water. Univariate and multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine the association between comprehensive use of ECPs and receipt of preventive asthma care, as measured by number of routine asthma visits in the prior year and physician advice to modify the environment. Overall, 17% (95% CI: 14-19%) of participants had comprehensive ECP use. The most commonly used practices were 'smoke avoidance' (85%), 'pet avoidance' (59%), and 'washing sheets in hot water' (46%). Comprehensive use of ECPs was associated with having received physician advice [odds ratio (OR) 3.1, 95% CI: 2.2-4.4] and increased asthma visits (1-2 visits: OR 1.5, 95% CI: 1.0-2.4; 3-4 visits: OR 2.2, 95% CI: 1.3-3.8; ≥5 visits: OR 2.7, 95% CI: 1.5-4.8). Only a minority of parents implement comprehensive ECPs, and receipt of preventive asthma care is associated with comprehensive use. Further research is needed to determine the factors mediating these associations in order to inform more effective asthma counseling.

  4. Engineering surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Schofield, W

    2001-01-01

    The aim of Engineering Surveying has always been to impart and develop a clear understanding of the basic topics of the subject. The author has fully revised the book to make it the most up-to-date and relevant textbook available on the subject.The book also contains the latest information on trigonometric levelling, total stations and one-person measuring systems. A new chapter on satellites ensures a firm grasp of this vitally important topic.The text covers engineering surveying modules for civil engineering students on degree courses and forms a reference for the engineering surveying module in land surveying courses. It will also prove to be a valuable reference for practitioners.* Simple clear introduction to surveying for engineers* Explains key techniques and methods* Details reading systems and satellite position fixing

  5. Mine hydrogeologic conditions prospected by comprehensive geophysical exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, X.; Pu, C. [Feicheng Coal Mining Bureau (China)

    1997-12-01

    Mine water gushing is one of the difficult problems puzzling mine safety. The investigation of the hydrogeological condition of the working face is a prerequisite to control effectively the water hazard and guarantee safe mining. The production practice in Feicheng Mining Bureau proved that the comprehensive geophysical survey in which the DC electrical survey, Rayleigh wave method and transient electromagnetic method are the main means, is a simple, high-speed and effective tool to detect the geological structure, water abundance of aquifer and concealed water flowing structure at the working face and the front of driving end. 1 ref., 3 figs.

  6. The effect of BIM deletion polymorphism on intrinsic resistance and clinical outcome of cancer patient with kinase inhibitor therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Hou-Qun; Chen, Jie; He, Bang-Shun; Pan, Yu-Qin; Wang, Feng; Deng, Qi-Wen; Sun, Hui-Ling; Liu, Xian; Wang, Shu-Kui

    2015-06-15

    A common deletion polymorphism within B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia-lymphoma like 11 gene (BIM) was deemed to be a genetic cause leading to compromised kinase inhibitor therapeutic efficacy in cancer individuals. However, the results reported were not consistent. Thus, a comprehensive meta-analysis containing 12 eligible studies including 1,532 Asian patients was conducted to investigate a steady and reliable conclusion. The results showed that BIM deletion polymorphism was significantly associated with tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) clinical efficacy in term of response rate (Ph = 0.349, HR = 0.438, 95%CI = 0.274-0.699) and disease control rate (Ph = 0.941, HR = 0.370, 95%CI = 0.202-0.678) in EGFR-mutated NSCLC population, not in CML and HCC subgroups. Additionally, EGFR-mutated NSCLC patient harbored BIM deletion polymorphism was associated with a shorter progression-free survival (PFS) than those with BIM wild polymorphism (Ph = 0.580, adjusted HR = 2.194, 95%CI = 1.710-2.814). However, no significant association was examined between BIM deletion polymorphism and overall survival (OS) and toxic adverse events in EGFR-mutated NSCLC population and it was not associated with PFS and OS in HCC subgroup. These findings revealed that BIM deletion polymorphism might be a genetic cause of intrinsic resistance to TKI therapy and it could be emerged as an independent predictor to identify patients who would benefit from TKI targeted therapy in EGFR-mutated NSCLC.

  7. VEGF Genetic Polymorphisms May Contribute to the Risk of Diabetic Nephropathy in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This meta-analysis aimed to investigate a comprehensive and reliable conclusion on the correlations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF gene with the risk of diabetic nephropathy (DN in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM. Methods. We screened PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, CISCOM, CINAHL, Google Scholar, CBM, and CNKI databases for those relevant studies that investigated the association of 14,945 subjects with clinicopathological parameters in gastric cancer. Results. Eleven case-control studies that met all inclusion criteria were included in this meta-analysis. A total of 14,945 subjects were involved, including 3,049 DN patients and 11,896 DM patients. Our meta-analysis results revealed that VEGF rs2010963 and rs3025039 polymorphisms might contribute to the risk of DN in DM patients. Ethnicity-stratified analysis suggested that VEGF genetic polymorphisms were associated with an increased risk of DN among Asians. However, we found no correlations of VEGF genetic polymorphisms with susceptibility to DN among Caucasians. Conclusion. Our findings suggest that VEGF rs2010963 and rs3025039 polymorphisms may contribute to the risk of DN in DM patients, especially among Asians. Thus, VEGF genetic polymorphisms could be useful biomarkers for early diagnosis of DN in DM patients.

  8. Association between Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Interleukin-6 Gene and Periodontal Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Beltrami

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There has been much discussion recently about the influence of single nucleotide polymorphisms in interleu - kin-6 (IL-6 gene on periodontal disease in young healthy patients. The aim of the present work is to review the results of each case-control study which fulfills the inclusion criteria, and to perform a meta-analysis to make clear the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in IL-6 gene and periodontal disease. Materials and methods: The search process was performed in the main databases in order to find the case-control studies published until August 2014 that matched inclusion criteria. Data were collected and odds ratio (OR was calculated. Overall statistics was obtained with STATA. Results: Fifteen studies met the inclusion criteria. There was a lack of data for a proper comprehensive analysis for IL-6 (–373 An/Tm polymorphism and IL-6 (–597 G/A polymorphism. Meta-analysis showed no association between IL-6 (174 GG polymorphism and periodontitis. Similar results were obtained between the IL-6 (–572 SNPs genotype and periodontitis in all patients. A positive association was found when homozygote genotypes were investigated in within studies analysis and in Asian population. Discussion: Modest evidence of association has been found between interleukin-6 gene polymorphisms and periodontal disease

  9. Differences of serum parathyroid hormone levels and its gene polymorphism in different ethnic groups in drinking brick-tea-borne endemic fluorosis areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙静

    2014-01-01

    Objective In this study,the differences of serum parathyroid hormone(PTH)and its gene polymorphism in different ethnic groups in drinking brick-tea-borne endemic fluorosis areas were investigated.Methods Inhabitants over the age of 16 years old in Inner Mongolia,Qinghai and Xinjiang were investigated.The questionnaire survey included basic information,dietary survey

  10. Heliostat glass survey and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, M. A.; Russin, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    The glass characterization and specification task included a comprehensive survey of both foreign and domestic sources of low distortion, low iron, .125 nominal flat glass for use in heliostat applications. PNL attempted to determine the availability of production lines, estimate industry interest, lead times, and costs for producing glass for second surface heliostat mirrors for the Barstow pilot plant and future commercial plants. Glass samples representative of the industry production capability were collected and characterized. The results of the survey and analysis were used to generate a specification for the Barstow Pilot Plant glass procurement.

  11. Crystal and molecular structure of a second, high-density polymorph of silver malonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakasha Reddy, J.; Foxman, Bruce M.

    2008-11-01

    A new orthorhombic polymorph of silver malonate ( II) has been synthesized and structurally characterized. Compound II crystallizes in space group Pnma, with a = 12.8180(11), b = 9.2479(8), c = 4.0219(3) Å; V = 476.75(7) Å 3; Z = 4; ρcalc = 4.427 g cm -3. Full-matrix least-squares refinement converged to R1 = 0.0099 ( I > 2 σ( I), 765 data) and w R2 = 0.0264 ( F2, 785 data, 51 parameters). The familiar eight-membered Ag 2(RCO 2) 2 ring, characteristic of most silver(I) carboxylate complexes, has a Ag-Ag distance of 2.977(1) Å. Puckered sheets in the crystal ab plane are connected along c to form a three-dimensional coordination polymer. The density of II is >30% higher than that of the monoclinic polymorph ( I), first characterized in 1981. A survey of the density ratios of polymorphs in the Cambridge Structural Database indicates that virtually all of the pairs of entries having a density ratio >1.2 involve at least one form with significant void volume, as estimated using PLATON. However, neither I nor II have significant void volume, which suggests that the silver malonate polymorphs represent one of the largest density differences observed to date for a polymorphic pair. To date, it has not been possible to prepare I in our laboratories.

  12. Optimising Comprehensibility in Interlingual Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nisbeth Jensen, Matilde

    2015-01-01

    . It is argued that Plain Language writing is a type of intralingual translation as it involves rewriting or translating a complex monolingual text into comprehensible language. Based on Plain Language literature, a comprehensibility framework is elaborated, which is subsequently exemplified through...... the functional text type of Patient Information Leaflet. Finally, the usefulness of applying the principles of Plain Language and intralingual translation for optimising comprehensibility in interlingual translation is discussed....... information on medication and tax information. Such texts are often written by experts and received by lay people, and, in today’s globalised world, they are often translated as well. In these functional texts, the receiver is not a mere recipient of information, but s/he needs to be able to act upon it...

  13. Genetic polymorphism and evolutionary differentiation of Eastern Chinese Han: a comprehensive and comparative analysis on KIRs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Caiyong; Hu, Li; Huang, Huijie; Yu, Yanfang; Li, Zheng; Ji, Qiang; Kong, Xiaochao; Wang, Zhongqun; Yan, Jinchuan; Yan, Jiangwei; Zhu, Bofeng; Chen, Feng

    2017-01-01

    Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor genes, namely KIRs, cluster together within the 160 kb genomic DNA region. In this study, we used PCR-SSP approach and successfully identified the genotype of 17 KIR genes in 123 independent healthy donors residing in the Jiangsu province, China. All individuals were positive at the 7 genes. The observed carrier gene frequencies (OFs) of remaining 10 KIRs ranged from 14.63% (KIR2DS3) to 95.93% (KIR3DL1). We found 27 distinct genotypes excluding KIR1D. The most frequent occurred in 63 individuals (51.22%). The linkage disequilibrium analysis signified 29 positive and 6 negative relations in 45 pairwise comparisons. To study population differentiation, we drew a Heatmap based on the data of KIRs from 59 populations and conducted Hierarchical Clustering by Euclidean distances. We next validated our results by estimating pairwise DA distances and illustrating a Neighbor-Joining tree, as well as a MDS plot covering 3 additional Chinese Han groups. The phylogenetic reconstruction and cluster analysis strongly indicated a genetically close relationship between Eastern and Jilin Hans. In conclusion, the present study provided a meritorious resource of KIR genotyping for population genetics, and could be helpful to uncover the genetic mechanism of KIRs in immune disease in the future. PMID:28205529

  14. Genetic polymorphism and evolutionary differentiation of Eastern Chinese Han: a comprehensive and comparative analysis on KIRs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Caiyong; Hu, Li; Huang, Huijie; Yu, Yanfang; Li, Zheng; Ji, Qiang; Kong, Xiaochao; Wang, Zhongqun; Yan, Jinchuan; Yan, Jiangwei; Zhu, Bofeng; Chen, Feng

    2017-02-16

    Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor genes, namely KIRs, cluster together within the 160 kb genomic DNA region. In this study, we used PCR-SSP approach and successfully identified the genotype of 17 KIR genes in 123 independent healthy donors residing in the Jiangsu province, China. All individuals were positive at the 7 genes. The observed carrier gene frequencies (OFs) of remaining 10 KIRs ranged from 14.63% (KIR2DS3) to 95.93% (KIR3DL1). We found 27 distinct genotypes excluding KIR1D. The most frequent occurred in 63 individuals (51.22%). The linkage disequilibrium analysis signified 29 positive and 6 negative relations in 45 pairwise comparisons. To study population differentiation, we drew a Heatmap based on the data of KIRs from 59 populations and conducted Hierarchical Clustering by Euclidean distances. We next validated our results by estimating pairwise DA distances and illustrating a Neighbor-Joining tree, as well as a MDS plot covering 3 additional Chinese Han groups. The phylogenetic reconstruction and cluster analysis strongly indicated a genetically close relationship between Eastern and Jilin Hans. In conclusion, the present study provided a meritorious resource of KIR genotyping for population genetics, and could be helpful to uncover the genetic mechanism of KIRs in immune disease in the future.

  15. Dental Continuing Education Preference Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    the 63A9Ds and 34.9% for the 63A00s, selected Comprehensive Dentistry as their specialty preference. For the 63A9Ds, orthodontics , periodontics, and...prosthodontics were the next most frequently selected specialties. For the 63A00s, it was orthodontics , prosthodontics, and endodontics. Nearly 10% of...education. International Dental Journal , 28(2): 149-153, 1978. 7. Haroth, R.W. & Halpern, D.F. Maryland Continuing Dental Education Survey: "Your

  16. M programming a comprehensive guide

    CERN Document Server

    Walters, Richard

    1997-01-01

    M Programming: A Comprehensive Guide is a complete update to ABCs of MUMPS. While ABCs of MUMPS was an introduction for novice and intermediate M programmers, M Programming: A Comprehensive Guide has a new section containing advanced material. This new section addresses features such as transaction processing, networking, structured system variables, and interfaces to other standards. Five new chapters have been added, covering an overview of M for readers familiar with other languages; M and the Windows environment; interaction between M and the underlying system; transaction processing; inte

  17. Genetic polymorphisms in Kawasaki disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ho-chang KUO; Wei-chiao CHANG

    2011-01-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute febrile systemic vasculitis,and the cause of KD is not well understood.It is likely due to multiple interactions between genes and environmental factors.The development of genetic association and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) has opened an avenue to better understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying KD.A novel ITPKC signaling pathway was recently found to be responsible for the susceptibility to KD.Furthermore,the GWAS demonstrated the functionally related susceptibility loci for KD in the Caucasian population.In the last decade,the identification of several genomic regions linked to the pathogenesis of KD has made a major breakthrough in understanding the genetics of KD.This review will focus on genetic polymorphisms associated with KD and describe some of the possible clinical implications and molecular mechanisms that can be used to explain how genetic variants regulate the pathogenesis in KD.

  18. Clinical polymorphism of endocrine ophthalmopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Likhvantseva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to analyze clinical polymorphism of endocrine ophthalmopathy in patients with Graves’ disease.Methods: Clinical and radiological data of 18 cases with clinical manifestations of lacrimal gland increase were analyzed and compared with data retrieved from 50 patients without increasing of lacrimal gland.Results: the characteristics of clinical manifestations of endocrine ophthalmopathy with lacrimal gland increase were presented. this form differs, as the organ of the target, along with orbital fat and/or eye muscles becomes the glandula lacrimalis. A correlation between fact involving, on the one hand, and the intensity and severity of the autoimmune process in orbit, on the other hand were identified.Conclusion: Involvement of this secretion organ in the autoimmune process makes the clinical course of endocrine ophthalmopa-thy more complicated, and leads to eye dry syndrome creation.

  19. Clinical polymorphism of endocrine ophthalmopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Likhvantseva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to analyze clinical polymorphism of endocrine ophthalmopathy in patients with Graves’ disease.Methods: Clinical and radiological data of 18 cases with clinical manifestations of lacrimal gland increase were analyzed and compared with data retrieved from 50 patients without increasing of lacrimal gland.Results: the characteristics of clinical manifestations of endocrine ophthalmopathy with lacrimal gland increase were presented. this form differs, as the organ of the target, along with orbital fat and/or eye muscles becomes the glandula lacrimalis. A correlation between fact involving, on the one hand, and the intensity and severity of the autoimmune process in orbit, on the other hand were identified.Conclusion: Involvement of this secretion organ in the autoimmune process makes the clinical course of endocrine ophthalmopa-thy more complicated, and leads to eye dry syndrome creation.

  20. On polymorphism of dysprosium trichloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakiryanova, Irina D.; Khokhlov, Vladimir A.; Salyulev, Alexander B.; Korzun, Iraida V. [RAS Ural Branch, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation). Institute of High-Temperature Electrochemistry

    2015-07-01

    For the first time, the structure of crystalline DyCl{sub 3} over a wide temperature range from room temperature to melting point was studied by Raman spectroscopy. The phonon modes (cm{sup -1}) of dysprosium trichloride (monoclinic crystal lattice of AlCl{sub 3} type, Z = 4, CN = 6) at room temperature are 257 (A{sub 1g}), 201 (E{sub g}), 112 (E{sub g}), 88 (A{sub 1g}), and 63 (E{sub g}). The monoclinic structure of the crystalline DyCl{sub 3} C{sub 2h}{sup 3} symmetry was found to remain constant over the studied temperature range. No polymorphic transformation in the solid state was detected. Gravimetry, calorimetry, and mass spectrometry have been used in addition to support the conclusions made on the basis of Raman spectroscopic data.

  1. Comprehensive profiling and natural variation of flavonoids in rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuekui Dong; Wei Chen; Wensheng Wang; Hongyan Zhang; Xianqing Liu; Jie Luo

    2014-01-01

    Flavonoids constitute a major group of plant phenolic compounds. While extensively studied in Arabidopsis, profiling and natural y occurring variation of these compounds in rice (Oryza sativa), the monocot model plant, are less reported. Using a col ection of rice germplasm, comprehensive profiling and natural variation of flavonoids were presented in this report. Application of a widely targeted metabolomics method facilitat-ed the simultaneous identification and quantification of more than 90 flavonoids using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Comparing flavonoid contents in various tissues during different developmental stages revealed tissue-specific accumulation of most flavonoids. Further investi-gation indicated that flavone mono-C-glycosides, malonylated flavonoid O-hexosides, and some flavonoid O-glycosides accu-mulated at significantly higher levels in indica than in japonica, while the opposite was observed for aromatic acylated flavone C-hexosyl-O-hexosides. In contrast to the highly differential accumulation between the two subspecies, relatively smal variations within subspecies were detected for most flavonoids. Besides, an association analysis between flavonoid accumulation and its biosynthetic gene sequence polymorphisms disclosed that natural variation of flavonoids was probably caused by sequence polymorphisms in the coding region of flavonoid biosynthetic genes. Our work paves the way for future dissection of biosynthesis and regulation of flavonoid pathway in rice.

  2. Association between polymorphisms in interleukins and oral lichen planus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Quan; Zhang, Tong; Huo, Na; Huang, Yang; Xu, Juan; Liu, Hongchen

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: More and more studies have suggested that single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in interleukin (IL) genes are correlated with an increased risk of developing oral lichen planus (OLP). However, these results were inconsistent. Therefore, the aim of this meta-analysis is to retrieve and comprehensively analyze all related clinical studies to investigate the association of ILs gene polymorphisms with the OLP risk. Methods: PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched for eligible studies to evaluate the association between IL polymorphisms and the OLP. The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) from each study were pooled to estimate the strength of the association. Statistical analyses were performed by using STATA software. Results: In all 6 studies, including 4 SNPs (IL6-174G/C, IL10-592C/A, IL10-819C/T, and IL10-1082G/A), 362 OLP patients and 622 non-OLP control subjects from five different countries were investigated. As for the IL6-174G/C, IL10-819C/T, and IL10-1082G/A, no evidence was found to support the association between SNP and OLP susceptibility in any genetic models. However, as for IL10-592C/A, a significant relationship between them was identified in all of comparison models (C vs A: OR = 0.724, 95% CI = 0.585–0.897, P = 0.003; CC vs AA: OR = 0.447, 95% CI = 0.276–0.722, P = 0.001; AC vs AA: OR = 0.585, 95% CI = 0.387–0.883, P = 0.011; CC+AC vs AA: OR = 0.544, 95% CI = 0.365–0.809, P = 0.003; CC vs AA+AC: OR = 0.715, 95% CI = 0.515–0.994, P = 0.046). Conclusion: With the presently available evidence, this meta-analysis fails to show the statistical associations between IL6-174G/C, IL10-819C/T, and IL10-1082G/A and OLP susceptibility in any genetic models. However, the A allele and AA genotype in IL10-592C/A polymorphism may increase the risk of OLP. In the future, more well-designed studies with larger sample sizes are needed. PMID

  3. Surveying Humaness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Randi; Gad, Christopher

    Christopher Gad. Ph.d. Dept. of Information and Media Studies Randi Markussen. Associate Professor, Dept. of Information and Media Studies. rmark@imv.au.dk   Abstract:   Surveying humanness -politics of care improvement   For various reasons we both were subjected to a specific survey procedure...... and development of a large collection of biological and psychological symptoms and psycho-social problems. However, the surveys say nothing about how the information will be of use to the people who answer the procedure or how this scientific intervention will be put to use more specifically within the public...... carried out in a Danish county in order to improve treatment of people who have suffered from long-term illnesses. The surveys concern not only feed back on how people experience their present and past interaction with the social services and health care system; they also ask people to indicate the state...

  4. Surveying Humaness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Randi; Gad, Christopher

    Christopher Gad. Ph.d. Dept. of Information and Media Studies Randi Markussen. Associate Professor, Dept. of Information and Media Studies. rmark@imv.au.dk   Abstract:   Surveying humanness -politics of care improvement   For various reasons we both were subjected to a specific survey procedure...... and development of a large collection of biological and psychological symptoms and psycho-social problems. However, the surveys say nothing about how the information will be of use to the people who answer the procedure or how this scientific intervention will be put to use more specifically within the public...... be imagined as a positive end, as ‘making explicit’ (in a popular psychological perspective) is considered to be therapeutic and good in itself? We will discuss those questions from a Foucaultian and ANT perspective, where one does not accept that pre-existing subjects are exposed to survey procedures...

  5. Survey Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Cleaned and QCd data for the Fishing Effort Survey. Questions on fishing and other out are asked on weather and outdoor activity, including fishing trips. Used for...

  6. Survey of independent inventors: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whalley, P.

    1992-12-01

    Independent inventors are important but little-researched members of the US technical community. The survey reported on here is the first in modern times to attempt to provide a profile of the US independent inventor that goes beyond a single geographical or organizational locale. The report that follows provides an overview of the demographics, practices and concerns of the modern US inventor as represented by the members of leading US inventor organizations. It is by no means comprehensive but seeks to be indicative of the issues raised in the survey each which will be dealt with more comprehensively in future publications.

  7. The Translation Problems of English Reading Comprehension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄蓓

    2013-01-01

    In the process of learning English, reading comprehension is a very important part. Firstly, the paper analyzes the trans-lation’s role in reading comprehension. Secondly, it considers translation could enhance English reading comprehension. Thirdly, it mainly discusses the translation problem and skills of English Reading Comprehension.

  8. The VMC survey

    CERN Document Server

    Cioni, Maria-Rosa L

    2015-01-01

    The VISTA survey of the Magellanic Clouds system (VMC) is a public survey project of the European Southern Observatory. It is collecting multi-band near-infrared data across large areas of the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds, the Magellanic Bridge and a few fields in the Magellanic Stream. The combination of great sensitivity to stars below the old main sequence turn off, and the multiplicity at Ks band (at least 12 epochs) make VMC highly suitable for the determination of the spatially resolved star formation history and three-dimensional geometry, using variable stars such as Cepheids and RR Lyrae stars. The VMC observations are progressing well and will be completed in 2018. The VMC survey has a high legacy value and many science results have already been published, e.g. the most detailed star formation history map of the Small Magellanic Cloud, and others are in preparation, e.g. a comprehensive investigation of classical Cepheids and a study of the proper motion in the foreground 47 Tuc cluster.

  9. 2013 mask industry survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Matt

    2013-09-01

    A comprehensive survey was sent to merchant and captive mask shops to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. 2013 marks the 12th consecutive year for this process. Historical topics including general mask profile, mask processing, data and write time, yield and yield loss, delivery times, maintenance, and returns were included and new topics were added. Within each category are multiple questions that result in a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the mask industry. While each year's survey includes minor updates based on feedback from past years and the need to collect additional data on key topics, the bulk of the survey and reporting structure have remained relatively constant. A series of improvements is being phased in beginning in 2013 to add value to a wider audience, while at the same time retaining the historical content required for trend analyses of the traditional metrics. Additions in 2013 include topics such as top challenges, future concerns, and additional details in key aspects of mask masking, such as the number of masks per mask set per ground rule, minimum mask resolution shipped, and yield by ground rule. These expansions beyond the historical topics are aimed at identifying common issues, gaps, and needs. They will also provide a better understanding of real-life mask requirements and capabilities for comparison to the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS).

  10. Influence of MDM2 polymorphisms on squamous cell carcinoma susceptibility: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huanxin; Li, Haiyan; Zhang, Jinling; Liu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Controversial associations between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (rs2279744, rs937283, rs3730485) of the MDM2 gene and the etiology of squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) have been reported. This merits further comprehensive assessment. Materials and methods We systematically reviewed the available data and conducted an updated meta-analysis to evaluate the genetic effect of MDM2 polymorphisms in SCC susceptibility, using Stata/SE 12.0 software. Results After screening, 7,987 SCC cases and 12,954 controls from 26 eligible case–control studies were enrolled. Overall, compared with the control group, a significantly increased SCC risk was observed for the MDM2 rs2279744 polymorphism in the Asian population (test of association: odds ratio [OR] 1.12, P=0.027 for G vs T; OR 1.26, P=0.016 for GG vs TT; OR 1.25, P0.05). Conclusion Our results highlight a positive association between the GG genotype of MDM2 rs2279744 polymorphism and an increased risk of esophageal SCC in the Asian population, which needs to be clarified by more large-scale studies.

  11. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase: From biochemistry and gene structure to clinical implications of NOS3 polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Paula, Gustavo H; Lacchini, Riccardo; Tanus-Santos, Jose E

    2016-01-10

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important vasodilator with a well-established role in cardiovascular homeostasis. While mediator is synthesized from L-arginine by neuronal, endothelial, and inducible nitric oxide synthases (NOS1,NOS3 and NOS2 respectively), NOS3 is the most important isoform for NO formation in the cardiovascular system. NOS3 is a dimeric enzyme whose expression and activity are regulated at transcriptional, posttranscriptional,and posttranslational levels. The NOS3 gene, which encodes NOS3, exhibits a number of polymorphic sites including single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs), microsatellites, and insertions/deletions. Some NOS3 polymorphisms show functional effects on NOS3 expression or activity, thereby affecting NO formation. Interestingly, many studies have evaluated the effects of functional NOS3 polymorphisms on disease susceptibility and drug responses. Moreover, some studies have investigated how NOS3 haplotypes may impact endogenous NO formation and disease susceptibility. In this article,we carried out a comprehensive review to provide a basic understanding of biochemical mechanisms involved in NOS3 regulation and how genetic variations in NOS3 may translate into relevant clinical and pharmacogenetic implications.

  12. Face and emotion expression processing and the serotonin transporter polymorphism 5-HTTLPR/rs22531.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, A; Kiy, A; Reuter, M; Sommer, W; Wilhelm, O

    2016-06-01

    Face cognition, including face identity and facial expression processing, is a crucial component of socio-emotional abilities, characterizing humans as highest developed social beings. However, for these trait domains molecular genetic studies investigating gene-behavior associations based on well-founded phenotype definitions are still rare. We examined the relationship between 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 polymorphisms - related to serotonin-reuptake - and the ability to perceive and recognize faces and emotional expressions in human faces. For this aim we conducted structural equation modeling on data from 230 young adults, obtained by using a comprehensive, multivariate task battery with maximal effort tasks. By additionally modeling fluid intelligence and immediate and delayed memory factors, we aimed to address the discriminant relationships of the 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 polymorphisms with socio-emotional abilities. We found a robust association between the 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 polymorphism and facial emotion perception. Carriers of two long (L) alleles outperformed carriers of one or two S alleles. Weaker associations were present for face identity perception and memory for emotional facial expressions. There was no association between the 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 polymorphism and non-social abilities, demonstrating discriminant validity of the relationships. We discuss the implications and possible neural mechanisms underlying these novel findings. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  13. Neuroimaging Evidence of Comprehension Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Baker

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to synthesize the emerging neuroimaging literature that reveals how the brain responds when readers and listeners encounter texts that demand monitoring of their ongoing comprehension processes. Much of this research has been undertaken by cognitive scientists who do not frame their work in metacognitive terms, and therefore it is less likely to be familiar to psychologists who study metacognition in educational contexts. The important role of metacognition in the development and use of academic skills is widely recognized. Metacognition is typically defined as the awareness and control of one's own cognitive processes. In the domain of reading, the most important metacognitive skill is comprehension monitoring, the evaluation and regulation of comprehension. Readers who monitor their understanding realize when they have encountered difficulty making sense of the text, and they apply error correction procedures to attempt to resolve the difficulty. Metacognition depends on executive control skills that continue to develop into early adulthood, in parallel with the maturation of the executive control regions of the prefrontal cortex. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and event-related potentials (ERP have been used for some time to study neural correlates of basic reading processes such as word identification, but it is only within recent years that researchers have turned to the higher-level processes of text comprehension. The article describes illustrative studies that reveal changes in neural activity when adults apply lexical, syntactic, or semantic standards to evaluate their understanding.

  14. Expectation-based syntactic comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Roger

    2008-03-01

    This paper investigates the role of resource allocation as a source of processing difficulty in human sentence comprehension. The paper proposes a simple information-theoretic characterization of processing difficulty as the work incurred by resource reallocation during parallel, incremental, probabilistic disambiguation in sentence comprehension, and demonstrates its equivalence to the theory of Hale [Hale, J. (2001). A probabilistic Earley parser as a psycholinguistic model. In Proceedings of NAACL (Vol. 2, pp. 159-166)], in which the difficulty of a word is proportional to its surprisal (its negative log-probability) in the context within which it appears. This proposal subsumes and clarifies findings that high-constraint contexts can facilitate lexical processing, and connects these findings to well-known models of parallel constraint-based comprehension. In addition, the theory leads to a number of specific predictions about the role of expectation in syntactic comprehension, including the reversal of locality-based difficulty patterns in syntactically constrained contexts, and conditions under which increased ambiguity facilitates processing. The paper examines a range of established results bearing on these predictions, and shows that they are largely consistent with the surprisal theory.

  15. Electroconvulsive Therapy: A Comprehensive Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayfun Zeren

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT is one of the most important discoveries of psychiatric treatments. This article comprehensively assesses historical progress, mechanism of actions, practical methods, indications, side effects, complications, drug interactions of ECT and attitudes towards ECT. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2003; 12(4.000: 340-377

  16. A Comprehensive General Chemistry Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeder, Ryan D.; Jeffery, Kathleen A.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the use of a comprehensive demonstration suitable for a high school or first-year undergraduate introductory chemistry class. The demonstration involves placing a burning candle in a container adjacent to a beaker containing a basic solution with indicator. After adding a lid, the candle will extinguish and the produced…

  17. Metacomprehension during Rare Word Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcginnis, Debra; Saunders, Nikola N.; Burns, Ryan J.

    2007-01-01

    To examine metacomprehension during comprehension, undergraduates (n = 133) were asked to provide descriptions of how they determined the meaning of four rare words presented in short passages. Content analysis of these written descriptions revealed task-specific metacomprehension reflecting lexical, textbase, and situation model processes.…

  18. Comprehensive dictionary of electrical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Laplante, Philip A

    1998-01-01

    The Comprehensive Dictionary of Electrical Engineering is a complete lexicon covering all the fields of electrical engineering.Areas examined include:applied electrical engineeringmicrowave engineeringcontrol engineeringpower engineeringdigital systems engineeringdevice electronicsand much more! The book provides workable definitions for practicing engineers, serves as a reference and research tool for students, and offers practical information for scientists and engineers in other disciplines.

  19. Content Schemata and Reading Comprehension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiKe

    2004-01-01

    For students of non-English majors in China, reading ability has been considered as one of the most important skills that they should acquire. However, teachers of English often complain that students reading in English seem to read with less comprehension and slower speed than expected. It is true that their failure is due to inadequate knowledge of vocabulary and

  20. A Comprehensive General Chemistry Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeder, Ryan D.; Jeffery, Kathleen A.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the use of a comprehensive demonstration suitable for a high school or first-year undergraduate introductory chemistry class. The demonstration involves placing a burning candle in a container adjacent to a beaker containing a basic solution with indicator. After adding a lid, the candle will extinguish and the produced…

  1. Memory mechanisms supporting syntactic comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Gloria

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to characterize the memory system that supports sentence comprehension have historically drawn extensively on short-term memory as a source of mechanisms that might apply to sentences. The focus of these efforts has changed significantly in the past decade. As a result of changes in models of short-term working memory (ST-WM) and developments in models of sentence comprehension, the effort to relate entire components of an ST-WM system, such as those in the model developed by Baddeley (Nature Reviews Neuroscience 4: 829–839, 2003) to sentence comprehension has largely been replaced by an effort to relate more specific mechanisms found in modern models of ST-WM to memory processes that support one aspect of sentence comprehension—the assignment of syntactic structure (parsing) and its use in determining sentence meaning (interpretation) during sentence comprehension. In this article, we present the historical background to recent studies of the memory mechanisms that support parsing and interpretation and review recent research into this relation. We argue that the results of this research do not converge on a set of mechanisms derived from ST-WM that apply to parsing and interpretation. We argue that the memory mechanisms supporting parsing and interpretation have features that characterize another memory system that has been postulated to account for skilled performance—long-term working memory. We propose a model of the relation of different aspects of parsing and interpretation to ST-WM and long-term working memory. PMID:23319178

  2. Innovation Learning in Comprehensive Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindfors, Eila; Hilmola, Antti

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this article is to clarify the concept of innovation and by presenting a research on the basic education outcome assessment data from an innovation learning perspective, answer to a question: Do students learn innovation in comprehensive education? The empirical information in this research is based on data collected in the national…

  3. Constraint Programming for Context Comprehension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning

    2014-01-01

    of knowledge. The language of Constraint Handling Rules, CHR, is suggested for defining constraint solvers that reflect “world knowledge” for the given domain, and driver algorithms may be ex- pressed in Prolog or additional rules of CHR. It is argued that this way of doing context comprehension is an instance...

  4. Assessment Format and Comprehension Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seda, Ileana

    In response to the tradition of examining a new test's validity by comparing it with a well-established multiple-choice test, a study investigated whether multiple-choice tests with one right answer can measure the reading comprehension process as defined by constructivists. The study compared the information obtained from two different…

  5. Proposal: Herpetofaunal survey of the Santee National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a proposal to conduct a comprehensive herpetofaunal survey were conducted on Santee NWR in 2011 and 2012 using a combinations of cover boards, automated...

  6. Herpetofaunal survey of the Santee National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is report concerns a comprehensive herpetofaunal survey onducted on Santee NWR in 2011 and 2012 using a combinations of cover boards, automated recording...

  7. Lanai Nonindigenous Marine Species Surveys 2005 (NODC Accession 0002650)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A baseline survey of the marine biota of the island of Lanai was conducted in May 2005. This was first comprehensive study that has been made on this island for all...

  8. SURVEY OF FERTILIZERS AND RELATED MATERIALS FOR PERCHLORATE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The most comprehensive survey of fertilizers and other raw materials for perchlorate to date has been conducted to determine whether these could be significant contributors to environmental perchlorate contamination. Although the data span a large range of commercial products, th...

  9. Polymorphism Control of Poly(vinylidene fluoride)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jianfen; He, Aihua; Li, Junxing; Han, Charles C.

    2008-03-01

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) is well-known for its polymorphism, and can exhibit five different polymorphs depending on its processing conditions. The α-phase is the most common and stable polymorph and the β-phase is the most important one due to its piezoelectric and pyroelectric properties. Polymorphism control of PVDF has been realized through electrospinning. PVDF fibrous membranes with fiber diameter in the range of 100 nm to several micrometers were produced by electrospinning and the crystal phase of electrospun PVDF fibers can be adjusted at the same time. Through the control of electrospinning parameters such as the solvent and electrospinning temperature, PVDF fibrous membranes containing mainly α- or β- or γ-phase could be fabricated successfully.

  10. A survey of urban reconstruction

    KAUST Repository

    Musialski, Przemyslaw

    2013-05-10

    This paper provides a comprehensive overview of urban reconstruction. While there exists a considerable body of literature, this topic is still under active research. The work reviewed in this survey stems from the following three research communities: computer graphics, computer vision and photogrammetry and remote sensing. Our goal is to provide a survey that will help researchers to better position their own work in the context of existing solutions, and to help newcomers and practitioners in computer graphics to quickly gain an overview of this vast field. Further, we would like to bring the mentioned research communities to even more interdisciplinary work, since the reconstruction problem itself is by far not solved. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of urban reconstruction. While there exists a considerable body of literature, this topic is still under active research. The work reviewed in this survey stems from the following three research communities: computer graphics, computer vision and photogrammetry and remote sensing. Our goal is to provide a survey that will help researchers to better position their own work in the context of existing solutions, and to help newcomers and practitioners in computer graphics to quickly gain an overview of this vast field. Further, we would like to bring the mentioned research communities to even more interdisciplinary work, since the reconstruction problem itself is by far not solved. © 2013 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Single nucleotide polymorphisms and linkage disequilibrium in sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolkman, Judith M; Berry, Simon T; Leon, Alberto J; Slabaugh, Mary B; Tang, Shunxue; Gao, Wenxiang; Shintani, David K; Burke, John M; Knapp, Steven J

    2007-09-01

    Genetic diversity in modern sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) cultivars (elite oilseed inbred lines) has been shaped by domestication and breeding bottlenecks and wild and exotic allele introgression(-)the former narrowing and the latter broadening genetic diversity. To assess single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) frequencies, nucleotide diversity, and linkage disequilibrium (LD) in modern cultivars, alleles were resequenced from 81 genic loci distributed throughout the sunflower genome. DNA polymorphisms were abundant; 1078 SNPs (1/45.7 bp) and 178 insertions-deletions (INDELs) (1/277.0 bp) were identified in 49.4 kbp of DNA/genotype. SNPs were twofold more frequent in noncoding (1/32.1 bp) than coding (1/62.8 bp) sequences. Nucleotide diversity was only slightly lower in inbred lines ( = 0.0094) than wild populations ( = 0.0128). Mean haplotype diversity was 0.74. When extraploted across the genome ( approximately 3500 Mbp), sunflower was predicted to harbor at least 76.4 million common SNPs among modern cultivar alleles. LD decayed more slowly in inbred lines than wild populations (mean LD declined to 0.32 by 5.5 kbp in the former, the maximum physical distance surveyed), a difference attributed to domestication and breeding bottlenecks. SNP frequencies and LD decay are sufficient in modern sunflower cultivars for very high-density genetic mapping and high-resolution association mapping.

  12. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms and Linkage Disequilibrium in Sunflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolkman, Judith M.; Berry, Simon T.; Leon, Alberto J.; Slabaugh, Mary B.; Tang, Shunxue; Gao, Wenxiang; Shintani, David K.; Burke, John M.; Knapp, Steven J.

    2007-01-01

    Genetic diversity in modern sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) cultivars (elite oilseed inbred lines) has been shaped by domestication and breeding bottlenecks and wild and exotic allele introgression−the former narrowing and the latter broadening genetic diversity. To assess single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) frequencies, nucleotide diversity, and linkage disequilibrium (LD) in modern cultivars, alleles were resequenced from 81 genic loci distributed throughout the sunflower genome. DNA polymorphisms were abundant; 1078 SNPs (1/45.7 bp) and 178 insertions-deletions (INDELs) (1/277.0 bp) were identified in 49.4 kbp of DNA/genotype. SNPs were twofold more frequent in noncoding (1/32.1 bp) than coding (1/62.8 bp) sequences. Nucleotide diversity was only slightly lower in inbred lines (θ = 0.0094) than wild populations (θ = 0.0128). Mean haplotype diversity was 0.74. When extraploted across the genome (∼3500 Mbp), sunflower was predicted to harbor at least 76.4 million common SNPs among modern cultivar alleles. LD decayed more slowly in inbred lines than wild populations (mean LD declined to 0.32 by 5.5 kbp in the former, the maximum physical distance surveyed), a difference attributed to domestication and breeding bottlenecks. SNP frequencies and LD decay are sufficient in modern sunflower cultivars for very high-density genetic mapping and high-resolution association mapping. PMID:17660563

  13. A case with catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Ünalır

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT is a rare type of polymorphic ventricular tachycardias in individuals without structural cardiac abnormalities. It typically has been induced by exercise or emotional stres. It generally is seen in childhood and adolescent period but rarely is seen in elderly. It usually ends by spontaneus, but rarely cause hemodynamic collapse. In here, we present a case with CPVT of successful treatment with a beta blocker therapy. J Clin Exp Invest 2011;2(2:232-4

  14. A catalogue of polymorphisms related to xenobiotic metabolism and cancer susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemignani, Federica; Landi, Stefano; Vivant, Franck; Zienolddiny, Shanbeh; Brennan, Paul; Canzian, Federico

    2002-08-01

    High-throughput genotyping technology of multiple genes based on large samples of cases and controls are likely to be important in identifying common genes which have a moderate effect on the development of specific diseases. We present here a comprehensive list of 313 known experimentally confirmed polymorphisms in 54 genes which are particularly relevant for metabolism of drugs, alcohol, tobacco, and other potential carcinogens. We have compiled a catalog with a standardized format that summarizes the genetic and biochemical properties of the selected polymorphisms. We have also confirmed or redesigned experimental conditions for simplex or multiplex PCR amplification of a subset of 168 SNPs of particular interest, which will provide the basis for the design of assays compatible with high-throughput genotyping.

  15. Engineering surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Schofield, W

    2007-01-01

    Engineering surveying involves determining the position of natural and man-made features on or beneath the Earth's surface and utilizing these features in the planning, design and construction of works. It is a critical part of any engineering project. Without an accurate understanding of the size, shape and nature of the site the project risks expensive and time-consuming errors or even catastrophic failure.Engineering Surveying 6th edition covers all the basic principles and practice of this complex subject and the authors bring expertise and clarity. Previous editions of this classic text have given readers a clear understanding of fundamentals such as vertical control, distance, angles and position right through to the most modern technologies, and this fully updated edition continues that tradition.This sixth edition includes:* An introduction to geodesy to facilitate greater understanding of satellite systems* A fully updated chapter on GPS, GLONASS and GALILEO for satellite positioning in surveying* Al...

  16. Teaching Reading Comprehension to Learners with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Predictors of Teacher Self-Efficacy and Outcome Expectancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accardo, Amy L.; Finnegan, Elizabeth G.; Gulkus, Steven P.; Papay, Clare K.

    2017-01-01

    Learners with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often exhibit difficulty in the area of reading comprehension. Research connecting the learning needs of individuals with ASD, existing effective practices, teacher training, and teacher perceptions of their own ability to teach reading comprehension is scarce. Quantitative survey methodology and…

  17. DCDC2 polymorphism is associated with left temporoparietal gray and white matter structures during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darki, Fahimeh; Peyrard-Janvid, Myriam; Matsson, Hans; Kere, Juha; Klingberg, Torkel

    2014-10-22

    Three genes, DYX1C1, DCDC2, and KIAA0319, have been previously associated with dyslexia, neuronal migration, and ciliary function. Three polymorphisms within these genes, rs3743204 (DYX1C1), rs793842 (DCDC2), and rs6935076 (KIAA0319) have also been linked to normal variability of left temporoparietal white matter volume connecting the middle temporal cortex to the angular and supramarginal gyri. Here, we assessed whether these polymorphisms are also related to the cortical thickness of the associated regions during childhood development using a longitudinal dataset of 76 randomly selected children and young adults who were scanned up to three times each, 2 years apart. rs793842 in DCDC2 was significantly associated with the thickness of left angular and supramarginal gyri as well as the left lateral occipital cortex. The cortex was significantly thicker for T-allele carriers, who also had lower white matter volume and lower reading comprehension scores. There was a negative correlation between white matter volume and cortical thickness, but only white matter volume predicted reading comprehension 2 years after scanning. These results show how normal variability in reading comprehension is related to gene, white matter volume, and cortical thickness in the inferior parietal lobe. Possibly, the variability of gray and white matter structures could both be related to the role of DCDC2 in ciliary function, which affects both neuronal migration and axonal outgrowth.

  18. Comprehensible Presentation of Topological Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Gunther H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Beketayev, Kenes [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bremer, Peer-Timo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hamann, Bernd [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Haranczyk, Maciej [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hlawitschka, Mario [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Pascucci, Valerio [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-03-05

    Topological information has proven very valuable in the analysis of scientific data. An important challenge that remains is presenting this highly abstract information in a way that it is comprehensible even if one does not have an in-depth background in topology. Furthermore, it is often desirable to combine the structural insight gained by topological analysis with complementary information, such as geometric information. We present an overview over methods that use metaphors to make topological information more accessible to non-expert users, and we demonstrate their applicability to a range of scientific data sets. With the increasingly complex output of exascale simulations, the importance of having effective means of providing a comprehensible, abstract overview over data will grow. The techniques that we present will serve as an important foundation for this purpose.

  19. Alarm management a comprehensive guide

    CERN Document Server

    Hollifield, Bill R

    2011-01-01

    In this second edition, Alarm Management: A Comprehensive Guide, various problems of alarm systems are covered with precise guidance on how they come about and how to effectively correct them. It is written by individuals with vast experience in the different plants, processes, and environments requiring effective alarm management. The second edition is filled with good examples and explanations of procedures, with practical lists and tips on how one should proceed. It is based on hundreds of successful projects.

  20. Constraint Programming for Context Comprehension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning

    2014-01-01

    A close similarity is demonstrated between context comprehension, such as discourse analysis, and constraint programming. The constraint store takes the role of a growing knowledge base learned throughout the discourse, and a suitable con- straint solver does the job of incorporating new pieces o...... of abductive reasoning. The approach fits with possible worlds semantics that allows both standard first-order and non-monotonic semantics....

  1. Helping Students Develop Listening Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cárdenas Beltrán Melba Libia

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Listening practice is often neglected or handled inappropriately in the teachinglearning process. This poses problem because listening is an integral part of conversations. Oral skills without equally welldeveloped listening abilities are of little practical value. In this article, I will take a look at issues related to the area of listening that may be considered when guiding students toward developing listening comprehension.

  2. Neuroimaging Evidence of Comprehension Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Linda Baker; Alisa Zeliger-Kandasamy; Laura U. DeWyngaert

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to synthesize the emerging neuroimaging literature that reveals how the brain responds when readers and listeners encounter texts that demand monitoring of their ongoing comprehension processes. Much of this research has been undertaken by cognitive scientists who do not frame their work in metacognitive terms, and therefore it is less likely to be familiar to psychologists who study metacognition in educational contexts. The important role of metacognition in t...

  3. A comprehensive dairy valorization model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaszewska, A; Cruijssen, F; van der Vorst, J G A J; Claassen, G D H; Kampman, J L

    2013-02-01

    Dairy processors face numerous challenges resulting from both unsteady dairy markets and some specific characteristics of dairy supply chains. To maintain a competitive position on the market, companies must look beyond standard solutions currently used in practice. This paper presents a comprehensive dairy valorization model that serves as a decision support tool for mid-term allocation of raw milk to end products and production planning. The developed model was used to identify the optimal product portfolio composition. The model allocates raw milk to the most profitable dairy products while accounting for important constraints (i.e., recipes, composition variations, dairy production interdependencies, seasonality, demand, supply, capacities, and transportation flows). The inclusion of all relevant constraints and the ease of understanding dairy production dynamics make the model comprehensive. The developed model was tested at the international dairy processor FrieslandCampina (Amersfoort, the Netherlands). The structure of the model and its output were discussed in multiple sessions with and approved by relevant FrieslandCampina employees. The elements included in the model were considered necessary to optimally valorize raw milk. To illustrate the comprehensiveness and functionality of the model, we analyzed the effect of seasonality on milk valorization. A large difference in profit and a shift in the allocation of milk showed that seasonality has a considerable impact on the valorization of raw milk.

  4. Predictive mechanisms in idiom comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vespignani, Francesco; Canal, Paolo; Molinaro, Nicola; Fonda, Sergio; Cacciari, Cristina

    2010-08-01

    Prediction is pervasive in human cognition and plays a central role in language comprehension. At an electrophysiological level, this cognitive function contributes substantially in determining the amplitude of the N400. In fact, the amplitude of the N400 to words within a sentence has been shown to depend on how predictable those words are: The more predictable a word, the smaller the N400 elicited. However, predictive processing can be based on different sources of information that allow anticipation of upcoming constituents and integration in context. In this study, we investigated the ERPs elicited during the comprehension of idioms, that is, prefabricated multiword strings stored in semantic memory. When a reader recognizes a string of words as an idiom before the idiom ends, she or he can develop expectations concerning the incoming idiomatic constituents. We hypothesized that the expectations driven by the activation of an idiom might differ from those driven by discourse-based constraints. To this aim, we compared the ERP waveforms elicited by idioms and two literal control conditions. The results showed that, in both cases, the literal conditions exhibited a more negative potential than the idiomatic condition. Our analyses suggest that before idiom recognition the effect is due to modulation of the N400 amplitude, whereas after idiom recognition a P300 for the idiomatic sentence has a fundamental role in the composition of the effect. These results suggest that two distinct predictive mechanisms are at work during language comprehension, based respectively on probabilistic information and on categorical template matching.

  5. Narrative Comprehension and Story Grammar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehwish Zahoor

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Every text has an underlying structure which has a vital contribution in making it a meaningful whole. Awareness of a text’s structure therefore is significant in developing an overall sense of the text. Story grammar offers a simple and effective framework to analyze a coherent structure in narrative texts, hence is assumed to facilitate the comprehension of narratives. The research has been designed to be a descriptive study, with the objective to explain and illustrate how story grammar functions in constructing and decoding meanings in a narrative text, and, to highlight its scope in pedagogy. A short story text has been randomly selected from the short story collection in the English text book by Punjab text book board for Intermediate level. A three stepped comprehensive analysis of the sample text has been done by implementing the selected story grammar model. It has been found that story grammar helped in deriving coherent structure and meanings from the selected short story text; hence it has pedagogical implications in developing narrative comprehension.

  6. Reading comprehension levels in scholars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Carolina Alves Ferreira de; Avila, Clara Regina Brandão de; Chiari, Brasília Maria

    2009-01-01

    important reading performance measurements are related to how and to what extent a child understands a written text. to study the performance of primary school (Ensino Fundamental) students in reading comprehension tasks according to the variables grade and type of school. 160 students from the 3rd to the 6th grades were screened and later evaluated based on the retelling and question answering about a given text. students of the 5th and 6th grades of private schools presented a better performance on issues related to implicit information when compared to students of public schools. The overall analysis of the educational level revealed, through the retelling task, a better performance of the 6th grade students in terms of the number of present macro propositions and a low performance of the 5th grade students in terms of the achieved comprehension level, in both types of school. When answering text-derived questions, the 4th, 5th and 6th grade students performed better than the 3rd grade students regarding explicit questions. When considering implicit questions, the 4th grade students performed better than all the other grades, in both types of school. These results gave evidence to the influence of the different texts used in each grade. the 5th and 6th grades from private schools were the only grades that performed better when compared to public schools in general, regarding answering implicit knowledge questions. All students achieved some level of reading comprehension.

  7. Comprehensive treatment of generalized parodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mdinaradze, N

    2006-06-01

    The complexity of pathogenesis of periodontitis makes the use of comprehensive treatment necessary. We observed 60 patients, 20 women and 40 men among them aged from 20 to 50. In the course of parodontitis, we determined the intensity of inflammatory-destructive changes (Pi) in the course of periodontitis, the degree of fang denudation, the depth of gum and parodontal recesses, degree of the teeth becoming loose; we conducted the microbiological study of the oral cavity microflora and drew up an antibiotic graph. We included laser therapy in the comprehensive treatment course of generalized parodontitis. We divided the patients into two groups. The patients of the first group were treated in two stages. We used peridex, composed of chlorhexidine for antiseptic treatment of oral cavity. We used a combined solution of sage, eucalyptus, camomile and calendula to irrigate the oral cavity. At the second stage we used ointment applications with the composition of 3% indometacin, heparin, vitamins, sea-buckthorn oil and antibiotics. In the course of comprehensive treatment of the patients of the II group we included laser therapy. Our interest in the laser beam, as in the means of parodontitis treatment was stimulated by a number of properties of the laser beam and namely, its anti-inflammatory, desensitizing and antibacterial action promotes intensifying the reparation processes and does not entail any complications. The mentioned method has produced the best therapeutic results and has resulted in the reduced treatment period.

  8. Comprehensive utilization of digested residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reizhi Shen [Soil and Fertilizer Inst. of Shanghai Academy of Agricultural Sciences (China)

    2000-07-01

    The application history of biogas technology in China covers almost one century. Until the 1980's, people's attention not only focused on the benefit of biogas as people's daily fuel, but also on the comprehensive utilization of digested residues. People are more and more interested in these methods of comprehensive utilization, which has led to many research projects on, among others, ''digested effluent as feed additive for pigs'', ''digested sludge for growing mushroom'', and ''digested effluent as pesticide''. Not only are biogas fermentation, organic waste such as animal manure, crop straw, distillery wastewater and the wastewater from slaughter houses converted to biogas, but also digested residues are very useful with a lot of ''potential value'' and ''special functions'', which will bring far more benefits than biogas alone. Some progress on the comprehensive utilization of digested residues in the past ten years is summarized below. (orig.)

  9. Prothrombin polymorphism A19911G, factor V HR2 haplotype A4070G, and plasminogen activator-inhibitor-1 polymorphism 4G/5G and the risk of retinal vein occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhli-Hattenbach, Claudia; Hellstern, Peter; Nägler, Dorit Karin; Kohnen, Thomas; Hattenbach, Lars-Olof

    2017-01-13

    Thus far, no data has become available to evaluate systematically the prevalences of prothrombin polymorphism A19911G (PT A19911G), factor V HR2 haplotype A4070G (FV A4070G), or plasminogen activator-inhibitor-1 polymorphism 4G/5G (PAI-1 4G/5G) in patients who develop retinal vein occlusion (RVO) without cardiovascular risk factors. We retrospectively evaluated comprehensive thrombophilia data from 42 preselected RVO patients without cardiovascular risk factors. The prevalences of different gene mutations and polymorphisms including factor V Leiden mutation G1691A (FVL), FV A4070G, prothrombin mutation G20210A, PT A19911G, and PAI-1 4G/5G were compared with 241 healthy controls matched for age and sex. A total of 20 patients (47.7%) were found to carry thrombophilic gene polymorphisms including FVL, FV A4070G, and homozygous PT A19911G compared with 72 of 241 controls (29.9%; p = 0.03). Subgroup analysis of patients with a significant personal or family history of thromboembolism revealed a high prevalence of FVL, FV A4070G, and homozygous PT A19911G (p = 0.005). FV A4070G was found to be significantly associated with at least two other heterozygous or one homozygous gene polymorphisms (p = 0.02). Multivariate analysis revealed the presence of FVL (p = 0.0017) and homozygous PT A19911G (p = 0.03) polymorphism as independent risk factors for the development of RVO. Our results indicate that in selected RVO patients screening for thrombophilic gene polymorphisms including FVL, FV A4070G and homozygous PT G19911A may be helpful in a high percentage of cases. Our findings suggest that hereditary thrombophilia associated with RVO is more likely to be multigenic than caused by any single risk factor.

  10. Happiness Survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Are Chinese people happy in today’s fast-paced, modern society? What are the sources of their happiness? In today’s rapidly developing economy, is happiness closely related to wealth or not? A recent happiness survey conducted in China gives some answers.

  11. A review of the sampling theory of comprehensive forest resources monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianxian LUO; Songya XU; Xingang KANG; Hua YANG

    2009-01-01

    Sampling is a key technique in comprehensive forest resources monitoring. The history of the sampling survey was briefly reviewed and sampling theories were classified and compared in detail. On the basis of that, the application of different sampling methods in comprehen-sive forest resources monitoring was illustrated in accordance with the sampling classification of Michael Kohl et al. Improvement of the sampling system in China was discussed to meet the new requirements of forest monitoring.

  12. Association between vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms and breast cancer risk: a meta-analysis of 39 studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The associations between vitamin D receptor (VDR gene polymorphisms and breast cancer risk were comprehensively investigated to clarify issues that remain controversial. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An electronic search was conducted of several databases, including PubMed, the Cochrane library, Web of Science, EMBASE, CBM and CNKI, for papers that describe the association between Fok1, poly-A repeat, Bsm1, Taq1 or Apa1 polymorphisms of the VDR gene and breast cancer risk. Summary odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated based on a fixed-effect model (FEM or random-effect model (REM, depending on the absence or presence of significant heterogeneity. A total of 39 studies met the inclusion criteria. A meta-analysis of high-quality studies showed that the Fok1 polymorphism of the VDR gene was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer (ff vs. Ff+FF, OR: 1.09, 95%CI: 1.02 to 1.16, p = 0.007. No significant associations were observed between the other polymorphisms and breast cancer risk. No positive results were detected by pooling the results of all relevant studies. CONCLUSION: A meta-analysis of high-quality studies demonstrated that the Fok1 polymorphism of the VDR gene was closely associated with breast cancer risk.

  13. Advancing a comprehensive understanding of concrete durability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Gates Minckler

    The durability of concrete is vital to the health of our infrastructure and economy. Unfortunately, traditional, linear approaches to experimentation and specification have not provided a complete understanding and control of this complex material. This work seeks to further a comprehensive understanding of concrete durability through approaches including multi-variable mathematical modeling of premature deterioration, analysis of the microstructural changes of cement paste and mortar during freezing, and the development of quantitative computer models in parallel with actual experiments. The first section includes a summary of the collection and analysis of data describing concrete pavements in a number of Midwestern states. This involves the development of a thorough survey, completion of that survey by local organizations, and the creation of a database from pooled data. Statistical analysis of that data reveals a number of statistically significant trends in a pavement's tendency to deteriorate. Statistically important variables include total alkali and sulfate content of the cementitious material, the presence of type C fly ash, ambient paving temperature, age, and permeability of the base course material. In the second section, deformation mapping of cement paste during freezing illustrates the power and accuracy of this new technique. It also illustrates the effects of water/cement ratio, age, presence of aggregate, and repeated cycling on deformation during freezing. Finally, the increased resolution of this new technique allows for the identification of a number of new microstructural features of the freezing process. Computer modeling closely mirrors the deformation analysis described above. Effects of water/cement ratio, age, and the presence of aggregate are all predicted by the models. Also, the trends and magnitude of bulk deformation predicted are very similar to measured results. Any differences can be attributed to the elastic nature of the models

  14. Association of IL-6 and MMP-3 gene polymorphisms with susceptibility to adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a meta-analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    JIAN ZHAO; MINGYUAN YANG; MING LI

    2016-09-01

    Recently, several institutions have investigated the associations of MMP-3-1171 5A/6A and IL-6-174-G/C gene polymorphisms with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), while reports from different institutions are not consistent. Therefore, we,comprehensively and systematically performed this meta-analysis to detect whether the two gene polymorphisms are correlated with AIS. From January 1994 to October 2015, all case–control studies focussed on the relationship between the two a forementioned gene polymorphisms and the susceptibility to AIS were retrieved from bibliographic databases. A total of 16 articles were found, of which five consisted of 944 cases and 1177 controls, were finally included after being assessed by two reviewers. We calculated the pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) to assess the associations. The pooled data analyses were based on allele contrast, homozygote, heterozygote, dominant and recessive models. Overall, there was no significant association of IL-6-174-G/C gene polymorphism with AIS risk. Significant association was observedin homozygote model of MMP-3-1171-5A/6A gene polymorphism (5A5A versus 6A6A: OR= 1.69, 95% CI = 1.11–2.58,P =0.02). When stratified into Caucasian and Asian populations, positive association was found in Caucasian population(5A versus 6A: OR =1.43, 95% CI=1.11–1.84, P= 0.006; 5A5A versus 6A6A: OR = 1.90, 95% CI=1.13–3.19, P= 0.015); however, there was no significant association in Asian population. The present study concluded that 5A5A genotype of MMP-3-1171 5A/6A gene polymorphism was associated with AIS, especially in Caucasian population. However, no significant association was detected between IL-6-174-G/C gene polymorphism and AIS.

  15. Schemata and reading comprehension Schemata and reading comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Meurer

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available t school, and also after formal schooling takes place, the acquisition of new knowledge is in great measure dependent on reading comprehension. The total task of understanding written discourse depends on the distribution of information in the printed text, and on the voluntary and automatic activation of information or "schemata" in the reader's mind. Thus, what different readers 'comprehend' of a given text may vary considerably. Reading comprehension is a function of the nature of the text itself and of the extent to which the reader possesses, uses, and integrates pertinent background knowledge, or schemata. Schemata can be loosely defined as patterns which represent the way experinece and knowledge are organized in the mind. The schema for a concept like "break", for instance, will have associated with it at least the variables "breaker", "the thing broken", "the method or' instrument" for the action of breaking, and the notion of "causing something to change into a different state" (Rumelhart and Ortony 1977. Schemata constitute a powerful means used by readers in understanding information which is both explicit and implicit in texts. As an illustration, let us say that we read (or hear the following sentences: "The Karate champion broke the cinder block" (Brewer 1977:3. t school, and also after formal schooling takes place, the acquisition of new knowledge is in great measure dependent on reading comprehension. The total task of understanding written discourse depends on the distribution of information in the printed text, and on the voluntary and automatic activation of information or "schemata" in the reader's mind. Thus, what different readers 'comprehend' of a given text may vary considerably. Reading comprehension is a function of the nature of the text itself and of the extent to which the reader possesses, uses, and integrates pertinent background knowledge, or schemata. Schemata can be loosely defined as patterns which

  16. What Are Probability Surveys?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Aquatic Resource Surveys (NARS) use probability-survey designs to assess the condition of the nation’s waters. In probability surveys (also known as sample-surveys or statistical surveys), sampling sites are selected randomly.

  17. A survey of provably secure searchable encryption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bösch, Christoph; Hartel, Pieter; Jonker, Willem; Peter, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    We survey the notion of provably secure Searchable Encryption (SE) by giving a complete and comprehensive overview of the two main SE techniques: Searchable Symmetric Encryption (SSE) and Public Key Encryption with Keyword Search (PEKS). Since the pioneering work of Song, Wagner and Perrig (IEEE S&P

  18. Higher Education Sustainability Staffing Survey, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association for the Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper shows that despite national unemployment rates that hovered near 10 percent in 2010, those with positions in the higher education sustainability workforce report a sense of job security and feel satisfied with the work they are doing. With 433 completed surveys, the results offer a comprehensive look at the demographics, roles, salaries…

  19. Nine genetic polymorphisms associated with power athlete status - A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyerstraß, Jan; Stewart, Kelly; Wesselius, Anke; Zeegers, Maurice

    2017-06-21

    In this study the association between genetic polymorphisms and power athlete status with possible interference by race and sex was investigated to identify genetic variants favourable for becoming a power athlete. This meta-analysis included both, case-control and Cohort studies. Databases of PubMed and Web of Science were searched for studies reporting on genetic polymorphisms associated with the status of being a power athlete. Thirty-five articles published between 2008 and 2016 were identified as eligible including a total number of 5834 power athletes and 14,018 controls. A series of meta-analyses were conducted for each of the identified genetic polymorphisms associated with power athlete status. Odds ratios (ORs) based on the allele and genotype frequency with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated per genetic variant. Heterogeneity of the studies was addressed by Chi-square based Q-statistics at 5% significance level and a fixed or random effects model was used in absence or presence of heterogeneity respectively. Stratified analyses were conducted by race and sex to explore potential sources of heterogeneity. Significant associations were found for the genetic polymorphisms in the ACE (rs4363, rs1799752), ACTN3 (rs1815739), AGT (rs699), IL6-174 (rs1800795), MnSOD (rs1799725), NOS3 (rs1799983, rs2070744) and SOD2 (rs4880) genes. Nine genetic polymorphisms have been identified in the meta-analyses to have a significant association with the status of being a power athlete. Nevertheless, more research on the investigated genes needs to be done to draw comprehensive conclusions. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cytochrome P450 gene polymorphism and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agundez, Jose A G

    2004-06-01

    Human cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes play a key role in the metabolism of drugs and environmental chemicals. Several CYP enzymes metabolically activate procarcinogens to genotoxic intermediates. Phenotyping analyses revealed an association between CYP enzyme activity and the risk to develop several forms of cancer. Research carried out in the last decade demonstrated that several CYP enzymes are polymorphic due to single nucleotide polymorphisms, gene duplications and deletions. As genotyping procedures became available for most human CYP, an impressive number of association studies on CYP polymorphisms and cancer risk were conducted. Here we review the findings obtained in these studies regarding CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C18, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP3A7, CYP8A1 and CYP21 gene polymorphisms. Consistent evidences for association between CYP polymorphisms and lung, head and neck, and liver cancer were reported. Controversial findings suggest that colorectal and prostate cancers may be associated to CYP polymorphisms, whereas no evidences for a relevant association with breast or bladder cancers were reported. We summarize the available information related to the association of CYP polymorphisms with leukaemia, lymphomas and diverse types of cancer that were investigated only for some CYP genes, including brain, esophagus, stomach, pancreas, pituitary, cervical epithelium, melanoma, ovarian, kidney, anal and vulvar cancers. This review discusses on causes of heterogeneity in the proposed associations, controversial findings on cancer risk, and identifies topics that require further investigation. In addition, some recommendations on study design, in order to obtain more conclusive findings in further studies, are provided.

  1. Stability and metastability of bromine clathrate polymorphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Andrew H; Molinero, Valeria

    2013-05-23

    Clathrate hydrates are crystals in which water forms a network of fully hydrogen-bonded polyhedral cages that contain small guests. Clathrate hydrates occur mostly in two cubic crystal polymorphs, sI and sII. Bromine is one of two guests that yield a hydrate with the tetragonal structure (TS), the topological dual of the Frank-Kasper σ phase. There has been a long-standing disagreement on whether bromine hydrate also forms metastable sI and sII crystals. To date there are no data on the thermodynamic range of stability (e.g., the melting temperatures) of the metastable polymorphs. Here we use molecular dynamics simulations with the coarse-grained model of water mW to (i) investigate the thermodynamic stability of the empty and guest-filled the sI, sII, TS, and HS-I hydrate polymorphs, (ii) develop a coarse-grained model of bromine compatible with mW water, and (iii) evaluate the stability of the bromine hydrate polymorphs. The mW model predicts the same relative energy of the empty clathrate polymorphs and the same phase diagram as a function of water-guest interaction than the fully atomistic TIP4P water model. There is a narrow region in water-guest parameter space for which TS is marginally more stable than sI or sII. We parametrize a coarse-grained model of bromine compatible with mW water and use it to determine the order of stability of the bromine hydrate polymorphs. The melting temperatures of the bromine hydrate polymorphs predicted by the coarse-grained model are 281 ± 1 K for TS, 279 ± 1 K for sII, and 276 ± 1 K for sI. The closeness of the melting temperatures supports the plausibility of formation of metastable sII and sI bromine hydrates.

  2. Association of NOD1 (CARD4) insertion/deletion polymorphism with susceptibility to IBD: A meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To find evidences about whether NOD1/CARD4 insertion/deletion polymorphism is associated with inflammatory bowel disease by meta-analysis. METHODS: We surveyed the studies on the association of NOD1/CARD4 insertion/deletion polymorphism with inflammatory bowel disease in PubMed. Meta-analysis was performed for genotypes GG/T vs T/T, GG/GG vs T/T, GG/T + GG/GG vs T/T, GG/GG vs T/T + GG/T, and GG allele vs T allele in a fixed/random effect model. RESULTS: We identified 8 studies (6439 cases and 4798 cont...

  3. Reading Comprehension: A Viable Challenge for Public School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Correales Rocío

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in the Diana Turbay state school with students of one eighth grade class with a low English level. The group was chosen because of their special characteristics within this public institution: their number (just eighteen students and their interest in and motivation for learning English as a foreign language. The motivation they show allowed the researchers to observe and collect more specific information for this study and for future research on reading comprehension. Data collection was conducted using many different techniques, such as open observations, diary, surveys, students’ self-evaluation and field notes. All these techniques provided information as authentic as possible. The purpose of the study was to determine if students improved their reading comprehension in English by applying specific reading strategies. Results showed that students from state schools can achieve good comprehension of English texts through adequate training despite the fact that they start their English learning so late. Further research on this topic should study the relationship between reading comprehension in Spanish and in English. It would also be necessary to study how students can acquire language structures through reading activities.

  4. Combining Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Density Functional Theory Calculations to Characterize Carvedilol Polymorphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Carlos A; San Gil, Rosane A S; Borré, Leandro B; Pires, José Ricardo; Vaiss, Viviane S; Resende, Jackson A L C; Leitão, Alexandre A; De Alencastro, Ricardo B; Leal, Katia Z

    2016-09-01

    The experiments of carvedilol form II, form III, and hydrate by (13)C and (15)N cross-polarization magic-angle spinning (CP MAS) are reported. The GIPAW (gauge-including projector-augmented wave) method from DFT (density functional theory) calculations was used to simulate (13)C and (15)N chemical shifts. A very good agreement was found for the comparison between the global results of experimental and calculated nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts for carvedilol polymorphs. This work aims a comprehensive understanding of carvedilol crystalline forms employing solution and solid-state NMR as well as DFT calculations.

  5. How Do We Motivate Reading Comprehension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Timothy

    1982-01-01

    Considers the nature of motivation and its place in the development of reading comprehension. Uses A. Maslow's hierarchy of motivation as a heuristic for examining the motivational quality of several teaching methods commonly proposed for comprehension instruction. (FL)

  6. Metaphor comprehension in Alzheimer's disease: novelty matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanzio, Martina; Geminiani, Giuliano; Leotta, Daniela; Cappa, Stefano

    2008-10-01

    The comprehension of non-literal language was investigated in 20 probable Alzheimer's disease (pAD) patients by comparing their performance to that of 20 matched control subjects. pAD patients were unimpaired in the comprehension of conventional metaphors and idioms. However, their performance was significantly lower in the case of non-conventional (novel) metaphor comprehension. This ability was not related to global cognitive deterioration or to deficits in the cognitive domains of attention, memory and language comprehension. On the other hand, the impairment in verbal reasoning appeared to be relevant for both novel and conventional metaphor comprehension. The relationship between novel metaphor comprehension and performance in the visual-spatial planning task of the Behavioral Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome (BADS) suggests that executive impairment, possibly related to prefrontal dysfunction, may be responsible for the pAD patients' poor performance in novel metaphor comprehension. The present findings suggest a role of the prefrontal cortex in novel metaphor comprehension.

  7. On the importance of listening comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Tiffany P; Adlof, Suzanne M; Alonzo, Crystle N

    2014-06-01

    The simple view of reading highlights the importance of two primary components which account for individual differences in reading comprehension across development: word recognition (i.e., decoding) and listening comprehension. While assessments and interventions for decoding have been the focus of pedagogy in the past several decades, the importance of listening comprehension has received less attention. This paper reviews evidence showing that listening comprehension becomes the dominating influence on reading comprehension starting even in the elementary grades. It also highlights a growing number of children who fail to develop adequate reading comprehension skills, primarily due to deficient listening comprehension skills (i.e., poor comprehenders). Finally we discuss key language influences on listening comprehension for consideration during assessment and treatment of reading disabilities.

  8. Y-STR frequency surveying method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willuweit, Sascha; Caliebe, Amke; Andersen, Mikkel Meyer;

    2011-01-01

    reached a new quality with the establishment of the comprehensive neatly quality-controlled reference database YHRD. Grounded on such unrivalled empirical material from hundreds of populations studies the core assumption of the Haplotype Frequency Surveying Method originally described 10 years ago can...... be tested and improved. Here we provide new approaches to calculate the parameters used in the frequency surveying method: a maximum likelihood estimation of the regression parameters (r1, r2, s1 and s2) and a revised Frequency Surveying framework with variable binning and a database preprocessing to take...

  9. The value relevance of comprehensive income

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we look at the effects of the adoption of the revised IAS 1 rules, which has been in effect since January 1, 2009. The revised IAS 1 requires that all changes in equity, excluding changes in equity arising from transactions with owners, should be recognized in comprehensive income statement. Revised IAS 1 requires companies to report total comprehensive income that is a sum of net income and other comprehensive income. Total comprehensive income includes all unrealized gains an...

  10. The value relevance of comprehensive income

    OpenAIRE

    Ringström, Elena; Ekström, Jörgen

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we look at the effects of the adoption of the revised IAS 1 rules, which has been in effect since January 1, 2009. The revised IAS 1 requires that all changes in equity, excluding changes in equity arising from transactions with owners, should be recognized in comprehensive income statement. Revised IAS 1 requires companies to report total comprehensive income that is a sum of net income and other comprehensive income. Total comprehensive income includes all unrealized gains an...

  11. On the importance of listening comprehension

    OpenAIRE

    Hogan, Tiffany P.; Adlof, Suzanne M.; Alonzo, Crystle

    2014-01-01

    The simple view of reading highlights the importance of two primary components which account for individual differences in reading comprehension across development: word recognition (i.e., decoding) and listening comprehension. While assessments and interventions for decoding have been the focus of pedagogy in the past several decades, the importance of listening comprehension has received less attention. This paper reviews evidence showing that listening comprehension becomes the dominating ...

  12. Polymorphisms in human DNA repair genes and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rim Khlifi; Ahmed Rebai; Amel Hamza-Chaffai

    2012-12-01

    Genetic polymorphisms in some DNA repair proteins are associated with a number of malignant transformations like head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Xeroderma pigmentosum group D (XPD) and X-ray repair cross-complementing proteins 1 (XRCC1) and 3 (XRCC3) genes are involved in DNA repair and were found to be associated with HNSCC in numerous studies. To establish our overall understanding of possible relationships between DNA repair gene polymorphisms and development of HNSCC, we surveyed the literature on epidemiological studies that assessed potential associations with HNSCC risk in terms of gene–environment interactions, genotype-induced functional defects in enzyme activity and/or protein expression, and the influence of ethnic origin on these associations.We conclude that large, well-designed studies of common polymorphisms in DNA repair genes are needed. Such studies may benefit from analysis of multiple genes or polymorphisms and from the consideration of relevant exposures that may influence the likelihood of HNSCC when DNA repair capacity is reduced.

  13. Measuring urban water conservation policies: Toward a comprehensive index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, David; Wold, Christopher; Worland, Scott C.; Hornberger, George M.

    2017-01-01

    This article (1) discusses existing efforts to measure water conservation policies (WCPs) in the United States (U.S.); (2) suggests general methodological guidelines for creating robust water conservation indices (WCIs); (3) presents a comprehensive template for coding WCPs; (4) introduces a summary index, the Vanderbilt Water Conservation Index (VWCI), which is derived from 79 WCP observations for 197 cities for the year 2015; and (5) compares the VWCI to WCP data extracted from the 2010 American Water Works Association (AWWA) Water and Wastewater Rates survey. Existing approaches to measuring urban WCPs in U.S. cities are limited because they consider only a portion of WCPs or they are restricted geographically. The VWCI consists of a more comprehensive set of 79 observations classified as residential, commercial/industrial, billing structure, drought plan, or general. Our comparison of the VWCI and AWWA survey responses indicate reasonable agreement (ρ = 0.76) between the two WCIs for 98 cities where the data overlap. The correlation suggests the AWWA survey responses can provide fairly robust longitudinal WCP information, but we argue the measurement of WCPs is still in its infancy, and our approach suggests strategies for improving existing methods.

  14. Survey Expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Weale

    2005-01-01

    This paper focusses on survey expectations and discusses their uses for testing and modeling of expectations. Alternative models of expectations formation are reviewed and the importance of allowing for heterogeneity of expectations is emphasized. A weak form of the rational expectations hypothesis which focusses on average expectations rather than individual expectations is advanced. Other models of expectations formation, such as the adaptive expectations hypothesis, are briefly discussed. ...

  15. Survey Expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Pesaran, M.H.; Weale, M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on survey expectations and discusses their uses for testing and modeling of expectations. Alternative models of expectations formation are reviewed and the importance of allowing for heterogeneity of expectations is emphasized. A weak form of the rational expectations hypothesis which focuses on average expectations rather than individual expectations is advanced. Other models of expectations formation, such as the adaptive expectations hypothesis, are briefly discussed. Te...

  16. Survey expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Pesaran, Mohammad Hashem; Weale, Martin R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on survey expectations and discusses their uses for testing and modeling of expectations. Alternative models of expectations formation are reviewed and the importance of allowing for heterogeneity of expectations is emphasized. A weak form of the rational expectations hypothesis which focuses on average expectations rather than individual expectations is advanced. Other models of expectations formation, such as the adaptive expectations hypothesis, are briefly discussed. Te...

  17. MHC polymorphism under host-pathogen coevolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghans, José A M; Beltman, Joost B; De Boer, Rob J

    2004-02-01

    The genes encoding major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules are among the most polymorphic genes known for vertebrates. Since MHC molecules play an important role in the induction of immune responses, the evolution of MHC polymorphism is often explained in terms of increased protection of hosts against pathogens. Two selective pressures that are thought to be involved are (1) selection favoring MHC heterozygous hosts, and (2) selection for rare MHC alleles by host-pathogen coevolution. We have developed a computer simulation of coevolving hosts and pathogens to study the relative impact of these two mechanisms on the evolution of MHC polymorphism. We found that heterozygote advantage per se is insufficient to explain the high degree of polymorphism at the MHC, even in very large host populations. Host-pathogen coevolution, on the other hand, can easily account for realistic polymorphisms of more than 50 alleles per MHC locus. Since evolving pathogens mainly evade presentation by the most common MHC alleles in the host population, they provide a selective pressure for a large variety of rare MHC alleles. Provided that the host population is sufficiently large, a large set of MHC alleles can persist over many host generations under host-pathogen coevolution, despite the fact that allele frequencies continuously change.

  18. Surveying Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2009-01-01

    In relation to surveying education there is one big question to be asked: Is the role of the surveyors changing? In a global perspective the answer will be "Yes". There is a big swing that could be entitled "From Measurement to Management". This does not imply that measurement is no longer a rele...... on an efficient interaction between education, research, and professional practice.......In relation to surveying education there is one big question to be asked: Is the role of the surveyors changing? In a global perspective the answer will be "Yes". There is a big swing that could be entitled "From Measurement to Management". This does not imply that measurement is no longer....... In surveying education there are a range of other challenges to be faced. These relate to the focus on learning to learn; the need for flexible curriculum to deal with constant change; the move towards introducing virtual academy; the demand for creating a quality culture; and the perspective of lifelong...

  19. Repeated Lexical Comprehension in Context

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱瑾

    2009-01-01

    in the understanding of word meaning, two current semantic theories are popular: one is the referential approach, the other is the representational approach. Logogcn model is one of the models used to comprehend lexicon both by sensory input and by contextual information. Under certain context, four types of lexical repe-tition exist: simple lexical repetition, complex lexical repetition, simple paraphrase, complex paraphrase. How these different repetition patterns are comprehended is our main concern. According to our analysis, they go under different process in the course of comprehension.

  20. Text comprehension practice in school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández, José Emilio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The starting point of the study is the existence of relations between the two dimensions of text compression: the instrumental dimension and the cognitive dimension. The first one includes the system of actions, the second one the system of knowledge. A description of identifying, describing, inferring apprising and creating actions are suggested for each type of text. Likewise, the importance of implementing text comprehension is outlined on the basis of the assumption that the text is a tool for preserving and communicating culture, that allows human beings to wide their respective cultural horizons and develop cognitive and affective process that allow them to get universal morals.

  1. On Factors Affecting Listening Comprehension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗琴

    2014-01-01

    In English teaching and learning, listening ability is an important part of communicative competence, is a very practical integrated skill. It has been a difficult skill in second language acquisition for many students. Many Chinese students are skilled in reading, but often they tend to neglect the listening. However, owing to the higher requirements of many English tests and the great importance in communication, students begin to pay attention to develop their English listening skills. But there are many factors affecting listening, the paper mainly focuses on linguistic factors and non-linguistic factors that affect listening, to provide a theoretical basis to help exploring ways of improving listening and comprehension skills.

  2. Comprehensive management of project changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aljaž Stare

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research was to examine how project changes can be prevented, and how to reduce their negative impact. Theoretical research examined risk management, project control and change management. Based on the study a “Comprehensive Change Management Model” was developed and verified after conducting empirical research in Slovenian enterprises. The research confirmed that risk management identifies possible changes and reduces their impact; project control ensures the timely detection of changes and an efficient response, while formal change management ensures the effective implementation of changes. The combined functioning of all three areas ensures effective project execution.

  3. 33 CFR 238.5 - Comprehensive planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Comprehensive planning. 238.5... Comprehensive planning. Coordinated comprehensive planning at the regional or river basin level, or for an urban.... This planning is particularly important in areas where significant portions of a watershed are expected...

  4. Text comprehension strategy instruction with poor readers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Bos, K.P.; Aarnoudse, C.C.; Brand-Gruwel, S.

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of teaching text comprehension strategies to children with decoding and reading comprehension problems and with a poor or normal listening ability. Two experiments are reported. Four text comprehension strategies, viz., question generation,

  5. How to Improve English Reading Comprehension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓珊

    2013-01-01

      Comprehension is the base of reading and also the purpose of reading. Improving reading comprehension is one of the most important tasks in English study. Only mastering English basic knowledge, accumulating rich vocabulary and using proper reading strategies and techniques can reading comprehension be improved effectively.

  6. Text comprehension strategy instruction with poor readers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Bos, K.P.; Aarnoudse, C.C.; Brand-Gruwel, S.

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of teaching text comprehension strategies to children with decoding and reading comprehension problems and with a poor or normal listening ability. Two experiments are reported. Four text comprehension strategies, viz., question generation, summa

  7. 18 CFR 801.5 - Comprehensive plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Comprehensive plan. 801... POLICIES § 801.5 Comprehensive plan. (a) The Compact requires that the Commission formulate and adopt a comprehensive plan for the immediate and long-range development and use of the water resources of the basin....

  8. The ACS Virgo Cluster Survey. I. Introduction to the Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Côté, P; Ferrarese, L; Jordan, A; Mei, S; Merritt, D; Milosavljevic, M; Peng, E W; Tonry, J L; West, M J; Cote, Patrick; Blakeslee, John P.; Ferrarese, Laura; Jordan, Andres; Mei, Simona; Merritt, David; Milosavljevic, Milos; Peng, Eric W.; Tonry, John L.; West, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    The Virgo Cluster is the dominant mass concentration in the Local Supercluster and the largest collection of elliptical and lenticular galaxies in the nearby universe. In this paper, we present an introduction to the ACS Virgo Cluster Survey: a program to image, in the F475W and F850LP bandpasses (Sloan g and z), 100 early-type galaxies in the Virgo Cluster using the Advanced Camera for Surveys on the Hubble Space Telescope. We describe the selection of the program galaxies and their ensemble properties, the choice of filters, the field placement and orientation, the limiting magnitudes of the survey, coordinated parallel observations of 100 "intergalactic" fields with WFPC2, and supporting ground-based spectroscopic observations of the program galaxies. In terms of depth, spatial resolution, sample size and homogeneity, this represents the most comprehensive imaging survey to date of early-type galaxies in a cluster environment. We briefly describe the main scientific goals of the survey which include the me...

  9. National Survey of Veterans, Active Duty Service Members, Demobilized National Guard and Reserve Members, Family Members, and Surviving Spouses

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The 2010 National Survey of Veterans (NSV) is the sixth in a series of comprehensive nationwide surveys designed to help the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) plan...

  10. National Survey of Veterans, Active Duty Service Members, Demobilized National Guard and Reserve Members, Family Members, and Surviving Spouses

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The 2010 National Survey of Veterans (NSV) is the sixth in a series of comprehensive nationwide surveys designed to help the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) plan...

  11. Prediction During Natural Language Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Roel M; Frank, Stefan L; Nijhof, Annabel D; Hagoort, Peter; van den Bosch, Antal

    2016-06-01

    The notion of prediction is studied in cognitive neuroscience with increasing intensity. We investigated the neural basis of 2 distinct aspects of word prediction, derived from information theory, during story comprehension. We assessed the effect of entropy of next-word probability distributions as well as surprisal A computational model determined entropy and surprisal for each word in 3 literary stories. Twenty-four healthy participants listened to the same 3 stories while their brain activation was measured using fMRI. Reversed speech fragments were presented as a control condition. Brain areas sensitive to entropy were left ventral premotor cortex, left middle frontal gyrus, right inferior frontal gyrus, left inferior parietal lobule, and left supplementary motor area. Areas sensitive to surprisal were left inferior temporal sulcus ("visual word form area"), bilateral superior temporal gyrus, right amygdala, bilateral anterior temporal poles, and right inferior frontal sulcus. We conclude that prediction during language comprehension can occur at several levels of processing, including at the level of word form. Our study exemplifies the power of combining computational linguistics with cognitive neuroscience, and additionally underlines the feasibility of studying continuous spoken language materials with fMRI. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Medicinal marijuana: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurley, R J; Aranow, R; Katz, M

    1998-01-01

    Considerable controversy exists regarding the role of marijuana as a therapeutic agent; however, many practitioners are taught very little about existing marijuana data. The authors therefore undertook a comprehensive literature review of the topic. References were identified using textbooks, review and opinion articles, and a primary literature review in MEDLINE. Sources were included in this review based primarily on the quality of the data. Some data exists that lends credence to many of the claims about marijuana's properties. In general, however, the body of literature about marijuana is extremely poor in quality. Marijuana and/or its components may help alleviate suffering in patients with a variety of serious illnesses. Health care providers can best minimize short term adverse consequences and drug interactions for terminally ill patients by having a thorough understanding of the pharmacology of marijuana, potential adverse reactions, infection risks, and drug interactions (along with on-going monitoring of the patient). For chronic conditions, the significance and risk of short and long term adverse effects must be weighed against the desired benefit. Patients who are best suited to medicinal marijuana will be those who will gain substantial benefit to offset these risks, and who have failed a well-documented, compliant and comprehensive approach to standard therapies.

  13. Comprehensive Environmental Assessment Applied to ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    In September 2013, EPA announced the availability of the final report, Comprehensive Environmental Assessment Applied to Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Flame-Retardant Coatings in Upholstery Textiles: A Case Study Presenting Priority Research Gaps for Future Risk Assessments. This final report presents a case study of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs); it focuses on the specific example of MWCNTs as used in flame-retardant coatings applied to upholstery textiles. This case study is organized around the comprehensive environmental assessment (CEA) framework, which structures available information pertaining to the product life cycle, environmental transport and fate, exposure-dose in receptors (i.e., humans, ecological populations, and the environment), and potential impacts in these receptors. A group of experts representing multiple disciplines and multiple sector perspectives used an earlier draft of the case study in conjunction with a structured workshop process to identify and prioritize research gaps that, if pursued, could inform future MWCNT assessment efforts. The final report is not a health, risk, or exposure assessment and as such does not draw conclusions about potential risks, or present an exhaustive review of the literature. Rather, it presents the MWCNT research priorities that experts identified in this application of CEA in order to aid research planning throughout the scientific community. The outcomes of these research efforts may subsequ

  14. NQR frequencies of anhydrous carbamazepine polymorphic phases

    CERN Document Server

    Bonin, C J; Pusiol, D J

    2010-01-01

    In this work we propose the Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR) technique as an analytical method suitable for polymorphism detection in active parts (or active principles) of pharmaceuticals with high pharmacological risk. Samples of powder carbamazepine (5H-dibenz(b,f)-azepine-5-carboxamide) are studied. In its anhydrous state, this compound presents at least three different polymorphic forms: form III, the commercial one, form II, and form I. Of these, only form III possesses desirable therapeutic effects. By using the NQR technique, it was possible to characterize two of the three polymorphic phases (I and III) for anhydrous carbamazepine in few minutes at room temperature, detecting the characteristic frequencies of 14N nuclei (I=1) present in their chemical composition and in the frequency range 2.820-3.935 MHz. For form II, characteristic lines were not detected within this range of frequencies. The lines detected for form III are centered at the frequencies \

  15. DNA Polymorphisms in River Buffalo Leptin Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Moioli

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Leptin is a protein involved in the regulation of feed intake, fat metabolism, whole body energy balance, reproduction and hematopoiesis. In cattle Leptin gene has been considered a potential QTL influencing several production traits like meat production, milk performance and reproduction. Several studies on bovine leptin gene have found association between polymorphisms and traits like milk yield, feed intake, fat content, carcass and meat quality. With the aim to assess the presence of sequences polymorphisms in the Buffalo leptin gene, we sequenced the entire coding region and part of the introns on a panel of Italian River Buffalos. In this study we identified a new set of SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism useful for association studies.

  16. 2-(4-Fluorobenzylidenepropanedinitrile: monoclinic polymorph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. El-Agrody

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C10H5FN2, is a monoclinic (P21/c polymorph of the previously reported triclinic (P-1 form [Antipin et al. (2003. J. Mol. Struct. 650, 1–20]. The 13 non-H atoms in the title polymorph are almost coplanar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.020 Å; a small twist between the fluorobenzene and dinitrile groups [C—C—C—C torsion angle = 175.49 (16°] is evident in the triclinic polymorph. In the crystal, C—H...N interactions lead to supramolecular layers parallel to (-101; these are connected by C—F...π interactions.

  17. An orthorhombic polymorph of mulinic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Brito

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The title compound [systematic name: (3S,3aS,10bR-3-isopropyl-5a,8-dimethyl-2,3,4,5,5a,6,7,10,10a,10b-decahydro-endo-epidioxycyclohepta[e]indene-3a(1H-carboxylic acid], C20H30O4, is a polymorphic form of a previously reported structure [Loyola et al. (1990. Tetrahedron, 46, 5413–5420]. The newly found orthorhombic polymorph crystallizes in P212121 with two molecules in the asymmetric unit. The molecules are linked into discrete D(2 chains by simple O—H...O interactions. There are only slight variations in the molecular geometry and supramolecular organization in the crystal structures of the two polymorphs. The densities are 1.145 (monoclinic, P21 and 1.155 Mg m−3 (orthorhombic, P212121.

  18. Method and Application of Comprehensive Knowledge Discovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHA Zongyao; BIAN Fuling

    2003-01-01

    This paper proposes the principle of comprehensive knowledge discovery. Unlike most of the current knowledge discovery methods, the comprehensive knowledge discovery considers both the spatial relations and attributes of spatial entities or objects. We introduce the theory of spatial knowledge expression system and some concepts including comprehensive knowledge discovery and spatial union information table(SUIT). In theory, SUIT records all information contained in the studied objects, but in reality, because of the complexity and varieties of spatial relations,only those factors of interest to us are selected. In order to find out the comprehensive knowledge from spatial databases, an efficient comprehensive knowledge discovery algorithm called recycled algorithm (RAR) is suggested.

  19. The National Criminal Justice Treatment Practices survey: Multilevel survey methods and procedures⋆

    OpenAIRE

    Taxman, Faye S.; Young, Douglas W.; Wiersema, Brian; Rhodes, Anne; Mitchell, Suzanne

    2007-01-01

    The National Criminal Justice Treatment Practices (NCJTP) survey provides a comprehensive inquiry into the nature of programs and services provided to adult and juvenile offenders involved in the justice system in the United States. The multilevel survey design covers topics such as the mission and goals of correctional and treatment programs; organizational climate and culture for providing services; organizational capacity and needs; opinions of administrators and staff regarding rehabilita...

  20. Polymorphic phase transition in Superhydrous Phase B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch-Müller, M.; Dera, P.; Fei, Y.; Hellwig, H.; Liu, Z.; Orman, J. Van; Wirth, R.

    2005-09-01

    We synthesized superhydrous phase B (shy-B) at 22 GPa and two different temperatures: 1200°C (LT) and 1400°C (HT) using a multi-anvil apparatus. The samples were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), single crystal X-ray diffraction, Raman and IR spectroscopy. The IR spectra were collected on polycrystalline thin-films and single crystals using synchrotron radiation, as well as a conventional IR source at ambient conditions and in situ at various pressures (up to 15 GPa) and temperatures (down to -180°C). Our studies show that shy-B exists in two polymorphic forms. As expected from crystal chemistry, the LT polymorph crystallizes in a lower symmetry space group ( Pnn2), whereas the HT polymorph assumes a higher symmetry space group ( Pnnm). TEM shows that both modifications consist of nearly perfect crystals with almost no lattice defects or inclusions of additional phases. IR spectra taken on polycrystalline thin films exhibit just one symmetric OH band and 29 lattice modes for the HT polymorph in contrast to two intense but asymmetric OH stretching bands and at least 48 lattice modes for the LT sample. The IR spectra differ not only in the number of bands, but also in the response of the bands to changes in pressure. The pressure derivatives for the IR bands are higher for the HT polymorph indicating that the high symmetry form is more compressible than the low symmetry form. Polarized, low-temperature single-crystal IR spectra indicate that in the LT-polymorph extensive ordering occurs not only at the Mg sites but also at the hydrogen sites.

  1. Polymorphic Phase Transition in Superhydrous Phase B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch-Muller,M.; Dera, P.; Fei, Y.; Hellwig, H.; Liu, Z.; Van Orman, J.; Wirth, R.

    2005-01-01

    We synthesized superhydrous phase B (shy-B) at 22 GPa and two different temperatures: 1200 C (LT) and 1400 C (HT) using a multi-anvil apparatus. The samples were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), single crystal X-ray diffraction, Raman and IR spectroscopy. The IR spectra were collected on polycrystalline thin-films and single crystals using synchrotron radiation, as well as a conventional IR source at ambient conditions and in situ at various pressures (up to 15 GPa) and temperatures (down to -180 C). Our studies show that shy-B exists in two polymorphic forms. As expected from crystal chemistry, the LT polymorph crystallizes in a lower symmetry space group (Pnn2), whereas the HT polymorph assumes a higher symmetry space group (Pnnm). TEM shows that both modifications consist of nearly perfect crystals with almost no lattice defects or inclusions of additional phases. IR spectra taken on polycrystalline thin films exhibit just one symmetric OH band and 29 lattice modes for the HT polymorph in contrast to two intense but asymmetric OH stretching bands and at least 48 lattice modes for the LT sample. The IR spectra differ not only in the number of bands, but also in the response of the bands to changes in pressure. The pressure derivatives for the IR bands are higher for the HT polymorph indicating that the high symmetry form is more compressible than the low symmetry form. Polarized, low-temperature single-crystal IR spectra indicate that in the LT-polymorph extensive ordering occurs not only at the Mg sites but also at the hydrogen sites.

  2. Multiple Surveys of Students and Survey Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Stephen R.; Whitcomb, Michael E.; Weitzer, William H.

    2004-01-01

    This chapter reviews the literature on survey fatigue and summarizes a research project that indicates that administering multiple surveys in one academic year can significantly suppress response rates in later surveys. (Contains 4 tables.)

  3. Who Did What to Whom? The Relationship between Syntactic Aspects of Sentence Comprehension and Text Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Mads; Gravgaard, Amalie K. D.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between syntactic comprehension at the sentence level and text-level comprehension. The study isolated the specific contribution of syntax by asking whether sentence comprehension efficiency of difficult syntactic constructions explained variance in text comprehension after controlling for sentence…

  4. Association of ADAM33 gene polymorphisms with allergic asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Zand Karimi

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: Polymorphisms of ADAM33 gene might be associated with severe asthma and sensitivity to aeroallergens in northeast of Iran, but further studies are needed to determine the polymorphisms in this area and other regions of our country.

  5. Intermolecular Repulsion through Interfacial Attraction : Toward Engineering of Polymorphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kudernac, Tibor; Sändig, Nadja; Fernández Landaluce, Tatiana; Wees, Bart J. van; Rudolf, Petra; Katsonis, Nathalie; Zerbetto, Francesco; Feringa, Ben L.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the formation of crystalline polymorphs is of importance for various applications of materials science. Polymorphism of Schiff base derivatives has recently attracted considerable attention because of its influence on photochromic and thermochromic properties of their 3D crystals. The

  6. Comprehensively Assessing Cognitive and Behavioral Risks for HIV Infection among Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniagua, Freddy A.; O'Boyle, Michael

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive survey of HIV/AIDS with middle-aged and older adults should include six domains (e.g., factual knowledge regarding the acquisition and transmission of HIV, traditionally-accepted behavioral risks for HIV infection). A sample of 23 women (54.8%) and 19 men (45.2%), ranging in age from 51 to 85 were surveyed across such domains.…

  7. Polymorphic Endpoint Types for Copyless Message Passing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Bono

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We present PolySing#, a calculus that models process interaction based on copyless message passing, in the style of Singularity OS. We equip the calculus with a type system that accommodates polymorphic endpoint types, which are a variant of polymorphic session types, and we show that well-typed processes are free from faults, leaks, and communication errors. The type system is essentially linear, although linearity alone may leave room for scenarios where well-typed processes leak memory. We identify a condition on endpoint types that prevents these leaks from occurring.

  8. TNF-alpha polymorphisms and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu; Feng, Rennan; Bi, Sheng; Xu, Yuqing

    2011-09-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is an important pro-inflammatory cytokine in the development and progress in human cancer. TNF-α polymorphisms have been confirmed to influence the risk for several types of cancer, however, the associations between TNF-α polymorphisms and breast cancer (BC) remain controversial and ambiguous. The aim of this meta-analysis is to explore more precise estimations regarding this point. Electronic searches of several databases were conducted for all online publications on the associations between TNF-α-238, -308, -857, -863, -1031, -1210 polymorphisms and BC through March 2011. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated to assess the strength of these associations in fixed- and random-effect models with Review manager 5.0. A total of 17 studies with 44,442 BC patients and 49,926 controls involved were identified. This meta-analysis showed no significant association between TNF-α-308 polymorphism and BC (AA + GA vs. GG: OR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.82-1.09) in overall and (OR = 1.44, 95% CI = 0.61-3.40) Asian populations, however, a negative association was shown in Caucasian subgroup (OR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.85-0.97). As regards the TNF-α-238 polymorphism, the OR values (95% CI) were 0.99 (0.94-1.05), 0.94 (0.78-1.14), and 1.00 (0.95-1.05) for the overall, Asian, and Caucasian studies, respectively. No significant associations were found for other polymorphisms. Furthermore, there was a coincidence in the sensitivity analysis of these associations. No publication bias was detected in this study. To sum up, no significant associations were found between the TNF-α-308, -238, -857, -863, -1031, -1210 polymorphisms and the risk for BC in overall populations, whereas a negative association was found between TNF-α-308 polymorphism and BC in Caucasian populations.

  9. The Relative Contributions of Word Identification Skill and Comprehension-Monitoring Behavior to Reading Comprehension Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinar

    2000-10-01

    Ninety-five fourth-grade children completed measures of reading comprehension, word identification, and several aspects of comprehension-monitoring behavior. Correlations indicated that word identification was the strongest predictor of reading comprehension. However, hierarchical regression analysis indicated that after the effects of word identification were partialed, comprehension-monitoring behavior explained significant additional variability in reading comprehension. Subgroup analysis indicated that the effect of comprehension-monitoring behavior was strongest among those students whose word-analysis skills were less well developed. Results were interpreted as suggesting that comprehension-monitoring strategies can be used to compensate for weaknesses in word-identification skills. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  10. Nursing supervision for care comprehensiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Lucieli Dias Pedreschi; Mininel, Vivian Aline; Silva, Jaqueline Alcântara Marcelino da; Alves, Larissa Roberta; Silva, Maria Ferreira da; Camelo, Silvia Helena Henriques

    2017-01-01

    To reflect on nursing supervision as a management tool for care comprehensiveness by nurses, considering its potential and limits in the current scenario. A reflective study based on discourse about nursing supervision, presenting theoretical and practical concepts and approaches. Limits on the exercise of supervision are related to the organization of healthcare services based on the functional and clinical model of care, in addition to possible gaps in the nurse training process and work overload. Regarding the potential, researchers emphasize that supervision is a tool for coordinating care and management actions, which may favor care comprehensiveness, and stimulate positive attitudes toward cooperation and contribution within teams, co-responsibility, and educational development at work. Nursing supervision may help enhance care comprehensiveness by implying continuous reflection on including the dynamics of the healthcare work process and user needs in care networks. refletir a supervisão de enfermagem como instrumento gerencial do enfermeiro para integralidade do cuidado, considerando suas potencialidades e limitações no cenário atual. estudo reflexivo baseado na formulação discursiva sobre a supervisão de enfermagem, apresentando conceitos e enfoques teóricos e/ou práticos. limitações no exercício da supervisão estão relacionadas à organização dos serviços de saúde embasada no modelo funcional e clínico de atenção, assim como possíveis lacunas no processo de formação do enfermeiro e sobrecarga de trabalho. Quanto às potencialidades, destaca-se a supervisão como instrumento de articulação de ações assistenciais e gerenciais, que pode favorecer integralidade da atenção, estimular atitudes de cooperação e colaboração em equipe, além da corresponsabilização e promoção da educação no trabalho. supervisão de enfermagem pode contribuir para fortalecimento da integralidade do cuidado, pressupondo reflexão cont

  11. The Relationship between Fluent Reading Skills and Comprehension Level (Literal and Inferential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet BAŞTUĞ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to analyze the relationship between 5th graders’ fluent reading skills and comprehension level (literal and inferential. Thirty nine fifth graders of different sex, socioeconomic and achievement level participated in the study. The research was conducted in the survey model. In data analysis, t-test, ANOVA and correlation analysis techniques were employed. The results revealed that there is a positive and medium level relationship between reading skills and comprehension. In addition, fluent reading skills were found to be correlated at a higher level in comparison with literal comprehension. Moreover, the variables of students’ sex and socioeconomic level were compared in terms of fluent reading skills and comprehension level. The results of this comparison demonstrate that the sex variable did not differ significantly in terms of fluent reading skills and comprehension level. As for comparisons related to fluent reading skills and comprehension level, a significant difference was not observed as well. Apart from this, comparisons of socio-economic level variable showed that students with higher socioeconomic level had higher scores in fluent reading skills and inferential comprehension level. It points to the fact that socioeconomically advantaged students are more successful at fluent reading and comprehension.

  12. Genotyping of FCN and MBL2 polymorphisms using pyrosequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munthe-Fog, Lea; Madsen, Hans O.; Garred, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Pyrosequencing represents one of the most thorough methods used to analyze polymorphisms. One advantage of using pyrosequencing for genotyping is the ability to identify not only single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) but also tri-allelic variations, insertions and deletions (InDels). In contrast...... to most other genotyping assays the sequence surrounding the polymorphism provides an internal control making this method highly reliable....

  13. Mycobacterial endocarditis: a comprehensive review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi-Min, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Objective A systematic analysis was made in view of the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment and main outcomes of mycobacterial endocarditis. Methods The data source of the present study was based on a comprehensive literature search in MEDLINE, Highwire Press and Google search engine for publications on mycobacterial endocarditis published between 2000 and 2013. Results The rapidly growing mycobacteria become the predominant pathogens with Mycobacterium chelonae being the most common. This condition has changed significantly in terms of epidemiology since the 21st century, with more broad patient age range, longer latency, prevailed mitral valve infections and better prognosis. Conclusion Mycobacterial endocarditis is rare and the causative pathogens are predominantly the rapidly growing mycobacteria. Amikacin, ciprofloxacin and clarithromycin are the most frequently used targeted antimicrobial agents but often show poor responses. Patients with deep infections may warrant a surgical operation or line withdrawal. With periodic multidrug therapy guided by drug susceptibility testing, and surgical managements, patients may achieve good therapeutic results. PMID:25859873

  14. Building Information Modeling Comprehensive Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Kalinichuk

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The article is addressed to provide a comprehensive review on recently accelerated development of the Information Technology within project market such as industrial, engineering, procurement and construction. Author’s aim is to cover the last decades of the growth of the Information and Communication Technology in construction industry in particular Building Information Modeling and testifies that the problem of a choice of the effective project realization method not only has not lost its urgency, but has also transformed into one of the major condition of the intensive technology development. All of it has created a great impulse on shortening the project duration and has led to the development of various schedule compression techniques what becomes a focus of modern construction.

  15. Probability theory a comprehensive course

    CERN Document Server

    Klenke, Achim

    2014-01-01

    This second edition of the popular textbook contains a comprehensive course in modern probability theory. Overall, probabilistic concepts play an increasingly important role in mathematics, physics, biology, financial engineering and computer science. They help us in understanding magnetism, amorphous media, genetic diversity and the perils of random developments at financial markets, and they guide us in constructing more efficient algorithms.   To address these concepts, the title covers a wide variety of topics, many of which are not usually found in introductory textbooks, such as:   • limit theorems for sums of random variables • martingales • percolation • Markov chains and electrical networks • construction of stochastic processes • Poisson point process and infinite divisibility • large deviation principles and statistical physics • Brownian motion • stochastic integral and stochastic differential equations. The theory is developed rigorously and in a self-contained way, with the c...

  16. Comprehensive approach to sarcopenia treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Hidetaka; Sakuma, Kunihiro

    2014-05-01

    Sarcopenia is characterized by progressive and generalized loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength with a risk of adverse outcomes such as physical disability, poor quality of life, and death. Primary sarcopenia is considered to be age-related when no other cause is evident, other than ageing itself. Secondary sarcopenia should be considered when one or more other causes are evident, such as activity-, disease-, or nutrition-related sarcopenia. In this narrative review that focused on human studies, we summarize the pharmaceutical therapies (testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, estrogen, growth hormone, ghrelin, vitamin D, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, and eicosapentaenoic acid) and nonpharmaceutical therapies (resistance training, protein and amino acid supplementation, and non-smoking) for counteracting primary sarcopenia. Testosterone and growth hormone improve muscle mass and muscle strength, but have several side effects. Although there are some intriguing pharmaceutical therapies to combat sarcopenia, resistance training combined with supplements containing amino acids are the most effective for preventing and treating age-related muscle wasting and weakness. The etiology of sarcopenia in the elderly is multi-factorial. Patients with disuse syndrome and deconditioning often complicate the diagnosis, of not only activity-related sarcopenia, but also age-, disease-, and nutrition-related sarcopenia. In these cases a comprehensive approach to sarcopenia treatment should include pharmaceutical therapies for age-related sarcopenia and comorbid chronic diseases, resistance training, early ambulation, nutrition management, protein and amino acid supplementation, and non-smoking. The effect of pharmaceutical therapies for sarcopenia can be enhanced by this comprehensive approach. Future research on pharmaceutical therapies for counteracting sarcopenia should consider non-pharmaceutical therapies and also the causes of sarcopenia.

  17. Polymorphisms in the IRF-4 gene, asthma and recurrent bronchitis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, L A; Michel, S; Klopp, N; Vogelberg, C; von Berg, A; Bufe, A; Heinzmann, A; Laub, O; Simma, B; Frischer, T; Genuneit, J; Gorski, M; Illig, T; Kabesch, M

    2013-10-01

    Interferon-regulatory factors (IRFs) play a crucial role in immunity, not only influencing interferon expression but also T cell differentiation. IRF-4 was only recently recognized as a further major player in T cell differentiation. As IRF-1 polymorphisms were shown to be associated with atopy and allergy, we comprehensively investigated effects of IRF-4 variants on allergy, asthma and related phenotypes in German children. Fifteen tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the IRF-4 gene were genotyped by MALDI-TOF MS in the cross-sectional ISAAC phase II study population from Munich and Dresden (age 9-11; N = 3099). Replication was performed in our previously established genome-wide association study (GWAS) data set (N = 1303) consisting of asthma cases from the Multicenter Asthma Genetic in Childhood (MAGIC) study and reference children from the ISAAC II study. SNPs were not significantly associated with asthma but with bronchial hyperresponsiveness, atopy and, most interestingly, with recurrent bronchitis in the first data set. The IRF-4 variant rs9378805 was associated with recurrent bronchitis in the ISAAC population and replicated in the GWAS data set where further SNPs showed associations with recurrent bronchitis and asthma. We found genetic associations in IRF-4 to be associated with recurrent bronchitis in our two study populations. Associated polymorphisms are localized in a putative regulatory element in the 3'UTR region of IRF-4. These findings suggest a putative role of IRF-4 in the development of bronchitis. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Single-feature polymorphism discovery by computing probe affinity shape powers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Haiyan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single-feature polymorphism (SFP discovery is a rapid and cost-effective approach to identify DNA polymorphisms. However, high false positive rates and/or low sensitivity are prevalent in previously described SFP detection methods. This work presents a new computing method for SFP discovery. Results The probe affinity differences and affinity shape powers formed by the neighboring probes in each probe set were computed into SFP weight scores. This method was validated by known sequence information and was comprehensively compared with previously-reported methods using the same datasets. A web application using this algorithm has been implemented for SFP detection. Using this method, we identified 364 SFPs in a barley near-isogenic line pair carrying either the wild type or the mutant uniculm2 (cul2 allele. Most of the SFP polymorphisms were identified on chromosome 6H in the vicinity of the Cul2 locus. Conclusion This SFP discovery method exhibits better performance in specificity and sensitivity over previously-reported methods. It can be used for other organisms for which GeneChip technology is available. The web-based tool will facilitate SFP discovery. The 364 SFPs discovered in a barley near-isogenic line pair provide a set of genetic markers for fine mapping and future map-based cloning of the Cul2 locus.

  19. Genetic variation in hemp and marijuana (Cannabis sativa L.) according to amplified fragment length polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datwyler, Shannon L; Weiblen, George D

    2006-03-01

    Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae) is one of the earliest known cultivated plants and is important in the global economy today as a licit and an illicit crop. Molecular markers distinguishing licit and illicit cultivars have forensic utility, but no direct comparison of hemp and marijuana amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) has been made to date. Genetic variation was surveyed in three populations of fiber hemp and a potent cultivar of marijuana using AFLP markers. Ten primer pairs yielded 1206 bands, of which 88% were polymorphic. Eighteen bands represented fixed differences between all fiber populations and the drug cultivar. These markers have practical utility for (1) establishing conspiracy in the cultivation and distribution of marijuana, (2) identifying geographic sources of seized drugs, and (3) discriminating illegal, potent marijuana cultivars from hemp where the cultivation of industrial hemp is permitted.

  20. Molecular Polymorphisms in Tunisian Pomegranate (Punica granatum L. as Revealed by RAPD Fingerprints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jemni Chibani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity among Tunisian pomegranate cultivars has been investigated. Using universal primers, the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD method was used to generate banding profiles from a set of twelve cultivars. Data was then computed with appropriate programs to construct a dendrogram illustrating the relationships between the studied cultivars. Our data proved the efficiency of the designed method to examine the DNA polymorphism in this crop since the tested primers are characterized by a collective resolving power of 12.83. In addition, the cluster analysis has exhibited a parsimonious tree branching independent from the geographic origin of the cultivars. In spite of the relatively low number of primers and cultivars, RAPD constitutes an appropriate procedure to assess the genetic diversity and to survey the phylogenetic relationships in this crop.

  1. Simultaneous detection of the exon 10 polymorphism and a novel intronic single base insertion polymorphism in the XPD gene using single strand conformation polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajiv; Angelini, Sabrina; Hemminki, Kari

    2003-03-01

    We developed a new method based on the single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) technique for the detection of a G23591A (Asp312Asn) polymorphism in exon 10 of the XPD gene. In the process we also identified a novel polymorphism 23623C-ins (IVS10+17C-ins) in intron 10 of the same gene. With this newly developed SSCP-based method of genotyping we could detect both polymorphisms in the same assay and thus consequently determine the haplotype. In order to determine the population frequency of the novel polymorphism and the haplotype frequency, 302 healthy individuals were genotyped. The allelic frequency of the 23623C-ins intronic polymorphism was 0.16, whereas the frequency of the variant allele for the G23591A polymorphism was 0.39. Forty-three individuals (14%) were heterozygous for both polymorphisms but none carried polymorphic variants for both G23591A and 23623C-ins on the same allele. The effect of the novel intronic insertion polymorphism, which is located 16 nt downstream of the 3'-end of exon 10 of the XPD gene and involves a mononucleotide C repeat sequence, on expression remains to be determined.

  2. Comprehensive assessment and network analysis of the emerging genetic susceptibility landscape of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Chindo; Miele, Lucio; Koganti, Tejaswi; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in high-throughput genotyping have made possible identification of genetic variants associated with increased risk of developing prostate cancer using genome-wide associations studies (GWAS). However, the broader context in which the identified genetic variants operate is poorly understood. Here we present a comprehensive assessment, network, and pathway analysis of the emerging genetic susceptibility landscape of prostate cancer. We created a comprehensive catalog of genetic variants and associated genes by mining published reports and accompanying websites hosting supplementary data on GWAS. We then performed network and pathway analysis using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-containing genes to identify gene regulatory networks and pathways enriched for genetic variants. We identified multiple gene networks and pathways enriched for genetic variants including IGF-1, androgen biosynthesis and androgen signaling pathways, and the molecular mechanisms of cancer. The results provide putative functional bridges between GWAS findings and gene regulatory networks and biological pathways.

  3. Association of serum uric acid with Pro12Ala polymorphism in PPAR-γ2 among Chinese nonagenarians/centenarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Huang, Chang-Quan; Lu, Zhen-Chan; Dong, Bi-Rong

    2012-04-01

    In previous studies, Pro12Ala polymorphism in peroxisome proliferator- activated receptors gamma 2 (PPAR-γ2) was shown to be associated with both longevity and metabolic syndrome, which was closely related with hyperuricemia. We examined long-lived subjects (≥90 years), to ascertain whether the polymorphism is associated with the level of serum uric acid (SUA). The present study analysed data from a survey conducted in 2005 on all residents aged 90 years or more in a district with 2,311,709 inhabitants. The sample comprised 669 unrelated Chinese participants (aged 90-108 years, mean: 93.54±3.53 years; 67.2% women). The genotype frequencies of the Pro12Ala polymorphism were 0% Ala12Ala and 9.0% Pro12Ala, 91.0% Pro12Pro. Between men or women, and between subjects who were or were not 12Ala carriers, neither in SUA levels nor the prevalence of hyperuricemia were significant. Between subjects with and without hyperuricemia, the difference in prevalence of 12Ala carriers was also non-significant. Unadjusted and adjusted multiple logistic regressions showed that the odds ratios (OR) for hyperuricemia were not associated with Pro12Ala polymorphism in PPAR-γ2. In Chinese nonagenarians and centenarians, SUA levels are not associated with polymorphism in PPAR-γ2.

  4. [Cyclooxigenase-1 gene polymorphism and aspirin resistance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondar', T N; Kravchenko, N A

    2012-01-01

    The literature data concerning structure of cyclo-oxigenase-1--the key enzyme in prostaglandin biosynthesis and the main target of anti-platelet therapy with the use of acetylsalicilic acid are presented in the review. The data on cyclooxigenase-1 gene polymorphism, distribution of the revealed variants in various populations and their possible correlation with biochemical and functional aspirin resistance are presented.

  5. A novel multiplex analysis of filaggrin polymorphisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meldgaard, Michael; Szecsi, Pal B; Carlsen, Berit C;

    2012-01-01

    The filaggrin protein is expressed as profilaggrin mainly in stratum granulosum cells of the epidermis. The profilaggrin gene codes for 10-12 filaggrin repeats. The filaggrin protein is important for skin barrier function. Filaggrin deficiency due to functional null-polymorphisms affects 8-10% of...

  6. The common polymorphism of apolipoprotein E

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdes, Ulrik

    2003-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E (apoE) has important functions in systemic and local lipid transport, but also has other functions. The gene (APOE) shows a common polymorphism with three alleles--APOE*2, APOE*3, and APOE*4. Their frequencies vary substantially around the world, but APOE*3 is the most common...

  7. Idealized powder diffraction patterns for cellulose polymorphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellulose samples are routinely analyzed by X-ray diffraction to determine their crystal type (polymorph) and crystallinity. However, the connection is seldom made between those efforts and the crystal structures of cellulose that have been determined with synchrotron X-radiation and neutron diffrac...

  8. Chromosomal polymorphism in the Sporothrix schenckii complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Alexandre A; Fernandes, Geisa F; Rodrigues, Anderson M; Lima, Fábio M; Marini, Marjorie M; Dos S Feitosa, Luciano; de Melo Teixeira, Marcus; Felipe, Maria Sueli Soares; da Silveira, José Franco; de Camargo, Zoilo P

    2014-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is a polymorphic disease caused by a complex of thermodimorphic fungi including S. brasiliensis, S. schenckii sensu stricto (s. str.), S. globosa and S. luriei. Humans and animals can acquire the disease through traumatic inoculation of propagules into the subcutaneous tissue. Despite the importance of sporotrichosis as a disease that can take epidemic proportions there are just a few studies dealing with genetic polymorphisms and genomic architecture of these pathogens. The main objective of this study was to investigate chromosomal polymorphisms and genomic organization among different isolates in the S. schenckii complex. We used pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to separate chromosomal fragments of isolated DNA, followed by probe hybridization. Nine loci (β-tubulin, calmodulin, catalase, chitin synthase 1, Internal Transcribed Spacer, Pho85 cyclin-dependent kinase, protein kinase C Ss-2, G protein α subunit and topoisomerase II) were mapped onto chromosomal bands of Brazilian isolates of S. schenckii s. str. and S. brasiliensis. Our results revealed the presence of intra and interspecies polymorphisms in chromosome number and size. The gene hybridization analysis showed that closely related species in phylogenetic analysis had similar genetic organizations, mostly due to identification of synteny groups in chromosomal bands of similar sizes. Our results bring new insights into the genetic diversity and genome organization among pathogenic species in the Sporothrix schenckii complex.

  9. Treatment of asymptomatic catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeyesekere, Manoj N; Sy, Raymond W; Leong-Sit, Peter; Gula, Lorne J; Yee, Raymond; Skanes, Allan C; Klein, George J; Krahn, Andrew D

    2012-05-01

    Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia is a rare genetic disorder caused by mutations in genes involved in the intracellular calcium homeostasis of cardiac cells. Affected patients typically present with life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias precipitated by emotional/physical stress. The diagnosis is based on the demonstration of polymorphic or bidirectional ventricular tachycardia associated with adrenergic stress. Genetic testing can be confirmatory in some patients. Treatment for catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia includes medical and surgical efforts to suppress the effects of epinephrine at the myocardial level and/or modulation of calcium homeostasis. Mortality is high when untreated and sudden cardiac death may be the first manifestation of the disease. First-degree relatives of a proband should be offered genetic testing if the causal mutation is known. If the family mutation is not known, relatives should be clinically evaluated with provocative testing. In the absence of rigorous trials, prophylactic treatment of the asymptomatic catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia patient appears to reduce morbidity and mortality.

  10. Difficulties in Learning Inheritance and Polymorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberman, Neomi; Beeri, Catriel; Kolikant, Yifat Ben-David

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on difficulties related to the concepts of inheritance and polymorphism, expressed by a group of 22 in-service CS teachers with an experience with the procedural paradigm, as they coped with a course on OOP. Our findings are based on the analysis of tests, questionnaires that the teachers completed in the course, as well as on…

  11. Metal Ion Controlled Polymorphism of a Peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmingsen, Lars Bo Stegeager; Jancso, Attila; Szunyogh, Daniel;

    2011-01-01

    , …) in the peptide, and the ligand and structural preferences of the metal ion (in our studies Zn2+, Cd2+, Hg2+, Cu+/2+). Simultaneously, new species such as metal ion bridged ternary complexes or even oligomers may be formed. In recent previous studies we have observed similar polymorphism of zinc finger model...

  12. Matrix metalloproteinase gene polymorphisms and oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Andresa C; Dias do Carmo, Elaine; Dias da Silva, Marco A; Blumer Rosa, Luiz E

    2012-12-01

    Since oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most prevalent malignant cancer in the oral cavity, several researches have been performed to study the role of important enzymes in this disease. Among them, the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are highlighted, due to the fact that they are proteinases responsible to degrade many extra-cellular matrix components, making possible the invasion of neoplasic cells. Important tools in cancer prognosis have been utilized aiming to correlate high levels of MMPs and OSCC, such as immunohistochemical, zymographic and mRNA detection methods. However, these techniques are usually applied after cancer detection, characterizing a curative but not a preventive medicine. Trying to make interventions before the development of the disease and making possible the identification of people at high risk and, analysis of modifications in MMP genes has been a chance for modern medicine. Recently, polymorphisms in MMP genes have been related to different neoplasias, including OSCC. Despite investigation is beginning, MMP gene polymorphisms seems to have a promising future in oral cancer research and some of the present results have shown that there are MMP polymorphisms related to an increased risk for developing oral cancer. Key words:Oral cancer, polymorphism, matrix metalloproteinase.

  13. Characterization of Polymorphic Forms of Rifaximin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogawa, Ana Carolina; Antonio, Selma Gutierrez; Salgado, Hérida Regina Nunes

    2016-07-01

    Rifaximin is a gut-selective oral antimicrobial that has no systemic adverse effects compared with placebo. It is used for the treatment of hepatic encephalopathy, traveler's diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome, Clostridium difficile infection, ulcerative colitis, and acute diarrhea. The crystalline form present in rifaximin, α, has minimal systemic absorption compared to the amorphous form. The objective of this study was to obtain polymorphic forms of rifaximin using recrystallization processes. The forms were characterized and studied by thermal analysis, X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and solubility testing. Six polymorphic forms of rifaximin, designated I-VI, were obtained by the crystallization process by evaporation of the solvent. Some polymorphic forms obtained in this work may not have the same excellent tolerability as the reference medicine; therefore, studies such as these are extremely important and point to the need for greater requirements by the regulatory agencies overseeing polymorph analysis of the raw materials used in the manufacture of medicines marketed globally. These analyses are not required in the majority of official compendia. Partnerships among industries, research centers, and universities would be a viable way to consolidate research in this area and contribute to improving the quality of solid drugs.

  14. MYO9B polymorphisms in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemppinen, A.; Suvela, M.; Tienari, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 3' region of myosin IXB (MYO9B) gene have recently been reported to associate with different inflammatory or autoimmune diseases. We monitored for the association of MYO9B variants to multiple sclerosis (MS) in four Northern European populations. First...

  15. Formation of Piroxicam Polymorphism in Solution Crystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun Hansen, Thomas; Qu, Haiyan

    2015-01-01

    also explored, and new insights into polymorphic control are documented and discussed. The crystal landscape was mapped for cooling crystallization of piroxicam from acetone/water mixtures (0.5 K/min) and for antisolvent crystallization from acetone with water as the antisolvent. Varying cooling rates...

  16. MYO9B polymorphisms in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemppinen, A.; Suvela, M.; Tienari, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 3' region of myosin IXB (MYO9B) gene have recently been reported to associate with different inflammatory or autoimmune diseases. We monitored for the association of MYO9B variants to multiple sclerosis (MS) in four Northern European populations. Firs...

  17. Comprehensive engineering and radiation surveys in decommissioning of nuclear power plants КОМПЛЕКСНОЕ ИНЖЕНЕРНОЕ И РАДИАЦИОННОЕ ОБСЛЕДОВАНИЕ В ПРОБЛЕМЕ ВЫВОДА ИЗ ЭКСПЛУАТАЦИИ ЭНЕРГОБЛОКОВ АЭС

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engovatov Igor’ Anatol’evich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive Engineering and Radiation Surveys (CERS constitute the most important component of the final stage of the life cycle of NPPs, that is, decommissioning of nuclear power plants (NPP.Decommissioning of NPPs is accompanied by specific problems, including radioactive contamination, construction of shields, boxes and rooms, and the so-called residual radioactivity. Although these works account for the 20% of the total amount of work associated with decommissioning, they constitute a fundamental difference between decommissioning of any industrial enterprise and an NPP.Objectives, tasks, scopes and other matters of comprehensive engineering and radiological surveys that accompany the decommissioning of nuclear power plants are discussed by the author. They include:information basis, goals and objectives of CERS within the framework of decommissioning of NPP units;CERS programs;methods and means of engineering surveys;findings of engineering surveys;objectives, tasks and scopes of radiation surveys;methods and means of radiation surveys;findings of radiation surveys;objectives, scopes of application and contents of comprehensive engineering and radiation survey reports required for the decommissioning of NPP units;conclusions and recommendations based on the findings provided in CERS in respect of NPP units.Рассмотрена роль комплексного инженерного и радиационного обследования (КИРО на последней стадии жизненного цикла блоков АЭС — вывода из эксплуатации (ВЭ. Изложены принципы, на которых базируются подходы к проведению КИРО. Приведены цели, задачи, методы и объекты КИРО. Кратко освещены назначение, форма и содержание отчета о комплексном

  18. Polymorphisms in melatonin synthesis pathways: possible influences on depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCarthy Michael J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been reported that rs4446909, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in the promoter of acetylserotonin methyltransferase (ASMT, influences the expression of the ASMT enzyme. The common G allele is associated with lower ASMT activity, and therefore, diminishes conversion of N-acetylserotonin to melatonin. The G allele was associated with recurrent depressive disorder in a Polish group. ASMT might also affect bipolar relapse, given evidence that N-acetylserotonin might stimulate TRKB receptors, and TRKB may influence mood relapse in bipolar disorder. Additionally, arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT polymorphisms have been reported associated with depression, perhaps through their influence upon N-acetylserotonin or melatonin synthesis. Results To replicate and further explore these ideas, rs4446909 was genotyped in four research groups, as part of a panel of 610 SNPs surveyed by an Illumina Golden Gate assay. In 768 cases with delayed sleep phase disorder or matched controls, rs4446909 was indeed associated with the depressive symptoms on a self-report scale (P = 0.01, R2 = 0.007. However, there was no significant association of rs4446909 with self-reported depression in a sleep clinic patient group or with two groups of elderly men and women from multicenter studies, nor was the response to lithium treatment associated with rs4446909 in bipolar patients. No associations of two AANAT SNPs with depression were found. Conclusions The evidence did not support a strong influence of rs4446909 upon mood, but the partial replication may be consistent with a modest effect. It is possible that larger or younger subject groups with improved phenotype ascertainment might demonstrate more persuasive replication.

  19. Polymorphism of a polymer precursor: metastable glycolide polymorph recovered via large scale high-pressure experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutchison, Ian B.; Delori, Amit; Wang, Xiao;

    2015-01-01

    Using a large volume high-pressure press a new polymorph of an important precursor for biomedical polymers was isolated in gram quantities and used to seed crystallisation experiments at ambient pressure.......Using a large volume high-pressure press a new polymorph of an important precursor for biomedical polymers was isolated in gram quantities and used to seed crystallisation experiments at ambient pressure....

  20. Kinetics of shock-induced polymorphic phase transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, D.B.

    1976-01-01

    Shock-loading induces polymorphic phase transitions in some solids if the pressure exceeds that at which phase transition occurs under quasi-static compression. Volume changes in shock-induced transitions must occur very rapidly to produce the structured shock waves observed, so transition rates are large under these dynamic conditions. By contrast, the same transition might require minutes or hours under quasi-static loading. If shock-induced transition is so rapid that kinetic effects can be ignored, a steady two-wave structure is propagated. The first wave, of amplitude equal to the transition pressure, shocks the material to the phase boundary but produces no transition; the second, slower wave produces the transformed phase. When kinetic effects are important, this two-wave structure does not form immediately but by an evolutionary process which produces transients in the amplitudes and rise times of the stress waves. By measuring these transient effects, some facts about the kinetics of phase transitions have been inferred. Comprehensive studies on phase-transition kinetics in antimony, iron, and potassium chloride are described, with emphasis on a thermodynamic description of the intermediate states during transition. Complicating effects such as shear strength and wave perturbations due to free surfaces are discussed.

  1. Impact of genetic polymorphisms on clinical response to antithrombotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kena J Lanham

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Kena J Lanham1,2, Julie H Oestreich3, Steven P Dunn1,2, Steven R Steinhubl41Pharmacy Services, UK HealthCare, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA; 2Department of Pharmacy Practice and Science, College of Pharmacy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA; 3Department of Pharmacy Practice, College of Pharmacy, University of Nebraska, Omaha, Nebraska, USA; 4The Medicines Company, Zurich, Switzerland and The Geisinger Clinic, Danville, Pennsylvania, USAAbstract: Antithrombotic therapy, including anticoagulants as well as antiplatelet drugs, is an important component in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Variability in response to such medications, of which pharmacogenetic response is a major source, can decrease or enhance the benefits expected. This review is a comprehensive assessment of the literature published to date on the effects of genetic polymorphisms on the actions of a variety of antithrombotic medications, including warfarin, clopidogrel, prasugrel, and aspirin. Literature evaluating surrogate markers in addition to the impact of pharmacogenetics on clinical outcomes has been reviewed. The results of the studies are conflicting as to what degree pharmacogenetics will affect medication management in cardiovascular disease. Additional research is necessary to discover, characterize, and prospectively evaluate genetic and non-genetic factors that impact antithrombotic treatment in order to maximize the effectiveness and limit the harmful effects of these valuable agents.Keywords: aspirin, warfarin, clopidogrel, prasugrel, pharmacogenetic, antithrombotic, antiplatelet

  2. Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase A1298C Polymorphism and Breast Cancer Risk: A Meta-analysis of 33 Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, V

    2014-01-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) enzyme is essential for DNA synthesis and DNA methylation, and its gene polymorphisms have been implicated as risk factors for birth defects, neurological disorders, and different types of cancers. Several studies have investigated the association between the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and breast cancer (BC) risk, but the results were inconclusive. To assess the risk associated with MTHFR A1298C polymorphism, a comprehensive meta-analysis was performed. PubMed, Google Scholar, Elsevier and Springer Link databases were searched for case-control studies relating the association between MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and BC risk and estimated summary odds ratios (ORs) with confidence intervals (CIs) for assessment. Up to January 2014, 33 case-control studies involving 15,919 BC patients and 19,700 controls were included in the present meta-analysis. The results showed that the A1298C polymorphism was not associated with BC risk in all the five genetic models (C vs. A allele (allele contrast): OR = 0.99, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.93–1.05; AC versus AA (heterozygote/codominant): OR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.89–1.04; CC versus AA (homozygote): OR = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.91–1.06; CC + AC versus AA (dominant model): OR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.90–1.05; and CC versus AC + AA (recessive model): OR = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.91–1.07). The present meta-analysis did not support any association between the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and BC risk. PMID:25506474

  3. dbSAP: single amino-acid polymorphism database for protein variation detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ruifang; Shi, Yan; Chen, Shuangguan; Ma, Yimin; Chen, Jiajun; Yang, Juan; Chen, Geng; Shi, Tieliu

    2017-01-01

    Millions of human single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) or mutations have been identified so far, and these variants could be strongly correlated with phenotypic variations of traits/diseases. Among these variants, non-synonymous ones can result in amino-acid changes that are called single amino-acid polymorphisms (SAPs). Although some studies have tried to investigate the SAPs, only a small fraction of SAPs have been identified due to inadequately inferred protein variation database and the low coverage of mass spectrometry (MS) experiments. Here, we present the dbSAP database for conveniently accessing the comprehensive information and relationships of spectra, peptides and proteins of SAPs, as well as related genes, pathways, diseases and drug targets. In order to fully explore human SAPs, we built a customized protein database that contained comprehensive variant proteins by integrating and annotating the human SNPs and mutations from eight distinct databases (UniProt, Protein Mutation Database, HPMD, MSIPI, MS-CanProVar, dbSNP, Ensembl and COSMIC). After a series of quality controls, a total of 16 854 SAP peptides involving in 439 537 spectra were identified with large scale MS datasets from various human tissues and cell lines. dbSAP is freely available at http://www.megabionet.org/dbSAP/index.html. PMID:27903894

  4. Binnendifferenzierung im Urteil von Gesamtschullehrern = Comprehensive School Teachers on Within-Class Grouping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeder, Peter M.

    1997-01-01

    Analyzes teachers' attitudes regarding the value and practicality of adapting their teaching to the needs of heterogeneous classes. Surveys teachers and administrators in five German comprehensive schools. Finds that teachers do not support the view that within-class grouping may be a viable alternative to systems of across-class setting by…

  5. Exploring K-3 Teachers' Implementation of Comprehension Strategy Instruction (CSI) Using Expectancy-Value Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Laura S.

    2011-01-01

    This research investigated factors that influence the implementation levels of evidence-based comprehension strategy instruction (CSI) among K-3 teachers. An explanatory design was chosen to gather and probe the data. Quantitative data were gathered via a mailed survey distributed through a representative sample of the 40 school districts (through…

  6. Measuring New Media Literacies: Towards the Development of a Comprehensive Assessment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Literat, Ioana

    2014-01-01

    This study assesses the psychometric properties of a newly tested self-report assessment tool for media literacy, based on the twelve new media literacy skills (NMLs) developed by Jenkins et al. (2006). The sample (N = 327) consisted of normal volunteers who completed a comprehensive online survey that measured their NML skills, media exposure,…

  7. Efficiency in Reading Comprehension: A Comparison of Students' Competency in Reading Printed and Digital Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Erol

    2013-01-01

    In this study, survey model was used, for investigating the effect of printed and electronic texts on the reading comprehension levels of teacher candidates. While dependent variable of the research comprises the levels of understanding of the teacher candidates, independent variable comprises the departments of the teacher candidates, types of…

  8. Investigating Reading Comprehension and Learning Styles in Relation to Reading Strategies in L2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürses, Meral Özkan; Bouvet, Eric

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the extent to which reading comprehension and learning styles are related to perceived use of reading strategies among students studying French at an Australian university and a Turkish university. Ninety-one participants completed a background questionnaire, the Survey of Reading Strategies, the Kolb Learning Style…

  9. Investigating Reading Comprehension and Learning Styles in Relation to Reading Strategies in L2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürses, Meral Özkan; Bouvet, Eric

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the extent to which reading comprehension and learning styles are related to perceived use of reading strategies among students studying French at an Australian university and a Turkish university. Ninety-one participants completed a background questionnaire, the Survey of Reading Strategies, the Kolb Learning Style…

  10. Corporation taxes in the European Union: Slowly moving toward comprehensive business income taxation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Cnossen (Sijbren)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThis paper surveys and evaluates the corporation tax systems of the Member States of the European Union on the basis of a comprehensive taxonomy of actual and potential regimes, which have as their base either profits; profits, interest and royalties; or economic rents. The current

  11. Attitudes of Superintendents of Ohio Comprehensive High Schools toward Adult Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Larry E.; Krill, Thomas L.

    1985-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the knowledge of superintendents of Ohio comprehensive high schools toward adult vocational agricultural education. A summary of the demographic data revealed that 63 percent of the superintendents administered programs of adult vocational agriculture. Concepts on the survey with which superintendents agreed and…

  12. The Effectiveness of Metacognitive Strategy Awareness in Reading Comprehension: The Case of Iranian University EFL Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a study that explored the overall pattern of metacognitive awareness of reading strategy use and its possible relationship with reading comprehension. Moreover, the study investigated the influence of gender and proficiency level on the use of these strategies. The Survey of Reading Strategies Questionnaire (SORS), the…

  13. The Implementation of Entrepreneurship Education through Curriculum Reform in Finnish Comprehensive Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seikkula-Leino, Jaana

    2011-01-01

    How has entrepreneurship education been implemented in Finnish comprehensive schools. A two-part survey was undertaken in 43 municipalities with different educational and socio-economic backgrounds. The first part, in 2005, dealt with the local curriculum reform with a focus on the development of entrepreneurship education. The second part, in…

  14. Infrastructure Survey 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, the Group of Eight (Go8) conducted a survey on the state of its buildings and infrastructure. The survey is the third Go8 Infrastructure survey, with previous surveys being conducted in 2007 and 2009. The current survey updated some of the information collected in the previous surveys. It also collated data related to aspects of the…

  15. Gluteal Augmentation Techniques: A Comprehensive Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oranges, Carlo M; Tremp, Mathias; di Summa, Pietro G; Haug, Martin; Kalbermatten, Daniel F; Harder, Yves; Schaefer, Dirk J

    2017-05-01

    Many studies of gluteal augmentation techniques have been published in recent decades, including case reports, retrospective and prospective case series, and multicenter survey reviews. However, to date, there has been no study of the overall complications or satisfaction rates associated with the broad spectrum of techniques. The authors performed a comprehensive literature review to determine outcomes and complications of gluteoplasty techniques, including patient satisfaction. A search on PubMed/Medline was performed for clinical studies involving gluteal augmentation techniques. A priori criteria were used to review the resulting articles. Fifty-two studies, published from 1969 through 2015, were included - representing 7834 treated patients. Five gluteal augmentation techniques were identified from these studies: gluteal augmentation with implants (n = 4781), autologous fat grafting (n = 2609), local flaps (n = 369), hyaluronic acid gel injection (n = 69), and local tissue rearrangement (n = 6). The overall complication rates of the most commonly utilized techniques were: 30.5% for gluteal augmentation with implants, 10.5% for autologous fat grafting, and 22% for local flaps. Patients' satisfaction was reported as consistently high for all the five techniques. Implant-based gluteal augmentation is associated with high patients' satisfaction despite a high complication rate, while autologous fat grafting is associated with the lowest complication rate yet including serious major complications such as fat embolism. Local flaps and local tissue rearrangements are the ideal procedures in case of massive weight loss patients. A paucity of data is available for hyaluronic acid gel injections, which appear to be effective but temporary and expensive.

  16. Probe into Environmental Behaviors of Urban and Rural Residents in China and its Influence Factors:An Analysis of Data from 2010 China′s Comprehensive Social Survey%我国城乡居民的环境行为及其影响因素探究--基于2010年中国综合社会调查数据的分析∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张萍; 丁倩倩

    2015-01-01

    Life pollution hascomposed an important part of China′s environmental pollution. Through an analysis to the relevant data of China′s comprehensive social survey in 2010, we found that the overall level of Chinese urban and rural residents′environmental behaviors in their daily lives are fairly dissatisfactory: nearly 70% of the resi¯ dents only conduct energy saving, recycling and other aspects of environmental saving behaviors ″occasionally″;nearly 90% shift responsibility of environmental protection to the government and enterprises; while 60% express low willingness to pay for environmental protection. The multiple regression analysis showed that the environmental protection knowledge and environmental values have a direct impact on the environmental behavior, and environ¯ mental liability awarenessness also affects the environmental behavior of urban and rural residents in china.%生活污染已经成为我国环境污染的重要方面,通过对2010年中国综合社会调查中的相关数据统计分析可以看出,我国城乡居民在日常生活中的环境行为整体上处于不良水平,近七成的居民在节能、回收等方面没有做过或“偶尔为之”;近九成的居民把环境保护归责于政府及企业;六成居民表示了对环保的低支付意愿。多元回归分析发现,环保知识和环境价值观对环境行为具有直接影响,同时环境归责意识也影响我国城乡居民环保行为的发生。

  17. Comprehensive energy management eco routing & velocity profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Brandstätter, Bernhard

    2017-01-01

    The book discusses the emerging topic of comprehensive energy management in electric vehicles from the viewpoint of academia and from the industrial perspective. It provides a seamless coverage of all relevant systems and control algorithms for comprehensive energy management, their integration on a multi-core system and their reliability assurance (validation and test). Relevant European projects contributing to the evolvement of comprehensive energy management in fully electric vehicles are also included.

  18. Association of interleukin-6 promoter polymorphism with knee osteoarthritis: a meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ai Zhipeng; Ning Xianming; Shou Tao; Tang Wenru; Luo Ying; Zhang Jihong

    2014-01-01

    Background Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of human polyarthritis.Many genetic factors have been implicated in OA.It was reported that a polymorphism in the gene of interleukin-6 (IL-6) was associated with OA of knee.The aim of this study was to determine whether functional IL-6 promoter-174G/C (rs1800795) polymorphisms confer susceptibility to knee OA.Methods A meta-analysis was conducted on the association between the IL-6 polymorphism and knee OA.Electronic search at PubMed,EMBASE,Weipu database,and Wanfang database was conducted to select studies.Case-control studies containing available genotype frequencies of IL-6-174G/C were chosen,and odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (C/) was used to assess the strength of this association.Results A total of seven studies involving 6 464 subjects (knee OA 3 331 and controls 3 133) were considered in this study.The results suggested that the variant genotypes were not associated with knee OA risk in all genetic models (additive model:OR=1.144,95% CI 0.934-1.402,P=0.194; recessive model:OR=1.113,95% CI 0.799-1.550,P=0.526;dominant model:OR=1.186,95% CI 0.918-1.531,P=0.191).A symmetric funnel plot,the Begg's test (P >0.05),suggested that the data lacked publication bias.Conclusions This meta-analysis does not support the idea that rs1800795 genotype is associated with increased risk of knee OA.However,to draw comprehensive and more reliable conclusions,further prospective studies with larger numbers of participants worldwide are needed to examine the association between rs1800795 polymorphism and knee OA.

  19. MTHFR Gene Polymorphism-Mutations and Air Pollution as Risk Factors for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Mildred C.; Yu, Pojui; Shiao, S. Pamela K.

    2017-01-01

    Background The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) is one of the most investigated genes associated with breast cancer for its role in epigenetic pathways. Objectives The objectives of this metaprediction study were to examine the polymorphism-mutation risk subtypes of MTHFR and air pollution as contributing factors for breast cancer. Methods For triangulation purposes in metapredictive analyses, we used a recursive partition tree, nonlinear association curve fit, and heat maps for data visualization, in addition to the conventional comparison procedure and pooled analyses. Results We included 36,683 breast cancer cases and 40,689 controls across 82 studies for MTHFR 677 and 23,252 cases and 27,094 controls across 50 studies for MTHFR 1298. MTHFR 677 TT was a risk genotype for breast cancer (p = .0004) and in the East Asian subgroup (p = .005). On global maps, the most polymorphism-mutations on MTHFR 677 TT were found in the Middle East, Europe, Asia, and the Americas, whereas the most mutations on MTHFR 1298 CC were located in Europe and the Middle East for the control group. The geographic information system maps further revealed that MTHFR 677 TT mutations yielded a higher risk of breast cancer for Australia, East Asia, the Middle East, South Europe, Morocco, and the Americas and that MTHFR 1298 CC mutations yielded a higher risk in Asia, the Middle East, South Europe, and South America. Metapredictive analysis revealed that air pollution level was significantly associated with MTHFR 677 TT polymorphism-mutation genotype. Discussion We present the most comprehensive analyses to date of MTHFR polymorphism-mutations and breast cancer risk. Future nursing studies are needed to investigate the health impact on breast cancer of epigenetics and air pollution across populations. PMID:28114181

  20. Evaluation of integrated Raman-DSC technology in early pharmaceutical development: characterization of polymorphic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jun; Dali, Manisha

    2013-12-01

    Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Raman spectroscopy are both powerful tools used heavily in pharmaceutical development. For many studies such as polymorph characterization these two techniques are complimentary and provide data on different yet important aspects of material properties when combined together. In this work we describe an integrated Raman-DSC technology that simultaneously generates both DSC thermogram and Raman spectra of the pharmaceutical material being studied. The integrated system consists of a DSC with a Raman fiber optic probe inserted right on top of the sample furnace. The technology integrates synchronized Raman acquisition into DSC scan, enabling collection of molecular and structural information coupled with observation of thermal events. We first establish the technology by optimizing the instrumental set-up that offers relatively high-quality results for simultaneous DSC and Raman data collection. We then demonstrate the application of the technology by studying the polymorphs of d-mannitol, a common pharmaceutical excipient and BMS-A, an investigational drug candidate that exhibits multiple coexisting polymorphs. In both cases, the Raman-DSC technology was able to provide valuable information on the process of phase change and polymorph identification. Although similar information may be obtained by using various characterization techniques together, the integrated Raman-DSC indicated special advantages for industrial development such as high efficiency, material sparing and comprehensive data analysis. Moreover the technology provides an alternative to better correlate real-time phase behavior to molecular understanding. The technology thus has the potential to be used for Process Analytical Technology (PAT) purpose.

  1. Meta-analysis of the TNF-α-308G/A polymorphism and vitiligo risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, G; Qi, J H; Huang, C W; Yang, T; Shi, N; Chen, Y J

    2015-12-17

    Several case-control studies have been conducted to investigate the association between the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-308G/A polymorphism and vitiligo risk. However, the results of these studies are inconsistent; therefore, we attempted to comprehensively evaluate the association between TNF-α-308G/A polymorphism and vitiligo risk via a meta-analysis. Studies reporting the association between TNF-α-308G/A polymorphism and vitiligo risk were retrieved from PubMed and EmBase databases. Data were extracted from these studies and the pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to assess the association. Six case-control studies including 1391 vitiligo cases and 2455 control subjects were included in this meta-analysis. The overall results showed the lack of a significant difference in TNF-α-308G/A genotype distribution between the patients and controls when the G allele and GG, GG + GA, GG, and GG genotypes were compared against the A allele and the GA + AA, AA, AA, and GA genotypes, respectively (ORs = 0.65, 0.53, 0.63, 0.41, 0.55; 95%CI = 0.35-1.23, 0.24-1.18, 0.10-4.09, 0.08-1.97, 0.25-1.21; P = 0.188, 0.121, 0.627, 0.264, 0.135, respectively). This meta-analysis suggests that the TNF-α-308G/A polymorphism may not be associated with vitiligo risk. As few studies are available in this field and current evidence remains limited, these results must be corroborated with well-designed and larger studies in the future.

  2. Strategy Diversity Stabilizes Mutualism through Investment Cycles, Phase Polymorphism, and Spatial Bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boza, Gergely; Kun, Ádám; Scheuring, István; Dieckmann, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    There is continuing interest in understanding factors that facilitate the evolution and stability of cooperation within and between species. Such interactions will often involve plasticity in investment behavior, in response to the interacting partner's investments. Our aim here is to investigate the evolution and stability of reciprocal investment behavior in interspecific interactions, a key phenomenon strongly supported by experimental observations. In particular, we present a comprehensive analysis of a continuous reciprocal investment game between mutualists, both in well-mixed and spatially structured populations, and we demonstrate a series of novel mechanisms for maintaining interspecific mutualism. We demonstrate that mutualistic partners invariably follow investment cycles, during which mutualism first increases, before both partners eventually reduce their investments to zero, so that these cycles always conclude with full defection. We show that the key mechanism for stabilizing mutualism is phase polymorphism along the investment cycle. Although mutualistic partners perpetually change their strategies, the community-level distribution of investment levels becomes stationary. In spatially structured populations, the maintenance of polymorphism is further facilitated by dynamic mosaic structures, in which mutualistic partners form expanding and collapsing spatial bubbles or clusters. Additionally, we reveal strategy-diversity thresholds, both for well-mixed and spatially structured mutualistic communities, and discuss factors for meeting these thresholds, and thus maintaining mutualism. Our results demonstrate that interspecific mutualism, when considered as plastic investment behavior, can be unstable, and, in agreement with empirical observations, may involve a polymorphism of investment levels, varying both in space and in time. Identifying the mechanisms maintaining such polymorphism, and hence mutualism in natural communities, provides a significant

  3. Association between MASP-2 gene polymorphism and risk of infection diseases: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jie; Wang, Jingqiu; Luo, Yanping; Zhang, Lifeng; Zhang, Yuan; Dong, Xinfang; Yu, Hongjuan; Cao, Mingqiang; Ma, Xingming

    2016-11-01

    The role of MASP-2 is vital in the process of complement activation by the lectin pathway. It is generally considered that the functional activation of MASP-2 contribute to the infection disease development process. To analyze the association between MASP-2 functional gene (rs72550870) polymorphism and the infection disease risk by a meta-analysis. Relevant case-control studies were identified by searching Cochrane Library, PubMed, Emabase, DOAJ, CAB Abstracts, CSA, CINAHL, EBSCO, Scopus, Global Health, Index Copernicus, CA, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases up to 10th January 2016. The data were extracted and the methodological quality of studies were evaluated. The STATA 12.0 software was used to perform statistical analysis. 9 studies were included. There was no significant association between masp-2 gene (p.D120G, rs72550870) polymorphism and the risk of infection disease under the allele model (G vs. A: OR = 0.89, 95%CI = 0.66-1.21)(P = 0.445>0.05) and the recessive model (AG + GG vs.AA: OR = 0.88, 95%CI = 0.65-1.20) (P = 0.428>0.05). This is the first comprehensive meta-analysis indicates that the MASP-2 functional gene (rs72550870) polymorphism is not associated with the infection diseases, and the key functional gene polymorphism of rs72550870 did not increase susceptibility to the infection diseases. Similarly, there were no obvious difference in subgroup analysis based on geographical areas and pathogenic microorganisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. GFA Taq I polymorphism and cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Lijia; Ma, Lian

    2015-01-01

    The transforming growth factor alpha (TGFA) Taq I polymorphism has been indicated to be correlated with cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) susceptibility, but study results are still debatable. Thus, a meta-analysis was conducted. We conducted a comprehensive search of Embase, Ovid, Web of Science, the Cochrane database, PubMed, the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM-disc, 1979-2014), the database of National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI, 1979-2014) and the full paper database of Chinese Science and Technology of Chongqing (VIP, 1989-2014) to identify suitable studies. There were 18 studies suitable for this meta-analysis, involving a total of 3135 cases and 3575 controls. Significantly increased CL/P risk was observed (OR = 1.49; 95% CI 1.17-1.89; P = 0.001). In subgroup analyses stratified by ethnicity, there was evidence in the Caucasian population for an association between this polymorphism and CL/P risk (OR = 1.52; 95% CI 1.14-2.02; P = 0.004). However, no significant association was found between this his polymorphism and CL/P risk in African and Hispanic populations. According to a specific CL/P type, increased clip lip and palate risk and clip palate risk were found (OR = 1.38; 95% CI 1.10-1.73; P = 0.005; OR = 1.29; 95% CI 1.01-1.66; P = 0.042). In conclusion, the present meta-analysis found that the TGFA Taq I polymorphism may be associated with CL/P susceptibility. PMID:26064247

  5. Association between FOXO3A gene polymorphisms and human longevity:a meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JiMing Bao; XianLu Song; YingQia Hong; HaiLi Zhu; Cui Li; Tao Zhang; Wei Chen; ShanChao Zhao; Qing Chen

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown associations between the FOXO3Agene, encoding the forkhead box O3 transcription factor, and human or speciifcally male longevity. However, the associations of speciifc FOXO3A polymorphisms with longevity remain inconclusive. We performed a meta-analysis of existing studies to clarify these potential associations. A comprehensive search was conducted to identify studies of FOXO3A gene polymorphisms and longevity. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95%conifdence intervals (CIs) were calculated by comparing the minor and major alleles. A total of seven articles reporting associations of FOXO3A polymorphisms with longevity were identiifed and included in this meta-analysis. These comprised 11 independent studies with 5241 cases and 5724 controls from different ethnic groups. rs2802292, rs2764264, rs13217795, rs1935949 and rs2802288 polymorphisms were associated with human longevity (OR=1.36, 95%CI=1.10-1.69, P=0.005;OR=1.20, 95%CI=1.04-1.37, P=0.01;OR=1.27, 95%CI=1.10-1.46, P=0.001;OR=1.14, 95%CI=1.01-1.27 and OR=1.24, 95%CI=1.07-1.43, P=0.003, respectively). Analysis stratiifed by gender indicated signiifcant associations between rs2802292, rs2764264 and rs13217795 and male longevity (OR=1.54, 95%CI=1.33-1.79, P<0.001;OR=1.38, 95%CI=1.15-1.66, P=0.001;and OR=1.39, 95%CI=1.15-1.67, P=0.001), but rs2802292, rs2764264 and rs1935949 were not linked to female longevity. Moreover, our study showed no association between rs2153960, rs7762395 or rs13220810 polymorphisms and longevity. In conclusion, this meta-analysis indicates a signiifcant association of ifve FOXO3Agene polymorphisms with longevity, with the effects of rs2802292 and rs2764264 being male-speciifc. Further investigations are required to conifrm these ifndings.

  6. Heliostat glass survey and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, M.A.; Rusin, J.M.

    1978-09-01

    A comprehensive survey of both foreign and domestic sources of low distortion, high transmission flat glass with a nominal thickness of 3 mm was undertaken. The purpose of the survey was to determine the characteristics, availability and cost of glass for use in second surface heliostat mirrors for the Barstow pilot plant and future commercial central receiver plants. Information obtained from the manufacturers and the results of investigations performed at Sandia Laboratories at Albuquerque and Livermore were compiled with the PNL characterization data to generate the specifications for the GFE glass to be used in the Barstow pilot plant. During the course of the survey, nine of the major glass manufacturers were contacted for information and assistance. These manufacturers were PPG, Corning, Ford, LOF, CE, ASG, Fourco, Schott, and Guardian. Eleven different flat glass samples from seven of the domestic sources and one foreign source were characterized for solar transmittance, flatness and durability. The samples were representative of four different manufacturing processes: float, fusion, rolled, and twin ground. The results and implications of these glass characterization studies and a brief summary of the manufacturer survey are presented.

  7. SITE COMPREHENSIVE LISTING (CERCLIS) (Superfund) - NPL Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — National Priorities List (NPL) Sites - The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) (Superfund) Public Access...

  8. Reading comprehension in children with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Glynis; Brown, Heather; Main, Elizabeth

    Two studies aimed to investigate the reading comprehension abilities of 14 readers with Down syndrome aged 6 years 8 months to 13 years relative to those of typically developing children matched on word reading ability, and to investigate how these abilities were associated with reading accuracy, listening comprehension, phonological awareness and vocabulary knowledge. Study 1 confirmed significantly poorer passage-reading comprehension than the typically developing group. In an experimental task, readers with Down syndrome understood fewer written sentences than the typical group and, contrary to prediction, received no advantage from printed sentences compared to spoken sentences, despite the lower memory load. Reading comprehension was associated with listening comprehension, word reading and phonological awareness in DS. Vocabulary knowledge was also associated with reading comprehension, mediated by word reading and nonverbal cognitive abilities. Study 2 investigated the longitudinal relationships between reading and language measures in the readers with DS over around 22 months. Time 1 listening comprehension and phonological awareness predicted Time 2 reading comprehension but there was no evidence that reading or reading comprehension predicted Time 2 language scores or phonological awareness, and no evidence that readers had acquired greater depth of vocabulary.

  9. ACE INHIBITORS: A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Kumar Arora* and Ashish Chauhan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a chronic increase in blood pressure, characterized as primary and secondary hypertension. The disorder is associated with various risk factors like obesity, diabetes, age, lack of exercise etc. Hypertension is being treated since ancient times by Ayurvedic, Chinese and Unani medicine. Now various allopathic drugs are available which include diuretics, calcium channel blockers, α-blockers, β-blockers, vasodilators, central sympatholytics and ACE-inhibitors. Non-pharmacological treatments include weight reduction, dietary sodium reduction, increased potassium intake and reduction in alcohol consumption. ACE-inhibitors are widely used in the treatment of hypertension by inhibiting the angiotensin converting enzyme responsible for the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II (responsible for vasoconstriction. Various structure activity relationship studies led to the synthesis of ACE-inhibitors, some are under clinical development. This comprehensive review gives various guidelines on classification of hypertension, hypertension therapy including ancient, pharmacological, non-pharmacological therapies, pharmacoeconomics, historical perspectives of ACE, renin, renin angiotensin system (circulating vs local RAS, mechanism of ACE inhibitors, and development of ACE inhibitors. Review also emphasizes on the recent advancements on ACE inhibitors including drugs in clinical trials, computational studies on ACE-inhibitors, peptidomimetics, dual, natural, multi-functional ACE inhibitors, and conformational requirements for ACE-inhibitors.

  10. Comprehensive Analysis of Neptune's Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkoschka, Erich

    2007-07-01

    Hubble took an amazing data set of Neptune in nine GO programs between 1994 and 2006, consisting of 408 WFPC2 exposures with several filters present in each program. The PIs of these programs, Hammel, Sromovsky, and Rages, published a variety of results about Neptune's atmosphere based on each program. However, the typical size of the grants for each program did not allow all scientific questions of these rich data sets to be addressed.I propose to analyze these 400 images to create a consistent data set spanning 12 years, and I will make even the intermediate results available, such as 400 consistently calibrated images. The combined data set will then be able to address more far reaching questions than could be done by single data sets. Whereas previous studies focused on only a few center-to-limb measurements for a limited selection of latitudes and wavelengths, I will investigate the whole data set and analyze 16,000 center-to-limb curves. I will use the principal component analysis and various statistical tests to find the hidden variations on Neptune. I created software for a similar project on Hubble's Saturn images. I am ready to adapt and apply it to Hubble's Neptune images.The huge number of variable features on Neptune contain an ideal probe about atmospheric dynamics. Previous investigations have only scratched pieces of the surface of this treasure. It is time for a comprehensive study of the whole data to discover fundamenatal insights about atmospheric dynamics.

  11. CEDR: Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies have a long history of epidemiologic research programs. The main focus of these programs has been the Health and Mortality Study of the DOE work force. This epidemiologic study began in 1964 with a feasibility study of workers at the Hanford facility. Studies of other populations exposed to radiation have also been supported, including the classic epidemiologic study of radium dial painters and studies of atomic bomb survivors. From a scientific perspective, these epidemiologic research program have been productive, highly credible, and formed the bases for many radiological protection standards. Recently, there has been concern that, although research results were available, the data on which these results were based were not easily obtained by interested investigators outside DOE. Therefore, as part of an effort to integrate and broaden access to its epidemiologic information, the DOE has developed the Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR) Program. Included in this effort is the development of a computer information system for accessing the collection of CEDR data and its related descriptive information. The epidemiologic data currently available through the CEDAR Program consist of analytic data sets, working data sets, and their associated documentation files. In general, data sets are the result of epidemiologic studies that have been conducted on various groups of workers at different DOE facilities during the past 30 years.

  12. The Comprehensive Emergent Literacy Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh Rohde

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The early skills of Emergent Literacy include the knowledge and abilities related to the alphabet, phonological awareness, symbolic representation, and communication. However, existing models of emergent literacy focus on discrete skills and miss the perspective of the surrounding environment. Early literacy skills, including their relationship to one another, and the substantial impact of the setting and context, are critical in ensuring that children gain all of the preliminary skills and awareness they will need to become successful readers and writers. Research findings over the last few decades have led to a fuller understanding of all that emergent literacy includes, resulting in a need for a new, more comprehensive model. A new model, described in this article, strives to explain how emergent literacy can be viewed as an interactive process of skills and context rather than a linear series of individual components. Early literacy learning opportunities are more likely to happen when teachers have a solid knowledge base of emergent literacy and child development. Research has shown that preschool teachers with limited knowledge about literacy development are significantly less able to provide such experiences for children. Teachers will be better able to facilitate all of the components of emergent literacy if they have access to, and understanding of, a model that describes the components, their interactions, and the importance of environmental factors in supporting children.

  13. Comprehensive approach to diabetic nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bancha Satirapoj

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy (DN is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with diabetes. This complication reflects a complex pathophysiology, whereby various genetic and environmental factors determine susceptibility and progression to end-stage renal disease. DN should be considered in patients with type 1 diabetes for at least 10 years who have microalbuminuria and diabetic retinopathy, as well as in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes with macroalbuminuria in whom other causes for proteinuria are absent. DN may also present as a falling estimated glomerular filtration rate with albuminuria as a minor presenting feature, especially in patients taking renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system inhibitors (RAASi. The pathological characteristic features of disease are three major lesions: diffuse mesangial expansion, diffuse thickened glomerular basement membrane, and hyalinosis of arterioles. Functionally, however, the pathophysiology is reflected in dysfunction of the mesangium, the glomerular capillary wall, the tubulointerstitium, and the vasculature. For all diabetic patients, a comprehensive approach to management including glycemic and hypertensive control with RAASi combined with lipid control, dietary salt restriction, lowering of protein intake, increased physical activity, weight reduction, and smoking cessation can reduce the rate of progression of nephropathy and minimize the risk for cardiovascular events. This review focuses on the latest published data dealing with the mechanisms, diagnosis, and current treatment of DN.

  14. Comprehensive resource: Skeletal gene database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, L; Ho, N C; Park, S S; Powell, J; Francomano, C A

    2001-01-01

    The Skeletal Gene Database (SGD) is an integrated resource that provides comprehensive information about bone-related genes, mRNA, and proteins expressed in human and mouse, with rich links to numerous other electronic tools. SGD contains expressed sequence tag (EST) data from all the skeletal-related cDNA libraries that are available to the public. It supplies the query/data access analytic tools for users to search and compare each gene expressed in skeletal tissue(s). The results derived from EST tissue expression profiling will allow users to get the data on the mRNA copy numbers of each gene expressed in each tissue and its normalized value. From the SGD, researchers can obtain information regarding the name, symbol, size, exon/intron number, chromosomal location, LocusLink, and related disease (if any is known) of each gene. This electronic compendium also furnishes information on the protein of the corresponding gene including the protein size (amino acid number and molecular weight). It provides swift and ready access to other useful databases including OMIM, UniGene and PUBMED. The data will be updated regularly in step with current and future research, thereby providing what we hope will serve as a highly useful source of information and a powerful analytic tool to the scientific community.

  15. Swine Flu -A Comprehensive View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vandana; Sood, Meenakshi

    2012-07-01

    The present article is aimed on comprehensive view of Swine flu. It was first isolated from pigs in 1930 in USA. Pandemic caused by H1N1 in 2009 brought it in limelight. Itís a viral respiratory disease caused by viruses that infects pigs, resulting in nasal secretions, barking cough, decreased appetite, and listless behavior. Swine virus consist of eight RNA strands, one strand derived from human flu strains, two from avian (bird) strains, and five from swine strains. Swine flu spreads from infected person to healthy person by inhalation or ingestion of droplets contaminated with virus while sneezing or coughing. Two antiviral agents have been reported to help prevent or reduce the effects of swine flu, flu shot and nasal spray. WHO recommended for pandemic period to prevent its future outbreaks through vaccines or non-vaccines means. Antiviral drugs effective against this virus are Tamiflu and Relenza. Rapid antigen testing (RIDT), DFA testing, viral culture, and molecular testing (RT-PCR) are used for its diagnosis in laboratory

  16. Single nucleotide polymorphism mining and nucleotide sequence analysis of Mx1 gene in exonic regions of Japanese quail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diwesh Kumar Niraj

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: An attempt has been made to study the Myxovirus resistant (Mx1 gene polymorphism in Japanese quail. Materials and Methods: In the present, investigation four fragments viz. Fragment I of 185 bp (Exon 3 region, Fragment II of 148 bp (Exon 5 region, Fragment III of 161 bp (Exon 7 region, and Fragment IV of 176 bp (Exon 13 region of Mx1 gene were amplified and screened for polymorphism by polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism technique in 170 Japanese quail birds. Results: Out of the four fragments, one fragment (Fragment II was found to be polymorphic. Remaining three fragments (Fragment I, III, and IV were found to be monomorphic which was confirmed by custom sequencing. Overall nucleotide sequence analysis of Mx1 gene of Japanese quail showed 100% homology with common quail and more than 80% homology with reported sequence of chicken breeds. Conclusion: The Mx1 gene is mostly conserved in Japanese quail. There is an urgent need of comprehensive analysis of other regions of Mx1 gene along with its possible association with the traits of economic importance in Japanese quail.

  17. Polymorphism analysis of IGFBP-5 gene exon 1 in Tibet Mini-pig and Junmu No. 1 White pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, A; Hao, L L; Fang, X B; Lu, K; Liu, S C; Zhang, Y L

    2014-03-12

    The genetic resources and the mechanism of miniaturization in the Tibet Mini-pig have not been comprehensively studied. Polymorphisms in genes related to the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis have been investigated for years, but few on the polymorphism of IGF-binding protein-5 (IGFBP-5) in the Tibetan pig. In this study, allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (AS-PCR) was used to analyze polymorphisms in exon 1 of the IGFBP-5 gene in two pig breeds, Tibet Mini-pigs and Junmu No. 1 White pigs. A BLAST analysis of the expressed sequence tags in the porcine IGFBP-5 gene revealed that exon 1 of this gene has two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), G188T and G503A. The AS-PCR results demonstrated that in both pig breeds examined, the TT, GT, and GG genotypes existed at the G188T locus, with GT as the most common genotype. At the G503A locus, GG, GA, and AA genotypes existed in Junmu No. 1 White pigs, with the GA genotype as the most frequently occurring. By contrast, at this locus, only the GA and AA genotypes were observed in the Tibetan pigs, and AA was more common than GA. There was a significant difference (P Tibet Mini-pigs than in Junmu No. 1 White pigs. The present study revealed SNPs in exon 1 of IGFBP-5 gene in the Tibet Mini-pig, possibly providing more understanding of the mechanism of miniaturization.

  18. Development and Validation of 697 Novel Polymorphic Genomic and EST-SSR Markers in the American Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon Schlautman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The American cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait., is an economically important North American fruit crop that is consumed because of its unique flavor and potential health benefits. However, a lack of abundant, genome-wide molecular markers has limited the adoption of modern molecular assisted selection approaches in cranberry breeding programs. To increase the number of available markers in the species, this study identified, tested, and validated microsatellite markers from existing nuclear and transcriptome sequencing data. In total, new primers were designed, synthesized, and tested for 979 SSR loci; 697 of the markers amplified allele patterns consistent with single locus segregation in a diploid organism and were considered polymorphic. Of the 697 polymorphic loci, 507 were selected for additional genetic diversity and segregation analyses in 29 cranberry genotypes. More than 95% of the 507 loci did not display segregation distortion at the p < 0.05 level, and contained moderate to high levels of polymorphism with a polymorphic information content >0.25. This comprehensive collection of developed and validated microsatellite loci represents a substantial addition to the molecular tools available for geneticists, genomicists, and breeders in cranberry and Vaccinium.

  19. Determination of the effects of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) 1B and ADH1C polymorphisms on alcohol dependence in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, Ekin Ozgur; Kocak, Aytaç; Senol, Ender; Celik, Handan Ak; Coskunol, Hakan; Berdeli, Afig; Aydin, Hikmet Hakan

    2012-03-01

    Alcoholism is a complex genetically influenced disorder which refers to alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence. There are controversial results on the role of gene polymorphisms in alcohol dependence in the literature. Differences in population groups and selective inclusion criteria for alcohol dependence may affect results. In this study, we investigated the role of ADH1B Arg48His (rs1229984) and, ADH1C Ile350Val (rs698) gene polymorphisms in Turkish population. 100 healthy volunteers and 75 patients who were admitted to Ege University Alcohol Dependence Unit enrolled in the study. We found significant increase both in ADH1B (Arg48His) polymorphism Arg allele and Arg/Arg genotype frequency in patients. No profound connection between alcohol dependence and ADH1C Ile350Val gene polymorphism was detected. Alcohol dependence is an important health problem that depends on many genetic and environmental factors but we think that it is possible to interpret genetic risk for developing early diagnostic methods and treatment strategies by comprehensive linkage and association studies.

  20. Complex polymorphisms in the Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance protein 2 gene and its contribution to antimalarial response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Maria Isabel; Osório, Nuno S; Ferreira, Pedro Eduardo; Franzén, Oscar; Dahlstrom, Sabina; Lum, J Koji; Nosten, Francois; Gil, José Pedro

    2014-12-01

    Plasmodium falciparum has the capacity to escape the actions of essentially all antimalarial drugs. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter proteins are known to cause multidrug resistance in a large range of organisms, including the Apicomplexa parasites. P. falciparum genome analysis has revealed two genes coding for the multidrug resistance protein (MRP) type of ABC transporters: Pfmrp1, previously associated with decreased parasite drug susceptibility, and the poorly studied Pfmrp2. The role of Pfmrp2 polymorphisms in modulating sensitivity to antimalarial drugs has not been established. We herein report a comprehensive account of the Pfmrp2 genetic variability in 46 isolates from Thailand. A notably high frequency of 2.8 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)/kb was identified for this gene, including some novel SNPs. Additionally, we found that Pfmrp2 harbors a significant number of microindels, some previously not reported. We also investigated the potential association of the identified Pfmrp2 polymorphisms with altered in vitro susceptibility to several antimalarials used in artemisinin-based combination therapy and with parasite clearance time. Association analysis suggested Pfmrp2 polymorphisms modulate the parasite's in vitro response to quinoline antimalarials, including chloroquine, piperaquine, and mefloquine, and association with in vivo parasite clearance. In conclusion, our study reveals that the Pfmrp2 gene is the most diverse ABC transporter known in P. falciparum with a potential role in antimalarial drug resistance.

  1. [Comprehensive sexual education in Mexico: an analysis of coverage, comprehensiveness and continuity of contents in Mexican public and private schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Rosalba; Castro, Filipa de; Villalobos, Aremis; Allen-Leigh, Betania; Romero, Martin; Braverman-Bronstein, Ariela; Uribe, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    To analyze coverage of comprehensive sex education (CSE) in high schools in Mexico and describe whether it is comprehensive, homogeneous and has continuity based on student reports of exposure to topics in three dimensions: reproductive and sexual health, self-efficacy and rights and relations. Within a probabilistic, cross-sectional survey with stratified, cluster sampling, a nationally representative sample of 3 824 adolescents attending 45 public and private high-schools in urban and rural areas completed questionnaires on CSE. The proportion of adolescents reporting having received sex education from school personnel varies depending on topics and grade level. Topics most frequently covered are those related to sexual and reproductive health while rights and relations are least frequently dealt with. Most sex education topics are covered during junior high school and much less frequently in elementary or high school. CSE needs to be comprehensive and homogenous in terms of content, ensure inclusion of priority topics, meet national and international recommendations, ensure continuity and adapt contents to student age through all education levels.

  2. 29. LACK OF ASSOCIATION OF AH RECEPTOR GENE POLYMORPHISM WITH SUSCEPTIBILITY TO BLADDER CANCER IN SHANGHAI POPULATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@The diversity in genetic background largely predetermine the individual susceptibility towards health risk related to xenobiotic exposure. The receptors of signal transduction mechanism are involved in the modulation of toxicological outcome of xenobiotics. The survey of distribution of different polymorphic forms of Ah receptor in Chinese population and probing into their possible association with health risk related with xenobiotic exposure will not only contribute to a better understanding of mechanism of imperilment, but also inspire a clue for a further

  3. Nuclear and mitochondrial gene genealogies and allozyme polymorphism across a major phylogeographic break in the copepod Tigriopus californicus.

    OpenAIRE

    Burton, R S; Lee, B. N.

    1994-01-01

    The genetic structure of natural populations is frequently inferred from geographic distributions of alleles at multiple gene loci. Surveys of allozyme polymorphisms in the tidepool copepod Tigriopus californicus have revealed sharp genetic differentiation of populations, indicating that gene flow among populations is highly restricted. Analysis of population structure in this species has now been extended to include nuclear and mitochondrial gene genealogies. DNA sequences of the mtDNA-encod...

  4. Evaluating the Effect of Metacognitive Strategy Training on Reading Comprehension of Female Students at KAU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhaila Albazi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Successful reading requires the application of different reading strategies. Reading strategies related to metacognition, which is “thinking about thinking”, have been investigated extensively and have proven to be effective in improving reading comprehension in EFL and ESL contexts. This study aimed to explore the level of metacognitive awareness of EFL learners at King Abdulaziz University (KAU. Additionally, it aimed to examine how metacognitive strategy training can raise learners’ metacognitive strategy awareness and as a result enhance their reading comprehension. Two instruments were used to find answers to these questions: the MARSI survey, which was used to measure the participants’ metacognitive awareness; and reading comprehension tests, which were used to examine their comprehension level. Both instruments were used on two occasions: once before the training sessions and once after them. The training sessions focused on three metacognitive reading strategies: planning, monitoring and evaluating. The results indicated that systematic and direct instruction had a positive effect in improving the participants’ metacognitive reading strategy awareness as well as their reading comprehension, even when they had a moderate level of metacognitive awareness prior to the training sessions. The findings of the study are significant in guiding EFL instructors at KAU as well as other tertiary institutors in similar contexts to assist learners in improving their reading comprehension. Keywords: metacognitive reading strategies, metacognitive awareness, reading comprehension

  5. The Level of Prediction of Reading Comprehension by Fluent Reading Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet BAŞTUĞ

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine whether there is a relationship between reading comprehension and fluent reading skills of primary school students (2nd-5th graders and their reading comprehension is predicted by their fluent reading skills. This study had a survey design and was conducted in Kulu, Konya, Turkey. The sample consisted of totally 72 students of whom 18 were selected for each grade level who vary from each other in terms of gender and academic performance. Data were collected through “The Prosodic Reading Scale” and “Comprehension Tests”. Besides, the data related to students’ reading fluency and reading rate were rated through the scales regarding video records. Correlational and multiple regression analyses were used to analyze the data. Results indicated that reading fluency, reading rate, and prosody are found to be significantly interrelated. According to the correlational results, prosodic skills and reading rate were found to be closely related. Fluent reading skills and comprehension were also found to be interrelated. The most significant factor that is related to reading comprehension was found to be prosody as one of fluent reading skills. According to the results of multiple regression analysis, fluent reading skills were found to significantly predict reading comprehension. The factor that best predicts reading comprehension was found to be prosody.

  6. The National Criminal Justice Treatment Practices survey: multilevel survey methods and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taxman, Faye S; Young, Douglas W; Wiersema, Brian; Rhodes, Anne; Mitchell, Suzanne

    2007-04-01

    The National Criminal Justice Treatment Practices (NCJTP) survey provides a comprehensive inquiry into the nature of programs and services provided to adult and juvenile offenders involved in the justice system in the United States. The multilevel survey design covers topics such as the mission and goals of correctional and treatment programs; organizational climate and culture for providing services; organizational capacity and needs; opinions of administrators and staff regarding rehabilitation, punishment, and services provided to offenders; treatment policies and procedures; and working relationships between correctional and other agencies. The methodology generates national estimates of the availability of programs and services for offenders. This article details the methodology and sampling frame for the NCJTP survey, response rates, and survey procedures. Prevalence estimates of juvenile and adult offenders under correctional control are provided with externally validated comparisons to illustrate the veracity of the methodology. Limitations of the survey methods are also discussed.

  7. Improving Reading Comprehension Strategies through Listening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarnoutse, C.; Brand-Gruwel, S.; Oduber, R.

    1997-01-01

    Seeks to determine whether it is possible to teach children who are poor readers four text comprehension strategies (clarifying, questioning, summarizing, and predicting) in listening contexts. Demonstrates that it is possible to teach the strategies to poor readers; that they can improve their reading comprehension; and that listening…

  8. Reading Comprehension Instruction Practices in Sierra Leone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hersbach, S.; Denessen, E.J.P.G.; Droop, W.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: In this study an attempt was made to give insight in the way reading comprehension is taught in Sierra Leone. Attention was paid to the didactical strategies and the materials used during reading comprehension instruction. Methodology: Primary school teachers in Sierra Leone (N=43) were observe

  9. Avoidable costs of comprehensive case management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issel, L M; Anderson, R A

    1999-01-01

    Comprehensive case management has become an industry standard and its pervasiveness raises questions about the ubiquitous need for this service. Analyzed from the perspective of transaction cost analysis and access, we argue that in some cases comprehensive case management is an avoidable cost incurred because of system problems that limit access to otherwise eligible clients. Implications are discussed.

  10. Beyond Comprehension Strategy Instruction: What's Next?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elleman, Amy M.; Compton, Donald L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: In this article, we respond to Catts and Kamhi's (2017) argument that reading comprehension is not a single ability. Method: We provide a brief review of the impact of strategy instruction, the importance of knowledge in reading comprehension, and possible avenues for future research and practice. Results: We agree with Catts and Kamhi's…

  11. Reading Comprehension in Children with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Glynis; Brown, Heather; Main, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Two studies aimed to investigate the reading comprehension abilities of 14 readers with Down syndrome aged 6 years 8 months to 13 years relative to those of typically developing children matched on word reading ability, and to investigate how these abilities were associated with reading accuracy, listening comprehension, phonological awareness and…

  12. The Development of Locative Comprehension in Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Peggy S.; Chapman, Robin S.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a study of 40 monolingual Spanish-speaking Peruvian children in which comprehension of six locative phrases was tested. Results are analyzed in terms of developmental sequence, locative acquisition, the effects of intrinsic label on projective locative comprehension, the effects of linguistic form, and the effects of context. (SED)

  13. How to Improve Your Reading Comprehension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MollieSmith

    2005-01-01

    When seeking to improve any skill, it is important to have a positive attitude, to set clear goals, and to practice regularly. The same is true of improving your reading comprehension skills. First, I want to discuss some positive thinking strategies, and then we will discuss some more practical ways of improving in the area of reading comprehension.

  14. Reading Comprehension in Children with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Glynis; Brown, Heather; Main, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Two studies aimed to investigate the reading comprehension abilities of 14 readers with Down syndrome aged 6 years 8 months to 13 years relative to those of typically developing children matched on word reading ability, and to investigate how these abilities were associated with reading accuracy, listening comprehension, phonological awareness and…

  15. University Students with Poor Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, George K.; Das, J. P.

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the nature of the working memory and general cognitive ability deficits experienced by university students with a specific reading comprehension deficit. A total of 32 university students with poor reading comprehension but average word-reading skills and 60 age-word-matched controls with no comprehension…

  16. Reading Comprehension Assessment: A Cognitive Basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Peter H.

    Drawing on work from a number of disciplines, this volume brings together experimental and theoretical information relevant to the problems of assessing children's reading comprehension. After a short introduction, the first section defines reading comprehension, presenting theoretical issues intended to provide an understanding of what is being…

  17. A Low Vision Reading Comprehension Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, G. R.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Fifty adults (ages 28-86) with macular degeneration were given the Low Vision Reading Comprehension Assessment (LVRCA) to test its reliability and validity in evaluating the reading comprehension of those with vision impairments. The LVRCA was found to take only nine minutes to administer and was a valid and reliable tool. (CR)

  18. Comprehensive Education Portfolio with a Career Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Evonne J.; Holtzman, Diane M.; Dagavarian, Debra A.

    2013-01-01

    There are many types of student portfolios used within academia: the prior learning portfolio, credentialing portfolio, developmental portfolio, capstone portfolio, individual course portfolio, and the comprehensive education portfolio. The comprehensive education portfolio (CEP), as used by the authors, is a student portfolio, developed over…

  19. Revisiting the Reader's Rudder: A Comprehension Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Cynthia

    2003-01-01

    Presents the structured comprehension method, a strategy that facilitates literal, inferential, and critical reading comprehension for passive readers who can decode but not comprehend. Uses the method to illustrate how other areas of students' instruction (e.g., vocabulary enhancement through morphemic analysis, use of a phonogram approach to…

  20. Improving Reading Comprehension through Cooperative Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caposey, Tracey; Heider, Barbara

    This report describes a program for improving reading comprehension through cooperative learning. The targeted population consisted of elementary and middle school students in growing middle class communities, located in northern Illinois. The problems of reading comprehension in content areas were documented through teacher observation and…

  1. Development of longwalls with comprehensive mechanization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oplaznik, G.

    1984-01-01

    The characteristics of the development of comprehensive mechanization in the period between 1969 and 1982 are analyzed. The extensive nature of the development is indicated. The most important principles for analyzing a longwall with comprehensive mechanization is the establishment of the possibility of increasing their effectiveness and to identify and use production reserves.

  2. Reading Comprehension Instruction Practices in Sierra Leone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hersbach, S.; Denessen, E.J.P.G.; Droop, W.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: In this study an attempt was made to give insight in the way reading comprehension is taught in Sierra Leone. Attention was paid to the didactical strategies and the materials used during reading comprehension instruction. Methodology: Primary school teachers in Sierra Leone (N=43) were

  3. The Effects of Reading Fluency on Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zugel, Kevin M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to examine the effects reading fluency has on reading comprehension. The analysis was done through a synthesis of recent literature on the topic. Research shows improvement in reading fluency does improve reading comprehension and suggests reading development similarities for all readers. This consistency in…

  4. Teaching Listening Comprehension: Bottom-Up Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuziakhmetov, Anvar N.; Porchesku, Galina V.

    2016-01-01

    Improving listening comprehension skills is one of the urgent contemporary educational problems in the field of second language acquisition. Understanding how L2 listening comprehension works can have a serious influence on language pedagogy. The aim of the paper is to discuss the practical and methodological value of the notion of the perception…

  5. Financial planning on a comprehensive scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Simita

    2013-04-01

    Hospitals and health systems that wish to explore the shift to comprehensive care management should: Assess the investments in infrastructure necessary to support comprehensive care management, Gauge the financial implications and set quality and financial goals, Monitor performance using metrics such as patient satisfaction, avoidable admissions, out-of-group referrals, and average length of stay.

  6. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-2578А/С gene polymorphism in combination with cytokine gene polymorphisms among patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V I Konenkov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the distribution of the genotypes of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF gene and their combinations with those of other cytokines among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA and healthy individuals. Subjects and methods. 509 Europeoid women from the eastern regions of Russia, including 374 healthy individuals aged 23-64 years and 135 RA patients aged 27-66 years, were examined. The single nucleotide polymorphism in the promoter region of the genes of VEGC -2578 C/A, tumor necrosis factor-а (TNF-а -863 C/A, TNF-а -308 G/A, TNF-а -238 G/A, and interleukin (IL 1β -31 С/T, IL4 -590 С/T, IL6-174 G/C, IL10-1082 G/A, and IL10-592А/С was studied by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Results. Analysis of the frequency of the genotypes of VEGF in combination with other genotypes has revealed a number of highly significant genetic differences between the groups of healthy individuals and RA patients. Among the combined genetic signs (CGS, whose frequency is significantly increased in RA, there is a predominance of heterozygous CA genotypes at the polymorphic position of VEGF -2578 C/A. Among the CGS positively associated with RA, which include homozygous VEGF -2578 variants, there is a preponderance of AA genotypes whereas all 100% of the homozygous genotypes, whose frequency is significantly decreased in RA, correspond to the variant of СС. The CGS whose frequency is altered in RA along with VEGF genotypes most commonly include the genotypes of IL1ß, IL4, IL10, IL6, and TNF-а. Conclusion. The pathogenesis of RA calls for comprehensive investigation of the role of the angiogenesis and inflammation regulation genes.

  7. The relationship between asthma and bronchiolitis is modified by TLR4, CD14, and IL-13 polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Young-Ho; Seo, Ju-Hee; Kim, Hyung Young; Kwon, Ji-Won; Kim, Byoung-Ju; Kim, Hyo-Bin; Lee, So-Yeon; Jang, Gwang Cheon; Song, Dae Jin; Kim, Woo Kyung; Shim, Jung Yeon; Hong, Soo-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is a complex genetic disorder that is associated with both genetic and environmental factors. The aim of study was to investigate the combined effect of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14), and interleukin-13 (IL-13) polymorphisms and bronchiolitis in the development of childhood asthma. A modified International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire was used to survey 1,341 elementary school children and 919 nursery children in Seoul, Korea. TLR4 (rs1927911), CD14 (rs2569190), and IL-13 (rs20541) polymorphisms were genotyped by the TaqMan assay. In elementary school and nursery children, parental history of asthma (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.56 [95% CI 1.16-5.63], aOR 3.60 [95% CI 1.66-7.76], respectively), and past history of bronchiolitis (aOR 3.11 [95% CI 1.84-5.24], aOR 3.94 [95% CI 2.27-6.84], respectively) were independent risk factors for asthma diagnosis. When compared to children with each CC of TLR4 polymorphism or TT of CD14 polymorphism or GG of IL13 polymorphism and no past history of bronchiolitis, children with CT or TT of TLR4 polymorphism and past history of bronchiolitis had 4.23 and 5.34 times higher risk to develop asthma, respectively; children with TT of CD14 polymorphism and past history of bronchiolitis had 3.57 and 7.22 times higher risk for asthma, respectively; children with GA or AA of IL-13 polymorphism and past history of bronchiolitis had 3.21 and 4.13 times higher risk for asthma, respectively. Family history of asthma or allergic rhinitis and past history of bronchiolitis could be independent risk factors for the development of childhood asthma. The relationship between asthma and bronchiolitis is modified by the TLR4, CD14, and IL-13 polymorphisms in Korean children. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Androgen receptor gene polymorphism in zebra species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideyuki Ito

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Androgen receptor genes (AR have been found to have associations with reproductive development, behavioral traits, and disorders in humans. However, the influence of similar genetic effects on the behavior of other animals is scarce. We examined the loci AR glutamine repeat (ARQ in 44 Grevy's zebras, 23 plains zebras, and three mountain zebras, and compared them with those of domesticated horses. We observed polymorphism among zebra species and between zebra and horse. As androgens such as testosterone influence aggressiveness, AR polymorphism among equid species may be associated with differences in levels of aggression and tameness. Our findings indicate that it would be useful to conduct further studies focusing on the potential association between AR and personality traits, and to understand domestication of equid species.

  9. Raman Identification of Polymorphs in Pentacene Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Girlando

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We use Raman spectroscopy to characterize thin films of pentacene grown on Si/SiO x by Supersonic Molecular Beam Deposition (SuMBD. We find that films up to a thickness of about 781 Å (∼ 52 monolayers all belong to the so-called thin-film (TF phase. The appearance with strong intensity of some lattice phonons suggests that the films are characterized by good intra-layer order. A comparison of the Raman spectra in the lattice and CH bending spectral regions of the TF polymorph with the corresponding ones of the high-temperature (HT and low-temperature (LT bulk pentacene polymorphs provides a quick and nondestructive method to identify the different phases.

  10. Carbon nitride frameworks and dense crystalline polymorphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickard, Chris J.; Salamat, Ashkan; Bojdys, Michael J.; Needs, Richard J.; McMillan, Paul F.

    2016-09-01

    We used ab initio random structure searching (AIRSS) to investigate polymorphism in C3N4 carbon nitride as a function of pressure. Our calculations reveal new framework structures, including a particularly stable chiral polymorph of space group P 43212 containing mixed s p2 and s p3 bonding, that we have produced experimentally and recovered to ambient conditions. As pressure is increased a sequence of structures with fully s p3 -bonded C atoms and three-fold-coordinated N atoms is predicted, culminating in a dense P n m a phase above 250 GPa. Beyond 650 GPa we find that C3N4 becomes unstable to decomposition into diamond and pyrite-structured CN2.

  11. Kinetics versus Thermodynamics in Virus Capsid Polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moerman, Pepijn; van der Schoot, Paul; Kegel, Willem

    2016-07-07

    Virus coat proteins spontaneously self-assemble into empty shells in aqueous solution under the appropriate physicochemical conditions, driven by an interaction free energy per bond on the order of 2-5 times the thermal energy kBT. For this seemingly modest interaction strength, each protein building block nonetheless gains a very large binding free energy, between 10 and 20 kBT. Because of this, there is debate about whether the assembly process is reversible or irreversible. Here we discuss capsid polymorphism observed in in vitro experiments from the perspective of nucleation theory and of the thermodynamics of mass action. We specifically consider the potential contribution of a curvature free energy term to the effective interaction potential between the proteins. From these models, we propose experiments that may conclusively reveal whether virus capsid assembly into a mixture of polymorphs is a reversible or an irreversible process.

  12. Informed consent comprehension in African research settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afolabi, Muhammed O; Okebe, Joseph U; McGrath, Nuala; Larson, Heidi J; Bojang, Kalifa; Chandramohan, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    Previous reviews on participants' comprehension of informed consent information have focused on developed countries. Experience has shown that ethical standards developed on Western values may not be appropriate for African settings where research concepts are unfamiliar. We undertook this review to describe how informed consent comprehension is defined and measured in African research settings. We conducted a comprehensive search involving five electronic databases: Medline, Embase, Global Health, EthxWeb and Bioethics Literature Database (BELIT). We also examined African Index Medicus and Google Scholar for relevant publications on informed consent comprehension in clinical studies conducted in sub-Saharan Africa. 29 studies satisfied the inclusion criteria; meta-analysis was possible in 21 studies. We further conducted a direct comparison of participants' comprehension on domains of informed consent in all eligible studies. Comprehension of key concepts of informed consent varies considerably from country to country and depends on the nature and complexity of the study. Meta-analysis showed that 47% of a total of 1633 participants across four studies demonstrated comprehension about randomisation (95% CI 13.9-80.9%). Similarly, 48% of 3946 participants in six studies had understanding about placebo (95% CI 19.0-77.5%), while only 30% of 753 participants in five studies understood the concept of therapeutic misconception (95% CI 4.6-66.7%). Measurement tools for informed consent comprehension were developed with little or no validation. Assessment of comprehension was carried out at variable times after disclosure of study information. No uniform definition of informed consent comprehension exists to form the basis for development of an appropriate tool to measure comprehension in African participants. Comprehension of key concepts of informed consent is poor among study participants across Africa. There is a vital need to develop a uniform definition for

  13. Effects of the BDNF Val66Met Polymorphism and Met Allele Load on Declarative Memory Related Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dodds, Chris M; Henson, Richard N; Suckling, John;

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism modulates episodic memory performance via effects on hippocampal neural circuitry. However, fMRI studies have yielded inconsistent results in this respect. Moreover, very few studies have examined the effect of met allele load on activation...... of memory circuitry. In the present study, we carried out a comprehensive analysis of the effects of the BDNF polymorphism on brain responses during episodic memory encoding and retrieval, including an investigation of the effect of met allele load on memory related activation in the medial temporal lobe....... In contrast to previous studies, we found no evidence for an effect of BDNF genotype or met load during episodic memory encoding. Met allele carriers showed increased activation during successful retrieval in right hippocampus but this was contrast-specific and unaffected by met allele load. These results...

  14. Facilitating pictorial comprehension with color highlighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougald, Brannan R; Wogalter, Michael S

    2014-09-01

    Pictorials can aid in communicating warning information, but viewers may not always correctly comprehend them. Two experiments focused on whether the use of relevant highlighting could benefit pictorial comprehension. A set of warning-related pictorials were manipulated according to three-color highlighting conditions: highlighting areas more relevant to correct comprehension, highlighting areas less relevant to comprehension, and no highlighting. Participants were asked to describe the purpose and meaning of each pictorial presented to them. The findings from both experiments indicate that comprehension of warning pictorials is higher for the relevant highlighting condition than the other two conditions. The highlighting of less relevant areas reduced comprehension compared to no highlighting. Use of appropriately placed highlighting could benefit the design of a complex symbol by pointing out pertinent areas to aid in determining its intended conceptual meaning.

  15. Listen, Listen, Listen and Listen: Building a Comprehension Corpus and Making It Comprehensible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordaunt, Owen G.; Olson, Daniel W.

    2010-01-01

    Listening comprehension input is necessary for language learning and acculturation. One approach to developing listening comprehension skills is through exposure to massive amounts of naturally occurring spoken language input. But exposure to this input is not enough; learners also need to make the comprehension corpus meaningful to their learning…

  16. Relationship between Graphical Device Comprehension and Overall Text Comprehension for Third-Grade Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Kathryn L.; Norman, Rebecca R.; Cocco, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    This study examined relationships between reading comprehension, known predictors of reading comprehension (i.e., cognitive flexibility, fluency, reading motivation and attitude, vocabulary), and graphical device comprehension. One-hundred fifty-six third graders completed assessments of known predictor variables and an assessment tapping…

  17. The Effect of Explicit Teaching of Comprehension Strategies on Reading Comprehension in Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, James Grant

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of explicit teaching of comprehension strategies on the comprehension performance of elementary school students. Two schools with similar demographics, including a significant proportion of students at risk for reading failure, participated in the study. One school utilized an explicit comprehension strategy…

  18. Readability and Its Effects on Reading Rate, Subjective Judgments of Comprehensibility and Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coke, Esther U.

    Prose passages read aloud or silently were rated for pronounceability and comprehensibility. The relationships of text-derived readability indices to reading rate, comprehensibility ratings and comprehension test scores were explored. Reading rate in syllables per minute was unrelated to readability. The high correlation between rate in words per…

  19. Measures of Reading Comprehension: A Latent Variable Analysis of the Diagnostic Assessment of Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, David J.; Snow, Catherine E.; August, Diane; Carlson, Coleen D.; Miller, Jon; Iglesias, Aquiles

    2006-01-01

    This study compares 2 measures of reading comprehension: (a) the Woodcock-Johnson Passage Comprehension test, a standard in reading research, and (b) the Diagnostic Assessment of Reading Comprehension (DARC), an innovative measure. Data from 192 Grade 3 Spanish-speaking English language learners (ELLs) were used to fit a series of latent variable…

  20. Calorimetric determinations and theoretical calculations of polymorphs of thalidomide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Ochoa, F.; Pérez, G. Espinosa; Mijangos-Santiago, F.

    2007-09-01

    The analysis of the thermograms of thalidomide obtained for the two reported polymorphs α and β by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) shows some inconsistencies that are discussed in the present work. The conception of a new polymorph form, named β ∗, allowed us to explain the observed thermal behavior more satisfactorily. This new polymorph shows enantiotropy with both α and β polymorphs, reflected in the unique endotherm obtained in the DSC-thermograms, when a heating rate of 10 °C/min is applied. Several additional experiments, such as re-melting of both polymorph forms, showed that there is indeed a new polymorph with an endotherm located between the endotherms of α and β. IR, Raman, and powder X-ray permit us to characterize the isolated compound, resulting from the re-melting of both polymorph forms. Mechanical calculations were performed to elucidate the conformations of each polymorph, and ab initio quantum chemical calculations were performed to determine the energy of the more stable conformers and the spatial cell energy for both polymorphs α and β. These results suggested a possible conformation for the newly discovered polymorph β ∗.