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Sample records for compounds potential multielectron

  1. Oligomer and mixed-metal compounds potential multielectron transfer catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rillema, D.P.

    1992-03-30

    Projects related to the design and characterization of multimetallic complexes has proceeded forward with a number of achievements. First, photoprocesses in hydrogel matrices lead to the conclusion that cationic metallochromophores could be ion exchanged into a hydrogel matrix ({kappa}-carageenan) and substantial photocurrents could be generated. Second, X-ray structures of Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+}, Ru(bpm){sub 3}{sup 2+} and Ru(bpz){sub 3}{sup 2+}, where bpy is 2,2{prime}-bipyridine, bpm is 2,2{prime}-bipyrimidine and bpz is 2,2{prime}-bipyrizine, were obtained and revealed similar Ru-N bond distances in each complex even though their {sigma}-donor and {pi}-acceptor character differ markedly. The structure parameters are expected to provide theoreticians with the information needed to probe the electronic character of the molecular systems and provide us with direction in our synthetic strategies. Third, a copper(I) complex was synthesized with a dimeric-ethane-bridged, 1,10-phenanthroline ligand that resulted in isolation of a bimetallic species. The copper(I) complex did luminesce weakly, suggesting that the dimer possesses potential electron transfer capability. Fourth, the photophysical properties of (Re(CO){sub 4}(L-L)){sup +}, where L-L = heterocyclic diimine ligands, and Pt(bph)X{sub 2}, where bph = the dianion of biphenyl and X = CH{sub 3}CN, py or ethylendiamine, displayed luminescence at high energy and underwent excited-state electron transfer. Such high energy emitters provide high driving forces for undergoing excited-state electron transfer. Fifth, both energy and electron transfer were observed in mixed-metal complexes bridged by 1,2-bis(2,2{prime}-bipyridyl-4{prime}-yl) ethane.

  2. Interaction potentials for multi-electron atoms in front of a LiF (0 0 1) surface from rainbow scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravielle, M.S. [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (CONICET-UBA), Casilla de correo 67, sucursal 28, C1428EGA Buenos Aires (Argentina); Miraglia, J.E., E-mail: miraglia@iafe.uba.ar [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (CONICET-UBA), Casilla de correo 67, sucursal 28, C1428EGA Buenos Aires (Argentina); Schüller, A.; Winter, H. [Institut für Physik, Humboldt Universität zu Berlin, Newtonstrasse 15, D-12489 Berlin-Adlershof (Germany)

    2013-12-15

    Pairwise interaction potentials for multi-electron atoms moving in front of a LiF (0 0 1) surface are investigated theoretically and experimentally. From angular distributions of fast He, N, S, Cl and Kr atoms grazingly scattered under axial surface channeling conditions, rainbow angles are experimentally determined for a wide range of energies for the motion normal to the surface plane. These angles are used as a benchmark to probe the pairwise potential model. In the simulations the scattering process is described by means of the surface eikonal approximation, while the atom–surface interaction is derived by adding binary interatomic potentials that include the proper asymptotic limit.

  3. Multi-electron beam system for high resolution electron beam induced deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Bruggen, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    The development of a multi-electron beam system is described which is dedicated for electron beam induced deposition (EBID) with sub-10 nm resolution. EBID is a promising mask-less nanolithography technique which has the potential to become a viable technique for the fabrication of 20-2 nm

  4. Coherent Operations and Screening in Multielectron Spin Qubits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Higginbotham, Andrew Patrick; Kuemmeth, Ferdinand; Hanson, M.P.

    2014-01-01

    Multielectron spin qubits are demonstrated, and performance examined by comparing coherent exchange oscillations in coupled single-electron and multielectron quantum dots, measured in the same device. Fast (>1 GHz) exchange oscillations with a quality factor Q ∼ 15 are found for the multielectron...... case, compared to Q ∼ 2 for the single-electron case, the latter consistent with experiments in the literature. A model of dephasing that includes voltage and hyperfine noise is developed that is in good agreement with both single- and multielectron data, though in both cases additional exchange...

  5. Triterpenes as Potentially Cytotoxic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malwina Chudzik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Triterpenes are compounds of natural origin, which have numerously biological activities: anti-cancer properties, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, anti-viral, anti-bacterial and anti-fungal. These substances can be isolated from plants, animals or fungi. Nowadays, when neoplasms are main cause of death, triterpenes can become an alternative method for treating cancer because of their cytotoxic properties and chemopreventive activities.

  6. Negative Spin Exchange in a Multielectron Quantum Dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Frederico; Malinowski, Filip K.; Nissen, Peter D.; Fallahi, Saeed; Gardner, Geoffrey C.; Manfra, Michael J.; Marcus, Charles M.; Kuemmeth, Ferdinand

    2017-12-01

    We use a one-electron quantum dot as a spectroscopic probe to study the spin properties of a gate-controlled multielectron GaAs quantum dot at the transition between odd and even occupation numbers. We observe that the multielectron ground-state transitions from spin-1 /2 -like to singletlike to tripletlike as we increase the detuning towards the next higher charge state. The sign reversal in the inferred exchange energy persists at zero magnetic field, and the exchange strength is tunable by gate voltages and in-plane magnetic fields. Complementing spin leakage spectroscopy data, the inspection of coherent multielectron spin exchange oscillations provides further evidence for the sign reversal and, inferentially, for the importance of nontrivial multielectron spin exchange correlations.

  7. Influence of the dynamic screening on single-electron ionization of multi-electron atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monti, J M; Fojon, O A; Rivarola, R D [Instituto de FIsica Rosario (CONICET-UNR) and Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, IngenierIa y Agrimensura, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Avenida Pellegrini 250, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Hanssen, J, E-mail: monti@ifir-conicet.gov.a [Institut de Chimie, Physique et Materiaux, Laboratoire de Physique Moleculaire et des Collisions, Universite Paul Verlaine - Metz, 1 Bv. Arago, 57078 Metz Cedex 3 (France)

    2010-10-28

    A complete formulation of the post-version of the continuum distorted wave-eikonal initial state model to investigate single-electron ionization of multi-electron atoms by fast bare ion beams is considered. The influence of the non-ionized electrons on the dynamic evolution of the ejected electron is analysed showing that the corresponding interaction plays a main role in the determination of double differential cross sections. It is demonstrated that its inclusion as an additional term in the perturbative potential of the exit channel avoids discrepancies between the pre- and post-versions of the studied distorted wave model.

  8. Microelectrode voltammetry of multi-electron transfers complicated by coupled chemical equilibria: a general theory for the extended square scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laborda, Eduardo; Gómez-Gil, José María; Molina, Angela

    2017-06-28

    A very general and simple theoretical solution is presented for the current-potential-time response of reversible multi-electron transfer processes complicated by homogeneous chemical equilibria (the so-called extended square scheme). The expressions presented here are applicable regardless of the number of electrons transferred and coupled chemical processes, and they are particularized for a wide variety of microelectrode geometries. The voltammetric response of very different systems presenting multi-electron transfers is considered for the most widely-used techniques (namely, cyclic voltammetry, square wave voltammetry, differential pulse voltammetry and steady state voltammetry), studying the influence of the microelectrode geometry and the number and thermodynamics of the (electro)chemical steps. Most appropriate techniques and procedures for the determination of the 'interaction' between successive transfers are discussed. Special attention is paid to those situations where homogeneous chemical processes, such as protonation, complexation or ion association, affect the electrochemical behaviour of the system by different stabilization of the oxidation states.

  9. Multielectron dissociative ionization of methane and formaldehyde molecules with optimally tailored intense femtosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irani, E.; Anvari, A.; Sadighi-Bonabi, R.; Monfared, M.

    2017-10-01

    The multielectron dissociative ionization of CH4 and CH2O molecules has been investigated using optimum convolution of different dual tailored short laser pulses. Based on three dimensional molecular dynamics simulations and TDDFT approach, the dissociation probability is enhanced by designing the dual chirped-chirped laser pulses and chirped-ordinary laser pulses for formaldehyde molecule. However, it is interesting to notice that the sensitivity of enhanced dissociation probability into different tailored laser pulses is not significant for methane molecule. In this presented modifications, time variation of bond length, velocity, time dependent electron localization function and evolution of the efficient occupation states are presented to analyze the time evolution of molecular dynamics. This work is proved to be a potential way to reduce the controlling costs with a currently available pulse shaping technology.

  10. Triorganotin as a compound with potential reproductive toxicity in mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S. Delgado Filho

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Organotin compounds are typical environmental contaminants and suspected endocrine-disrupting substances, which cause irreversible sexual abnormality in female mollusks, called "imposex". However, little is known about the capability of triorganotin compounds, such as tributyltin and triphenyltin, to cause disorders in the sexual development and reproductive functions of mammals, including humans and rodents. Moreover, these compounds can act as potential competitive inhibitors of aromatase enzyme and other steroidogenic enzymes, affecting the reproductive capacity of male and female mammals. In this review, we discuss the cellular, biochemical, and molecular mechanisms by which triorganotin compounds induce adverse effects in the mammalian reproductive function.

  11. Advanced High Energy Density Secondary Batteries with Multi?Electron Reaction Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Renjie; Luo, Rui; Huang, Yongxin; Wu, Feng; Li, Li

    2016-01-01

    Secondary batteries have become important for smart grid and electric vehicle applications, and massive effort has been dedicated to optimizing the current generation and improving their energy density. Multi?electron chemistry has paved a new path for the breaking of the barriers that exist in traditional battery research and applications, and provided new ideas for developing new battery systems that meet energy density requirements. An in?depth understanding of multi?electron chemistries i...

  12. Compound sensory action potential in normal and pathological human nerves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Christian

    2004-01-01

    The compound sensory nerve action potential (SNAP) is the result of phase summation and cancellation of single fiber potentials (SFAPs) with amplitudes that depend on fiber diameter, and the amplitude and shape of the SNAP is determined by the distribution of fiber diameters. Conduction velocities...... at different conduction distances are determined by summation of SFAPs of varying fiber diameters, and differ in this respect, also, from the compound muscle action potential (CMAP) for which conduction velocities are determined by the very fastest fibers in the nerve. The effect and extent of temporal...

  13. Compound sensory action potential in normal and pathological human nerves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Christian

    2004-01-01

    The compound sensory nerve action potential (SNAP) is the result of phase summation and cancellation of single fiber potentials (SFAPs) with amplitudes that depend on fiber diameter, and the amplitude and shape of the SNAP is determined by the distribution of fiber diameters. Conduction velocitie...

  14. Antimicrobial activity of some potential active compounds against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antimicrobial activities of six potential active compounds (acetic acid, chitosan, catechin, gallic acid, lysozyme, and nisin) at the concentration of 500 g/ml against the growth of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria innocua, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were determined. Lysozyme showed the highest ...

  15. Compound muscle action potentials in newborn infants with spina bifida.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerdink, N.; Pasman, J.W.; Rotteveel, J.J.; Roeleveld, N.; Mullaart, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) and neurological impairment in newborn infants with spina bifida. Thirty-one newborn infants (17 males, 14 females, mean gestational age 39 wks [SD 2]; mean birthweight 3336 g [SD 496]) with

  16. Potential Antifreeze Compounds in Present-Day Martian Seepage Groundwater

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    Jiin-Shuh Jean

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Is the recently found seepage groundwater on Mars pure H2O, or mixed with salts and other antifreeze compounds? Given the surface conditions of Mars, it is unlikely that pure water could either exist in its liquid state or have shaped Mars¡¦ fluid erosional landforms (gullies, channels, and valley networks. More likely is that Mars¡¦ seepage groundwater contains antifreeze and salt compounds that resist freezing and suppress evaporation. This model better accounts for Mars¡¦ enigmatic surface erosion. This paper suggests 17 antifreeze compounds potentially present in Martian seepage groundwater. Given their liquid state and physical properties, triethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, ethylene glycol, and 1,3-propylene glycol are advanced as the most likely candidate compounds. This paper also explores how a mixing of glycol or glycerol with salts in the Martian seepage groundwater may have lowered water¡¦s freezing point and raised its boiling point, with consequences that created fluid gully and channel erosion. Ethylene glycol and related hydrocarbon compounds have been identified in Martian and other interstellar meteorites. We suggest that these compounds and their proportions to water be included for detection in future explorations.

  17. Advanced High Energy Density Secondary Batteries with Multi-Electron Reaction Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Renjie; Luo, Rui; Huang, Yongxin; Wu, Feng; Li, Li

    2016-10-01

    Secondary batteries have become important for smart grid and electric vehicle applications, and massive effort has been dedicated to optimizing the current generation and improving their energy density. Multi-electron chemistry has paved a new path for the breaking of the barriers that exist in traditional battery research and applications, and provided new ideas for developing new battery systems that meet energy density requirements. An in-depth understanding of multi-electron chemistries in terms of the charge transfer mechanisms occuring during their electrochemical processes is necessary and urgent for the modification of secondary battery materials and development of secondary battery systems. In this Review, multi-electron chemistry for high energy density electrode materials and the corresponding secondary battery systems are discussed. Specifically, four battery systems based on multi-electron reactions are classified in this review: lithium- and sodium-ion batteries based on monovalent cations; rechargeable batteries based on the insertion of polyvalent cations beyond those of alkali metals; metal-air batteries, and Li-S batteries. It is noted that challenges still exist in the development of multi-electron chemistries that must be overcome to meet the energy density requirements of different battery systems, and much effort has more effort to be devoted to this.

  18. Potential of fruit wastes as natural resources of bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Gui-Fang; Shen, Chen; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Kuang, Ru-Dan; Guo, Ya-Jun; Zeng, Li-Shan; Gao, Li-Li; Lin, Xi; Xie, Jie-Feng; Xia, En-Qin; Li, Sha; Wu, Shan; Chen, Feng; Ling, Wen-Hua; Li, Hua-Bin

    2012-01-01

    Fruit wastes are one of the main sources of municipal waste. In order to explore the potential of fruit wastes as natural resources of bioactive compounds, the antioxidant potency and total phenolic contents (TPC) of lipophilic and hydrophilic components in wastes (peel and seed) of 50 fruits were systematically evaluated. The results showed that different fruit residues had diverse antioxidant potency and the variation was very large. Furthermore, the main bioactive compounds were identified and quantified, and catechin, cyanidin 3-glucoside, epicatechin, galangin, gallic acid, homogentisic acid, kaempferol, and chlorogenic acid were widely found in these residues. Especially, the values of ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and TPC in the residues were higher than in pulps. The results showed that fruit residues could be inexpensive and readily available resources of bioactive compounds for use in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

  19. Potential of Fruit Wastes as Natural Resources of Bioactive Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Gui-Fang; Shen, Chen; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Kuang, Ru-Dan; Guo, Ya-Jun; Zeng, Li-Shan; Gao, Li-Li; Lin, Xi; Xie, Jie-Feng; Xia, En-Qin; Li, Sha; Wu, Shan; Chen, Feng; Ling, Wen-Hua; Li, Hua-Bin

    2012-01-01

    Fruit wastes are one of the main sources of municipal waste. In order to explore the potential of fruit wastes as natural resources of bioactive compounds, the antioxidant potency and total phenolic contents (TPC) of lipophilic and hydrophilic components in wastes (peel and seed) of 50 fruits were systematically evaluated. The results showed that different fruit residues had diverse antioxidant potency and the variation was very large. Furthermore, the main bioactive compounds were identified and quantified, and catechin, cyanidin 3-glucoside, epicatechin, galangin, gallic acid, homogentisic acid, kaempferol, and chlorogenic acid were widely found in these residues. Especially, the values of ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and TPC in the residues were higher than in pulps. The results showed that fruit residues could be inexpensive and readily available resources of bioactive compounds for use in the food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:22942704

  20. Potential of Fruit Wastes as Natural Resources of Bioactive Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hua Ling

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Fruit wastes are one of the main sources of municipal waste. In order to explore the potential of fruit wastes as natural resources of bioactive compounds, the antioxidant potency and total phenolic contents (TPC of lipophilic and hydrophilic components in wastes (peel and seed of 50 fruits were systematically evaluated. The results showed that different fruit residues had diverse antioxidant potency and the variation was very large. Furthermore, the main bioactive compounds were identified and quantified, and catechin, cyanidin 3-glucoside, epicatechin, galangin, gallic acid, homogentisic acid, kaempferol, and chlorogenic acid were widely found in these residues. Especially, the values of ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC and TPC in the residues were higher than in pulps. The results showed that fruit residues could be inexpensive and readily available resources of bioactive compounds for use in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

  1. Aromatic nitrogen compounds in fossil fuels: a potential hazard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, C H; Clark, B R; Guerin, M R; Ma, C Y; Rao, T K

    1979-01-01

    To achieve energy independence in the United States, converting coal to oil or extracting oil from shale will be required. Before commercial scale fossil fuel conversion facilities become a reality, chemical and biological studies of currently available synfuel samples derived from coal or shale are urgently needed in order to determine what the potential health problems, such as from occupational exposure, might be. Aromatic nitrogen compounds such as basic aza-arenes, neutral aza-arenes, and aromatic amines are considered environmentally important and several members of these classes of compounds possess biological activity. For example, dibenz(a,h)acridine, 7 H-dibenzo(c,g)carbazole, and 2-naphthylamine, are well known as carcinogens. The methods used to isolate the basic aromatic nitrogen compounds and neutral aza-arenes from one shale oil and one coal-derived oil are discussed. The mutagenic activities of these fractions, based on the Ames Salmonella typhimurium test, are compared.

  2. Antifouling potential of Nature-inspired sulfated compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Joana R.; Correia-da-Silva, Marta; Sousa, Emília; Antunes, Jorge; Pinto, Madalena; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Cunha, Isabel

    2017-02-01

    Natural products with a sulfated scaffold have emerged as antifouling agents with low or nontoxic effects to the environment. In this study 13 sulfated polyphenols were synthesized and tested for antifouling potential using the anti-settlement activity of mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) plantigrade post-larvae and bacterial growth inhibition towards four biofilm-forming bacterial strains. Results show that some of these Nature-inspired compounds were bioactive, particularly rutin persulfate (2), 3,6-bis(β-D-glucopyranosyl) xanthone persulfate (6), and gallic acid persulfate (12) against the settlement of plantigrades. The chemical precursors of sulfated compounds 2 and 12 were also tested for anti-settlement activity and it was possible to conclude that bioactivity is associated with sulfation. While compound 12 showed the most promising anti-settlement activity (EC50 = 8.95 μg.mL-1), compound 2 also caused the higher level of growth inhibition in bacteria Vibrio harveyi (EC20 = 12.5 μg.mL-1). All the three bioactive compounds 2, 6, and 12 were also found to be nontoxic to the non target species Artemia salina (mortality at 250 μM) and Vibrio fischeri (LC50 > 1000 μg.mL-1). This study put forward the relevance of synthesizing non-natural sulfated small molecules to generate new nontoxic antifouling agents.

  3. Review of natural compounds for potential skin cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinembiri, Tawona N; du Plessis, Lissinda H; Gerber, Minja; Hamman, Josias H; du Plessis, Jeanetta

    2014-08-06

    Most anti-cancer drugs are derived from natural resources such as marine, microbial and botanical sources. Cutaneous malignant melanoma is the most aggressive form of skin cancer, with a high mortality rate. Various treatments for malignant melanoma are available, but due to the development of multi-drug resistance, current or emerging chemotherapies have a relatively low success rates. This emphasizes the importance of discovering new compounds that are both safe and effective against melanoma. In vitro testing of melanoma cell lines and murine melanoma models offers the opportunity for identifying mechanisms of action of plant derived compounds and extracts. Common anti-melanoma effects of natural compounds include potentiating apoptosis, inhibiting cell proliferation and inhibiting metastasis. There are different mechanisms and pathways responsible for anti-melanoma actions of medicinal compounds such as promotion of caspase activity, inhibition of angiogenesis and inhibition of the effects of tumor promoting proteins such as PI3-K, Bcl-2, STAT3 and MMPs. This review thus aims at providing an overview of anti-cancer compounds, derived from natural sources, that are currently used in cancer chemotherapies, or that have been reported to show anti-melanoma, or anti-skin cancer activities. Phytochemicals that are discussed in this review include flavonoids, carotenoids, terpenoids, vitamins, sulforaphane, some polyphenols and crude plant extracts.

  4. Review of Natural Compounds for Potential Skin Cancer Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawona N. Chinembiri

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Most anti-cancer drugs are derived from natural resources such as marine, microbial and botanical sources. Cutaneous malignant melanoma is the most aggressive form of skin cancer, with a high mortality rate. Various treatments for malignant melanoma are available, but due to the development of multi-drug resistance, current or emerging chemotherapies have a relatively low success rates. This emphasizes the importance of discovering new compounds that are both safe and effective against melanoma. In vitro testing of melanoma cell lines and murine melanoma models offers the opportunity for identifying mechanisms of action of plant derived compounds and extracts. Common anti-melanoma effects of natural compounds include potentiating apoptosis, inhibiting cell proliferation and inhibiting metastasis. There are different mechanisms and pathways responsible for anti-melanoma actions of medicinal compounds such as promotion of caspase activity, inhibition of angiogenesis and inhibition of the effects of tumor promoting proteins such as PI3-K, Bcl-2, STAT3 and MMPs. This review thus aims at providing an overview of anti-cancer compounds, derived from natural sources, that are currently used in cancer chemotherapies, or that have been reported to show anti-melanoma, or anti-skin cancer activities. Phytochemicals that are discussed in this review include flavonoids, carotenoids, terpenoids, vitamins, sulforaphane, some polyphenols and crude plant extracts.

  5. The Electrically Evoked Compound Action Potential: From Laboratory to Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shuman; Teagle, Holly F B; Buchman, Craig A

    2017-01-01

    The electrically evoked compound action potential (eCAP) represents the synchronous firing of a population of electrically stimulated auditory nerve fibers. It can be directly recorded on a surgically exposed nerve trunk in animals or from an intra-cochlear electrode of a cochlear implant. In the past two decades, the eCAP has been widely recorded in both animals and clinical patient populations using different testing paradigms. This paper provides an overview of recording methodologies and response characteristics of the eCAP, as well as its potential applications in research and clinical situations. Relevant studies are reviewed and implications for clinicians are discussed.

  6. Marine Compounds with Therapeutic Potential in Gram-Negative Sepsis

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    Irina Yermak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns the potential use of compounds, including lipid A, chitosan, and carrageenan, from marine sources as agents for treating endotoxemic complications from Gram-negative infections, such as sepsis and endotoxic shock. Lipid A, which can be isolated from various species of marine bacteria, is a potential antagonist of bacterial endotoxins (lipopolysaccharide (LPSs. Chitosan is a widespread marine polysaccharide that is derived from chitin, the major component of crustacean shells. The potential of chitosan as an LPS-binding and endotoxin-neutralizing agent is also examined in this paper, including a discussion on the generation of hydrophobic chitosan derivatives to increase the binding affinity of chitosan to LPS. In addition, the ability of carrageenan, which is the polysaccharide of red alga, to decrease the toxicity of LPS is discussed. We also review data obtained using animal models that demonstrate the potency of carrageenan and chitosan as antiendotoxin agents.

  7. Multi-electron processes in slow He2+-Nacollisions measured with MOTRIMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoop, S; Turkstra, JW; Morgenstern, R; Olson, RE; Hoekstra, R

    We have measured multi-electron processes in collisions of He2+ ions on Na at 6 keV/amu impact energy with the MOTRIMS technique, in which a laser-cooled target is used for recoil ion momentum spectroscopy. Beside true single and double electron capture, processes involving ionization have been

  8. Potential Bioactive Compounds from Seaweed for Diabetes Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusrizam Sharifuddin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders of the endocrine system characterised by hyperglycaemia. Type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM constitutes the majority of diabetes cases around the world and are due to unhealthy diet, sedentary lifestyle, as well as rise of obesity in the population, which warrants the search for new preventive and treatment strategies. Improved comprehension of T2DM pathophysiology provided various new agents and approaches against T2DM including via nutritional and lifestyle interventions. Seaweeds are rich in dietary fibres, unsaturated fatty acids, and polyphenolic compounds. Many of these seaweed compositions have been reported to be beneficial to human health including in managing diabetes. In this review, we discussed the diversity of seaweed composition and bioactive compounds which are potentially useful in preventing or managing T2DM by targeting various pharmacologically relevant routes including inhibition of enzymes such as α-glucosidase, α-amylase, lipase, aldose reductase, protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B and dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 (DPP-4. Other mechanisms of action identified, such as anti-inflammatory, induction of hepatic antioxidant enzymes’ activities, stimulation of glucose transport and incretin hormones release, as well as β-cell cytoprotection, were also discussed by taking into consideration numerous in vitro, in vivo, and human studies involving seaweed and seaweed-derived agents.

  9. Compound muscle action potential duration in critical illness neuromyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Christopher L; Boon, Andrea J; Harper, C Michel; Goodman, Brent P

    2018-03-01

    We sought to determine the specificity of compound muscle action potential (CMAP) durations and amplitudes in a large critical illness neuromyopathy (CINM) cohort relative to controls with other neuromuscular conditions. Fifty-eight patients with CINM who had been seen over a 17-year period were retrospectively studied. Electrodiagnostic findings of the CINM cohort were compared with patients with axonal peripheral neuropathy and myopathy due to other causes. Mean CMAP durations were prolonged, and mean CMAP amplitudes were severely reduced both proximally and distally in all nerves studied in the CINM cohort relative to the control groups. The specificity of prolonged CMAP durations for CINM approached 100% if they were encountered in more than 1 nerve. Prolonged, low-amplitude CMAPs occur more frequently and with greater severity in CINM patients than in neuromuscular controls with myopathy and axonal neuropathy and are highly specific for the diagnosis of CINM. Muscle Nerve 57: 395-400, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Evaluating the potential bioactivity of a novel compound ER1626.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Wang

    Full Text Available ER1626, a novel compound, is a derivate of indeno-isoquinoline ketone. This study was designed to evaluate the biological activity and potential anti-tumor mechanism of ER1626.MTT assay, scratch assay and flow cytometry were used to determine cell proliferation, cell migration and cell cycle distribution as well as cell apoptosis on human breast cancer MCF-7 cells and endometrial cancer Ishikawa cells. We also explored the antiangiogenic effect of ER1626 on HUVEC cells and chicken embryos. The expression of estrogen receptor protein was investigated with western-blot analysis.ER1626 down-regulated the expression of estrogen receptor α protein and up-regulated β protein in MCF-7 and Ishikawa cells. The value of IC50 of ER1626 on MCF-7 and Ishikawa cells were respectively 8.52 and 3.08 µmol/L. Meanwhile, ER1626 decreased VEGF secretion of MCF-7 and Ishikawa cells, disturbed the formation of VEGF-stimulated tubular structure in HUVEC cells, and inhibited the angiogenesis on the chicken chorioallantoic membrane. Scratch assay revealed that ER1626 suppressed the migration of MCF-7, Ishikawa and HUVEC cells. In addition to induction tumor cell apoptosis, ER1626 arrested cell cycle in G1/G0 phase in MCF-7 cells and G2/M phase in Ishikawa cells.In conclusion, our results demonstrated that ER1626 has favorable bioactivities to be a potential candidate against breast cancer and angiogenesis.

  11. Anti-inflammatory Natural Prenylated Phenolic Compounds - Potential Lead Substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezáni, Viliam; Šmejkal, Karel; Hošek, Jan; Tomášová, Veronika

    2017-08-10

    Natural phenolics are secondary plant metabolites, which can be divided into several categories with the common structural feature of phenolic hydroxyl. The biological activity of phenolics is often modified and enhanced by prenylation by prenyl and geranyl; higher terpenoid chains are rare. The type of prenyl connection and modification affects their biological activity. This review summarizes information about prenylated phenols and some of their potential sources, and provides an overview of their anti-inflammatory potential in vitro and in vivo. The literature search was performed using Scifinder and keywords prenyl, phenol, and inflammation. For individual compounds, an additional search was performed to find information about further activities and mechanisms of effects. We summarized the effects of prenylated phenolics in vitro in cellular or biochemical systems on the production and release of inflammation-related cytokines; their effects on inhibition of cyclooxygenases and lipoxygenases; the effects on production of nitric oxide, antiradical and antioxidant activity; and the effect on the inhibition of the release of enzymes and mediators from neutrophils, mast cells and macrophages. The information about the antiphlogistic potential of prenylated phenolics is further supported by a review of their action in animal models. Almost 400 prenylated phenols were reviewed to overview their anti-inflammatory effect. The bioactivity of several prenylated phenols was confirmed also using in vivo assays. A pool of natural prenylated phenols represents a source of inspiration for synthesis, and prenylated phenols as components of various medicinal plants used to combat inflammation could be their active principles. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  12. Facilitation and refractoriness of the electrically evoked compound action potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hey, Matthias; Müller-Deile, Joachim; Hessel, Horst; Killian, Matthijs

    2017-11-01

    In this study we aim to resolve the contributions of facilitation and refractoriness at very short pulse intervals. Measurements of the refractory properties of the electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP) of the auditory nerve in cochlear implant (CI) users at inter pulse intervals below 300 μs are influenced by facilitation and recovery effects. ECAPs were recorded using masker pulses with a wide range of current levels relative to the probe pulse levels, for three suprathreshold probe levels and pulse intervals from 13 to 200 μs. Evoked potentials were measured for 21 CI patients by using the masked response extraction artifact cancellation procedure. During analysis of the measurements the stimulation current was not used as absolute value, but in relation to the patient's individual ECAP threshold. This enabled a more general approach to describe facilitation as a probe level independent effect. Maximum facilitation was found for all tested inter pulse intervals at masker levels near patient's individual ECAP threshold, independent from probe level. For short inter pulse intervals an increased N1P1 amplitude was measured for subthreshold masker levels down to 120 CL below patient's individual ECAP threshold in contrast to the recreated state. ECAPs recorded with inter pulse intervals up to 200 μs are influenced by facilitation and recovery. Facilitation effects are most pronounced for masker levels at or below ECAP threshold, while recovery effects increase with higher masker levels above ECAP threshold. The local maximum of the ECAP amplitude for masker levels around ECAP threshold can be explained by the mutual influence of maximum facilitation and minimal refractoriness. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Accuracy of measurement in electrically evoked compound action potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hey, Matthias; Müller-Deile, Joachim

    2015-01-15

    Electrically evoked compound action potentials (ECAP) in cochlear implant (CI) patients are characterized by the amplitude of the N1P1 complex. The measurement of evoked potentials yields a combination of the measured signal with various noise components but for ECAP procedures performed in the clinical routine, only the averaged curve is accessible. To date no detailed analysis of error dimension has been published. The aim of this study was to determine the error of the N1P1 amplitude and to determine the factors that impact the outcome. Measurements were performed on 32 CI patients with either CI24RE (CA) or CI512 implants using the Software Custom Sound EP (Cochlear). N1P1 error approximation of non-averaged raw data consisting of recorded single-sweeps was compared to methods of error approximation based on mean curves. The error approximation of the N1P1 amplitude using averaged data showed comparable results to single-point error estimation. The error of the N1P1 amplitude depends on the number of averaging steps and amplification; in contrast, the error of the N1P1 amplitude is not dependent on the stimulus intensity. Single-point error showed smaller N1P1 error and better coincidence with 1/√(N) function (N is the number of measured sweeps) compared to the known maximum-minimum criterion. Evaluation of N1P1 amplitude should be accompanied by indication of its error. The retrospective approximation of this measurement error from the averaged data available in clinically used software is possible and best done utilizing the D-trace in forward masking artefact reduction mode (no stimulation applied and recording contains only the switch-on-artefact). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Pharmaceutical Compounds in Wastewater: Wetland Treatment as a Potential Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. White

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceutical compounds are being released into the aquatic environment through wastewater discharge around the globe. While there is limited removal of these compounds within wastewater treatment plants, wetland treatment might prove to be an effective means to reduce the discharge of the compounds into the environment. Wetlands can promote removal of these pharmaceutical compounds through a number of mechanisms including photolysis, plant uptake, microbial degradation, and sorption to the soil. We review relevant laboratory research on these various mechanisms and provide data on the few studies that have examined wetland removal. There is a need to document the degree to which various pharmaceutical compounds are removed in full-scale treatment wetlands, as there is a paucity of data on overall pharmaceutical removal rates.

  15. Promotion of multi-electron transfer for enhanced photocatalysis: A review focused on oxygen reduction reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Changhua [Centre for Advanced Optoelectronic Functional Materials Research, and Key Laboratory for UV-Emitting Materials and Technology of Ministry of Education, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); College of Chemistry and Biology, Beihua University, Jilin 132013 (China); Zhang, Xintong, E-mail: xtzhang@nenu.edu.cn [Centre for Advanced Optoelectronic Functional Materials Research, and Key Laboratory for UV-Emitting Materials and Technology of Ministry of Education, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); Liu, Yichun [Centre for Advanced Optoelectronic Functional Materials Research, and Key Laboratory for UV-Emitting Materials and Technology of Ministry of Education, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in photocatalysis process is focused. • Multi-electron transfer ORR is reviewed. • This review provides a guide to access to enhanced photocatalysis via multi-electron transfer. - Abstract: Semiconductor photocatalysis has attracted significant interest for solar light induced environmental remediation and solar fuel generation. As is well known, photocatalytic performance is determined by three steps: photoexcitation, separation and transport of photogenerated charge carriers, and surface reactions. To achieve higher efficiency, significant efforts have been made on improvement of efficiency of above first two steps, which have been well documented in recent review articles. In contrast, this review intends to focus on strategies moving onto the third step of improvement for enhanced photocatalysis wherein active oxygen species including superoxide radical, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical are in situ detected. Particularly, surface electron-transfer reduction of oxygen over single component photocatalysts is reviewed and systems enabling multi-electron transfer induced oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) are highlighted. It is expected this review could provide a guideline for readers to better understand the critical role of ORR over photocatalyst in charge carrier separation and transfer and obtain reliable results for enhanced aerobic photocatalysis.

  16. Acute nerve compression and the compound muscle action potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baylor Kelly

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Detecting acute nerve compression using neurophysiologic studies is an important part of the practice of clinical intra-operative neurophysiology. The goal of this paper was to study the changes in the compound muscle action potential (CMAP during acute mechanical compression. This is the type of injury most likely to occur during surgery. Thus, understanding the changes in the CMAP during this type of injury will be useful in the detection and prevention using intra-operative neurophysiologic monitoring. The model involved compression of the hamster sciatic nerve over a region of 1.3 mm with pressures up to 2000 mmHg for times on the order of 3 minutes. In this model CMAP amplitude dropped to 50% of its baseline value when a pressure of roughly 1000 mmHg is applied while, at the same time, nerve conduction velocities decline by only 5%. The ability to detect statistically significant changes in the CMAP at low force levels using other descriptors of the CMAP including duration, latency variation, etc alone or in conjunction with amplitude and velocity measures was investigated. However, these other parameters did not allow for earlier detection of significant changes. This study focused on a model in which nerve injury on a short time scale is purely mechanical in origin. It demonstrated that a pure compression injury produced large changes in CMAP amplitude prior to large changes in conduction velocity. On the other hand, ischemic and stretch injuries are associated with larger changes in conduction velocity for a given value of CMAP amplitude reduction.

  17. Potential therapeutic effects of functionally active compounds isolated from garlic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Hyung-Mun; Ban, Jung Ok; Park, Kyung-Ran; Lee, Chong Kil; Jeong, Heon-Sang; Han, Sang Bae; Hong, Jin Tae

    2014-05-01

    The medicinal properties of functionally active organosulfur compounds such as allin, diallyl disulfide, S-allylmercaptocysteine, and S-trityl-L-cysteine isolated from garlic have received great attention from a large number of investigators who have studied their pharmacological effects for the treatment of various diseases. These organosulfur compounds are able to prevent for development of cancer, cardiovascular, neurological, and liver diseases as well as allergy and arthritis. There have been also many reports on toxicities and pharmacokinetics of these compounds. The aim of this study is to review a variety of experimental and clinical reports, and describe the effectiveness, toxicities and pharmacokinetics, and possible mechanisms of pharmaceutical actions of functionally active compounds isolated from garlic. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Antimicrobial azobenzene compounds and their potential use in biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessa, L.; Concilio, S.; Iannelli, P.; De Santis, F.; Porta, A.; Piotto, S.

    2016-04-01

    We recently synthesized a class of active compounds with azobenzene structure [1] and lowest in silico toxicity values. The antimicrobial activity of these molecules and their thermal stability are very promising and indicate that they may have interesting and therapeutically significant applications. This work aims to develop new materials with antibacterial and antifungal activity inserting different percentages of synthetic antimicrobial azo compounds in commercial polymer matrices. We realized thin films using solvent casting and melt compounding techniques. The obtained materials retained the proprieties of the pure matrices. This means that azo dye dissolved in the matrix does not influence the thermal behavior and the morphology of the material. Tested films exhibited the capability to inhibit biofilms formation of S. aureus and C. albicans. Spectrophotometric investigation of the azo compound released from the polymer matrices confirmed that the realized materials might be interesting for biomedical tools, antibacterial surfaces, and films for active packaging.

  19. HIV-1 pseudovirus neutralisation by a natural compound: a potential microbicide

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van den Berg, N

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A natural compound isolated from extracts of an indigenous plant in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, indicates neutralisation activity against HIV-1 pseudoviruses. This natural compound can potentially be used in a microbicide as an alternative means...

  20. Interionic pair potentials and partial structure factors of compound ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    As regard the structural properties of liquid alloys beyond binary not much work has been done. Exact solution of Percus-Yevic equation had already been studied by Hiroke [16]. Hoshino and Young [14] proposed a theory of mixing of compound- forming liquid alloys where three types of hard spheres co-exist and applied it.

  1. Chemopreventive potential of natural compounds in head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammad Aminur; Amin, A R M Ruhul; Shin, Dong M

    2010-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is one of the most fatal cancers worldwide. Despite advances in the management of HNSCC, the overall survival for patients has not improved significantly due to advanced stages at diagnosis, high recurrence rate after surgical removal, and second primary tumor development, which underscore the importance of novel strategies for cancer prevention. Cancer chemoprevention, the use of natural or synthetic compounds to prevent, arrest, or reverse the process of carcinogenesis at its earliest stages, aims to reverse premalignancies and prevent second primary tumors. Genomics and proteomics information including initial mutation, cancer promotion, progression, and susceptibility has brought molecularly targeted therapies for drug development. The development of preventive approaches using specific natural or synthetic compounds, or both, requires a depth of understanding of the cross-talk between cancer signaling pathways and networks to retain or enhance chemopreventive activity while reducing known toxic effects. Many natural dietary compounds have been identified with multiple molecular targets, effective in the prevention and treatment of cancer. This review describes recent advances in the understanding of the complex signaling networks driving cancer progression and of molecularly targeted natural compounds under preclinical and clinical investigation.

  2. Potential Anti-metastasis Natural Compounds for Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanvorachote, Pithi; Chamni, Supakarn; Ninsontia, Chuanpit; Phiboonchaiyanan, Preeyaporn Plaimee

    2016-11-01

    As lung cancer is the most common malignancy worldwide and high mortalities are the result of metastasis, novel information surpassing the treatment strategies and therapeutic agents focusing on cancer dissemination are of interest. Lung cancer metastasis involves increased motility, survival in circulation and ability to form new tumors. Metastatic cells increase their aggressive features by utilizing several mechanisms to overcome hindrances of metastasis, including epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), increased in cellular survival and migratory signals. Sufficient amounts of natural product-derived compounds have been shown to have promising anti-metastasis activities by suppressing key molecular features upholding such cell aggressiveness. The knowledge regarding molecular mechanisms rendering cell dissemination together with the anti-metastasis information of natural product-derived compounds may lead to development of novel therapeutic strategies. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  3. Review of natural compounds for potential skin cancer treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Chinembiri, Tawona N; Du Plessis, Lissinda H; Gerber, Minja; Hamman, Josias H; Du Plessis, Jeanetta

    2014-01-01

    Most anti-cancer drugs are derived from natural resources such as marine, microbial and botanical sources. Cutaneous malignant melanoma is the most aggressive form of skin cancer, with a high mortality rate. Various treatments for malignant melanoma are available, but due to the development of multi-drug resistance, current or emerging chemotherapies have a relatively low success rates. This emphasizes the importance of discovering new compounds that are both safe and effective against melano...

  4. Chemopreventive potential of natural compounds in head and neck cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Mohammad Aminur; Amin, A.R.M. Ruhul; Shin, Dong M.

    2010-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is one of the most fatal cancers world-wide. Despite advances in the management of HNSCC, the overall survival for patients has not improved significantly due to advanced stages at diagnosis, high recurrence rate after surgical removal, and second primary tumor development, which together underscore the importance of novel strategies for cancer prevention. Cancer chemoprevention, the use of natural or synthetic compounds to prevent, arrest, or rev...

  5. 3-Alkylpyridinium compounds as potential non-toxic antifouling agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepcić, K; Turk, T

    2006-01-01

    To date, around thirty bioactive 3-alkylpyridinium compounds, either in monomeric or oligomeric forms, have been identified in marine sponges belonging to the order Haplosclerida In this work, we have reviewed their biological activities, which include mainly cytotoxicity, ichthyotoxicity, inhibition of bacterial growth, and enzyme inhibition. Most of these activities increase with the increasing degree of oligomerization of the corresponding 3-alkylpyridinium compound. It was shown recently that 3-alkylpyridines also exhibit promising antifouling activities. Linear 3-octylpyridinium polymers (Poly-APS), isolated from the Mediterranean sponge Reniera sarai, showed a non-toxic reversible mechanism of settlement inhibition of Balanus amphitrite cypris larvae with an EC50 of 0.27 microg/mL. At the same time, their toxicity towards the organisms used in the toxicity bioassays (B. amphitrite nauplii, microalga Tetraselmis suecica and larvae of Mytilus galloprovincialis) was almost negligible in comparison to commercially available and currently used booster biocides based on copper and zinc complexes with pyrithione. Poly-APS and some other natural 3-alkylpyridines were also found to be very effective in preventing microbial biofilm formation. Preliminary tests have confirmed that some monomeric and oligomeric synthetic analogues of poly-APS also exert antifouling activity, which makes these compounds promising candidates as new environmentally-friendly ingredients in the new generation of antifouling coatings.

  6. Sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds with potential antidiabetic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Savateeva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The essential link in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus and its complications is a non-enzymatic glycosylation of proteins. However, modern endocrinology lacks of clinically effective pharmaceuticals for its correction. The screening of 23 derivatives of 1,3,4-thiadiazine the ability to inhibit the reaction of non-enzymatic glycosylation of proteins in vitro was held, and 11 the most active compounds of them were selected, also the relationship «structure – activity» was investigated. An essential part of the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus and its complications is non-enzymatic glycosylation of proteins. However, modern endocrinology lacks clinically effective medicines for its correction.

  7. Multielectron SEFs for nuclear reactions involved in advanced stages of stellar evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Liolios, T E

    2001-01-01

    Multielectron screening effects encountered in laboratory astrophysical reactions are investigated by considering the reactants Thomas-Fermi atoms. By means of that model, previous studies are extended to derive the corresponding screening enhancement factor (SEF), so that it takes into account ionization, thermal, exchange and relativistic effects. The present study, by imposing a very satisfactory constraint on the possible values of the screening energies and the respective SEFs, corrects the current (and the future) experimental values of the astrophysical factors associated with nuclear reactions involved in advanced stages of stellar evolution.

  8. Gate-dependent spin-orbit coupling in multielectron carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Thomas Sand; Grove-Rasmussen, Kasper; Paaske, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Understanding how the orbital motion of electrons is coupled to the spin degree of freedom in nanoscale systems is central for applications in spin-based electronics and quantum computation. Here we demonstrate such spin–orbit coupling in a carbon-nanotube quantum dot in the general multielectron...... graphene lattice. Our findings suggest that the spin–orbit coupling is a general property of carbon-nanotube quantum dots, which should provide a unique platform for the study of spin–orbit effects and their applications....

  9. Multielectron coincidence spectroscopy for core-valence doubly ionized states of CO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikosaka, Y; Kaneyasu, T; Shigemasa, E; Lablanquie, P; Penent, F; Ito, K

    2007-07-28

    Double photoionization into states which have holes in one core and one valence orbitals has been observed in CO using a state-of-the-art multielectron coincidence method. The core-valence CO2+ structures exhibited on the electron coincidence spectra are assigned by comparison with the available calculation [H. Schulte et al., J. Chem. Phys. 105, 11108 (1996)]. Features of the spectrum confirm that the properties of the CO2+ states are characterized by the interaction between the localized valence holes and the core holes.

  10. Non-orthogonal configuration interaction for the calculation of multielectron excited states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundstrom, Eric J., E-mail: eric.jon.sundstrom@berkeley.edu; Head-Gordon, Martin [Department of Chemistry, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720, USA and Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2014-03-21

    We apply Non-orthogonal Configuration Interaction (NOCI) to molecular systems where multielectron excitations, in this case double excitations, play a substantial role: the linear polyenes and β-carotene. We demonstrate that NOCI when applied to systems with extended conjugation, provides a qualitatively correct wavefunction at a fraction of the cost of many other multireference treatments. We also present a new extension to this method allowing for purification of higher-order spin states by utilizing Generalized Hartree-Fock Slater determinants and the details for computing 〈S{sup 2}〉 for the ground and excited states.

  11. Current functional theory for multi-electron configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Jens N.; Bohr, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    The density functional theory (DFT) formalism is reformulated into a framework of currents so as to give the energy a parameter dependent behaviour, e.g., time. This “current” method is aimed at describing the transition of electrons from one orbital to another and especially from the ground state...... to an excited state and extended to the relativistic region in order to include magnetic fields which is relevant especially for heavy metallic compounds. The formalism leads to a set of coupled first order partial differential equations to describe the time evolution of atoms and molecules. The application...... of the method to ZnO and H2O to calculate the occupation probabilities of the orbitals lead to the results that compare favorably with those obtained from DFT. Furthermore, evolution equations for electrons in both atoms and molecules can be derived. Applications to specific examples of small molecules (being...

  12. Compound

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    UV-vis spectra showing solvent effects on compounds (6). Figure S4. UV-vis spectra showing solvent effects on compounds (9). Figure S5. UV-vis spectra showing solvent ___, acidic--- and basic -□- effects on compound (8) in CH2Cl2 solution. Table S1. 1H and 13C NMR spectral data of salicylaldimine Schiff bases (5-8).

  13. Motor evoked potentials and compound muscle action potentials as prognostic tools for neonates with spina bifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuppen, Inge; Geerdink, Niels; Rotteveel, Jan J; Mullaart, Reinier; Roeleveld, Nel; Pasman, Jaco W

    2013-03-01

    MEPs and CMAPs as prognostic tools for spina bifida. The aim of this prospective study was to determine the prognostic value of neurophysiological investigations compared to clinical neurological examination in infants with spina bifida. Thirty-six neonates born with spina bifida between 2002 and 2007 were evaluated and followed for 2 years. Lumbar motor evoked potentials (MEPs) and compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) were obtained at the median age of 2 days old before surgical closure of the spinal anomaly. MEPs were recorded from the quadriceps femoris, tibialis anterior, and gastrocnemius muscles and CMAPs from the latter two muscles. Areas under the curve and latencies of the MEPs and CMAPs were measured. Clinical neurological outcome at the age of 2 years was described using Muscle Function Classes (MFCs) and ambulation status. The areas under the curve of MEPs and CMAPs in the legs were associated with lower neonatal levels of motor and sensory impairment. Better muscle function class of the lower limbs at 2 years of age was associated with larger MEP and CMAP areas of the gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior muscles at neonatal age. MEPs and CMAPs of the gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior muscles are of prognostic value for clinical neurological outcome in neonates born with spina bifida. Copyright © 2012 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Pineapple peel wastes as a potential source of antioxidant compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswaty, V.; Risdian, C.; Primadona, I.; Andriyani, R.; Andayani, D. G. S.; Mozef, T.

    2017-03-01

    Indonesia is a large pineapple (Ananas comosus) producing country. Food industries in Indonesia processed this fruit for new products and further resulted wastes of which cause an environmental problems. Approximately, one pineapple fruit total weight is 400 gr of which 60 g is of peel wastes. In order to reduce such pineapple peel wastes (PPW), processing to a valuable product using an environmentally friendly technique is indispensable. PPW contained phenolic compound, ferulic acid, and vitamin A and C as antioxidant. This study aimed to PPW using ethanol and water as well as to analyze its chemical properties. Both dried and fresh PPW were extracted using mixtures of ethanol and water with various concentrations ranging from 15 to 95% (v/v) at room temperature for 24 h. The chemical properties, such as antioxidant activity, total phenolic content (Gallic acid equivalent/GAE), and total sugar content were determined. The results showed that the range of Inhibition Concentration (IC)50 value as antioxidant activity of extracts from dried and fresh PPW were in the range of 0.8±0.05 to 1.3±0.09 mg.mL-1 and 0.25±0.01 to 0.59±0.01 mg.mL-1, respectively, with the highest antioxidant activity was in water extract. The highest of total phenolic content of 0.9 mg.g-1 GAE, was also found in water extract.

  15. Volatile compounds as potential defective coffee beans' markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toci, Aline T; Farah, Adriana

    2008-06-01

    Although Brazil is the largest raw coffee producer and exporter in the world, a large amount of its Arabica coffee production is considered inappropriate for exportation. This by-product of coffee industry is called PVA due to the presence of black (P), green (V) and sour (A) defective beans, which are known to contribute considerably for cup quality decrease. Data on the volatile composition of Brazilian defective coffee beans are scarce. In this study, we evaluated the volatile composition of defective coffee beans (two lots) compared to good quality beans from the respective lots. Potential defective beans' markers were identified. In the raw samples, 2-methylpyrazine and 2-furylmethanol acetate were identified only in black-immature beans and butyrolactone only in sour beans, while benzaldehyde and 2,3,5,6-tetramethylpyrazine showed to be potential markers of defective beans in general. In the roasted PVA beans, pyrazine, 2,3-butanediol meso, 2-methyl-5-(1-propenyl)pyrazine, hexanoic acid, 4-ethyl-guayacol and isopropyl p-cresol sulfide also showed to be potential defective coffee beans' markers. Copyright © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Antibacterial Potential of Northeastern Portugal Wild Plant Extracts and Respective Phenolic Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Pinho; Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira; Lillian Barros; Ana Maria Carvalho; Graça Soares; Mariana Henriques

    2014-01-01

    The present work aims to assess the antibacterial potential of phenolic extracts, recovered from plants obtained on the North East of Portugal, and of their phenolic compounds (ellagic, caffeic, and gallic acids, quercetin, kaempferol, and rutin), against bacteria commonly found on skin infections. The disk diffusion and the susceptibility assays were used to identify the most active extracts and phenolic compounds. The effect of selected phenolic compounds on animal cells was assessed by det...

  17. Active compounds from cyanobacteria and microalgae: properties and potential applications in biomedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Llopiz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria and microalgae are source of many chemicals substances with potential applications on biopharmaceutical industry. Many structures have been characterized in these organism, such as: peptides, proteins, carbohydrates, terpenoids, polyinsatured fatty acids, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, vitamins, porfirins and other organic substances. Chemicals structures of isolated compounds are diverse and it depends of microalgae habitats. Pharmacological activities located in microalgae are bactericides, immunomodulatory, antioxidants, cytoprotective, fungicides and antivirals. These properties may possible the potential treatment of many diseases including autoimmunes disorders, tumoral, and infectious process. In this review are presented and discussed some elements associated to chemical structure and biological activities around of compounds with potential uses as biopharmaceuticals.

  18. Optical coherence tomography for compound action potential detection: a computational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troiani, Francesca; Nikolic, Konstantin; Constandinou, Timothy G.

    2017-07-01

    The feasibility of using time domain optical coherence tomography (TD-OCT) to detect compound action potential in a peripheral nerve and the setup characteristics, are studied through the use of finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique.

  19. Fate and Transport of Select Hydraulic Fracturing Compounds of Potential Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use of proprietary mixtures of reagents in fracing fluids injected in deep zones, has led to controversy over potential contamination of drinking water aquifers. This presentation focuses on the different classes of compounds identified in fracing fluids.

  20. Bioactive compounds from marine sponges and their symbiotic microbes: a potential source of nutraceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Kwon; Dewapriya, Pradeep

    2012-01-01

    Sponges are considered as the chemical factory in marine environment because of its immense production of chemically diverse compounds. Other than the chemical diversity, these compounds possess remarkable bioactivities. This great potential has aroused applications of sponge-derived compounds as therapeutics and at present, a number of promising compounds are in clinical and preclinical trials. Recently, nutraceuticals have received considerable interest among the health conscious community because of its multiple therapeutic effects. Natural health-promoting substances gain continuous popularity as nutraceuticals due to its reduced risk of side effects. This overview discusses the potentials of marine sponge-derived bioactivities as natural health-promoting compounds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Application of a simple asynchronous mechanical light chopper to multielectron coincidence spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Kenji; Suzuki, Isao H. [Photon Factory, IMSS, KEK, Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Penent, Francis; Lablanquie, Pascal [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie (UPMC), 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); CNRS, LCPMR(UMR 7614), 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Hikosaka, Yasumasa; Shigemasa, Eiji [UVSOR Facility, Institute for Molecular Science, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan); Eland, John H. D. [PTCL, Oxford University, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QZ (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-15

    A simple asynchronous mechanical light chopper, based on modification of a turbo-molecular pump, has been developed to extend the interval between light pulses in single bunch operation at the Photon Factory storage ring. A pulse repetition rate of 80 kHz was achieved using a cylinder rotating at 48000 rpm, with 100 slits of 80 {mu}m width. This allows absolute timing of particles up to 12.48 {mu}s instead of the single-bunch period of 624 ns. We have applied the chopper together with a light pulse monitor to measure multielectron coincidence spectra using a magnetic bottle time-of-flight electron spectrometer. With such a system, the electron energies are determined without any ambiguity, the folding of coincidence spectra disappears and the effect of false coincidences is drastically reduced.

  2. Spin states of multielectron systems and the action of multi-spin bans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arifullin, M. R.; Berdinskii, V. L.

    2013-07-01

    Magnetic and spin effects in chemical reactions are caused by the effect of spin bans, which control the elementary acts of radical and ion-radical reactions involving, as a rule, two paramagnetic particles. Any description of spin bans acting in chemical and enzymatic reactions, which is accompanied by transfer of several electrons, as well as in the reactions of high spin molecules, requires knowledge of spin states. It is shown that spin states of multi-electron states should be described by a spin density matrix; rules for their construction are given and their properties are described. As a first step, the construction of four-density matrix is described in detail. The application of four- and three-spin density matrixes is shown for analyzing the formation of superoxide anion in respiratory chains of mitochondria.

  3. Multi-Electron Production at High Transverse Momenta in ep Collisions at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aktas, A.; Anthonis, T.; Asmone, A.; Babaev, A.; Backovic, S.; Bahr, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baumgartner, S.; Becker, J.; Beckingham, M.; Behnke, O.; Behrendt, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, C.; Berndt, T.; Bizot, J.C.; Bohme, J.; Boenig, M.O.; Boudry, V.; Bracinik, J.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Broker, H.B.; Brown, D.P.; Bruncko, D.; Busser, F.W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Caron, S.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Chekelian, V.; Clarke, D.; Collard, C.; Contreras, J.G.; Coppens, Y.R.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cousinou, M.C.; Cox, B.E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Dau, W.D.; Daum, K.; Delcourt, B.; Delerue, N.; Demirchyan, R.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dingfelder, J.; Dodonov, V.; Dowell, J.D.; Dubak, A.; Duprel, C.; Eckerlin, Guenter; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Ellerbrock, M.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Erdmann, W.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Ferencei, J.; Fleischer, M.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleming, Y.H.; Flucke, G.; Flugge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Foresti, I.; Formanek, J.; Franke, G.; Frising, G.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Garvey, J.; Gassner, J.; Gayler, Joerg; Gerhards, R.; Gerlich, C.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Gorbounov, S.; Grab, C.; Grabski, V.; Grassler, H.; Greenshaw, T.; Gregori, M.; Grindhammer, Guenter; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Haller, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Henschel, H.; Henshaw, O.; Heremans, R.; Herrera, G.; Herynek, I.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hladky, J.; Hoting, P.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Ibbotson, M.; Jacquet, M.; Janauschek, L.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, C.; Johnson, D.P.; Jung, H.; Kant, D.; Kapichine, M.; Karlsson, M.; Katzy, J.; Keil, F.; Keller, N.; Kennedy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, Christian M.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, T.; Knies, G.; Koblitz, B.; Kolya, S.D.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Koutouev, R.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kroseberg, J.; Kueckens, J.; Kuhr, T.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka, T.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leissner, B.; Lemrani, R.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; List, B.; Lobodzinska, E.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lueders, H.; Luders, S.; Luke, D.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malden, N.; Malinovski, E.; Mangano, S.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martyn, H.U.; Martyniak, J.; Maxfield, S.J.; Meer, D.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michine, S.; Mikocki, S.; Milstead, D.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nagovizin, V.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, J.; Naumann, T.; Newman, Paul R.; Niebergall, F.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikitin, D.; Nowak, G.; Nozicka, M.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J.E.; Ozerov, D.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Peez, M.; Perez, E.; Petrukhin, A.; Pitzl, D.; Poschl, R.; Povh, B.; Raicevic, N.; Rauschenberger, J.; Reimer, P.; Reisert, B.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauvan, E.; Schatzel, S.; Scheins, J.; Schilling, F.P.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schneider, M.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schroder, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Schwanenberger, C.; Sedlak, K.; Sefkow, F.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Sirois, Y.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Spitzer, H.; Stamen, R.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Strauch, I.; Straumann, U.; Thompson, Graham; Thompson, P.D.; Tomasz, F.; Traynor, D.; Truoel, Peter; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Turney, J.E.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Uraev, A.; Urban, Marcel; Usik, A.; Valkar, S.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vassiliev, S.; Vazdik, Y.; Veelken, C.; Vest, A.; Vichnevski, A.; Volchinski, V.; Wacker, K.; Wagner, J.; Waugh, B.; Weber, G.; Weber, R.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Werner, N.; Wessels, M.; Wessling, B.; Winde, M.; Winter, G.G.; Wissing, C.; Woehrling, E.E.; Wunsch, E.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zomer, F.; zur Nedden, M.

    2003-01-01

    Multi-electron production is studied at high electron transverse momentum in positron- and electron-proton collisions using the H1 detector at HERA. The data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 115 pb-1. Di-electron and tri-electron event yields are measured. Cross sections are derived in a restricted phase space region dominated by photon-photon collisions. In general good agreement is found with the Standard Model predictions. However, for electron pair invariant masses above 100 GeV, three di-electron events and three tri-electron events are observed, compared to Standard Model expectations of 0.30 pm 0.04 and 0.23 pm 0.04, respectively.

  4. Accumulative charge separation for solar fuels production: coupling light-induced single electron transfer to multielectron catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarström, Leif

    2015-03-17

    structural properties, they are typically more amenable to mechanistic analysis, and they are small and therefore require less material. Therefore, they have arguably greater potential as future efficient catalysts but must be efficiently coupled to accumulative charge separation. This Account discusses accumulative charge separation with focus on molecular and molecule-semiconductor hybrid systems. The coupling between charge separation and catalysis involves many challenges that are often overlooked, and they are not always apparent when studying water oxidation and fuel formation as separate half-reactions with sacrificial agents. Transition metal catalysts, as well as other multielectron donors and acceptors, cycle through many different states that may quench the excited sensitizer by nonproductive pathways. Examples where this has been shown, often with ultrafast rates, are reviewed. Strategies to avoid these competing energy-loss reactions and still obtain efficient coupling of charge separation to catalysis are discussed. This includes recent examples of dye-sensitized semiconductor devices with molecular catalysts and dyes that realize complete water splitting, albeit with limited efficiency.

  5. Potential application of synthesized ferrocenylimines compounds for the elimination of bacteria in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikhile, M. I.; Barnard, T. G.; Ngila, J. C.

    2017-08-01

    This work reports a study towards a search for environmentally friendly water disinfectant. The most common method for water treatment is based on chlorine which had a wide application over the years as a water disinfectant, but suffer the disadvantage of reacting with natural organic matter to form disinfection by products. In this study, the potential application of novel ferrocenylimines compounds, namely 4-ferrocenylaniline (1), N-(3-bromo-2-hydroxylbenzylidene)-4-ferrocenylimine (2) and N-(3-bromo-5-chlorosalicyl)-4-ferrocenylimine (3) for the elimination of bacteria in water was investigated by evaluating their antibacterial properties against twelve different bacterial strains using microdilution method in sterile 96 well micro titer plates. The in vitro antibacterial activity revealed that the ferrocenylimines compound exhibit higher antibacterial activity than ferrocene, which is one of the starting materials towards the synthesis of this novel ferrocenylimines compounds. The most active ferrocenylimines compound was compound 3 with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 0.30 mg/ml against S. sonnei. In addition, all the ferrocenylimines compounds possessed excellent antibacterial activity against B. cereus with the same MIC value of 0.31 mg/ml. The results obtained so far show great potential in the three tested ferrocenylimines compounds for use in water treatment in killing bacteria in water.

  6. RESEARCH REGARDING THE POTENTIAL ACTIVITY OF SOME HETEROCYCLIC COMPOUNDS ON PLANTS GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OANA-IRINA PATRICIU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that growth and morphogenesis of plant tissue cultures can be improved by small amounts of some organic compounds. Heterocyclic compounds such as chromanones and thiazoles derivatives, valuable because of their potential biological activities, have also been reported as pesticides, herbicides and plant-growth regulators. In the present study, different concentrations of chromanones and thiazoles derivatives were employed to evaluate their effects on plantlets growth of Ocimum basilicum L. and Echinacea purpurea L. The studied compounds were proved to be growth inhibitors at high concentrations. A growth stimulation effect was registered at low concentration.

  7. In Silico Screening of Potential Allicin Compound From Allium Sativum as Antiplasmodium

    OpenAIRE

    Fatmawaty; Hanafi, Muhammad; Rosmalena; Prasasty, Vivitri Dewi

    2015-01-01

    Allicin compound (2-propene-1- sulphinothioat acid S-2-propenyl ester) is known to have potential as antiplasmodium in vitro. However, the inhibitory activity mechanism of Allicin to plasmodium is still unknown. In this research, we determined the inhibitory activity of Allicin in silico. Identification of physicochemical properties of Allicin compound and two Allicin derivatives, Alc1, Alc2 and Ac2Alc3 were also conducted.. Furthermore, analysis of drug-likeness and adsorption-distrib...

  8. Phytogenic Compounds as Alternatives to In-Feed Antibiotics: Potentials and Challenges in Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengbo Yang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes current experimental knowledge on the efficacy, possible mechanisms and feasibility in the application of phytogenic products as feed additives for food-producing animals. Phytogenic compounds comprise a wide range of plant-derived natural bioactive compounds and essential oils are a major group. Numerous studies have demonstrated that phytogenic compounds have a variety of functions, including antimicrobial/antiviral, antioxidative and anti-inflammation effects and improvement in the palatability of feed and gut development/health. However, the mechanisms underlying their functions are still largely unclear. In the past, there has been a lack of consistency in the results from both laboratory and field studies, largely due to the varied composition of products, dosages, purities and growing conditions of animals used. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of phytogenic compounds required for controlling enteric pathogens may not guarantee the best feed intake, balanced immunity of animals and cost-effectiveness in animal production. The lipophilic nature of photogenic compounds also presents a challenge in effective delivery to the animal gut and this can partially be resolved by microencapsulation and combination with other compounds (synergistic effect. Interestingly, the effects of photogenic compounds on anti-inflammation, gut chemosensing and possible disruption of bacterial quorum sensing could explain a certain number of studies with different animal species for the better production performance of animals that have received phytogenic feed additives. It is obvious that phytogenic compounds have good potential as an alternative to antibiotics in feed for food animal production and the combination of different phytogenic compounds appears to be an approach to improve the efficacy and safety of phytogenic compounds in the application. It is our expectation that the recent development of high-throughput and

  9. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.): Nutrients, bioactive compounds, and potential impact on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Morais Cardoso, Leandro; Pinheiro, Soraia Silva; Martino, Hércia Stampini Duarte; Pinheiro-Sant'Ana, Helena Maria

    2017-01-22

    Sorghum is the fifth most produced cereal in the world and is a source of nutrients and bioactive compounds for the human diet. We summarize the recent findings concerning the nutrients and bioactive compounds of sorghum and its potential impact on human health, analyzing the limitations and positive points of the studies and proposing directions for future research. Sorghum is basically composed of starch, which is more slowly digested than that of other cereals, has low digestibility proteins and unsaturated lipids, and is a source of some minerals and vitamins. Furthermore, most sorghum varieties are rich in phenolic compounds, especially 3-deoxyanthocyanidins and tannins. The results obtained in vitro and in animals have shown that phenolics compounds and fat soluble compounds (polycosanols) isolated from sorghum benefit the gut microbiota and parameters related to obesity, oxidative stress, inflammation, diabetes, dyslipidemia, cancer, and hypertension. The effects of whole sorghum and its fractions on human health need to be evaluated. In conclusion, sorghum is a source of nutrients and bioactive compounds, especially 3-deoxyanthocyanidins, tannins, and polycosanols, which beneficially modulate, in vitro and in animals, parameters related to noncommunicable diseases. Studies should be conducted to evaluate the effects of different processing on protein and starch digestibility of sorghum as well as on the profile and bioavailability of its bioactive compounds, especially 3-deoxyanthocyanidins and tannins. Furthermore, the benefits resulting from the interaction of bioactive compounds in sorghum and human microbiota should be studied.

  10. Antibacterial activity of wine phenolic compounds and oenological extracts against potential respiratory pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueva, C; Mingo, S; Muñoz-González, I; Bustos, I; Requena, T; del Campo, R; Martín-Álvarez, P J; Bartolomé, B; Moreno-Arribas, M V

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the effect of seven wine phenolic compounds and six oenological phenolic extracts on the growth of pathogenic bacteria associated with respiratory diseases (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Moraxella catarrhalis, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus sp Group F, Streptococcus agalactiae and Streptococcus pneumoniae). Antimicrobial activity was determined using a microdilution method and quantified as IC(50) . Mor. catarrhalis was the most susceptible specie to phenolic compounds and extracts. Gallic acid and ethyl gallate were the compounds that showed the greatest antimicrobial activity. Regarding phenolic extracts, GSE (grape seed extract) and GSE-O (oligomeric-rich fraction from GSE) were the ones that displayed the strongest antimicrobial effects. Results highlight the antimicrobial properties of wine phenolic compounds and oenological extracts against potential respiratory pathogens. The antimicrobial activity of wine phenolic compounds was influenced by the type of phenolic compounds. Gram-negative bacteria were more susceptible than Gram-positive bacteria to the action of phenolic compounds and extracts; however, the effect was species-dependent. The ability to inhibit the growth of respiratory pathogenic bacteria as shown by several wine phenolic compounds and oenological extracts warrants further investigations to explore the use of grape and wine preparations in oral hygiene. © 2012 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Analysis of present and future potential compound flooding risk along the European coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevacqua, Emanuele; Maraun, Douglas; Voukouvalas, Evangelos; Vousdoukas, Michalis I.; Widmann, Martin; Manning, Colin; Vrac, Mathieu

    2017-04-01

    The coastal zone is the natural border between the sea and the mainland, and it is constantly under the influence of marine and land-based natural and human-induced pressure. Compound floods are extreme events occurring in coastal areas where the interaction of joint high sea level and large amount of precipitation causes extreme floodings. Typically the risk of flooding in coastal areas is defined analysing either sea level or precipitation driven floodings, however compound floods should be considered to avoid an underestimation of the risk. In the future, the human pressure at the coastal zone is expected to increase, urging for a comprehensive analysis of the compound flooding risk under different climate change scenarios. In this study we introduce the concept of "potential risk" as we investigate how often large amount of precipitation and high sea level may co-occur, and not the effective impact due to the interaction of these two hazards. The effective risk of compound flooding in a specific place depends also on the local orography and on the existing protections. The estimation of the potential risk of compound flooding is useful to individuate places where an effective risk of compound flooding may exist, and where further studies would be useful to get more precise information on the local risk. We estimate the potential risk of compound flooding along the European coastal zone incorporating the ERA-Interim meteorological reanalysis for the past and present state, and the future projections from two RCP scenarios (namely the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios) as derived from 8 CMIP5 models of the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Sea level data are estimated by forcing the hydrodynamic model Delft3D-Flow with 6-hourly wind and atmospheric pressure fields. Based on sea level (storm surge and astronomical tide) and precipitation joint occurrence analysis, a map of the potential compound flooding risk along the European

  12. An indirect component in the evoked compound action potential of the vagal nerve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordelman, Simone C. M. A.; Kornet, Lilian; Cornelussen, Richard; Buschman, Hendrik P. J.; Veltink, Peter H.

    2010-12-01

    The vagal nerve plays a vital role in the regulation of the cardiovascular system. It not only regulates the heart but also sends sensory information from the heart back to the brain. We hypothesize that the evoked vagal nerve compound action potential contains components that are indirect via the brain stem or coming via the neural network on the heart. In an experimental study of 15 pigs, we identified four components in the evoked compound action potentials. The fourth component was found to be an indirect component, which came from the periphery. The latency of the indirect component increased when heart rate and contractility were decreased by burst stimulation (P = 0.01; n = 7). When heart rate and contractility were increased by dobutamine administration, the latency of the indirect component decreased (P = 0.01; n = 9). This showed that the latency of the indirect component of the evoked compound action potentials may relate to the state of the cardiovascular system.

  13. Identification of compounds that potentiate CREB signaling as possible enhancers of long-term memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Menghang; Huang, Ruili; Guo, Vicky; Southall, Noel; Cho, Ming-Hsuang; Inglese, James; Austin, Christopher P.; Nirenberg, Marshall

    2009-01-01

    Many studies have implicated the cAMP Response Element Binding (CREB) protein signaling pathway in long-term memory. To identify small molecule enhancers of CREB activation of gene expression, we screened ≈73,000 compounds, each at 7–15 concentrations in a quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS) format, for activity in cells by assaying CREB mediated β-lactamase reporter gene expression. We identified 1,800 compounds that potentiated CREB mediated gene expression, with potencies as low as 16 nM, comprising 96 structural series. Mechanisms of action were systematically determined, and compounds that affect phosphodiesterase 4, protein kinase A, and cAMP production were identified, as well as compounds that affect CREB signaling via apparently unidentified mechanisms. qHTS folowed by interrogation of pathway targets is an efficient paradigm for lead generation for chemical genomics and drug development. PMID:19196967

  14. Antibacterial potential of northeastern Portugal wild plant extracts and respective phenolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Eva; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Soares, Graça; Henriques, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    The present work aims to assess the antibacterial potential of phenolic extracts, recovered from plants obtained on the North East of Portugal, and of their phenolic compounds (ellagic, caffeic, and gallic acids, quercetin, kaempferol, and rutin), against bacteria commonly found on skin infections. The disk diffusion and the susceptibility assays were used to identify the most active extracts and phenolic compounds. The effect of selected phenolic compounds on animal cells was assessed by determination of cellular metabolic activity. Gallic acid had a higher activity, against gram-positive (S. epidermidis and S. aureus) and gram-negative bacteria (K. pneumoniae) at lower concentrations, than the other compounds. The caffeic acid, also, showed good antibacterial activity against the 3 bacteria used. The gallic acid was effective against the 3 bacteria without causing harm to the animal cells. Gallic and caffeic acid showed a promising applicability as antibacterial agents for the treatment of infected wounds.

  15. High-Throughput Yeast-Based Reporter Assay to Identify Compounds with Anti-inflammatory Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, G; Santos, C Nunes do; Menezes, R

    2016-01-01

    The association between altered proteostasis and inflammatory responses has been increasingly recognized, therefore the identification and characterization of novel compounds with anti-inflammatory potential will certainly have a great impact in the therapeutics of protein-misfolding diseases such as degenerative disorders. Although cell-based screens are powerful approaches to identify potential therapeutic compounds, establishing robust inflammation models amenable to high-throughput screening remains a challenge. To bridge this gap, we have exploited the use of yeasts as a platform to identify lead compounds with anti-inflammatory properties. The yeast cell model described here relies on the high-degree homology between mammalian and yeast Ca(2+)/calcineurin pathways converging into the activation of NFAT and Crz1 orthologous proteins, respectively. It consists of a recombinant yeast strain encoding the lacZ gene under the control of Crz1-recongition elements to facilitate the identification of compounds interfering with Crz1 activation through the easy monitoring of β-galactosidase activity. Here, we describe in detail a protocol optimized for high-throughput screening of compounds with potential anti-inflammatory activity as well as a protocol to validate the positive hits using an alternative β-galactosidase substrate.

  16. Distribution and potential ecological risk of 50 phenolic compounds in three rivers in Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Wenjue; Wang, Donghong; Wang, Zijian

    2017-12-22

    Phenolic compounds widely exist in the surface water of many countries; however, few studies have simultaneously analyzed and evaluated broad-spectrum phenolic compounds in various components of the water environment. Therefore this study analyzed the distribution and potential ecological risk of 50 phenolic compounds in the surface water, sediment and suspended particulate matter of three important rivers in Tianjin, the main heavy industry city with high pollution in China. The qualitative results show that phenolic pollution existed extensively in the three rivers and the kinds of phenolic compounds in the water were relatively higher than in both sediment and suspended particulate matter. The quantitative results show that the phenolic pollution in the wet-season samples was serious than dry-season samples. Meanwhile, total concentrations of phenolic compounds in three components from the Dagu Drainage River (DDR) were all much higher than those in the Beitang Drainage River (BDR) and Yongdingxin River (YDXR). The highest total concentrations of phenolic compounds in three components all appeared in wet-season samples in DDR, and the highest total concentration was 1354 μg/L in surface water, 719 μg/kg dw in suspended particulate matter and 2937 μg/kg dw in sediment, respectively. The ecological risk of phenolic compounds in surface water was evaluated using the quotient method, and phenolic compounds with risk quotient (RQ) > 1 (RQ > 0.3 for YDXR) were identified as priority pollutants. Five kinds of phenolic compounds were identified as priority phenolic compounds in BDR, and the order of risk was 2-cresol > 2,4-xylenol > 2-sec-butylphenol > 2-naphthol > 3-cresol. Six kinds of phenolic compounds were identified as priority phenolic compounds in DDR, and the order of risk was 2-naphthol > p-chloro-m-xylenol > 4-cresol > 3-cresol > 2,4-xylenol > 2,3,6-Trimethylphenol. In YDXR, only phenol, 2-naphthol and 2,4-xylenol were identified as

  17. Chemical compounds toxic to invertebrates isolated from marine cyanobacteria of potential relevance to the agricultural industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essack, Magbubah; Alzubaidy, Hanin S; Bajic, Vladimir B; Archer, John A C

    2014-10-29

    In spite of advances in invertebrate pest management, the agricultural industry is suffering from impeded pest control exacerbated by global climate changes that have altered rain patterns to favour opportunistic breeding. Thus, novel naturally derived chemical compounds toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates are of interest, as potential pesticides. In this regard, marine cyanobacterium-derived metabolites that are toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates continue to be a promising, but neglected, source of potential pesticides. A PubMed query combined with hand-curation of the information from retrieved articles allowed for the identification of 36 cyanobacteria-derived chemical compounds experimentally confirmed as being toxic to invertebrates. These compounds are discussed in this review.

  18. Chemical Compounds Toxic to Invertebrates Isolated from Marine Cyanobacteria of Potential Relevance to the Agricultural Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magbubah Essack

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In spite of advances in invertebrate pest management, the agricultural industry is suffering from impeded pest control exacerbated by global climate changes that have altered rain patterns to favour opportunistic breeding. Thus, novel naturally derived chemical compounds toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates are of interest, as potential pesticides. In this regard, marine cyanobacterium-derived metabolites that are toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates continue to be a promising, but neglected, source of potential pesticides. A PubMed query combined with hand-curation of the information from retrieved articles allowed for the identification of 36 cyanobacteria-derived chemical compounds experimentally confirmed as being toxic to invertebrates. These compounds are discussed in this review.

  19. Chemical Compounds Toxic to Invertebrates Isolated from Marine Cyanobacteria of Potential Relevance to the Agricultural Industry

    KAUST Repository

    Essack, Magbubah

    2014-10-29

    In spite of advances in invertebrate pest management, the agricultural industry is suffering from impeded pest control exacerbated by global climate changes that have altered rain patterns to favour opportunistic breeding. Thus, novel naturally derived chemical compounds toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates are of interest, as potential pesticides. In this regard, marine cyanobacterium-derived metabolites that are toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates continue to be a promising, but neglected, source of potential pesticides. A PubMed query combined with hand-curation of the information from retrieved articles allowed for the identification of 36 cyanobacteria-derived chemical compounds experimentally confirmed as being toxic to invertebrates. These compounds are discussed in this review.

  20. Towards integrated environmental quality objectives for several compounds with a potential for secondary poisoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plassche EJ van de; ACT; VW/RWS-DGW; AIDE

    1994-01-01

    Values are derived which can be used to set integrated environmental quality objectives (limit and target values) for 25 compounds with a potential for secondary poisoning. First, Maximum Permissible Concentrations (MPs) and Negligible Concentrations (NCs) are derived for water, sediment and soil

  1. Preparation and characterisation of manganese and iron compounds as potential control-release foliar fertilizers

    OpenAIRE

    Peng Li; Yumei Du; Li Li(State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China); Longbin Huang; Victor Rudolph; Nguyen, Anh V.; Zhi Ping (Gordon) Xu

    2014-01-01

    Nanoscale crystals containing manganese and iron as potential foliar fertilizers have been further investigated with the experience accumulated from previous research on potential zinc foliar fertilizer. Compared to Zn(II), Mn(II) and Fe(II) are easily oxidisable in ambient environment, adding stricter criteria to compound selection to prevent oxidation. Adoption of phosphate buffer saline system and chelate have been proposed as the solution and extensively assessed in this paper. After quic...

  2. Promising Potential of Dietary (Poly)Phenolic Compounds in the Prevention and Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Tania R; Alves, Marco G; Casal, Susana; Oliveira, Pedro F; Silva, Branca M

    2017-01-01

    The incidence of diabetes mellitus (DM) is reaching alarming proportions worldwide, particularly because it is increasingly affecting younger people. This reflects the sedentary lifestyle and inappropriate dietary habits, especially due to the advent of processed foods in modern societies. Thus, unsurprisingly, the first medical recommendation to patients with clinically evident DM is the alteration in their eating behaviour, particularly regarding carbohydrates and total energy intake. Despite individual and cultural preferences, human diet makes available a large amount of phytochemicals with therapeutic potential. Phenolic compounds are the most abundant class of phytochemicals in edible plants, fruits and beverages. These compounds have strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities that have been associated with specific features of their chemical structure. Among others, such properties make them promising antidiabetic agents and several mechanisms of action have already been proposed. Herein, we discuss the recent findings on the potential of dietary phenolic compounds for the prevention and/or treatment of (pre)diabetes, and associated complications. A broad range of studies supports the innate potential of phenolic compounds to protect against DM-associated deleterious effects. Their antidiabetic activity has been demonstrated by: i) regulation of carbohydrate metabolism; ii) improvement of glucose uptake; iii) protection of pancreatic β-cells; iv) enhancement of insulin action and v) regulation of crucial signalling pathways to cell homeostasis. Dietary phenolic compounds constitute an easy, safe and cost-effective way to combat the worrying scenario of DM. The interesting particularities of phenolic compounds reinforce the implementation of a (poly)phenolic-rich nutritional regime, not only for (pre)diabetic patients, but also for non-diabetic people. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Decay pathways after Xe 3d inner shell ionization using a multi-electron coincidence technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, I H; Nakano, M; Ito, K [Photon Factory, IMSS, KEK, Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Hikosaka, Y; Soejima, K [Department of Environmental Science, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Shigemasa, E [UVSOR Facility, Institute for Molecular Science, Okazaki, 444-8585 (Japan); Lablanquie, P; Penent, F [UPMC, Universite Paris 06, LCPMR, 11 rue de Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Kouchi, N, E-mail: suzukii@post.kek.jp [Department of Chemistry, Tokyo Institute of Technology, O-okayama, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)

    2011-04-14

    Cascade Auger electron emission following Xe 3d photoionization has been investigated using a multi-electron coincidence technique, which utilizes an electron spectrometer of magnetic bottle type. It has been found that the Xe{sup 2+} states of the 4p{sup -1}4d{sup -1} configuration, formed by the Auger decay of the Xe{sup +} 3d{sub 3/2,5/2}{sup -1} states, dominantly turn into triply charged states of the 4d{sup -2}5p{sup -1}/4d{sup -2}5s{sup -1} configurations. The Xe{sup 2+} 4s{sup -1}4d{sup -1} states, formed by the 3d Auger decay, yield the 4p{sup -1}4d{sup -1}5p{sup -1} states as well as the 4d{sup -3} states. From the coincidence spectrum among three Auger electrons, it is suggested that the Xe{sup 2+} 4p{sup -1}4d{sup -1} states give rise to the following cascade processes: 4p{sup -1}4d{sup -1} {yields} 4d{sup -2}5p{sup -1} {yields} 4d{sup -1}5p{sup -3}.

  4. Tunisian tomato by-products, as a potential source of natural bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharbi, S; Renda, G; La Barbera, L; Amri, M; Messina, C M; Santulli, A

    2017-03-01

    Consumption of tomato and tomato products is positively related to the reduction in cardiovascular disease and several types of cancer, thanks to the presence of natural compounds, such as antioxidants. Peels and seeds fractions of tomato, collected after industrial processing in Tunisian industries, were analysed for nutritional and antioxidants composition in perspective of its utilisation. Proximate composition, fatty acids profile, carotenoids, such as lycopene and beta-carotene, polyphenols contents, demonstrated the good potential of these residual products as a source of natural compounds, useful for food and nutraceuticals applications.

  5. Phytochemical analysis, phenolic compounds, condensed tannin content and antioxidant potential in Marwa (Origanum majorana seed extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanju B. Dhull

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant and free radical scavenging potential of seed extracts of Origanum majorana was evaluated and correlated with total phenolic content (TPC and condensed tannin content (CTC. Ethanol, methanol, acetone and chloroform were used to extract bioactive compounds from seeds of Origanum majorana at 45 °C for 45 minutes. As compared to other solvents, methanol seems to be an important extraction solvent, as maximum amount of bioactive compounds (1.18 mg GAE/g dwb with antioxidant potential was observed in methanolic extract. Total phenolic compounds in seeds were evaluated using Folin–Ciocalteu reagent (FC reagent method. Total phenolic compounds in seeds were in the range of 0.10–1.18 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dry weight basis (mg GAE/g dwb. HPLC study confirmed the presence of catechin, cinnamic acid, gallic acid and ascorbic acid. The antioxidant potential in seed extracts of Origanum majorana confirmed the presence of nutraceutical properties in them which will further be helpful in the preparation of various functional food products.

  6. Lichen-derived compounds show potential for central nervous system therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, R Gajendra; Veeraval, Lenin; Maitra, Swati; Chollet-Krugler, Marylène; Tomasi, Sophie; Dévéhat, Françoise Lohézic-Le; Boustie, Joël; Chakravarty, Sumana

    2016-11-15

    Natural products from lichens are widely investigated for their biological properties, yet their potential as central nervous system (CNS) therapeutic agents is less explored. The present study investigated the neuroactive properties of selected lichen compounds (atranorin, perlatolic acid, physodic acid and usnic acid), for their neurotrophic, neurogenic and acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activities. Neurotrophic activity (neurite outgrowth) was determined using murine neuroblastoma Neuro2A cells. A MTT assay was performed to assess the cytotoxicity of compounds at optimum neurotrophic activity. Neuro2A cells treated with neurotrophic lichen compounds were used for RT-PCR to evaluate the induction of genes that code for the neurotrophic markers BDNF and NGF. Immunoblotting was used to assess acetyl H3 and H4 levels, the epigenetic markers associated with neurotrophic and/or neurogenic activity. The neurogenic property of the compounds was determined using murine hippocampal primary cultures. AChE inhibition activity was performed using a modified Ellman's esterase method. Lichen compounds atranorin, perlatolic acid, physodic acid and (+)-usnic acid showed neurotrophic activity in a preliminary cell-based screening based on Neuro2A neurite outgrowth. Except for usnic acid, no cytotoxic effects were observed for the two depsides (atranorin and perlatolic acid) and the alkyl depsidone (physodic acid). Perlatolic acid appears to be promising, as it also exhibited AChE inhibition activity and potent proneurogenic activity. The neurotrophic lichen compounds (atranorin, perlatolic acid, physodic acid) modulated the gene expression of BDNF and NGF. In addition, perlatolic acid showed increased protein levels of acetyl H3 and H4 in Neuro2A cells. These lichen depsides and depsidones showed neuroactive properties in vitro (Neuro2A cells) and ex vivo (primary neural stem or progenitor cells), suggesting their potential to treat CNS disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Gmb

  7. In Vitro Wound Healing Potential and Identification of Bioactive Compounds from Moringa oleifera Lam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakar Amali Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera Lam. (M. oleifera from the monogeneric family Moringaceae is found in tropical and subtropical countries. The present study was aimed at exploring the in vitro wound healing potential of M. oleifera and identification of active compounds that may be responsible for its wound healing action. The study included cell viability, proliferation, and wound scratch test assays. Different solvent crude extracts were screened, and the most active crude extract was further subjected to differential bioguided fractionation. Fractions were also screened and most active aqueous fraction was finally obtained for further investigation. HPLC and LC-MS/MS analysis were used for identification and confirmation of bioactive compounds. The results of our study demonstrated that aqueous fraction of M. oleifera significantly enhanced proliferation and viability as well as migration of human dermal fibroblast (HDF cells compared to the untreated control and other fractions. The HPLC and LC-MS/MS studies revealed kaempferol and quercetin compounds in the crude methanolic extract and a major bioactive compound Vicenin-2 was identified in the bioactive aqueous fraction which was confirmed with standard Vicenin-2 using HPLC and UV spectroscopic methods. These findings suggest that bioactive fraction of M. oleifera containing Vicenin-2 compound may enhance faster wound healing in vitro.

  8. Potential anticancer properties of bioactive compounds of Gymnema sylvestre and its biofunctionalized silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunachalam, Kantha Deivi; Arun, Lilly Baptista; Annamalai, Sathesh Kumar; Arunachalam, Aarrthy M

    2015-01-01

    Gymnema sylvestre is an ethno-pharmacologically important medicinal plant used in many polyherbal formulations for its potential health benefits. Silver nanoparticles (SNPs) were biofunctionalized using aqueous leaf extracts of G. sylvestre. The anticancer properties of the bioactive compounds and the biofunctionalized SNPs were compared using the HT29 human adenoma colon cancer cell line. The preliminary phytochemical screening for bioactive compounds from aqueous extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, triterpenes, flavonoids, steroids, and saponins. Biofunctionalized SNPs were synthesized using silver nitrate and characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction for size and shape. The characterized biofunctionalized G. sylvestre were tested for its in vitro anticancer activity against HT29 human colon adenocarcinoma cells. The biofunctionlized G. sylvestre SNPs showed the surface plasmon resonance band at 430 nm. The scanning electron microscopy images showed the presence of spherical nanoparticles of various sizes, which were further determined using the Scherrer equation. In vitro cytotoxic activity of the biofunctionalized green-synthesized SNPs (GSNPs) indicated that the sensitivity of HT29 human colon adenocarcinoma cells for cytotoxic drugs is higher than that of Vero cell line for the same cytotoxic agents and also higher than the bioactive compound of the aqueous extract. Our results show that the anticancer properties of the bioactive compounds of G. sylvestre can be enhanced through biofunctionalizing the SNPs using the bioactive compounds present in the plant extract without compromising their medicinal properties.

  9. In vitro wound healing potential and identification of bioactive compounds from Moringa oleifera Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Abubakar Amali; Pauzi, Nur Aimi Syarina; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Abas, Faridah; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2013-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. (M. oleifera) from the monogeneric family Moringaceae is found in tropical and subtropical countries. The present study was aimed at exploring the in vitro wound healing potential of M. oleifera and identification of active compounds that may be responsible for its wound healing action. The study included cell viability, proliferation, and wound scratch test assays. Different solvent crude extracts were screened, and the most active crude extract was further subjected to differential bioguided fractionation. Fractions were also screened and most active aqueous fraction was finally obtained for further investigation. HPLC and LC-MS/MS analysis were used for identification and confirmation of bioactive compounds. The results of our study demonstrated that aqueous fraction of M. oleifera significantly enhanced proliferation and viability as well as migration of human dermal fibroblast (HDF) cells compared to the untreated control and other fractions. The HPLC and LC-MS/MS studies revealed kaempferol and quercetin compounds in the crude methanolic extract and a major bioactive compound Vicenin-2 was identified in the bioactive aqueous fraction which was confirmed with standard Vicenin-2 using HPLC and UV spectroscopic methods. These findings suggest that bioactive fraction of M. oleifera containing Vicenin-2 compound may enhance faster wound healing in vitro.

  10. Design, synthesis and QSAR study of novel isatin analogues inspired Michael acceptor as potential anticancer compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiabing; Yun, Di; Yao, Jiali; Fu, Weitao; Huang, Fangyan; Chen, Liping; Wei, Tao; Yu, Cuijuan; Xu, Haineng; Zhou, Xiaoou; Huang, Yanqing; Wu, Jianzhang; Qiu, Peihong; Li, Wulan

    2017-12-18

    Molecular hybridization is considered as an effective tactic to develop drugs for the treatment of cancer. A series of novel hybrid compounds of isatin and Michael acceptor were designed and synthesized on the basis of association principle. These hybrid compounds were tested for cytotoxic potential against human cancer cell lines namely, BGC-823, SGC-7901 and NCI-H460 by MTT assay. Most compounds showed good anti-growth activities in all tested human cancer cells. SAR and QSAR analysis may provide vital information for the future development of novel anti-cancer inhibitors. Notably, compound 6a showed potent growth inhibition on BGC-823, SGC-7901 and NCI-H460 with the IC50 values of 3.6 ± 0.6, 5.7 ± 1.2, 3.2 ± 0.7 μM, respectively. Besides, colony formation assays, wound healing assays and flow cytometry analysis indicated 6a exhibited a potent anti-growth and anti-migration ability in a concentration-dependence manner through arrested cells in the G2/M phase of cell cycle. Moreover, 6a significantly repressed tumor growth in a NCI-H460 xenograft mouse model. Overall, our findings suggested isatin analogues inspired Michael acceptor may provide promising lead compounds for the development of cancer chemotherapeutics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Therapeutic and nutraceutical potential of bioactive compounds extracted from fruit residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babbar, Neha; Oberoi, Harinder Singh; Sandhu, Simranjeet Kaur

    2015-01-01

    The growing interest in the substitution of synthetic food antioxidants by natural ones has fostered research in identifying new low-cost antioxidants having commercial potential. Fruits such as mango, banana, and those belonging to the citrus family leave behind a substantial amount of residues in the form of peels, pulp, seeds, and stones. Due to lack of infrastructure to handle a huge quantity of available biomass, lack of processing facilities, and high processing cost, these residues represent a major disposal problem, especially in developing countries. Because of the presence of phenolic compounds, which impart nutraceutical properties to fruit residues, such residues hold tremendous potential in food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. The biological properties such as anticarcinogenicity, antimutagenicity, antiallergenicity, and antiageing activity have been reported for both natural as well as synthetic antioxidants. Special attention is focused on extraction of bioactive compounds from inexpensive or residual sources. The purpose of this review is to characterize different phenolics present in the fruit residues, discuss the antioxidant potential of such residues and the assays used in determination of antioxidant properties, discuss various methods for efficient extraction of the bioactive compounds, and highlight the importance of fruit residues as potential nutraceutical resources and biopreservatives.

  12. Aqueous extract of Psidium guajava leaves: phenolic compounds and inhibitory potential on digestive enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simão, Anderson A; Marques, Tamara R; Marcussi, Silvana; Corrêa, Angelita D

    2017-01-01

    Leaves of Psidium guajava L. (guava) have been widely used in the popular way for prevention and treatment of various diseases. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory potential of leaves aqueous extract from three cultivars of P. guajava (Pedro Sato, Paluma and Século XXI) on α-amylase, α-glycosidase, lipase, and trypsin enzymes, in the presence or not of simulated gastric fluid and to determine the content of phenolic compounds by high performance liquid chromatography. All cultivars presented the same composition in phenolic compounds, but in different proportions. The compounds identified are gallic acid, epigallocatechin gallate, syringic acid, o-coumaric acid, resveratrol, quercetin, and catechin (which was the major compound in all the cultivars evaluated). In the absence of simulated gastric fluid, it was observed different inhibitions exercised by the leaves aqueous extracts from three cultivars of P. guajava on each enzyme. In presence of simulated gastric fluid, all cultivars showed increase in the inhibition of lipase and α-glycosidase, and decrease in inhibition of α-amylase and trypsin enzymes. These results indicate that P. guajava leaves aqueous extracts from all cultivars evaluated possess potential of use as an adjuvant in the treatment of obesity and other dyslipidemias.

  13. Effects of marine compound xyloketal B on neuroprotection and potential drug development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sammen Huang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Coastal medicine is a promising field for research and drug development, because several natural products isolated from marine organisms have been found to be therapeutically useful in a clinical setting. In comparison to terrestrial products, the merit of marine compounds arises from the diversity in their chemical structure and unique bioactivity. A recently discovered marine compound, xyloketal B, displays neuroprotective and antioxidative effects in in-vitro and in-vivo experimental models. It elicits these beneficial effects through mitochondrial protection, free radical scavenging, reducing reactive oxygen species production and suppressing apoptotic signaling. In addition, unpublished data from our lab revealed that transient receptor potential melastatin 7 channel activity, implicated in a myriad of neurodegenerative diseases, was inhibited following xyloketal B administration. In this review, the therapeutic effect of xyloketal B will be evaluated based on existing evidence and its potential for drug development will be also discussed.

  14. Characterization of phenolic compounds, antioxidant and antibacterial potential the extract of acerola bagasse flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Rezende Marques

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The agro-industrial waste from fruit presents as a promising source for the extraction of active principles with biological activity. This study evaluated the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the extract of acerola bagasse flour (ABF and characterized phenolic compounds by high-performance liquid chromatography. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by the free-radical scavenging activity using the ABTS+ procedure and by β-carotene/linoleic acid system. The antibacterial activity was evaluated by agar-well diffusion method, using the microorganisms Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19117, Escherichia coli ATCC 11229, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15442 and Salmonella cholerasuis ATCC 6539. In ABF extract were identified phenolic compounds, in order of increasing concentration: quercetin, p-cumárico acid, gallic acid, epigallocatechin gallate, catechin, syringic acid and epicatechin. This extract showed antioxidant potential and bactericidal activity for both gram-negative and gram-positive strains, presenting potential to be used in the food industry.

  15. Enzyme-assisted formation of nanosphere: a potential carrier for hydrophobic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huaimin; Wang, Zhihong; Song, Donghui; Wang, Jingyu; Gao, Jie; Wang, Ling; Kong, Deling; Yang, Zhimou

    2010-04-16

    In this study, we report the use of a phosphatase to catalyze the formation of nanospheres from a hydrophobic compound (Ada-GFFY-OMe, 2) via a unique mechanism. The nanospheres were stable in aqueous solutions for two weeks. Their size could be controlled by both concentrations of the precursor (Ada-GFFY(p)-OMe, 1) and the enzyme and the nanospheres were characterized by SEM and dynamic light scattering (DLS). We then demonstrated that nanospheres could help the cell-impermeable propidium iodine (PI) to penetrate the cells, which implied that the nanospheres have the potential to be developed into useful carriers for hydrophobic drugs. This study offers the first example of using an enzyme to control the formation of nanospheres from a hydrophobic compound. There is thus the potential that nanospheres can be developed into a carrier for hydrophobic drugs.

  16. Towards integrated environmental quality objectives for several compounds with a potential for secondary poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Plassche EJ van de; ACT; VW/RWS-DGW; AIDE

    1994-01-01

    Values are derived which can be used to set integrated environmental quality objectives (limit and target values) for 25 compounds with a potential for secondary poisoning. First, Maximum Permissible Concentrations (MPs) and Negligible Concentrations (NCs) are derived for water, sediment and soil based on direct effects on aquatic and soil organisms using extrapolation methods and on possible adverse effects due to secondary poisoning. Two foodchains are taken into account: an aquatic route (...

  17. Marine Low Molecular Weight Natural Products as Potential Cancer Preventive Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonik, Valentin A.; Fedorov, Sergey N.

    2014-01-01

    Due to taxonomic positions and special living environments, marine organisms produce secondary metabolites that possess unique structures and biological activities. This review is devoted to recently isolated and/or earlier described marine compounds with potential or established cancer preventive activities, their biological sources, molecular mechanisms of their action, and their associations with human health and nutrition. The review covers literature published in 2003–2013 years and focuses on findings of the last 2 years. PMID:24473167

  18. Potential Compounds for Oral Cancer Treatment: Resveratrol, Nimbolide, Lovastatin, Bortezomib, Vorinostat, Berberine, Pterostilbene, Deguelin, Andrographolide, and Colchicine

    OpenAIRE

    Bundela, Saurabh; Sharma, Anjana; Bisen, Prakash S.

    2015-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the main causes of cancer-related deaths in South-Asian countries. There are very limited treatment options available for oral cancer. Research endeavors focused on discovery and development of novel therapies for oral cancer, is necessary to control the ever rising oral cancer related mortalities. We mined the large pool of compounds from the publicly available compound databases, to identify potential therapeutic compounds for oral cancer. Over 84 million compounds wer...

  19. Deciphering potential chemical compounds of gaseous oxidized mercury in Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiaoyan; Miller, Matthieu B.; Edgerton, Eric; Sexauer Gustin, Mae

    2017-02-01

    The highest mercury (Hg) wet deposition in the United States of America (USA) occurs along the Gulf of Mexico, and in the southern and central Mississippi River Valley. Gaseous oxidized Hg (GOM) is thought to be a major contributor due to high water solubility and reactivity. Therefore, it is critical to understand concentrations, potential for wet and dry deposition, and GOM compounds present in the air. Concentrations and dry-deposition fluxes of GOM were measured and calculated for Naval Air Station Pensacola Outlying Landing Field (OLF) in Florida using data collected by a Tekran® 2537/1130/1135, the University of Nevada Reno Reactive Mercury Active System (UNRRMAS) with cation exchange and nylon membranes, and the Aerohead samplers that use cation-exchange membranes to determine dry deposition. Relationships with Tekran®-derived data must be interpreted with caution, since the GOM concentrations measured are biased low depending on the chemical compounds in air and interferences with water vapor and ozone.Criteria air pollutants were concurrently measured. This allowed for comparison and better understanding of GOM.In addition to other methods previously applied at OLF, use of the UNRRMAS provided a platform for determination of the chemical compounds of GOM in the air. Results from nylon membranes with thermal desorption analyses indicated seven GOM compounds in this area, including HgBr2, HgCl2, HgO, Hg-nitrogen and sulfur compounds, and two unknown compounds. This indicates that the site is influenced by different gaseous phase reactions and sources. Using back-trajectory analysis during a high-GOM event related to high CO, but average SO2, indicated air parcels moved from the free troposphere and across Arkansas, Mississippi, and Alabama at low elevation (Henry's Law constants.

  20. Copaifera langsdorffii: evaluation of potential gastroprotective of extract and isolated compounds obtained from leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marivane Lemos

    Full Text Available AbstractGastric ulcer is a prevalent gastrointestinal disease, and the drugs currently used in the treatment produce several adverse effects. In this context, the search for new therapeutic antiulcer agents is essential, and medicinal plants have great potential. Here, we investigated the gastroprotective properties of Copaifera langsdorffii Desf., Fabaceae, hydroalcoholic extract obtained from leaves and its isolated compounds. The phytochemistry studies and the compounds isolations were performed using chromatographic and spectroscopic methodologies. The hydroalcoholic extract was evaluated using ethanol/HCl, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, stress-induced-ulcer and chronic ulcer-model. The effects on gastric content volume, pH, total acidity and mucus stomach production were evaluated in the pylorus ligated-model. The C. langsdorffii extract obtained from leaves (50, 250 or 500 mg/kg reduced the injured area compared to control group in all experiments. The extract showed a significant decrease in the total gastric juice acidity and an increase in mucus production (500 mg/kg when compared to vehicle. Among isolated compounds (30 mg/kg α-humulene, β-caryophyllene and caryophyllene oxide showed greater gastroprotective activity in the ethanol/HCl induced ulcer model. The data herein obtained shown that C. langsdorffii leaves extract and isolated compounds from it, presented gastroprotective properties in different animal models of gastric ulcer. These effects may be associated with the ability of the extract to decrease gastric secretion and increase the mucus production.

  1. Potential Compounds for Oral Cancer Treatment: Resveratrol, Nimbolide, Lovastatin, Bortezomib, Vorinostat, Berberine, Pterostilbene, Deguelin, Andrographolide, and Colchicine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Bundela

    Full Text Available Oral cancer is one of the main causes of cancer-related deaths in South-Asian countries. There are very limited treatment options available for oral cancer. Research endeavors focused on discovery and development of novel therapies for oral cancer, is necessary to control the ever rising oral cancer related mortalities. We mined the large pool of compounds from the publicly available compound databases, to identify potential therapeutic compounds for oral cancer. Over 84 million compounds were screened for the possible anti-cancer activity by custom build SVM classifier. The molecular targets of the predicted anti-cancer compounds were mined from reliable sources like experimental bioassays studies associated with the compound, and from protein-compound interaction databases. Therapeutic compounds from DrugBank, and a list of natural anti-cancer compounds derived from literature mining of published studies, were used for building partial least squares regression model. The regression model thus built, was used for the estimation of oral cancer specific weights based on the molecular targets. These weights were used to compute scores for screening the predicted anti-cancer compounds for their potential to treat oral cancer. The list of potential compounds was annotated with corresponding physicochemical properties, cancer specific bioactivity evidences, and literature evidences. In all, 288 compounds with the potential to treat oral cancer were identified in the current study. The majority of the compounds in this list are natural products, which are well-tolerated and have minimal side-effects compared to the synthetic counterparts. Some of the potential therapeutic compounds identified in the current study are resveratrol, nimbolide, lovastatin, bortezomib, vorinostat, berberine, pterostilbene, deguelin, andrographolide, and colchicine.

  2. Potential Compounds for Oral Cancer Treatment: Resveratrol, Nimbolide, Lovastatin, Bortezomib, Vorinostat, Berberine, Pterostilbene, Deguelin, Andrographolide, and Colchicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundela, Saurabh; Sharma, Anjana; Bisen, Prakash S.

    2015-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the main causes of cancer-related deaths in South-Asian countries. There are very limited treatment options available for oral cancer. Research endeavors focused on discovery and development of novel therapies for oral cancer, is necessary to control the ever rising oral cancer related mortalities. We mined the large pool of compounds from the publicly available compound databases, to identify potential therapeutic compounds for oral cancer. Over 84 million compounds were screened for the possible anti-cancer activity by custom build SVM classifier. The molecular targets of the predicted anti-cancer compounds were mined from reliable sources like experimental bioassays studies associated with the compound, and from protein-compound interaction databases. Therapeutic compounds from DrugBank, and a list of natural anti-cancer compounds derived from literature mining of published studies, were used for building partial least squares regression model. The regression model thus built, was used for the estimation of oral cancer specific weights based on the molecular targets. These weights were used to compute scores for screening the predicted anti-cancer compounds for their potential to treat oral cancer. The list of potential compounds was annotated with corresponding physicochemical properties, cancer specific bioactivity evidences, and literature evidences. In all, 288 compounds with the potential to treat oral cancer were identified in the current study. The majority of the compounds in this list are natural products, which are well-tolerated and have minimal side-effects compared to the synthetic counterparts. Some of the potential therapeutic compounds identified in the current study are resveratrol, nimbolide, lovastatin, bortezomib, vorinostat, berberine, pterostilbene, deguelin, andrographolide, and colchicine. PMID:26536350

  3. Potential Compounds for Oral Cancer Treatment: Resveratrol, Nimbolide, Lovastatin, Bortezomib, Vorinostat, Berberine, Pterostilbene, Deguelin, Andrographolide, and Colchicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundela, Saurabh; Sharma, Anjana; Bisen, Prakash S

    2015-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the main causes of cancer-related deaths in South-Asian countries. There are very limited treatment options available for oral cancer. Research endeavors focused on discovery and development of novel therapies for oral cancer, is necessary to control the ever rising oral cancer related mortalities. We mined the large pool of compounds from the publicly available compound databases, to identify potential therapeutic compounds for oral cancer. Over 84 million compounds were screened for the possible anti-cancer activity by custom build SVM classifier. The molecular targets of the predicted anti-cancer compounds were mined from reliable sources like experimental bioassays studies associated with the compound, and from protein-compound interaction databases. Therapeutic compounds from DrugBank, and a list of natural anti-cancer compounds derived from literature mining of published studies, were used for building partial least squares regression model. The regression model thus built, was used for the estimation of oral cancer specific weights based on the molecular targets. These weights were used to compute scores for screening the predicted anti-cancer compounds for their potential to treat oral cancer. The list of potential compounds was annotated with corresponding physicochemical properties, cancer specific bioactivity evidences, and literature evidences. In all, 288 compounds with the potential to treat oral cancer were identified in the current study. The majority of the compounds in this list are natural products, which are well-tolerated and have minimal side-effects compared to the synthetic counterparts. Some of the potential therapeutic compounds identified in the current study are resveratrol, nimbolide, lovastatin, bortezomib, vorinostat, berberine, pterostilbene, deguelin, andrographolide, and colchicine.

  4. KCa3.1 Channel Modulators as Potential Therapeutic Compounds for Glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Brandon M; Pressley, Brandon; Wulff, Heike

    2017-06-30

    The intermediate-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel KCa3.1 is widely expressed in cells of the immune system such as T- and B-lymphocytes, mast cells, macrophages and microglia, but also found in dedifferentiated vascular smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts and many cancer cells including pancreatic, prostate, leukemia and glioblastoma. In all these cell types KCa3.1 plays an important role in cellular activation, migration and proliferation by regulating membrane potential and Ca2+ signaling. KCa3.1 therefore constitutes an attractive therapeutic target for diseases involving excessive proliferation or activation of one more of these cell types and researchers both in academia and in the pharmaceutical industry have developed several potent and selective small molecule inhibitors of KCa3.1. This article will briefly review the available compounds (TRAM-34, senicapoc, NS6180), their binding sites and mechanisms of action, and then discuss the potential usefulness of these compounds for the treatment of brain tumors based on their brain penetration and their efficacy in reducing microglia activation in animal models of ischemic stroke and Alzheimer's disease. Senicapoc, which has previously been in Phase III clinical trials, would be available for repurposing, and could be used to quickly translate findings made with other KCa3.1 blocking tool compounds into clinical trials. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. Potential of volatile compounds produced by fungi to influence sensory quality of coffee beverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iamanaka, B. T.; Teixeira, A. A.; Teixeira, A. R. R.

    2014-01-01

    Fungi are known producers of a large number of volatile compounds (VCs). Several VCs such as 2,4,6 trichloroanisole (TCA), geosmin and terpenes have been found in coffee beverages, and these compounds can be responsible for off-flavor development. However, few studies have related the fungal...... contamination of coffee with the sensory characteristics of the beverage. The aim of this research was to investigate the production of VCs by fungi isolated from coffee and their potential as modifiers of the sensory coffee beverage quality. Three species were isolated from coffee from the southwest of São...... Paulo state and selected for the study: Penicillium brevicompactum, Aspergillus luchuensis (belonging to section Nigri) and Penicillium sp. nov. (related to Penicillium crustosum). VCs produced by the fungal inoculated in raw coffee beans were extracted and tentatively identified by SPME...

  6. Potential Benefits of Jujube (Zizyphus Lotus L. Bioactive Compounds for Nutrition and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souleymane Abdoul-Azize

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Zizyphus lotus, belonging to the Rhamnaceae family, is a deciduous shrub which generally grows in arid and semiarid regions of the globe. In traditional medicine, Z. lotus is used as antidiabetes, sedative, bronchitis, and antidiarrhea by local populations. Recently, several scientific reports for health benefit and nutritional potential of bioactive compounds from this jujube have been reported. This plant is rich in polyphenols, cyclopeptide alkaloids, dammarane saponins, vitamins, minerals, amino acids, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. These identified compounds were supposed to be responsible for most of Z. lotus biologically relevant activities including antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory effects. The aim of the present review was to give particular emphasis on the most recent findings on biological effects of the major groups of Zizyphus lotus components and their medical interest, notably for human nutrition, health benefit, and therapeutic impacts.

  7. [Effect of stimulating pulse width on the threshold of electrically evoked compound action potential].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhongde; Xiao, Ling; Li, Ping; Meng, Li; Zi, Rui; Fei, Xingbo

    2014-12-01

    This paper discusses the relationship between stimulating pulse width and the threshold of electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP). Firstly, the rheobase and chronaxy from strength-duration curve of nerve fiber was computed using the shepherd's experiment results. Secondly, based on the relationship between ECAP and the action potential of nerve fiber, a mathematical expression to describe the relationship between stimulating pulse width and ECAP threshold was proposed. Thirdly, the parameters were obtained and the feasibility was proved to the expression with the results of experiment using guinea pigs. Research result showed that with ECAP compared to the action potential of nerve fiber, their threshold function relationship with stimulating pulse width was similar, and rheobase from the former was an order smaller in the magnitude than the latter, but the chronaxy was close to each other. These findings may provide meaningful guidance to clinical ECAP measurement and studying speech processing strategies of cochlear implant.

  8. Interatomic potential for the compound-forming Li–Pb liquid alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraile, Alberto, E-mail: albertofrailegarcia@gmail.com [Instituto de Fusión Nuclear, ETSI Industriales, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Cuesta-López, Santiago, E-mail: scuesta@ubu.es [Universidad de Burgos, Parque Científico I+D+I, Plaza Misael Bañuelos s/n, 09002 Burgos (Spain); Caro, Alfredo; Schwen, Daniel [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Manuel Perlado, J. [Instituto de Fusión Nuclear, ETSI Industriales, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-05-01

    Atomistic simulations of liquid alloys face the challenge of correctly modeling basic thermodynamic properties. In this work we present an interatomic potential for this system, as well as a study of physical properties of Li–Pb alloys. Despite the complexity due to Li–Pb being a compound forming system where charge transfer is expected, we show here how the empirical EAM formalism is able to satisfactorily describe several physical properties in a wide range of Li concentration. Application of our potential to Li–Pb eutectic allows us to correctly predict many physical properties observed experimentally and calculated with ab initio techniques, providing in this way a potential suitable for future studies in the context of tritium breeder blanket designs in Fusion technology.

  9. Performance and cost characteristics of multi-electron transfer, common ion exchange non-aqueous redox flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laramie, Sydney M.; Milshtein, Jarrod D.; Breault, Tanya M.; Brushett, Fikile R.; Thompson, Levi T.

    2016-09-01

    Non-aqueous redox flow batteries (NAqRFBs) have recently received considerable attention as promising high energy density, low cost grid-level energy storage technologies. Despite these attractive features, NAqRFBs are still at an early stage of development and innovative design techniques are necessary to improve performance and decrease costs. In this work, we investigate multi-electron transfer, common ion exchange NAqRFBs. Common ion systems decrease the supporting electrolyte requirement, which subsequently improves active material solubility and decreases electrolyte cost. Voltammetric and electrolytic techniques are used to study the electrochemical performance and chemical compatibility of model redox active materials, iron (II) tris(2,2‧-bipyridine) tetrafluoroborate (Fe(bpy)3(BF4)2) and ferrocenylmethyl dimethyl ethyl ammonium tetrafluoroborate (Fc1N112-BF4). These results help disentangle complex cycling behavior observed in flow cell experiments. Further, a simple techno-economic model demonstrates the cost benefits of employing common ion exchange NAqRFBs, afforded by decreasing the salt and solvent contributions to total chemical cost. This study highlights two new concepts, common ion exchange and multi-electron transfer, for NAqRFBs through a demonstration flow cell employing model active species. In addition, the compatibility analysis developed for asymmetric chemistries can apply to other promising species, including organics, metal coordination complexes (MCCs) and mixed MCC/organic systems, enabling the design of low cost NAqRFBs.

  10. Antibacterial, Antifungal, and Insecticidal Potentials of Oxalis corniculata and Its Isolated Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizur Rehman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxalis corniculata is a common medicinal plant widely used against numerous infectious diseases. The agrochemical potential of methanolic extract, n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol fractions were assessed to measure the antibacterial, antifungal, and insecticidal activities of the plant. The crude, chloroform, and n-butanol soluble fractions showed excellent activities against Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteriae, Salmonella typhi, and Bacillus subtilis but have no activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Similarly the crude, n-hexane, and chloroform fractions were also found to have significant activity against fungal strains including Fusarium solani, Aspergillus flexneri, and Aspergillus flavus and have no activity against Aspergillus niger. Chemical pesticides have shown very good results at the beginning, but with the passage of time the need was realized to use the natural plant sources for the safe control of insects. The current study will provide minor contribution towards it. High mortality rate was recorded for the crude extract and chloroform fraction against Tribolium castaneum. The two isolated compounds 5-hydroxy-6,7,8,4′-tetramethoxyflavone (1 and 5,7,4′-trihydroxy-6,8-dimethoxyflavone (2 were evaluated for antibacterial, antifungal, and insecticidal activities. The results showed that compound 2 was more active than compound 1 against the tested bacterial strains and insects.

  11. Lipids and Fatty Acids of Nudibranch Mollusks: Potential Sources of Bioactive Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia V. Zhukova

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The molecular diversity of chemical compounds found in marine animals offers a good chance for the discovery of novel bioactive compounds of unique structures and diverse biological activities. Nudibranch mollusks, which are not protected by a shell and produce chemicals for various ecological uses, including defense against predators, have attracted great interest for their lipid composition. Lipid analysis of eight nudibranch species revealed dominant phospholipids, sterols and monoalkyldiacylglycerols. Among polar lipids, 1-alkenyl-2-acyl glycerophospholipids (plasmalogens and ceramide-aminoethyl phosphonates were found in the mollusks. The fatty acid compositions of the nudibranchs differed greatly from those of other marine gastropods and exhibited a wide diversity: very long chain fatty acids known as demospongic acids, a series of non-methylene-interrupted fatty acids, including unusual 21:2∆7,13, and an abundance of various odd and branched fatty acids typical of bacteria. Symbiotic bacteria revealed in some species of nudibranchs participate presumably in the production of some compounds serving as a chemical defense for the mollusks. The unique fatty acid composition of the nudibranchs is determined by food supply, inherent biosynthetic activities and intracellular symbiotic microorganisms. The potential of nudibranchs as a source of biologically active lipids and fatty acids is also discussed.

  12. Lipids and fatty acids of nudibranch mollusks: potential sources of bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukova, Natalia V

    2014-08-19

    The molecular diversity of chemical compounds found in marine animals offers a good chance for the discovery of novel bioactive compounds of unique structures and diverse biological activities. Nudibranch mollusks, which are not protected by a shell and produce chemicals for various ecological uses, including defense against predators, have attracted great interest for their lipid composition. Lipid analysis of eight nudibranch species revealed dominant phospholipids, sterols and monoalkyldiacylglycerols. Among polar lipids, 1-alkenyl-2-acyl glycerophospholipids (plasmalogens) and ceramide-aminoethyl phosphonates were found in the mollusks. The fatty acid compositions of the nudibranchs differed greatly from those of other marine gastropods and exhibited a wide diversity: very long chain fatty acids known as demospongic acids, a series of non-methylene-interrupted fatty acids, including unusual 21:2∆7,13, and an abundance of various odd and branched fatty acids typical of bacteria. Symbiotic bacteria revealed in some species of nudibranchs participate presumably in the production of some compounds serving as a chemical defense for the mollusks. The unique fatty acid composition of the nudibranchs is determined by food supply, inherent biosynthetic activities and intracellular symbiotic microorganisms. The potential of nudibranchs as a source of biologically active lipids and fatty acids is also discussed.

  13. Antibacterial, Antifungal, and Insecticidal Potentials of Oxalis corniculata and Its Isolated Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Azizur; Rehman, Ali; Ahmad, Ijaz

    2015-01-01

    Oxalis corniculata is a common medicinal plant widely used against numerous infectious diseases. The agrochemical potential of methanolic extract, n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol fractions were assessed to measure the antibacterial, antifungal, and insecticidal activities of the plant. The crude, chloroform, and n-butanol soluble fractions showed excellent activities against Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteriae, Salmonella typhi, and Bacillus subtilis but have no activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Similarly the crude, n-hexane, and chloroform fractions were also found to have significant activity against fungal strains including Fusarium solani, Aspergillus flexneri, and Aspergillus flavus and have no activity against Aspergillus niger. Chemical pesticides have shown very good results at the beginning, but with the passage of time the need was realized to use the natural plant sources for the safe control of insects. The current study will provide minor contribution towards it. High mortality rate was recorded for the crude extract and chloroform fraction against Tribolium castaneum. The two isolated compounds 5-hydroxy-6,7,8,4'-tetramethoxyflavone (1) and 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-6,8-dimethoxyflavone (2) were evaluated for antibacterial, antifungal, and insecticidal activities. The results showed that compound 2 was more active than compound 1 against the tested bacterial strains and insects.

  14. Overview on the Biochemical Potential of Filamentous Fungi to Degrade Pharmaceutical Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olicón-Hernández, Darío R.; González-López, Jesús; Aranda, Elisabet

    2017-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals represent an immense business with increased demand due to intensive livestock raising and an aging human population, which guarantee the quality of human life and well-being. However, the development of removal technologies for these compounds is not keeping pace with the swift increase in their use. Pharmaceuticals constitute a potential risk group of multiclass chemicals of increasing concern since they are extremely frequent in all environments and have started to exhibit negative effects on micro- and macro-fauna as well as on human health. In this context, fungi are known to be extremely diverse and poorly studied microorganisms despite being well suited for bioremediation processes, taking into account their metabolic and physiological characteristics for the transformation of even highly toxic xenobiotic compounds. Increasing studies indicate that fungi can transform many structures of pharmaceutical compounds, including anti-inflammatories, β-blockers, and antibiotics. This is possible due to different mechanisms in combination with the extracellular and intracellular enzymes, which have broad of biotechnological applications. Thus, fungi and their enzymes could represent a promising tool to deal with this environmental problem. Here, we review the studies performed on pharmaceutical compounds biodegradation by the great diversity of these eukaryotes. We examine the state of the art of the current application of the Basidiomycota division, best known in this field, as well as the assembly of novel biodegradation pathways within the Ascomycota division and the Mucoromycotina subdivision from the standpoint of shared enzymatic systems, particularly for the cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes, which appear to be the key enzymes in these catabolic processes. Finally, we discuss the latest advances in the field of genetic engineering for their further application. PMID:28979245

  15. Overview on the Biochemical Potential of Filamentous Fungi to Degrade Pharmaceutical Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darío R. Olicón-Hernández

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceuticals represent an immense business with increased demand due to intensive livestock raising and an aging human population, which guarantee the quality of human life and well-being. However, the development of removal technologies for these compounds is not keeping pace with the swift increase in their use. Pharmaceuticals constitute a potential risk group of multiclass chemicals of increasing concern since they are extremely frequent in all environments and have started to exhibit negative effects on micro- and macro-fauna as well as on human health. In this context, fungi are known to be extremely diverse and poorly studied microorganisms despite being well suited for bioremediation processes, taking into account their metabolic and physiological characteristics for the transformation of even highly toxic xenobiotic compounds. Increasing studies indicate that fungi can transform many structures of pharmaceutical compounds, including anti-inflammatories, β-blockers, and antibiotics. This is possible due to different mechanisms in combination with the extracellular and intracellular enzymes, which have broad of biotechnological applications. Thus, fungi and their enzymes could represent a promising tool to deal with this environmental problem. Here, we review the studies performed on pharmaceutical compounds biodegradation by the great diversity of these eukaryotes. We examine the state of the art of the current application of the Basidiomycota division, best known in this field, as well as the assembly of novel biodegradation pathways within the Ascomycota division and the Mucoromycotina subdivision from the standpoint of shared enzymatic systems, particularly for the cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes, which appear to be the key enzymes in these catabolic processes. Finally, we discuss the latest advances in the field of genetic engineering for their further application.

  16. Recent advances on antimony(III/V) compounds with potential activity against tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjikakou, S K; Ozturk, I I; Banti, C N; Kourkoumelis, N; Hadjiliadis, N

    2015-12-01

    Antimony one of the heavier pnictogens, has been in medical use against microbes and parasites as well. Antimony-based drugs have been prescribed against leishmaniasis since the parasitic transmission of the tropical disease was understood in the beginning of the 20th century. The activity of arsenic against visceral leishmaniasis led to the synthesis of an array of arsenic-containing parasitic agents, among them the less toxic pentavalent antimonials: Stibosan, Neostibosan, and Ureastibamine. Other antimony drugs followed: sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam) and melglumine antimoniate (Glucantim or Glucantime); both continue to be in use today despite their toxic side effects and increasing loss in potency due to the growing resistance of the parasite against antimony. Antimony compounds and their therapeutic potentials are under consideration from many research groups, while a number of early reviews recording advances of antimony biomedical applications are also available. However, there are only few reports on the screening for antitumor potential of antimony compounds. This review focuses upon results obtained on the anti-proliferative activity of antimony compounds in the past years. This survey shows that antimony(III/V) complexes containing various types of ligands such as thiones, thiosemicarbazones, dithiocarbamates, carboxylic acids, or ketones, nitrogen donor ligands, exhibit selectivity against a variety of cancer cells. The role of the ligand type of the complex is elucidated within this review. The complexes and their biological activity are already reported elsewhere. However quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) modeling studies have been carried out and they are reported for the first time here. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Volatile Organic Compounds from Native Potato-associated Pseudomonas as Potential Anti-oomycete Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vrieze, Mout; Pandey, Piyush; Bucheli, Thomas D.; Varadarajan, Adithi R.; Ahrens, Christian H.; Weisskopf, Laure; Bailly, Aurélien

    2015-01-01

    The plant kingdom represents a prominent biodiversity island for microbes that associate with the below- or aboveground organs of vegetal species. Both the root and the leaf represent interfaces where dynamic biological interactions influence plant life. Beside well-studied communication strategies based on soluble compounds and protein effectors, bacteria were recently shown to interact both with host plants and other microbial species through the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Focusing on the potato late blight-causing agent Phytophthora infestans, this work addresses the potential role of the bacterial volatilome in suppressing plant diseases. In a previous study, we isolated and identified a large collection of strains with anti-Phytophthora potential from both the phyllosphere and the rhizosphere of potato. Here we report the characterization and quantification of their emissions of biogenic volatiles, comparing 16 Pseudomonas strains differing in (i) origin of isolation (phyllosphere vs. rhizosphere), (ii) in vitro inhibition of P. infestans growth and sporulation behavior, and (iii) protective effects against late blight on potato leaf disks. We systematically tested the pharmacological inhibitory activity of core and strain-specific single compounds against P. infestans mycelial growth and sporangial behavior in order to identify key effective candidate molecules present in the complex natural VOCs blends. We envisage the plant bacterial microbiome as a reservoir for functional VOCs and establish the basis for finding the primary enzymatic toolset that enables the production of active components of the volatile bouquet in plant-associated bacteria. Comprehension of these functional interspecies interactions will open perspectives for the sustainable control of plant diseases in forthcoming agriculture. PMID:26635763

  18. Identification of methanol-soluble compounds in sesame and evaluation of antioxidant potential of its lignans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ping-Chung; Lin, Mei-Chi; Chen, Guo-Feng; Yiu, Tien-Joung; Tzen, Jason T C

    2011-04-13

    The methanol extract of sesame (Sesamum indicum) seeds was fractionated and purified with the assistance of conventional column chromatography to afford 29 compounds including seven furofuran lignans. Among these isolates, (+)-samin (1) was obtained from the natural source for the first time. In addition, (-)-asarinin (30) and sesamol (31) were generated by oxidative derivation from (+)-sesamolin (2) and (+)-sesamin (3), two abundant lignans found in sesame seeds. To evaluate their in vitro antioxidant potential, the seven isolated lignans (1-7) and the two derivatives (30 and 31) were examined for the scavenging activities on DPPH free radicals and superoxide anions. Moreover, the capability of chelating ferrous ions and reducing power of these sesame lignans were also measured. The results suggest that, besides the well-known sesamolin and sesamin, the minor sesame lignans (+)-(7S,8'R,8R)-acuminatolide (5), (-)-piperitol (6), and (+)-pinoresinol (7) are also adequate active ingredients and may be potential sources for nutritional and pharmacological utilization.

  19. Potential of antimicrobial volatile organic compounds to control Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in bean seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Batista Fialho

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the potential of an artificial mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs, produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, to control Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in vitro and in bean seeds. The phytopathogenic fungus was exposed, in polystyrene plates, to an artificial atmosphere containing a mixture of six VOCs formed by alcohols (ethanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol and phenylethyl alcohol and esters (ethyl acetate and ethyl octanoate, in the proportions found in the atmosphere naturally produced by yeast. Bean seeds artificially contamined with the pathogen were fumigated with the mixture of VOCs in sealed glass flasks for four and seven days. In the in vitro assays, the compounds 2-methyl-1-butanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol were the most active against S. sclerotiorum, completely inhibiting its mycelial growth at 0.8 µL mL-1, followed by the ethyl acetate, at 1.2 µL mL-1. Bean seeds fumigated with the VOCs at 3.5 µL mL-1 showed a 75% reduction in S. sclerotiorum incidence after four days of fumigation. The VOCs produced by S. cerevisiae have potential to control the pathogen in stored seeds.

  20. Potential antioxidant compounds in Mallotus species fingerprints. Part I: indication, using linear multivariate calibration techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tistaert, C; Dejaegher, B; Nguyen Hoai, N; Chataigné, G; Rivière, C; Nguyen Thi Hong, V; Chau Van, M; Quetin-Leclercq, J; Vander Heyden, Y

    2009-09-01

    Some Mallotus species are used in traditional medicine in Vietnam and China. Some also show interesting activities, such as antioxidant and cytotoxic ones. Combining fingerprint technology with data-handling techniques allows indicating the peaks potentially responsible for given activities. In this study it is aspired to indicate from chromatographic fingerprints the peaks potentially responsible for the antioxidant activity of several Mallotus species. Relevant information was extracted using linear multivariate calibration techniques, both before and after alignment of the fingerprints with correlation optimized warping (COW). From the studied techniques, Stepwise Multiple Linear Regression is least recommended as it made an inadequate variable selection. Principal Component Regression theoretically can take largely varying variables uncorrelated to the antioxidant activity into account. However, in practice in the actual case study this problem was limited. These problems in principle do not occur using Partial Least Squares (PLS) models. Of the tested PLS methods, Orthogonal Projections to Latent Structures was preferred because of its simplicity, reproducibility, reduced model complexity and improved interpretability of the regression coefficients, yielding a clearer view on the individual contribution of the compounds. Furthermore, reducing analysis times from 60 min to 35 and 22.5 min resulted in the same main compounds, indicated responsible for the antioxidant activity. Models built after alignment by COW did not result in additional information.

  1. Nonribosomal peptides and polyketides of Burkholderia: new compounds potentially implicated in biocontrol and pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeel, Qassim; Pupin, Maude; Jacques, Philippe; Leclère, Valérie

    2017-05-25

    Bacteria belonging to the genus Burkholderia live in various ecological niches and present a significant role in the environments through the excretion of a wide variety of secondary metabolites including modular nonribosomal peptides (NRPs) and polyketides (PKs). These metabolites represent a widely distributed biomedically and biocontrol important class of natural products including antibiotics, siderophores, and anticancers as well as biopesticides that are considered as a novel source that can be used to defend ecological niche from competitors and to promote plant growth. The aim of this review is to present all NRPs produced or potentially produced by strains of Burkholderia, as NRPs represent a major source of active compounds implicated in biocontrol. The review is a compilation of results from a large screening we have performed on 48 complete sequenced genomes available in NCBI to identify NRPS gene clusters, and data found in the literature mainly because some interesting compounds are produced by strains not yet sequenced. In addition to NRPs, hybrids NRPs/PKs are also included. Specific features about biosynthetic gene clusters and structures of the modular enzymes responsible for the synthesis, the biological activities, and the potential uses in agriculture and pharmaceutical of NRPs and hybrids NRPs/PKs will also be discussed.

  2. Potential use of DNA adducts to detect mutagenic compounds in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hua Guoxiong [School of Biology, Institute for Research on the Environment and Sustainability, Devonshire Building, Newcastle University, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)], E-mail: gh15@st-andrews.ac.uk; Lyons, Brett [CEFAS Weymouth Laboratory, Barrack Road, The Nothe, Weymouth, Dorset, DT4 8UB (United Kingdom); Killham, Ken [School of Biology, Cruickshank Building, University of Aberdeen, AB24 3UU (United Kingdom); Singleton, Ian [School of Biology, Institute for Research on the Environment and Sustainability, Devonshire Building, Newcastle University, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)], E-mail: ian.singleton@ncl.ac.uk

    2009-03-15

    In this study, three different soils with contrasting features, spiked with 300 mg benzo[a]pyrene (BaP)/kg dry soil, were incubated at 20 deg. C and 60% water holding capacity for 540 days. At different time points, BaP and DNA were extracted and quantified, and DNA adducts were quantified by {sup 32}P-postlabelling. After 540 days incubation, 69.3, 81.6 and 83.2% of initial BaP added remained in Cruden Bay, Boyndie and Insch soils, respectively. Meanwhile, a significantly different amount of DNA-BaP adducts were found in the three soils exposed to BaP over time. The work demonstrates the concept that DNA adducts can be detected on DNA extracted from soil. Results suggest the technique is not able to directly reflect bioavailability of BaP transformation products. However, this new method provides a potential way to detect mutagenic compounds in contaminated soil and to assess the outcomes of soil remediation. - A novel DNA adduct assay may provide a potential technique to detect mutagenic compounds in contaminated soil.

  3. Potential of chromatin modifying compounds for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom C. Karagiannis

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease is a very common progressive neurodegenerative disorder affecting the learning and memory centers in the brain. The hallmarks of disease are the accumulation of β-amyloid neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles formed by abnormally phosphorylated tau protein. Alzheimer's disease is currently incurable and there is an intense interest in the development of new potential therapies. Chromatin modifying compounds such as sirtuin modulators and histone deacetylase inhibitors have been evaluated in models of Alzheimer's disease with some promising results. For example, the natural antioxidant and sirtuin 1 activator resveratrol has been shown to have beneficial effects in animal models of disease. Similarly, numerous histone deacetylase inhibitors including Trichostatin A, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, valproic acid and phenylbutyrate reduction have shown promising results in models of Alzheimer's disease. These beneficial effects include a reduction of β-amyloid production and stabilization of tau protein. In this review we provide an overview of the histone deacetylase enzymes, with a focus on enzymes that have been identified to have an important role in the pathobiology of Alzheimer's disease. Further, we discuss the potential for pharmacological intervention with chromatin modifying compounds that modulate histone deacetylase enzymes.

  4. The Immunomodulatory Potential of Selected Bioactive Plant-Based Compounds in Breast Cancer: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraya, Yushau Shuaibu; Wong, Kah Keng; Yaacob, Nik Soriani

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer has continued to cause high cancer death rates among women worldwide. The use of plants' natural products in breast cancer treatment has received more attention in recent years due to their potentially wider safety margin and the potential to complement conventional chemotherapeutic drugs. Plantbased products have demonstrated anticancer potential through different biological pathways including modulation of the immune system. Immunomodulatory properties of medicinal plants have been shown to mitigate breast cancer cell growth. Different immune cell types participate in this process especially cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells, and cytokines including chemokines and tumor necrosis factor-α. Medicinal plants such as Glycyrrhiza glabra, Uncaria tomentosa, Camellia sinensis, Panax ginseng, Prunus armenaica (apricot), Allium sativum, Arctium lappa and Curcuma longa were reported to hold strong potential in breast cancer treatment in various parts of the world. Interestingly, research findings have shown that these plants possess bioactive immunomodulators as their main constituents producing the anticancer effects. These immunomodulatory compounds include ajoene, arctigenin, β-carotene, curcumin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, ginsan, glabridin and quinic acid. In this review, we discussed the ability of these eight immunomodulators in regulating the immune system potentially applicable in breast cancer treatment via anti-inflammatory (curcumin, arctigenin, glabridin and ajoene) and lymphocytes activation (β-carotene, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, quinic acid and ginsan) properties, as well as future research direction in their use for breast cancer treatment. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. A four-dimensional compound-model morphed potential for the OC:HBr complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Rivera, Luis A; Lucchese, Robert R; Bevan, John W

    2010-07-14

    A parameterized compound-model morphed intermolecular potential energy surface has been generated for the dimer OC:HBr. This morphed potential is determined by fitting experimentally available gas phase spectroscopic data and found to have a global minimum with a well depth of 564(5) cm(-1) and linear (16)O(12)C-H(79)Br geometry having center of mass to center of mass distance R = 4.525(7) A. The linear isomers (12)C(16)O-H(79)Br and (16)O(12)C-(79)BrH are determined with a corresponding well depth of 273(7) and 269(2) cm(-1) having R = 4.35(4) and 4.24(3) A, respectively. This results in a DeltaE of 293(9) cm(-1) between the global potential energy minimum and the minima in the two higher energy isomers. The generated potential is compared with the corresponding OC:HCl morphed potential. Differences in the morphing parameters are attributed to different contributions to the interaction energy. It is found that the counterpoise method successfully corrected the basis set superposition error in OC:HCl, but was under corrected by 16(7)% in OC:HBr.

  6. Expression profiling of colon cancer cell lines and colon biopsies: Towards a screening system for potential cancer-preventive compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erk, M.J. van; Krul, C.A.M.; Caldenhoven, E.; Stierum, R.H.; Peters, W.H.; Woutersen, R.A.; Ommen, B. van

    2005-01-01

    Interest in mechanisms of colon cancer prevention by food compounds is strong and research in this area is often performed with cultured colon cancer cells. In order to assess utility for screening of potential cancer-preventive (food) compounds, expression profiles of 14 human cell lines derived

  7. Expression profiling of colon cancer cell lines and colon biopsies: towards a screening system for potential cancer-preventive compounds.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erk, M.J. van; Krul, C.A.; Caldenhoven, E.; Stierum, R.H.; Peters, W.H.M.; Woutersen, R.A.; Ommen, B.

    2005-01-01

    Interest in mechanisms of colon cancer prevention by food compounds is strong and research in this area is often performed with cultured colon cancer cells. In order to assess utility for screening of potential cancer-preventive (food) compounds, expression profiles of 14 human cell lines derived

  8. Identification of potential therapeutic compounds for Parkinson's disease using Drosophila and human cell models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Francisco José; Solana-Manrique, Cristina; Muñoz-Soriano, Verónica; Calap-Quintana, Pablo; Moltó, María Dolores; Paricio, Nuria

    2017-07-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder after Alzheimer's disease. It is caused by a loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta, leading to a decrease in dopamine levels in the striatum and thus producing movement impairment. Major physiological causes of neurodegeneration in PD are oxidative stress (OS) and mitochondrial dysfunction; these pathophysiological changes can be caused by both genetic and environmental factors. Although most PD cases are sporadic, it has been shown that 5-10% of them are familial forms caused by mutations in certain genes. One of these genes is the DJ-1 oncogene, which is involved in an early-onset recessive PD form. Currently, PD is an incurable disease for which existing therapies are not sufficiently effective to counteract or delay the progression of the disease. Therefore, the discovery of alternative drugs for the treatment of PD is essential. In this study we used a Drosophila PD model to identify candidate compounds with therapeutic potential for this disease. These flies carry a loss-of-function mutation in the DJ-1β gene, the Drosophila ortholog of human DJ-1, and show locomotor defects reflected by a reduced climbing ability. A pilot modifier chemical screen was performed, and several candidate compounds were identified based on their ability to improve locomotor activity of PD model flies. We demonstrated that some of them were also able to reduce OS levels in these flies. To validate the compounds identified in the Drosophila screen, a human cell PD model was generated by knocking down DJ-1 function in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Our results showed that some of the compounds were also able to increase the viability of the DJ-1-deficient cells subjected to OS, thus supporting the use of Drosophila for PD drug discovery. Interestingly, some of them have been previously proposed as alternative therapies for PD or tested in clinical trials and others are first

  9. Therapeutic potentials of Crataegus azarolus var. eu- azarolus Maire leaves and its isolated compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Gharbieh, Eman; Shehab, Naglaa Gamil

    2017-04-18

    Hyperglycemia is a complicated condition accompanied with high incidence of infection and dyslipidemia. This study aimed to explore the phyto-constituents of Crataegus azarolus var. eu- azarolus Maire leaves, and to evaluate the therapeutic potentials particularly antimicrobial, antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic of the extract and the isolated compound (3β-O-acetyl ursolic acid). Total phenolics and flavonoidal contents were measured by RP-HPLC analysis. Free radicals scavenging activity of different extraction solvents was tested in-vitro on DPPH free radicals. The antimicrobial activity of the ethanolic extract and its fractions as well as the isolated compounds were evaluated in-vitro on variable microorganisms. Animal models were used to evaluate the antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic activities of the ethanolic extract along with the isolated compound (3β-O acetyl ursolic acid). RP- HPLC analysis of the phenolics revealed high content of rutin, salicylic and ellagic acids. Six compounds belonging to triterpenes and phenolics were isolated from chloroform and n-butanol fractions namely: ursolic acid, 3β-O-acetyl ursolic acid, ellagic acid, quercetin 3-O-β methyl ether, rutin and apigenin7-O-rutinoside. Ethanolic extract showed the highest DPPH radical scavenger activity compared to other solvents. Ethanolic extract, hexane fraction, ursolic acid, 3β-O acetyl ursolic acid and quercetin 3-O-methyl ether showed variable antimicrobial activity against E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, and C. albicans. Administration of the ethanolic extract or 3β-O acetyl ursolic acid orally to the mice reduced blood glucose significantly in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Ethanolic extract significantly reduced LDL-C, VLDL-C, TC and TG and increased HDL-C in rats. Ethanolic extract and 3β-O acetyl ursolic acid reduced in-vitro activity of pancreatic lipase. This study reveals that Crataegus azarolus var. eu- azarolus Maire has the efficiency to control

  10. Inhibition by TRPA1 agonists of compound action potentials in the frog sciatic nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushita, Akitomo; Ohtsubo, Sena; Fujita, Tsugumi; Kumamoto, Eiichi, E-mail: kumamote@cc.saga-u.ac.jp

    2013-04-26

    Highlights: •TRPA1 agonists inhibited compound action potentials in frog sciatic nerves. •This inhibition was not mediated by TRPA1 channels. •This efficacy was comparable to those of lidocaine and cocaine. •We found for the first time an ability of TRPA1 agonists to inhibit nerve conduction. -- Abstract: Although TRPV1 and TRPM8 agonists (vanilloid capsaicin and menthol, respectively) at high concentrations inhibit action potential conduction, it remains to be unknown whether TRPA1 agonists have a similar action. The present study examined the actions of TRPA1 agonists, cinnamaldehyde (CA) and allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), which differ in chemical structure from each other, on compound action potentials (CAPs) recorded from the frog sciatic nerve by using the air-gap method. CA and AITC concentration-dependently reduced the peak amplitude of the CAP with the IC{sub 50} values of 1.2 and 1.5 mM, respectively; these activities were resistant to a non-selective TRP antagonist ruthenium red or a selective TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031. The CA and AITC actions were distinct in property; the latter but not former action was delayed in onset and partially reversible, and CA but not AITC increased thresholds to elicit CAPs. A CAP inhibition was seen by hydroxy-α-sanshool (by 60% at 0.05 mM), which activates both TRPA1 and TRPV1 channels, a non-vanilloid TRPV1 agonist piperine (by 20% at 0.07 mM) and tetrahydrolavandulol (where the six-membered ring of menthol is opened; IC{sub 50} = 0.38 mM). It is suggested that TRPA1 agonists as well as TRPV1 and TRPM8 agonists have an ability to inhibit nerve conduction without TRP activation, although their agonists are quite different in chemical structure from each other.

  11. Potential Role of Natural Compounds as Anti-Angiogenic Agents in Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Muthu K; Warrier, Sudha; Kumar, Alan P; Sethi, Gautam; Arfuso, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Neovascularization, also known as angiogenesis, is the process of capillary sprouting from pre-existing blood vessels. This physiological process is a hallmark event in normal embryonic development as blood vessels generally supply both oxygen and nutrients to the cells of the body. Any disruption in this process can lead to the development of various chronic diseases, including cancer. In cancer, aberrant angiogenesis plays a prominent role in maintaining sustained tumor growth to malignant phenotypes and promoting metastasis. The leakiness in the tumor microvasculature is attributed to the tumor cells migrating to distal site organs and forming colonies. In this article, we briefly review the various mediators involved in the angiogenic process and the anti-angiogenic potential of selected natural compounds against various malignancies. Several growth factors and their receptors such as vascular endothelial growth factor and receptor (VEGF/VEGFR), basic fibroblast growth factor and receptor (bFGF/FGFR), angiopoietins, and hypoxia inducible factors facilitate the development of angiogenesis and are attractive anti-cancer targets. Natural products represent a rich diversity of compounds for drug discovery and are currently being actively exploited to target tumor angiogenesis. Agents such as curcumin, artemisinin, EGCG, resveratrol, emodin, celastrol, thymoquinone and tocotrienols all have shown prominent anti-angiogenic effects in the preclinical models of tumor angiogenesis. Several semi-synthetic derivatives and novel nano-formulations of these natural compounds have also exhibited excellent anti-angiogenic activity by increasing bioavailability and delivering the drugs to the sites of tumor angiogenesis. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  12. Biocide effects of volatile organic compounds produced by potential biocontrol rhizobacteria on Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa eGiorgio

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Six rhizobacteria isolated from common bean and able to protect bean plants from the common bacterial blight causal agent, were in vitro evaluated for their potential antifungal effects toward different plant pathogenic fungi, mostly soil-borne. By dual culture assays, the above bacteria resulted producing diffusible and volatile metabolites which inhibited the growth of the majority of the pathogens under study. In particular, the latter substances highly affected the mycelium growth of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum strains, one of which was selected for further studies either on mycelium or sclerotia.Gas chromatographic analysis of the bacterial volatiles led to the identification of an array of volatile organic compounds (VOCs. Time course studies showed the modification of the VOCs profile along a period of 5 days. In order to evaluate the single detected VOC effects on fungal growth, some of the pure compounds were tested on S. sclerotiorum mycelium and their minimal inhibitory quantities were determined. Similarly, the minimal inhibitory quantities on sclerotia germination were also defined. Moreover, observations by light and transmission electron microscopes highlighted hyphae cytoplasm granulation and ultrastructural alterations at cell organelles, mostly membranes, mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. The membranes appeared one of the primary targets of bacterial volatiles, as confirmed by haemolytic activity observed for the majority of pure VOCs. However, of interest is the alteration observed on mitochondria as well.

  13. Green synthesis of some novel dioxolane compounds from Indonesian essential oils as potential biogreases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyuningsih, Tutik Dwi; Kurniawan, Yehezkiel Steven

    2017-03-01

    Greases are mostly prepared from petroleum base stocks that make it toxic to the environment. The demand for green greases has led to in depth research of other renewable resources. Vegetable oils are promising candidates due to their renewability and low toxicity. However, it has poor oxidation stability and high total acid number. One way to solve this problem is chemical modification of its fatty acid structure. We report some novel dioxolane compounds from oleic acid and benzaldehyde derivates from some Indonesian essential oils via several steps, i.e: hydroxylation, esterification and acetalization. The esterification and acetalization reaction was carried out by green procedure using sonochemical method and montmorillonite KSF as a catalyst. Hydroxylation of Oleic acid was performed by KMnO4 to give 9,10-dihydroxyoctadecanoic (DHOA) in 47% yield. The esterification was done using methanol yielded methyl 9,10-dihydroxyoctadecanoate (MDHO) as white powder in 94%. Acetalization of the ester MDO with various benzaldehyde derivatives was carried out to give the dioxolan derivatives in the range of 17 - 60% yield. All of the structure was confirmed by FT-IR and GC-MS, meanwhile their physicochemical properties were determined using ASTM methods. From physicochemical properties, i.e: -TAN, TBN and IV-, it can be concluded that these novel compounds have the potential to be developed into biogrease.

  14. Enhancing graphene oxide reinforcing potential in composites by combined latex compounding and spray drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yingyan; Zhang, Shubai; Zhang, Dandan; Chan, Tung W.; Liu, Li

    2014-04-01

    A new strategy was developed to prepare graphene oxide/styrene-butadiene rubber (GO/SBR) composites with highly exfoliated GO sheets and strong interfaces. In particular, GO/SBR microparticles, in which exfoliated GO sheets (with a thickness of ˜1 nm and diameter of tens of nanometers) are trapped in a well-dispersed state throughout the SBR matrix, were made by a combined latex-compounding and spray-drying method. Subsequently, a chemical bridge between GO and rubber matrix through KH550 and Si69 was built during vulcanization, and the interfacial strength of the cured GO/SBR composite was remarkably improved. Due to the highly exfoliated structure and the strong interface, the GO/SBR composite exhibited 7.8 times higher modulus at 300% strain and 6.4 times higher tensile strength compared with cured pure SBR. The combined latex-compounding and spray-drying method presented here is feasible and water-mediated and has great potential for industrial applications.

  15. Vitis vinifera L. cv Pinot noir pomace and lees as potential sources of bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Gabriel M; Faccin, Henrique; Viana, Carine; Rosa, Marcelo Barcellos da; de Carvalho, Leandro M

    2016-11-01

    Food and agricultural industries generate substantial quantities of phenolic-rich by-products that could be valuable natural sources of antioxidants. The aim of this study was to identify and quantify the phenolic compounds and radical scavenging activities of two by-products (pomace and lees) from Vitis vinifera L. cv Pinot noir. We found a different distribution of phenolic classes (flavanols, flavonols, phenolic acids and stilbenes) and singular scavenging activity against free radicals (hydroxyl, superoxide and peroxyl radicals). The major class of phenolics in pomace was flavanols and in lees was flavonols, with catechin (117.9 ± 2.5 μg g(-1)) and quercetin (42.4 ± 1.2 μg g(-1)) being the most abundant individual compounds. We also found high potential on scavenging activity against superoxide radicals in pomace (80% of scavenging activity) and radical peroxyl (67% scavenging activity). These results show the possibility of using Pinot noir by-products as promising additives or as a source for the development of new products in different segments of the food and cosmetic industries.

  16. Identification of a compound isolated from German chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) with dermal sensitization potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avonto, Cristina; Rua, Diego; Lasonkar, Pradeep B; Chittiboyina, Amar G; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2017-03-01

    German chamomile is one of the most popular herbal ingredients used in cosmetics and personal care products. Allergic skin reactions following topical application of German chamomile have been occasionally reported, although it is not fully understood which of the chemical constituents is responsible for this adverse effect. In the present work, three candidate sensitizers were isolated from German chamomile based on activity-guided fractionation of chamomile extracts tested using the in vitro KeratinoSens™ assay. The compounds were identified as the polyacetylene tonghaosu (1), and both trans- and cis-glucomethoxycinnamic acids (2 and 3). These three compounds were classified as non- to weakly reactive using in chemico methods; however, aged tonghaosu was found to be more reactive when compared to freshly isolated tonghaosu. The polyacetylene (1) constituent was determined to be chemically unstable, generating a small electrophilic spirolactone, 1,6-dioxaspiro[4.4]non-3-en-2-one (4), upon aging. This small lactone (4) was strongly reactive in both in chemico HTS- and NMR-DCYA methods and further confirmed as a potential skin sensitizer by Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Cocoa bioactive compounds: significance and potential for the maintenance of skin health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scapagnini, Giovanni; Davinelli, Sergio; Di Renzo, Laura; De Lorenzo, Antonino; Olarte, Hector Hugo; Micali, Giuseppe; Cicero, Arrigo F; Gonzalez, Salvador

    2014-08-11

    Cocoa has a rich history in human use. Skin is prone to the development of several diseases, and the mechanisms in the pathogenesis of aged skin are still poorly understood. However, a growing body of evidence from clinical and bench research has begun to provide scientific validation for the use of cocoa-derived phytochemicals as an effective approach for skin protection. Although the specific molecular and cellular mechanisms of the beneficial actions of cocoa phytochemicals remain to be elucidated, this review will provide an overview of the current literature emphasizing potential cytoprotective pathways modulated by cocoa and its polyphenolic components. Moreover, we will summarize in vivo studies showing that bioactive compounds of cocoa may have a positive impact on skin health.

  18. Determination of Nerve Fiber Diameter Distribution From Compound Action Potential: A Continuous Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Un, M Kerem; Kaghazchi, Hamed

    2018-01-01

    When a signal is initiated in the nerve, it is transmitted along each nerve fiber via an action potential (called single fiber action potential (SFAP)) which travels with a velocity that is related with the diameter of the fiber. The additive superposition of SFAPs constitutes the compound action potential (CAP) of the nerve. The fiber diameter distribution (FDD) in the nerve can be computed from the CAP data by solving an inverse problem. This is usually achieved by dividing the fibers into a finite number of diameter groups and solve a corresponding linear system to optimize FDD. However, number of fibers in a nerve can be measured sometimes in thousands and it is possible to assume a continuous distribution for the fiber diameters which leads to a gradient optimization problem. In this paper, we have evaluated this continuous approach to the solution of the inverse problem. We have utilized an analytical function for SFAP and an assumed a polynomial form for FDD. The inverse problem involves the optimization of polynomial coefficients to obtain the best estimate for the FDD. We have observed that an eighth order polynomial for FDD can capture both unimodal and bimodal fiber distributions present in vivo, even in case of noisy CAP data. The assumed FDD distribution regularizes the ill-conditioned inverse problem and produces good results.

  19. Fast and simple determination of perfluorinated compounds and their potential precursors in different packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabaleta, I; Bizkarguenaga, E; Bilbao, D; Etxebarria, N; Prieto, A; Zuloaga, O

    2016-05-15

    A simple and fast analytical method for the determination of fourteen perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), including three perfluoroalkylsulfonates (PFSAs), seven perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs), three perfluorophosphonic acids (PFPAs) and perfluorooctanesulfonamide (PFOSA) and ten potential precursors, including four polyfluoroalkyl phosphates (PAPs), four fluorotelomer saturated acids (FTCAs) and two fluorotelomer unsaturated acids (FTUCAs) in different packaging materials was developed in the present work. In order to achieve this objective the optimization of an ultrasonic probe-assisted extraction (UPAE) method was carried out before the analysis of the target compounds by liquid-chromatography-triple quadrupole-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-QqQ-MS/MS). 7 mL of 1 % acetic acid in methanol and a 2.5-min single extraction cycle were sufficient for the extraction of all the target analytes. The optimized analytical method was validated in terms of recovery, precision and method detection limits (MDLs). Apparent recovery values after correction with the corresponding labeled standard were in the 69-103 % and 62-98 % range for samples fortified at 25 ng/g and 50 ng/g concentration levels, respectively and MDL values in the 0.6-2.2 ng/g range were obtained. The developed method was applied to the analysis of plastic (milk bottle, muffin cup, pre-cooked food wrapper and cup of coffee) and cardboard materials (microwave popcorn bag, greaseproof paper for French fries, cardboard box for pizza and cinema cardboard box for popcorn). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first method that describes the determination of fourteen PFCs and ten potential precursors in packaging materials. Moreover, 6:2 FTCA, 6:2 FTUCA and 5:3 FTCA analytes were detected for the first time in microwave popcorn bags. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Therapeutic potential of histaminergic compounds in the treatment of addiction and drug-related cognitive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleva, Livia; Tirelli, Ezio; Brabant, Christian

    2013-01-15

    Addiction is a behavioral disorder characterized by the compulsive seeking and taking of drugs despite serious negative consequences. In particular, the chronic use of drugs impairs memory and cognitive functions, which aggravates the loss of control over drug use and complicates treatment outcome. Therefore, cognitive enhancers targeting acetylcholine have been proposed to treat addiction. Interestingly, histamine H(3) receptor (H(3)R) antagonists/inverse agonists stimulate acetylcholine transmission in different brain areas, facilitate memory in animal models and can reverse learning deficits induced by drugs such as scopolamine, dizocilpine and alcohol. Moreover, several studies found that compounds capable of activating the histaminergic system generally decrease the reinforcing effects of drugs, namely alcohol and opioids, in preclinical models of addiction. Finally, several H(3)R antagonists/inverse agonists increase histamine in the brain and have proven to be safe in humans. However, no studies have yet investigated the therapeutic potential of cognitive enhancing H(3)R antagonists/inverse agonists in the treatment of addiction in humans. The present review first describes the impact of addictive drugs on learning processes and cognitive functions that play an important role for addicts to remain abstinent. Second, our work briefly summarizes the relevant literature describing the function of histamine in learning, memory and drug addiction. Finally, the potential therapeutic use of histaminergic agents in the treatment of addiction is discussed. Our review suggests that histaminergic compounds like H(3)R antagonists/inverse agonists may improve the treatment outcome of addiction by reversing drug-induced cognitive deficits and/or diminishing the reinforcing properties of addictive drugs, especially opioids and alcohol. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Synthesis and biological evaluation of the natural product komaroviquinone and related compounds aiming at a potential therapeutic lead compound for high-risk multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suto, Yutaka; Sato, Mariko; Fujimori, Kota; Kitabatake, Shotaro; Okayama, Mikio; Ichikawa, Daiju; Matsushita, Maiko; Yamagiwa, Noriyuki; Iwasaki, Genji; Kiuchi, Fumiyuki; Hattori, Yutaka

    2017-10-01

    Alternatives of treatments for multiple myeloma (MM) have become increasingly available with the advent of new drugs such as proteasome inhibitors, thalidomide derivatives, histone deacetylase inhibitors, and antibody drugs. However, high-risk MM cases that are refractory to novel drugs remain, and further optimization of chemotherapeutics is urgently needed. We had achieved asymmetric total synthesis of komaroviquinone, which is a natural product from the plant Dracocephalum komarovi. Similar to several leading antitumor agents that have been developed from natural compounds, we describe the antitumor activity and cytotoxicity of komaroviquinone and related compounds in bone marrow cells. Our data suggested that komaroviquinone-related agents have potential as starting compounds for anticancer drug development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Scalable Synthesis and Multi-Electron Transfer of Aniline/Fluorene Copolymer for Solution-Processable Battery Cathodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Zou, Yang; Wang, Shaoyang; Fang, Lei; Lutkenhaus, Jodie L

    2017-09-01

    In this study, the authors report the highly efficient, multigram-scale synthesis of an ester-functionalized, poly(aniline-co-fluorene) polymer. The excellent solubility and film-forming ability of this polymer facilitate its application as a reversible battery cathode. Electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring confirms a multi-electron transfer process, resulting in a specific discharge capacity of 51 mAh g(-1) and a high reversible doping level of 0.69. Galvanostatic cycling at 1 C demonstrates excellent electrode stability with a capacity retention of 95.2% after 100 cycles. Therefore, this work demonstrates a novel electroactive polymer that exemplifies how chemical functionality may be used to properly balance processability and electroactivity of macromolecular battery cathodes. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. A Simple Assay to Screen Antimicrobial Compounds Potentiating the Activity of Current Antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaid Iqbal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance continues to pose a significant problem in the management of bacterial infections, despite advances in antimicrobial chemotherapy and supportive care. Here, we suggest a simple, inexpensive, and easy-to-perform assay to screen antimicrobial compounds from natural products or synthetic chemical libraries for their potential to work in tandem with the available antibiotics against multiple drug-resistant bacteria. The aqueous extract of Juglans regia tree bark was tested against representative multiple drug-resistant bacteria in the aforementioned assay to determine whether it potentiates the activity of selected antibiotics. The aqueous extract of J. regia bark was added to Mueller-Hinton agar, followed by a lawn of multiple drug-resistant bacteria, Salmonella typhi or enteropathogenic E. coli. Next, filter paper discs impregnated with different classes of antibiotics were placed on the agar surface. Bacteria incubated with extract or antibiotics alone were used as controls. The results showed a significant increase (>30% in the zone of inhibition around the aztreonam, cefuroxime, and ampicillin discs compared with bacteria incubated with the antibiotics/extract alone. In conclusion, our assay is able to detect either synergistic or additive action of J. regia extract against multiple drug-resistant bacteria when tested with a range of antibiotics.

  4. Current Challenges in Volatile Organic Compounds Analysis as Potential Biomarkers of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Schmidt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are crucial in reducing mortality among people suffering from cancer. There is a lack of characteristic early clinical symptoms in most forms of cancer, which highlights the importance of investigating new methods for its early detection. One of the most promising methods is the analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs. VOCs are a diverse group of carbon-based chemicals that are present in exhaled breath and biofluids and may be collected from the headspace of these matrices. Different patterns of VOCs have been correlated with various diseases, cancer among them. Studies have also shown that cancer cells in vitro produce or consume specific VOCs that can serve as potential biomarkers that differentiate them from noncancerous cells. This review identifies the current challenges in the investigation of VOCs as potential cancer biomarkers, by the critical evaluation of available matrices for the in vivo and in vitro approaches in this field and by comparison of the main extraction and detection techniques that have been applied to date in this area of study. It also summarises complementary in vivo, ex vivo, and in vitro studies conducted to date in order to try to identify volatile biomarkers of cancer.

  5. Formulation, evaluation and bioactive potential of Xylaria primorskensis terpenoid nanoparticles from its major compound xylaranic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, Mohd; Patel, Mitesh; Reddy, Mandadi Narsimha; Alshammari, Eyad

    2018-01-29

    In recent years, fungi have been shown to produce a plethora of new bioactive secondary metabolites of interest, as new lead structures for medicinal and other pharmacological applications. The present investigation was carried out to study the pharmacological properties of a potent and major bioactive compound: xylaranic acid, which was obtained from Xylaria primorskensis (X. primorskensis) terpenoids in terms of antibacterial activity, antioxidant potential against DPPH & H 2 O 2 radicals and anticancer activity against human lung cancer cells. Due to terpenoid nature, low water solubility and wretched bioavailability, its pharmacological use is limited. To overcome these drawbacks, a novel xylaranic acid silver nanoparticle system (AgNPs) is developed. In addition to improving its solubility and bioavailability, other advantageous pharmacological properties has been evaluated. Furthermore, enhanced anticancer activity of xylaranic acid and its AgNPs due to induced apoptosis were also confirmed by determining the expression levels of apoptosis regulatory genes p53, bcl-2 and caspase-3 via qRT PCR method. This is the first study developing the novel xylaranic acid silver nanoparticle system and enlightening its therapeutic significance with its improved physico-chemical properties and augmented bioactive potential.

  6. The Influence of Glutamate on Axonal Compound Action Potential In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouelela, Ahmed; Wieraszko, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Background  Our previous experiments demonstrated modulation of the amplitude of the axonal compound action potential (CAP) by electrical stimulation. To verify assumption that glutamate released from axons could be involved in this phenomenon, the modification of the axonal CAP induced by glutamate was investigated. Objectives  The major objective of this research is to verify the hypothesis that axonal activity would trigger the release of glutamate, which in turn would interact with specific axonal receptors modifying the amplitude of the action potential. Methods  Segments of the sciatic nerve were exposed to exogenous glutamate in vitro, and CAP was recorded before and after glutamate application. In some experiments, the release of radioactive glutamate analog from the sciatic nerve exposed to exogenous glutamate was also evaluated. Results  The glutamate-induced increase in CAP was blocked by different glutamate receptor antagonists. The effect of glutamate was not observed in Ca-free medium, and was blocked by antagonists of calcium channels. Exogenous glutamate, applied to the segments of sciatic nerve, induced the release of radioactive glutamate analog, demonstrating glutamate-induced glutamate release. Immunohistochemical examination revealed that axolemma contains components necessary for glutamatergic neurotransmission. Conclusion  The proteins of the axonal membrane can under the influence of electrical stimulation or exogenous glutamate change membrane permeability and ionic conductance, leading to a change in the amplitude of CAP. We suggest that increased axonal activity leads to the release of glutamate that results in changes in the amplitude of CAPs.

  7. Current Challenges in Volatile Organic Compounds Analysis as Potential Biomarkers of Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Kamila; Podmore, Ian

    2015-01-01

    An early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are crucial in reducing mortality among people suffering from cancer. There is a lack of characteristic early clinical symptoms in most forms of cancer, which highlights the importance of investigating new methods for its early detection. One of the most promising methods is the analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). VOCs are a diverse group of carbon-based chemicals that are present in exhaled breath and biofluids and may be collected from the headspace of these matrices. Different patterns of VOCs have been correlated with various diseases, cancer among them. Studies have also shown that cancer cells in vitro produce or consume specific VOCs that can serve as potential biomarkers that differentiate them from noncancerous cells. This review identifies the current challenges in the investigation of VOCs as potential cancer biomarkers, by the critical evaluation of available matrices for the in vivo and in vitro approaches in this field and by comparison of the main extraction and detection techniques that have been applied to date in this area of study. It also summarises complementary in vivo, ex vivo, and in vitro studies conducted to date in order to try to identify volatile biomarkers of cancer. PMID:26317039

  8. Human neural tuning estimated from compound action potentials in normal hearing human volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschooten, Eric; Desloovere, Christian; Joris, Philip X.

    2015-12-01

    The sharpness of cochlear frequency tuning in humans is debated. Evoked otoacoustic emissions and psychophysical measurements suggest sharper tuning in humans than in laboratory animals [15], but this is disputed based on comparisons of behavioral and electrophysiological measurements across species [14]. Here we used evoked mass potentials to electrophysiologically quantify tuning (Q10) in humans. We combined a notched noise forward masking paradigm [9] with the recording of trans tympanic compound action potentials (CAP) from masked probe tones in awake human and anesthetized monkey (Macaca mulatta). We compare our results to data obtained with the same paradigm in cat and chinchilla [16], and find that CAP-Q10values in human are ˜1.6x higher than in cat and chinchilla and ˜1.3x higher than in monkey. To estimate frequency tuning of single auditory nerve fibers (ANFs) in humans, we derive conversion functions from ANFs in cat, chinchilla, and monkey and apply these to the human CAP measurements. The data suggest that sharp cochlear tuning is a feature of old-world primates.

  9. Compound muscle action potential and motor function in children with spinal muscular atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewelt, Aga; Krosschell, Kristin J; Scott, Charles; Sakonju, Ai; Kissel, John T; Crawford, Thomas O; Acsadi, Gyula; D'anjou, Guy; Elsheikh, Bakri; Reyna, Sandra P; Schroth, Mary K; Maczulski, Jo Anne; Stoddard, Gregory J; Elovic, Elie; Swoboda, Kathryn J

    2010-11-01

    Reliable outcome measures that reflect the underlying disease process and correlate with motor function in children with SMA are needed for clinical trials. Maximum ulnar compound muscle action potential (CMAP) data were collected at two visits over a 4-6-week period in children with SMA types II and III, 2-17 years of age, at four academic centers. Primary functional outcome measures included the Modified Hammersmith Functional Motor Scale (MHFMS) and MHFMS-Extend. CMAP negative peak amplitude and area showed excellent discrimination between the ambulatory and non-ambulatory SMA cohorts (ROC = 0.88). CMAP had excellent test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.96-0.97, n = 64) and moderate to strong correlation with the MHFMS and MHFMS-Extend (r = 0.61-0.73, n = 68, P < 0.001). Maximum ulnar CMAP amplitude and area is a feasible, valid, and reliable outcome measure for use in pediatric multicenter clinical trials in SMA. CMAP correlates well with motor function and has potential value as a relevant surrogate for disease status.

  10. Downstream processing of reverse osmosis brine: Characterisation of potential scaling compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Masuduz; Birkett, Greg; Pratt, Christopher; Stuart, Bruce; Pratt, Steven

    2015-09-01

    Reverse osmosis (RO) brine produced at a full-scale coal seam gas (CSG) water treatment facility was characterized with spectroscopic and other analytical techniques. A number of potential scalants including silica, calcium, magnesium, sulphates and carbonates, all of which were present in dissolved and non-dissolved forms, were characterized. The presence of spherical particles with a size range of 10-1000 nm and aggregates of 1-10 microns was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Those particulates contained the following metals in decreasing order: K, Si, Sr, Ca, B, Ba, Mg, P, and S. Characterization showed that nearly one-third of the total silicon in the brine was present in the particulates. Further, analysis of the RO brine suggested supersaturation and precipitation of metal carbonates and sulphates during the RO process should take place and could be responsible for subsequently capturing silica in the solid phase. However, the precipitation of crystalline carbonates and sulphates are complex. X-ray diffraction analysis did not confirm the presence of common calcium carbonates or sulphates but instead showed the presence of a suite of complex minerals, to which amorphous silica and/or silica rich compounds could have adhered. A filtration study showed that majority of the siliceous particles were less than 220 nm in size, but could still be potentially captured using a low molecular weight ultrafiltration membrane. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Gallium Compounds Exhibit Potential as New Therapeutic Agents against Mycobacterium abscessus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Maher Y.; Switzer, Barbara L.; Goss, Christopher H.; Aitken, Moira L.; Singh, Pradeep K.

    2015-01-01

    The rapidly growing nontuberculous mycobacterial species Mycobacterium abscessus has recently emerged as an important pathogen in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Treatment options are limited because of the organism's innate resistance to standard antituberculous antibiotics, as well as other currently available antibiotics. New antibiotic approaches to the treatment of M. abscessus are urgently needed. The goal of the present study was to assess the growth-inhibitory activity of different Ga compounds against an American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) strain and clinical isolates of M. abscessus obtained from CF and other patients. In our results, using Ga(NO3)3 and all of the other Ga compounds tested inhibited the growth of ATCC 19977 and clinical isolates of M. abscessus. Inhibition was mediated by disrupting iron uptake, as the addition of exogenous iron (Fe) restored basal growth. There were modest differences in inhibition among the isolates for the same Ga chelates, and for most Ga chelates there was only a slight difference in potency from Ga(NO3)3. In contrast, Ga-protoporphyrin completely and significantly inhibited the ATCC strain and clinical isolates of M. abscessus at much lower concentrations than Ga(NO3)3. In in vitro broth culture, Ga-protoporphyrin was more potent than Ga(NO3)3. When M. abscessus growth inside the human macrophage THP-1 cell line was assessed, Ga-protoporphyrin was >20 times more active than Ga(NO3)3. The present work suggests that Ga exhibits potent growth-inhibitory capacity against the ATCC strain, as well as against antibiotic-resistant clinical isolates of M. abscessus, including the highly antibiotic-resistant strain MC2638. Ga-based therapy offers the potential for further development as a novel therapy against M. abscessus. PMID:26033732

  12. Insights from the docking analysis of biologically active compounds from plant Litsea Genus as potential COX-2 inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogoi, Dhrubajyoti; Bezbaruah, Rajib Lochan; Bordoloi, Manabjyoti; Sarmah, Rajeev; Bora, Tarun Chandra

    2012-01-01

    Litsea spp of Laural family are traditionally used as herbal medicine for treating inflammation including gastroenterologia, oedema and rheumatic arthritis. Therefore, it is of interest to investigate and understand the molecular principles for such actions. Here, we have illustrated the binding of thirteen Litsea derived biologically active compounds against the inflammation associated target COX (cyclo-oxygenase) -2 enzymes. We compared the binding information of these compounds with a selected number of already known COX-2 inhibitors. The comparison reflected that some of these compounds such as linderol, catechin, 6'-hydroxy-2',3',4' - trimethoxy-chalcone and litseaone have better or equivalent binding features compared to already known inhibitory compounds namely celecoxib, acetylsalicylic acid, rofecoxib. Therefore, all these small compounds reported from plant Litsea spp were found to possess potential medicinal values with anti-inflammatory properties.

  13. Ozone and secondary organic aerosol formation potential from anthropogenic volatile organic compounds emissions in China.

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    Wu, Wenjing; Zhao, Bin; Wang, Shuxiao; Hao, Jiming

    2017-03-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are major precursors for ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA), both of which greatly harm human health and significantly affect the Earth's climate. We simultaneously estimated ozone and SOA formation from anthropogenic VOCs emissions in China by employing photochemical ozone creation potential (POCP) values and SOA yields. We gave special attention to large molecular species and adopted the SOA yield curves from latest smog chamber experiments. The estimation shows that alkylbenzenes are greatest contributors to both ozone and SOA formation (36.0% and 51.6%, respectively), while toluene and xylenes are largest contributing individual VOCs. Industry solvent use, industry process and domestic combustion are three sectors with the largest contributions to both ozone (24.7%, 23.0% and 17.8%, respectively) and SOA (22.9%, 34.6% and 19.6%, respectively) formation. In terms of the formation potential per unit VOCs emission, ozone is sensitive to open biomass burning, transportation, and domestic solvent use, and SOA is sensitive to industry process, domestic solvent use, and domestic combustion. Biomass stoves, paint application in industrial protection and buildings, adhesives application are key individual sources to ozone and SOA formation, whether measured by total contribution or contribution per unit VOCs emission. The results imply that current VOCs control policies should be extended to cover most important industrial sources, and the control measures for biomass stoves should be tightened. Finally, discrepant VOCs control policies should be implemented in different regions based on their ozone/aerosol concentration levels and dominant emission sources for ozone and SOA formation potential. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Atmospheric Volatile Organic Compounds and Ozone Creation Potential in an Urban Center of Southern Nigeria

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    Emmanuel Gbenga Olumayede

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The relative contribution of individual volatile organic compounds (VOC species to photochemical ozone formation depends on their atmospheric concentrations and their oxidation mechanism. In an attempt to evaluate the ozone creation potential of ambient VOCs captured in an urban settlement of Benin City, Nigeria, the VOCs concentrations data collected in field studies at nine measurement sites of different air quality in the city and a background site were analysed. Air samples were collected at human breathing height of 1.5 meters from ground level at each site. Active sampling method using the low volume sampling pump (Acuro, Drager, Lubeck, Germany was used to drawn the air into the tube; the absorbent was Chromosorb 106. The sampling periods were between May 2010 and June 2011; the period covered both dry and wet seasons. The adsorbed gases were desorbed using solvent extraction method with carbon disulphide as solvent. The extracted solutions were analyzed with gas chromatography and mass spectrometer. The observed concentrations of individual VOCs were determined and maximum incremental reactivity (MIR coefficient along with rate constants of VOC-OH reactions were applied to assess the ozone formation potential of individual VOC in the ambient atmosphere. Sixteen VOC species were observed at various sites with mixing height in decreasing order: toluene (5.82, mp-xylene (3.58, ethylbenzene (3.46, benzene (2.29, and n-butane (0.84. The ozone formation potential study revealed that, ranking by propyl-equivalent, the alkanes included in this study account for 58% of the total propyl-equivalent concentration. The total ozone creation potential in the atmosphere of the Benin City was calculated to be 281.1 µg/m3. A comparison of total ozone formation potential (OFP in our study with results obtained from other cities of the world revealed that the total concentration of ozone production in our study is threefold lower than the values reported

  15. Potential of Zanthoxylum leprieurii as a source of active compounds against drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunalema, Lydia; Fotso, Ghislain Wabo; Waako, Paul; Tabuti, John; Yeboah, Samuel O

    2017-02-02

    Tuberculosis (TB) is still a global health problem mainly due to development of resistance and co-infection with the Human immune Virus (HIV). Treatment of multi and extensively drug resistant TB requires use of second line drugs which are less efficacious, expensive and very toxic. This has necessitated a need to search for new treatment regimens especially from medicinal plants. Zanthoxylum leprieurii, a plant species from Rutaceae is used locally in the treatment of tuberculosis in Uganda. The aim of the study was to isolate, identify and characterize bio active compounds from Z. leprieurii stem bark with antimycobacterial activity. Crude extracts, fractions and compounds from air dried stem bark of Z. leprieurii were tested against pan sensitive (H37rv), isoniazid resistant (TMC 301) and rifampicin resistant (TMC 331) strains of M. tuberculosis using micro plate alamar blue assay. Isolation of active compounds was done by using column chromatography and thin layer chromatography. They were analysed using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectroscopy. The methanol extract had minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 47.5, 75.3 and 125.0 μg/ml on the pan sensitive strain, rifampicin resistant and isozianid resistant strains of M. tuberculosis respectively. The chloroform extract had MIC values of 260 μg/ml agnaist the pan sensitive strain and 156 μg/ml on the rifampicin resistant strain. Of the sixteen fractions from the methanol extract, fraction Za 4 (MIC = 6.3 μg/mL, 23.0 μg/mL, 11.7 μg/mL) and Za 6 (MIC = 11.7 μg/mL 31.2 μg/ml, 31.2 μg/ml) were the most active. Three acridone alkaloids; hydroxy-1, 3-dimethoxy-10-methyl-9-acridone (1), 1-hydroxy-3-methoxy-10-methyl-9-acridone (2) and 3-hydroxy-1, 5, 6-trimethoxy-9-acridone (3) were isolated from Za 4 and Za 6 . The MIC of compound 3 was found to be 5.1 μg/ml, 4.5 μg/ml and 3.9 μg/ml on H37rv, TMC 331 and TMC 301 while that of 1 was found to be 1.5 μg/ml, 8.3

  16. Synthesis and Biological Activity of New 1,3-Dioxolanes as Potential Antibacterial and Antifungal Compounds

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    Hatice Başpınar Küçük

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A series of new enantiomerically pure and racemic 1,3-dioxolanes 1-8 was synthesized in good yields and short reaction times by the reaction of salicylaldehyde with commercially available diols using a catalytic amount of Mont K10. Elemental analysis and spectroscopic characterization established the structure of all the newly synthesized compounds. These compounds were tested for their possible antibacterial and antifungal activity. Biological screening showed that all the tested compounds, except 1, show excellent antifungal activity against C. albicans, while most of the compounds have also shown significant antibacterial activity against S. aureus, S. epidermidis, E. faecalis and P. aeruginosa.

  17. Diversity of Micromonospora strains from the deep Mediterranean Sea and their potential to produce bioactive compounds

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    Andrea Gärtner

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available During studies on bacteria from the Eastern Mediterranean deep-sea, incubation under in situ conditions (salinity, temperature and pressure and heat treatment were used to selectively enrich representatives of Micromonospora. From sediments of the Ierapetra Basin (4400 m depth and the Herodotos Plain (2800 m depth, 21 isolates were identified as members of the genus Micromonospora. According to phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, the Micromonospora isolates could be assigned to 14 different phylotypes with an exclusion limit of ≥ 99.5% sequence similarity. They formed 7 phylogenetic clusters. Two of these clusters, which contain isolates obtained after enrichment under pressure incubation and phylogenetically are distinct from representative reference organism, could represent bacteria specifically adapted to the conditions in situ and to life in these deep-sea sediments. The majority of the Micromonospora isolates (90% contained at least one gene cluster for biosynthesis of secondary metabolites for non-ribosomal polypeptides and polyketides (polyketide synthases type I and type II. The determination of biological activities of culture extracts revealed that almost half of the strains produced substances inhibitory to the growth of Gram-positive bacteria. Chemical analyses of culture extracts demonstrated the presence of different metabolite profiles also in closely related strains. Therefore, deep-sea Micromonospora isolates are considered to have a large potential for the production of new antibiotic compounds.

  18. Citric acid compounds of tangerines peel extract (Citrus reticulata) as potential materials teeth whitening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratiwi, F.; Tinata, J. K.; Prakasa, A. W.; Istiqomah; Hartini, E.; Isworo, S.

    2017-04-01

    Peel of citrus fruit (Citrus reticulata) has a variety of possible chemical compounds that may serve as a potential whitening teeth. This research is conducted on a laboratory scale; therefore, it needs to be developed on an application scale. A quasi-experimental was employed in this study. Citric acid extraction was carried out on the type of Sweet Orange (Citrus Aurantium L), Tangerine (Citrus Reticulata Blanco or Citrus Nobilis), Pomelo (Citrus Maxima Merr, Citrus grandis Osbeck), and Lemon (Citrus Limon Linn). Citric acid’s ability test as teeth whitener was performed on premolar teeth with concentrations of 2.5%, 5%, and 10%. The experiments were replicated in 3 times, and teeth whiteness level was measured using Shade Guide VITA Classical. The result of this research showed that citric acid in every kind of orange peel with various concentration has different abilities on whitening teeth. The highest colour level obtained from Tangerine peel’s citric acid concentration of 5%. Orange peel extract has the best teeth whitening abilities tested by the method of Gass Chromatography to know the active ingredients.

  19. Polar metabolites of polycyclic aromatic compounds from fungi are potential soil and groundwater contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boll, Esther S; Johnsen, Anders R; Christensen, Jan H

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the sorption to soil of water-soluble metabolites from polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs). The soil fungus Cunninghamella elegans was used to produce PAC metabolites from two un-substituted PACs (phenanthrene, pyrene), three alkyl-substituted PACs (2-methylnaphthalene, 1-methylphenanthrene, 1-methylpyrene), and one sulfur-containing heterocyclic PAC (dibenzothiophene). Fifty-eight metabolites were tentatively identified; metabolites from the un-substituted PACs were hydroxylated and sulfate conjugated, whereas metabolites from alkyl-substituted PACs were sulfate conjugated and either hydroxylated or oxidized to carboxylic acids at the methyl group. The metabolism of the sulfur-containing heterocyclic PAC resulted in sulfate conjugates. The sorption of the PAC metabolites to three soils was determined using a batch equilibrium method, and partition coefficients (Kd's) were calculated for fourteen representative metabolites. Sulfate conjugated metabolites displayed Kd's below 70 whereas the metabolites with both a sulfate and a carboxylic acid group had Kd's below 2.8. The low Kd's of water-soluble PAC metabolites indicate high mobility in soil and a potential for leaching to surface- and groundwaters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Decline of compound muscle action potentials and statistical MUNEs during Wallerian degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unlusoy Acar, Z; Yalinay Dikmen, P; Yayla, V; Başaran, K; Emekli, U; Öge, A E

    2014-09-01

    In two previous studies, we found that the compound muscle action potential (CMAP) amplitude loss was significantly higher than the loss of estimated motor unit numbers in the course of Wallerian degeneration (WD). In order to overcome some drawbacks of the method previously used, we performed a similar CMAP vs MUNE comparison by using the statistical motor unit number estimation (MUNE) method. Initial electrophysiological studies on 6 patients were performed between 22 and 98 hours after the injuries; it was possible to make repeated examinations, four times in 1 nerve, twice in 1 nerve and three times in 4 nerves, before the eventual complete disappearance of the CMAPs. The transected/intact (T/I) side CMAP ratios declined steeply as WD evolved. They were significantly lower than the relatively stable MUNE ratios 48 hours after the injury. This study, performed with the use of statistical MUNE, strengthens our previous observation by the incremental method that might have some relevance to the pathophysiology of early WD. CMAP amplitude loss that is more than expected from the amount of axonal degeneration may indicate a considerable amount of inactive muscle fibers in the motor units innervated by the nerve fibers, which are undergoing degeneration but still retain their excitability. Although technical sources of error cannot be totally excluded, our findings could more likely be explained by the failing of neuromuscular synapses in an asynchronous order before complete unresponsiveness of the motor unit ensues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of terpineol on the compound action potential of the rat sciatic nerve

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    M.R. Moreira

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Terpineol, a volatile terpenoid alcohol of low toxicity, is widely used in the perfumery industry. It is an important chemical constituent of the essential oil of many plants with widespread applications in folk medicine and in aromatherapy. The effects of terpineol on the compound action potential (CAP of rat sciatic nerve were studied. Terpineol induced a dose-dependent blockade of the CAP. At 100 µM, terpineol had no demonstrable effect. At 300 µM terpineol, peak-to-peak amplitude and conduction velocity of CAP were significantly reduced at the end of 180-min exposure of the nerve to the drug, from 3.28 ± 0.22 mV and 33.5 ± 7.05 m/s, respectively, to 1.91 ± 0.51 mV and 26.2 ± 4.55 m/s. At 600 µM, terpineol significantly reduced peak-to-peak amplitude and conduction velocity from 2.97 ± 0.55 mV and 32.8 ± 3.91 m/s to 0.24 ± 0.23 mV and 2.72 ± 2.72 m/s, respectively (N = 5. All these effects developed slowly and were reversible upon 180-min washout.

  2. Cymbopogon citratus industrial waste as a potential source of bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Filipa; Costa, Gustavo; Francisco, Vera; Liberal, Joana; Figueirinha, Artur; Lopes, Maria Celeste; Cruz, Maria Teresa; Batista, Maria Teresa

    2015-10-01

    Cymbopogon citratus (Cc), commonly known as lemongrass, is a very important crop worldwide, being grown in tropical countries. It is widely used in the food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and perfumery industries for its essential oil. Cc aqueous extracts are also used in traditional medicine. They contain high levels of polyphenols, which are known for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Hydrodistillation of lemongrass essential oil produces an aqueous waste (CcHD) which is discarded. Therefore a comparative study between CcHD and Cc infusion (CcI) was performed to characterize its phytochemical profile and to research its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential. HPLC-PDA/ESI-MS(n) analysis showed that CcI and CcHD have similar phenolic profiles, with CcHD presenting a higher amount of polyphenols. Additionally, both CcI and CcHD showed antioxidant activity against DPPH (EC50 of 41.72 ± 0.05 and 42.29 ± 0.05 µg mL(-1) respectively) and strong anti-inflammatory properties, by reducing NO production and iNOS expression in macrophages and through their NO-scavenging activity, in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, no cytotoxicity was observed. The data of this study encourage considering the aqueous solution from Cc leaf hydrodistillation as a source of bioactive compounds, which may add great industrial value to this crop. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Antibacterial, Antiradical Potential and Phenolic Compounds of Thirty-One Polish Mushrooms.

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    Natalia Nowacka

    Full Text Available Among many sources of natural bioactive substances, mushrooms constitute a huge and almost unexplored group. Fungal compounds have been repeatedly reported to exert biological effects which have prompted their use in pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry. Therefore, the aim of this study was analysis of chemical composition and biological activity of 31 wild growing mushroom species (including saprophytic and parasitic from Poland.Qualitative and quantitative LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of fourteen phenolic acids in the mushrooms analysed was performed. Moreover, total phenolic content was determined by the modified Folin-Ciocalteau method. Antioxidative activity of ethanolic extracts towards DPPH• free radical was examined. Antibacterial activity against Gram-positive (S. epidermidis, S. aureus, B. subtilis, M. luteus and Gram-negative (E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, P. mirabilis microbial strains was analyzed.As a result, the first such broad report on polyphenolic composition, antiradical and antimicrobial potential of wild growing Polish mushrooms was developed. Mushroom extracts were found to contain both benzoic (protocatechuic, 4-OH-benzoic, vanillic, syringic and cinnamic acid derivatives (caffeic, p-coumaric, ferulic. Total phenolic content in mushrooms ranged between 2.79 and 53.13 mg gallic acid equivalent /g of dried extract in Trichaptum fuscoviolaceum and Fomes fomentarius, respectively. Fungi showed much differentiated antiradical activity, from highly active F. fomentarius to poorly effective Russula fragilis (IC50 1.39 to 120.54 mg per mg DPPH•, respectively. A quite considerable relationship between phenolic content and antiradical activity has been demonstrated. Mushrooms varied widely in antimicrobial potential (MIC from 0.156 to 5 mg/ml. Generally, a slightly higher activity against Gram-positive than Gram-negative strains was observed. This is the first study concerning the chemical composition and biological activity

  4. Antibacterial, Antiradical Potential and Phenolic Compounds of Thirty-One Polish Mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowacka, Natalia; Nowak, Renata; Drozd, Marta; Olech, Marta; Los, Renata; Malm, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Among many sources of natural bioactive substances, mushrooms constitute a huge and almost unexplored group. Fungal compounds have been repeatedly reported to exert biological effects which have prompted their use in pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry. Therefore, the aim of this study was analysis of chemical composition and biological activity of 31 wild growing mushroom species (including saprophytic and parasitic) from Poland. Qualitative and quantitative LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of fourteen phenolic acids in the mushrooms analysed was performed. Moreover, total phenolic content was determined by the modified Folin-Ciocalteau method. Antioxidative activity of ethanolic extracts towards DPPH• free radical was examined. Antibacterial activity against Gram-positive (S. epidermidis, S. aureus, B. subtilis, M. luteus) and Gram-negative (E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, P. mirabilis) microbial strains was analyzed. As a result, the first such broad report on polyphenolic composition, antiradical and antimicrobial potential of wild growing Polish mushrooms was developed. Mushroom extracts were found to contain both benzoic (protocatechuic, 4-OH-benzoic, vanillic, syringic) and cinnamic acid derivatives (caffeic, p-coumaric, ferulic). Total phenolic content in mushrooms ranged between 2.79 and 53.13 mg gallic acid equivalent /g of dried extract in Trichaptum fuscoviolaceum and Fomes fomentarius, respectively. Fungi showed much differentiated antiradical activity, from highly active F. fomentarius to poorly effective Russula fragilis (IC50 1.39 to 120.54 mg per mg DPPH•, respectively). A quite considerable relationship between phenolic content and antiradical activity has been demonstrated. Mushrooms varied widely in antimicrobial potential (MIC from 0.156 to 5 mg/ml). Generally, a slightly higher activity against Gram-positive than Gram-negative strains was observed. This is the first study concerning the chemical composition and biological activity of the

  5. In Silico Investigation of Traditional Chinese Medicine for Potential Lead Compounds as SPG7 Inhibitors against Coronary Artery Disease

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    Kuen-Bao Chen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery disease (CAD is the most common cause of heart attack and the leading cause of mortality in the world. It is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and increased level of reactive oxygen species production. According to the Ottawa Heart Genomics Study genome-wide association study, a recent research identified that Q688 spastic paraplegia 7 (SPG7 variant is associated with CAD as it bypasses the regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of AFG3L2 and enhances the processing and maturation of SPG7 protein. This study aims to identify potential compounds isolated from Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCMs as potential lead compounds for paraplegin (SPG7 inhibitors. For the crystallographic structure of paraplegin, the disordered disposition of key amino acids in the binding site was predicted using the PONDR-Fit protocol before virtual screening. The TCM compounds saussureamine C and 3-(2-carboxyphenyl-4(3H-quinazolinone, have potential binding affinities with stable H-bonds and hydrophobic contacts with key residues of paraplegin. A molecular dynamics simulation was performed to validate the stability of the interactions between each candidate and paraplegin under dynamic conditions. Hence, we propose these compounds as potential candidates as lead drug from the compounds isolated from TCM for further study in drug development process with paraplegin protein for coronary artery disease.

  6. Steel slag aggregate in concrete: the effect of ageing on potentially expansive compounds

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    Frías, M.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Growing numbers of plants have sprung up in recent years to treat the electric arc furnace slag generated in scrap metal melting. When this by-product is separated, crushed and screened, it yields a granular material known as steel slag aggregate, which may be profitably used in the manufacture of commercial concrete. The feasibility of this application depends essentially on the volume stability of the resulting aggregate. The present paper discusses the potentially expansive compounds (Cl-, SO3, free CaO and free MgO present in aggregate derived from different types of black slag during aggregate ageing. The aim is to establish optimal ageing conditions to ensure volume stability in steel slag aggregate. The findings showed that the slag analyzed had low concentrations of the expansive compounds studied and that possible swelling can be reduced by 45day ageing.

    En los últimos años están surgiendo diferentes plantas de tratamiento de las escorias generadas en el proceso de fusión de la chatarra en los hornos de arco eléctrico. Mediante procesos de separación, machaqueo y cribado se obtiene un material granular denominado árido siderúrgico, que puede ser atractivo para su utilización en la fabricación de hormigones comerciales. En este sentido, la viabilidad de dicha aplicación dependerá, fundamentalmente, de asegurar su estabilidad en volumen. Este trabajo presenta un estudio de los compuestos potencialmente expansivos (Cl-, SO3, CaO libre y MgO libre de los áridos siderúrgicos procedentes de diferentes tipos de escorias negras, así como su evolución después de un proceso de envejecimiento. El objetivo es establecer las condiciones óptimas de un proceso de envejecimiento a partir del cual se pueda asegurar la estabilidad, en volumen, del árido siderúrgico. Los resultados evidencian que las escorias analizadas tienen bajas concentraciones de los compuestos expansivos

  7. Effects of selected pharmacological agents on avian auditory and vestibular compound action potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irons-Brown, Shunda R; Jones, Timothy A

    2004-09-01

    Glutamate is currently the consensus candidate for the hair cell transmitter in the inner ear of vertebrates. However, other candidate transmitter systems have been proposed and there may be differences in this regard for auditory and vestibular neuroepithelia. In the present study, perilymphatic perfusion was used to deliver prescribed concentrations of ten drugs to the interstitial fluids of the inner ear of hatchling chickens (n = 124). Dose-response curves were obtained for four of these pharmacological agents. The work was carried out in part to distinguish further the neuroepithelial chemical receptors mediating auditory and vestibular compound action potentials (CAPs). Kainic acid (KA) eliminated both auditory and vestibular responses. D-alpha-Aminoadipic acid (DAA) and dizocilpine maleate (MK-801), both NMDA-specific antagonists, failed to alter vestibular CAPs at any concentration. MK-801 significantly and selectively reduced auditory CAPs at concentrations equal to or greater than 1 mM. Similarly, kynurenic acid (4-hydroxyquinoline-2-carboxylic acid, 1 mM), a glutamate antagonist, significantly reduced auditory but not vestibular CAPs. A non-NMDA glutamate receptor antagonist, 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX), reduced vestibular CAPs significantly but only at the highest concentration tested (1 mM). In contrast, CNQX reduced auditory responses at concentration as low as 1 microM. The CNQX concentration effective in reducing auditory CAPs by 50% (EC(50)) was approximately 20 microM. Glutamate (1 mM) as well as alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA), a glutamate agonist, significantly reduced auditory CAPs (AMPA EC(50)=100 microM). Bicuculline, a GABA(A) receptor antagonist, and L-NAME, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, failed to alter responses from either modality. These findings support the hypothesis that glutamate receptors mediate auditory CAPs in birds. However, the results underscore a remarkable difference in

  8. Comparison of Two Old Phytochemicals versus Two Newly Researched Plant-Derived Compounds: Potential for Brain and Other Relevant Ailments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Mei; Liang, Willmann; Yew, D T

    2014-01-01

    Among hundreds of formulae of Chinese herbal prescriptions and recently extracted active components from the herbs, some of which had demonstrated their functions on nervous system. For the last decade or more, Gingko biloba and Polygala tenuifolia were widely studied for their beneficial effects against damage to the brain. Two compounds extracted from Apium graveolens and Rhizoma coptidis, butylphthalide and berberine, respectively, received much attention recently as potential neuroprotective agents. In this review, the two traditionally used herbs and the two relatively new compounds will be discussed with regard to their potential advantages in alleviating brain and other relevant ailments.

  9. Comparison of Two Old Phytochemicals versus Two Newly Researched Plant-Derived Compounds: Potential for Brain and Other Relevant Ailments

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    Chun-Mei Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Among hundreds of formulae of Chinese herbal prescriptions and recently extracted active components from the herbs, some of which had demonstrated their functions on nervous system. For the last decade or more, Gingko biloba and Polygala tenuifolia were widely studied for their beneficial effects against damage to the brain. Two compounds extracted from Apium graveolens and Rhizoma coptidis, butylphthalide and berberine, respectively, received much attention recently as potential neuroprotective agents. In this review, the two traditionally used herbs and the two relatively new compounds will be discussed with regard to their potential advantages in alleviating brain and other relevant ailments.

  10. The Potential Use of Indigobush (Amorpha fruticosa L. as Natural Resource of Biologically Active Compounds

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    Tamara Jakovljević

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Recent research indicates that a weed like Indigobush (Amorpha fruticosa L. gives great opportunities for its commercialization through a rich spectrum of its beneficial biological features with possible use in the forestry and biotechnology field. Therefore, in this study we wanted to explore some of potential application of Indigobush extract, as a source of biologically active compounds, for animal cell culturing as well as green corrosion inhibitors. Materials and Methods: The effect of ethanol extract of Indigobush seeds was studied on human tumor cell lines (HeLa and MCF-7 and cell viability was determined by WST-1 method after 72 hours of treatment with 6 different extract concentrations (0.5-10 mg∙mL-1. The inhibition effect of Indigobush seeds extract on the corrosion of aluminum in 0.5 M hydrochloric acid solution was investigated by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS methods. Results: Results showed that the addition of Indigobush extract had a stimulatory effect on MCF-7 cells growth at the concentrations >1 mg∙mL-1 while the same effect on HeLa cells was observed only at the highest concentration of Indigobush extract (10 mg∙mL-1. The stimulatory effect of Indigobush extract on cell viability was more pronounced when the cells were grown in a medium with 5% FBS compared to 10% FBS (v/v. Indigobush extract did not show cytotoxic effect on MCF-7 and HeLa cells. Electrochemical studies showed that with increasing extract concentrations (2.5-15 mg∙mL-1 the values of corrosion current densities decrease, while the polarization resistance values increase. The maximum inhibition efficiency of Indigobush extract is reached at concentration of 15 mg∙mL-1 (82.9%. Conclusions: The Indigobush ethanol extract has no cytotoxic effect on human tumor cell lines MCF-7 and HeLa. Results confirmed that extract originated from Indigobush has the potential to utilize for the

  11. Comparative potential of black tea leaves waste to granular activated carbon in adsorption of endocrine disrupting compounds from aqueous solution

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    A.O. Ifelebuegu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption properties and mechanics of selected endocrine disrupting compounds; 17 β-estradiol, 17 α – ethinylestradiol and bisphenol A on locally available black tea leaves waste and granular activated carbon were investigated. The results obtained indicated that the kinetics of adsorption were pH, adsorbent dose, contact time and temperature dependent with equilibrium being reached at 20 to 40 minutes for tea leaves waste and 40 to 60 minutes for granular activated compound. Maximum adsorption capacities of 3.46, 2.44 and 18.35 mg/g were achieved for tea leaves waste compared to granular activated compound capacities of 4.01, 2.97 and 16.26 mg/g for 17 β- estradiol, 17 α-ethinylestradiol and bisphenol A respectively. Tea leaves waste adsorption followed pseudo-first order kinetics while granular activated compound fitted better to the pseudo-second order kinetic model. The experimental isotherm data for both tea leaves waste and granular activated compound showed a good fit to the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models with the Langmuir model showing the best fit. The thermodynamic and kinetic data for the adsorption indicated that the adsorption process for tea leaves waste was predominantly by physical adsorption while the granular activated compound adsorption was more chemical in nature. The results have demonstrated the potential of waste tea leaves for the adsorptive removal of endocrine disrupting compounds from water.

  12. Volatile Compounds in Honey: A Review on Their Involvement in Aroma, Botanical Origin Determination and Potential Biomedical Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyi-Loh, Christy E.; Ndip, Roland N.; Clarke, Anna M.

    2011-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in honey are obtained from diverse biosynthetic pathways and extracted by using various methods associated with varying degrees of selectivity and effectiveness. These compounds are grouped into chemical categories such as aldehyde, ketone, acid, alcohol, hydrocarbon, norisoprenoids, terpenes and benzene compounds and their derivatives, furan and pyran derivatives. They represent a fingerprint of a specific honey and therefore could be used to differentiate between monofloral honeys from different floral sources, thus providing valuable information concerning the honey’s botanical and geographical origin. However, only plant derived compounds and their metabolites (terpenes, norisoprenoids and benzene compounds and their derivatives) must be employed to discriminate among floral origins of honey. Notwithstanding, many authors have reported different floral markers for honey of the same floral origin, consequently sensory analysis, in conjunction with analysis of VOCs could help to clear this ambiguity. Furthermore, VOCs influence honey’s aroma described as sweet, citrus, floral, almond, rancid, etc. Clearly, the contribution of a volatile compound to honey aroma is determined by its odor activity value. Elucidation of the aroma compounds along with floral origins of a particular honey can help to standardize its quality and avoid fraudulent labeling of the product. Although only present in low concentrations, VOCS could contribute to biomedical activities of honey, especially the antioxidant effect due to their natural radical scavenging potential. PMID:22272147

  13. Auditory nerve frequency tuning measured with forward-masked compound action potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschooten, Eric; Robles, Luis; Kovačić, Damir; Joris, Philip X

    2012-12-01

    Frequency selectivity is a fundamental cochlear property. Recent studies using otoacoustic emissions and psychophysical forward masking suggest that frequency selectivity is sharper in human than in common laboratory species. This has been disputed based on reports using compound action potentials (CAPs), which reflect activity in the auditory nerve and can be measured in humans. Comparative data of CAPs, obtained with a variety of simultaneous masking protocols, have been interpreted to indicate similarity of frequency tuning across mammals and even birds. Unfortunately, there are several issues with the available CAP measurements which hamper a straightforward comparison across species. We investigate sharpness of CAP tuning in cat and chinchilla using a forward masking notched-noise paradigm--which is less confounded by cochlear nonlinearities than simultaneous masking paradigms and similar to what was used in the psychophysical study reporting sharper tuning in humans. Our parametric study, using different probe frequencies and notch widths, shows relationships consistent with those of auditory nerve fibers (ANFs). The sharpness of tuning, quantified by Q(10) factors, is negatively correlated with probe level and increases with probe frequency, but the Q(10) values are generally lower than the average trend for ANFs. Like the single fiber data, tuning for CAPs is sharper in cat than in chinchilla, but the two species are similar in the dependence of tuning on probe frequency and in the relationship between tuning in ANFs and CAP. Growth-of-maskability functions show slopes <1 indicating that with increasing probe level the probe is more susceptible to cochlear compression than the masker. The results support the use of forward-masked CAPs as an alternative measure to estimate ANF tuning and to compare frequency tuning across species.

  14. Suprathreshold compound action potential amplitude as a measure of auditory function in cochlear implant users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel A. Scheperle

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Electrically evoked compound action potential (eCAP amplitudes elicited at suprathreshold levels were assessed as a measure of the effectiveness of cochlear implant (CI stimulation. Twenty-one individuals participated; one was excluded due to facial stimulation during eCAP testing. For each participant, eCAPs were elicited with stimulation from seven electrodes near the upper limit of the individual's electrical dynamic range. A reduced-channel CI program was created using those same seven electrodes, and participants performed a vowel discrimination task. Consistent with previous reports, eCAP amplitudes varied across tested electrodes; the profiles were unique to each individual. In 6 subjects (30%, eCAP amplitude variability was partially explained by the impedance of the recording electrode. The remaining amplitude variability within subjects, and the variability observed across subjects could not be explained by recording electrode impedance. This implies that other underlying factors, such as variations in neural status across the array, are responsible. Across-site mean eCAP amplitude was significantly correlated with vowel discrimination scores (r2 = 0.56. A single eCAP amplitude measured from the middle of the array was also significantly correlated with vowel discrimination, but the correlation was weaker (r2 = 0.37, though not statistically different from the across-site mean. Normalizing each eCAP amplitude by its associated recording electrode impedance did not improve the correlation with vowel discrimination (r2 = 0.52. Further work is needed to assess whether combining eCAP amplitude with other measures of the electrode-neural interface and/or with more central measures of auditory function provides a more complete picture of auditory function in CI recipients.

  15. Effects of estragole on the compound action potential of the rat sciatic nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.H. Leal-Cardoso

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Estragole, a relatively nontoxic terpenoid ether, is an important constituent of many essential oils with widespread applications in folk medicine and aromatherapy and known to have potent local anesthetic activity. We investigated the effects of estragole on the compound action potential (CAP of the rat sciatic nerve. The experiments were carried out on sciatic nerves dissected from Wistar rats. Nerves, mounted in a moist chamber, were stimulated at a frequency of 0.2 Hz, with electric pulses of 50-100-µs duration at 10-20 V, and evoked CAP were monitored on an oscilloscope and recorded on a computer. CAP control parameters were: peak-to-peak amplitude (PPA, 9.9 ± 0.55 mV (N = 15, conduction velocity, 92.2 ± 4.36 m/s (N = 15, chronaxy, 45.6 ± 3.74 µs (N = 5, and rheobase, 3.9 ± 0.78 V (N = 5. Estragole induced a dose-dependent blockade of the CAP. At 0.6 mM, estragole had no demonstrable effect. At 2.0 and 6.0 mM estragole, PPA was significantly reduced at the end of 180-min exposure of the nerve to the drug to 85.6 ± 3.96 and 13.04 ± 1.80% of control, respectively. At 4.0 mM, estragole significantly altered PPA, conduction velocity, chronaxy, and rheobase (P <= 0.05, ANOVA; N = 5 to 49.3 ± 6.21 and 77.7 ± 3.84, 125.9 ± 10.43 and 116.7 ± 4.59%, of control, respectively. All of these effects developed slowly and were reversible upon a 300-min wash-out. The data show that estragole dose-dependently blocks nerve excitability.

  16. Electrically evoked compound action potentials artefact rejection by independent component analysis: procedure automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhoun, Idrick; McKay, Colette; El-Deredy, Wael

    2015-01-15

    Independent-components-analysis (ICA) successfully separated electrically-evoked compound action potentials (ECAPs) from the stimulation artefact and noise (ECAP-ICA, Akhoun et al., 2013). This paper shows how to automate the ECAP-ICA artefact cancellation process. Raw-ECAPs without artefact rejection were consecutively recorded for each stimulation condition from at least 8 intra-cochlear electrodes. Firstly, amplifier-saturated recordings were discarded, and the data from different stimulus conditions (different current-levels) were concatenated temporally. The key aspect of the automation procedure was the sequential deductive source categorisation after ICA was applied with a restriction to 4 sources. The stereotypical aspect of the 4 sources enables their automatic classification as two artefact components, a noise and the sought ECAP based on theoretical and empirical considerations. The automatic procedure was tested using 8 cochlear implant (CI) users and one to four stimulus electrodes. The artefact and noise sources were successively identified and discarded, leaving the ECAP as the remaining source. The automated ECAP-ICA procedure successfully extracted the correct ECAPs compared to standard clinical forward masking paradigm in 22 out of 26 cases. ECAP-ICA does not require extracting the ECAP from a combination of distinct buffers as it is the case with regular methods. It is an alternative that does not have the possible bias of traditional artefact rejections such as alternate-polarity or forward-masking paradigms. The ECAP-ICA procedure bears clinical relevance, for example as the artefact rejection sub-module of automated ECAP-threshold detection techniques, which are common features of CI clinical fitting software. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Total phenolic compounds, antioxidant potential and α-glucosidase inhibition by Tunisian Euphorbia paralias L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malek Besbes Hlila

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the potential antioxidant and anti-α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of Tunisian Euphorbia paralias L. leaves and stems extracts and their composition of total polyphenol and flavonoids. Methods: The different samples were tested for their antiradical activities by using 2, 2’- azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assays. In α-glucosidase activity, α-glucosidase (0.3 IU/mL and substrate, 2500 µmol/ L p-nitrophenyl α-D-glucopyranoside were used; absorbance was registered at 405 nm. Results: The leaves acetonic extract exhibited the strongest α-glucosidase inhibition [IC50 = (0.0035 ± 0.001 µg/mL], which was 20-fold more active than the standard product (acarbose [IC50 = (0.07 ± 0.01 µg/mL]. Acetonic extract of the leaves exhibited the highest quantity of total phenolic [(95.54 ± 0.04 µg gallic acid equivalent/mg] and flavonoid [(55.16 ± 0.25 µg quercetin equivalent/mg]. The obtained findings presented also that this extract was detected with best antioxidant capacity [IC50 = (0.015 ± 0.01 µg/mL] against DPPH and a value of IC50 equal to (0.02 ± 0.01 µg/mL against ABTS. Positive relationship between polyphenolic content of the tested Euphorbia paralias L. leaves and stems extracts and its antioxidant activity (DPPH and ABTS was detected. Elevated positive linear correlation was got between ABTS and total phenolic (R2 = 0.751. Conclusions: The findings clearly demonstrate that the use of a polar solvent enables extraction of significant quantities of phenol compounds and flavonoids.

  18. The agar diffusion scratch assay - A novel method to assess the bioactive and cytotoxic potential of new materials and compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusnik, Mascha; Imeri, Minire; Deppierraz, Grégoire; Bruinink, Arie; Zinn, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    A profound in vitro evaluation not only of the cytotoxic but also of bioactive potential of a given compound or material is crucial for predicting potential effects in the in vivo situation. However, most of the current methods have weaknesses in either the quantitative or qualitative assessment of cytotoxicity and/or bioactivity of the test compound. Here we describe a novel assay combining the ISO 10993-5 agar diffusion test and the scratch also termed wound healing assay. In contrast to these original tests this assay is able to detect and distinguish between cytotoxic, cell migration modifying and cytotoxic plus cell migration modifying compounds, and this at higher sensitivity and in a quantitative way. PMID:26861591

  19. Compound motor action potential duration and latency are markers of recurrent laryngeal nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Neel K; Park, Andrea M; Al-Lozi, Mohammad T; Gale, Derrick C; Paniello, Randal C

    2017-08-01

    Compound motor action potential (CMAP) can quantitatively evaluate innervation following injury to the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) in canines. CMAP duration (the total time of CMAP) and latency (the time between the nerve impulse and the onset of action potentials) have not been assessed following RLN injury. Animal study. Twelve canine hemilaryngeal preparations were investigated. Baseline CMAP duration and latency were derived. Group A (n = 5) underwent RLN stretch injury, and group B (n = 7) underwent RLN transection/repair. The change in CMAP duration and latency was assessed between the baseline and 6-month measurements using receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves for each group individually and combined. Six months following injury, transection/repair injuries had the most significant increase in CMAP duration (2.8 ± 0.6 ms vs. 4.2 ± 0.8 ms, difference 1.4 ms 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.43 to 2.40) and latency (2.6 ± 0.5 ms vs. 5.6 ± 1.5 ms, difference 3.0 ms 95% CI: 1.65 to 4.38). Stretch injuries also caused an increase in CMAP duration (2.3 ± 0.8 ms vs. 3.0 ± 0.6 ms, difference 0.7 ms 95% CI: -0.49 to 1.77) and latency (2.5 ± 0.8 ms vs. 4.7 ± 1.5 ms, difference 2.3 95% CI: 0.76 to 3.80). Using ROC curves, CMAP duration and latency differentiated between the baseline control and RLN injury at 6 months (area under the curve = 0.78 and 0.98, respectively). CMAP duration and latency are both quantitative measures that may have clinical utility as markers of RLN injury. CMAP latency had superior discrimination between injured and uninjured RLNs. Increased CMAP duration and latency may be explained by incomplete myelination and focal conduction block. NA. Laryngoscope, 127:1855-1860, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  20. Green chemistry approach to the synthesis of potentially bioactive aminobenzylated Mannich bases through active hydrogen compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. VASOYA

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available An efficient and high yield method for the synthesis of aminobenzylated Mannich bases is described. The synthesis occurs in aqueous medium at 0 ºC. The compounds show moderate antitubercular and antimicrobial activities.

  1. Synthesis of Chlorinated Tetracyclic Compounds and Testing for Their Potential Antidepressant Effect in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karama, Usama; Sultan, Mujeeb A; Almansour, Abdulrahman I; El-Taher, Kamal Eldin

    2016-01-05

    The synthesis of the tetracyclic compounds 1-(4,5-dichloro-9,10-dihydro-9,10-ethanoanthracen-11-yl)-N-methylmethanamine (5) and 1-(1,8-dichloro-9,10-dihydro-9,10-ethanoanthracen-11-yl)-N-methylmethanamine (6) as a homologue of the anxiolytic and antidepressant drugs benzoctamine and maprotiline were described. The key intermediate aldehydes (3) and (4) were successfully synthesized via a [4 + 2] cycloaddition between acrolein and 1,8-dichloroanthracene. The synthesized compounds were investigated for antidepressant activity using the forced swimming test. Compounds (5), (6) and (3) showed significant reduction in the mice immobility indicating significant antidepressant effects. These compounds significantly reduced the immobility times at a dose 80 mg/kg by 84.0%, 86.7% and 71.1% respectively.

  2. Synthesis of Chlorinated Tetracyclic Compounds and Testing for Their Potential Antidepressant Effect in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usama Karama

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of the tetracyclic compounds 1-(4,5-dichloro-9,10-dihydro-9,10-ethanoanthracen-11-yl-N-methylmethanamine (5 and 1-(1,8-dichloro-9,10-dihydro-9,10-ethanoanthracen-11-yl-N-methylmethanamine (6 as a homologue of the anxiolytic and antidepressant drugs benzoctamine and maprotiline were described. The key intermediate aldehydes (3 and (4 were successfully synthesized via a [4 + 2] cycloaddition between acrolein and 1,8-dichloroanthracene. The synthesized compounds were investigated for antidepressant activity using the forced swimming test. Compounds (5, (6 and (3 showed significant reduction in the mice immobility indicating significant antidepressant effects. These compounds significantly reduced the immobility times at a dose 80 mg/kg by 84.0%, 86.7% and 71.1% respectively.

  3. Characterization of phenolic compounds, antioxidant and antibacterial potential the extract of acerola bagasse flour

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tamara Rezende Marques; Aline Aparecida Caetano; Leonardo Milani Avelar Rodrigues; Anderson Assaid Simao; Gustavo Henrique Andrade Machado; Angelita Duarte Correa

    2017-01-01

    ...) and characterized phenolic compounds by high-performance liquid chromatography. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by the free-radical scavenging activity using the ABTS+ procedure and by β...

  4. Analysis of electrically evoked compound action potential of the auditory nerve in children with bilateral cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas, Fernanda Ferreira; Cardoso, Carolina Costa; Barreto, Monique Antunes de Souza Chelminski; Teixeira, Marina Santos; Hilgenberg, Anacléia Melo da Silva; Serra, Lucieny Silva Martins; Bahmad Junior, Fayez

    2016-01-01

    The cochlear implant device has the capacity to measure the electrically evoked compound action potential of the auditory nerve. The neural response telemetry is used in order to measure the electrically evoked compound action potential of the auditory nerve. To analyze the electrically evoked compound action potential, through the neural response telemetry, in children with bilateral cochlear implants. This is an analytical, prospective, longitudinal, historical cohort study. Six children, aged 1-4 years, with bilateral cochlear implant were assessed at five different intervals during their first year of cochlear implant use. There were significant differences in follow-up time (p=0.0082) and electrode position (p=0.0019) in the T-NRT measure. There was a significant difference in the interaction between time of follow-up and electrode position (p=0.0143) when measuring the N1-P1 wave amplitude between the three electrodes at each time of follow-up. The electrically evoked compound action potential measurement using neural response telemetry in children with bilateral cochlear implants during the first year of follow-up was effective in demonstrating the synchronized bilateral development of the peripheral auditory pathways in the studied population. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. The influence of cochlear hearing loss and probe tone level on compound action potential tuning curves in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, Wim

    1986-01-01

    The effect of cochlear hearing loss and of probe tone level on slopes and sharpness of compound action potential tuning curves was investigated. Thirty-one simultaneously masked isoreduction (50%) tuning curves were determined in 26 adults with cochlear hearing losses up to 60 dB. Probe tone

  6. Phenolic compounds, antioxidant potential and antiproliferative potential of 10 common edible flowers from China assessed using a simulated in vitro digestion-dialysis process combined with cellular assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weisu; Mao, Shuqin; Zhang, Liuquan; Lu, Baiyi; Zheng, Lufei; Zhou, Fei; Zhao, Yajing; Li, Maiquan

    2017-11-01

    Phenolic compounds could be sensitive to digestive conditions, thus a simulated in vitro digestion-dialysis process and cellular assays was used to determine phenolic compounds and antioxidant and antiproliferative potentials of 10 common edible flowers from China and their functional components. Gallic acid, ferulic acid, and rutin were widely present in these flowers, which demonstrated various antioxidant capacities (DPPH, ABTS, FRAP and CAA values) and antiproliferative potentials measured by the MTT method. Rosa rugosa, Paeonia suffruticosa and Osmanthus fragrans exhibited the best antioxidant and antiproliferative potentials against HepG2, A549 and SGC-7901 cell lines, except that Osmanthus fragrans was not the best against SGC-7901 cells. The in vitro digestion-dialysis process decreased the antioxidant potential by 33.95-90.72% and the antiproliferative potential by 13.22-87.15%. Following the in vitro digestion-dialysis process, phenolics were probably responsible for antioxidant (R2 = 0.794-0.924, P < 0.01) and antiproliferative (R2 = 0.408-0.623, P < 0.05) potential. Moreover, gallic acid may be responsible for the antioxidant potential of seven flowers rich in edible flowers. The antioxidant and antiproliferative potential of 10 edible flowers revealed a clear decrease after digestion and dialysis along with the reduction of phenolics. Nevertheless, they still had considerable antioxidant and antiproliferative potential, which merited further investigation in in vivo studies. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Two-Dimensional Corrugated Porous Carbon-, Nitrogen-Framework/Metal Heterojunction for Efficient Multielectron Transfer Processes with Controlled Kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaushi, Ken; Lyalin, Andrey; Tominaka, Satoshi; Taketsugu, Tetsuya; Uosaki, Kohei

    2017-02-28

    The material choice for efficient electrocatalysts is limited because it is necessary to be highly active as well as highly stable. One direction to solve this issue is to understand elementary steps of electrode processes and build an unconventional strategy for a conversion of inert and, therefore, stable materials into efficient catalysts. Herein, we propose a simple concept for obtaining catalysts from inert and hence stable materials by forming their heterojunctions, namely, covering inert Au with corrugated carbon-nitrogen-based two-dimensional porous frameworks. It shows more than 10 times better activity for the hydrogen evolution reaction than for the pure Au surface, and it also demonstrates the high catalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) via an effective four-electron reduction mechanism, which is different from the usual two-electron reduction typical for ORR on Au surfaces. This activity induced by formation of a heterojunction was analyzed by a conjugation of computational and experimental methods and found to originate from alternative efficient reaction pathways that emerged by the corrugated porous framework and the Au surface. This work provides not only the method for creating active surface but also the knowledge on elementary steps of such complicated multielectron transfer reactions, thereby leading to intriguing strategies for developing energy conversion reactions based on materials which had never been considered as catalysts before.

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of Hoeflea sp. Strain BAL378, a Potential Producer of Bioactive Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzon-Tilia, Mikkel; Riemann, Lasse; Gram, Lone

    2014-01-01

    Some phytoplankton-associated marine bacteria produce bioactive compounds. Members of the genus Hoeflea may be examples of such bacteria; however, data describing their metabolisms are scarce. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Hoeflea sp. strain BAL378, a putative producer...... of bacteriocins, polyketides, and auxins, as demonstrated by genome mining....

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Hoeflea sp. Strain BAL378, a Potential Producer of Bioactive Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzon-Tilia, Mikkel; Riemann, Lasse; Gram, Lone

    2014-01-01

    Some phytoplankton-associated marine bacteria produce bioactive compounds. Members of the genus Hoeflea may be examples of such bacteria; however, data describing their metabolisms are scarce. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Hoeflea sp. strain BAL378, a putative producer of bacterioc...

  10. Bark as potential source of chemical substances for industry: analysis of content of selected phenolic compounds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maršík, Petr; Kotyza, Jan; Rezek, Jan; Vaněk, Tomáš

    -, č. 1 (2013), s. 4-9 ISSN 1804-0195 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC10026 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : bark * extraction * phenolic compounds Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics http://www. waste forum.cz/cisla/WF_1_2013.pdf#page=4

  11. Bis-indolic compounds as potential new therapeutic alternatives for tularaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspar, Yvan; Sutera, Vivien; Boisset, Sandrine; Denis, Jean-Noël; Maurin, Max

    2014-01-01

    Francisella tularensis is the etiological agent of tularaemia and a CDC class A biological threat agent. Few antibiotic classes are currently useful in treating tularaemia, including the aminoglycosides gentamicin and streptomycin, fluoroquinolones, and tetracyclines. However, treatment failures and relapses remain frequent and F. tularensis strains resistant to antibiotics have been easily selected in vitro. In this study, we evaluated the activity of new synthetic bis-indole derivatives against this pathogen. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of four compounds (dcm01 to dcm04) were determined for the reference strains F. tularensis subsp. holarctica LVS NCTC10857, F. tularensis subsp. novicida CIP56.12 and F. philomiragia ATCC25015, and for 41 clinical strains of F. tularensis subsp. holarctica isolated in France. Minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were determined for the dcm02 and dcm04 compounds for the LVS and two clinical strains. Killing curves were also determined for the same three strains exposed to dcm04. All tested bis-indole compounds were bacteriostatic against F. tularensis subsp. holarctica strains, with a MIC90 of 8 μg/mL for dcm01, dcm02, and dcm03, and 2 μg/mL for dcm04. Only one strain was resistant to both dcm01 and dcm03, with MICs > 32 μg/mL. In contrast, F. tularensis subsp. novicida was resistant to all derivatives and F. philomiragia was only susceptible to dcm02 and dcm04, with MICs of 16 and 4 μg/mL, respectively. MBC and killing curve experiments revealed significant bactericidal activity (i.e., 3-log reduction of the bacterial inoculum) of the dcm02 and dcm04 compounds only for the LVS strain. In conclusion, we have identified novel synthetic bis-indole compounds that are active against F. tularensis subsp. holarctica. They may be drug candidates for the development of new therapeutic alternatives for tularaemia treatment. Their further characterization is needed, especially identification of their bacterial targets.

  12. Volatile Organic Compounds Emitted by Fungal Associates of Conifer Bark Beetles and their Potential in Bark Beetle Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Dineshkumar; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Hammerbacher, Almuth

    2016-09-01

    Conifer bark beetles attack and kill mature spruce and pine trees, especially during hot and dry conditions. These beetles are closely associated with ophiostomatoid fungi of the Ascomycetes, including the genera Ophiostoma, Grosmannia, and Endoconidiophora, which enhance beetle success by improving nutrition and modifying their substrate, but also have negative impacts on beetles by attracting predators and parasites. A survey of the literature and our own data revealed that ophiostomatoid fungi emit a variety of volatile organic compounds under laboratory conditions including fusel alcohols, terpenoids, aromatic compounds, and aliphatic alcohols. Many of these compounds already have been shown to elicit behavioral responses from bark beetles, functioning as attractants or repellents, often as synergists to compounds currently used in bark beetle control. Thus, these compounds could serve as valuable new agents for bark beetle management. However, bark beetle associations with fungi are very complex. Beetle behavior varies with the species of fungus, the stage of the beetle life cycle, the host tree quality, and probably with changes in the emission rate of fungal volatiles. Additional research on bark beetles and their symbiotic associates is necessary before the basic significance of ophiostomatoid fungal volatiles can be understood and their applied potential realized.

  13. Volatile fingerprint of Brazilian defective coffee seeds: corroboration of potential marker compounds and identification of new low quality indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toci, Aline T; Farah, Adriana

    2014-06-15

    In the present work, the volatile profiles of green and roasted Brazilian defective coffee seeds and their controls were characterised, totalling 159 compounds. Overall, defective seeds showed higher number and concentration of volatile compounds compared to those of control seeds, especially pyrazines, pyrroles and phenols. Corroborating our previous results, butyrolactone and hexanoic acid, previously considered as potential defective seeds' markers, were observed only in raw and roasted defective seeds, respectively, and not in control seeds. New compounds were suggested as potential defective seeds' markers: hexanoic acid (for raw and roasted defective seeds in general), butyrolactone (for raw defective seeds in general), and 3-ethyl-2-methyl-1,3-hexadiene (for raw black seeds); β-linalool and 2-butyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine (for roasted defective seeds in general), and 2-pentylfuran (for roasted black seeds). Additional compounds suggested as low quality indicators were 2,3,5,6-tetramethylpyrazine,2,3-butanediol and 4-ethylguaiacol, β-linalool, 2-,3-dimethylbutyl butanoate, 2-phenylethyl acetate, 2,3-butanedione, hexanedioic acid, guaiacol, 2,3-dihydro-2-methyl-1H-benzopyrrol, 3-methylpiperidine, 2-pentylpiperidine, 3-octen-2-one, 2-octenal, 2-pentylfuran and 2-butyl-3-methylpyrazine. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Non-targeted metabolite profiling highlights the potential of strawberry leaves as a resource for specific bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kårlund, Anna; Hanhineva, Kati; Lehtonen, Marko; McDougall, Gordon J; Stewart, Derek; Karjalainen, Reijo O

    2017-05-01

    The non-edible parts of horticultural crops, such as leaves, contain substantial amounts of valuable bioactive compounds which are currently only little exploited. For example, strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) leaves may be a promising bioresource for diverse health-related applications. However, product standardization sets a real challenge, especially when the leaf material comes from varying cultivars. The first step towards better quality control of berry fruit leaf-based ingredients and supplements is to understand metabolites present and their stability in different plant cultivars, so this study surveyed the distribution of potentially bioactive strawberry leaf metabolites in six different strawberry cultivars. Non-targeted metabolite profiling analysis using LC/qTOF-ESI-MS with data processing via principal component analysis and k-means clustering analysis was utilized to examine differences and commonalities between the leaf metabolite profiles. Quercetin and kaempferol derivatives were the dominant flavonol groups in strawberry leaves. Previously described and novel caffeic and chlorogenic acid derivatives were among the major phenolic acids. In addition, ellagitannins were one of the distinguishing compound classes in strawberry leaves. In general, strawberry leaves also contained high levels of octadecatrienoic acid derivatives, precursors of valuable odour compounds. The specific bioactive compounds found in the leaves of different strawberry cultivars offer the potential for the selection of optimized leaf materials for added-value food and non-food applications. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. The Potential Protective Effects of Phenolic Compounds against Low-density Lipoprotein Oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarowicz, Ryszard; Pegg, Ronald B

    2017-01-01

    The exact mechanism(s) of atherosclerosis in humans remains elusive, but one theory hypothesizes that this deleterious process results from the oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Research suggests that foods rich in dietary phenolic compounds with antioxidant activity can mitigate the extent of LDL oxidation in vivo. With regard to the different classes of flavonoids, there appears to be a structurefunction relationship between the various moieties/constituents attached to the flavonoids' three ring system and their impact at retarding LDL oxidation. This article summarizes the findings to date of both in vitro and in vivo studies using foods or phenolic extracts isolated from foodstuffs at inhibiting the incidence of LDL oxidation. Three bases: SCOPUS, Web Science, and PubMed were used for search. An often used method for the determination of antioxidant properties of natural phenolic compounds is the LDL oxidation assay. LDLs are isolated from human plasma and their oxidation is induced by Cu2+ ions or 2,2'-azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride (AAPH). The sample is incubated with a phenolic extract or individual/isolated phenolic compounds. LDL oxidation is then monitored by various chemical methods (e.g., measurement of the generation of conjugated dienes and trienes). This technique confirmed the antioxidant properties of several extracts as obtained from plant material (e.g., grapes, berries, orange, grapefruit, coffee, tea, chocolate, olives, nuts) as well as the individual phenolic compounds (e.g., luteolinidin, apigenidin, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, catechin, quercetin, rutin). Several studies in vivo confirmed protective effects of phenolic compounds against LDL oxidation. They covered the healthy subjects with hyperlipidaemia, overweight, obesity, metabolic syndrome, heavy smokers, patients receiving haemodialysis, patients with peripheral vascular disease, and subjects at high cardiovascular risk. The studies comprise

  16. Apoptosis inducing lead compounds isolated from marine organisms of potential relevance in cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beesoo, Rima; Neergheen-Bhujun, Vidushi; Bhagooli, Ranjeet; Bahorun, Theeshan

    2014-10-01

    Apoptosis is a critical defense mechanism against the formation and progression of cancer and exhibits distinct morphological and biochemical traits. Targeting apoptotic pathways becomes an intriguing strategy for the development of chemotherapeutic agents particularly if the process is selective to cancer cells. Marine natural products have become important sources in the discovery of antitumour drugs, especially when recent technological and methodological advances have increased the scope of investigations of marine organisms. A high number of individual compounds from diverse organisms have induced apoptosis in several tumour cell lines via a number of mechanisms. Here, we review the effects of selected marine natural products and their synthetic derivatives on apoptosis signalling pathways in association with their pharmacological properties. Providing an outlook into the future, we also examine the factors that contribute to new discoveries and the difficulties associated with translating marine-derived compounds into clinical trials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Enzymatic synthesis of bioactive compounds with high potential for cosmeceutical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonopoulou, Io; Varriale, Simona; Topakas, Evangelos; Rova, Ulrika; Christakopoulos, Paul; Faraco, Vincenza

    2016-08-01

    Cosmeceuticals are cosmetic products containing biologically active ingredients purporting to offer a pharmaceutical therapeutic benefit. The active ingredients can be extracted and purified from natural sources (botanicals, herbal extracts, or animals) but can also be obtained biotechnologically by fermentation and cell cultures or by enzymatic synthesis and modification of natural compounds. A cosmeceutical ingredient should possess an attractive property such as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, skin whitening, anti-aging, anti-wrinkling, or photoprotective activity, among others. During the past years, there has been an increased interest on the enzymatic synthesis of bioactive esters and glycosides based on (trans)esterification, (trans)glycosylation, or oxidation reactions. Natural bioactive compounds with exceptional theurapeutic properties and low toxicity may offer a new insight into the design and development of potent and beneficial cosmetics. This review gives an overview of the enzymatic modifications which are performed currently for the synthesis of products with attractive properties for the cosmeceutical industry.

  18. Occurrence and potential crop uptake of emerging contaminants and related compounds in an agricultural irrigation network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderon-Preciado, Diana [IDAEA-CSIC, Jordi Girona, 18, E-08034 Barcelona (Spain); Matamoros, Victor, E-mail: victor.matamoros@udg.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Girona, Campus Montilivi, 17071 Girona (Spain); Bayona, Josep M. [IDAEA-CSIC, Jordi Girona, 18, E-08034 Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-12-15

    Emerging contaminants have received much attention in recent years due to their presence in surface waters, but little attention has been paid to their occurrence in agricultural irrigation waters. This study investigated the occurrence of these compounds in an agricultural irrigation network in northeastern Spain and, for the first time, using two plant uptake models, estimated the concentration of selected micropollutants in crops. The concentration of micropollutants in agricultural irrigation waters ranged from 10 to 5130 ng L{sup -1} and exhibited some attenuation over the course of the irrigation network. Bromoform, chloroform, diclofenac, caffeine, ibuprofen, naproxen, methyl dihydrojasmonate, galaxolide, butylated hydroxytoluene, and butylated hydroxyanisole were the most abundant contaminants (> 200 ng L{sup -1}, on average). The estimated concentration of micropollutants in crops ranged from < 1 to 7677 ng kg{sup -1}, with the neutral compounds being the most abundant. Moreover, the predicted data obtained by fate models generally agreed with experimental data. Finally, human exposure to micropollutants through fruit and vegetable consumption was estimated to be 9.8 {mu}g per person and week ({Sigma} 27 contaminants detected). Further studies are needed to determine the health implications that the presence of these compounds in fruit and vegetables may have for consumers.

  19. Evaluation of the potential of squash pumpkin by-products (seeds and shell) as sources of antioxidant and bioactive compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Saavedra, M. J.; Aires, A.; Dias, C.; Almeida, J. A.; De Vasconcelos, M. C. B. M.; Santos, P.; Rosa, E. A.

    2013-01-01

    The transformation of byproducts and wastes generated by agro-food companies is of high importance since only a small portion of plant material is utilized directly for human consumption. Squash pumpkin is greatly used in Portugal and as by-products of its processing are generated tons of shell and seeds. In this study we aim to evaluate the potential of these wastes as sources of beneficial and bioactive compounds (antioxidants and antimicrobials), studying the effect of different extraction...

  20. Bioactive Compound From Mangoes Leaves Extract as Potential Soil Bioherbicide to Control Amaranth Weed (Amaranthus Spinosus Linn.)

    OpenAIRE

    Syahri, Rifauldin; Widaryanto, Eko; Wicaksono, Karuniawan Puji

    2017-01-01

    Bioherbicide is important approach for sustainable farming practices. One of plant that has potentially as bioherbicide, which is environmentally safe, is mango. Mango leaf extract is useful as bioherbicide because it produces allelochemical compounds, which could inhibit the weed growth. This research was designed to study the effect of several mangoes species leaves extract to control dominant weed (amaranth). Split plot design was implemented using mango species (S) as the main plot; S1 (M...

  1. Bioactive compound from mangoes leaves extract as potential soil bioherbicide to control amaranth weed (Amaranthus spinosus Linn.)

    OpenAIRE

    Rifauldin Syahri; Eko Widaryanto; Karuniawan Puji Wicaksono

    2017-01-01

    Bioherbicide is important approach for sustainable farming practices. One of plant that has potentially as bioherbicide, which is environmentally safe, is mango. Mango leaf extract is useful as bioherbicide because it produces allelochemical compounds, which could inhibit the weed growth. This research was designed to study the effect of several mangoes species leaves extract to control dominant weed (amaranth). Split plot design was implemented using mango species (S) as the main plot; S1 (M...

  2. Exploring Bioactive Properties of Marine Cyanobacteria Isolated from the Portuguese Coast: High Potential as a Source of Anticancer Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida Costa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The oceans remain a major source of natural compounds with potential in pharmacology. In particular, during the last few decades, marine cyanobacteria have been in focus as producers of interesting bioactive compounds, especially for the treatment of cancer. In this study, the anticancer potential of extracts from twenty eight marine cyanobacteria strains, belonging to the underexplored picoplanktonic genera, Cyanobium, Synechocystis and Synechococcus, and the filamentous genera, Nodosilinea, Leptolyngbya, Pseudanabaena and Romeria, were assessed in eight human tumor cell lines. First, a crude extract was obtained by dichloromethane:methanol extraction, and from it, three fractions were separated in a Si column chromatography. The crude extract and fractions were tested in eight human cancer cell lines for cell viability/toxicity, accessed with the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT and lactic dehydrogenase release (LDH assays. Eight point nine percent of the strains revealed strong cytotoxicity; 17.8% showed moderate cytotoxicity, and 14.3% assays showed low toxicity. The results obtained revealed that the studied genera of marine cyanobacteria are a promising source of novel compounds with potential anticancer activity and highlight the interest in also exploring the smaller filamentous and picoplanktonic genera of cyanobacteria.

  3. Versatile Organic Chemistry on Vanadium-Based Multi-Electron Reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachtigall, Olaf; Spandl, Johann

    2018-01-04

    We report the synthesis, post-functionalization, and redox behavior of two organically functionalized aggregates, [V 6 O 7 (OMe) 9 {(OCH 2 ) 3 C-CH 2 N 3 }] and [V 6 O 7 (OMe) 9 {(OCH 2 ) 3 C-NH 2 }]. All twelve μ 2 -oxo groups on the edges of the Lindqvist-type {V 6 O 19 } core were replaced by alkoxo ligands. The absence of a negative charge and the closed organic shell make these neutral mixed-valence compounds very stable towards hydrolysis and well soluble in almost all common organic solvents. These are important advantages over classical POMs. By post-functionalization through copper(I)-catalyzed Huisgen cycloaddition or imine formation, various organic moieties could be introduced. Even a well-soluble trimer composed of three hexanuclear vanadium units connected through an aromatic triimino core was synthesized and studied. The diverse redox behavior, the versatile reactivity, the good stability, and the excellent solubility make our vanadium compounds highly interesting for applications as building blocks in macromolecular chemistry as well as redox labels in biochemistry. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Asplenioideae Species as a Reservoir of Volatile Organic Compounds with Potential Therapeutic Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froissard, Didier; Rapior, Sylvie; Bessière, Jean-Marie; Buatois, Bruno; Fruchier, Alain; Sol, Vincent; Fons, Françoise

    2015-06-01

    Twelve French Asplenioideae ferns (genera Asplenium and subgenera Ceterach and Phyllitis) were investigated for the first time for volatile organic compounds (VOC) using GC-MS. Sixty-two VOC biosynthesized from the lipidic, shikimic, terpenic and carotenoid pathways were identified. Several VOC profiles can be highlighted from Asplenium jahandiezii and A. xalternifolium with exclusively lipidic derivatives to A. onopteris with an equal ratio of lipidic/shikimic compounds. Very few terpenes as caryophyllene derivatives were identified, but only in A. obovatum subsp. bilotii. The main odorous lipidic derivatives were (E)-2-decenal (waxy and fatty odor), nonanal (aldehydic and waxy odor with a fresh green nuance), (E)-2-heptenal (green odor with a fatty note) and 1-octen-3-ol (mushroom-like odor), reported for all species. A few VOC are present in several species in high content, i.e., 9-oxononanoic acid used as a precursor for biopolymers (19% in A. jahandiezii), 4-hydroxyacetophenone with a sweet and heavy floral odor (17.1% in A. onopteris), and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid used as a precursor in the synthesis of parabens (11.3% in A. foreziense). Most of the identified compounds have pharmacological activities, i.e., octanoic acid as antimicrobial, in particular against Salmonellas, with fatty and waxy odor (41.1% in A. petrarchae), tetradecanoic acid with trypanocidal activity (13.3% in A. obovatum subsp. bilotii), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (8.7% in A. onopteris) with antimicrobial and anti-aging effects, 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde as an inhibitor of growth of human cancer cells (6.7% in Ceterach officinarum), and phenylacetic acid with antifungal and antibacterial activities (5.8% in A. onopteris). Propionylfilicinic acid was identified in the twelve species. The broad spectrum of odorous and bioactive VOC identified from the Asplenium, Ceterach and Phyllitis species are indeed of great interest to the cosmetic and food industries.

  5. Volatile compounds in Thymus sect. Teucrioides (Lamiaceae): intraspecific and interspecific diversity, chemotaxonomic significance and exploitation potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitarokili, Danae; Constantinidis, Theophanis; Saitanis, Costas; Tzakou, Olga

    2014-04-01

    Thymus sect. Teucrioides comprises three species, namely, T. hartvigii, T. leucospermus, and T. teucrioides, distributed in Greece and Albania. The volatile constituents of all species of the section were obtained by hydrodistillation and investigated by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. Twenty populations were sampled and a total of 103 compounds were identified, representing 98.0-99.9% of the oil compositions. The oils were mainly characterized by high contents of monoterpene hydrocarbons (42.7-92.4%), with the exception of three oils for which oxygenated monoterpenes were the dominating constituents, viz., that of T. hartvigii ssp. macrocalyx, with linalool as main compound (89.2±0.5%), and those of T. hartvigii ssp. hartvigii and of one population of T. teucrioides ssp. candilicus, containing thymol as major component (46.4±3.1 and 38.2±3.9%, resp.). The most common compound in the oils of the 20 populations of the section was p-cymene. Considerable variation was detected within and among populations, and seven chemotypes were distinguished, i.e., p-cymene, linalool, p-cymene/thymol, p-cymene/γ-terpinene, p-cymene/borneol, p-cymene/γ-terpinene/borneol, and p-cymene/linalool chemotypes. Different chemotypes may exist in the same population. Multivariate statistical analyses enabled the segregation of the oils within Thymus sect. Teucrioides into two groups, one consisting of the three subspecies of T. teucrioides and the second comprising the species T. hartvigii and T. leucospermus. A linalool-rich chemotype, unique within the section, distinguished the oil of T. hartvigii ssp. macrocalyx from all other oils. The high oil content of p-cymene and the preference for serpentine substrates render T. teucrioides species promising for future exploitation. Copyright © 2014 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  6. Design and synthesis of novel magnolol derivatives as potential antimicrobial and antiproliferative compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jada, Srinivas; Doma, Mahendhar Reddy; Singh, Parvinder Pal; Kumar, Suresh; Malik, Fayaz; Sharma, Akash; Khan, Inshad Ali; Qazi, G N; Kumar, H M Sampath

    2012-05-01

    A series of novel magnolol derivatives were synthesised and evaluated for in vitro antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities. We found that most of the compounds were effective inhibitors of Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA and VRE with MIC in the range of 1-64 μg/mL and MBC in the range of 1-128 μg/mL. Few derivatives also exhibited promising antifungal activity. Some magnolol analogues exhibited promising antiproliferative activity than parent magnolol when tested against three human cancer cell lines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. The potential of multi-compound nanoparticles to bypass drug resistance in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, C G; Peters, Godefridus J; Ossendorp, Ferry; Cruz, Luis J

    2017-11-01

    The therapeutic efficacy of conventional chemotherapy against several solid tumors is generally limited and this is often due to the development of resistance or poor delivery of the drugs to the tumor. Mechanisms of resistance may vary between cancer types. However, with current development of genetic analyses, imaging, and novel delivery systems, we may be able to characterize and bypass resistance, e.g., by inhibition of the right target at the tumor site. Therefore, combined drug treatments, where one drug will revert or obstruct the development of resistance and the other will concurrently kill the cancer cell, are rational solutions. However, drug exposure of one drug will defer greatly from the other due to their physicochemical properties. In this sense, multi-compound nanoparticles are an excellent modality to equalize drug exposure, i.e., one common physicochemical profile. In this review, we will discuss novel approaches that employ nanoparticle technology that addresses specific mechanisms of resistance in cancer. The PubMed literature was consulted and reviewed. Nanoparticle technology is emerging as a dexterous solution that may address several forms of resistance in cancer. For instance, we discuss advances that address mechanisms of resistance with multi-compound nanoparticles which co-deliver chemotherapeutics with an anti-resistance agent. Promising anti-resistance agents are (1) targeted in vivo gene silencing methods aimed to disrupt key resistance gene expression or (2) protein kinase inhibitors to disrupt key resistance pathways or (3) efflux pumps inhibitors to limit drug cellular efflux.

  8. Volatile organic compound emissions from elephant grass and bamboo cultivars used as potential bioethanol crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, E.; Graus, M.; Gilman, J. B.; Lerner, B. M.; Fall, R.; Harren, F. J. M.; Warneke, C.

    2013-02-01

    Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from elephant grass (Miscanthus gigantus) and black bamboo (Phyllostachys nigra) were measured online in semi-field chamber and plant enclosure experiments during growth and harvest using proton-transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS), proton-transfer reaction ion-trap mass spectrometry (PIT-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Both cultivars are being considered for second-generation biofuel production. Before this study, no information was available on their yearly VOC emissions. This exploratory investigation shows that black bamboo is a strong isoprene emitter (daytime 28,516 ng gdwt-1 h-1) and has larger VOC emissions, especially for wound compounds from the hexanal and hexenal families, than elephant grass. Daytime emissions of methanol, acetaldehyde, acetone + propanal and acetic acid of black bamboo were 618, 249, 351, and 1034 ng gdwt-1 h-1, respectively. In addition, it is observed that elephant grass VOC emissions after harvesting strongly depend on the seasonal stage. Not taking VOC emission variations throughout the season for annual and perennial species into account, may lead to an overestimation of the impact on local air quality in dry periods. In addition, our data suggest that the use of perennial grasses for extensive growing for biofuel production have lower emissions than woody species, which might be important for regional atmospheric chemistry.

  9. Natural Compounds from Mexican Medicinal Plants as Potential Drug Leads for Anti-Tuberculosis Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROCIO GÓMEZ-CANSINO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In Mexican Traditional Medicine 187 plant species are used in the treatment of respiratory conditions that may be associated with tuberculosis. In this contribution, we review the ethnobotany, chemistry and pharmacology of 63 species whose extracts have been assayed for antimycobacterial activity in vitro. Among these, the most potent is Aristolochia brevipes (MIC= 12.5 µg/mL, followed by Aristolochia taliscana, Citrus sinensis, Chrysactinia mexicana, Persea americana, and Olea europaea (MIC 95%, 50 µg/mL include: Amphipterygium adstringens, Larrea divaricata, and Phoradendron robinsoni. Several active compounds have been identified, the most potent are: Licarin A (isolated from A. taliscana, and 9-amino-9-methoxy-3,4-dihydro-2H-benzo[h]-chromen-2-one (transformation product of 9-methoxytariacuripyrone isolated from Aristolochia brevipes, both with MIC= 3.125 µg/mL, that is 8-fold less potent than the reference drug Rifampicin (MIC= 0.5 µg/mL. Any of the compounds or extracts here reviewed has been studied in clinical trials or with animal models; however, these should be accomplished since several are active against strains resistant to common drugs.

  10. Analysis of volatile organic compounds in compost samples: A potential tool to determine appropriate composting time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fengxiang; Pan, Zaifa; Hong, Chunlai; Wang, Weiping; Chen, Xiaoyang; Xue, Zhiyong; Yao, Yanlai

    2016-12-01

    Changes in volatile organic compound contents in compost samples during pig manure composting were studied using a headspace, solid-phase micro-extraction method (HS-SPME) followed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC/MS). Parameters affecting the SPME procedure were optimized as follows: the coating was carbon molecular sieve/polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS) fiber, the temperature was 60°C and the time was 30min. Under these conditions, 87 compounds were identified from 17 composting samples. Most of the volatile components could only be detected before day 22. However, benzenes, alkanes and alkenes increased and eventually stabilized after day 22. Phenol and acid substances, which are important factors for compost quality, were almost undetectable on day 39 in natural compost (NC) samples and on day 13 in maggot-treated compost (MC) samples. Our results indicate that the approach can be effectively used to determine the composting times by analysis of volatile substances in compost samples. An appropriate composting time not only ensures the quality of compost and reduces the loss of composting material but also reduces the generation of hazardous substances. The appropriate composting times for MC and NC were approximately 22days and 40days, respectively, during the summer in Zhejiang. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Caatinga plants: Natural and semi-synthetic compounds potentially active against Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Patrícia de Brum; Silva, Nícolas Luiz Feijó; da Silva, Gloria Narjara Santos; Silva, Denise Brentan; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Gnoatto, Simone Cristina Baggio; da Silva, Márcia Vanusa; Macedo, Alexandre José; Bastida, Jaume; Tasca, Tiana

    2016-05-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis causes trichomoniasis; the most common but overlooked non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide. The treatment is based at 5'-nitroimidazoles, however, failure are related to resistance of T. vaginalis to chemotherapy. Caatinga is a uniquely Brazilian region representing a biome with type desert vegetation and plants present diverse biological activity, however, with few studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the activity against T. vaginalis of different plants from Caatinga and identify the compounds responsible by the activity. A bioguided fractionation of Manilkara rufula was performed and four major compounds were identified: caproate of α-amyrin (1b), acetate of β-amyrin (2a), caproate of β-amyrin (2b), and acetate of lupeol (3a). In addition, six derivatives of α-amyrin (1), β-amyrin (2) and lupeol (3) were synthesized and tested against the parasite. Ursolic acid (5) reduced about 98% of parasite viability after 2h of incubation and drastic ultrastructural alterations were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Moreover, 5 presented high cytotoxicity to HMVII and HeLa cell line and low cytotoxicity against Vero line at 50 μM (MIC against the parasite). Metronidazole effect against T. vaginalis resistant isolate was improved when in association with 5. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Walnut (Juglans regia L.) leaves: phenolic compounds, antibacterial activity and antioxidant potential of different cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, José Alberto; Oliveira, Ivo; Sousa, Anabela; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Ferreres, Federico; Bento, Albino; Seabra, Rosa; Estevinho, Letícia

    2007-11-01

    Different cultivars of walnut (Juglans regia L.) leaves (Cv. Lara, Franquette, Mayette, Marbot, Mellanaise and Parisienne) grown in Portugal, were investigated in what concerns phenolic compounds and antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Phenolics analysis was performed by reversed-phase HPLC/DAD and 10 compounds were identified and quantified: 3- and 5-caffeoylquinic acids, 3- and 4-p-coumaroylquinic acids, p-coumaric acid, quercetin 3-galactoside, quercetin 3-pentoside derivative, quercetin 3-arabinoside, quercetin 3-xyloside and quercetin 3-rhamnoside. The antimicrobial capacity was screened against Gram positive (Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae) and fungi (Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans). Walnut leaves selectively inhibited the growth of Gram positive bacteria, being B. cereus the most susceptible one (MIC 0.1mg/mL). Gram negative bacteria and fungi were resistant to the extracts at 100mg/mL. Lara walnut leaves were also submitted to antibacterial assays using 18 clinical isolates of Staphylococcus sp. Antioxidant activity was accessed by the reducing power assay, the scavenging effect on DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radicals and beta-carotene linoleate model system. In a general way, all of the studied walnut leaves cultivars presented high antioxidant activity (EC(50) values lower than 1mg/mL), being Cv. Lara the most effective one.

  13. Mesua beccariana (Clusiaceae, A Source of Potential Anti-cancer Lead Compounds in Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soek Sin Teh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available An investigation on biologically active secondary metabolites from the stem bark of Mesua beccariana was carried out. A new cyclodione, mesuadione (1, along with several known constituents which are beccamarin (2, 2,5-dihydroxy-1,3,4-trimethoxy anthraquinone (3, 4-methoxy-1,3,5-trihydroxyanthraquinone (4, betulinic acid (5 and stigmasterol (6 were obtained from this ongoing research. Structures of these compounds were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods, including 1D and 2D-NMR, GC-MS, IR and UV techniques. Preliminary tests of the in vitro cytotoxic activities of all the isolated metabolites against a panel of human cancer cell lines Raji (lymphoma, SNU-1 (gastric carcinoma, K562 (erythroleukemia cells, LS-174T (colorectal adenocarcinoma, HeLa (cervical cells, SK-MEL-28 (malignant melanoma cells, NCI-H23 (lung adenocarcinoma, IMR-32 (neuroblastoma and Hep-G2 (hepatocellular liver carcinoma were carried out using an MTT assay. Mesuadione (1, beccamarin (2, betulinic acid (5 and stigmasterol (6 displayed strong inhibition of Raji cell proliferation, while the proliferation rate of SK-MEL-28 and HeLa were strongly inhibited by stigmasterol (6 and beccamarin (2, indicating these secondary metabolites could be anti-cancer lead compounds in drug discovery.

  14. Potential hazard of volatile organic compounds contained in household spray products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Mahmudur; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2014-03-01

    To assess the exposure levels of hazardous volatile pollutants released from common household spray products, a total of 10 spray products consisting of six body spray and four air spray products have been investigated. The body spray products included insect repellents (two different products), medicated patch, deodorant, hair spray, and humectant, whereas the air spray products included two different insecticides (mosquito and/or cockroach), antibacterial spray, and air freshener. The main objective of this study was to measure concentrations of 15 model volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using GC/MS coupled with a thermal desorber. In addition, up to 34 ‘compounds lacking authentic standards or surrogates (CLASS)' were also quantified based on the effective carbon number (ECN) theory. According to our analysis, the most common indoor pollutants like benzene, toluene, styrene, methyl ethyl ketone, and butyl acetate have been detected frequently in the majority of spray products with the concentration range of 5.3-125 mg L-1. If one assumes that the amount of spray products released into air reaches the 0.3 mL level for a given space size of 5 m3, the risk factor is expected to exceed the carcinogenic risk level set for benzene (10-5) by the U.S. EPA.

  15. Bioactive compounds and antioxidant potential in tomato pastes as affected by hot and cold break process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelebek, Hasim; Selli, Serkan; Kadiroğlu, Pınar; Kola, Osman; Kesen, Songul; Uçar, Burçak; Çetiner, Başak

    2017-04-01

    The effects of hot and cold break industrial tomato paste production steps on phenolic compounds, carotenoids, organic acids, hydroxy methyl furfural (HMF) and other quality parameters of tomato pastes were investigated in this study. Phenolic compounds, carotenoids, organic acids, and HMF analyses were performed with LC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS and LC-DAD-RID was used for the sugar analyses. Furthermore, the antioxidant capacities of tomato pastes were assessed via the DPPH and ABTS methods. The increase of phenol acids at the processing steps of cold break production method was higher than the hot break production method. According to PCA analyses, phenolic acids characterized cold break tomato pastes while hot break tomato pastes were characterized by flavanols and flavanones. The total amount of organic acids decreased with processing and the loss of organic acids was lower in cold break pastes. Heating and evaporation were determined as the most important processing steps in which the amount of different quality parameters change. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Ionization in elliptically polarized pulses: Multielectron polarization effects and asymmetry of photoelectron momentum distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shvetsov-Shilovskiy, Nikolay; Dimitrovski, Darko; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2012-01-01

    in close to circularly polarized light, and it is validated by comparison with ab initio results and experiments. The momentum distributions are shown to be highly sensitive to the tunneling exit point, the Coulomb force, and the dipole potential from the induced dipole in the atomic core......In the tunneling regime we present a semiclassical model of above-threshold ionization with inclusion of the Stark shift of the initial state, the Coulomb potential, and a polarization induced dipole potential. The model is used for the investigation of the photoelectron momentum distributions...

  17. VOLATILE COMPOUNDS IN THE AROMA OF THREE SPECIES OF WOOD-ROTTING BASIDIOMYCETES AND THEIR ANTIFUNGAL POTENTIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Virginia PETRE

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the volatile organic compounds synthesized by three species of wood-rotting basidiomycetes: Coriolopsis gallica, Megacollybia platyphylla and Lentinus arcularius and test their antifungal potential. The species were cultivated on liquid media and kept for 25 days at 25 °C. The surface cultures were then homogenized, filtrated and extracted using solid-phase extraction and analyzed by GC-MS. The volatile compounds identified were mainly alcohols, ketones, aldehydes and terpenes. The most common volatiles identified in the experiment are: 1-octen-3-ol, 3-hexanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 3-octanone, 2-hexanone, benzaldehyde, and limonene. The volatiles metabolites of these species were tested for their antifungal activity using the bi-compartmented Petri dishes method against two species of plant pathogenic fungi: Fusarium solani and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, on three media. The volatiles produced by Coriolopsis gallica showed the highest antifungal potential against the phytopathogens. The results revealed the importance of media composition in the synthesis of antifungal volatile compounds.

  18. Evaluation of the Antibacterial Potential of Liquid and Vapor Phase Phenolic Essential Oil Compounds against Oral Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tong-Hong; Hsia, Shih-Min; Wu, Chi-Hao; Ko, Shun-Yao; Chen, Michael Yuanchien; Shih, Yin-Hua; Shieh, Tzong-Ming; Chuang, Li-Chuan; Wu, Ching-Yi

    The aim of the present study was to determine the antibacterial activities of the phenolic essential oil (EO) compounds hinokitiol, carvacrol, thymol, and menthol against oral pathogens. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Streptococcus mutans, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and Escherichia. coli were used in this study. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs), bacterial growth curves, temperature and pH stabilities, and synergistic effects of the liquid and vapor EO compounds were tested. The MIC/MBC of the EO compounds, ranging from the strongest to weakest, were hinokitiol (40-60 μg/mL/40-100 μg/mL), thymol (100-200 μg/mL/200-400 μg/mL), carvacrol (200-400 μg/mL/200-600 μg/mL), and menthol (500-more than 2500 μg/mL/1000-more than 2500 μg/mL). The antibacterial activities of the four EO phenolic compound based on the agar diffusion test and bacterial growth curves showed that the four EO phenolic compounds were stable under different temperatures for 24 h, but the thymol activity decreased when the temperature was higher than 80°C. The combination of liquid carvacrol with thymol did not show any synergistic effects. The activities of the vaporous carvacrol and thymol were inhibited by the presence of water. Continual violent shaking during culture enhanced the activity of menthol. Both liquid and vaporous hinokitiol were stable at different temperatures and pH conditions. The combination of vaporous hinokitiol with zinc oxide did not show synergistic effects. These results showed that the liquid and vapor phases of hinokitiol have strong anti-oral bacteria abilities. Hinokitiol has the potential to be applied in oral health care products, dental materials, and infection controls to exert antimicrobial activity.

  19. Catechins containing a galloyl moiety as potential anti-HIV-1 compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yali; Jiang, Fan; Liu, Ping; Chen, Wei; Yi, Kejia

    2012-06-01

    Catechins containing galloyl moieties are important natural antioxidant compounds. In this paper, we review the multiple mechanisms whereby catechins containing a galloyl moiety can target key proteins to inhibit sexual transmission of HIV-1, as well as HIV-1 fusion, HIV-1 reverse transcriptase, HIV-1 integrase and HIV-1 protease. Furthermore, catechins with a galloyl moiety can mediate host cell factors such as nitric oxide synthase, nuclear factor-κB and casein kinase II to inhibit HIV-1 infection. The most significant inhibitory effect is blocking gp120 binding to isolated human CD4+ T cells. The multiple mechanisms underlying the anti-HIV activity of galloyl-containing catechins predict that these catechins could be used as alternative therapies in the treatment of HIV infection. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Bioaccessibility and potential bioavailability of phenolic compounds from achenes as a new target for strawberry breeding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza, María Teresa; Reboredo-Rodríguez, Patricia; Cervantes, Lucía; Soria, Carmen; Martínez-Ferri, Elsa; González-Barreiro, Carmen; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Battino, Maurizio; Simal-Gándara, Jesús

    2018-05-15

    Strawberry is a major natural source of bioactive compounds. Botanically, strawberry is an aggregate fruit consisting of a fleshy floral receptacle that bears a cluster of real dry fruits (achenes). Existing knowledge on the phenolic composition of achenes and its contribution to that of the whole fruit is limited. Also, the gastric and intestinal bioavailability of phenols is poorly known. In this work, a combination of spectrophotometric and HPLC-DAD methods was used to analyse the phenolic composition of whole fruits and achenes before and after in vitro digestion. Five different phenol families were identified. Also, achenes were found to contribute a sizeable fraction of phenolic acids and hydrolysable tannins in the whole fruit. Because the mere presence of phenolic compounds in a food matrix does not ensure their ready absorption and bioavailability, polyphenol potential bioavailability could be an effective selection criterion for strawberry breeding programs aimed at improving dietary healthiness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Synthesis and evaluation of ?-hydroxy fatty acid-derived heterocyclic compounds with potential industrial interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sayed, R.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available T2-Hydroxyheptadecanoic acid chloride (2 reacted with anthranilic acid to produce 2-substituted-3,1-benzoxazin-4-one (3 which was used as starting material to synthesize some condensed and non-condensed heterocyclic compounds by reaction with nitrogen nucleophiles e.g., hydrazine hydrate, and formamide. The products were subjected to reaction with different moles of propylene oxide (n = 5, 10, 15 to produce a novel group of nonionic compounds having a double function as antibacterial and surface active agents which can be used in the manufacturing of drugs, cosmetics, pesticides or can be used as antibacterial and/or antifungal additives. The surface active properties as surface and interfacial tension, cloud point, foaming height, wetting time, and emulsification power were determined, the antimicrobial and biodegradability were also screened.El cloruro del ácido 2-hidroxiheptadecanoico (2 reaccionó con el ácido antranílico para producir 3,1-benzoxazin-4-onas 2-sustituidas que fueron usadas como material de partida en la síntesis de compuestos heterocíclicos condensados y no condensados por reacción con nucleófilos nitrogenados, como la hidracina o la formamida. Los productos fueron hechos reaccionar con diferentes moles de óxido de propileno (n = 5, 10, 15 para producir un grupo nuevo de compuestos no-iónicos teniendo una doble función como antibacterianos y tensoactivos que pueden ser usados en la manufactura de medicamentos, cosméticos, pesticidas, o pueden ser usados como aditivos antibacterianos y/o antifúngicos. Se determinaron diversas propiedades físicas de los compuestos preparados así como sus efectos antimicrobianos y sus biodegrabilidad.

  2. Waveform Similarity Analysis: A Simple Template Comparing Approach for Detecting and Quantifying Noisy Evoked Compound Action Potentials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Robert Potas

    Full Text Available Experimental electrophysiological assessment of evoked responses from regenerating nerves is challenging due to the typical complex response of events dispersed over various latencies and poor signal-to-noise ratio. Our objective was to automate the detection of compound action potential events and derive their latencies and magnitudes using a simple cross-correlation template comparison approach. For this, we developed an algorithm called Waveform Similarity Analysis. To test the algorithm, challenging signals were generated in vivo by stimulating sural and sciatic nerves, whilst recording evoked potentials at the sciatic nerve and tibialis anterior muscle, respectively, in animals recovering from sciatic nerve transection. Our template for the algorithm was generated based on responses evoked from the intact side. We also simulated noisy signals and examined the output of the Waveform Similarity Analysis algorithm with imperfect templates. Signals were detected and quantified using Waveform Similarity Analysis, which was compared to event detection, latency and magnitude measurements of the same signals performed by a trained observer, a process we called Trained Eye Analysis. The Waveform Similarity Analysis algorithm could successfully detect and quantify simple or complex responses from nerve and muscle compound action potentials of intact or regenerated nerves. Incorrectly specifying the template outperformed Trained Eye Analysis for predicting signal amplitude, but produced consistent latency errors for the simulated signals examined. Compared to the trained eye, Waveform Similarity Analysis is automatic, objective, does not rely on the observer to identify and/or measure peaks, and can detect small clustered events even when signal-to-noise ratio is poor. Waveform Similarity Analysis provides a simple, reliable and convenient approach to quantify latencies and magnitudes of complex waveforms and therefore serves as a useful tool for

  3. Large Scale Screening of Ethnomedicinal Plants for Identification of Potential Antibacterial Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujogya Kumar Panda

    2016-03-01

    activity. The species listed here were shown to have anti-infective activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. These results may serve as a guide for selecting plant species that could yield the highest probability of finding promising compounds responsible for the antibacterial activities against a broad spectrum of bacterial species. Further investigation of the phytochemicals from these plants will help to identify the lead compounds for drug discovery.

  4. Large Scale Screening of Ethnomedicinal Plants for Identification of Potential Antibacterial Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Sujogya Kumar; Mohanta, Yugal Kishore; Padhi, Laxmipriya; Park, Young-Hwan; Mohanta, Tapan Kumar; Bae, Hanhong

    2016-03-14

    listed here were shown to have anti-infective activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. These results may serve as a guide for selecting plant species that could yield the highest probability of finding promising compounds responsible for the antibacterial activities against a broad spectrum of bacterial species. Further investigation of the phytochemicals from these plants will help to identify the lead compounds for drug discovery.

  5. Evaluating climate change mitigation potential of hydrochars: compounding insights from three different indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owsianiak, Mikołaj; Brooks, Jennifer; Renz, Michael

    2017-01-01

    beet, fava bean, onion and lucerne) and two different countries (Spain and Germany), and used three different indicators of climate change: global warming potential (GWP), global temperature change potential (GTP), and climate tipping potential (CTP). We found that although climate change benefits (GWP......) from just sequestration and temporary storage of carbon are sufficient to outweigh impacts stemming from hydrochar production and transportation to the field, even greater benefits stem from replacing climate-inefficient biowaste management treatment options, like composting in Spain. By contrast......-term climatic target, the tipping point corresponding to an atmospheric GHG concentration of 450 ppm CO2 equivalents, unless hydrochar stability in the soil is optimized. Our results highlight the need for considering complementary perspectives that different climate change indicators offer, and overall provide...

  6. Identification of a novel compound (β-sesquiphellandrene) from turmeric (Curcuma longa) with anticancer potential: comparison with curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Amit Kumar; Prasad, Sahdeo; Yuan, Wei; Li, Shiyou; Aggarwal, Bharat B

    2015-12-01

    Considering that as many as 80% of the anticancer drugs have their roots in natural products derived from traditional medicine, we examined compounds other than curcumin from turmeric (Curcuma longa) that could exhibit anticancer potential. Present study describes the isolation and characterization of another turmeric-derived compound, β-sesquiphellandrene (SQP) that exhibits anticancer potential comparable to that of curcumin. We isolated several compounds from turmeric, including SQP, α-curcumene, ar-turmerone, α-turmerone, β-turmerone, and γ-turmerone, only SQP was found to have antiproliferative effects comparable to those of curcumin in human leukemia, multiple myeloma, and colorectal cancer cells. While lack of the NF-κB-p65 protein had no effect on the activity of SQP, lung cancer cells that expressed p53 were more susceptible to the cytotoxic effect of SQP than were cells that lacked p53 expression. SQP was also found to be highly effective in suppressing cancer cell colony formation and inducing apoptosis, as shown by assays of intracellular esterase activity, plasma membrane integrity, and cell-cycle phase. SQP was found to induce cytochrome c release and activate caspases that lead to poly ADP ribose polymerase cleavage. SQP exposure was associated with downregulation of cell survival proteins such cFLIP, Bcl-xL, Bcl-2, c-IAP1, and survivin. Furthermore, SQP was found to be synergistic with the chemotherapeutic agents velcade, thalidomide and capecitabine. Overall, our results indicate that SQP has anticancer potential comparable to that of curcumin.

  7. Natural Compounds from Herbs that can Potentially Execute as Autophagy Inducers for Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shian-Ren; Fu, Yaw-Syan; Tsai, May-Jywan; Cheng, Henrich; Weng, Ching-Feng

    2017-07-01

    Accumulated evidence indicates that autophagy is a response of cancer cells to various anti-cancer therapies. Autophagy is designated as programmed cell death type II, and is characterized by the formation of autophagic vacuoles in the cytoplasm. Numerous herbs, including Chinese herbs, have been applied to cancer treatments as complementary and alternative medicines, supplements, or nutraceuticals to dampen the side or adverse effects of chemotherapy drugs. Moreover, the tumor suppressive actions of herbs and natural products induced autophagy that may lead to cell senescence, increase apoptosis-independent cell death or complement apoptotic processes. Hereby, the underlying mechanisms of natural autophagy inducers are cautiously reviewed in this article. Additionally, three natural compounds-curcumin, 16-hydroxycleroda-3,13-dien-15,16-olide, and prodigiosin-are presented as candidates for autophagy inducers that can trigger cell death in a supplement or alternative medicine for cancer therapy. Despite recent advancements in therapeutic drugs or agents of natural products in several cancers, it warrants further investigation in preclinical and clinical studies.

  8. Bioprospecting of Turbinaria Macroalgae as a Potential Source of Health Protective Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stranska-Zachariasova, Milena; Kurniatanty, Isma; Gbelcova, Helena; Jiru, Monika; Rubert, Josep; Nindhia, Tjokorda Gde Tirta; D'Acunto, Cosimo Walter; Sumarsono, Sony Heru; Tan, Marselina Irasonia; Hajslova, Jana; Ruml, Tomas

    2017-02-01

    The present study aims to focus on the bioprospecting of marine macroalgae of Turbinaria species, plenteous biomass of the world ocean. Three types of solvents, i.e., H2 O, MeOH/H2 O (80:20, v/v) and hexane/i-PrOH (50:50, v/v), were used for extraction. Both the biological activity and the pattern of present chemicals were characterized. For the cell proliferation assay, the human embryonic kidney 293 cells, cervix/breast/pancreatic adenocarcinoma, and osteosarcoma cells were used. For the antioxidant activity determination, both intracellular assay with human embryonic kidney and cervix adenocarcinoma cells, as well as the biochemical DPPH test, were employed. To complete the information about macroalgae composition, organic compounds were characterized by the liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution tandem mass spectrometry. Attention was concentrated mainly on the lipidomic profile characterization. In spite the fact that any significant antiproliferative effect was not observed for cancer cells, both the Turbinaria species were shown to be good protectors against the oxidative stress of the non-cancer cells. Most of the antioxidants were determined in the hexane/i-PrOH extract. As regards the lipids identified, most of them belonged to the triacylglycerols followed by sphingomyelins, diacylglycerols, and polar (lyso)phospholipids. Additionally to fatty acids with 14, 16 and 18 carbons, also those with odd carbon numbers were frequently present. © 2017 The Authors Chemistry & Biodiversity Published by Wiley-VHCA AG.

  9. Drug resistance of bacterial dental biofilm and the potential use of natural compounds as alternative for prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouidhi, Bochra; Al Qurashi, Yasir Mohammed A; Chaieb, Kamel

    2015-03-01

    Oral diseases, such as dental caries and periodontal disease are directly linked with the ability of bacteria to form biofilm. The development of dental caries involves acidogenic and aciduric Gram-positive bacteria colonizing the supragingival biofilm (Streptococcus, Lactobacillus and Actinomycetes). Periodontal diseases have been linked to anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria forming a subgingival plaque (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Actinobacillus, Prevotella and Fusobacterium). Cells embedded in biofilm are up to 1000-fold more resistant to antibiotics compared to their planctonic ones. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain biofilms drug resistance. Given the increased bacterial resistance to antibiotics currently used in dentistry, a great importance is given to natural compounds for the prevention of oral bacterial growth, adhesion and colonization. Over the past decade, interest in drugs derived from medicinal plants has markedly increased. It has been well documented that medicinal plants and natural compounds confer considerable antibacterial activity against various microorganisms including cariogenic and periodontal pathogens. This paper provides a review of the literature focusing on the studies on (i) biofilm in the oral cavity, (ii) drug resistance of bacterial biofilm and (iii) the potential use of plant extracts, essential oils and natural compounds as biofilm preventive agents in dentistry, involving their origin and their mechanism of biofilm inhibition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Moringa oleifera: bioactive compounds and nutritional potential Moringa oleifera: compostos bioativos e potencialidade nutricional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Michel Pinheiro Ferreira

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to review the nutritional properties of the Moringa oleifera tree, emphasizing its main constituents and nutritional applications for humans and animals. Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae is a cosmopolitan tree that grows in many tropical countries showing uncountable folk uses due to its various nutritional and pharmacological applications. The young leaves, flowers and pods are common vegetables in the Asian diet. All parts of this plant are renewable sources of tocopherols (γ and α, phenolic compounds, β-carotene, vitamin C and total proteins, including the essential sulfur amino acids, methionine and cysteine. The seed protein and fat contents are higher than those reported for important grain legumes and soybean varieties, respectively. Unsaturated fatty acids, especially oleic acid, carbohydrates and minerals are present in the seed in reasonable amounts. In general, there are low concentrations of antinutritional factors in the plant, although the seeds possess glucosinolates (65.5µmol/g dry matter, phytates (41g/kg and hemagglutination activity while the leaves have appreciable amounts of saponins (80g/kg, besides low quantity of phytates (21g/kg and tannins (12g/kg. Taking into consideration the excellent nutritional properties, the low toxicity of the seeds and the excellent ability of the plant to adapt to poor soils and dry climates, Moringa oleifera can be an alternative to some leguminous seeds as a source of high-quality protein, oil and antioxidant compounds and a way to treat water in rural areas where appropriate water resources are not available.O objetivo deste trabalho é fazer uma revisão sobre as propriedades nutricionais da planta Moringa oleifera, enfatizando seus principais constituintes e suas aplicações nutricionais para o homem e os animais. Moringa oleifera é uma planta que cresce em muitos países tropicais, possuindo inúmeros usos populares devido às suas aplicações nutricionais e farmacol

  11. Potential anticancer properties of bioactive compounds of Gymnema sylvestre and its biofunctionalized silver nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Arunachalam, Kantha Deivi; Arun, Lilly Baptista; Annamalai, Sathesh Kumar; Arunachalam, Aarrthy M

    2014-01-01

    Kantha Deivi Arunachalam,1 Lilly Baptista Arun,1 Sathesh Kumar Annamalai,1 Aarrthy M Arunachalam2 1Center for Environmental Nuclear Research, SRM University, Potheri, Tamil Nadu, India; 2Division of Educational Services, Kaplan University (Medical), Washington DC, USA Background: Gymnema sylvestre is an ethno-pharmacologically important medicinal plant used in many polyherbal formulations for its potential health benefits. Silver nanoparticles (SNPs) were biofunctionalized using aqueous lea...

  12. Mango varieties “espada”, “rosa” and tommy atkins: bioactive compounds and antioxidant potential

    OpenAIRE

    Cristiane Rodrigues de Araújo; Enayde de Almeida Melo

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the amount of ascorbic acid, total phenolics and carotenoids and evaluate the antioxidant potential of mango varieties “Espada”, “Rosa” and Tommy Atkins. The fruits were ground to obtain the fresh pulp and waste resulting was dried, crushed to pass through sieve. Hydroacetone, hydromethanolic and aqueous extracts, obtained through sequential extraction procedure from pulp and dehydrated waste were screened for their antioxidant activity by DPPH free radic...

  13. An Assessment of the Stability and the Potential for In-Situ Synthesis of Regulated Organic Compounds in High Level Radioactive Waste Stored at Hanford, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiemers, K.D.; Babad, H.; Hallen, R.T.; Jackson, L.P.; Lerchen, M.E.

    1999-01-04

    The stability assessment examined 269 non-detected regulated compounds, first seeking literature references of the stability of the compounds, then evaluating each compound based upon the presence of functional groups using professional judgment. Compounds that could potentially survive for significant periods in the tanks (>1 year) were designated as stable. Most of the functional groups associated with the regulated organic compounds were considered unstable under tank waste conditions. The general exceptions with respect to functional group stability are some simple substituted aromatic and polycyclic aromatic compounds that resist oxidation and the multiple substituted aliphatic and aromatic halides that hydrolyze or dehydrohalogenate slowly under tank waste conditions. One-hundred and eighty-one (181) regulated, organic compounds were determined as likely unstable in the tank waste environment.

  14. Coumarin Compounds of Biebersteinia Multifida Roots Show Potential Anxiolytic Effects In Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Monsef-Esfahani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background:Traditional preparations of the root of Biebersteinia multifida DC (Geraniaceae, a native medicinal plant of Irano-Turanian floristic region, have been used for the treatment of phobias as anxiolytic herbal preparation.Methods:We utilized the phobic behavior of mice in an elevated plus-maze as a model to evaluate the anxiolytic effect of the plant extract and bio-guided fractionation was applied to isolate the active compounds. Total root extract, alkaline and ether fraction were administered to mice at different doses 30 and 90 min prior to the maze test. Saline and diazepam were administered as negative and positive controls, respectively. The time spent in open and closed arms, an index of anxiety behavior and entry time, was measured as an index of animal activity.Results:The total root extract exhibited anxiolytic effect which was comparable to diazepam but with longer duration. This sustained effect of the crude extract was sustained for 90 min and was even more after injection of 45 mg/kg while the effect of diazepam had been reduced by 90 min. The anxiolytic effect factor was only present in the alkaline fraction and displayed its effect at lower doses than diazepam while pure vasicinone as the previously known alkaloid did not shown anxiolytic effect. The effect of the alkaline fraction was in a dose dependent manner starting at 0.2 mg/kg with a maximum at 1.0 mg/kg. Bio-guided fractionation using a variety of chromatographic methods led to isolation and purification of three coumarin derivatives from the bioactive fraction, including umbelliferone, scopoletin, and ferulic acid.Conclusion:For the first time, bio-guided fractionation of the root extract of B. multifida indicates significant sustained anxiolytic effects which led to isolation of three coumarin derivatives with well-known potent MAO inhibitory and anti-anxiety effects. These data contribute to evidence-based traditional use of B. multifida root for anxiety

  15. Coumarin compounds of Biebersteinia multifida roots show potential anxiolytic effects in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Traditional preparations of the root of Biebersteinia multifida DC (Geraniaceae), a native medicinal plant of Irano-Turanian floristic region, have been used for the treatment of phobias as anxiolytic herbal preparation. Methods We utilized the phobic behavior of mice in an elevated plus-maze as a model to evaluate the anxiolytic effect of the plant extract and bio-guided fractionation was applied to isolate the active compounds. Total root extract, alkaline and ether fraction were administered to mice at different doses 30 and 90 min prior to the maze test. Saline and diazepam were administered as negative and positive controls, respectively. The time spent in open and closed arms, an index of anxiety behavior and entry time, was measured as an index of animal activity. Results The total root extract exhibited anxiolytic effect which was comparable to diazepam but with longer duration. This sustained effect of the crude extract was sustained for 90 min and was even more after injection of 45 mg/kg while the effect of diazepam had been reduced by 90 min. The anxiolytic effect factor was only present in the alkaline fraction and displayed its effect at lower doses than diazepam while pure vasicinone as the previously known alkaloid did not shown anxiolytic effect. The effect of the alkaline fraction was in a dose dependent manner starting at 0.2 mg/kg with a maximum at 1.0 mg/kg. Bio-guided fractionation using a variety of chromatographic methods led to isolation and purification of three coumarin derivatives from the bioactive fraction, including umbelliferone, scopoletin, and ferulic acid. Conclusion For the first time, bio-guided fractionation of the root extract of B. multifida indicates significant sustained anxiolytic effects which led to isolation of three coumarin derivatives with well-known potent MAO inhibitory and anti-anxiety effects. These data contribute to evidence-based traditional use of B. multifida root for anxiety disorders. PMID

  16. Derivatives of phenyl tribromomethyl sulfone as novel compounds with potential pesticidal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof M. Borys

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A halogenmethylsulfonyl moiety is incorporated in numerous active herbicides and fungicides. The synthesis of tribromomethyl phenyl sulfone derivatives as novel potential pesticides is reported. The title sulfone was obtained by following three different synthetic routes, starting from 4-chlorothiophenol or 4-halogenphenyl methyl sulfone. Products of its subsequent nitration were subjected to the SNAr reactions with ammonia, amines, hydrazines and phenolates to give 2-nitroaniline, 2-nitrophenylhydrazine and diphenyl ether derivatives. Reduction of the nitro group of 4-tribromomethylsulfonyl-2-nitroaniline yielded the corresponding o-phenylenediamine substrate for preparation of structurally varied benzimidazoles.

  17. Chlorinated volatile organic compounds (Cl-VOCs) in environment - sources, potential human health impacts, and current remediation technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Binbin; Lei, Chao; Wei, Chaohai; Zeng, Guangming

    2014-10-01

    Chlorinated volatile organic compounds (Cl-VOCs), including polychloromethanes, polychloroethanes and polychloroethylenes, are widely used as solvents, degreasing agents and a variety of commercial products. These compounds belong to a group of ubiquitous contaminants that can be found in contaminated soil, air and any kind of fluvial mediums such as groundwater, rivers and lakes. This review presents a summary of the research concerning the production levels and sources of Cl-VOCs, their potential impacts on human health as well as state-of-the-art remediation technologies. Important sources of Cl-VOCs principally include the emissions from industrial processes, the consumption of Cl-VOC-containing products, the disinfection process, as well as improper storage and disposal methods. Human exposure to Cl-VOCs can occur through different routes, including ingestion, inhalation and dermal contact. The toxicological impacts of these compounds have been carefully assessed, and the results demonstrate the potential associations of cancer incidence with exposure to Cl-VOCs. Most Cl-VOCs thus have been listed as priority pollutants by the Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP) of China, Environmental Protection Agency of the U.S. (U.S. EPA) and European Commission (EC), and are under close monitor and strict control. Yet, more efforts will be put into the epidemiological studies for the risk of human exposure to Cl-VOCs and the exposure level measurements in contaminated sites in the future. State-of-the-art remediation technologies for Cl-VOCs employ non-destructive methods and destructive methods (e.g. thermal incineration, phytoremediation, biodegradation, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) and reductive dechlorination), whose advantages, drawbacks and future developments are thoroughly discussed in the later sections. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A cell-based fascin bioassay identifies compounds with potential anti-metastasis or cognition-enhancing functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Kraft

    2013-01-01

    The actin-bundling protein fascin is a key mediator of tumor invasion and metastasis and its activity drives filopodia formation, cell-shape changes and cell migration. Small-molecule inhibitors of fascin block tumor metastasis in animal models. Conversely, fascin deficiency might underlie the pathogenesis of some developmental brain disorders. To identify fascin-pathway modulators we devised a cell-based assay for fascin function and used it in a bidirectional drug screen. The screen utilized cultured fascin-deficient mutant Drosophila neurons, whose neurite arbors manifest the ‘filagree’ phenotype. Taking a repurposing approach, we screened a library of 1040 known compounds, many of them FDA-approved drugs, for filagree modifiers. Based on scaffold distribution, molecular-fingerprint similarities, and chemical-space distribution, this library has high structural diversity, supporting its utility as a screening tool. We identified 34 fascin-pathway blockers (with potential anti-metastasis activity and 48 fascin-pathway enhancers (with potential cognitive-enhancer activity. The structural diversity of the active compounds suggests multiple molecular targets. Comparisons of active and inactive compounds provided preliminary structure-activity relationship information. The screen also revealed diverse neurotoxic effects of other drugs, notably the ‘beads-on-a-string’ defect, which is induced solely by statins. Statin-induced neurotoxicity is enhanced by fascin deficiency. In summary, we provide evidence that primary neuron culture using a genetic model organism can be valuable for early-stage drug discovery and developmental neurotoxicity testing. Furthermore, we propose that, given an appropriate assay for target-pathway function, bidirectional screening for brain-development disorders and invasive cancers represents an efficient, multipurpose strategy for drug discovery.

  19. The effect of shoulder position on motor evoked and maximal muscle compound action potentials of the biceps brachii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Brandon W; Button, Duane C

    2018-02-05

    The purpose of the study was to assess the effect of shoulder position, 0° versus 90° shoulder flexion, on stimulation intensity and maximal muscle compound action potentials (M max ) and motor evoked potentials (MEP) of the biceps brachii during both rest and 10% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). Nine participants completed two experimental sessions with four conditions. During each condition, transcranial magnetic (TMS) and Erb's point stimulation were used to elicit MEPs and M max , respectively. During rest, the TMS intensity to elicit a MEP response (pshoulder-position and state-dependent, whereas MEP and M max amplitudes were only shoulder position-dependent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of the potential of squash pumpkin by-products (seeds and shell) as sources of antioxidant and bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, M J; Aires, A; Dias, C; Almeida, J A; De Vasconcelos, M C B M; Santos, P; Rosa, E A

    2015-02-01

    The transformation of byproducts and wastes generated by agro-food companies is of high importance since only a small portion of plant material is utilized directly for human consumption. Squash pumpkin is greatly used in Portugal and as by-products of its processing are generated tons of shell and seeds. In this study we aim to evaluate the potential of these wastes as sources of beneficial and bioactive compounds (antioxidants and antimicrobials), studying the effect of different extraction solvents and drying methods. The samples (fresh and cooked) were freeze-dried and oven-dried followed by extraction with different solvents that revealed the following decreasing order of efficiency: 70 % ethanol, 70 % methanol, 70 % acetone, ultra-pure water and 100 % dichloromethane. The oven-dried samples showed higher values of antioxidant activity and phenolic content, with exception of the values of phenolics for the seeds material. The shell samples presented higher values (1.47 - 70.96 % inhibition) of antioxidant activity and total phenolic content (2.00 - 10.69 mg GAE/g DW). A positive correlation was found between these two parameters on the shell samples, however the squash seeds revealed a negative correlation between the phenolic content and the antioxidant activity. The results show that these industrial agro-food residues are potentially good sources of bioactive compounds with health benefits.

  1. Safe handling of potential peroxide forming compounds and their corresponding peroxide yielded derivatives.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sears, Jeremiah Matthew; Boyle, Timothy J.; Dean, Christopher J.

    2013-06-01

    This report addresses recent developments concerning the identification and handling of potential peroxide forming (PPF) and peroxide yielded derivative (PYD) chemicals. PPF chemicals are described in terms of labeling, shelf lives, and safe handling requirements as required at SNL. The general peroxide chemistry concerning formation, prevention, and identification is cursorily presented to give some perspective to the generation of peroxides. The procedure for determining peroxide concentrations and the proper disposal methods established by the Hazardous Waste Handling Facility are also provided. Techniques such as neutralization and dilution are provided for the safe handling of any PYD chemicals to allow for safe handling. The appendices are a collection of all available SNL documentation pertaining to PPF/PYD chemicals to serve as a single reference.

  2. Polar metabolites of polycyclic aromatic compounds from fungi are potential soil and groundwater contaminants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Esther Sørensen; Johnsen, Anders R.; Christensen, Jan H.

    2015-01-01

    and either hydroxylated or oxidized to carboxylic acids at the methyl group. The metabolism of the sulfur-containing heterocyclic PAC resulted in sulfate conjugates. The sorption of the PAC metabolites to three soils was determined using a batch equilibrium method, and partition coefficients (Kd's) were......-methylphenanthrene, 1-methylpyrene), and one sulfur-containing heterocyclic PAC (dibenzothiophene). Fifty-eight metabolites were tentatively identified; metabolites from the un-substituted PACs were hydroxylated and sulfate conjugated, whereas metabolites from alkyl-substituted PACs were sulfate conjugated...... calculated for fourteen representative metabolites. Sulfate conjugated metabolites displayed Kd's below 70 whereas the metabolites with both a sulfate and a carboxylic acid group had Kd's below 2.8. The low Kd's of water-soluble PAC metabolites indicate high mobility in soil and a potential for leaching...

  3. Potential of chitosan from Mucor rouxxi UCP064 as alternative natural compound to inhibit Listeria monocytogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, Roberta A.; Stamford, Tânia L.M.; de Campos-Takaki, Galba M.; Stamford, Thayza C.M.; de Souza, Evandro L.

    2009-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is widely distributed in nature and the infection listeriosis is recognized as a potential threat for human health because of its mortality rate. The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth profile and chitosan production by Mucor rouxxi UCP 064 grown in yam bean (Pachyrhizus erosus L. Urban) medium. It was also to assess the anti-L. monocytogenes efficacy of the obtained chitosan. Higher values of biomass of M. rouxxi (16.9 g.L-1) and best yield of chitosan (62 mg.g-1) were found after 48 h of cultivation. Residual glucose and nitrogen in the growth media were 4.1 and 0.02 g.L-1 after 96 h, respectively. Obtained chitosan presented 85 % of degree of deacetylation and 2.60 x 104 g.mol-1 of viscosimetric molecular weight. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) values of chitosan against L. monocytogenes ATCC 7644 were, respectively, 2.5 and 5.0 mg.mL-1. At 2.5 and 5.0 mg.mL-1 chitosan caused cidal effect in a maximum time of 4 h. Bacterial count below 2 log cfu.mL-1 were found from 2 h onwards and no recovery in bacterial growth was noted in the remainder period. These results show the biotechnological potential of yam bean medium for chitosan production by Mucor rouxxi and support the possible rational use of chitosan from fungi as natural antimicrobial to control L. monocytogenes. PMID:24031403

  4. Emodin, a compound with putative antidiabetic potential, deteriorates glucose tolerance in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Eid, Sameer; Adams, Michael; Scherer, Thomas; Torres-Gómez, Héctor; Hackl, Martina Theresa; Kaplanian, Mairam; Riedl, Rainer; Luger, Anton; Fürnsinn, Clemens

    2017-03-05

    Emodin is found in remedies from Traditional Chinese Medicine. Since antihyperglycaemic action was observed in rodents, non-scientific sources advertise emodin intake as a natural cure for diabetes. Emodin was admixed to high fat-food of obese mice at two doses (2 and 5g/kg; daily emodin uptake 103 and 229mg/kg). Comparison was made to ad libitum fed and to food restricted control groups, the latter showing the same weight gain as the corresponding emodin-treated groups. Emodin blunted food intake by 6% and 20% for the low and high dose, which was accompanied by proportionate reductions in weight gain. Emodin reduced blood glucose relative to freely feeding controls, but comparison to weight-matched controls unmasked deterioration, rather than improvement, of basal glycaemia (mmol/l: fed ad libitum, 9.5±0.4; low emodin, 9.4±0.3, weight-matched, 8.2±0.3; high emodin, 7.2±0.4, weight-matched, 6.1±0.3; Pcurve, min*mol/l: fed ad libitum, 2.01±0.08; low emodin, 1.97±0.12, weight-matched, 1.75±0.03; high emodin, 1.89±0.07, weight-matched, 1.65±0.05; P<0.0002, emodin vs weight-matched). An insulin tolerance test suggested insulin desensitisation by prolonged emodin treatment. Furthermore, a single oral emodin dose did not affect glucose tolerance in obese mice, whereas intravenous injection in rats suggested a potential of emodin to acutely impair insulin release. Our results show that the antihyperglycaemic action of emodin as well as associated biochemical alterations could be the mere consequences of a spoilt appetite. Published claims of antidiabetic potential via other mechanisms evoke the danger of misuse of natural remedies by diabetic patients. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Pyrolysis Products as Soil Fertilizers: Screening of Potentially Hazardous Aromatic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frišták Vladimír

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in pyrogenic carbonaceous materials (PCM produced from three waste materials during slow pyrolysis at 400 and 500°C. As feedstocks bone meal (BM, biogas slurry (BC and chicken manure (CM were used. As potentially problematic substances 1- and 2- methylnaphthalene were analysed as indicators for methylated hydrocarbons in pyrolysis products. The phytotoxic effect of soil amendments was evaluated by a standard cress germination test with Lepidium sativum L. The analysis showed higher concentrations of the sum of 16 US-EPA PAHs in samples produced at lower temperature and in samples produced from biogas slurry. Concentrations of 1- and 2-methylnaphthalene showed similar trends with concentrations in a range of 35-205% of the sum of 16 PAHs. Germination tests showed inhibition effects of products from biogas slurry when applied in concentrations of ≥ 10 % to standard substrate. Apparently pyrolysis of biogas slurry requires special attention to avoid accumulation of PAHs and methylated naphthalenes.

  6. Evaluation of Fertilizer Potential of Different K Compounds Prepared Utilizing Sea Bittern as Feed Stock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanjan Trivedi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Many countries import potassic fertilizers due to dearth of K-mineral deposits. Therefore processes to obtain K-nutrient sources from sea bittern were developed by our Institute. The present investigation evaluated the fertilizer potential of three different sea bittern-derived (SBD potassium forms developed viz., potassium schoenite, potassium nitrate and potassium ammonium sulfate on maize productivity in two cropping seasons.Methods: The pot and field experiments consisted of four treatments, wherein the three K forms were applied at the recommended rate of 40 kg K2O ha−1 and were compared with commercially used sulfate of potash. The effect of these fertilizers on different parameters of plant and soil were evaluated.Results: The application of SBD-potassic fertilizers led to enhancement in growth, productivity and quality of maize which related well with higher photosynthesis, nutrient uptake and soil quality parameters. On an average all the three forms of sea bittern-derived potash enhanced yield of maize over control by 22.3 and 23.8%, respectively, in pot and field trials. The best performance was under SBD-KNO3, which also recorded the highest benefit: cost ratio of 1.76.Conclusion: The K-fertilizers derived from sea-bittern—a waste product of salt industry—can thus be economically used to improve crop production sustainably.

  7. New phytochemicals as potential human anti-aging compounds: Reality, promise, and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Rúbia C G; Peralta, Rosane M; Haminiuk, Charles W I; Maciel, Giselle Maria; Bracht, Adelar; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-09-13

    Aging is an inevitable process influenced by genetic, lifestyle, and environmental factors. Indirect evidence shows that several phytochemicals can have anti-aging capabilities, although direct evidence in this field is still limited. This report aims to provide a critical review on aspects related to the use of novel phytochemicals as anti-aging agents, to discuss the obstacles found when performing most anti-aging study protocols in humans, and to analyze future perspectives. In addition to the extensively studied resveratrol, epicatechin, quercetin, and curcumin, new phytochemicals have been reported to act as anti-aging agents, such as the amino acid L-theanine isolated from green tea, and the lignans arctigenin and matairesinol isolated from Arctium lappa seeds. Furthermore, this review discusses the application of several new extracts rich in phytochemicals with potential use in anti-aging therapies. Finally, this review also discusses the most important biomarkers to test anti-aging interventions, the necessity of conducting epidemiological studies and the need of clinical trials with adequate study protocols for humans.

  8. Effect of pharmaceutical potential endocrine disruptor compounds on protein disulfide isomerase reductase activity using di-eosin-oxidized-glutathione.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danièle Klett

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Protein Disulfide Isomerase (PDI in the endoplasmic reticulum of all cells catalyzes the rearrangement of disulfide bridges during folding of membrane and secreted proteins. As PDI is also known to bind various molecules including hormones such as estradiol and thyroxin, we considered the hypothesis that adverse effects of endocrine-disrupter compounds (EDC could be mediated through their interaction with PDI leading to defects in membrane or secreted proteins. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Taking advantage of the recent description of the fluorescence self quenched substrate di-eosin-oxidized-glutathione (DiE-GSSG, we determined kinetically the effects of various potential pharmaceutical EDCs on the in-vitro reductase activity of bovine liver PDI by measuring the fluorescence of the reaction product (E-GSH. Our data show that estrogens (ethynylestradiol and bisphenol-A as well as indomethacin exert an inhibition whereas medroxyprogesteroneacetate and nortestosterone exert a potentiation of bovine PDI reductase activity. CONCLUSIONS: The present data indicate that the tested EDCs could not only affect endocrine target cells through nuclear receptors as previously shown, but could also affect these and all other cells by positively or negatively affecting PDI activity. The substrate DiE-GSSG has been demonstrated to be a convenient substrate to measure PDI reductase activity in the presence of various potential EDCs. It will certainly be usefull for the screening of potential effect of all kinds of chemicals on PDI reductase activity.

  9. Chelating compounds as potential flash rust inhibitors and melamine & aziridine cure of acrylic colloidal unimolecular polymers (CUPs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Jigar Kishorkumar

    Waterborne coatings on ferrous substrates usually show flash rusting which decreases the adhesion of the coating and the corrosion products can form a stain. Chelating compounds were investigated as potential flash rust inhibitors. Compounds being evaluated include amine alcohols, diamines and sulfur containing amines. A new corrosion inhibitor 2,5-bis(thioaceticacid)-1,3,4-thiadiazole (H2ADTZ) was synthesized and its performance characteristics were evaluated. It was noted that the observed structure of 1,3,4-thiadiazolidine-2,5-dithione (also known as 2,5-dimercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole (DMTD or DMcT)) has been previously reported in three different tautomeric forms including -dithiol and -dithione. The relative stability of each form as well as the synthesis and characterization of the structures of mono- and dialkylated forms of 5-mercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2(3H)-thione (MTT) were examined. The methods of X-ray crystallography, NMR spectroscopy and ab-initio electronic structure calculations were combined to understand the reactivity and structure of each compound. Polymers were synthesized with a 1:7 or 1:8 ratio of acrylic acid to acrylate monomers to produce an acid rich resin. The polymers were reduced and solvent stripped to produce Colloidal Unimolecular Polymers (CUPs). These particles are typically 3-9 nanometers in diameter depending upon the molecular weight. They were then formulated into a clear coating with either a melamine (bake) or an aziridine (ambient cure) and then cured. The melamine system was solvent free, a near zero VOC and the aziridine system was very low to near zero VOC. The coatings were evaluated for their MEK resistance, adhesion, hardness, gloss, flexibility, wet adhesion, abrasion and impact resistance properties.

  10. Use of the accelerating rotarod for assessment of motor performance decrement induced by potential anticonvulsant compounds in nerve agent poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capacio, B R; Harris, L W; Anderson, D R; Lennox, W J; Gales, V; Dawson, J S

    1992-01-01

    The accelerating rotarod was used to assess motor performance decrement in rats after administration of candidate anticonvulsant compounds (acetazolamide, amitriptyline, chlordiazepoxide, diazepam, diazepam-lysine, lorazepam, loprazolam, midazolam, phenobarbital and scopolamine) against nerve agent poisoning. All compounds were tested as the commercially available injectable preparation except for diazepam-lysine and loprazolam, which are not FDA approved. A peak effect time, as well as a dose to decrease performance time by 50% from control (PDD50), was determined. The calculated PDD50 (mumol/kg) values and peak effect times were midazolam, 1.16 at 15 min; loprazolam, 1.17 at 15 min; diazepam-lysine, 4.17 at 30 min; lorazepam, 4.98 at 15 min; diazepam, 5.27 at 15 min; phenobarbital, 101.49 at 45 min; chlordiazepoxide, 159.21 at 30 min; scopolamine, amitriptyline and acetazolamide did not demonstrate a performance decrement at any of the doses tested. The PDD50 values were compared with doses which have been utilized against nerve agent-induced convulsions or published ED50 values from standard anticonvulsant screening tests (maximal electroshock [MES] and subcutaneous pentylenetetrazol [scMET]). The results suggest that at anticonvulsant doses against nerve agents, all the benzodiazepines and phenobarbital have the potential to cause a performance decrement, whereas candidate anticonvulsants of the non-benzodiazepine or non-barbiturate type would not be expected to demonstrate this effect on motor performance. It is concluded that compounds such as acetazolamide, amitriptyline and scopolamine offer alternatives to the highly decrementing benzodiazepines and phenobarbital and should be further tested as anticonvulsant candidates against nerve agent intoxication.

  11. Kinetic studies and evaluation of potential compounds for the chemotherapy of Leishmaniasis using LdNH-MBP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renno, M.N.; Figueroa-Villar, J.D. [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Silva, N.B. da; Tinoco, L.W. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Nucleo de Pesquisas de Produtos Naturais; Borja-Cabrera, G.P.; Palatnik-de-Sousa, C.B.P. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Microbiologia

    2008-07-01

    Full text: Protozoan parasites rely exclusively on purine salvage from the host for DNA and RNA synthesis and nucleoside hydrolases (N Hs) are the enzymes that catalyze the N-rib osyl hydrolysis of all commonly occurring purine and pi rimidine nucleosides, thus being excellent targets for the design of antiparasitic compounds. The general aim of our work with Leishmania donovani NH (LdNH) is to find new inhibitors for this enzyme as potential agents for the chemotherapy of visceral leishmaniasis. In this part of the work we expressed LdNH bound to maltose-binding protein (MBP) in E. coli using the pMAL-C2x vector. After purification by affinity chromatography the enzyme activity was monitored by UV (280 nm) and {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy using inosine as substrate. All the assays were carried out at 25 deg C in phosphate buffer (pH 8.0) in water (UV) and D{sub 2}O (NMR). Our results show that LdNH-MBP behaves kinetically in the same way as it have been reported for free LdNH, thus confirming that LdNH-MBP maintains the appropriate folding and activity of the enzyme active site, thus being a good model to develop and evaluate new inhibitors of LdNH. As an example, the kinetics tests with AZT have shown that this compound is not an effective inhibitor of this enzyme.

  12. The effect of potential supramolecular-bond promoters on the DNA-interacting abilities of copper-terpyridine compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, Jordi; Brissos, Rosa F; Salinas-Uber, Jorge; Caballero, Ana B; Caubet, Amparo; Roubeau, Olivier; Korrodi-Gregório, Luís; Pérez-Tomás, Ricardo; Gamez, Patrick

    2015-09-28

    Three copper(ii) coordination compounds have been prepared from three different 2,2':6',2''-terpyridine-based ligands, which have been selected to investigate the potential role of supramolecular interactions on the DNA-interacting and cytotoxicity properties of the corresponding metal complexes. Hence, the ligands 4'-((naphthalen-2-yl)methoxy)-2,2':6',2''-terpyridine () and 4'-((1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)methoxy)-2,2':6',2''-terpyridine () have been synthesized from commercially-available 4'-chloro-2,2':6',2''-terpyridine (), and their copper(ii) complexes have been obtained by reaction with copper(ii) nitrate. The DNA-interacting abilities of the corresponding compounds [Cu()(H2O)(NO3)2] (), [Cu()(NO3)(H2O)](NO3)(MeOH) () and [Cu()(NO3)(H2O)](NO3) () have been investigated using different techniques, and cytotoxicity assays with several cancer cell lines have revealed interesting features, viz. the more efficient complex is , which although it does not act as a DNA cleaver, displays the most effective DNA-interacting and cytotoxic properties, compared to and .

  13. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of some potential toxicants amongst volatile compounds emitted during large-scale thermal degradation of poly(acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene) plastic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapi, M M; Hesso, A

    1991-01-02

    A number of compounds emitted during the thermal degradation of plastics are potentially toxic. This study was aimed at identifying the volatile compounds emitted during large-scale thermal degradation of poly(acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene). About 5 g of the sample were degraded at between 25 and 470 degrees C in air and nitrogen in a device that can simulate temperature-programmed thermogravimetry. The volatiles were collected in dichloromethane using the solvent trap technique. Some of the 92 compounds identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were found to have no hitherto documented toxicological profiles, even though they are potentially dangerous.

  14. Repetitive compound muscle action potentials in electrophysiological diagnosis of congenital myasthenic syndromes: A case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMSs are a heterogeneous group of disorders, characterized by dysfunction of neuromuscular junction (NMJ transmission. These syndromes are genetically inherited and are present since birth. Some have characteristic clinical or electrodiagnostic features but in many cases determination of the specific form requires genetic studies or specialized morphological and electrophysiological studies on muscle tissue. We report a case of a 4-year-old boy with progressive ptosis and limitation of ocular movements who was diagnosed as slow-channel CMS based on the characteristic electrodiagnostic features. Repetitive compound muscle action potentials (R-CMAPs were recorded after single nerve stimulus, with decremental response after repetitive trains performed at 3 Hz. CMSs are at times clinically difficult to distinguish from acquired myasthenia. The characteristic clinical and electrodiagnostic features help in the diagnosis and enable rational therapy. In this article we discuss the characteristics of synaptic R-CMAPs.

  15. Evaluation of bioactive compounds and antioxidant potential of hydroethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. from Rajasthan, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vats, Sharad; Gupta, Tanya

    2017-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam., the miracle tree, is widely used as a traditional medicine. The analyses of phytochemicals and antioxidant potential of hydroethanolic extract of various plant parts of M. oleifera revealed that leaves possessed the highest content of total phenolics (9.58 mg/g), β-carotene (14.10 mg/g) and lycopene (2.60 mg/g). Flowers and bark showed the highest content of total flavonoids (3.5 mg/g) and anthocyanin (52.80 mg/g), respectively. Leaves also showed maximum antioxidant potential using nitric oxide scavenging assay (IC50 - 120 µg/ml) and deoxyribose degradation assay (IC50-178 µg/ml). Highest DPPH radical scavenging activity was observed in flowers (IC50-405 µg/ml). The GC-MS study revealed the presence of 29, 36 and 24 compounds in bark, leaf and flower, respectively. The major constituent identified were epiglobulol (41.68% in bark), phytol (23.54% in leaf) and β-sitosterol (15.35% in flower).The phytochemicals identified possess several therapeutic activity, including antioxidant potential, which was confirmed through earlier reports. Moreover, the presence of 1,1,3-triethoxubutane in all the plant parts analyzed, projects it as an important source of waste water treatment as hydrophobic modifiers.

  16. Modeling skin sensitization potential of mechanistically hard-to-be-classified aniline and phenol compounds with quantum mechanistic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Qin; Wang, Lirong; Mu, Ying; Xie, Xiang-Qun

    2014-12-24

    Advanced structure-activity relationship (SAR) modeling can be used as an alternative tool for identification of skin sensitizers and in improvement of the medical diagnosis and more effective practical measures to reduce the causative chemical exposures. It can also circumvent ethical concern of using animals in toxicological tests, and reduce time and cost. Compounds with aniline or phenol moieties represent two large classes of frequently skin sensitizing chemicals but exhibiting very variable, and difficult to predict, potency. The mechanisms of action are not well-understood. A group of mechanistically hard-to-be-classified aniline and phenol chemicals were collected. An in silico model was established by statistical analysis of quantum descriptors for the determination of the relationship between their chemical structures and skin sensitization potential. The sensitization mechanisms were investigated based on the features of the established model. Then the model was utilized to analyze a subset of FDA approved drugs containing aniline and/or phenol groups for prediction of their skin sensitization potential. A linear discriminant model using the energy of the highest occupied molecular orbital (ϵHOMO) as the descriptor yielded high prediction accuracy. The contribution of ϵHOMO as a major determinant may suggest that autoxidation or free radical binding could be involved. The model was further applied to predict allergic potential of a subset of FDA approved drugs containing aniline and/or phenol moiety. The predictions imply that similar mechanisms (autoxidation or free radical binding) may also play a role in the skin sensitization caused by these drugs. An accurate and simple quantum mechanistic model has been developed to predict the skin sensitization potential of mechanistically hard-to-be-classified aniline and phenol chemicals. The model could be useful for the skin sensitization potential predictions of a subset of FDA approved drugs.

  17. Potential of electric discharge plasma methods in abatement of volatile organic compounds originating from the food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preis, S; Klauson, D; Gregor, A

    2013-01-15

    Increased volatile organic compounds emissions and commensurate tightening of applicable legislation mean that the development and application of effective, cost-efficient abatement methods are areas of growing concern. This paper reviews the last two decades' publications on organic vapour emissions from food processing, their sources, impacts and treatment methods. An overview of the latest developments in conventional air treatment methods is presented, followed by the main focus of the paper, non-thermal plasma technology. The results of the review suggest that non-thermal plasma technology, in its pulsed corona discharge configuration, is an emerging treatment method with potential for low-cost, effective abatement of a wide spectrum of organic air pollutants. It is found that the combination of plasma treatment with catalysis is a development trend that demonstrates considerable potential. The as yet relatively small number of plasma treatment applications is considered to be due to the novelty of pulsed electric discharge techniques and a lack of reliable pulse generators and reactors. Other issues acting as barriers to widespread adoption of the technique include the possible formation of stable oxidation by-products, residual ozone and nitrogen oxides, and sensitivity towards air humidity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Melilotus albus and Dorycnium herbaceum extracts as source of phenolic compounds and their antimicrobial, antibiofilm, and antioxidant potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanović, Olgica D; Tešić, Jelena D; Čomić, Ljiljana R

    2015-09-01

    Melilotus albus Medic. and Dorycnium herbaceum Vill. (Fabaceae) acetone, ethyl acetate, and ethanol extracts were investigated for their in vitro antimicrobial, antibiofilm, and antioxidant activity with quantification of phenolic compound contents. In general, D. herbaceum extracts showed better antibacterial and antioxidant activity than M. albus extracts. Bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus mirabilis were the most susceptible with the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), determined by microdilution method, between 1.25-10 mg/mL. Antifungal activity was lower with the detectable MICs at 10 mg/mL and 20 mg/mL. The plant extracts, using the crystal violet assay, inhibit P. aeruginosa biofilm formation in concentration range from 5 mg/mL to 20 mg/mL whereas the effect on mature bacterial biofilm was lower. The antioxidant activity was evaluated using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals scavenging and reducing power model systems. The intensity of DPPH radicals scavenging activity, expressed as half maximal effective concentration (EC50) values, was from 84.33 μg/mL to >1000 μg/mL. The extracts demonstrated reduced power in a concentration-dependent manner, with ethanol extract as the most active. The total phenols, flavonoids, and proanthocyanidins were determined spectrophotometrically while total extractable tannins were obtained by precipitation method. The phenolic compounds showed differences in their total contents depending on solvents polarities and plant species. Although the plants M. albus and D. herbaceum have not yet been fully explored, these results contribute better understanding of their biotic properties and potential application as antimicrobial and antioxidant agents. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. The potential of volatile organic compounds for the detection of active disease in patients with ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolinska, A; Bodelier, A G L; Dallinga, J W; Masclee, A A M; Jonkers, D M; van Schooten, F-J; Pierik, M J

    2017-05-01

    To optimise treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC), patients need repeated assessment of mucosal inflammation. Current non-invasive biomarkers and clinical activity indices do not accurately reflect disease activity in all patients and cannot discriminate UC from non-UC colitis. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled air could be predictive of active disease or remission in Crohn's disease. To investigate whether VOCs are able to differentiate between active UC, UC in remission and non-UC colitis. UC patients participated in a 1-year study. Clinical activity index, blood, faecal and breath samples were collected at each out-patient visit. Patients with clear defined active faecal calprotectin >250 μg/g and inactive disease (Simple Clinical Colitis Activity Index colitis was confirmed by stool culture or radiological evaluation. Breath samples were analysed by gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry and kernel-based method to identify discriminating VOCs. In total, 72 UC (132 breath samples; 62 active; 70 remission) and 22 non-UC-colitis patients (22 samples) were included. Eleven VOCs predicted active vs. inactive UC in an independent internal validation set with 92% sensitivity and 77% specificity (AUC 0.94). Non-UC colitis patients could be clearly separated from active and inactive UC patients with principal component analysis. Volatile organic compounds can accurately distinguish active disease from remission in UC and profiles in UC are clearly different from profiles in non-UC colitis patients. VOCs have demonstrated potential as new non-invasive biomarker to monitor inflammation in UC. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Unraveling the potential of a combined nitritation-anammox biomass towards the biodegradation of pharmaceutically active compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassotaki, Elissavet; Pijuan, Maite; Joss, Adriano; Borrego, Carles M; Rodriguez-Roda, Ignasi; Buttiglieri, Gianluigi

    2017-12-19

    In the past few years, anaerobic ammonium oxidation-based processes have attracted a lot of attention for their implementation at the mainstream line of wastewater treatment plants, due to the possibility of leading to energy autarky if combined with anaerobic digestion. However, little is known about the potential degradation of micropollutants by the microbial groups responsible of these processes and the few results available are inconclusive. This study aimed to assess the degradation capability of biomass withdrawn from a combined nitritation/anaerobic ammonium oxidation (combined N/A) pilot plant towards five pharmaceutically active compounds (ibuprofen, sulfamethoxazole, metoprolol, venlafaxine and carbamazepine). Batch experiments were performed under different conditions by selectively activating or inhibiting different microbial groups: i) regular combined N/A operation, ii) aerobic (optimal for nitrifying bacteria), iii) aerobic with allylthiourea (an inhibitor of ammonia monooxygenase, enzyme of ammonia oxidizing bacteria), iv) anoxic (optimal for anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria), v) aerobic with acetate (optimal for heterotrophic bacteria) and vi) anoxic with acetate (optimal for heterotrophic denitrifying bacteria). Ibuprofen was the most biodegradable compound being significantly degraded (49-100%) under any condition except heterotrophic denitrification. Sulfamethoxazole, exhibited the highest removal (70%) under optimal conditions for nitrifying bacteria but in the rest of the experiments anoxic conditions were found to be slightly more favorable (up to 58%). For metoprolol the highest performance was obtained under anoxic conditions favoring anammox bacteria (62%). Finally, carbamazepine and venlafaxine were hardly removed (≤10% in the majority of cases). Taken together, these results suggest the specificity of different microbial groups that in combination with alternating operational parameters can lead to enhanced removal of some

  1. Potential effect of compounds isolated from Coffea arabica against UV-B induced skin damage by protecting fibroblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yong-Hun; Bahuguna, Ashutosh; Kim, Han-Hyuk; Kim, Dong-In; Kim, Hyeon-Jeong; Yu, Jae-Myo; Jung, Hyun-Gug; Jang, Jae-Yoon; Kwak, Jae-Hoon; Park, Geun-Hye; Kwon, O-Jun; Cho, Young Je; An, Jeong Yeon; Jo, Cheorun; Kang, Sun Chul; An, Bong-Jeun

    2017-09-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation has adverse effects on extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, leading to formation of wrinkles a hallmark of premature skin aging. The adverse effects of UV radiation are associated with induction of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) expression and degradation of collagen and elastin. The present study investigated anti-wrinkle effects of chlorogenic acid (CGA), pyrocatechol (PC) and 3,4,5-tricaffeoyl quinic acid (TCQ), isolated from beans of Coffea arabica, against UV-B stimulated mouse fibroblast cells (CCRF) by measuring expression levels of MMP-1, 3, 9, and type-I procollagen. The three compounds were isolated and purified from coffee grounds using column chromatography and structural examination was evaluated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. Among the three isolated compounds, CGA effectively suppressed the expression of the MMP-1, 3, and 9 and increased synthesis of type-I procollagen as compared UV-B-stimulated CCRF cells. In addition, CGA dose-dependently inhibited intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in CCRF cells stimulated by UV radiation. Moreover, CGA displayed a good sun protection factor (SPF) and in vitro DNA damage protection together with inhibition of enzyme xanthine oxidase. The enzyme inhibitory kinetic behavior of CGA was determined by Lineweaver-Burk plot, displayed a mixed type enzyme inhibition with 260.3±4.5μM, Ki value. The results indicate that CGA has potential to be used as a preventive agent against premature skin aging induced by UV radiation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Melilotus albus and Dorycnium herbaceum extracts as source of phenolic compounds and their antimicrobial, antibiofilm, and antioxidant potentials

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    Olgica D. Stefanović

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Melilotus albus Medic. and Dorycnium herbaceum Vill. (Fabaceae acetone, ethyl acetate, and ethanol extracts were investigated for their in vitro antimicrobial, antibiofilm, and antioxidant activity with quantification of phenolic compound contents. In general, D. herbaceum extracts showed better antibacterial and antioxidant activity than M. albus extracts. Bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus mirabilis were the most susceptible with the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs, determined by microdilution method, between 1.25–10 mg/mL. Antifungal activity was lower with the detectable MICs at 10 mg/mL and 20 mg/mL. The plant extracts, using the crystal violet assay, inhibit P. aeruginosa biofilm formation in concentration range from 5 mg/mL to 20 mg/mL whereas the effect on mature bacterial biofilm was lower. The antioxidant activity was evaluated using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radicals scavenging and reducing power model systems. The intensity of DPPH radicals scavenging activity, expressed as half maximal effective concentration (EC50 values, was from 84.33 μg/mL to >1000 μg/mL. The extracts demonstrated reduced power in a concentration-dependent manner, with ethanol extract as the most active. The total phenols, flavonoids, and proanthocyanidins were determined spectrophotometrically while total extractable tannins were obtained by precipitation method. The phenolic compounds showed differences in their total contents depending on solvents polarities and plant species. Although the plants M. albus and D. herbaceum have not yet been fully explored, these results contribute better understanding of their biotic properties and potential application as antimicrobial and antioxidant agents.

  3. Characterization of the apoptotic response induced by the cyanine dye D112: a potentially selective anti-cancer compound.

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    Ning Yang

    Full Text Available Chemotherapeutic drugs that are used in anti-cancer treatments often cause the death of both cancerous and noncancerous cells. This non-selective toxicity is the root cause of untoward side effects that limits the effectiveness of therapy. In order to improve chemotherapeutic options for cancer patients, there is a need to identify novel compounds with higher discrimination for cancer cells. In the past, methine dyes that increase the sensitivity of photographic emulsions have been investigated for anti-cancer properties. In the 1970's, Kodak Laboratories initiated a screen of approximately 7000 dye structural variants for selective toxicity. Among these, D112 was identified as a promising compound with elevated toxicity against a colon cancer cell line in comparison to a non-transformed cell line. Despite these results changing industry priorities led to a halt in further studies on D112. We decided to revive investigations on D112 and have further characterized D112-induced cellular toxicity. We identified that in response to D112 treatment, the T-cell leukemia cell line Jurkat showed caspase activation, mitochondrial depolarization, and phosphatidylserine externalization, all of which are hallmarks of apoptosis. Chemical inhibition of caspase enzymatic activity and blockade of the mitochondrial pathway through Bcl-2 expression inhibited D112-induced apoptosis. At lower concentrations, D112 induced growth arrest. To gain insight into the molecular mechanism of D112 induced mitochondrial dysfunction, we analyzed the intracellular localization of D112, and found that D112 associated with mitochondria. Interestingly, in the cell lines that we tested, D112 showed increased toxicity toward transformed versus non-transformed cells. Results from this work identify D112 as a potentially interesting molecule warranting further investigation.

  4. Tyrosine kinase syk non-enzymatic inhibitors and potential anti-allergic drug-like compounds discovered by virtual and in vitro screening.

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    Bruno O Villoutreix

    Full Text Available In the past decade, the spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk has shown a high potential for the discovery of new treatments for inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. Pharmacological inhibitors of Syk catalytic site bearing therapeutic potential have been developed, with however limited specificity towards Syk. To address this topic, we opted for the design of drug-like compounds that could impede the interaction of Syk with its cellular partners while maintaining an active kinase protein. To achieve this challenging task, we used the powerful potential of intracellular antibodies for the modulation of cellular functions in vivo, combined to structure-based in silico screening. In our previous studies, we reported the anti-allergic properties of the intracellular antibody G4G11. With the aim of finding functional mimics of G4G11, we developed an Antibody Displacement Assay and we isolated the drug-like compound C-13, with promising in vivo anti-allergic activity. The likely binding cavity of this compound is located at the close vicinity of G4G11 epitope, far away from the catalytic site of Syk. Here we report the virtual screen of a collection of 500,000 molecules against this new cavity, which led to the isolation of 1000 compounds subsequently evaluated for their in vitro inhibitory effects using the Antibody Displacement Assay. Eighty five compounds were selected and evaluated for their ability to inhibit the liberation of allergic mediators from mast cells. Among them, 10 compounds inhibited degranulation with IC₅₀ values ≤ 10 µM. The most bioactive compounds combine biological activity, significant inhibition of antibody binding and strong affinity for Syk. Moreover, these molecules show a good potential for oral bioavailability and are not kinase catalytic site inhibitors. These bioactive compounds could be used as starting points for the development of new classes of non-enzymatic inhibitors of Syk and for drug discovery endeavour in the

  5. In silico identification of potential drug compound against Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma by virtual screening and toxicity studies for the treatment of Diabetic Nephropathy.

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    Singh, Smrita; Mohanty, Aparajita

    2017-06-08

    Diabetic Nephropathy is a serious complication of diabetes mellitus. Current therapeutic strategies of Diabetic Nephropathy are based on control of modifiable risks like hypertension, glucose levels, and dyslipidemia. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ) is implicated in several metabolic syndromes including Diabetic Nephropathy, besides obesity, insulin insensitivity, dislipidemia, inflammation, and hypertension. In the present study, virtual screening of 617 compounds from two different public databases was done against PPAR-γ with an objective to find a possible lead compound. Two softwares, PyRx and iGEMDOCK, were used to achieve the docking accuracy in order to avoid loss of candidate compounds. Rosiglitazone (used to treat Diabetic Nephropathy) was taken as the standard compound. A total of 30 compounds with good binding affinity with PPAR-γ were selected for further filtering, on the basis of absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity (ADMET). The interaction profiling of these 30 compounds, showed a minimum of one and maximum of three interactions with reference to rosiglitazone (SER-289, HIS-449, HIS-323, TYR-473). The fulfilling of ADMET analysis criteria of 30 compounds led to the selection of four compounds (ZINC ID 00181552, 00276456, 00298314, 00448009). Molecular dynamics simulation of these lead compounds in complex with PPAR-γ revealed that three of the four compounds formed a stable complex in the ligand-binding pocket of PPAR-γ during 20-ns simulation. Hence, these three (ZINC ID 00181552, 00276456, 00298314) of the four compounds are potential candidates for experimental validation of biological activity against PPAR-γ in future drug discovery studies.

  6. Characterization of the thermolysis products of Nafion membrane: A potential source of perfluorinated compounds in the environment

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    Feng, Mingbao; Qu, Ruijuan; Wei, Zhongbo; Wang, Liansheng; Sun, Ping; Wang, Zunyao

    2015-05-01

    The thermal decomposition of Nafion N117 membrane, a typical perfluorosulfonic acid membrane that is widely used in various chemical technologies, was investigated in this study. Structural identification of thermolysis products in water and methanol was performed using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS). The fluoride release was studied using an ion-chromatography system, and the membrane thermal stability was characterized by thermogravimetric analysis. Notably, several types of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) including perfluorocarboxylic acids were detected and identified. Based on these data, a thermolysis mechanism was proposed involving cleavage of both the polymer backbone and its side chains by attack of radical species. This is the first systematic report on the thermolysis products of Nafion by simulating its high-temperature operation and disposal process via incineration. The results of this study indicate that Nafion is a potential environmental source of PFCs, which have attracted growing interest and concern in recent years. Additionally, this study provides an analytical justification of the LC/ESI-MS/MS method for characterizing the degradation products of polymer electrolyte membranes. These identifications can substantially facilitate an understanding of their decomposition mechanisms and offer insight into the proper utilization and effective management on these membranes.

  7. Cosmos caudatus as a potential source of polyphenolic compounds: optimisation of oven drying conditions and characterisation of its functional properties.

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    Mediani, Ahmed; Abas, Faridah; Khatib, Alfi; Tan, Chin Ping

    2013-08-29

    The aim of the study was to analyze the influence of oven thermal processing of Cosmos caudatus on the total polyphenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant capacity (DPPH) of two different solvent extracts (80% methanol, and 80% ethanol). Sonication was used to extract bioactive compounds from this herb. The results showed that the optimised conditions for the oven drying method for 80% methanol and 80% ethanol were 44.5 °C for 4 h with an IC₅₀ of 0.045 mg/mL and 43.12 °C for 4.05 h with an IC₅₀ of 0.055 mg/mL, respectively. The predicted values for TPC under the optimised conditions for 80% methanol and 80% ethanol were 16.5 and 15.8 mg GAE/100 g DW, respectively. The results obtained from this study demonstrate that Cosmos caudatus can be used as a potential source of antioxidants for food and medicinal applications.

  8. Cosmos Caudatus as a Potential Source of Polyphenolic Compounds: Optimisation of Oven Drying Conditions and Characterisation of Its Functional Properties

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    Chin Ping Tan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyze the influence of oven thermal processing of Cosmos caudatus on the total polyphenolic content (TPC and antioxidant capacity (DPPH of two different solvent extracts (80% methanol, and 80% ethanol. Sonication was used to extract bioactive compounds from this herb. The results showed that the optimised conditions for the oven drying method for 80% methanol and 80% ethanol were 44.5 °C for 4 h with an IC50 of 0.045 mg/mL and 43.12 °C for 4.05 h with an IC50 of 0.055 mg/mL, respectively. The predicted values for TPC under the optimised conditions for 80% methanol and 80% ethanol were 16.5 and15.8 mg GAE/100 g DW, respectively. The results obtained from this study demonstrate that Cosmos caudatus can be used as a potential source of antioxidants for food and medicinal applications.

  9. The influence of noise exposure on the parameters of a convolution model of the compound action potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chertoff, M E; Lichtenhan, J T; Tourtillott, B M; Esau, K S

    2008-10-01

    The influence of noise exposure on the parameters of a convolution model of the compound action potential (CAP) was examined. CAPs were recorded in normal-hearing gerbils and in gerbils exposed to a 117 dB SPL 8 kHz band of noise for various durations. The CAPs were fitted with an analytic CAP to obtain the parameters representing the number of nerve fibers (N), the probability density function [P(t)] from a population of nerve fibers, and the single-unit waveform [U(t)]. The results showed that the analytic CAP fitted the physiologic CAPs well with correlations of approximately 0.90. A subsequent analysis using hierarchical linear modeling quantified the change in the parameters as a function of both signal level and hearing threshold. The results showed that noise exposure caused some of the parameter-level functions to simply shift along the signal level axis in proportion to the amount of hearing loss, whereas others shifted along the signal level axis and steepened. Significant changes occurred in the U(t) parameters, but they were not related to hearing threshold. These results suggest that noise exposure alters the physiology underlying the CAP, some of which can be explained by a simple lack of gain, whereas others may not.

  10. Reliability of the diaphragmatic compound muscle action potential evoked by cervical magnetic stimulation and recorded via chest wall surface EMG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Joseph F; Mildren, Robyn L; Zaback, Martin; Archiza, Bruno; Allen, Grayson P; Sheel, A William

    2017-09-01

    Stimulation of the phrenic nerve via cervical magnetic stimulation (CMS) elicits a compound muscle action potential (CMAP) that allows for assessment of diaphragm activation. The reliability of CMS to evoke the CMAP recorded by chest wall surface EMG has yet to be comprehensively examined. CMS was performed on healthy young males (n=10) and females (n=10). Surface EMG electrodes were placed on the right and left hemi-diaphragm between the 6-8th intercostal spaces. CMAPs were analysed for: latency, duration, peak-to-peak amplitude, and area. Reliability within and between experimental sessions was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). Bilateral (right-left) and sex-based (male-female) comparisons were also made (independent samples t-test). All CMAP characteristics demonstrated high reproducibility within (ICCs>0.96) and between (ICCs>0.89) experimental sessions. No statistically significant bilateral or sex-based differences were found (p>0.05). CMS is a reliable and non-invasive method to evaluate phrenic nerve conduction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Cordycepin Decreases Compound Action Potential Conduction of Frog Sciatic Nerve In Vitro Involving Ca2+-Dependent Mechanisms

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    Li-Hua Yao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cordycepin has been widely used in oriental countries to maintain health and improve physical performance. Compound nerve action potential (CNAP, which is critical in signal conduction in the peripheral nervous system, is necessary to regulate physical performance, including motor system physiological and pathological processes. Therefore, regulatory effects of cordycepin on CNAP conduction should be elucidated. In this study, the conduction ability of CNAP in isolated frog sciatic nerves was investigated. Results revealed that cordycepin significantly decreased CNAP amplitude and conductive velocity in a reversible and concentration-dependent manner. At 50 mg/L cordycepin, CNAP amplitude and conductive velocity decreased by 62.18 ± 8.06% and 57.34% ± 6.14% compared with the control amplitude and conductive velocity, respectively. However, the depressive action of cordycepin on amplitude and conductive velocity was not observed in Ca2+-free medium or in the presence of Ca2+ channel blockers (CdCl2/LaCl3. Pretreatment with L-type Ca2+ channel antagonist (nifedipine/deltiazem also blocked cordycepin-induced responses; by contrast, T-type and P-type Ca2+ channel antagonists (Ni2+ failed to block such responses. Therefore, cordycepin decreased the conduction ability of CNAP in isolated frog sciatic nerves via L-type Ca2+ channel-dependent mechanism.

  12. Characterization of preservative and pesticide as potential of bio oil compound from pyrolisis of cocoa shell using gas chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashuni, Jahiding, M.; Kurniasih, I.; Zulkaidah

    2017-03-01

    Cocoa shell is one of the plant waste that has not been widely used. Cocoa shell is potential as a producer of bio oil because it contains lignocellulose. The bio oil of Liquid volatile matter (LVM) is the products of smoke condensation from the pyrolysis reactor. The bio oil of cocoa shell from pyrolysis process can be made as raw materials for the application of pesticide and preservative. The aims of this research were to produce bio oil from cocoa shell by pyrolysis and analyzing the content using Gas Chromatography (GC). Bio oil production was done by pyrolysis with variations of temperature, i.e. 400, 500, 600 and 700 °C. Pyrolysis reaction generates three products: gas, liquid and solid. The yield of bio oil with variations of pyrolisis temperature, i.e. 400, 500, 600 and 700 °C were obtained i.e. 46, 45, 44 and 40% (v/w), respectively. The chromatogram results showed the chemical components of bio oil from the cocoa shell were ammonia, hexane, alcohol, ketone, acid and phenolic compounds which can be used as material of preservative and pesticide.

  13. Algorithm for multi-curve-fitting with shared parameters and a possible application in evoked compound action potential measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, Philipp; Zierhofer, Clemens; Hochmair, Erwin

    2006-02-22

    Experimental results are commonly fitted by determining parameter values of suitable mathematical expressions. In case a relation exists between different data sets, the accuracy of the parameters obtained can be increased by incorporating this relationship in the fitting process instead of fitting the recordings separately. An algorithm to fit multiple measured curves simultaneously was developed. The method accounts for parameters that are shared by some curves. It can be applied to either linear or nonlinear equations. Simulated noisy "measurement results" were created to compare the introduced method to the "straight forward" way of fitting the curves separately. The analysis of the simulated measurements confirm, that the introduced method yields more accurate parameters compared to the ones gained by fitting the measurements separately. Therefore it needs more computer time. As an example, the new fitting algorithm is applied to the measurements of the evoked compound action potentials (ECAP) of the auditory nerve: This leads to promising ideas to reduce artefacts generated by the measuring process. The introduced fitting algorithm uses the relationship between multiple measurement results to increase the accuracy of the parameters. Its application in the field of ECAP measurements is promising and should be further investigated.

  14. Algorithm for multi-curve-fitting with shared parameters and a possible application in evoked compound action potential measurements

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    Zierhofer Clemens

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experimental results are commonly fitted by determining parameter values of suitable mathematical expressions. In case a relation exists between different data sets, the accuracy of the parameters obtained can be increased by incorporating this relationship in the fitting process instead of fitting the recordings separately. Methods An algorithm to fit multiple measured curves simultaneously was developed. The method accounts for parameters that are shared by some curves. It can be applied to either linear or nonlinear equations. Simulated noisy "measurement results" were created to compare the introduced method to the "straight forward" way of fitting the curves separately. Results The analysis of the simulated measurements confirm, that the introduced method yields more accurate parameters compared to the ones gained by fitting the measurements separately. Therefore it needs more computer time. As an example, the new fitting algorithm is applied to the measurements of the evoked compound action potentials (ECAP of the auditory nerve: This leads to promising ideas to reduce artefacts generated by the measuring process. Conclusion The introduced fitting algorithm uses the relationship between multiple measurement results to increase the accuracy of the parameters. Its application in the field of ECAP measurements is promising and should be further investigated.

  15. Bioactive compound from mangoes leaves extract as potential soil bioherbicide to control amaranth weed (Amaranthus spinosus Linn.

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    Rifauldin Syahri

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Bioherbicide is important approach for sustainable farming practices. One of plant that has potentially as bioherbicide, which is environmentally safe, is mango. Mango leaf extract is useful as bioherbicide because it produces allelochemical compounds, which could inhibit the weed growth. This research was designed to study the effect of several mangoes species leaves extract to control dominant weed (amaranth. Split plot design was implemented using mango species (S as the main plot; S1 (Mangifera odorata Griff., S2 (Mangifera foetida Lour and S3 (Mangifera indica L.. While the sub plots were concentrations of mango’s leaf extract (K, that included 0, 500, 1000, 1500, and 2000 ppm. Results of the research showed that all parameters of weed growth (amaranth were inhibited along with the increase of concentration of the mango’s leaf extract. The results also showed the significant inhibition of amaranth’s dry weight. Among three species of mangoes, M. indica L. showed the best inhibition mechanism to the amaranth weed, which significantly suppressed the weed growth on just 1000 ppm concentration.

  16. Engineering Escherichia coli for the production of terpene mixture enriched in caryophyllene and caryophyllene alcohol as potential aviation fuel compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Weihua; Liu, Fang; Davis, Ryan W

    2018-06-01

    Recent studies have revealed that caryophyllene and its stereoisomers not only exhibit multiple biological activities but also have desired properties as renewable candidates for ground transportation and jet fuel applications. This study presents the first significant production of caryophyllene and caryolan-1-ol by an engineered E. coli with heterologous expression of mevalonate pathway genes with a caryophyllene synthase and a caryolan-1-ol synthase. By optimizing metabolic flux and fermentation parameters, the engineered strains yielded 449 mg/L of total terpene, including 406 mg/L sesquiterpene with 100 mg/L caryophyllene and 10 mg/L caryolan-1-ol. Furthermore, a marine microalgae hydrolysate was used as the sole carbon source for the production of caryophyllene and other terpene compounds. Under the optimal fermentation conditions, 360 mg/L of total terpene, 322 mg/L of sesquiterpene, and 75 mg/L caryophyllene were obtained from the pretreated algae hydrolysates. The highest yields achieved on the biomass basis were 48 mg total terpene/g algae and 10 mg caryophyllene/g algae and the caryophyllene yield is approximately ten times higher than that from plant tissues by solvent extraction. The study provides a sustainable alternative for production of caryophyllene and its alcohol from microalgae biomass as potential candidates for next generation aviation fuels.

  17. Herbal Therapies for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Chemistry, Biology, and Potential Application of Selected Plants and Compounds

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    Cicero L. T. Chang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus has been recognized since antiquity. It currently affects as many as 285 million people worldwide and results in heavy personal and national economic burdens. Considerable progress has been made in orthodox antidiabetic drugs. However, new remedies are still in great demand because of the limited efficacy and undesirable side effects of current orthodox drugs. Nature is an extraordinary source of antidiabetic medicines. To date, more than 1200 flowering plants have been claimed to have antidiabetic properties. Among them, one-third have been scientifically studied and documented in around 460 publications. In this review, we select and discuss blood glucose-lowering medicinal herbs that have the ability to modulate one or more of the pathways that regulate insulin resistance, β-cell function, GLP-1 homeostasis, and glucose (reabsorption. Emphasis is placed on phytochemistry, anti-diabetic bioactivities, and likely mechanism(s. Recent progress in the understanding of the biological actions, mechanisms, and therapeutic potential of compounds and extracts of plant origin in type 2 diabetes is summarized. This review provides a source of up-to-date information for further basic and clinical research into herbal therapy for type 2 diabetes. Emerging views on therapeutic strategies for type 2 diabetes are also discussed.

  18. The use of compound muscle action potentials (CMAP) for postoperative monitoring of free functioning gracilis muscle transfer: A preliminary report.

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    Khater, Amr M E; Doi, Kazuteru; Hattori, Yasunori; Sakamoto, Soutetsu; Yonemura, Hiroshi; Kumar, Kannan

    2015-07-01

    The use of skin flap as a monitoring tool cannot sensitively reflect the vascularity of a functioning free muscle transfer (FFMT), and it may result in delayed detection of vascular compromise. We report the use of compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) as a supplemental method in the monitoring of free gracilis transfers. In 46 successful free gracilis transfers in 23 patients following total brachial plexus injury (BPI), CMAPs were measured every hour for 75 h postoperatively. We analyzed the amplitude, latency, and duration to understand the Wallerian degeneration effect and thresholds to warn vascular compromise clinically. After the primary study, we applied CMAP monitoring for 23 clinical cases. Three basic wave patterns of the CMAPs with or without dispersion were recognized. Forty-two CMAPs were successfully traced and 27 CMAPs with one constant wave pattern showed two types of amplitude and latency changes; positive and negative Wallerian degeneration. The mean 1-h maximal decreases of amplitudes and elongation of latency were 36% and 77%, respectively; however, they returned to the original pattern within 1 h. There were no significant differences of reinnervation time and final strength of elbow flexion between these 46 muscle transfers. In the clinical series, we experienced two cases of vascular compromise that showed CMAP critical alterations without skin flap changes. Our preliminary results show that the measurement of CMAPs has great potential for the sensitive and reliable monitoring of muscle circulation after FFMT. The clinical critical values of CMAP amplitude changes for vascular compromise are >40% sudden decrease, and they continued to decrease further. This technique is most useful for postoperative vascular monitoring of a buried muscle flap, and it is proven to be of clinical significance in current vascular compromised cases. Level Ⅳ, Case Series. Copyright © 2015 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic

  19. Phenotype-driven chemical screening in zebrafish for compounds that inhibit collective cell migration identifies multiple pathways potentially involved in metastatic invasion

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    Viviana E. Gallardo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, high-throughput chemical screening has become the dominant approach for discovering novel compounds with therapeutic properties. Automated screening using in vitro or cultured cell assays have yielded thousands of candidate drugs for a variety of biological targets, but these approaches have not resulted in an increase in drug discovery despite major increases in expenditures. In contrast, phenotype-driven screens have shown a much stronger success rate, which is why we developed an in vivo assay using transgenic zebrafish with a GFP-marked migrating posterior lateral line primordium (PLLp to identify compounds that influence collective cell migration. We then conducted a high-throughput screen using a compound library of 2160 annotated bioactive synthetic compounds and 800 natural products to identify molecules that block normal PLLp migration. We identified 165 compounds that interfere with primordium migration without overt toxicity in vivo. Selected compounds were confirmed in their migration-blocking activity by using additional assays for cell migration. We then proved the screen to be successful in identifying anti-metastatic compounds active in vivo by performing orthotopic tumor implantation assays in mice. We demonstrated that the Src inhibitor SU6656, identified in our screen, can be used to suppress the metastatic capacity of a highly aggressive mammary tumor cell line. Finally, we used CRISPR/Cas9-targeted mutagenesis in zebrafish to genetically validate predicted targets of compounds. This approach demonstrates that the migrating PLLp in zebrafish can be used for large-scale, high-throughput screening for compounds that inhibit collective cell migration and, potentially, anti-metastatic compounds.

  20. Screening and identification of novel compounds with potential anti-proliferative effects on gallium-resistant lung cancer through an AXL kinase pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyewumi, Moses O; Alazizi, Adnan; Liva, Sophia; Lin, Li; Geldenhuys, Werner J

    2014-09-15

    The clinical application of gallium compounds as anticancer agents is hampered by development of resistance. As a potential strategy to overcome the limitation, eight series of compounds were identified through virtual screening of AXL kinase homology model. Anti-proliferative studies were carried using gallium-sensitive (S) and gallium-resistant (R) human lung adenocarcinoma (A549) cells. Compounds 5476423 and 7919469 were identified as leads. The IC50 values from treating R-cells showed compounds 5476423 and 7919469 had 80 fold and 13 fold increased potency, respectively, compared to gallium acetylacetonate (GaAcAc). The efficacy of GaAcAc against R-cells was increased 2 fold and 1.2 fold when combined with compounds 5476423 and 7919469, respectively. Compared with S-cells, R-cells showed elevated expression of AXL protein, which was significantly suppressed through treatments with the lead compounds. It is anticipated that the lead compounds could be applied in virtual screening programs to identify novel scaffolds for new therapeutic agents as well as combinatorial therapy agents in gallium resistant lung cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Novel compound from Trachyspermum ammi (Ajowan caraway) seeds with antibiofilm and antiadherence activities against Streptococcus mutans: a potential chemotherapeutic agent against dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, R; Zakir, M; Khanam, Z; Shakil, S; Khan, A U

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was to isolate and characterize the active compound from Trachyspermum ammi seeds, exhibiting antibiofilm activity against Streptococcus mutans, a major causal organism of dental caries. Purification of the active compound from the seeds was performed by silica gel chromatography, and spectroscopic methods (FTIR, NMR and MS) were employed for its identification and structure determination. Antibiofilm and antiadherence activities of the active compound against S. mutans were analysed. Confocal microscopy was performed to visualize the effect of the compound on biofilm structure of S. mutans. Around 50% reduction was observed in adherence at 39·06 μg ml(-1) and in biofilm at 78·13 μg ml(-1) . It was found effective against adherent cells of S. mutans, reduced water-insoluble glucan synthesis and inhibited the reduction in pH. Confocal microscopy revealed scattered cells at sub-MIC concentration of the compound, resulting in distorted biofilm architecture in contrast to clustered cells seen in control. This study revealed a novel compound, a naphthalene derivative, isolated first time from T. ammi seeds with antibiofilm activity against S. mutans. Trachyspermum ammi represents an interesting source of a novel compound, (4aS, 5R, 8aS) 5, 8a-di-1-propyl-octahydronaphthalen-1-(2H)-one, with a great potential to be used as a therapeutic agent against dental caries. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Tramadol, but not its major metabolite (mono-O-demethyl tramadol) depresses compound action potentials in frog sciatic nerves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuki, R; Fujita, T; Koga, A; Liu, T; Nakatsuka, T; Nakashima, M; Kumamoto, E

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: Although tramadol is known to exhibit a local anaesthetic effect, how tramadol exerts this effect is not understood fully. Experimental approach: The effects of tramadol and its metabolite mono-O-demethyl-tramadol (M1) on compound action potentials (CAPs) were examined by applying the air-gap method to frog sciatic nerves, and the results were compared with those of other local anaesthetics, lidocaine and ropivacaine. Key results: Tramadol reduced the peak amplitude of the CAP in a dose-dependent manner (IC50=2.3 mM). On the other hand, M1 (1–2 mM), which exhibits a higher affinity for μ-opioid receptors than tramadol, did not affect CAPs. These effects of tramadol were resistant to the non-selective opioid receptor antagonist naloxone and the μ-opioid receptor agonist, DAMGO, did not affect CAPs. This tramadol action was not affected by a combination of the noradrenaline uptake inhibitor, desipramine, and the 5-hydroxytryptamine uptake inhibitor, fluoxetine. Lidocaine and ropivacaine also concentration-dependently reduced CAP peak amplitudes with IC50 values of 0.74 and 0.34 mM, respectively. Conclusions and implications: These results indicate that tramadol reduces the peak amplitude of CAP in peripheral nerve fibres with a potency which is less than those of lidocaine and ropivacaine, whereas M1 has much less effect on CAPs. This action of tramadol was not produced by activation of μ-opioid receptors nor by inhibition of noradrenaline and 5-hydroxytryptamine uptake. It is suggested that the methyl group present in tramadol but not in M1 may play an important role in producing nerve conduction block. PMID:16921387

  3. SYNTHESIS, CRYSTAL STRUCTURE, SPECTROSCOPY PROPERTIES AND POTENTIAL ANTIMICROBIAL POTENTIALITIES OF A NEW SYNTHETIC COMPOUND: AMINO- CHLOROPYRIDINIUM DIAQUA DIOXALATO IRON(III)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jawher Abdelhak; Essghaier Badiaa; Toukebri Nourchene; Amani Naouar; Rebib Hanene; Mohamed Faouzi Zid; Najla Sadfi-Zouaoui

    .... It has been characterized by IR and UV-VIS spectra and thermal analysis (TG and DTA). In this compound, the iron ion has a slightly distorted square bipyramidal environment, coordinated by two chelating oxalate ion and two water molecules...

  4. The agar diffusion scratch assay--A novel method to assess the bioactive and cytotoxic potential of new materials and compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusnik, Mascha; Imeri, Minire; Deppierraz, Grégoire; Bruinink, Arie; Zinn, Manfred

    2016-02-10

    A profound in vitro evaluation not only of the cytotoxic but also of bioactive potential of a given compound or material is crucial for predicting potential effects in the in vivo situation. However, most of the current methods have weaknesses in either the quantitative or qualitative assessment of cytotoxicity and/or bioactivity of the test compound. Here we describe a novel assay combining the ISO 10993-5 agar diffusion test and the scratch also termed wound healing assay. In contrast to these original tests this assay is able to detect and distinguish between cytotoxic, cell migration modifying and cytotoxic plus cell migration modifying compounds, and this at higher sensitivity and in a quantitative way.

  5. VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM VEGETATION IN SOUTHERN YUNNAN PROVINCE, CHINA: EMISSION RATES AND SOME POTENTIAL REGIONAL IMPLICATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little information is currently available regarding emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in southern Asia. To address the need for BVOC emission estimates in regional atmospheric chemistry simulations, 95 common plant species were screened for emissions of BVO...

  6. Organotypic Culture of Breast Tumor Explants as a Multicellular System for the Screening of Natural Compounds with Antineoplastic Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Edith Carranza-Torres

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the leading cause of death in women worldwide. The search for novel compounds with antitumor activity, with less adverse effects and higher efficacy, and the development of methods to evaluate their toxicity is an area of ​​intense research. In this study we implemented the preparation and culture of breast tumor explants, which were obtained from precision-cut breast tumor slices. In order to validate the model we are proposing to screen antineoplastic effect of natural compounds, we selected caffeic acid, ursolic acid, and rosmarinic acid. Using the Krumdieck tissue slicer, precision-cut tissue slices were prepared from breast cancer samples; from these slices, 4 mm explants were obtained and incubated with the selected compounds. Viability was assessed by Alamar Blue assay, LDH release, and histopathological criteria. Results showed that the viability of the explants cultured in the presence of paclitaxel (positive control decreased significantly (P<0.05; however, tumor samples responded differently to each compound. When the explants were coincubated with paclitaxel and compounds, a synergic effect was observed. This study shows that ex vivo culture of breast cancer explants offers a suitable alternative model for evaluating natural or synthetic compounds with antitumor properties within the complex microenvironment of the tumor.

  7. Unheated Cannabis sativa extracts and its major compound THC-acid have potential immuno-modulating properties not mediated by CB1 and CB2 receptor coupled pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeckx, K.C.M.; Korthout, H.A.A.J.; Meeteren-Kreikamp, A.P. van; Ehlert, K.A.; Wang, M.; Greef, J. van der; Rodenburg, R.J.T.; Witkamp, R.F.

    2006-01-01

    There is a great interest in the pharmacological properties of cannabinoid like compounds that are not linked to the adverse effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), e.g. psychoactive properties. The present paper describes the potential immuno-modulating activity of unheated Cannabis sativa

  8. Normative findings of electrically evoked compound action potential measurements using the neural response telemetry of the Nucleus CI24M cochlear implant system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cafarelli-Dees, D.; Dillier, N.; Lai, W.K.; Wallenberg, E. von; Dijk, B. van; Akdas, F.; Aksit, M.; Batman, C.; Beynon, A.J.; Burdo, S.; Chanal, J.M.; Collet, L.; Conway, M.; Coudert, C.; Craddock, L.; Cullington, H.; Deggouj, N.; Fraysse, B.; Grabel, S.; Kiefer, J.; Kiss, J.G.; Lenarz, T.; Mair, A.; Maune, S.; Muller-Deile, J.; Piron, J.P.; Razza, S.; Tasche, C.; Thai-Van, H.; Toth, F.; Truy, E.; Uziel, A.; Smoorenburg, G.F.

    2005-01-01

    One hundred and forty-seven adult recipients of the Nucleus 24 cochlear implant system, from 13 different European countries, were tested using neural response telemetry to measure the electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP), according to a standardised postoperative measurement

  9. Potential impurities in drug substances: Compound-specific toxicology limits for 20 synthetic reagents and by-products, and a class-specific toxicology limit for alkyl bromides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercu, J P; Galloway, S M; Parris, P; Teasdale, A; Masuda-Herrera, M; Dobo, K; Heard, P; Kenyon, M; Nicolette, J; Vock, E; Ku, W; Harvey, J; White, A; Glowienke, S; Martin, E A; Custer, L; Jolly, R A; Thybaud, V

    2018-02-09

    This paper provides compound-specific toxicology limits for 20 widely used synthetic reagents and common by-products that are potential impurities in drug substances. In addition, a 15 μg/day class-specific limit was developed for monofunctional alkyl bromides, aligning this with the class-specific limit previously defined for monofunctional alkyl chlorides. Both the compound- and class-specific toxicology limits assume a lifetime chronic exposure for the general population (including sensitive subpopulations) by all routes of exposure for pharmaceuticals. Inhalation-specific toxicology limits were also derived for acrolein, formaldehyde, and methyl bromide because of their localized toxicity via that route. Mode of action was an important consideration for a compound-specific toxicology limit. Acceptable intake (AI) calculations for certain mutagenic carcinogens assumed a linear dose-response for tumor induction, and permissible daily exposure (PDE) determination assumed a non-linear dose-response. Several compounds evaluated have been previously incorrectly assumed to be mutagenic, or to be mutagenic carcinogens, but the evidence reported here for such compounds indicates a lack of mutagenicity, and a non-mutagenic mode of action for tumor induction. For non-mutagens with insufficient data to develop a toxicology limit, the ICH Q3A qualification thresholds are recommended. The compound- and class-specific toxicology limits described here may be adjusted for an individual drug substance based on treatment duration, dosing schedule, severity of the disease and therapeutic indication. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Potential value of phosphate compounds in enhancing immobilization and reducing bioavailability of mixed heavy metal contaminants in shooting range soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshadri, B; Bolan, N S; Choppala, G; Kunhikrishnan, A; Sanderson, P; Wang, H; Currie, L D; Tsang, Daniel C W; Ok, Y S; Kim, G

    2017-10-01

    Shooting range soils contain mixed heavy metal contaminants including lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and zinc (Zn). Phosphate (P) compounds have been used to immobilize these metals, particularly Pb, thereby reducing their bioavailability. However, research on immobilization of Pb's co-contaminants showed the relative importance of soluble and insoluble P compounds, which is critical in evaluating the overall success of in situ stabilization practice in the sustainable remediation of mixed heavy metal contaminated soils. Soluble synthetic P fertilizer (diammonium phosphate; DAP) and reactive (Sechura; SPR) and unreactive (Christmas Island; CPR) natural phosphate rocks (PR) were tested for Cd, Pb and Zn immobilization and later their mobility and bioavailability in a shooting range soil. The addition of P compounds resulted in the immobilization of Cd, Pb and Zn by 1.56-76.2%, 3.21-83.56%, and 2.31-74.6%, respectively. The reactive SPR significantly reduced Cd, Pb and Zn leaching while soluble DAP increased their leachate concentrations. The SPR reduced the bioaccumulation of Cd, Pb and Zn in earthworms by 7.13-23.4% and 14.3-54.6% in comparison with earthworms in the DAP and control treatment, respectively. Bioaccessible Cd, Pb and Zn concentrations as determined using a simplified bioaccessibility extraction test showed higher long-term stability of P-immobilized Pb and Zn than Cd. The differential effect of P-induced immobilization between P compounds and metals is due to the variation in the solubility characteristics of P compounds and nature of metal phosphate compounds formed. Therefore, Pb and Zn immobilization by P compounds is an effective long-term remediation strategy for mixed heavy metal contaminated soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Structure and Potential Cellular Targets of HAMLET-like Anti-Cancer Compounds made from Milk Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Emma M; Duff, Anthony P; Håkansson, Anders P; Vacher, Catherine S; Liu, Guo Jun; Knott, Robert B; Church, William Bret

    2015-01-01

    The HAMLET family of compounds (Human Alpha-lactalbumin Made Lethal to Tumours) was discovered during studies on the properties of human milk, and is a class of protein-lipid complexes having broad spectrum anti-cancer, and some specific anti-bacterial properties. The structure of HAMLET-like compounds consists of an aggregation of partially unfolded protein making up the majority of the compound's mass, with fatty acid molecules bound in the hydrophobic core. This is a novel protein-lipid structure and has only recently been derived by small-angle X-ray scattering analysis. The structure is the basis of a novel cytotoxicity mechanism responsible for anti-cancer activity to all of the around 50 different cancer cell types for which the HAMLET family has been trialled. Multiple cytotoxic mechanisms have been hypothesised for the HAMLET-like compounds, but it is not yet clear which of those are the initiating cytotoxic mechanism(s) and which are subsequent activities triggered by the initiating mechanism(s). In addition to the studies into the structure of these compounds, this review presents the state of knowledge of the anti-cancer aspects of HAMLET-like compounds, the HAMLET-induced cytotoxic activities to cancer and non-cancer cells, and the several prospective cell membrane and intracellular targets of the HAMLET family. The emerging picture is that HAMLET-like compounds initiate their cytotoxic effects on what may be a cancer-specific target in the cell membrane that has yet to be identified. This article is open to POST-PUBLICATION REVIEW. Registered readers (see "For Readers") may comment by clicking on ABSTRACT on the issue's contents page.

  12. Molecular docking and ADME-toxicity studies of potential compounds of medicinal plants grown in Indonesia as an anti-rheumatoid arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awaluddin, Rizki; Muhtadi, Wildan Khairi; Chabib, Lutfi; Ikawati, Zullies; Martien, Ronny; Ismail, Hilda

    2017-03-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease with recurrent bone destruction around the joints that could lead to permanent joint damage. DMARDs (Disease Modifying Anti-Rheumatoid Drugs) and NSAIDs (Non-Steroid Anti-Inflammatory Drugs) are the RA therapies with many side effects on long term use. Based on the ethnomedicine, there are many plants that could be found in Indonesia that contain the potential compounds as alternative RA therapies. The aim of this study is to assess the potential of compounds of various medicinal plants against multiple proteins that play an important role on RA through the molecular docking study and pharmacokinetic prediction. Hesperidin, EGCG (Epigallocatechin gallate), and mangiferin showed higher activity compared to the other compounds against TACE (TNF-α converting enzyme) which play an important role in the inhibition of TNF-α. Inhibition on it could suppress macrophage cell and T-cell activity by suppressing the regulation of cytokine secretion against inflammation. Furthermore, hesperidin, EGCG, and mangiferin did not show effects on CYP450 (cytochrome P450). Modification of drug delivery system must be done to increase the bioavailability of the compounds. It can be concluded that hesperidin, EGCG, and mangiferin are potential to be developed as an RA therapy with a modification of drug delivery system. This study suggest the encapsulation method using liposome as the drug carrier, which is suitable with the charactheristic of hesperidine, EGCG, and mangiferin.

  13. Ultrahigh Capacity Due to Multi-Electron Conversion Reaction in Reduced Graphene Oxide-Wrapped MoO2 Porous Nanobelts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wei; Peng, Cheng Xin; Nai, Chang Tai; Su, Jie; Liu, Yan Peng; Reddy, M V Venkatashamy; Lin, Ming; Loh, Kian Ping

    2015-05-01

    Multivalent transition metal oxides (MOx ) containing redox centers which can theoretically accept more than one electron have been suggested as promising anode materials for high-performance lithium ion batteries (LIBs). The Li-storage mechanism of these oxides is suggested to involve an unusual conversion reaction leading to the formation of metallic nanograins and Li2 O; however, a full-scale conversion reaction is seldom observed in molybdenum dioxide (MoO2 ) at room temperature due to slow kinetics. Herein, a full-scale multi-electron conversion reaction, leading to a high reversible capacity (974 mA h g(-1) charging capacity at 60 mA g(-1) ) in LIBs, is realized in a hybrid consisting of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheet-wrapped MoO2 porous nanobelts (rGO/MoO2 NBs). The rGO wrapping layers stabilize the nanophase transition in MoO2 and alleviate volume swing effects during lithiation/delithiation processes. This enables the hybrid to exhibit great cycle stability (tested to around 1900 cycles) and ultrafast rate capability (tested up to 50 A g(-1) ). © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Discovery of a potential lead compound for treating leprosy with dapsone resistance mutation in M. leprae folP1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisha, J; Ramanathan, K; Nawaz Khan, F; Dhanasekaran, D; Shanthi, V

    2016-06-21

    Dapsone resistance is a serious impediment to the implementation of the present leprosy control strategies. In the recent past, many studies have been undertaken to address the antibiotic activity and binding pattern of dapsone against both native and mutant (Pro55Leu) folP1. Yet, there is no well-developed structural basis for understanding drug action and there is dire need for new antibacterial therapies. In the present study, molecular simulation techniques were employed alongside experimental strategies to address and overcome the mechanism of dapsone resistance. In essence, we report the identification of small molecule compounds to effectively and specifically inhibit the growth of M. leprae through targeting dihydropteroate synthase, encoded by folP1 which is involved in folic acid synthesis. Initially, ADME and toxicity studies were employed to screen the lead compounds, using dapsone as standard drug. Subsequently, molecular docking was employed to understand the binding efficiency of dapsone and its lead compounds against folP1. Further, the activity of the screened lead molecule was studied by means of molecular dynamics simulation techniques. Furthermore, we synthesized 4-(2-fluorophenylsulfonyl)benzenamine, using (2-fluorophenyl)boronic acid and 4-aminobenzenesulfonyl chloride, and the compound structure was confirmed by (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR spectroscopic techniques. Most importantly, the antibacterial activity of the compound was also examined and compared against dapsone. Overall, the result from our analysis suggested that CID21480113 (4-(2-fluorophenylsulfonyl)benzenamine) could be developed into a promising lead compound and could be effective in treating dapsone resistant leprosy cases.

  15. Evaluation of antioxidant potential, enzyme inhibition activity and phenolic profile of Lathyrus cicera and Lathyrus digitatus: Potential sources of bioactive compounds for the food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorent-Martínez, E J; Ortega-Barrales, P; Zengin, G; Mocan, A; Simirgiotis, M J; Ceylan, R; Uysal, S; Aktumsek, A

    2017-09-01

    The genus Lathyrus has great importance in terms of food and agricultural areas. In this study, the in vitro antioxidant activity (phosphomolybdenum, DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, CUPRAC and metal chelating) and enzyme inhibitory activity evaluation (acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, α-amylase and α-glucosidase) of L. cicera and L. digitatus were investigated, as well as their phytochemical profiles. The screening of the main phytochemical compounds in aerial parts of L. cicera and L. digitatus was carried out by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization mass spectrometric detection (HPLC-ESI-MS(n)), observing that flavonoids represent the highest percentage of identified compounds, with abundance of tri- and tetra-glycosilated flavonoids, including acylated ones, especially in L. cicera. Generally, L. digitatus exhibited stronger antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities in correlation with its higher level of phenolics. The high number of phenolic compounds and the results of the antioxidant and enzyme assays suggest that these plants may be further used as sources of bioactive compounds, and for the preparation of new nutraceuticals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Ab initio calculations on 2-imidazolyl-2-thiazolyl azo compounds - an investigation of potential near-infrared absorbing structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åstrand, P.-O.; Bak, K.L.; Sauer, S.P.A.

    2001-01-01

    The two lowest singlet excitation energies of 26 2-imidazolyl-2-thiazolylazo compounds have been investigated by ab initio methods within the second-order polarization propagator approximation (SOPPA). Various combinations of 4- and 5-substituents at both the imidazole and thiazole units have bee...

  17. Potential of LC Coupled to Fluorescence Detection in Food Metabolomics: Determination of Phenolic Compounds in Virgin Olive Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina P. Monasterio

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A powerful chromatographic method coupled to a fluorescence detector was developed to determine the phenolic compounds present in virgin olive oil (VOO, with the aim to propose an appropriate alternative to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. An excitation wavelength of 285 nm was selected and four different emission wavelengths (316, 328, 350 and 450 nm were simultaneously recorded, working therefore on “multi-emission” detection mode. With the use of commercially available standards and other standards obtained by semipreparative high performance liquid chromatography, it was possible to identify simple phenols, lignans, several complex phenols, and other phenolic compounds present in the matrix under study. A total of 26 phenolic compounds belonging to different chemical families were identified (23 of them were susceptible of being quantified. The proposed methodology provided detection and quantification limits within the ranges of 0.004–7.143 μg·mL−1 and 0.013–23.810 μg·mL−1, respectively. As far as the repeatability is concerned, the relative standard deviation values were below 0.43% for retention time, and 9.05% for peak area. The developed methodology was applied for the determination of phenolic compounds in ten VOOs, both monovarietals and blends. Secoiridoids were the most abundant fraction in all the samples, followed by simple phenolic alcohols, lignans, flavonoids, and phenolic acids (being the abundance order of the latter chemical classes logically depending on the variety and origin of the VOOs.

  18. Investigating the potential of selected natural compounds to increase the potency of pyrethrum against houseflies Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joffe, Tanya; Gunning, Robin V; Allen, Geoff R

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A study was undertaken to determine the efficacy of seven natural compounds compared with piperonyl butoxide (PBO) in synergising pyrethrum, with the intention of formulating an effective natural synergist with pyrethrum for use in the organic crop market. RESULTS: Discriminating dose...

  19. Potential of LC Coupled to Fluorescence Detection in Food Metabolomics: Determination of Phenolic Compounds in Virgin Olive Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monasterio, Romina P; Olmo-García, Lucía; Bajoub, Aadil; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Carrasco-Pancorbo, Alegría

    2016-09-24

    A powerful chromatographic method coupled to a fluorescence detector was developed to determine the phenolic compounds present in virgin olive oil (VOO), with the aim to propose an appropriate alternative to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. An excitation wavelength of 285 nm was selected and four different emission wavelengths (316, 328, 350 and 450 nm) were simultaneously recorded, working therefore on "multi-emission" detection mode. With the use of commercially available standards and other standards obtained by semipreparative high performance liquid chromatography, it was possible to identify simple phenols, lignans, several complex phenols, and other phenolic compounds present in the matrix under study. A total of 26 phenolic compounds belonging to different chemical families were identified (23 of them were susceptible of being quantified). The proposed methodology provided detection and quantification limits within the ranges of 0.004-7.143 μg·mL(-1) and 0.013-23.810 μg·mL(-1), respectively. As far as the repeatability is concerned, the relative standard deviation values were below 0.43% for retention time, and 9.05% for peak area. The developed methodology was applied for the determination of phenolic compounds in ten VOOs, both monovarietals and blends. Secoiridoids were the most abundant fraction in all the samples, followed by simple phenolic alcohols, lignans, flavonoids, and phenolic acids (being the abundance order of the latter chemical classes logically depending on the variety and origin of the VOOs).

  20. Structure Based Virtual Screening Studies to Identify Novel Potential Compounds for GPR142 and Their Relative Dynamic Analysis for Study of Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aman C. Kaushik

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available GPR142 (G protein receptor 142 is a novel orphan GPCR (G protein coupled receptor belonging to “Class A” of GPCR family and expressed in β cells of pancreas. In this study, we reported the structure based virtual screening to identify the hit compounds which can be developed as leads for potential agonists. The results were validated through induced fit docking, pharmacophore modeling, and system biology approaches. Since, there is no solved crystal structure of GPR142, we attempted to predict the 3D structure followed by validation and then identification of active site using threading and ab initio methods. Also, structure based virtual screening was performed against a total of 1171519 compounds from different libraries and only top 20 best hit compounds were screened and analyzed. Moreover, the biochemical pathway of GPR142 complex with screened compound2 was also designed and compared with experimental data. Interestingly, compound2 showed an increase in insulin production via Gq mediated signaling pathway suggesting the possible role of novel GPR142 agonists in therapy against type 2 diabetes.

  1. New UPLC coupled to mass spectrometry approaches for screening of non-volatile compounds as potential migrants from adhesives used in food packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canellas, E; Nerín, C; Moore, R; Silcock, P

    2010-05-07

    The objective of this study was to identify the non-volatile compounds as potential migrants from adhesives used in food packaging. A number of the current acrylic adhesive formulations were extracted and prepared for analysis. The extracts were screened using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a time-of-flight mass spectrometer detector (UPLC-TOF-MS). This approach allowed the identification of several components by a combination of exact mass and in-source collision induced dissociation (CID). Due to the lack of freely available information on adhesive formulations further analyses were undertaken using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to high definition mass spectrometry (UPLC-HDMS). Using the Mass Fragment tool to interrogate fragmentation data, a wide series of compounds were identified, demonstrating the usefulness and importance of these tools for difficult problems. Moreover, using several packaging materials containing adhesives, qualitative migration tests were performed with Tenax as a food simulant. Several non-volatile compounds were identified as well in the Tenax which emphasizes the importance of this work and demonstrates that even the non-volatile compounds have the potential to migrate into food which is in contact with packaging materials. The main characteristics of the screening study and the results obtained are shown and discussed. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Potentialities of a membrane reactor with laccase grafted membranes for the enzymatic degradation of phenolic compounds in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chea, Vorleak; Paolucci-Jeanjean, Delphine; Sanchez, José; Belleville, Marie-Pierre

    2014-10-06

    This paper describes the degradation of phenolic compounds by laccases from Trametes versicolor in an enzymatic membrane reactor (EMR). The enzymatic membranes were prepared by grafting laccase on a gelatine layer previously deposited onto α-alumina tubular membranes. The 2,6-dimethoxyphenol (DMP) was selected  from among the three different phenolic compounds tested (guaiacol, 4-chlorophenol and DMP) to study the performance of the EMR in dead end configuration. At the lowest feed substrate concentration tested (100 mg·L-1), consumption increased with flux (up to 7.9 × 103 mg·h-1·m-2 at 128 L·h-1·m-2), whereas at the highest substrate concentration (500 mg·L-1), it was shown that the reaction was limited by the oxygen content.

  3. Potentialities of a Membrane Reactor with Laccase Grafted Membranes for the Enzymatic Degradation of Phenolic Compounds in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorleak Chea

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the degradation of phenolic compounds by laccases from Trametes versicolor in an enzymatic membrane reactor (EMR. The enzymatic membranes were prepared by grafting laccase on a gelatine layer previously deposited onto α-alumina tubular membranes. The 2,6-dimethoxyphenol (DMP was selected  from among the three different phenolic compounds tested (guaiacol, 4-chlorophenol and DMP to study the performance of the EMR in dead end configuration. At the lowest feed substrate concentration tested (100 mg·L−1, consumption increased with flux (up to 7.9 × 103 mg·h−1·m−2 at 128 L·h−1·m−2, whereas at the highest substrate concentration (500 mg·L−1, it was shown that the reaction was limited by the oxygen content.

  4. Antidiabetic potential: in vitro inhibition effects of some natural phenolic compounds on α-glycosidase and α-amylase enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taslimi, Parham; Gulçin, İlhami

    2017-10-01

    α-Glycosidase is a catalytic enzyme and it destroys the complex carbohydrates into simple absorbable sugar units. The natural phenolic compounds were tested for their antidiabetic properties as α-glycosidase and α-amylase inhibitors. The phenolic compounds investigated in this study have been used as antidiabetic common medicines. This paper aimed to consider their capability to inhibit α-amylase and α-glycosidase, two significant enzymes defined in serum glucose adjustment. These examination recorded impressive inhibition profiles with IC50 values in the range of 137.36-737.23 nM against α-amylase and 29.01-157.96 nM against α-glycosidase. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Structural, spectroscopic characterization of (E)-4-chloro-2-((4-methoxybenzylidene)amino)phenol as potential antioxidant compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şen, Fatih; Efil, Kürşat; Bekdemir, Yunus; Dinçer, Muharrem

    2017-01-01

    A new imine derivative, (E)-4-chloro-2-((4-methoxybenzylidene)amino)phenol has been synthesized from the reaction of 4-Anisaldehyde with benzoyl 2-Amino-4-chlorophenol. The results of a combined experimental and DFT investigations of the structural and spectroscopic properties of the title compound are given. The crystal and molecular investigations are performed by X-ray diffraction and spectral results obtained by IR, NMR and UV-Vis spectrometers. The structural geometry, vibration frequencies, 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts, UV-Vis spectral analysis and HOMO-LUMO of molecule in the ground state have been also calculated using the density functional theory (DFT) employing B3LYP exchange correlation with the 6-311G+(d, p) basis set, and check aganist the experimental data. The stability of antioxidant at different concentrations of compound are evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical method and determined its specific absorbance properties.

  6. Potentialities of a Membrane Reactor with Laccase Grafted Membranes for the Enzymatic Degradation of Phenolic Compounds in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chea, Vorleak; Paolucci-Jeanjean, Delphine; Sanchez, José; Belleville, Marie-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the degradation of phenolic compounds by laccases from Trametes versicolor in an enzymatic membrane reactor (EMR). The enzymatic membranes were prepared by grafting laccase on a gelatine layer previously deposited onto α-alumina tubular membranes. The 2,6-dimethoxyphenol (DMP) was selected  from among the three different phenolic compounds tested (guaiacol, 4-chlorophenol and DMP) to study the performance of the EMR in dead end configuration. At the lowest feed substrate concentration tested (100 mg·L−1), consumption increased with flux (up to 7.9 × 103 mg·h−1·m−2 at 128 L·h−1·m−2), whereas at the highest substrate concentration (500 mg·L−1), it was shown that the reaction was limited by the oxygen content. PMID:25295628

  7. Identification of a gene expression core signature for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) via integrative analysis reveals novel potential compounds for treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Ichim-Moreno, Norú

    2010-05-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a recessive X-linked form of muscular dystrophy and one of the most prevalent genetic disorders of childhood. DMD is characterized by rapid progression of muscle degeneration, and ultimately death. Currently, glucocorticoids are the only available treatment for DMD, but they have been shown to result in serious side effects. The purpose of this research was to define a core signature of gene expression related to DMD via integrative analysis of mouse and human datasets. This core signature was subsequently used to screen for novel potential compounds that antagonistically affect the expression of signature genes. With this approach we were able to identify compounds that are 1) already used to treat DMD, 2) currently under investigation for treatment, and 3) so far unknown but promising candidates. Our study highlights the potential of meta-analyses through the combination of datasets to unravel previously unrecognized associations and reveal new relationships. © IEEE.

  8. OH reactivity and potential SOA yields from volatile organic compounds and other trace gases measured in controlled laboratory biomass burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. B. Gilman; C. Warneke; W. C. Kuster; P. D. Goldan; P. R. Veres; J. M. Roberts; J. A. de Gouw; I. R. Burling; R. J. Yokelson

    2010-01-01

    A comprehensive suite of instruments were used to characterize volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and other trace gases (e.g., CO, CH4, NO2, etc.) emitted from controlled burns of various fuel types common to the Southeastern and Southwestern United States. These laboratory-based measurements were conducted in February 2009 at the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Fire...

  9. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants of Laos toward the discovery of bioactive compounds as potential candidates for pharmaceutical development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soejarto, D.D.; Gyllenhaal, C.; Kadushin, M.R.; Southavong, B.; Sydara, K.; Bouamanivong, S.; Xaiveu, M.; Zhang, H.-J.; Franzblau, S.G.; Tan, Ghee T.; Pezzuto, J.M.; Riley, M.C.; Elkington, B.G.; Waller, D.P.

    2012-01-01

    Context An ethnobotany-based approach in the selection of raw plant materials to study was implemented. Objective To acquire raw plant materials using ethnobotanical field interviews as starting point to discover new bioactive compounds from medicinal plants of the Lao People’s Democratic Republic. Methods Using semi-structured field interviews with healers in the Lao PDR, plant samples were collected, extracted, and bio-assayed to detect bioactivity against cancer, HIV/AIDS, TB, malaria. Plant species demonstrating activity were recollected and the extracts subjected to a bioassay-guided isolation protocol to isolate and identify the active compounds. Results Field interviews with 118 healers in 15 of 17 provinces of Lao PDR yielded 753 collections (573 species) with 955 plant samples. Of these 955, 50 extracts demonstrated activity in the anticancer, 10 in the anti-HIV, 30 in the anti-TB, and 52 in the antimalarial assay. Recollection of actives followed by bioassay-guided isolation processes yielded a series of new and known in vitro-active anticancer and antimalarial compounds from 5 species. Discussion Laos has a rich biodiversity, harboring an estimated 8000–11,000 species of plants. In a country highly dependent on traditional medicine for its primary health care, this rich plant diversity serves as a major source of their medication. Conclusions Ethnobotanical survey has demonstrated the richness of plant-based traditional medicine of Lao PDR, taxonomically and therapeutically. Biological assays of extracts of half of the 955 samples followed by in-depth studies of a number of actives have yielded a series of new bioactive compounds against the diseases of cancer and malaria. PMID:22136442

  10. Structural studies on meiosis-activating sterols and structurally related compounds : potential ligands of the FF-MAS receptor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    Meiosis Activating Sterols (MAS) are key regulatory factors in the meiotic cell cycle. Two compounds in this family, Follicular Fluid-MAS (FF-MAS or 4,4-dimethyl-5a-cholest-8,14,24-triene-3b-ol) and Testicular-MAS (T-MAS or 4,4-dimethyl-5a-cholest-8,14-diene-3b-ol), have been isolated and

  11. Antiperovskite compounds SbNSr{sub 3} and BiNSr{sub 3}: Potential candidates for thermoelectric renewable energy generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilal, M.; Saifullah,; Shafiq, M.; Khan, B. [Center for Computational Materials Science, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan); Department of Physics, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan); Rahnamaye Aliabad, H.A. [Department of Physics, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jalali Asadabadi, S. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Isfahan (UI), 81744 Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ahmad, Rashid [Department of Chemistry, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan); Ahmad, Iftikhar, E-mail: ahma5532@gmail.com [Center for Computational Materials Science, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan); Department of Physics, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan)

    2015-01-23

    This letter communicates thermoelectric properties of antiperovskites SbNSr{sub 3} and BiNSr{sub 3}, using ab-initio calculations. These compounds are identified as good transport materials for their narrow band gaps and dense electronic states near their Fermi levels. The peak values of Seebeck coefficient of 1590 and 1540 μV/K are observed for SbNSr{sub 3} and BiNSr{sub 3}, respectively in the p-type regions, at room temperature. The figure of merit approaches unity for both materials, while their thermal conductivities increase and electrical conductivities decrease with temperature. These theoretical studies predict that these antiperovskites could be efficient materials for thermoelectric generators and need further experimental and theoretical studies. - Highlights: • We report theoretical studies of the thermoelectric properties of antiperovskites SbNSr{sub 3} and BiNSr{sub 3}. • Both of these compounds have direct band gap nature. • These compounds have narrow band gaps and dense electronic states near the Fermi levels. • They have large Seebeck coefficients and high values of the figure of merit at room temperature. • These properties demonstrate the effectiveness of SbNSr{sub 3} and BiNSr{sub 3} in thermoelectric devices.

  12. In silico strategies for the selection of chelating compounds with potential application in metal-promoted neurodegenerative diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Cristina; Rimola, Albert; Alí-Torres, Jorge; Sodupe, Mariona; González-Duarte, Pilar

    2011-01-01

    The development of new strategies to find commercial molecules with promising biochemical features is a main target in the field of biomedicine chemistry. In this work we present an in silico-based protocol that allows identifying commercial compounds with suitable metal coordinating and pharmacokinetic properties to act as metal-ion chelators in metal-promoted neurodegenerative diseases (MpND). Selection of the chelating ligands is done by combining quantum chemical calculations with the search of commercial compounds on different databases via virtual screening. Starting from different designed molecular frameworks, which mainly constitute the binding site, the virtual screening on databases facilitates the identification of different commercial molecules that enclose such scaffolds and, by imposing a set of chemical and pharmacokinetic filters, obey some drug-like requirements mandatory to deal with MpND. The quantum mechanical calculations are useful to gauge the chelating properties of the selected candidate molecules by determining the structure of metal complexes and evaluating their stability constants. With the proposed strategy, commercial compounds containing N and S donor atoms in the binding sites and capable to cross the BBB have been identified and their chelating properties analyzed.

  13. SYNTHESIS, CRYSTAL STRUCTURE, SPECTROSCOPY PROPERTIES AND POTENTIAL ANTIMICROBIAL POTENTIALITIES OF A NEW SYNTHETIC COMPOUND: AMINO- CHLOROPYRIDINIUM DIAQUA DIOXALATO IRON(III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawher Abdelhak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We report herein the synthesis and the physicochemical characterization of a new mixed-ligand iron(III complex of formula (C5H6ClN2[Fe(C2O42(H2O2].2H2O. This compound has been prepared by slow evaporation at room temperature and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. It has been characterized by IR and UV-VIS spectra and thermal analysis (TG and DTA. In this compound, the iron ion has a slightly distorted square bipyramidal environment, coordinated by two chelating oxalate ion and two water molecules. Structural cohesion is established essentially by π-π interactions between the rings of pyridine groups and intermolecular hydrogen bonds connecting the ionic entities and uncoordinated water molecules. In vitro antimicrobial activities of the amino- chloropyridinium diaqua dioxalato iron (III against pathogenic fungi, yeast and bacteria were studied in this work. On the whole, our new compound has high antibacterial activities against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria innocua. The amino- chloropyridinium diaqua dioxalato iron (III used at 200µg m-1, can reduce Candida albicans survival of about 45.45%, and destruct hyphe mycelial of Trichophyton rubrum. High lysozyme activities were expressed especially against Listeria innocua with 17 times more than Staphylococcus aureus. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC are ranging from 16 µg ml-1 for bacteria to 256 µg ml-1 for yeast and IC50 values varying from 1.44 to 10.45 µg ml-1 for bacteria and 45.8 for yeast.

  14. Cosmos Caudatus as a Potential Source of Polyphenolic Compounds: Optimisation of Oven Drying Conditions and Characterisation of Its Functional Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Chin Ping Tan; Alfi Khatib; Faridah Abas; Ahmed Mediani

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the influence of oven thermal processing of Cosmos caudatus on the total polyphenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant capacity (DPPH) of two different solvent extracts (80% methanol, and 80% ethanol). Sonication was used to extract bioactive compounds from this herb. The results showed that the optimised conditions for the oven drying method for 80% methanol and 80% ethanol were 44.5 °C for 4 h with an IC50 of 0.045 mg/mL and 43.12 °C for 4.05 h with an IC50 ...

  15. Exploring bioactive properties of marine cyanobacteria isolated from the Portuguese coast: high potential as a source of anticancer compounds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Costa, Margarida; Garcia, Mónica; Costa-Rodrigues, João; Costa, Maria Sofia; Ribeiro, Maria João; Fernandes, Maria Helena; Barros, Piedade; Barreiro, Aldo; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Martins, Rosário

    .... In this study, the anticancer potential of extracts from twenty eight marine cyanobacteria strains, belonging to the underexplored picoplanktonic genera, Cyanobium, Synechocystis and Synechococcus...

  16. Experimental Pharmacological Research Regarding the Potential Antidepressant Activity Induced by Some Newly Synthesised Dibenzo[a,d]cycloheptene Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Ștefănescu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Depression is a relatively frequent encountered mental disorder in the general population, affecting both the quality of the individual life and its ability to perform the social tasks; it is generally accepted that new studies related to this pathologic condition are further necessary, in order to identify more adequate, efficient and accessible therapeutic compounds. Materials and methods. This study was performed on a sample of 60 white male mice, NMRI strain, who were divided into 6 groups of 10 animals and treated with 4 new derivatives of dibenzo [a, d] cycloheptene, amitriptyline as a reference substance, or with distilled water for the control group. The animals were tested in respect to the forced swim test, both before and at 2 hours after administration of the mentioned substances. It was determined thus the time of immobilization. Results. The study showed the fact that only two of the four investigated compounds presented a relatively similar antidepressant effect with the reference substance. Conclusions. Minor structural changes, such as modifications of some substitutes from the basic chemical core of the reference substance can decisively influence the conservation or loss of the antidepressant properties.

  17. Recently confirmed apoptosis-inducing lead compounds isolated from marine sponge of potential relevance in cancer treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Essack, Magbubah

    2011-09-20

    Despite intense efforts to develop non-cytotoxic anticancer treatments, effective agents are still not available. Therefore, novel apoptosis-inducing drug leads that may be developed into effective targeted cancer therapies are of interest to the cancer research community. Targeted cancer therapies affect specific aberrant apoptotic pathways that characterize different cancer types and, for this reason, it is a more desirable type of therapy than chemotherapy or radiotherapy, as it is less harmful to normal cells. In this regard, marine sponge derived metabolites that induce apoptosis continue to be a promising source of new drug leads for cancer treatments. A PubMed query from 01/01/2005 to 31/01/2011 combined with hand-curation of the retrieved articles allowed for the identification of 39 recently confirmed apoptosis-inducing anticancer lead compounds isolated from the marine sponge that are selectively discussed in this review. 2011 by the authors.

  18. Antiperovskite compounds SbNSr3 and BiNSr3: Potential candidates for thermoelectric renewable energy generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, M.; Saifullah; Shafiq, M.; Khan, B.; Rahnamaye Aliabad, H. A.; Jalali Asadabadi, S.; Ahmad, Rashid; Ahmad, Iftikhar

    2015-01-01

    This letter communicates thermoelectric properties of antiperovskites SbNSr3 and BiNSr3, using ab-initio calculations. These compounds are identified as good transport materials for their narrow band gaps and dense electronic states near their Fermi levels. The peak values of Seebeck coefficient of 1590 and 1540 μV/K are observed for SbNSr3 and BiNSr3, respectively in the p-type regions, at room temperature. The figure of merit approaches unity for both materials, while their thermal conductivities increase and electrical conductivities decrease with temperature. These theoretical studies predict that these antiperovskites could be efficient materials for thermoelectric generators and need further experimental and theoretical studies.

  19. Anti-obesity activity of Yamabushitake (Hericium erinaceus) powder in ovariectomized mice, and its potentially active compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraki, Eri; Furuta, Shoko; Kuwahara, Rika; Takemoto, Naomichi; Nagata, Toshiro; Akasaka, Taiki; Shirouchi, Bungo; Sato, Masao; Ohnuki, Koichiro; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2017-07-01

    Hericium erinaceus (H. erinaceus) improves the symptoms of menopause. In this study, using ovariectomized mice as a model of menopause, we investigated the anti-obesity effect of this mushroom in menopause. Mice fed diets containing H. erinaceus powder showed significant decreases in the amounts of fat tissue, plasma levels of total cholesterol, and leptin. To determine the mechanism, groups of mice were respectively fed a diet containing H. erinaceus powder, a diet containing ethanol extract of H. erinaceus, and a diet containing a residue of the extract. As a result, H. erinaceus powder was found to increase fecal lipid levels in excreted matter. Further in vitro investigation showed that ethanol extract inhibited the activity of lipase, and four lipase-inhibitory compounds were isolated from the extract: hericenone C, hericenone D, hericenone F, and hericenone G. In short, we suggest that H. erinaceus has an anti-obesity effect during menopause because it decreases the ability to absorb lipids.

  20. Graveoline Analogs Exhibiting Selective Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activity as Potential Lead Compounds for the Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study designed and synthesized a series of new graveoline analogs on the basis of the structural characteristics of acetylcholinesterase (AChE dual-site inhibitors. The activity of these analogs was also evaluated. Results showed that the synthesized graveoline analogs displayed stronger inhibitory activity against AChE and higher selectivity than butyrylcholine esterase (BuChE (Selectivity Index from 45 to 486. When the two sites in the graveoline parent ring substituting phenyl and amino terminal had six chemical bonds (n = 3 and the terminal amino was piperidine, compound 5c showed the best activity. Furthermore, the mechanism of action and binding mode were explored by enzyme kinetic simulation, molecular docking, and thioflavin T-based fluorometric assay. Cytotoxicity assay showed that the low concentration of the analogs did not affect the viability of the neurocyte SH-SY5Y.

  1. Compound-Specific δ¹⁵N and δ¹³C Analyses of Amino Acids for Potential Discrimination between Organically and Conventionally Grown Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolini, Mauro; Ziller, Luca; Laursen, Kristian Holst; Husted, Søren; Camin, Federica

    2015-07-01

    We present a study deploying compound-specific nitrogen and carbon isotope analysis of amino acids to discriminate between organically and conventionally grown plants. We focused on grain samples of common wheat and durum wheat grown using synthetic nitrogen fertilizers, animal manures, or green manures from nitrogen-fixing legumes. The measurement of amino acid δ(15)N and δ(13)C values, after protein hydrolysis and derivatization, was carried out using gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS). Our results demonstrated that δ(13)C of glutamic acid and glutamine in particular, but also the combination of δ(15)N and δ(13)C of 10 amino acids, can improve the discrimination between conventional and organic wheat compared to stable isotope bulk tissue analysis. We concluded that compound-specific stable isotope analysis of amino acids represents a novel analytical tool with the potential to support and improve the certification and control procedures in the organic sector.

  2. Development of a new adsorbent from agro-industrial waste and its potential use in endocrine disruptor compound removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rovani, Suzimara; Censi, Monique T.; Pedrotti, Sidnei L.; Lima, Éder C.; Cataluña, Renato; Fernandes, Andreia N., E-mail: andreia.fernandes@ufrgs.br

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Development of a new adsorbent from agro-industrial waste. • Characterization by chemical and spectroscopic methods. • Alternative for the treatment of effluents that contain estrogens. • The AC adsorbent was successfully employed as solid phase adsorbent for the preconcentration of E2 and EE2 from aqueous solutions. - Abstract: A new activated carbon (AC) material was prepared by pyrolysis of a mixture of coffee grounds, eucalyptus sawdust, calcium hydroxide and soybean oil at 800 °C. This material was used as adsorbent for the removal of the endocrine disruptor compounds 17β-estradiol (E2) and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) from aqueous solutions. The carbon material was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption curves and point of zero charge (pH{sub PZC}). Variables including the initial pH of the adsorbate solutions, adsorbent masses and contact time were optimized. The optimum range of initial pH for removal of endocrine disruptor compounds (EDC) was 2.0–11.0. The kinetics of adsorption were investigated using general order, pseudo first-order and pseudo-second order kinetic models. The Sips isotherm model gave the best fits of the equilibrium data (298 K). The maximum amounts of E2 and EE2 removed at 298 K were 7.584 (E2) and 7.883 mg g{sup −1} (EE2) using the AC as adsorbent. The carbon adsorbent was employed in SPE (solid phase extraction) of E2 and EE2 from aqueous solutions.

  3. Identification and growth optimization of a Marine Bacillus DK1-SA11 having potential of producing broad spectrum antimicrobial compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Naseem; Lin, Hong; Li, Meng; Wang, Jingxue; Mirani, Zulfiqar Ali; Khan, Seema Ismat; Buzdar, Muhammad Aslam; Ali, Imran; Jamil, Khalid

    2017-05-01

    Control of harmful bacteria in food, aquaculture, pharmaceuticals, agriculture, hospitals and recreation water pools are of great global concern. Marine bacteria are an enormous source of bio-controlling agents. The aim of this study was to identify and optimize the growth conditions including effect of different biotic and abiotic factors on antimicrobial activity of strain DK1-SA11 isolated from Qingdao Bay of China Yellow Sea. Microscopic characterization, API® 20E and 50 CHB kit base carbohydrates utilization, 16S rDNA and DNA gyrB gene sequencing studies identified the bacterium as Bacillus subtilis subsp. spizizenii DK1-SA11. Antimicrobial spectrum of cell free supernatant (CFS) has shown antimicrobial activities against all test strains including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli O157:H7, Candida albicans, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Listeria monocytogenes, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, E. coli, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Salmonella typhimurium and Vibrio cholerae. Among all the media tested, Marine Broth 2216 was found to be the best medium for bacterial growth and production of antibacterial compounds. The other optimum conditions for growth were pH:7 and incubation temperature: 25°C with tested, D-mannose increases the antibacterial activity by 33.3% while D-arabitol decreases it by 44.4%. Crude CFS showed activity even after three months of storage below -20°C and boiling for 10 min, whereas it loses 100% of its antimicrobial activity after enzymatic treatments of lipase, trypsin and papain. The production of antimicrobial compounds and broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against all tested pathogens suggested that the strain DK1-SA11 can be used as a source for probiotics, synbiotics and antibiotics.

  4. A Field Method For Determination of Groundwater and Groundwater-sediment Associated Potentials for Degradation of Xenobiotic Organic Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Henning; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Holm, Peter Engelund

    1992-01-01

    Determination of the degradation potentials for a mixture of eight organic trace contaminants (benzene, toluene, o-xylene, naphthalene, tetrachloromethane, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, trichloroethene, tetrachloroethene) has been made by specially developed in situ microcosms under aerobic and anaerobic...

  5. A New Family of Analytical Potential-Density Pairs for Galaxy Models Compound by Thin Disks and Spheroidal Halos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Y. F.; Pimentel, O. M.; González, G. A.

    2017-07-01

    A new family of three-dimensional Newtonian models for galaxies is constructed. The models describe a thin disk and a matter halo, whose gravitational potentials satisfies the equation (2) presented in Gonzalez & Pimentel (2016, Phys. Rev. D, 93, 044034), and therefore, they satisfy the energy conditions for a gravitational system. The expressions for the potential of the disk and the halo are obtained by applying the "displace, cut, and reflect" method to the solution of the Laplace equation in cylindrical coordinates. Analytical expressions that describe the rotation curves and the mass distributions in the disk and in the halo are computed for the first three models of the family of solutions. It is shown that the mass densities of the disks and the haloes present a maximum at the center of the system and go to zero at infinity. Finally, for some values of the free parameters, the obtained rotation curves present a flat region for larger values of the radial coordinate. The model was obtained considering the total gravitational potential, which satisfies the equation (2) imposed by Gonzalez & Pimentel (2016). The potential generated by the spheroidal halo of matter is constructed considering a multipolar expansion, expressed in cylindrical coordinates. As this solution of the Laplace equation a substitution is done so that the Laplacian is nonzero, the z coordinate (Kuzmin, 1956, AZh, 33; Toomre, 1963, ApJ, 138, 385). So the new potential satisfies Poisson equation and represents the distribution of three-dimensional material. From the gravitational potential analytical expressions were derived for the surface density of the disk, halo density of matter and from the rotation was derived. We found that the surface densities of the disks present a maximum at the center, vanishing at infinity; and the halo density is maximum at the disk surface, also vanishing at infinity. For some values of the parameters, the derived rotation curves present a flat region for

  6. An endophytic/pathogenic Phoma sp. from creosote bush producing biologically active volatile compounds having fuel potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobel, Gary; Singh, Sanjay K; Riyaz-Ul-Hassan, Syed; Mitchell, Angela M; Geary, Brad; Sears, Joe

    2011-07-01

    A Phoma sp. was isolated and characterized as endophytic and as a pathogen of Larrea tridentata (creosote bush) growing in the desert region of southern Utah, USA. This fungus produces a unique mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including a series of sesquiterpenoids, some alcohols and several reduced naphthalene derivatives. Trans-caryophyllene, a product in the fungal VOCs, was also noted in the VOCs of this pungent plant. The gases of Phoma sp. possess antifungal properties and is markedly similar to that of a methanolic extract of the host plant. Some of the test organisms with the greatest sensitivity to the Phoma sp. VOCs were Verticillium, Ceratocystis, Cercospora and Sclerotinia while those being the least sensitive were Trichoderma, Colletotrichum and Aspergillus. We discuss the possible involvement of VOC production by the fungus and its role in the biology/ecology of the fungus/plant/environmental relationship with implications for utilization as an energy source. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Potential of a Brown Microalga Cultivated in High Salt Medium for the Production of High-Value Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukhris, Saoussan; Athmouni, Khaled; Hamza-Mnif, Ibtissem; Siala-Elleuch, Rayda; Ayadi, Habib; Nasri, Moncef

    2017-01-01

    Amphora sp. was isolated from the Sfax Solar Saltern and cultivated under hypersaline conditions. It contains moderate rates of proteins, lipids, sugars, and minerals and a prominent content of bioactive compounds: polyphenols, chlorophyll a, carotenoids, and fatty acids. The analysis of fatty acids with GC/MS showed that the C16 series accounted for about 75% of Amphora sp. lipids. Saturated fatty acids whose palmitic acid was the most important (27.41%) represented 41.31%. Amphora sp. was found to be rich in monounsaturated fatty acids with dominance of palmitoleic acid. It also contains a significant percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids with a high amount of eicosapentaenoic acid (2.36%). Among the various solvents used, ethanol at 80% extracted the highest amounts of phenols and flavonoids that were 38.27 mg gallic acid equivalent and 17.69 mg catechin equivalent g−1 of dried extract, respectively. Using various in vitro assays including DPPH and ABTS radicals methods, reducing power assay, and β-carotene bleaching assay, the 80% ethanolic extract showed high antioxidant activity. A strong antibacterial activity was checked against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus) and Gram-negative bacteria (Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella enterica). These results are in favor of Amphora sp. valorization in aquaculture and food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:28612024

  8. Chitosan-based film supported copper nanoparticles: A potential and reusable catalyst for the reduction of aromatic nitro compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Jaqueline F; da Silva, Gabriela T; Fajardo, André R

    2017-04-01

    In this study, copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) were synthesized and stabilized into a chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol) (CP) based film using a simple protocol under mild conditions. The polymeric matrix utilized in this study allows synthesizing stable nanoparticle with narrow size distribution within the film matrix. Further, this system showed very attractive properties, such as good mechanical properties, chemical resistance, easy handling during use and recovery, relatively low-cost as compared to other similar systems, among others. The catalytic performance of CP-Cu film was tested in the reduction reaction of nitrobenzene (NB) to aniline (AN). Our findings reveal that CP-Cu film catalyzes the reaction efficiently and also decreases the energy of activation (Ea) as compared to other catalysts. The catalytic efficiency of CP-Cu regarding this reaction was kept even after 6 consecutive reuse cycles. All these results rank this novel system as a promising catalyst in the reduction of aromatic nitro compounds to aromatic amines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Potential of a Brown Microalga Cultivated in High Salt Medium for the Production of High-Value Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saoussan Boukhris

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Amphora sp. was isolated from the Sfax Solar Saltern and cultivated under hypersaline conditions. It contains moderate rates of proteins, lipids, sugars, and minerals and a prominent content of bioactive compounds: polyphenols, chlorophyll a, carotenoids, and fatty acids. The analysis of fatty acids with GC/MS showed that the C16 series accounted for about 75% of Amphora sp. lipids. Saturated fatty acids whose palmitic acid was the most important (27.41% represented 41.31%. Amphora sp. was found to be rich in monounsaturated fatty acids with dominance of palmitoleic acid. It also contains a significant percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids with a high amount of eicosapentaenoic acid (2.36%. Among the various solvents used, ethanol at 80% extracted the highest amounts of phenols and flavonoids that were 38.27 mg gallic acid equivalent and 17.69 mg catechin equivalent g−1 of dried extract, respectively. Using various in vitro assays including DPPH and ABTS radicals methods, reducing power assay, and β-carotene bleaching assay, the 80% ethanolic extract showed high antioxidant activity. A strong antibacterial activity was checked against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus and Gram-negative bacteria (Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella enterica. These results are in favor of Amphora sp. valorization in aquaculture and food and pharmaceutical industries.

  10. nfluence of reducing and oxidizing compounds and of the redox potential of the medium on the biomass of Scenedesmus quadricauda (Turp. Breb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Gumiński

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence was investigated of several concentrations of the reducing agents: cysteine, glutathione, ascorbic acid, pyracatechol and of the oxidizing agents: KMnO4, K4Cr2O7 and H2O2 on the total dry weight increment and that of protein with reference to redox potential changes of the medium in Scenedesmus quadricauda cultures. The culture was run in a photothermostat. It was found that the reducing compounds had as a rule a stimulating influence under 24-h illumdnation, whereas the oxidilzing agents gave the same effect when a period of 7-h darkness was applied within 24 h.

  11. The Extrusion Process as an Alternative for Improving the Biological Potential of Sorghum Bran: Phenolic Compounds and Antiradical and Anti-Inflammatory Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Julieta Salazar Lopez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 80% of sorghum phenolic compounds are linked to arabinoxylans by ester bonds, which are capable of resisting the digestion process in the upper gastrointestinal tract, compromising their bioaccessibility and biological potential. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the extrusion process on the content of phenolic compounds in sorghum bran and its impact on phenolic compounds and antiradical and anti-inflammatory capacity. Results revealed that the extrusion process increased total phenol content in sorghum bran compared to nonextruded sorghum, particularly for extrusion at 180°C with 20% moisture content (2.0222±0.0157 versus 3.0729±0.0187 mg GAE/g +52%, which positively affected antiradical capacity measured by the DPPH and TEAC assays. The percentage of inhibition of nitric oxide (NO production by RAW cells due to the presence of extruded sorghum bran extract was significantly higher than that of nonextruded sorghum bran extract (90.2±1.9% versus 76.2±1.3%. The results suggest that extruded sorghum bran could be used as a functional ingredient and provide advantages to consumers by reducing diseases related to oxidative stress and inflammation.

  12. Identification of Potential Off-target Toxicity Liabilities of Catechol-O-methyltransferase Inhibitors by Differential Competition Capture Compound Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Kleist, Lisa; Michaelis, Simon; Bartho, Kathrin; Graebner, Olivia; Schlief, Marén; Dreger, Mathias; Schrey, Anna K; Sefkow, Michael; Kroll, Friedrich; Koester, Hubert; Luo, Yan

    2016-05-26

    Structurally related inhibitors of a shared therapeutic target may differ regarding potential toxicity issues that are caused by different off-target bindings. We devised a differential competition capture compound mass spectrometry (dCCMS) strategy to effectively differentiate off-target profiles. Tolcapone and entacapone are potent inhibitors of catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Tolcapone is also known for its hepatotoxic side effects even though it is therapeutically more potent than entacapone. Here, we identified 3-hydroxyisobutyryl-CoA hydrolase (HIBCH) as a possible toxicity-causing off-target of tolcapone, and this protein is not bound by the less toxic COMT inhibitor entacapone. Moreover, two novel compounds from a focused library synthesized in-house, N(2),N(2),N(3),N(3)-tetraethyl-6,7-dihydroxy-5-nitronaphthalene-2,3-dicarboxamide and 5-(3,4-dihydroxy-5-nitrobenzylidene)-3-ethylthiazolidine-2,4-dione, were utilized to gain insight into the structure-activity relationships in binding to COMT and the novel off-target HIBCH. These compounds, especially N(2),N(2),N(3),N(3)-tetraethyl-6,7-dihydroxy-5-nitronaphthalene-2,3-dicarboxamide, could serve as starting point for the development of improved and more specific COMT inhibitors.

  13. Exploring the inhibitory potential of bioactive compound from Luffa acutangula against NF-κB-A molecular docking and dynamics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramar, Vanajothi; Pappu, Srinivasan

    2016-06-01

    Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) is a transcription factor, plays a crucial role in the regulation of various physiological processes such as differentiation, cell proliferation and apoptosis. It also coordinates the expression of various soluble proinflammatory mediators like cytokines and chemokines. The 1, 8-dihydroxy-4-methylanthracene-9, 10-dione (DHMA) was isolated from Luffa acutangala and its in vitro cytotoxic activity against NCI-H460 cells was reported earlier. It also effectively induces apoptosis through suppressing the expression NF-κB protein. Based on experimental evidence, the binding affinity of compound 1 with NF-κB p50 (monomer) and NF-κB-DNA was investigated using molecular docking and its stability was confirmed through molecular dynamic simulation. The reactivity of the compound was evaluated using density functional theory (DFT) calculation. From the docking results, we noticed that the hydroxyl group of DHMA forms hydrogen bond interactions with polar and negatively charged amino acid Tyr57 and Asp239 and the protein-ligand complex was stabilized through pi-pi stacking with the help of polar amino acid His114, which plays a key role in binding of NF-κB to DNA at a site of DNA-binding region (DBR). The result indicates that the isolated bioactive compound DHMA might have altered the binding affinity between DNA and NF-κB. These findings suggest that potential use of DHMA in cancer chemoprevention and therapeutics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Antiviral Potential of a Novel Compound CW-33 against Enterovirus A71 via Inhibition of Viral 2A Protease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Ying Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71 in the Picornaviridae family causes hand-foot-and-mouth disease, aseptic meningitis, severe central nervous system disease, even death. EV-A71 2A protease cleaves Type I interferon (IFN-α/β receptor 1 (IFNAR1 to block IFN-induced Jak/STAT signaling. This study investigated anti-EV-A7l activity and synergistic mechanism(s of a novel furoquinoline alkaloid compound CW-33 alone and in combination with IFN-β Anti-EV-A71 activities of CW-33 alone and in combination with IFN-β were evaluated by inhibitory assays of virus-induced apoptosis, plaque formation, and virus yield. CW-33 showed antiviral activities with an IC50 of near 200 µM in EV-A71 plaque reduction and virus yield inhibition assays. While, anti-EV-A71 activities of CW-33 combined with 100 U/mL IFN-β exhibited a synergistic potency with an IC50 of approximate 1 µM in plaque reduction and virus yield inhibition assays. Molecular docking revealed CW-33 binding to EV-A71 2A protease active sites, correlating with an inhibitory effect of CW33 on in vitro enzymatic activity of recombinant 2A protease IC50 = 53.1 µM. Western blotting demonstrated CW-33 specifically inhibiting 2A protease-mediated cleavage of IFNAR1. CW-33 also recovered Type I IFN-induced Tyk2 and STAT1 phosphorylation as well as 2',5'-OAS upregulation in EV-A71 infected cells. The results demonstrated CW-33 inhibiting viral 2A protease activity to reduce Type I IFN antagonism of EV-A71. Therefore, CW-33 combined with a low-dose of Type I IFN could be applied in developing alternative approaches to treat EV-A71 infection.

  15. Interactions between a sap beetle, sabal palm, scale insect, filamentous fungi and yeast, with discovery of potential antifungal compounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R Cline

    Full Text Available The multi-trophic relationship between insects, yeast, and filamentous fungi is reported on sabal palm (Sabal palmetto (Walter Lodd. ex Schult. & Schult. f.. Gut content analyses and observations of adult and larval feeding of the sap beetle Brachypeplus glaber LeConte indicate that niche partitioning of fungal food substrata occurs between adults and larvae. This is the first report of specific mycophagous niche partitioning among beetle life stages based on gut content analyses. Fungi isolated from the beetle gut of adults, larvae, and pupae include species of Fusarium Link, Cladosporium Link, and Penicillium Link, which were differentially ingested by larvae and adults; Fusarium solani and Penicillium species in larvae, whereas F. oxysoproum, F. verticillioides, and Cladosporium in adults. These data indicate the first species-level host data for Brachypeplus Erichson species. Fusarium proliferatum (Matsush. Nirenberg was the most commonly occurring fungal gut component, being isolated from the palm as well as gut of larvae, pupae, and adults; representing a commonly shared food resource. One species of yeast, Meyerozyma caribbica (Vaughan-Mart. et al. Kurtzman & Suzuki (basionym = Pichia caribbica, was isolated from all life stages and is likely responsible for anti-fungal properties observed in the pupae and represents a promising source of antifungal compounds; rearing and diagnostic protocols are provided to aid biomedical researchers. Feeding and cleaning behaviors are documented using time-lapse video-micrography, and discussed in a behavioral and functional morphological context. Adults spent long periods feeding, often >1/3 of the two-hour observation period. A generic adult body posture was observed during feeding, and included substrate antennation before and after ingestion. Adult grooming behaviors were manifested in distinct antennal and tarsal cleaning mechanisms. Larval behaviors were different from adults, and larvae feeding

  16. Interactions between a sap beetle, sabal palm, scale insect, filamentous fungi and yeast, with discovery of potential antifungal compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Andrew R; Skelley, Paul E; Kinnee, Scott A; Rooney-Latham, Suzanne; Winterton, Shaun L; Borkent, Christopher J; Audisio, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The multi-trophic relationship between insects, yeast, and filamentous fungi is reported on sabal palm (Sabal palmetto (Walter) Lodd. ex Schult. & Schult. f.). Gut content analyses and observations of adult and larval feeding of the sap beetle Brachypeplus glaber LeConte indicate that niche partitioning of fungal food substrata occurs between adults and larvae. This is the first report of specific mycophagous niche partitioning among beetle life stages based on gut content analyses. Fungi isolated from the beetle gut of adults, larvae, and pupae include species of Fusarium Link, Cladosporium Link, and Penicillium Link, which were differentially ingested by larvae and adults; Fusarium solani and Penicillium species in larvae, whereas F. oxysoproum, F. verticillioides, and Cladosporium in adults. These data indicate the first species-level host data for Brachypeplus Erichson species. Fusarium proliferatum (Matsush.) Nirenberg was the most commonly occurring fungal gut component, being isolated from the palm as well as gut of larvae, pupae, and adults; representing a commonly shared food resource. One species of yeast, Meyerozyma caribbica (Vaughan-Mart. et al.) Kurtzman & Suzuki (basionym = Pichia caribbica), was isolated from all life stages and is likely responsible for anti-fungal properties observed in the pupae and represents a promising source of antifungal compounds; rearing and diagnostic protocols are provided to aid biomedical researchers. Feeding and cleaning behaviors are documented using time-lapse video-micrography, and discussed in a behavioral and functional morphological context. Adults spent long periods feeding, often >1/3 of the two-hour observation period. A generic adult body posture was observed during feeding, and included substrate antennation before and after ingestion. Adult grooming behaviors were manifested in distinct antennal and tarsal cleaning mechanisms. Larval behaviors were different from adults, and larvae feeding on Fusarium

  17. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory potential of extract and isolated compounds from the leaves of Salvia officinalis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Melissa Raboni Alves; Kanazawa, Luiz Kae Sales; das Neves, Thiago Louback Machado; da Silva, Carla Francielle; Horst, Heros; Pizzolatti, Moacir Geraldo; Santos, Adair Roberto Soares; Baggio, Cristiane Hatsuko; Werner, Maria Fernanda de Paula

    2012-01-31

    Salvia officinalis L. has been used as a traditional herbal medicine for gastric disturbances and inflammatory processes. This study investigated the toxicological, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the hydroalcoholic extract (HE) from leaves of Salvia officinalis and its isolated compounds in mice. Mice were treated with HE before the induction of nociceptive response by chemical agents (acetic-acid, formalin, glutamate, capsaicin and cinnamaldehyde). Total leukocytes and plasma extravasation induced by acetic acid and paw oedema induced by glutamate, capsaicin and cinnamaldehyde were also measured. The antinociceptive effect of carnosol and ursolic acid/oleanolic acid were evaluated on formalin and cinnamaldehyde models. In the acute toxicity test the value of estimated LD50 for HE was 44.7579 g/kg. Oral administration of HE (10, 30 and 100 mg/kg) inhibited the number of writhings, total leukocytes and plasma extravasation induced by acetic acid. In the formalin test, HE reduced both neurogenic and inflammatory phases, effect that was affected by naloxone. The glutamate-, capsaicin- and cinnamaldehyde-induced nociception and paw oedema were reduced by HE at doses that did not affect the locomotor activity of mice in the open field test. Carnosol (10mg/kg) and ursolic acid/oleanolic acid (30 mg/kg) inhibited the inflammatory phase of formalin and the nociception and mechanical allodynia induced by cinnamaldehyde. These results demonstrate that HE presents significant anti-inflammatory and also antinociceptive effects on chemical behavioral models of nociception that involves an opioid mechanism. In addition, carnosol and ursolic acid/oleanolic acid contained in this plant appears to contribute for the antinociceptive property of the extract, possibly through a modulatory influence on TRPA1-receptors. However, further studies regarding the precise site and the mechanism of action of HE and carnosol and ursolic acid/oleanolic acid merited exploring

  18. Flux estimates and OH reaction potential of reactive biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) from a mixed northern hardwood forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, John; Helmig, Detlev; Guenther, Alex; Harley, Peter; Pressley, Shelley; Vogel, Christoph

    Diurnal branch-level emission rates of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) including isoprene, monoterpenes (MT), and sesquiterpenes (SQT) were determined at the University of Michigan Biological Station for the tree species red maple ( Acer rubrum), red oak ( Quercus rubra), paper birch ( Betula papyrifera), white pine ( Pinus strobus), and big tooth aspen ( Populus grandidentata). These emission rates were combined with detailed biomass distribution and meteorological data and incorporated into the canopy model, model of emissions of gasses and aerosols from nature (MEGAN), for estimating whole-canopy fluxes of isoprene. The modeled half-hour fluxes (mgCm-2h-1) and cumulative seasonal fluxes (mgCm-2) compared favorably with results from direct, canopy-level eddy covariance (EC) isoprene measurements; modeled cumulative seasonal flux deviated less than 30% from the EC results. Significant MT emissions were found from four of the five tree species. MT emissions from three of these were both light- and temperature-dependent and were approximately one order of magnitude greater than light-independent MT emissions. SQT emissions were identified from three of the five tree species. The model was modified to incorporate SQT and both light-dependent and light-independent MT emissions for determining fluxes. Isoprene comprised >95% of the total terpenoid flux with MT and SQT comprising 4% and 0.3%, respectively. The average cumulative fluxes (in mgCm-2) from June through September were 2490 for isoprene, 105 for MT, and 7 for SQT. A simple box model analysis was used to estimate the contribution of the isoprene, MT, and SQT emissions to the total OH reactivity. These results confirm that isoprene dominates OH reactions especially during daytime hours. Emissions of reactive MT and SQT increase the BVOC+OH reactivity, but are still lower than estimates of BVOC fluxes at this site necessary for affecting OH reactivity to the significant degree suggested by recent

  19. X-ray determination of the modulation potential in a stage-2 potassium-graphite intercalation compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kan, X. B.; Robertson, J. L.; Moss, S. C.; Ohshima, K.; Sparks, C. J.

    1989-05-15

    By use of both synchrotron and conventional x-ray sources, the /ital HK/./ital L/ Bragg peaks have been measured at room temperature on a single crystal of graphite, intercalated with potassium to stage 2. For these reflections there is a contribution of the two-dimensional alkali metal liquid due to the modulation induced by the host graphite lattice. Using the theory of Reiter and Moss, we have extracted the modulation potential by fitting the integrated intensities for the /ital H//minus//ital K/=3/ital m/ reflections and the intensity profiles along /ital L/ for those reflections where /ital H//minus//ital K/=3/ital m/+-1. The potential is similar to that derived for Rb in graphite but with enhanced local minima at the carbon atoms. The stacking faults in this crystal are found to occur at random.

  20. Pharmacological potential of Bidens pilosa L. and determination of bioactive compounds using UHPLC-QqQLIT-MS/MS and GC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Garima; Passsari, Ajit Kumar; Singh, Pratibha; Leo, Vincent Vineeth; Subbarayan, Sarathbabu; Kumar, Brijesh; Singh, Bhim Pratap; Lalhlenmawia, Hauzel; Kumar, Nachimuthu Senthil

    2017-11-16

    Research of natural products from traditionally used medicinal plants to fight against the human ailments is fetching attention of researchers worldwide. Bidens pilosa Linn. var. Radiata (Asteraceae) is well known for its folkloric medicinal use against various diseases from many decades. Mizoram, North East India, has high plant diversity and the use of this plant as herbal medicine is deep rooted in the local tribes. The present study was executed to understand the pharmacological potential of B. pilosa leaves extract. The antimicrobial potential was determined using agar well diffusion and broth microdilution method against bacterial and yeast pathogens. Cytotoxicity was evaluated using MTT and apoptotic DNA fragmentation assays. Further, the antioxidant ability of the extract was analysed using DPPH and ABTS free radical scavenging assay. Mosquitocidal activity was evaluated against third in-star larvae of C. quinquefasciatus using dose response and time response larvicidal bioassay. Additionally, the major phenolic and volatile compounds were determined using UHPLC-QqQLIT-MS/MS and GC/MS respectively. We found that the extract showed highest antimicrobial activity against E. coli (MIC 80 μg/mL and IC50 110.04 μg/mL) and showed significant cytotoxicity against human epidermoid carcinoma (KB-3-1) cells with IC50 values of 99.56 μg/mL among the tested cancer cell lines. The IC50 values for scavenging DPPH and ABTS was 80.45 μg/mL and 171.6 μg/mL respectively. The extract also showed the high phenolics (72 μg GAE/mg extract) and flavonoids (123.3 μg Quercetin /mg extract). Lastly, five bioactive and six volatile compounds were detected using UHPLC-QqQLIT-MS/MS and GC-MS respectively which may be responsible for the plant's bioactivities. An anticancerous compound, Paclitaxel was detected and quantified for the first time from B. pilosa leaves extract, which further showed the anticancerous potential of the tested extract. On the basis of the present

  1. Emissions of terpenoids, benzenoids, and other biogenic gas-phase organic compounds from agricultural crops and their potential implications for air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentner, D. R.; Ormeño, E.; Fares, S.; Ford, T. B.; Weber, R.; Park, J.-H.; Brioude, J.; Angevine, W. M.; Karlik, J. F.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2014-06-01

    Agriculture comprises a substantial, and increasing, fraction of land use in many regions of the world. Emissions from agricultural vegetation and other biogenic and anthropogenic sources react in the atmosphere to produce ozone and secondary organic aerosol, which comprises a substantial fraction of particulate matter (PM2.5). Using data from three measurement campaigns, we examine the magnitude and composition of reactive gas-phase organic carbon emissions from agricultural crops and their potential to impact regional air quality relative to anthropogenic emissions from motor vehicles in California's San Joaquin Valley, which is out of compliance with state and federal standards for tropospheric ozone PM2.5. Emission rates for a suite of terpenoid compounds were measured in a greenhouse for 25 representative crops from California in 2008. Ambient measurements of terpenoids and other biogenic compounds in the volatile and intermediate-volatility organic compound ranges were made in the urban area of Bakersfield and over an orange orchard in a rural area of the San Joaquin Valley during two 2010 seasons: summer and spring flowering. We combined measurements from the orchard site with ozone modeling methods to assess the net effect of the orange trees on regional ozone. When accounting for both emissions of reactive precursors and the deposition of ozone to the orchard, the orange trees are a net source of ozone in the springtime during flowering, and relatively neutral for most of the summer until the fall, when it becomes a sink. Flowering was a major emission event and caused a large increase in emissions including a suite of compounds that had not been measured in the atmosphere before. Such biogenic emission events need to be better parameterized in models as they have significant potential to impact regional air quality since emissions increase by several factors to over an order of magnitude. In regions like the San Joaquin Valley, the mass of biogenic

  2. In vitro and in vivo activity of iclaprim, a diaminopyrimidine compound and potential therapeutic alternative against Pneumocystis pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliouat, E M; Dei-Cas, E; Gantois, N; Pottier, M; Pinçon, C; Hawser, S; Lier, A; Huang, D B

    2018-03-01

    Pneumocystis pneumonia is a serious complication that may affect immunosuppressed patients. The absence of reliable and safe therapeutic alternatives to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) justifies the search for more effective and less toxic agents. In this study, the in vitro and in vivo anti-Pneumocystis jirovecii activity of iclaprim, a diaminopyrimidine compound that exerts its antimicrobial activity through the inhibition of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), as does TMP, was evaluated alone or in combination with SMX. The antimicrobial activity of iclaprim was tested in vitro using an efficient axenic culture system, and in vivo using P. carinii endotracheally inoculated corticosteroid-treated rats. Animals were orally administered iclaprim (5, 25, 50 mg/kg/day), iclaprim/SMX (5/25, 25/125, 50/250 mg/kg/day), TMP (50 mg/kg/day), or TMP/SMX (50/250 mg/kg/day) once a day for ten consecutive days. The in vitro maximum effect (E max ) and the drug concentrations needed to reach 50% of E max (EC 50 ) were determined, and the slope of the dose-response curve was estimated by the Hill equation (E max sigmoid model). The iclaprim EC 50 value was 20.3 μg/mL. This effect was enhanced when iclaprim was combined with SMX (EC 50 : 13.2/66 μg/mL) (p = 0.002). The TMP/SMX EC 50 value was 51.4/257 μg/mL. In vivo, the iclaprim/SMX combination resulted in 98.1% of inhibition compared to TMP/SMX, which resulted in 86.6% of inhibition (p = 0.048). Thus, overall, the iclaprim/SMX combination was more effective than TMP/SMX both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that it could be an alternative therapy to the TMP/SMX combination for the treatment of Pneumocystis pneumonia.

  3. Molecular docking studies of bioactive compounds from Annona muricata Linn as potential inhibitors for Bcl-2, Bcl-w and Mcl-1 antiapoptotic proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad Rosdi, Mohamad Norisham; Mohd Arif, Shahkila; Abu Bakar, Mohamad Hafizi; Razali, Siti Aisyah; Mohamed Zulkifli, Razauden; Ya'akob, Harisun

    2018-01-01

    Annona muricata Linn or usually identified as soursop is a potential anticancer plant that has been widely reported to contain valuable chemopreventive agents known as annonaceous acetogenins. The antiproliferative and anticancer activities of this tropical and subtropical plant have been demonstrated in cell culture and animal studies. A. muricata L. exerts inhibition against numerous types of cancer cells, involving multiple mechanism of actions such as apoptosis, a programmed cell death that are mainly regulated by Bcl-2 family of proteins. Nonetheless, the binding mode and the molecular interactions of the plant's bioactive constituents have not yet been unveiled for most of these mechanisms. In the current study, we aim to elucidate the binding interaction of ten bioactive phytochemicals of A. muricata L. to three Bcl-2 family of antiapoptotic proteins viz. Bcl-2, Bcl-w and Mcl-1 using an in silico molecular docking analysis software, Autodock 4.2. The stability of the complex with highest affinity was evaluated using MD simulation. We compared the docking analysis of these substances with pre-clinical Bcl-2 inhibitor namely obatoclax. The study identified the potential chemopreventive agent among the bioactive compounds. We also characterized the important interacting residues of protein targets which involve in the binding interaction. Results displayed that anonaine, a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid, showed a high affinity towards the Bcl-2, thus indicating that this compound is a potent inhibitor of the Bcl-2 antiapoptotic family of proteins.

  4. [Exposing the rabbit cerebellopontine angle through post-sigmoid sinus approach and recording the direct compound action potential of the auditory nerve].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ming; Wu, Hao; Li, Zhaoji; Chen, Xiangping; Cao, Rongping; Shen, Min; Zhu, Chunsheng; Zhou, Jingfeng

    2005-04-01

    To study the way of exposing the rabbit cerebellopontine angle through post-sigmoid sinus approach and recording the direct compound action potential of the auditory nerve, and to investigate the stability of DCAP N1 wave latency. Fifteen New Zealand rabbits which had normal Preyer's auricle reflex were selected. Each one was studied in the left ear. After anaesthetized,the cerebellopontine angle of rabbits were exposed through post-sigmoid sinus approach under aseptic status,then the needle-shaped pole were inserted into the facial-acoustic nerve complex. The DCAP was recorded at the immediateness, 2 h and 5 h after the insertino sequentially. At last, DCAP N1 wave latencies of 15 rabbits were statisticed and analyzed using paired-samples t-test. To the 15 sides, the distinct curves with well differentiated waves were induced in the all three times. No significant difference in any N1 wave latency had been found among the 3 times. The rabbit cerebellopontine angle could be exposed and the direct compound action potential of the auditory nerve could be recorded successfully by the way studied in this experiment. In normal state, the individual value of DCAP N1 wave latency is stable. During the process of surgery in which the cerebellopontine angle has been exposed, the DCAP N1 wave latency is a practical index for monitoring of hearing impairment.

  5. Electronic structure and bandgap of γ-Al2O3 compound using mBJ exchange potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanmehr, Mohsen; Asadabadi, Saeid Jalali; Nourmohammadi, Abolghasem; Ghasemzadeh, Majid; Rezvanian, Mahmood

    2012-08-01

    γ-Al2O3 is a porous metal oxide and described as a defective spinel with some cationic vacancies. In this work, we calculate the electronic density of states and band structure for the bulk of this material. The calculations are performed within the density functional theory using the full potential augmented plan waves plus local orbital method, as embodied in the WIEN2k code. We show that the modified Becke-Johnson exchange potential, as a semi-local method, can predict the bandgap in better agreement with the experiment even compared to the accurate but much more expensive green function method. Moreover, our electronic structure analysis indicates that the character of the valence band maximum mainly originates from the p orbital of those oxygen atoms that are close to the vacancy. The charge density results show that the polarization of the oxygen electron cloud is directed toward aluminum cations, which cause Al and O atoms to be tightly connected by a strong dipole bond.

  6. Nitrogen-Based Diazeniumdiolates: Versatile Nitric Oxide-Releasing Compounds for Biomedical Research and Potential Clinical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Joseph E.; Keefer, Larry K.

    2002-12-01

    Nitric oxide-generating ions of the nitrogen-diazeniumdiolate class with the general structure R1R2N-[N(O)NO]1 have been prepared by exposing primary, secondary, and polyamines to nitric oxide (NO). The resulting complexes regenerate bioactive NO at physiological pH with half-lives ranging from 2 seconds to 20 hours. An important goal in our research is to deliver NO to a specific organ or cell type where it is needed without affecting other NO-sensitive parts of the anatomy. By taking advantage of the remarkable chemical versatility of diazeniumdiolates, we have developed general strategies to prepare either tissue-selective NO donor drugs or materials containing NO delivery agents that can be physically placed near the target sites. Inhibition of blood coagulation, induction of penile erection, relief of pulmonary hypertension, and reversal of cerebral vasospasm are a few examples of their potential clinical applications. See Featured Molecules.

  7. Compounds From Celastraceae Targeting Cancer Pathways and Their Potential Application in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandes, Camila; Pereira, Ana Maria Soares; Severino, Patricia

    2017-02-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck is one of the most common cancer types worldwide. It initiates on the epithelial lining of the upper aerodigestive tract, at most instances as a consequence of tobacco and alcohol consumption. Treatment options based on conventional therapies or targeted therapies under development have limited efficacy due to multiple genetic alterations typically found in this cancer type. Natural products derived from plants often possess biological activities that may be valuable in the development of new therapeutic agents for cancer treatment. Several genera from the family Celastraceae have been studied in this context. This review reports studies on chemical constituents isolated from species from the Celastraceae family targeting cancer mechanisms studied to date. These results are then correlated with molecular characteristics of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma in an attempt to identify constituents with potential application in the treatment of this complex disease at the molecular level.

  8. A new method for rapid identification of ansamycin compounds by inactivating KLM gene clusters in potential ansamycin-producing actinomyces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G; Zhang, H; Sun, G; Wu, L; Zhang, J; Wang, Y

    2012-02-01

    In this study, we explored the possibility of construction of a 'universal targeting vector' by Red/ET recombination to inactivate L gene encoding 3-amino-5-hydroxybenzoic acid (AHBA)-oxidoreductase in AHBA biosynthetic gene cluster to facilitate the detection of ansamycins production in actinomycetes. Based on the conserved regions of linked AHBA synthase (K), oxidoreductase (L) and phosphatase (M) gene clusters, degenerate primers were designed and PCR was performed to detect KLM gene clusters within 33 AHBA synthase gene-positive actinomycetes strains. Among them, 22 KLM gene cluster-positive strains were identified. A 'universal targeting vector' was further constructed using the 50-nt homologous sequences chosen from four strains internal L gene in KLM gene clusters through Red/ET recombination. The L gene from nine of the KLM gene cluster-positive actinomycetes strains was inactivated by insertion of a kanamycin (Km) resistance marker into its internal region from the 'universal targeting vector'. By comparison of the metabolites produced in parent strains with those in L gene-inactivated mutants, we demonstrated the possible ansamycins production produced by these strains. One strain (4089) was proved to be a geldanamycin producer. Three strains (3-20, 7-32 and 8-32) were identified as potential triene-ansamycins producers. Another strain (3-27) was possible to be a streptovaricin C producer. Strains 24-100 and 4-124 might be served as ansamitocin-like producers. The results confirmed the feasibility that a 'universal targeting vector' could be constructed through Red/ET recombination using the conserved regions of KLM gene clusters to detect ansamycins production in actinomycetes. The 'universal targeting vector' provides a rapid approach in certain degree to detect the potential ansamycin producers from the 22 KLM gene cluster-positive actinomycetes strains. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Effect of volatile compounds produced by Ralstonia solanacearum on plant growth promoting and systemic resistance inducing potential of Bacillus volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Hafiz Abdul Samad; Gu, Qin; Wu, Huijun; Raza, Waseem; Safdar, Asma; Huang, Ziyang; Rajer, Faheem Uddin; Gao, Xuewen

    2017-08-02

    Microbial volatiles play an expedient role in the agricultural ecological system by enhancing plant growth and inducing systemic resistance against plant pathogens, without causing hazardous effects on the environment. To explore the effects of VOCs of Ralstonia solanacearum TBBS1 (Rs) on tobacco plant growth and on plant growth promoting efficiency of VOCs produced by Bacillus subtilis SYST2, experiments were conducted both in vitro and in planta. The VOCs produced by SYST2 significantly enhanced the plant growth and induced the systemic resistance (ISR) against wilt pathogen Rs in all experiments. The SYST2-VOCs significantly increased PPO and PAL activity and over-expressed the genes relating to expansin, wilt resistance, and plant defense while repressed the genes relating to ethylene production. More interestingly, VOCs produced by pathogen, Rs had no significant effect on plant growth; however, Rs-VOCs decreased the growth promoting potential of SYST2-VOCs when plants were exposed to VOCs produced by both SYST2 and Rs. The co-culture of SYST2 and Rs revealed that they inhibited the growth of each other; however, the inhibition of Rs by SYST2-VOCs appeared to be greater than that of SYST2 by Rs-VOCs. Our findings provide new insights regarding the interaction among SYST2-VOCs, Rs-VOCs and plant, resulting in growth promotion and induced systemic resistance against the bacterial wilt pathogen Rs. This is the first report of the effect of VOCs produced by pathogenic microorganism on plant growth and on plant growth-promoting and systemic resistance-inducing potential of PGPR strain SYST2.

  10. Glycyrrhetinic acid and E.resveratroloside act as potential plant derived compounds against dopamine receptor D3 for Parkinson’s disease: a pharmacoinformatics study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirza MU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Muhammad Usman Mirza,1 A Hammad Mirza,2 Noor-Ul-Huda Ghori,3 Saba Ferdous4 1Centre for Research in Molecular Medicine, The University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan; 2Department of Bioscience, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal, Pakistan; 3Atta-ur-Rehman School of Applied Biosciences, National University of Science and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan; 4Institute of Structural and Molecular Biology, University College London, UK Abstract: Parkinson’s disease (PD is caused by loss in nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons and is ranked as the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. Dopamine receptor D3 is considered as a potential target in drug development against PD because of its lesser side effects and higher degree of neuro-protection. One of the prominent therapies currently available for PD is the use of dopamine agonists which mimic the natural action of dopamine in the brain and stimulate dopamine receptors directly. Unfortunately, use of these pharmacological therapies such as bromocriptine, apomorphine, and ropinirole provides only temporary relief of the disease symptoms and is frequently linked with insomnia, anxiety, depression, and agitation. Thus, there is a need for an alternative treatment that not only hinders neurodegeneration, but also has few or no side effects. Since the past decade, much attention has been given to exploitation of phytochemicals and their use in alternative medicine research. This is because plants are a cheap, indispensable, and never ending resource of active compounds that are beneficial against various diseases. In the current study, 40 active phytochemicals against PD were selected through literature survey. These ligands were docked with dopamine receptor D3 using AutoDock and AutoDockVina. Binding energies were compared to docking results of drugs approved by the US Food and Drug Administration against PD. The compounds were further analyzed for their absorption, distribution

  11. Biological potential of microalgae in China for biorefinery-based production of biofuels and high value compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingjing; Liu, Ying; Cheng, Jay J; Mos, Michal; Daroch, Maurycy

    2015-12-25

    Microalgae abundance and diversity in China shows promise for identifying suitable strains for developing algal biorefinery. Numerous strains of microalgae have already been assessed as feedstocks for bioethanol and biodiesel production, but commercial scale algal biofuel production is yet to be demonstrated, most likely due to huge energy costs associated with algae cultivation, harvesting and processing. Biorefining, integrated processes for the conversion of biomass into a variety of products, can improve the prospects of microalgal biofuels by combining them with the production of high value co-products. Numerous microalgal strains in China have been identified as producers of various high value by-products with wide application in the medicine, food, and cosmetics industries. This paper reviews microalgae resources in China and their potential in producing liquid biofuels (bioethanol and biodiesel) and high value products in an integrated biorefinery approach. Implementation of a 'high value product first' principle should make the integrated process of fuels and chemicals production economically feasible and will ensure that public and private interest in the development of microalgal biotechnology is maintained. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Cosmeceutical potentials and bioactive compounds of rice bran fermented with single and mix culture of Aspergillus oryzae and Rhizopus oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dang Lelamurni Abd Razak

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, rice bran, one of the most abundant agricultural by-products in Malaysia, was fermented with single and mixed cultures of Aspergillus oryzae and Rhizopus oryzae. The fermented rice bran extracts were tested for their functional properties and compared to the non-fermented counterparts. Antioxidant activities as well as phenolics and organic acid contents were evaluated. Skincare-related functionalities were also tested by evaluating tyrosinase and elastase inhibition activities. Tyrosinase inhibition activity, measured to determine the anti-pigmentation effect of extracts, was found to be the highest in the extract of rice bran fermented with A. oryzae (56.18% compared to other extracts. In determining the anti-aging effect of fermented rice bran extracts, the same extract showed the highest elastase inhibition activity with a value of 60.52%. Antioxidant activities were found to be highest in the mix-cultured rice bran extract. The results of phenolic and organic acid content were varied; the major phenolic acid detected was ferulic acid with a value of 43.19 μg/ml in the mix-cultured rice bran extract. On the other hand, citric acid was the major organic acid detected, with the highest content found in the same extract (214.6 mg/g. The results of this study suggest that the fermented rice bran extracts may have the potential to be further exploited as ingredients in cosmetics as well as in antioxidant-rich products.

  13. Dioxins and related compounds in Vietnamese, Vietnamese food and the environment. Potential relevance of hot spots from recent findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paepke, O. [ERGO Research, Hamburg (Germany); Quynh, Hoang Trong [Institute for Oncology, Ha Noi (Viet Nam); Schecter, A. [Univ. of Texas School of Public Health, Dallas Regional Campus, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Agent Orange, a phenoxyherbicide mixture of 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyaceticacid (2,4,5-T) and 2,4- dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) was sprayed for reasons of defoliation in large amounts on about 10 % of southern Vietnam during the Vietnam war between 1962-1971. 2,4,5-T was contaminated with the highly toxic and persistent 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in the low ppm-range (mg/kg). In samples collected between 1970 and 1973 Baughman et al., 1973 documented elevated levels of TCDD from Agent Orange in milk samples from southern Vietnamese woman as well as in fish and shrimp samples from sprayed areas in this region. Studies have documented the intake of 2,3,7,8-TCDD from Agent Orange in Vietnamese and in among US war veterans. This paper gives an overview on recent findings for PCDDs/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs and in various environmental compartments, in humans and in food. Due to the fact that 2,3,7,8-TCDD is the major dioxin congener in 2,4,5-T, many investigators focused mainly on TCDD. We found from our own investigations, that TCDD in case of dioxin contamination is still the predominant dioxin congener, but in certain instances we also found other elevated congeners as well. In some cases mixed chemical contamination of food or humans was found - originating from Agent Orange and other sources. The paper will explain the potential origin of some of the other contaminations found.

  14. Determination of the phenolic content and antioxidant potential of crude extracts and isolated compounds from leaves of Cordia multispicata and Tournefortia bicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia Da Silva, Thiago B; Souza, Vivian Karoline T; Da Silva, Ana Paula F; Lyra Lemos, Rosangela P; Conserva, Lucia M

    2010-01-01

    In this work, the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of extracts and four flavonoids isolated from leaves of two Boraginaceae species (Cordia multispicata Cham. and Tournefortia bicolor Sw.) were evaluated using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, DPPH free radical scavenging and inhibition of peroxidation of linoleic acid by FTC method. For comparison, ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol and BHT were used. In general, extracts from T. bicolor (68.8 +/- 0.001 to > 1000 mg/g) showed higher phenolic content than C. multispicata (66.1 +/- 0.009 to 231 +/- 0.07 mg/g), and also scavenged radicals (IC(50) 12.8 +/- 2.5 to 437 +/- 3.5 mg/L) and inhibited lipid peroxide formation (IC(50) 51.2 +/- 2.29 to 89 +/- 0.59 mg/L). For these extracts a good correlation between the phenolic content and antioxidant activity was observed, suggesting that T. bicolor is richer in phenolic compounds and that it could serve as a new source of natural antioxidants or nutraceuticals with potential applications. Chromatographic procedures monitored by antioxidant assays afforded seven compounds, which were identified by spectral analyses (IR, MS and 1D and 2D NMR) and comparison with reported data as being trans-phytol (1), taraxerol (2), 3,7,4'-trimethoxyflavone (3), 5,3'-dihydroxy-3,7,4'-trimethoxyflavone (4), quercetin (5), tiliroside (6), and rutin (7). Compounds (4-7) were also evaluated and were effective as DPPH quenching (IC(50) 7.7 +/- 3.6 to 79.3 +/- 3.4 mg/L) and as inhibition of lipid peroxidation (IC(50) 80.1 +/- 0.98 to 88.7 +/- 3.62 mg/L). This is the first report on the total phenolic content, radical-scavenging and antioxidant activities of these species.

  15. Metabolomic-Based Study of the Leafy Gall, the Ecological Niche of the Phytopathogen Rhodococcus fascians, as a Potential Source of Bioactive Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Duez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Leafy gall is a plant hyperplasia induced upon Rhodococcus fascians infection. Previously, by genomic and transcriptomic analysis, it has been reported that, at the early stage of symptom development, both primary and secondary metabolisms are modified. The present study is based on the hypothesis that fully developed leafy gall, could represent a potential source of new bioactive compounds. Therefore, non-targeted metabolomic analysis of aqueous and chloroform extracts of leafy gall and non-infected tobacco was carried out by 1H-NMR coupled to principal component analysis (PCA and orthogonal projections to latent structures-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA. Polar metabolite profiling reflects modifications mainly in the primary metabolites and in some polyphenolics. In contrast, main modifications occurring in non-polar metabolites concern secondary metabolites, and gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS evidenced alterations in diterpenoids family. Analysis of crude extracts of leafy galls and non-infected tobacco leaves exhibited a distinct antiproliferative activity against all four tested human cancer cell lines. A bio-guided fractionation of chloroformic crude extract yield to semi-purified fractions, which inhibited proliferation of glioblastoma U373 cells with IC50 between 14.0 and 2.4 µg/mL. Discussion is focused on the consequence of these metabolic changes, with respect to plant defense mechanisms following infection. Considering the promising role of diterpenoid family as bioactive compounds, leafy gall may rather be a propitious source for drug discovery.

  16. Decarboxylation of Carbon Compounds as a Potential Source for CO2 and CO Observed by SAM at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eigenbrode, J. L.; Bower, H.; Archer, P. Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Martian carbon was detected in the Sheepbed mudtsone at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars by the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument onboard Curiosity, the rover of the Mars Science Laboratory missio]. The carbon was detected as CO2 thermally evolved from drilled and sieved rock powder that was delivered to SAM as a <150-micron-particle- size fraction. Most of the CO2 observed in the Cumberland (CB) drill hole evolved between 150deg and 350deg C. In the John Klein (JK) drill hole, the CO2 evolved up to 500deg C. Hypotheses for the source of the the CO2 include the breakdown of carbonate minerals reacting with HCl released from oxychlorine compounds, combustion of organic matter by O2 thermally evolved from the same oxychlorine minerals, and the decarboxylation of organic molecules indigenous to the martian rock sample. Here we explore the potential for the decarboxylation hypothesis.

  17. Investigation of nitrosactive compounds influence on polarization of the mitochondrial inner membrane in the rat uterus myocytes using potential sensitive fluorescent probe DіOC(6(3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Danylovych

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of nitrosactive compounds (sodium nitroprusside and sodium nitrite on the polarization level of the uterus myocytes inner mitochondrial membrane using the confocal laser microscopy and fluorescent probe potentialsensitive DiOC6(3 (3,3′-dihexyloxacarbocyanine was ivestigated. Colocalisation of mitochondrial membranes specific fluorescent probes (MitoTracker Orange CM H2TMRos­, 10 – nonyl acridine orange and DiOC6(3 was demon­strated. It was shown that sodium nitroprusside at 0.1 mM concentration caused a moderate decrease in mitochondrial transmembrane potential. That observation was confirmed by flow cytometry. Action efficiency of sodium nitrite in a similar concentration was significantly lower than that of sodium nitroprusside. It is shown that it was sodium nitroprusside which caused a slight swelling of the mitochondria. A possible protecting role of nitric oxi­de as to mitochondria was discussed.

  18. Natural and synthetic quinones and their reduction by the quinone reductase enzyme NQO1: from synthetic organic chemistry to compounds with anticancer potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colucci, Marie A; Moody, Christopher J; Couch, Gavin D

    2008-02-21

    The quinone reductase enzyme NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) is a ubiquitous flavoenzyme that catalyzes the two-electron reduction of quinones. This Perspective briefly reviews the structure and mechanism, physiological role, and upregulation and induction of the enzyme, but focuses on the synthesis of new heterocyclic quinones and their metabolism by recombinant human NQO1. Thus a range of indolequinones, some of which are novel analogues of mitomycin C, benzimidazolequinones, benzothiazolequinones and quinolinequinones have been prepared and evaluated, leading to detailed knowledge of the structural requirements for efficient metabolism by the enzyme. Potent mechanism-based inhibitors (suicide substrates) of NQO1 have also been developed. These indolequinones irreversibly alkylate the protein, preventing its function both in standard enzyme assays and also in cells. Some of these quinones are also potent inhibitors of growth of human pancreatic cancer cells, suggesting a potential role for such compounds as therapeutic agents.

  19. In-vitro evaluation of bioactive compounds, anti-oxidant, lipid peroxidation and lipoxygenase inhibitory potential of Citrus karna L. peel extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jagdeep; Sood, Shailja; Muthuraman, Arunachalam

    2014-01-01

    Many medicinal plants have been studied for their antioxidant and their pharmacological activity. Citrus species were well documented as potential antioxidant based therapy for cancer, inflammation, heart disease. Citrus seeds and peels have been shown to possess high antioxidant activity. Therefore, the present study to explore the antioxidant and lipid peroxidation & lipoxygenase inhibitory action of Citrus karna peel extracts were undertaken. Extraction was performed with different solvents of increasing polarity and yield was calculated. Peel extracts were also analyzed for the presence of phenols, flavonoids, vitamin C, and carotenoids. Then the Citrus karna peel extracts were evaluated for the antioxidant and lipid peroxidation & lipoxygenase inhibitory action In-Vitro. In further, the quantification of hesperidin and naringin was carried out by HPLC-DAD method. The results indicated the presence of phenols, flavonoids, vitamin C, carotenoids, hesperidin and naringin in Citrus karna peel extracts with maximum yield of (3.91% w/w). Citrus karna peel extracts were also found to have potential antioxidant and lipid peroxidation & lipoxygenase inhibitory action. Therefore, Citrus karna peel extracts could be used for the future therapeutic medicine due to presence of potential bioactive compounds.

  20. Phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and in vitro inhibitory potential against key enzymes relevant for hyperglycemia and hypertension of commonly used medicinal plants, herbs and spices in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranilla, Lena Galvez; Kwon, Young-In; Apostolidis, Emmanouil; Shetty, Kalidas

    2010-06-01

    Traditionally used medicinal plants, herbs and spices in Latin America were investigated to determine their phenolic profiles, antioxidant activity and in vitro inhibitory potential against key enzymes relevant for hyperglycemia and hypertension. High phenolic and antioxidant activity-containing medicinal plants and spices such as Chancapiedra (Phyllantus niruri L.), Zarzaparrilla (Smilax officinalis), Yerba Mate (Ilex paraguayensis St-Hil), and Huacatay (Tagetes minuta) had the highest anti-hyperglycemia relevant in vitro alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activities with no effect on alpha-amylase. Molle (Schinus molle), Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp), Caigua (Cyclanthera pedata) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) inhibited significantly the hypertension relevant angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE). All evaluated pepper (Capsicum) genus exhibited both anti-hyperglycemia and anti-hypertension potential. Major phenolic compounds in Matico (Piper angustifolium R.), Guascas (Galinsoga parviflora) and Huacatay were chlorogenic acid and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. Therefore, specific medicinal plants, herbs and spices from Latin America have potential for hyperglycemia and hypertension prevention associated with Type 2 diabetes. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Synthesis, characterization, and properties of peroxo-based oxygen-rich compounds for potential use as greener high energy density materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamage, Nipuni-Dhanesha Horadugoda

    One main aspect of high energy density material (HEDM) design is to obtain greener alternatives for HEDMs that produce toxic byproducts. Primary explosives lead azide, lead styphnate, and mercury fulminate contain heavy metals that cause heavy metal poisoning. Leaching of the widely used tertiary explosive NH4ClO4 into groundwater has resulted in human exposure to ClO4-- ions, which cause disruptions of thyroid related metabolic pathways and even thyroid cancer. Many research efforts to find replacements have gained little success. Thus, there is a need for greener HEDMs. Peroxo-based oxygen-rich compounds are proposed as a potential new class of greener HEDMs due to the evolution of CO2 and/or CO, H2O, and O 2 as the main decomposition products. Currently, triacetone triperoxide (TATP), diacetone diperoxide (DADP), hexamethylene triperoxide diamine (HMTD), and methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKP) are the only well-studied highly energetic peroxides. However, due to their high impact and friction sensitivities, low thermal stabilities, and low detonation velocities they have not found any civil or military HEDM applications. In this dissertation research, we have synthesized and fully characterized four categories of peroxo-based compounds: tert-butyl peroxides, tert-butyl peroxy esters, hydroperoxides, and peroxy acids to perform a systematic study of their sensitivities and the energetic properties for potential use as greener HEDMs. tert-Butyl peroxides were not sensitive to impact, friction, or electrostatic spark. Hence, tert-butyl peroxides can be described as fairly safe peroxo-based compounds to handle. tert-Butyl peroxy esters were all surprisingly energetic (4896--6003 m/s), despite the low oxygen and nitrogen contents. Aromatic tert -butyl peroxy esters were much lower in impact and friction sensitivities with respect to the known peroxo-based explosives. These are among the first low sensitivity peroxo-based compounds that can be categorized as secondary

  2. Occurrence and potential human-health relevance of volatile organic compounds in drinking water from domestic wells in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Barbara L; Toccalino, Patricia L; Moran, Michael J; Zogorski, John S; Price, Curtis V

    2007-11-01

    As the population and demand for safe drinking water from domestic wells increase, it is important to examine water quality and contaminant occurrence. A national assessment in 2006 by the U.S. Geological Survey reported findings for 55 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) based on 2,401 domestic wells sampled during 1985-2002. We examined the occurrence of individual and multiple VOCs and assessed the potential human-health relevance of VOC concentrations. We also identified hydrogeologic and anthropogenic variables that influence the probability of VOC occurrence. The domestic well samples were collected at the wellhead before treatment of water and analyzed for 55 VOCs. Results were used to examine VOC occurrence and identify associations of multiple explanatory variables using logistic regression analyses. We used a screening-level assessment to compare VOC concentrations to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) and health-based screening levels. We detected VOCs in 65% of the samples; about one-half of these samples contained VOC mixtures. Frequently detected VOCs included chloroform, toluene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, and perchloroethene. VOC concentrations generally were < 1 microg/L. One or more VOC concentrations were greater than MCLs in 1.2% of samples, including dibromochloropropane, 1,2-dichloropropane, and ethylene dibromide (fumigants); perchloroethene and trichloroethene (solvents); and 1,1-dichloroethene (organic synthesis compound). Drinking water supplied by domestic wells is vulnerable to low-level VOC contamination. About 1% of samples had concentrations of potential human-health concern. Identifying factors associated with VOC occurrence may aid in understanding the sources, transport, and fate of VOCs in groundwater.

  3. Potential use of Vitellogenin and Zona radiata proteins as biomarkers of endocrine disruption in Peregrine falcon exposed to organochlorine compounds (DDTs, PCBs, PCDDs and PCDFs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, B. [CSIC, Inst. of Organic Chemistry, Madrid (Spain); Mori, G.; Concejero, M.A.; Casini, S.; Fossi, M.C. [Siena Univ. (Italy)

    2004-09-15

    Many different classes of environmental contaminants such as industrial chemicals (e.g. alkylphenols, polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, PAHs, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and dibenzofurans), ''can cause adverse effects in the reproductive functions of intact organisms or their progenies, consequent to changes in endocrine functions'' showing a so-called Endocrine disruptor activity. Avian raptor species, such as peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) for their peculiar position in the food web are potentially at risk in relation to the accumulation of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) and toxic metals. Recent studies carried out with Peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) in Spain reveal a contamination with organochlorine compounds (PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs and DDTs) which could be responsible of the decrease of successful pairs observed during the last ten years. Thus there is a need to develop sensitive diagnostic monitoring tools for the evaluation of toxicological risk and potential effects on the reproductive function and population dynamic of avian top predator species. Two markers for the detection of EDs effects in oviparous vertebrates are induction of Vitellogenin (Vtg) and Zona Radiata Proteins (ZR). Vtg, a complex phospholipoglycoprotein, is the major egg-yolk protein precursor and is normally synthesized by females in response to estradiol. ZR together with Zona Pellucida (ZP) constitutes in birds part of the eggshell. These proteins (Vtg, ZR and ZP) are normally synthesised in the liver as a response to an estrogen signal given by Estradiol. Males and sexually undifferentiated specimens also have the Vtg and ZR genes but do not express them unless exposed to estrogenic compounds. The main aim of this preliminary study was to develop methods for the detection of Vtg and ZR in plasma obtained from peregrine falcon as a specific biomarker for the evaluation of the effects of EDCs.

  4. Photochemical modeling of emissions trading of highly reactive volatile organic compounds in Houston, Texas. 1. Reactivity based trading and potential for ozone hot spot formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linlin; Thompson, Tammy; McDonald-Buller, Elena C; Webb, Alba; Allen, David T

    2007-04-01

    As part of the State Implementation Plan for attaining the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for ozone, the Texas Commission of Environmental Quality has created a Highly Reactive Volatile Organic Compounds (HRVOC) Emissions Cap and Trade Program for industrial point sources in the Houston/Galveston/Brazoria area. This program has a number of unique features, including its focus on a limited group of ozone precursors and its provisions for trading emissions based on atmospheric reactivity. This series of papers examines the potential air quality impacts of this new emission trading program through photochemical modeling of potential trading scenarios; this first paper in the series describes the air quality modeling methods used to assess potential trades, the potential for localized increases in ozone concentrations (ozone "hot spots") due to HRVOC emission trading, and the use of reactivity scales in the trading. When HRVOC emissions are traded on a mass basis, the simulations indicate that trading of HRVOC allowances between facilities resulted in less than 0.15 ppb (ozone concentrations, respectively. Maximum decreases in ozone concentrations associated with trading, as opposed to across-the-board reductions, were larger than the increases. All of these changes are small compared to the maximum changes in ozone concentrations due to the VOC emissions from these sources (up to 5-10 ppb for 8 h averages; up to 30 ppb for 1-h averages). When emissions of HRVOCs are traded for other, less reactive emissions, on a reactivity weighted basis, air quality simulations indicate that daily maximum ozone concentrations increased by less than 0.3%. Because these relatively small changes (ozone concentrations (all emissions traded into localized regions), the simulations indicate that the implementation of the trading program, as currently configured and possibly expanded, is unlikely to cause localized increases in ozone concentrations ("hot spots").

  5. Identification of potential antioxidant compounds in the essential oil of thyme by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry and multivariate calibration techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoum, Saeed; Mehran, Mehdi; Ghaheri, Salehe

    2015-02-01

    Thyme species are used in traditional medicine throughout the world and are known for their antiseptic, antispasmodic, and antitussive properties. Also, antioxidant activity is one of the interesting properties of thyme essential oil. In this research, we aim to identify peaks potentially responsible for the antioxidant activity of thyme oil from chromatographic fingerprints. Therefore, the chemical compositions of hydrodistilled essential oil of thyme species from different regions were analyzed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry and antioxidant activities of essential oils were measured by a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging test. Several linear multivariate calibration techniques with different preprocessing methods were applied to the chromatograms of thyme essential oils to indicate the peaks responsible for the antioxidant activity. These techniques were applied on data both before and after alignment of chromatograms with correlation optimized warping. In this study, orthogonal projection to latent structures model was found to be a good technique to indicate the potential antioxidant active compounds in the thyme oil due to its simplicity and repeatability. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Antiaggregation Potential of Padina gymnospora against the Toxic Alzheimer's Beta-Amyloid Peptide 25-35 and Cholinesterase Inhibitory Property of Its Bioactive Compounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balakrishnan Shanmuganathan

    Full Text Available Inhibition of β-amyloid (Aβ aggregation in the cerebral cortex of the brain is a promising therapeutic and defensive strategy in identification of disease modifying agents for Alzheimer's disease (AD. Since natural products are considered as the current alternative trend for the discovery of AD drugs, the present study aims at the evaluation of anti-amyloidogenic potential of the marine seaweed Padina gymnospora. Prevention of aggregation and disaggregation of the mature fibril formation of Aβ 25-35 by acetone extracts of P. gymnospora (ACTPG was evaluated in two phases by Thioflavin T assay. The results were further confirmed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM analysis and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopic analysis. The results of antiaggregation and disaggregation assay showed that the increase in fluorescence intensity of aggregated Aβ and the co-treatment of ACTPG (250 μg/ml with Aβ 25-35, an extensive decrease in the fluorescence intensity was observed in both phases, which suggests that ACTPG prevents the oligomers formation and disaggregation of mature fibrils. In addition, ACTPG was subjected to column chromatography and the bioactivity was screened based on the cholinesterase inhibitory activity. Finally, the active fraction was subjected to LC-MS/MS analysis for the identification of bioactive compounds. Overall, the results suggest that the bioactive compound alpha bisabolol present in the alga might be responsible for the observed cholinesterase inhibition with the IC50 value < 10 μg/ml for both AChE and BuChE when compared to standard drug donepezil (IC50 value < 6 μg/ml and support its use for the treatment of neurological disorders.

  7. Evasion of anti-growth signaling: A key step in tumorigenesis and potential target for treatment and prophylaxis by natural compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, A R M Ruhul; Karpowicz, Phillip A; Carey, Thomas E; Arbiser, Jack; Nahta, Rita; Chen, Zhuo G; Dong, Jin-Tang; Kucuk, Omer; Khan, Gazala N; Huang, Gloria S; Mi, Shijun; Lee, Ho-Young; Reichrath, Joerg; Honoki, Kanya; Georgakilas, Alexandros G; Amedei, Amedeo; Amin, Amr; Helferich, Bill; Boosani, Chandra S; Ciriolo, Maria Rosa; Chen, Sophie; Mohammed, Sulma I; Azmi, Asfar S; Keith, W Nicol; Bhakta, Dipita; Halicka, Dorota; Niccolai, Elena; Fujii, Hiromasa; Aquilano, Katia; Ashraf, S Salman; Nowsheen, Somaira; Yang, Xujuan; Bilsland, Alan; Shin, Dong M

    2015-12-01

    The evasion of anti-growth signaling is an important characteristic of cancer cells. In order to continue to proliferate, cancer cells must somehow uncouple themselves from the many signals that exist to slow down cell growth. Here, we define the anti-growth signaling process, and review several important pathways involved in growth signaling: p53, phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), retinoblastoma protein (Rb), Hippo, growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15), AT-rich interactive domain 1A (ARID1A), Notch, insulin-like growth factor (IGF), and Krüppel-like factor 5 (KLF5) pathways. Aberrations in these processes in cancer cells involve mutations and thus the suppression of genes that prevent growth, as well as mutation and activation of genes involved in driving cell growth. Using these pathways as examples, we prioritize molecular targets that might be leveraged to promote anti-growth signaling in cancer cells. Interestingly, naturally occurring phytochemicals found in human diets (either singly or as mixtures) may promote anti-growth signaling, and do so without the potentially adverse effects associated with synthetic chemicals. We review examples of naturally occurring phytochemicals that may be applied to prevent cancer by antagonizing growth signaling, and propose one phytochemical for each pathway. These are: epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) for the Rb pathway, luteolin for p53, curcumin for PTEN, porphyrins for Hippo, genistein for GDF15, resveratrol for ARID1A, withaferin A for Notch and diguelin for the IGF1-receptor pathway. The coordination of anti-growth signaling and natural compound studies will provide insight into the future application of these compounds in the clinical setting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Compound-Specific Carbon, Nitrogen, and Hydrogen Isotopic Ratios for Amino Acids in CM and CR Chondrites and their use in Evaluating Potential Formation Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsila, Jamie E.; Charnley, Steven B.; Burton, Aaron S.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2012-01-01

    Stable hydrogen, carbon, and nitrogen isotopic ratios (oD, 013C, and olSN) of organic compounds can revcal information about their origin and formation pathways. Several formation mechanisms and environments have been postulated for the amino acids detected in carbonaceous chondrites. As each proposed mechanism utilizes different precursor molecules, the isotopic signatures of the resulting amino acids may indicate the most likely of these pathways. We have applied gas chromatography with mass spectrometry and combustion isotope ratio mass spectrometry to measure the compound-specific C, N, and H stable isotopic ratios of amino acids from seven CM and CR carbonaceous chondrites: CM1I2 Allan Hills (ALH) 83100, CM2 Murchison, CM2 Lewis Cliff (LEW) 90500, CM2 Lonewolf Nunataks (LON) 94101, CRZ Graves Nunataks (GRA) 95229, CRZ Elephant Moraine (EET) 92042, and CR3 Queen Alexandra Range (QUE) 99177. We compare the isotopic compositions of amino acids in these meteorites with predictions of expected isotopic enrichments from potential formation pathways. We observe trends of decreasing ODC and increasing oD with increasing carbon number in the aH, (l-NH2 amino acids that correspond to predictions made for formation via Streckercyanohydrin synthesis. We also observe light ODC signatures for -alanine, which may indicate either formation via Michael addition or via a pathway that forms primarily small, straight-chain, amine-terminal amino acids (n-ro-amino acids). Higher deuterium enrichments are observed in amethyl amino acids, indicating formation of these amino acids or their precursors in cold interstellar or nebular environments. Finally, individual amino acids are more enriched in deuterium in CR chondrites than CM chondrites, reflecting different parent-body chemistry.

  9. BioMig--A Method to Evaluate the Potential Release of Compounds from and the Formation of Biofilms on Polymeric Materials in Contact with Drinking Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Gang; Kötzsch, Stefan; Vital, Marius; Egli, Thomas; Ma, Jun

    2015-10-06

    In contact with water, polymeric materials (plastics) release compounds that can support suspended microbial growth and/or biofilm formation. The different methods presently used in the European Union to test plastics take 7-16 weeks to obtain a result. In industry, this delays material and product development as well as quality testing. Therefore, we developed a method package (BioMig) that allows testing of plastic materials with high reproducibility in 2 weeks for their potential biofilm (or biomass) formation and release of carbonaceous migration products when in contact with water. BioMig consists of (i) an extended migration potential test (seven times for 24 h at 60 °C), based on the European norm EN 12873-1 and the German UBA (Umweltbundesamt) guideline, and (ii) a biomass formation potential (BFP) test (14 days at 30 °C), which is a modified version of the Dutch biofilm production potential test. In the migration potential test, the amount of carbon released into water by the specimen is quantified by monitoring total and assimilable organic carbon over time; furthermore, the modular design of the test also allows one to assess additional parameters such as pathogen growth potential on the migration water or toxic effects on microbial growth. Flow cytometry (FCM)-based total cell counting (TCC) is used to quantify microbial growth in suspension and on surfaces after removal with mild sonication without affecting cell integrity. The BFP test allows one to determine both the planktonic (pBFP) and the sessile (sBFP) cell fractions. The sBFP consists of surface-attached cells after removal (>90% efficiency). Results for four standard test materials (PE-Xa, PE-Xc, EPDM 2%, and EPDM 20%), plus positive (PVC-P) and negative (glass) controls are presented. FCM-based TCC demonstrates that the release of growth-supporting carbon and proliferation of surface-attached cells stops increasing and stabilizes after 14 days of incubation; this allows for faster

  10. Xenobiotic organic compounds in wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Baun, Anders; Henze, Mogens

    2002-01-01

    Information regarding the contents of xenobiotic organic compounds (XOCs) in wastewater is limited, but it has been shown that at least 900 different compounds / compound groups could potentially be present in grey wastewater. Analyses of Danish grey wastewater revealed the presence of several hu...... aquatic toxicity were present and that data for environmental fate could only be retrieved for about half of the compounds....

  11. Evaluation of the allelopathic potential of water-soluble compounds of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. subsp.vulgare and great brome (Bromus diandrus Roth. using a modified bioassay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouhaouel, I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. The present study focuses on the description of the allelopathic interactions between wild and crop species that may occur in a given ecosystem. Objectives. The objective is the evaluation of the allo- and autoinhibition activity of root exudates of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare and great brome (Bromus diandrus Roth. seedlings by water-soluble allelochemicals. Method. The allelopathic activities of five Tunisian barley genotypes (modern varieties and landraces, one Saudi Arabian barley landrace and great brome were assessed using a modified laboratory bioassay named "seedling-after-seedling agar method". Results. The barley or the great brome reduced, to a greater extent, the root growth compared to the shoot growth of receiver species. The response of the root system architecture of the great brome towards barley root exudates was studied in detail. All the measured root traits were highly sensitive to the presence of barley. In our conditions, the allelopathic activity of barley root exudates had no apparent relationship with the size of the root and a prominent action of genetic determinants in the allelopathic potential between genotypes is proposed. The alloinhibitory activity of barley or great brome root exudates deferred between the receiver species but was always higher than the autoinhibition potential. The autoinhibition in barley proved to depend on whether the genotypes used as donor and receiver are identical or different, suggesting a specific interaction of allelochemicals with the receiver plant. These molecules seem to be the main actors in the allelopathic barley potential as external factors such variations of pH have no evident relevance in the inhibition process. Conclusions. Barley and great brome exude molecules in their surroundings. This affects the growth of the receiver plants, suggesting that these compounds might contribute to the plant community dynamics.

  12. Infrared Absorption Spectra, Radiative Efficiencies, and Global Warming Potentials of Newly-Detected Halogenated Compounds: CFC-113a, CFC-112 and HCFC-133a

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Etminan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available CFC-113a (CF3CCl3, CFC-112 (CFCl2CFCl2 and HCFC-133a (CF3CH2Cl are three newly detected molecules in the atmosphere that are almost certainly emitted as a result of human activity. It is important to characterise the possible contribution of these gases to radiative forcing of climate change and also to provide information on the CO2-equivalence of their emissions. We report new laboratory measurements of absorption cross-sections of these three compounds at a resolution of 0.01 cm−1 for two temperatures 250 K and 295 K in the spectral range of 600–1730 cm−1. These spectra are then used to calculate the radiative efficiencies and global warming potentials (GWP. The radiative efficiencies are found to be between 0.15 and 0.3 W∙m−2∙ppbv−1. The GWP for a 100 year time horizon, relative to carbon dioxide, ranges from 340 for the relatively short-lived HCFC-133a to 3840 for the longer-lived CFC-112. At current (2012 concentrations, these gases make a trivial contribution to total radiative forcing; however, the concentrations of CFC-113a and HCFC-133a are continuing to increase. The 2012 CO2-equivalent emissions, using the GWP (100, are estimated to be about 4% of the current global CO2-equivalent emissions of HFC-134a.

  13. Occurrence and concentrations of selected trace elements and halogenated organic compounds in stream sediments and potential sources of polychlorinated biphenyls, Leon Creek, San Antonio, Texas, 2012–14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jennifer T.

    2016-06-23

    The Texas Department of State Health Services issued fish consumption advisories in 2003 and 2010 for Leon Creek in San Antonio, Texas, based on elevated concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in fish tissues. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) measured elevated PCB concentrations in stream-sediment samples collected during 2007–9 from Leon Creek at Lackland Air Force Base (now known as Joint Base San Antonio-Lackland; the sampling site at this base is hereinafter referred to as the “Joint Base site”) and sites on Leon Creek downstream from the base. This report describes the occurrence and concentrations of selected trace elements and halogenated organic compounds (pesticides, flame retardants, and PCBs) and potential sources of PCBs in stream-sediment samples collected from four sites on Leon Creek during 2012–14. In downstream order, sediment samples were collected from Leon Creek at northwest Interstate Highway 410 (Loop 410), Rodriguez Park, Morey Road, and Joint Base. The USGS periodically collected streambed-sediment samples during low flow and suspended-sediment samples during high flow.

  14. Effects of Various Antiepileptics Used to Alleviate Neuropathic Pain on Compound Action Potential in Frog Sciatic Nerves: Comparison with Those of Local Anesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhei Uemura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Antiepileptics used for treating neuropathic pain have various actions including voltage-gated Na+ and Ca2+ channels, glutamate-receptor inhibition, and GABAA-receptor activation, while local anesthetics are also used to alleviate the pain. It has not been fully examined yet how nerve conduction inhibitions by local anesthetics differ in extent from those by antiepileptics. Fast-conducting compound action potentials (CAPs were recorded from frog sciatic nerve fibers by using the air-gap method. Antiepileptics (lamotrigine and carbamazepine concentration dependently reduced the peak amplitude of the CAP (IC50=0.44 and 0.50 mM, resp.. Carbamazepine analog oxcarbazepine exhibited an inhibition smaller than that of carbamazepine. Antiepileptic phenytoin (0.1 mM reduced CAP amplitude by 15%. On the other hand, other antiepileptics (gabapentin, sodium valproate, and topiramate at 10 mM had no effect on CAPs. The CAPs were inhibited by local anesthetic levobupivacaine (IC50=0.23 mM. These results indicate that there is a difference in the extent of nerve conduction inhibition among antiepileptics and that some antiepileptics inhibit nerve conduction with an efficacy similar to that of levobupivacaine or to those of other local anesthetics (lidocaine, ropivacaine, and cocaine as reported previously. This may serve to know a contribution of nerve conduction inhibition in the antinociception by antiepileptics.

  15. Determinants, analysis and interpretation of the muscle compound action potential (M wave) in humans: implications for the study of muscle fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Falces, Javier; Place, Nicolas

    2018-03-01

    The compound muscle action potential (M wave) has been commonly used to assess the peripheral properties of the neuromuscular system. More specifically, changes in the M-wave features are used to examine alterations in neuromuscular propagation that can occur during fatiguing contractions. The utility of the M wave is based on the assumption that impaired neuromuscular propagation results in a decrease in M-wave size. However, there remains controversy on whether the size of the M wave is increased or decreased during and/or after high-intensity exercise. The controversy partly arises from the fact that previous authors have considered the M wave as a whole, i.e., without analyzing separately its first and second phases. However, in a series of studies we have demonstrated that the first and second phases of the M wave behave in a different manner during and after fatiguing contractions. The present review is aimed at five main objectives: (1) to describe the mechanistic factors that determine the M-wave shape; (2) to analyze the various factors influencing M-wave properties; (3) to emphasize the need to analyze separately the first and second M-wave phases to adequately identify and interpret changes in muscle fiber membrane properties; (4) to advance the hypothesis that it is an increase (and not a decrease) of the M-wave first phase which reflects impaired sarcolemmal membrane excitability; and (5) to revisit the involvement of impaired sarcolemmal membrane excitability in the reduction of the force generating capacity.

  16. Anthropogenic organochlorine compounds as potential tracers for regional water masses: A case study of estuarine plume, coastal eddy, wind-driven upwelling and long-range warm current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ya, Miaolei; Wu, Yuling; Li, Yongyu; Wang, Xinhong

    2017-03-01

    Water masses are the crucial factor driving the terrigenous anthropogenic organochlorine compounds (OCs) migration from the coast to open sea. Therefore, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were investigated in the Northern South China Sea (NSCS), where different types of water masses are generated by the East Asian summer monsoon: Pearl River estuary plume (PREP), Guangdong offshore eddy (GDEC), South China Sea warm current (SCSWC) and wind-driven upwelling current (WDUC). No discrepant distributions of OC concentrations were found in these water masses (p > 0.05). However, compositions and diagnostic ratios of HCHs, DDTs, trans- or cis-chlordane and PCBs could reflect the discrepancies in the input, transport and transformation of OCs caused by the hydrological characteristics of water masses, therefore, this allowing them to serve as potential tracers of regional water masses. In detail, α/γ-HCH and β-HCH percentages could indicate the weathered residue in the GDEC, long-range transport in the SCSWC, rapid photodegradation in the surface WDUC and biodegradation in the deep WDUC, respectively. The predominance of o, p'-DDT and p, p'-DDT could indicate fresh input in the PREP, GDEC and WDUC. DDT/DDTs of ratios erosion in the PREP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Effects of submarine engine room steady noise on the compound action potential tuning curves and its relation to cochlear pathology in guinea pigs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, H

    1990-06-01

    Compound Action Potential Tuning Curves (CAP-TC) for tone pip of 2k, 4 kHz were examined in 8 guinea pigs before and after exposure to noise with main energy centered in the range of 0.25-4.0 kHz. CAP-TC was measured with the pure tone simultaneous masking profiles. AP was evoked by tone pip with an intensity of 10 dB above threshold. Masker level producing 40% reduction in AP amplitude was used. Relations between changes in CAP-TC and AP threshold shifts and the pathology of the stereocilia of hair cells were evaluated by surface preparation and SEM observation in 13 ears. After noise exposure, animals with damaged stereocilia showed AP threshold shift of 20-50 dB, deteriorations of CAP-TC, decrease of Q10 dB value, threshold shift of characteristic frequencies (CF) and displacement of CF towards higher frequencies. It showed that stereocilia damage may affect the susceptibility and frequency selectivity of the cochlea. We consider the CAP-TC may be an useful and sensitive index for detecting physiological and pathological conditions of the cochlea.

  18. Characterization of Cochlear, Vestibular and Cochlear-Vestibular Electrically Evoked Compound Action Potentials in Patients with a Vestibulo-Cochlear Implant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. K. Nguyen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The peripheral vestibular system is critical for the execution of activities of daily life as it provides movement and orientation information to motor and sensory systems. Patients with bilateral vestibular hypofunction experience a significant decrease in quality of life and have currently no viable treatment option. Vestibular implants could eventually restore vestibular function. Most vestibular implant prototypes to date are modified cochlear implants to fast-track development. These use various objective measurements, such as the electrically evoked compound action potential (eCAP, to supplement behavioral information. We investigated whether eCAPs could be recorded in patients with a vestibulo-cochlear implant. Specifically, eCAPs were successfully recorded for cochlear and vestibular setups, as well as for mixed cochlear-vestibular setups. Similarities and slight differences were found for the recordings of the three setups. These findings demonstrated the feasibility of eCAP recording with a vestibulo-cochlear implant. They could be used in the short term to reduce current spread and avoid activation of non-targeted neurons. More research is warranted to better understand the neural origin of vestibular eCAPs and to utilize them for clinical applications.

  19. Evaluation of the potential of volatile organic compound (di-methyl benzene) removal using adsorption on natural minerals compared to commercial oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaitan, Hicham, E-mail: hicham.zaitan@usmba.ac.ma [Laboratory LCMC, Faculty of Sciences and Techniques, University Sidi Mohamed BenAbdellah, B.P. 2202, Fez (Morocco); Korrir, Abdelhamid; Chafik, Tarik [Laboratory LGCVR, Faculty of Sciences and Techniques, University Abdelmalek Essaadi, B.P. 416, Tangier (Morocco); Bianchi, Daniel [Institut de Recherche sur la Catalyse et l’Environnement de Lyon (IRCELYON), UMR 5256 CNRS, University Claude Bernard Lyon I, Bat. Chevreul, 43 Boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918, 69622 Villeurbanne (France)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • The adsorption of dMB on natural minerals and commercial oxides was evaluated. • The adsorption capacities were discussed considering the adsorbents cost and the bed size. • The adsorption capacity of bentonite is higher than other adsorbents. • Langmuir model provide best correlation of the experimental data. • The isotherms data allow determination of isosteric heat of adsorption. -- Abstract: This study is dedicated to the investigation of the potential of volatile organic compounds (VOC) adsorption over low cost natural minerals (bentonite and diatomite). The performances of these solids, in terms of adsorption/desorption properties, were compared to commercial adsorbents, such as silica, alumina and titanium dioxide. The solids were first characterized by different physico-chemical methods and di-methyl benzene (dMB) was selected as model VOC pollutant for the investigation of adsorptive characteristics. The experiments were carried out with a fixed bed reactor under dynamic conditions using Fourier Transform InfraRed spectrometer to measure the evolution of dMB concentrations in the gaseous stream at the outlet of the reactor. The measured breakthrough curves yields to adsorbed amounts at saturation that has been used to obtain adsorption isotherms. The latters were used for determination of the heat involved in the adsorption process and estimation of its values using the isosteric method. Furthermore, the performances of the studied materials were compared considering the adsorption efficiency/cost ratio.

  20. Effects of various antiepileptics used to alleviate neuropathic pain on compound action potential in frog sciatic nerves: comparison with those of local anesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Yuhei; Fujita, Tsugumi; Ohtsubo, Sena; Hirakawa, Naomi; Sakaguchi, Yoshiro; Kumamoto, Eiichi

    2014-01-01

    Antiepileptics used for treating neuropathic pain have various actions including voltage-gated Na(+) and Ca(2+) channels, glutamate-receptor inhibition, and GABA(A)-receptor activation, while local anesthetics are also used to alleviate the pain. It has not been fully examined yet how nerve conduction inhibitions by local anesthetics differ in extent from those by antiepileptics. Fast-conducting compound action potentials (CAPs) were recorded from frog sciatic nerve fibers by using the air-gap method. Antiepileptics (lamotrigine and carbamazepine) concentration dependently reduced the peak amplitude of the CAP (IC50 = 0.44 and 0.50 mM, resp.). Carbamazepine analog oxcarbazepine exhibited an inhibition smaller than that of carbamazepine. Antiepileptic phenytoin (0.1 mM) reduced CAP amplitude by 15%. On the other hand, other antiepileptics (gabapentin, sodium valproate, and topiramate) at 10 mM had no effect on CAPs. The CAPs were inhibited by local anesthetic levobupivacaine (IC50 = 0.23 mM). These results indicate that there is a difference in the extent of nerve conduction inhibition among antiepileptics and that some antiepileptics inhibit nerve conduction with an efficacy similar to that of levobupivacaine or to those of other local anesthetics (lidocaine, ropivacaine, and cocaine) as reported previously. This may serve to know a contribution of nerve conduction inhibition in the antinociception by antiepileptics.

  1. Evaluation of impact of shale gas operations in the Barnett Shale region on volatile organic compounds in air and potential human health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, A G; Perry, C S; Abraham, L; Wikoff, D S; Tachovsky, J A; Hixon, J G; Urban, J D; Harris, M A; Haws, L C

    2014-01-15

    Shale gas exploration and production (E&P) has experienced substantial growth across the U.S. over the last decade. The Barnett Shale, in north-central Texas, contains one of the largest, most active onshore gas fields in North America, stretching across 5000 square miles and having an estimated 15,870 producing wells as of 2011. Given that these operations may occur in relatively close proximity to populated/urban areas, concerns have been expressed about potential impacts on human health. In response to these concerns, the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality established an extensive air monitoring network in the region. This network provides a unique data set for evaluating the potential impact of shale gas E&P activities on human health. As such, the objective of this study was to evaluate community-wide exposures to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the Barnett Shale region. In this current study, more than 4.6 million data points (representing data from seven monitors at six locations, up to 105 VOCs/monitor, and periods of record dating back to 2000) were evaluated. Measured air concentrations were compared to federal and state health-based air comparison values (HBACVs) to assess potential acute and chronic health effects. None of the measured VOC concentrations exceeded applicable acute HBACVs. Only one chemical (1,2-dibromoethane) exceeded its applicable chronic HBACV, but it is not known to be associated with shale gas production activities. Annual average concentrations were also evaluated in deterministic and probabilistic risk assessments and all risks/hazards were below levels of concern. The analyses demonstrate that, for the extensive number of VOCs measured, shale gas production activities have not resulted in community-wide exposures to those VOCs at levels that would pose a health concern. With the high density of active wells in this region, these findings may be useful for understanding potential health risks in other shale play

  2. Assessment of the effect of potential antifibrotic compounds on total and αVβ6 integrin-mediated TGF-β activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porte, Joanne; Jenkins, Gisli

    2014-08-01

    Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) plays an important role in the development of tissue fibrosis, and molecules inhibiting this pathway are attractive therapeutic targets for fibrotic diseases such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Activation of TGF-β is the rate-limiting step in TGF-β bioavailability, and activation by the αVβ6 integrin is important in fibrosis of the lung, liver, and kidney. Activation of TGF-β by αVβ6 requires direct cell-cell contact and measurable release of active TGF-β in extracellular fluid compartments does not reflect tissue specific activation. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of antifibrotic compounds on both total, and specific αVβ6 integrin-mediated TGF-β activity. Using a transformed mink lung cell (TMLC) TGF-β reporter, the effects of potential antifibrotic therapies including an activin-like kinase (Alk5) inhibitor, Dexamethasone, Pirfenidone, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), and BIBF1120 were assessed. Effects due to αVβ6 integrin-mediated TGF-β activity were measured using reporter cells cocultured with cells expressing αVβ6 integrins. These high-throughput studies were validated using a phosphorylated Smad2 Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Alk5 inhibitors are potent inhibitors of TGF-β activity, whereas the novel antifibrotics, Pirfenidone, BIBF1120, and NAC are only moderate inhibitors, and Dexamethasone does not specifically affect TGF-βactivity, but inhibits TGF-β-induced gene expression. None of the current small molecular inhibitors inhibit αVβ6-mediated TGF-β activity. These results demonstrate the potential of this high-throughput assay of αVβ6-specific TGF-β activity and illustrate that currently available antifibrotics have limited effects on αVβ6 integrin-mediated TGF-β activity.

  3. Chemopreventive Potential of Major Flavonoid Compound of Methanolic Bark Extract of Saraca asoca (Roxb.) in Benzene-induced Toxicity of Acute Myeloid Leukemia Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Manas Kumar; Shaw, Mithun; Nath, Debjani

    2017-07-01

    Saraca asoca (SA) (Roxb.) is one of the folk medicinal plants found in India, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka. Its major biological activity appears due to the presence of flavonoid group of compounds in its bark extract. In this study, our research aims to analyze the chemopreventive effect of flavonoids, especially a natural phenol catechin present in the bark methanolic extract of SA on acute myeloid leukemia (AML) mice. The total bark extract was partitioned and analyzed on thin-layer chromatography (TLC) plate. The yellow-brown material of spot 4 was analyzed and identified as catechin. The yellowish brown material (YBM) was tested for their chemopreventive potential. An in vivo AML mice model was used to test the efficacy. Hematological parameters (Hb %, red blood cell, and white blood cell count), expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins, and DNA fragmentation analysis were performed. After treatment of benzene-exposed mice with the major flavonoid compound, namely catechin, the above parameters increase significantly (P flavonoid-treated group compared to that of control (P ≤ 0.05). The present study indicates that the secondary metabolites of SA methanolic bark extract, comprising flavonoid catechin as major constituents, have modulatory effect in cell cycle deregulation and hematological abnormalities induced by benzene in mice. Our data suggest that catechin from methanolic bark extract of SA effectively attenuates benzene-induced secondary AML in bone marrow, which is likely associated with the anticell cycle deregulation properties of this flavan-3-ol. This study was supported by the observation that catechin (YBM), like doxorubicin, can act as the neutralizer and protector of mortality in cancer cases. The catechin from methanolic bark extract of Saraca asoca has chemoprotective activity in benzene-induced secondary acute myeloid leukemia.(AML) in bone marrowHematological parameters, structural analysis of DNA showed that the purified catechin

  4. Rare earth-based quaternary Heusler compounds MCoVZ (M = Lu, Y; Z = Si, Ge with tunable band characteristics for potential spintronic applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaotian Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic Heusler compounds (MHCs have recently attracted great attention since these types of material provide novel functionalities in spintronic and magneto-electronic devices. Among the MHCs, some compounds have been predicted to be spin-filter semiconductors [also called magnetic semiconductors (MSs], spin-gapless semiconductors (SGSs or half-metals (HMs. In this work, by means of first-principles calculations, it is demonstrated that rare earth-based equiatomic quaternary Heusler (EQH compounds with the formula MCoVZ (M = Lu, Y; Z = Si, Ge are new spin-filter semiconductors with total magnetic moments of 3 µB. Furthermore, under uniform strain, there are physical transitions from spin-filter semiconductor (MS → SGS → HM for EQH compounds with the formula LuCoVZ, and from HM → SGS → MS → SGS → HM for EQH compounds with the formula YCoVZ. Remarkably, for YCoVZ EQH compounds there are not only diverse physical transitions, but also different types of spin-gapless feature that can be observed with changing lattice constants. The structural stability of these four EQH compounds is also examined from the points of view of formation energy, cohesive energy and mechanical behaviour. This work is likely to inspire consideration of rare earth-based EQH compounds for application in future spintronic and magneto-electronic devices.

  5. α versus non-α cluster decays of the excited compound nucleus *124Ce using various formulations of the nuclear proximity potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Arshdeep; Chopra, Sahila; Gupta, Raj K.

    2015-06-01

    The earlier study of *124Ce formed in the 32S+92Mo reaction at an above barrier beam energy of 150 MeV, using the pocket formula of Blocki et al. for the nuclear proximity potential in the dynamical cluster-decay model (DCM), is extended to the use of other nuclear interaction potentials derived from the Skyrme energy density functional (SEDF) based on the semiclassical extended Thomas Fermi (ETF) approach under the frozen density approximation. The Skyrme forces used are the old SII, SIII, SIV, SKa, SkM, and SLy4 and new GSkI and KDE0(v1), given for both normal and isospin-rich nuclei. It is found that the α -nucleus structure, over the non-α nucleus structure, is preferred for only two Skyrme forces, the SIII and KDE0(v1). An extended intermediate mass fragments (IMFs) window, along with the new decay region of heavy mass fragments (HMFs) and the near-symmetric and symmetric fission fragments which, on adding the complementary heavy fragments, corresponds to (A /2 )±12 mass region of the fusion-fission (ff) process, are predicted by considering cross sections of orders observed in the experiment under study. For the predicted (total) fusion cross section, the survival probability Psurv of the compound nucleus (CN) against fission is shown to be very small because of the very large predicted ff component. On the other hand, the CN formation probability PCN is found to be nearly equal to 1, and hence the decay under study is a pure CN decay for all the nuclear potentials considered, since the estimated noncompound nucleus (nCN) content is almost negligible. We have also applied the extended-Wong model of Gupta and collaborators, and find that the ℓmax values and total fusion cross sections are of the same order as for the DCM. Thus, the extended-Wong model, which describes only the total fusion cross section in terms of the barrier characteristics of the entrance channel nuclei, could be useful for initial experimental studies to be fully treated using the DCM

  6. Fabrication of novel nanoporous array anodic alumina solid-phase microextraction fiber coating and its potential application for headspace sampling of biological volatile organic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Zhuomin [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Wang Qingtang [Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Li Gongke, E-mail: cesgkl@mail.sysu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2012-05-21

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanoporous array anodic alumina (NAAA) SPME coating was originally prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NAAA SPME coating achieved excellent enrichment capability and selectivity for VOCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NAAA SPME coating can be applied for the headspace sampling of biological VOCs. - Abstract: In the study, nanoporous array anodic alumina (NAAA) prepared by a simple, rapid and stable two-step anodic oxidization method was introduced as a novel solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber coating. The regular nanoporous array structure and chemical composition of NAAA SPME fiber coating was characterized and validated by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy, respectively. Compared with the commercial polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) SPME fiber coating, NAAA SPME fiber coating achieved the higher enrichment capability (1.7-4.7 folds) for the mixed standards of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The selectivity for volatile alcohols by NAAA SPME fiber coating demonstrated an increasing trend with the increasing polarity of alcohols caused by the gradually shortening carbon chains from 1-undecanol to 1-heptanol or the isomerization of carbon chains of some typical volatile alcohols including 2-ethyl hexanol, 1-octanol, 2-phenylethanol, 1-phenylethanol, 5-undecanol, 2-undecanol and 1-undecanol. Finally, NAAA SPME fiber coating was originally applied for the analysis of biological VOCs of Bailan flower, stinkbug and orange peel samples coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) detection. Thirty, twenty-seven and forty-four VOCs of Bailan flower, stinkbug and orange peel samples were sampled and identified, respectively. Moreover, the contents of trace 1-octanol and nonanal of real orange peel samples were quantified for the further method validation with satisfactory recoveries of 106.5 and 120.5%, respectively. This work proposed a sensitive, rapid, reliable and convenient

  7. Simultaneous determination of perfluorinated compounds and their potential precursors in mussel tissue and fish muscle tissue and liver samples by liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabaleta, I; Bizkarguenaga, E; Prieto, A; Ortiz-Zarragoitia, M; Fernández, L A; Zuloaga, O

    2015-03-27

    An analytical method for the simultaneous determination in fish liver and muscle tissue and mussel samples of 14 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), including three perfluoroalkylsulfonates (PFSAs), seven perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs), three perfluorophosphonic acids (PFPAs) and perfluorooctanesulfonamide (PFOSA), and 10 potential precursors, including four polyfluoroalkyl phosphates (PAPs), four fluorotelomer saturated acids (FTCAs) and two fluorotelomer unsaturated acids (FTUCAs), was developed in the present work. Different clean-up strategies by means of solid-phase extraction (SPE) using a mix-mode weak anion exchanger (WAX), reverse phase Envi-Carb or a combination of them was optimized and evaluated for the clean-up of focused ultrasonic solid-liquid (FUSLE) extracts before the analysis by liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Mix-mode WAX coupled in-line to Envi-Carb was finally selected since it rendered the cleanest extracts and minimum matrix effect. The FUSLE-SPE-LC-MS/MS methodology was validated in terms of recovery, precision and method detection limits (MDLs). Apparent recovery values in the 65-116%, 59-119% and 67-126% range and MDLs in the 0.1-2.7 ng/g, 0.1-3.8 ng/g and 0.2-3.1ng/g range were obtained for liver, mussel and fish muscle tissue samples, respectively. The method developed was applied to the analysis of grey mullet liver (Chelon labrosus) and mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) samples from the Basque Coast (North of Spain) and Yellowfin tuna muscle tissue (Thunnus albacares) samples from the Indian Ocean. To the best of our knowledge this is the first method that describes the simultaneous determination of 14 PFCs and 10 potential precursors in fish liver, fish muscle tissue and mussel samples. Besides, this is the first time that 8:2 monosubstituted polyfluorodecyl phosphate (8:2 monoPAP) and 8:2 disubstituted polyfluorodecyl phosphate (8:2 diPAP) were detected in mussel and tuna samples

  8. Volatile Inhibitors of Phosphatidylinositol-3-Kinase (PI3K) Pathway: Anti-Cancer Potential of Aroma Compounds of Plant Essential Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordoloi, Manobjyoti; Saikia, Surovi; Kolita, Bhaskor; Sarmah, Rajeev

    2017-03-27

    Cancer is a grave health problem for the world as global cancer burden rises to 14 million new cases with 8.2 million deaths every year which is expected to rise by 70% in next 2 decades as reported by WHO. These steady rises in death demand for rapid developments in anti-cancer agents. Essential oils, being natural and multi-component complex systems have recently attracted a lot of attention in this search for novel anti-cancer agents. The pharmaceutical attributes of essential oil components specifically focusing their affinity towards COX, 5-LOX, AKT, MDM2, PDK1 and mTOR which defines the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) pathway were assessed. 123 compounds present in essential oils of different plants were analyzed for their drug like attributes which were then allowed to dock with PI3K dependent receptors crucial for development of cancer malignancies. Among them, 21 compounds were filtered possessing high druglikeness with favourable metabolism offered by major cytochromeP450 isoforms. Finally, the best docked compounds with highest binding affinities were employed for building a ligand based pharmacophore. Being inhibitors P-glycoprotein they also exhibited good absorption profiles and non-carcinogenic properties. Further from these 21, six compounds were evaluated against A549 lung cancer cells. The pharmacophoric feature obtained can be applied for both designing and screening moieties for active inhibitors of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase pathway specifically from essential oil compounds and these final 21 compounds can be further promoted to studies for anti-cancer drug development. Among these six compounds, exhibited promising inhibitory results against A549 lung cancer cells. Further, immunoblotting assay confirmed the efficacy of the compounds for inhibiting mTOR and AKT enzymes which are bandmasters for downstream signaling of the PI3K pathway. Methyl nonanoate, (R)-citronellol, cis-carveol (L-carveol), 3-methyl-Cyclohexanone, 4-carene and

  9. Comparison of electrically evoked compound action potential thresholds and loudness estimates for the stimuli used to program the Advanced Bionics cochlear implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Eun Kyung; Brown, Carolyn J; Etler, Christine P; O'Brien, Sara; Chiou, Li-Kuei; Abbas, Paul J

    2010-01-01

    In the mid-1990s, Cochlear Corporation introduced a cochlear implant (CI) to the market that was equipped with hardware that made it possible to record electrically evoked compound action potentials (ECAPs) from CI users of all ages. Over the course of the next decade, many studies were published that compared ECAP thresholds with levels used to program the speech processor of the Nucleus CI. In 2001 Advanced Bionics Corporation introduced the Clarion CII cochlear implant (the Clarion CII internal device is also known as the CII Bionic Ear). This cochlear implant was also equipped with a system that allowed measurement of the ECAP. While a great deal is known about how ECAP thresholds compare with the levels used to program the speech processor of the Nucleus CI, relatively few studies have reported comparisons between ECAP thresholds and the levels used to program the speech processor of the Advanced Bionics CI. To explore the relationship between ECAP thresholds and behavioral measures of perceptual dynamic range for the range of stimuli commonly used to program the speech processor of the Advanced Bionics CI. This prospective and experimental study uses correlational and descriptive statistics to define the relationship between ECAP thresholds and perceptual dynamic range measures. Twelve postlingually deafened adults participated in this study. All were experienced users of the Advanced Bionics CI system. ECAP thresholds were recorded using the commercially available SoundWave software. Perceptual measures of threshold (T-level), most comfortable level (M-level), and maximum comfortable level (C-level) were obtained using both "tone bursts" and "speech bursts." The relationship between these perceptual and electrophysiological variables was defined using paired t-tests as well as correlation and linear regression. ECAP thresholds were significantly correlated with the perceptual dynamic range measures studied; however, correlations were not strong. Analysis of

  10. Atmospheric Chemistry of Six Methyl-perfluoroheptene-ethers Used as Heat Transfer Fluid Replacement Compounds: Measured OH Radical Reaction Rate Coefficients, Atmospheric Lifetimes, and Global Warming Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jubb, A. M.; Gierczak, T.; Baasandorj, M.; Waterland, R. L.; Burkholder, J. B.

    2013-12-01

    Mixtures of methyl-perfluoroheptene-ethers (C7F13OCH3, MPHEs) are currently in use as a replacement for perfluorinated alkane (PFC) and polyether mixtures (both persistent greenhouse gases with atmospheric lifetimes >1000 years) used as heat transfer fluids. Currently, the atmospheric fate of the MPHE isomers are not well characterized, however, reaction with the OH radical is expected to be a dominant tropospheric loss process for these compounds. In order to assess the atmospheric lifetimes and environmental implications of MPHE use, rate coefficients for MPHE isomers' reaction with OH radicals are desired. In the work presented here, rate coefficients, k, for the gas-phase reaction of the OH radical with six MPHEs commonly used in commercial mixtures (isomers and stereoisomers) and their deuterated analogs (d3-MPHE) were determined at 296 K using a relative rate method with combined gas-chromatography/IR spectroscopy detection. A range of OH rate coefficient values was observed, up to a factor of 20× different, between the MPHE isomers with the (E)-stereoisomers exhibiting the greatest reactivity. The measured OH reaction rate coefficients for the d3-MPHE isomers were lower than the observed MPHE values although a large range of k values between isomers was still observed. The reduction in reactivity with deuteration signifies that the MPHE + OH reaction proceeds via both addition to the olefinic C=C bond and H-abstraction from the methyl ester group. OH addition to the C=C bond was determined to be the primary reaction channel. Atmospheric lifetimes with respect to the OH reaction for the six MPHE isomers were found to be in the range of days to months. The short lifetimes indicate that MPHE use will primarily impact tropospheric local and regional air quality. A MPHE atmospheric degradation mechanism will be presented. As part of this work, radiative efficiencies and global warming potentials (GWPs) for the MPHE isomers were estimated based on measured

  11. Performance of 11C-Pittsburgh Compound B PET Binding Potential Images in the Detection of Amyloid Deposits on Equivocal Static Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Chisa; Ishii, Kazunari; Kimura, Yuichi; Hyodo, Tomoko; Hosono, Makoto; Sakaguchi, Kenta; Usami, Kimio; Shimamoto, Kenji; Yamazoe, Yuzuru; Murakami, Takamichi

    2015-12-01

    The goal of this study was to clarify whether binding potential (BP) images using (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B ((11)C-PiB) and dynamic PET can reliably detect cortical amyloid deposits for patients whose (11)C-PiB PET static images are ambiguous and whether visual ratings are affected by white matter retention. Static and BP images were constructed for 85 consecutive patients with cognitive impairment after (11)C-PiB dynamic PET. Cortical uptake was visually assessed as positive, negative, or equivocal for both types of images. Quantitatively, the standardized uptake value ratio (SUVR) from the static image, the nondisplaceable BP from the dynamic image for mean gray matter uptake, and the ratio of gray matter uptake to white matter retention were compared among (11)C-PiB-positive, (11)C-PiB-equivocal, and (11)C-PiB-negative groups. Forty-three scans were visually assessed as (11)C-PiB-positive in both the static and the BP images. Ten scans were (11)C-PiB-equivocal in the static images. In 8 of them, the BP images were (11)C-PiB-positive, whereas the other 2 were (11)C-PiB-equivocal. Thirty-two scans were assessed as (11)C-PiB-negative in the static images. In the BP images, 4 were (11)C-PiB-positive and 2 were (11)C-PiB-equivocal. The mean gray matter uptake of (11)C-PiB in SUVR and nondisplaceable BP, respectively, showed statistically significant differences among the (11)C-PiB-positive, (11)C-PiB-equivocal, and (11)C-PiB-negative groups. The ratio of gray matter uptake to white matter retention was lower in the BP images than static images from the (11)C-PiB-negative and (11)C-PiB-equivocal groups, whereas it was higher in the (11)C-PiB-positive group. (11)C-PiB PET BP images can clarify visual interpretation of clinical static (11)C-PiB-equivocal images by reducing the interference of nonspecific white matter retention. We conclude that (11)C-PiB-equivocal PET findings on static images reflect cortical amyloid deposits, which can be verified using BP images

  12. Concentration, ozone formation potential and source analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a thermal power station centralized area: A study in Shuozhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yulong; Peng, Lin; Li, Rumei; Li, Yinghui; Li, Lijuan; Bai, Huiling

    2017-04-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from two sampling sites (HB and XB) in a power station centralized area, in Shuozhou city, China, were sampled by stainless steel canisters and measured by gas chromatography-mass selective detection/flame ionization detection (GC-MSD/FID) in the spring and autumn of 2014. The concentration of VOCs was higher in the autumn (HB, 96.87 μg/m3; XB, 58.94 μg/m3) than in the spring (HB, 41.49 μg/m3; XB, 43.46 μg/m3), as lower wind speed in the autumn could lead to pollutant accumulation, especially at HB, which is a new urban area surrounded by residential areas and a transportation hub. Alkanes were the dominant group at both HB and XB in both sampling periods, but the contribution of aromatic pollutants at HB in the autumn was much higher than that of the other alkanes (11.16-19.55%). Compared to other cities, BTEX pollution in Shuozhou was among the lowest levels in the world. Because of the high levels of aromatic pollutants, the ozone formation potential increased significantly at HB in the autumn. Using the ratio analyses to identify the age of the air masses and analyze the sources, the results showed that the atmospheric VOCs at XB were strongly influenced by the remote sources of coal combustion, while at HB in the spring and autumn were affected by the remote sources of coal combustion and local sources of vehicle emission, respectively. Source analysis conducted using the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) model at Shuozhou showed that coal combustion and vehicle emissions made the two largest contributions (29.98% and 21.25%, respectively) to atmospheric VOCs. With further economic restructuring, the influence of vehicle emissions on the air quality should become more significant, indicating that controlling vehicle emissions is key to reducing the air pollution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Analysis of Organic Acids, Deacetyl Asperulosidic Acid and Polyphenolic Compounds as a Potential Tool for Characterization of Noni (Morinda citrifolia) Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittová, Miroslava; Hladůkova, Dita; Roblová, Vendula; Krácmar, Stanislav; Kubán, Petr; Kubán, Vlastimil

    2015-11-01

    Organic acids, deacetyl asperulosidic acid (DAA) and polyphenolic compounds in various noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) products (4 juices, 4 dry fruit powders and 2 capsules with dry fruit powder) were analyzed. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) coupled with a variable wavelength detector (VWD) and electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ESI-TOF MS) was applied for simultaneous analysis of organic acids (malic, lactic, citric and succinic acid) and DAA. An RP-HPLC method with diode-array detector (DAD) was developed for the analysis of polyphenolic compound content (rutin, catechin, quercitrin, kaempferol, gallic acid, caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid). The developed methods can contribute to better characterization of available noni products that is required from the consumers. In our study, we discovered significant dissimilarities in the content of DAA, citric acid and several phenolic compounds in some samples.

  14. Pellitorine, a Potential Anti-Cancer Lead Compound against HL60 and MCT-7 Cell Lines and Microbial Transformation of Piperine from Piper Nigrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwendoline Cheng Lian Ee

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Pellitorine (1, which was isolated from the roots of Piper nigrum, showed strong cytotoxic activities against HL60 and MCT-7 cell lines. Microbial transformation of piperine (2 gave a new compound 5-[3,4-(methylenedioxyphenyl]-pent-2-ene piperidine (3. Two other alkaloids were also found from Piper nigrum. They are (E-1-[3’,4’-(methylenedioxycinnamoyl]piperidine (4 and 2,4-tetradecadienoic acid isobutyl amide (5. These compounds were isolated using chromatographic methods and their structures were elucidated using MS, IR and NMR techniques.

  15. Pellitorine, a potential anti-cancer lead compound against HL6 and MCT-7 cell lines and microbial transformation of piperine from Piper Nigrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ee, Gwendoline Cheng Lian; Lim, Chyi Meei; Rahmani, Mawardi; Shaari, Khozirah; Bong, Choon Fah Joseph

    2010-04-05

    Pellitorine (1), which was isolated from the roots of Piper nigrum, showed strong cytotoxic activities against HL60 and MCT-7 cell lines. Microbial transformation of piperine (2) gave a new compound 5-[3,4-(methylenedioxy)phenyl]-pent-2-ene piperidine (3). Two other alkaloids were also found from Piper nigrum. They are (E)-1-[3',4'-(methylenedioxy)cinnamoyl]piperidine (4) and 2,4-tetradecadienoic acid isobutyl amide (5). These compounds were isolated using chromatographic methods and their structures were elucidated using MS, IR and NMR techniques.

  16. Escherichia coli as a potential hydrocarbon conversion microorganism. Oxidation of aliphatic and aromatic compounds by recombinant E. coli in two-liquid phase (aqueous-organic) systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Favre-Bulle, Olivier

    1992-01-01

    The increased interest in the study of hydrocarbon utilizing microorganisms in recent years has been stimulated by the possibility of using their monooxygenases in the selective oxidation of aliphatic and aromatic compounds. As an example, long chain (>C16) n-alkanes are converted to dicarboxylic

  17. Occurrence, Ecological and Human Health Risks, and Seasonal Variations of Phenolic Compounds in Surface Water and Sediment of a Potential Polluted River Basin in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mo; Zhang, Jiquan; Sun, Caiyun

    2017-09-27

    Five phenolic compounds in water and sediment of Yinma River Basin were investigated. The average concentration of phenol was the highest in water samples as well as in sediment samples during the wet season, 101.68 ng/L and 127.76 ng/g, respectively. 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) and pentachlorophenol (PCP) was not detected in some sampling sites. Shitou Koumen Reservoir and the neighboring area were the severest areas of phenolic pollution. The lower reach was more polluted in three water seasons than the middle reach and upper reach. Phenol had ecological risks in sediment during three water seasons. 2-Nitrophenol (2-NP) and 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) had ecological risks in sediment in both the normal and wet season. The concentrations of five phenolic compounds from high to low were in the wet season, normal season, and dry season in water and sediment, respectively. There were middle risks in water of total concentrations for five phenolic compounds in several sampling sites. Total concentrations for five phenolic compounds in sediment had high ecological risks in all sampling sites. However, there was no human health risk in the Yinma River Basin.

  18. Dietary phenolic compounds selectively inhibit the individual subunits of maltase-glucoamylase and sucrase-isomaltase with the potential of modulating glucose release

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, it was hypothesized that dietary phenolic compounds selectively inhibit the individual C- and N-terminal (Ct, Nt) subunits of the two small intestinal alpha-glucosidases, maltase-glucoamylase (MGAM) and sucrase-isomaltase (SI), for a modulated glycemic carbohydrate digestion. The inhi...

  19. Synthesis, characterization of some novel 1,3,4-oxadiazole compounds containing 8-hydroxy quinolone moiety as potential antibacterial and anticancer agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinayak Mahadev Adimule

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present work a series of novel derivatives of 8-hydroxy quinolone substituted 1,3,4-oxadiazole compounds were synthesized by convergent synthetic method and studied for their antibacterial and anticancer properties. The cell lines used for cytotoxic evaluation were HeLa, Caco-2 and MCF7. The synthetic chemistry involved conversion of various substituted aromatic acids into ethyl ester 2a-e. The ethyl ester was converted into corresponding carbohydrazide 3a-e. Carbohydrazides are reacted with chloroacetic acid, phosphorous oxytrichloride and irradiated with microwave in order to obtain the various key intermediates 2-(chloromethyl-5-(substituted phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole 4a-e. The 2-(chloromethyl-5-(substituted phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole was reacted with 8-hydroxy quinolone in presence of sodium hydride and obtained a series of 8-hydroxy quinoline substituted 1,3,4-oxadiazoles 5a-e. Among the synthesised compounds, the cytotoxicity of the compound 5b i.e. 8-{[5-(2,4-dichlorophenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl]methoxy}quinoline against MCF7 with IC50 of 5.3µM and the compound 5e i.e. 8-{[5-(4-bromophenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl]methoxy}quinoline showed MIC of < 6.25µg/mL against Staphylococcus aureus which is comparable with the known standards. The standards used for cytotoxic evaluation was 5-fluorouracil and for antibacterial was nitrofurazone

  20. Novel pyridine-2,4,6-tricarbohydrazide thiourea compounds as small key organic molecules for the potential treatment of type-2 diabetes mellitus: In vitro studies against yeast α- and β-glucosidase and in silico molecular modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Tanzeel Ur; Riaz, Sadaf; Khan, Islam Ullah; Ashraf, Muhammad; Bajda, Marek; Gawalska, Alicja; Yar, Muhammad

    2017-12-01

    A range of novel pyridine-2,4,6-tricarbohydrazide thiourea compounds (4a-i) were synthesized in good to excellent yields (63-92%). The enzyme inhibitory potentials of these compounds were investigated against α- and β-glucosidases because these enzymes play a crucial role in treating type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). As compared to the reference compound acarbose (IC50 38.22 ± 0.12 μM), compounds 4i (IC50 25.49 ± 0.67 μM), 4f (IC50 28.91 ± 0.43 μM), 4h (IC50 30.66 ± 0.52 μM), and 4e (IC50 35.01 ± 0.45 μM) delivered better inhibition against α-glucosidase and were quite inactive/completely inactive against β-glucosidase. The structure-activity relationship of these compounds was developed and elaborated with the help of molecular docking studies. © 2017 Deutsche Pharmazeutische Gesellschaft.

  1. Literature review on production process to obtain extra virgin olive oil enriched in bioactive compounds. Potential use of byproducts as alternative sources of polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Edwin; Bakhouche, Abdelhakim; Lozano-Sánchez, Jesús; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2013-06-05

    This review describes the olive oil production process to obtain extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) enriched in polyphenol and byproducts generated as sources of antioxidants. EVOO is obtained exclusively by mechanical and physical processes including collecting, washing, and crushing of olives, malaxation of olive paste, centrifugation, storage, and filtration. The effect of each step is discussed to minimize losses of polyphenols from large quantities of wastes. Phenolic compounds including phenolic acids, alcohols, secoiridoids, lignans, and flavonoids are characterized in olive oil mill wastewater, olive pomace, storage byproducts, and filter cake. Different industrial pilot plant processes are developed to recover phenolic compounds from olive oil byproducts with antioxidant and bioactive properties. The technological information compiled in this review will help olive oil producers to improve EVOO quality and establish new processes to obtain valuable extracts enriched in polyphenols from byproducts with food ingredient applications.

  2. Quantitative mammalian cell mutagenesis and a preliminary study of the mutagenic potential of metallic compounds. [Cell system used was CHO/HGPRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsie, A.W.; Johnson, N.P.; Couch, D.B.; San Sebastian, J.R.; O' Neill, J.P.; Forbes, N.L.

    1978-01-01

    We have defined a set of stringent conditions required to quantify specific gene mutation in a mammalian cell system, CHO/HGPRT. Greater than 98% of the 6-thioguanine (TG)-resistant variants were shown to be deficient in the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT) activity in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The sensitive and quantitative nature of this assay was utilized to study the structure-activity (mutagenicity) relationship of various classes of chemicals. Mutagenicity as determined in the CHO/HGPRT assay, appears to correlate well (76/83 (92%)) with the reported animal carcinogenicity of 108 chemicals studied. The system also appears to be suitable for studying the mutagenicity and cytotoxicity of metallic compounds. We found that cis-dichlorodiammine Pt(II) (cis-Pt(NH/sub 3/)/sub 2/Cl/sub 2/) (cis-DDP), one of the widely used inorganic antitumor agents, is cytotoxic and mutagenic. Mutagenicity of cis-DDP correlates with its binding to DNA. However, trans-DDP, (Pt(NH/sub 3/)/sub 4/)Cl/sub 2/, and K/sub 2/(PtCl/sub 4/) exhibit greatly reduced biological activities. Among 14 other metals studied, we found that carcinogenic metallic compounds, such as MnCl/sub 2/, NiCl/sub 2/, and BeSO/sub 4/ are mutagenic, while non-carcinogenic compounds such as MgCl/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/SeO/sub 3/ are not. Determination of metal mutagenicity is apparently complicated by the ionic composition of the medium. This may account in part for varying results in studies of the mutagenicity of other metallic compounds. Further refinement of the assay conditions, especially with respect to the ionic environment necessary for quantifying mutagenesis of each metallic agent, is in progress.

  3. The potential of synthetic thiourea compound to reduce the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of paraquat in Hordeum vulgare and cultured human lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gateva, Svetla; Jovtchev, Gabriele; Stergios, Mila; Yonova, Petranka

    2012-03-01

    This work evaluated the ability of one synthetic compound 1-(4-fluorophenylthiocarbamoyl)-4-methyl-piperazine (FTMP), thiourea derivative to reduce cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of free radical inducer paraquat (PQ) in two different test systems Hordeum vulgare and human lymphocytes in vitro. The mitotic index was used as a marker for cytotoxicity. To indicate genotoxicity, chromosome aberrations test and micronucleus induction test were used. FTMP manifested a weak genotoxic effect in both test systems. Clear evidence was obtained that conditioning treatment with FTMP (10(-6) , 5 × 10(-6) , and 10(-5) mol/l) could decrease chromosome aberrations and micronuclei induced by PQ in both test systems. "Aberration hot spots" in heterochromatin containing segments were reduced. The present data show that the thiourea synthetic compound FTMP provides genome protection against the harmful action of oxidative stress inductor PQ. Human lymphocytes were found to be more sensitive to the cytotoxic and clastogenic effects of FTMP conditioning treatment than Hordeum vulgare. Revealing the protective action of newly synthesized compounds could contribute to the improvement of our present knowledge of the mechanisms of mutagenesis and antimutagenesis. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Multipurpose Compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Specially formulated derivatives of an unusual basic compound known as Alcide may be the answer to effective treatment and prevention of the disease bovine mastitis, a bacterial inflammation of a cow's mammary gland that results in loss of milk production and in extreme cases, death. Manufactured by Alcide Corporation the Alcide compound has killed all tested bacteria, virus and fungi, shortly after contact, with minimal toxic effects on humans or animals. Alcide Corporation credits the existence of the mastitis treatment/prevention products to assistance provided the company by NERAC, Inc.

  5. Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Owens, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Although elemental semiconductors such as silicon and germanium are standard for energy dispersive spectroscopy in the laboratory, their use for an increasing range of applications is becoming marginalized by their physical limitations, namely the need for ancillary cooling, their modest stopping powers, and radiation intolerance. Compound semiconductors, on the other hand, encompass such a wide range of physical and electronic properties that they have become viable competitors in a number of applications. Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detectors is a consolidated source of information on all aspects of the use of compound semiconductors for radiation detection and measurement. Serious Competitors to Germanium and Silicon Radiation Detectors Wide-gap compound semiconductors offer the ability to operate in a range of hostile thermal and radiation environments while still maintaining sub-keV spectral resolution at X-ray wavelengths. Narrow-gap materials offer the potential of exceeding the spectral resolutio...

  6. Volatilization of low vapor pressure--volatile organic compounds (LVP-VOCs) during three cleaning products-associated activities: Potential contributions to ozone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyeong-Moo; McKone, Thomas E; Bennett, Deborah H

    2016-06-01

    There have been many studies to reduce ozone formation mostly from volatile organic compound (VOC) sources. However, the role of low vapor pressure (LVP)-VOCs from consumer products remains mostly unexplored and unaddressed. This study explores the impact of high production volume LVP-VOCs on ozone formation from three cleaning products-associated activities (dishwashing, clothes washing, and surface cleaning). We develop a model framework to account for the portion available for ozone formation during the use phase and from the down-the-drain disposal. We apply experimental studies that measured emission rates or models that were developed for estimating emission rates of organic compounds during the use phase. Then, the fraction volatilized (fvolatilized) and the fraction disposed down the drain (fdown-the-drain) are multiplied by the portion available for ozone formation for releases to the outdoor air (fO3|volatilized) and down-the-drain (fO3|down-the-drain), respectively. Overall, for chemicals used in three specific cleaning-product uses, fvolatilized is less than 0.6% for all studied LVP-VOCs. Because greater than 99.4% of compounds are disposed of down the drain during the use phase, when combined with fO3|volatilized and fO3|down-the-drain, the portion available for ozone formation from the direct releases to outdoor air and the down-the-drain disposal is less than 0.4% and 0.2%, respectively. The results from this study indicate that the impact of the studied LVP-VOCs on ozone formation is very sensitive to what occurs during the use phase and suggest the need for future research on experimental work at the point of use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Prediction and characterization of an Mg-Al intermetallic compound with potentially improved ductility via orbital-free and Kohn-Sham density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Houlong L.; Chen, Mohan; Carter, Emily A.

    2017-10-01

    Magnesium-aluminum (Mg-Al) intermetallic compounds that form as precipitates can significantly influence the mechanical properties of Mg-Al alloys. A computational evaluation of known and unknown Mg-Al intermetallic compounds could help design new Mg-Al alloy microstructures with optimal properties. Here, we employ the cluster-expansion method with energies efficiently calculated with orbital-free density functional theory (OFDFT) and predict a new, metastable intermetallic compound Mg3Al with a D019 hexagonal structure that is slightly more stable than an alternative L12 cubic structure. We apply Kohn-Sham DFT (KSDFT) to accurately evaluate various metastability criteria for D019 and L12 Mg3Al, including Born’s criterion and phonon dispersion. We show that both Mg3Al crystalline phases satisfy the metastability criteria and hence should be at least metastable. We further compare ductility metrics for D019 and L12 Mg3Al to that of hexagonal-close-packed Mg by computing Pugh’s ratio and generalized stacking fault energies. The ductility is predicted to follow the order: D019 Mg3Al > L12 Mg3Al > Mg, based on the highest Pugh’s ratio and the lowest unstable stacking and twinning fault energies of D019 Mg3Al compared to that of Mg. We also predict a very low antiphase boundary energy for Mg3Al and therefore expect D019 Mg3Al to be beneficial for improving the ductility of Mg-rich Mg-Al alloys. A computational design of Mg-Al alloy microstructures may become possible by combining the strengths of both OFDFT and KSDFT, i.e., the efficiency of the former and the accuracy of the latter, as demonstrated here.

  8. Mesoionic Compounds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 10. Mesoionic Compounds - An Unconventional Class of Aromatic Heterocycles. Bharati V Badami. General Article Volume 11 Issue 10 October 2006 pp 40-48. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  9. Mesoionic Compounds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sydnone, the representative mesoionic compound has been extensively studied because of its unusual structure, chemi- cal properties and synthetic utility. Sydnone is used as a versatile synthon in heterocyclic synthesis. This article gives a brief account of the comparative studies of the structural features of mesoionic ...

  10. Sources and distribution of organic compounds using passive samplers in Lake Mead national recreation area, Nevada and Arizona, and their implications for potential effects on aquatic biota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Michael R; Alvarez, David A; Goodbred, Steven L; Leiker, Thomas J; Patiño, Reynaldo

    2010-01-01

    The delineation of lateral and vertical gradients of organic contaminants in lakes is hampered by low concentrationsand nondetection of many organic compounds in water. Passive samplers (semipermeable membrane devices [SPMDs] and polar organic chemical integrative samplers [POCIS]) are well suited for assessing gradients because they can detect synthetic organic compounds (SOCs) at pg L(-1) concentrations. Semi-permeable membrane devices and POCIS were deployed in Lake Mead, at two sites in Las Vegas Wash, at four sites across Lake Mead, and in the Colorado River downstream from Hoover Dam. Concentrations of hydrophobic SOCs were highest in Las Vegas Wash downstream from waste water and urban inputs and at 8 m depth in Las Vegas Bay (LVB) where Las Vegas Wash enters Lake Mead. The distribution of hydrophobic SOCs showed a lateral distribution across 10 km of Lake Mead from LVB to Boulder Basin. To assess possible vertical gradient SOCs, SPMDs were deployed at 4-m intervals in 18 m of water in LVB. Fragrances and legacy SOCs were found at the greatest concentrations at the deepest depth. The vertical gradient of SOCs indicated that contaminants were generally confined to within 6 m of the lake bottom during the deployment interval. The high SOC concentrations, warmer water temperatures, and higher total dissolved solids concentrations at depth are indicative of a plume of Las Vegas Wash water moving along the lake bottom. The lateral and vertical distribution of SOCs is discussed in the context of other studies that have shown impaired health of fish exposed to SOCs.

  11. Potential Antibacterials Compounds of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB from Quail Intestine (Coturnix japonica in Inhibition Growth of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osfar Sjofjan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Quail (Coturnix japonica is a bird that have high protein content, but vulnerable to digestive diseases. The purpose of this research was to determine the ability of antibacterial compounds of LAB from intestinal quail origin in bacterial growth inhibition test. This research used Completely Randomized Design (CRD with variable concentrations of Cell Free Supernatant (CFS for 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60% and bacterial pathogens of the digestive tract of quail (S. typhimurium, E. coli of human origin, and E. coli of bird origin by using the Minimum inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Minimal Bactericidal Concentration (MBC. The data obtained were analyzed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA. The results obtained showed that the bacterium Lactobacillus fermentum and L. salivarius derived from quail intestine can produce antibacterial compounds that could inhibit the growth of Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli (human, and E. coli (bird. Minimum concentration of the addition of CFS from L. fermentum in inhibiting the growth of tested bacteria was 30% for S. typhimurium, 30% for E. coli (human, and 20% for E. coli (bird. While the addition of CFS minimum concentration of L. salivarius in inhibiting the growth of tested bacteria was 20% for S. typhimurium, 20% for E. coli (human, and 10% for E. coli (bird.

  12. Use of the accelerating rotarod for assessment of motor performance decrement induced by potential anticonvulsant compounds in nerve agent poisoning. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capacio, B.R.; Harris, L.W.; Anderson, D.R.; Lennox, W.J.; Gales, V.

    1992-12-31

    The accelerating rotarod was used to assess motor performance decrement in rats after administration of candidate anticonvulsant compounds (acetazolamide, amitriptyline, chlordiazepoxide, diazepan, diazepam-lysine, lorazepam, loprazolam, midazolam, phenobarbital and scopolamine) against nerve agent poisoning. AH compounds were tested as the commercially available injectable preparation except for diazepam-lysine and loprazolam, which are not FDA approved. A peak effect time, as well as a dose to decrease performance time by 50% from control (PDD50), was determined. The calculated PDD50 (micrometer ol/kg) values and peak effect tunes were midazolam, 1.16 at 15 min; loprazolam, 1.17 at 15 min; diazepam-lysine, 4.17 at 30 min; lorazepwn, 4.98 at 15 min; diazepam, 5.27 at 15 min; phenobarbital, 101.49 at 45 min; chlordiazepoxide, 159.21 at 30 min; scopolamine, amitriptyline and acetazolamide did not demonstrate a performance decrement at any of the doses tested. The PDD50 values were compared with doses which have been utilized against nerve agent-induced convulsions or published ED50 values from standard anticonvulsant screening tests (maximal electroshock MES and subcutaneous pentylenetetrazol (scMET)). I serve agents, anticonvulsants, diazepam, accelerating rotarod, motor performance.

  13. Extraction assisted by pulsed electric energy as a potential tool for green and sustainable recovery of nutritionally valuable compounds from mango peels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parniakov, Oleksii; Barba, Francisco J; Grimi, Nabil; Lebovka, Nikolai; Vorobiev, Eugene

    2016-02-01

    The study compares the efficiency of conventional aqueous extraction at different temperatures (20-60 °C) and pH (2.5-11) and extraction assisted by pulsed electric energy (pulsed electric fields, PEF or high voltage electrical discharges, HVED) of nutritionally valuable compounds found in mango peels. Exponential decay pulses with initial electric field strengths of ≈ 13.3 kV/cm and ≈ 40 kV/cm for PEF and HVED treatments were used, respectively. The impact of temperature on aqueous extraction of proteins and carbohydrates was not significant. The highest values of nutritionally valuable and antioxidant compounds (7.5mM TE) were obtained for aqueous extraction (T = 60 °C, pH 6) but extracts were unstable and cloudy. The application of two-stage procedure PEF+supplementary aqueous extraction (+SE) that include PEF-assisted extraction as the first step, and +SE at 50 °C, pH 6 during 3h as the second step, allowed a noticeable enhancement of the yields of TPC (+400%) even at normal pH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Bioaccessibility of bioactive compounds and antioxidant potential of juçara fruits (Euterpe edulis Martius) subjected to in vitro gastrointestinal digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Mayara; Biluca, Fabíola Carina; Gonzaga, Luciano Valdemiro; Borges, Graciele da Silva Campelo; Vitali, Luciano; Micke, Gustavo Amadeu; de Gois, Jefferson Santos; de Almeida, Tarcisio Silva; Borges, Daniel Lazaro Gallindo; Miller, Paul Richard Momsen; Costa, Ana Carolina Oliveira; Fett, Roseane

    2017-08-01

    An in vitro method involving simulated gastrointestinal digestion was used to assess the bioaccessibility of fifteen minerals, twenty-two phenolic compounds and the antioxidant capacity in juçara fruit during seven ripening stages. For minerals and phenolics, respectively, initial contents were up to 1325.9 and 22.9mg100g(-1), whereas after in vitro digestion, the maximum values were 556.7 and 14.43mg100g(-1) (dry matter). Antioxidant capacity, determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), after in vitro digestion decreased 51-78% when compared to the crude extract. Bioaccessible fractions of quercetin, protocatechuic and p-coumaric acids presented positive and significant correlation with results of DPPH and FRAP. Furthermore, our study demonstrated that the ripening stages of juçara fruit influenced the bioaccessibility of compounds and antioxidant capacity, which presented higher levels in purple fruits collected 42-69days after the appearance of the red berries on bunches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Compound odontoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Yadav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Odontomas have been extensively reported in the dental literature, and the term refers to tumors of odontogenic origin. Though the exact etiology is still unknown, the postulated causes include: local trauma, infection, inheritance and genetic mutation. The majority of the lesions are asymptomatic; however, may be accompanied with pain and swelling as secondary complaints in some cases. Here, we report a case of a compound odontome in a 14 year old patient.

  16. Isolation and Identification of Compounds from Bioactive Extracts of Taraxacum officinale Weber ex F. H. Wigg. (Dandelion as a Potential Source of Antibacterial Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katy Díaz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the most effective treatment for recurrent urinary tract infections in women is antibiotics. However, the limitation for this treatment is the duration and dosage of antibiotics and the resistance that bacteria develop after a long period of administration. With the aim of identifying mainly novel natural agents with antibacterial activity, the present study was undertaken to investigate the biological and phytochemical properties of extracts from the leaves Taraxacum officinale. The structural identification of compounds present in hexane (Hex and ethyl acetate (AcOEt extracts was performed by mass spectrometry (GC-MS spectroscopic techniques and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR with the major compounds corresponding to different sesquiterpene lactones (α-santonin, glabellin, arborescin, and estafiatin, monoterpene (9,10-dimethyltricycle [4.2.1.1 (2,5]decane-9,10-diol, phytosterol (Stigmasta-5,22-dien-3β-ol acetate, terpenes (lupeol acetate, pregn-5-en-20-one-3β-acetyloxy-17-hydroxy, 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy benzaldehyde, and coumarin (benzofuranone 5,6,7,7-a-tetraaldehyde-4,4,7a-trimethyl. The results obtained show that the Hex extract was highly active against Staphylococcus aureus showing a MIC of 200 μg/mL and moderately active against Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae with MIC values of 400 μg/mL and 800 μg/mL for the other Gram-negative strains tested with Proteus mirabilis as uropathogens in vitro. Therefore, the effective dandelion extracts could be used in the development of future products with industrial application.

  17. Predicting chemically-induced skin reactions. Part I: QSAR models of skin sensitization and their application to identify potentially hazardous compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Vinicius M. [Laboratory of Molecular Modeling and Design, Faculty of Pharmacy, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia, GO 74605-220 (Brazil); Laboratory for Molecular Modeling, Division of Chemical Biology and Medicinal Chemistry, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Muratov, Eugene [Laboratory for Molecular Modeling, Division of Chemical Biology and Medicinal Chemistry, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Laboratory of Theoretical Chemistry, A.V. Bogatsky Physical-Chemical Institute NAS of Ukraine, Odessa 65080 (Ukraine); Fourches, Denis [Laboratory for Molecular Modeling, Division of Chemical Biology and Medicinal Chemistry, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Strickland, Judy; Kleinstreuer, Nicole [ILS/Contractor Supporting the NTP Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM), P.O. Box 13501, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Andrade, Carolina H. [Laboratory of Molecular Modeling and Design, Faculty of Pharmacy, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia, GO 74605-220 (Brazil); Tropsha, Alexander, E-mail: alex_tropsha@unc.edu [Laboratory for Molecular Modeling, Division of Chemical Biology and Medicinal Chemistry, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Repetitive exposure to a chemical agent can induce an immune reaction in inherently susceptible individuals that leads to skin sensitization. Although many chemicals have been reported as skin sensitizers, there have been very few rigorously validated QSAR models with defined applicability domains (AD) that were developed using a large group of chemically diverse compounds. In this study, we have aimed to compile, curate, and integrate the largest publicly available dataset related to chemically-induced skin sensitization, use this data to generate rigorously validated and QSAR models for skin sensitization, and employ these models as a virtual screening tool for identifying putative sensitizers among environmental chemicals. We followed best practices for model building and validation implemented with our predictive QSAR workflow using Random Forest modeling technique in combination with SiRMS and Dragon descriptors. The Correct Classification Rate (CCR) for QSAR models discriminating sensitizers from non-sensitizers was 71–88% when evaluated on several external validation sets, within a broad AD, with positive (for sensitizers) and negative (for non-sensitizers) predicted rates of 85% and 79% respectively. When compared to the skin sensitization module included in the OECD QSAR Toolbox as well as to the skin sensitization model in publicly available VEGA software, our models showed a significantly higher prediction accuracy for the same sets of external compounds as evaluated by Positive Predicted Rate, Negative Predicted Rate, and CCR. These models were applied to identify putative chemical hazards in the Scorecard database of possible skin or sense organ toxicants as primary candidates for experimental validation. - Highlights: • It was compiled the largest publicly-available skin sensitization dataset. • Predictive QSAR models were developed for skin sensitization. • Developed models have higher prediction accuracy than OECD QSAR Toolbox. • Putative

  18. Reference compounds for alternative test methods to indicate developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) potential of chemicals: example lists and criteria for their selection and use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschner, Michael; Ceccatelli, Sandra; Daneshian, Mardas; Fritsche, Ellen; Hasiwa, Nina; Hartung, Thomas; Hogberg, Helena T.; Leist, Marcel; Li, Abby; Mundy, William R.; Padilla, Stephanie; Piersma, Aldert H.; Bal-Price, Anna; Seiler, Andrea; Westerink, Remco H.; Zimmer, Bastian; Lein, Pamela J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary There is a paucity of information concerning the developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) hazard posed by industrial and environmental chemicals. New testing approaches will most likely be based on batteries of alternative and complementary (non-animal) tests. As DNT is assumed to result from the modulation of fundamental neurodevelopmental processes (such as neuronal differentiation, precursor cell migration or neuronal network formation) by chemicals, the first generation of alternative DNT tests target these processes. The advantage of such types of assays is that they capture toxicants with multiple targets and modes-of-action. Moreover, the processes modelled by the assays can be linked to toxicity endophenotypes, i.e. alterations in neural connectivity that form the basis for neurofunctional deficits in man. The authors of this review convened in a workshop to define criteria for the selection of positive/negative controls, to prepare recommendations on their use, and to initiate the setup of a directory of reference chemicals. For initial technical optimization of tests, a set of >50 endpoint-specific control compounds was identified. For further test development, an additional “test” set of 33 chemicals considered to act directly as bona fide DNT toxicants is proposed, and each chemical is annotated to the extent it fulfills these criteria. A tabular compilation of the original literature used to select the test set chemicals provides information on statistical procedures, and toxic/non-toxic doses (both for pups and dams). Suggestions are provided on how to use the >100 compounds (including negative controls) compiled here to address specificity, adversity and use of alternative test systems. PMID:27452664

  19. The anti-obesity effect of Taheebo (Tabebuia avellanedae Lorentz ex Griseb) extract in ovariectomized mice and the identification of a potential anti-obesity compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Kazuko; Fukuda, Youichi; Tokikura, Chisato; Noda, Mayuko; Yamamoto, Ayami; Yamamoto, Misato; Yamashita, Mitsuaki; Zaima, Nobuhiro; Iida, Akira; Moriyama, Tatsuya

    2016-09-23

    Estrogen deficiency-induced obesity has a high risk of visceral fat accumulation and body weight gain. It is also associated with many adverse health conditions. Taheebo extract from Tabebuia avellanedae has been recognized as playing several biological and pharmacological roles. Therefore, we investigated whether the intake of n-BuOH extract of Taheebo shows anti-obesity effect in ovariectomized (OVX) mice. After 16 weeks of feeding, the mice administrated with 0.5% n-BuOH extract of Taheebo showed significantly decreased body weight compared with that of the control mice, and the fat mass also showed a significant decrease. In 3T3-L1 cells, supplementation with n-BuOH extract of Taheebo significantly reduced the triglyceride (TG) levels. Furthermore, bioassay-guided purification of the n-BuOH extract based on the TG levels in 3T3-L1 cells led to the isolation of compound 2 (1-dehydroxy-3,4-dihydroaucubigenin). These results suggested that the anti-obesity effect of Taheebo extract is due to its capability in preventing the accumulation of adipocyte in mice. Taheebo extract might be a promising functional food resources capable of protecting against OVX-induced obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Experimental and theoretical investigations on Pd(II) host-guest compound: Deciphering the structural and electronic features of a potential bioactive complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreejith, S. S.; Mohan, Nithya; Prathapachandra Kurup, M. R.

    2017-10-01

    A Pd(II) complex from N,N‧-bis(2-hydroxy-3-ethoxybenzylidene)butane-1,4-diamine salen-type ligand has been synthesized and characterised using single crystal XRD analysis, elemental analysis, IR and UV-Vis spectroscopic methods. Thermal profile of the compound is investigated using TG-DTG-DSC method. The quantification of intermolecular interactions and surface morphology has been done using Hirshfeld surface study mapped using various functions like dnorm, shape index and curvedness. ESP analysis is done to visualize the electrophilic and nucleophilic regions in the complex. Geometry optimization of the structure is done using DFT at B3LYP/def2-TZVP level of theory. Frontier orbital analysis reveals the kinetical stability and chemical inertness of the complex. A detailed charge distribution analysis is done using different analytical methods like Mulliken, Löwdin, NPA and AIM methods. Further bond order analysis and topological analysis are also done. Finally the bioactivity of the titled complex is checked using molecular docking method on both DNA and protein.

  1. Bifunctional compounds eliciting anti-inflammatory and anti-cholinesterase activity as potential treatment of nerve and blister chemical agents poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amitai, Gabi; Adani, Rachel; Fishbein, Eliezer; Meshulam, Haim; Laish, Ido; Dachir, Schlomit

    2005-12-15

    Studies cited by Cowan et al. [J. Appl. Toxicol. 23, 177 (2003)] indicate existence of inflammatory and cholinergic pathways in both nerve agents and sulfur mustard (HD) injury. Increase in AChE synthesis and neurite extension was noted after exposure to HD [K.W. Lanks et al., Exp. Cell Res. 355 (1975)]. Moreover, anti-inflammatory drugs reduce the dermal, respiratory and ocular damage caused by exposure to HD. On the other hand, recent studies have noted the involvement of neuro-inflammatory processes during exposure to the nerve agents sarin or soman [Cowan et al., 2003]. The use of various anti-inflammatory drugs in addition to the classical antidotal drugs (e.g. atropine and oximes) caused decrease in certain toxic symptoms and inflammation-induced brain damage. Our new bifunctional drugs (Scheme 1) are based on CNS-permeable molecular combination of pseudo-reversible AChE inhibitor (pyridostigmine, PYR) coupled via a hydrophobic spacer (octyl or decyl hydrocarbon chain) to a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) such as Ibuprofen or Diclofenac (Scheme 1). This study evaluates the efficacy of certain bifunctional compounds against HD and soman poisoning in mice in vivo.

  2. Conformational stability, spectroscopic and computational studies, HOMO-LUMO, NBO, ESP analysis, thermodynamic parameters of natural bioactive compound with anticancer potential of 2-(hydroxymethyl)anthraquinone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, V; Karpagam, V; Revathi, B; Kavimani, M; Ilango, G

    2015-11-05

    Natural product drugs play a dominant role in pharmaceutical care. Nature is an attractive source of new therapeutic candidate compounds as a tremendous chemical diversity is found in millions of species of plants, animals, marine organism and micro-organism. A antifungal activity against important opportunist micro-organism and against those involved in superficial mycosis, all from nosocomial origin. The acute in vitro cytotoxicity evaluation of each anthraquinone (AQ) isolated from these bioactive extracts, on a mammalian eukaryotic cell line (Vero cells), allowed us to establish the non-cytotoxic concentration range, which was used to evaluate the anti-microbial effect. A comprehensive ab initio calculation using the DFT/6-31+G(d) level theory showed that 2-(hydroxymethyl)anthraquinone can exist in four possible conformations, which can interchange through the OH group on the five-membered ring. Density functional theory calculations were used to predict the vibrational frequencies and to help in normal mode, assignments. Furthermore, a natural bond orbital analysis was performed describing each hydrogen bond as donor accepter interaction. The Fourier transform infrared spectra (4000-400 cm(-1)) and the Fourier transform Raman spectra (3500-100 cm(-1)) of the HMA in the solid space have been recorded. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies show that charge transfer occurs within the molecule. The calculated ESP contour map shows the electrophilic and nucleophilic region of the molecule. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Cold Environment Exacerbates Brain Pathology and Oxidative Stress Following Traumatic Brain Injuries: Potential Therapeutic Effects of Nanowired Antioxidant Compound H-290/51.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Aruna; Muresanu, Dafin F; Lafuente, José Vicente; Sjöquist, Per-Ove; Patnaik, Ranjana; Ryan Tian, Z; Ozkizilcik, Asya; Sharma, Hari S

    2017-08-30

    The possibility that traumatic brain injury (TBI) occurring in a cold environment exacerbates brain pathology and oxidative stress was examined in our rat model. TBI was inflicted by making a longitudinal incision into the right parietal cerebral cortex (2 mm deep and 4 mm long) in cold-acclimatized rats (5 °C for 3 h daily for 5 weeks) or animals at room temperature under Equithesin anesthesia. TBI in cold-exposed rats exhibited pronounced increase in brain lucigenin (LCG), luminol (LUM), and malondialdehyde (MDA) and marked pronounced decrease in glutathione (GTH) as compared to identical TBI at room temperature. The magnitude and intensity of BBB breakdown to radioiodine and Evans blue albumin, edema formation, and neuronal injuries were also exacerbated in cold-exposed rats after injury as compared to room temperature. Nanowired delivery of H-290/51 (50 mg/kg) 6 and 8 h after injury in cold-exposed group significantly thwarted brain pathology and oxidative stress whereas normal delivery of H-290/51 was neuroprotective after TBI at room temperature only. These observations are the first to demonstrate that (i) cold aggravates the pathophysiology of TBI possibly due to an enhanced production of oxidative stress, (ii) and in such conditions, nanodelivery of antioxidant compound has superior neuroprotective effects, not reported earlier.

  4. The sensitizing potential of metalworking fluid biocides (phenolic and thiazole compounds) in the guinea-pig maximization test in relation to patch-test reactivity in eczema patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Hamann, K

    1984-01-01

    The sensitizing potential of seven industrial antimicrobial agents was evaluated using the guinea-pig maximization test. Preventol O extra (o-phenylphenol) did not produce a sensitization reaction. Preventol ON extra (sodium salt of o-phenylphenol), Preventol GD (dichlorophene) and Proxel XL and ...

  5. Magnesium compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 52 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production in 2006. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from sea-water by Premier Chemicals in Florida; from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and Rohm and Haas; and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals. Intrepid Potash-Wendover and Great Salt Lake Minerals recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from brucite by Applied Chemical Magnesias in Texas, from seawater by SPI Pharma in Delaware and Premier Chemicals in Florida, and by Martin Marietta and Rohm and Haas from their operations mentioned above. About 59 percent of the magnesium compounds consumed in the United States was used for refractories that are used mainly to line steelmaking furnaces. The remaining 41 percent was consumed in agricultural, chemical, construction, environmental and industrial applications.

  6. The application of discriminant analysis and Machine Learning methods as tools to identify and classify compounds with potential as transdermal enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, G P; Shah, A J; Adams, R G; Davey, N; Wilkinson, S C; Pugh, W J; Sun, Y

    2012-01-23

    Discriminant analysis (DA) has previously been shown to allow the proposal of simple guidelines for the classification of 73 chemical enhancers of percutaneous absorption. Pugh et al. employed DA to classify such enhancers into simple categories, based on the physicochemical properties of the enhancer molecules (Pugh et al., 2005). While this approach provided a reasonable accuracy of classification it was unable to provide a consistently reliable estimate of enhancement ratio (ER, defined as the amount of hydrocortisone transferred after 24h, relative to control). Machine Learning methods, including Gaussian process (GP) regression, have recently been employed in the prediction of percutaneous absorption of exogenous chemicals (Moss et al., 2009; Lam et al., 2010; Sun et al., 2011). They have shown that they provide more accurate predictions of these phenomena. In this study several Machine Learning methods, including the K-nearest-neighbour (KNN) regression, single layer networks, radial basis function networks and the SVM classifier were applied to an enhancer dataset reported previously. The SMOTE sampling method was used to oversample chemical compounds with ER>10 in each training set in order to improve estimation of GP and KNN. Results show that models using five physicochemical descriptors exhibit better performance than those with three features. The best classification result was obtained by using the SVM method without dealing with imbalanced data. Following over-sampling, GP gives the best result. It correctly assigned 8 of the 12 "good" (ER>10) enhancers and 56 of the 59 "poor" enhancers (ERMachine Learning methods are that they can provide more accurate classification of enhancer type with fewer false-positive results and that, unlike discriminant analysis, they are able to make predictions of enhancer ability. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Patch testing with the textile dyes Disperse Orange 1 and Disperse Yellow 3 and some of their potential metabolites, and simultaneous reactions to para-amino compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinauskiene, Laura; Zimerson, Erik; Bruze, Magnus; Ryberg, Kristina; Isaksson, Marlene

    2012-09-01

    It is known that, in vitro, human skin bacteria are able to split disperse azo dyes into the corresponding aromatic amines, some of which are sensitizers in the local lymph node assay. We hypothesize that the molecules of disperse dyes migrate onto the skin while garments are worn, and are metabolized and degraded by commensal skin bacteria. These molecules penetrate the skin and induce sensitization. To evaluate the elicitation capacities of the possible azo-degradation products of the selected azo disperse dyes in patients allergic to them and to compare it with the elicitation capacities of other para-compounds. Ten patients allergic to Disperse Yellow 3 (DY3) and/or Disperse Orange 1 (DO1) were patch tested with a dilution series of the purified dyes 4-nitroaniline and p-aminodiphenylamine in concentrations equimolar to those of purified DO1 in the dilution series, as well as 4-aminoacetanilide and 2-amino-p-cresol in concentrations equimolar to those of purified DY3 in the dilution series. Results. Three patterns of patch test reactions could be seen. The 6 patients who were positive to DO1 and DY3 also reacted to p-aminodiphenylamine and 2-amino-p-cresol. Two patients were positive to DO1 only, and both reacted to p-aminodiphenylamine, but to neither 4-aminoacetanilide or 2-amino-p-cresol. Two patients did not react to DO1 or DY3 on this occasion. We show that it is possible that the major sensitizers in contact allergy to DO1 and DY3 are their metabolites, p-aminodiphenylamine and 2-amino-p-cresol, respectively, which might be formed by the azoreductase pathway of skin bacteria. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. Increased potential for wound activated production of Prostaglandin E2 and related toxic compounds in non-native populations of Gracilaria vermiculophylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammann, Mareike; Rempt, Martin; Pohnert, Georg; Wang, Gaoge; Boo, Sung Min; Weinberger, Florian

    2016-01-01

    The capacity of the East Asian seaweed Gracilaria vermiculophylla ("Ogonori") for production of prostaglandin E2 from arachidonic acid occasionally causes food poisoning after ingestion. During the last two decades the alga has been introduced to Europe and North America. Non-native populations have been shown to be generally less palatable to marine herbivores than native populations. We hypothesized that the difference in palatability among populations could be due to differences in the algal content of prostaglandins. We therefore compared the capacity for wound-activated production of prostaglandins and other eicosatetraenoid oxylipins among five native populations in East Asia and seven non-native populations in Europe and NW Mexico, using a targeted metabolomics approach. In two independent experiments non-native populations exhibited a significant tendency to produce more eicosatetraenoids than native populations after acclimation to identical conditions and subsequent artificial wounding. Fourteen out of 15 eicosatetraenoids that were detected in experiment I and all 19 eicosatetraenoids that were detected in experiment II reached higher mean concentrations in non-native than in native specimens. Wounding of non-native specimens resulted on average in 390% more 15-keto-PGE2, in 90% more PGE2, in 37% more PGA2 and in 96% more 7,8-di-hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acid than wounding of native specimens. Not only PGE2, but also PGA2 and dihydroxylated eicosatetraenoic acid are known to deter various biological enemies of G. vermiculophylla that cause tissue or cell wounding, and in the present study the latter two compounds also repelled the mesograzer Littorina brevicula. Non-native populations of G. vermiculophylla are thus more defended against herbivory than native populations. This increased capacity for activated chemical defense may have contributed to their invasion success and at the same time it poses an elevated risk for human food safety. Copyright

  9. First-principles energy band calculation of Ruddlesden-Popper compound Sr3Sn2O7 using modified Becke-Johnson exchange potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Sunao; Obukuro, Yuki; Matsushima, Shigenori; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Arai, Masao; Xu, Chao-Nan

    2015-12-01

    The electronic structure of Sr3Sn2O7 is evaluated by the scalar-relativistic full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FLAPW+lo) method using the modified Becke-Johnson potential (Tran-Blaha potential) combined with the local density approximation correlation (MBJ-LDA). The fundamental gap between the valence band (VB) and conduction band (CB) is estimated to be 3.96 eV, which is close to the experimental value. Sn 5s states and Sr 4d states are predominant in the lower and upper CB, respectively. On the other hand, the lower VB is mainly composed of Sn 5s, 5p, and O 2p states, while the upper VB mainly consists of O 2p states. These features of the DOS are well reflected by the optical transition between the upper VB and lower CB, as seen in the energy dependence of the dielectric function. Furthermore, the absorption coefficient estimated from the MBJ-LDA is similar to the experimental result.

  10. Molecular docking based virtual screening of natural compounds as potential BACE1 inhibitors: 3D QSAR pharmacophore mapping and molecular dynamics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Akhil; Roy, Sudeep; Tripathi, Shubhandra; Sharma, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Beta-site APP cleaving enzyme1 (BACE1) catalyzes the rate determining step in the generation of Aβ peptide and is widely considered as a potential therapeutic drug target for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Active site of BACE1 contains catalytic aspartic (Asp) dyad and flap. Asp dyad cleaves the substrate amyloid precursor protein with the help of flap. Currently, there are no marketed drugs available against BACE1 and existing inhibitors are mostly pseudopeptide or synthetic derivatives. There is a need to search for a potent inhibitor with natural scaffold interacting with flap and Asp dyad. This study screens the natural database InterBioScreen, followed by three-dimensional (3D) QSAR pharmacophore modeling, mapping, in silico ADME/T predictions to find the potential BACE1 inhibitors. Further, molecular dynamics of selected inhibitors were performed to observe the dynamic structure of protein after ligand binding. All conformations and the residues of binding region were stable but the flap adopted a closed conformation after binding with the ligand. Bond oligosaccharide interacted with the flap as well as catalytic dyad via hydrogen bond throughout the simulation. This led to stabilize the flap in closed conformation and restricted the entry of substrate. Carbohydrates have been earlier used in the treatment of AD because of their low toxicity, high efficiency, good biocompatibility, and easy permeability through the blood-brain barrier. Our finding will be helpful in identify the potential leads to design novel BACE1 inhibitors for AD therapy.

  11. Natural compounds with herbicidal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Montemurro

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Research about phytotoxic activity of natural compounds could lead both to find new herbicidal active ingredients and to plan environmental friendly weed control strategies. Particularly, living organisms could be a source of compounds that are impossible, for their complexity, to synthesize artificially. More over, they could have alternative sites of action respect to the known chemical herbicides and, due to their origin, they should be more environmental safe. Many living organism, such as bacteria, fungi, insects, lichens and plants, are able to produce bioactive compounds. They generally are secondary metabolites or simply waste molecules. In this paper we make a review about these compounds, highlighting potential and constraints.

  12. Magnesium compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 57 percent of magnesium compounds produced in the United States in 2011. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties LLC from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Magnesia LLC in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Magnesia. Intrepid Potash Wendover LLC and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma Inc. in Delaware and Premier Magnesia in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its brine operation in Michigan.

  13. Bismaleimide compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Johnnie E.; Jamieson, Donald R.

    1986-01-14

    Bismaleimides of the formula ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 each independently is H, C.sub.1-4 -alkyl, C.sub.1-4 -alkoxy, C1 or Br, or R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 together form a fused 6-membered hydrocarbon aromatic ring, with the proviso that R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 are not t-butyl or t-butoxy; X is O, S or Se; n is 1-3; and the alkylene bridging group, optionally, is substituted by 1-3 methyl groups or by fluorine, form polybismaleimide resins which have valuable physical properties. Uniquely, these compounds permit extended cure times, i.e., they remain fluid for a time sufficient to permit the formation of a homogeneous melt prior to curing.

  14. Scaling of cross sections for K-electron capture by high-energy protons and alpha-particles from the multielectron atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidvar, K.

    1979-01-01

    Electron capture by protons from H, He, and the K shell of Ar, and electron capture by alpha particles from He are considered. Using the experimental data, a function of the capture cross section is formed. It is shown that when this function is plotted versus the inverse of the collision energies, at high energies a straight line is obtained. At lower energies the line is concave up or down, depending on the charge of the projectile and/or the effective charge and the ionization potential of the electron that is being captured. The plot can be used to predict cross sections where experimental data are not available, and as a guide in future experiments. High-energy scaling formulas for K-electron capture by low-charge projectiles are given.

  15. DFT and modified Becke Johnson (mBJ) potential investigations of the optoelectronic properties of SnGa4Q7 (Q = S, Se) compounds: Transparent materials for large energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Wilayat; Azam, Sikander; Shah, Fahad Ali; Goumri-Said, Souraya

    2015-10-01

    Electronic structure and optical properties of SnGa4Q7 (Q = S, Se) compounds were investigated using a full potential linearized augmented plane wave method based on density functional formalism. Electronic band structures show an indirect semiconducting wide band gap two different approaches (EV-GGA and mBJ). The band gap values are estimated at 2.90 (2.25 eV) and 3.11 (2.49 eV) for EV-GGA and mBJ for SnGa4S7 (SnGa4Se7), respectively. Densities of states show that Sn-5s and S/Se-3p/4p states are dominating the region around Fermi level form valence band maximum and conduction band minimum. The computed electronic charge density contours demonstrate that SnGa4Q7 (Q = S, Se) show a mixture between ionic and covalent characters. Optical parameters including the dielectric constant, absorption coefficient, reflectivity, refractive index, energy loss function, and birefringence are also reported to investigate the potential role of SnGa4Q7 (Q = S, Se) compounds for solar energy conversion application.

  16. Cancer chemoprevention by natural compounds

    OpenAIRE

    スズキ, マスミ; Masumi, SUZUI

    2007-01-01

    There is growing interest in the use of natural compounds for the treatment and prevention of a wide variety of diseases, including cancer. Several herb-derived components are currently evaluated in preclinical studies as potential cancer chemopreventive agents. We have recently found that several herbal plants in the Ryukyu Islands, or any other natural compound, have a potential chemopreventive effect on biomarkers of colon carcinogenesis and a growth inhibitory effect on human cancer cells...

  17. The Combined Use of in Silico, in Vitro, and in Vivo Analyses to Assess Anti-cancerous Potential of a Bioactive Compound from Cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. MGL001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niveshika

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Escalating incidences of cancer, especially in developed and developing countries, demand evaluation of potential unexplored natural drug resources. Here, anticancer potential of 9-Ethyliminomethyl-12-(morpholin-4-ylmethoxy-5,8,13,16-tetraaza -hexacene-2,3-dicarboxylic acid (EMTAHDCA isolated from fresh water cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. MGL001 was screened through in silico, in vitro, and in vivo studies. For in silico analysis, EMTAHDCA was selected as ligand and 11 cancer related proteins (Protein Data Bank ID: 1BIX, 1NOW, 1TE6, 2RCW, 2UVL, 2VCJ, 3CRY, 3HQU, 3NMQ, 5P21, and 4B7P which are common targets of various anticancer drugs were selected as receptors. The results obtained from in silico analysis showed that EMTAHDCA has strong binding affinity for all the 11 target protein receptors. The ability of EMTAHDCA to bind active sites of cancer protein targets indicated that it is functionally similar to commercially available anticancer drugs. For assessing cellular metabolic activities, in vitro studies were performed by using calorimetric assay viz. 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT. Results showed that EMTAHDCA induced significant cytotoxic response against Dalton's lymphoma ascites (DLA cells in a dose and time dependent manner with an inhibitory concentration (IC50 value of 372.4 ng/mL after 24 h of incubation. However, in case of normal bone marrow cells, the EMTAHDCA did not induce cytotoxicity as the IC50 value was not obtained even with higher dose of 1,000 ng/mL EMTAHDCA. Further, in vivo studies revealed that the median life span/survival days of tumor bearing mice treated with EMTAHDCA increased significantly with a fold change of ~1.9 and 1.81 corresponding to doses of 5 and 10 mg/kg body weight (B.W. of EMTAHDCA respectively, as compared to the DL group. Our results suggest that 5 mg/kg B.W. is effective since the dose of 10 mg/kg B.W. did not show any significant difference as compared to 5 mg/kg B

  18. Date (Phoenix dactylifera Polyphenolics and Other Bioactive Compounds: A Traditional Islamic Remedy’s Potential in Prevention of Cell Damage, Cancer Therapeutics and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibi R. Yasin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This review analyzes current studies of the therapeutic effects of Phoenix dactylifera, or date palm fruit, on the physiologic system. Specifically, we sought to summarize the effects of its application in preventing cell damage, improving cancer therapeutics and reducing damage caused by conventional chemotherapy. Phoenix dactylifera exhibits potent anti-oxidative properties both in vitro and in vivo. This allows the fruit to prevent depletion of intrinsic protection from oxidative cell damage and assist these defense systems in reducing cell damage. Macroscopically, this mechanism may be relevant to the prevention of various adverse drug events common to chemotherapy including hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, gastrotoxicity, and peripheral neuropathy. While such effects have only been studied in small animal systems, research suggests a potential application to more complex mammalian systems and perhaps a solution to some problems of chemotherapy in hepato-compromised and nephro-compromised patients.

  19. The potential arsenic retention role of Ca-Fe(III)-AsO{sub 4} compounds in lime neutralized co-precipitation tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becze, L.; Gomez, M.A. [McGill Univ., Dept. of Mining and Materials Engineering, Montreal, QC (Canada); Petkov, V. [Central Michigan Univ., Dept. of Physics, Mount Pleasant, Michigan (United States); Cutler, J.N. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Canadian Light Source Inc., Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Demopoulos, G.P., E-mail: george.demopoulos@mcgill.ca [MCGill Univ., Dept. of Mining and Materials Engineering, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Arsenic is a major contaminant in a number of high grade uranium ores mined in Northern Saskatchewan. Upon processing of these ores by hydrometallurgical processes, arsenic reports to aqueous waste solutions from which arsenic(V) is removed by co-precipitation with iron(III). This process results in the generation of a mixture of poorly crystalline arsenate-bearing phases and gypsum. Based on laboratory investigations there exists the potential upon reaction of the disposed iron(III)-arsenate phases and gypsum to lead to Ca-Fe(III)-AsO{sub 4} association resembling the mineral yukonite. In this paper the laboratory synthesis, characterization and solubility investigation of yukonite is reviewed and the implications of its formation in U-mill tailings as an arsenic control phase are discussed. (author)

  20. Synergistic and potentiating effects of ranitidine and two new anti-ulcer compounds from Enantia chlorantha and Voacanga africana in experimental animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, P V; Nyasse, B; Dimo, T; Wafo, P; Akahkuh, B T

    2002-06-01

    TN, an alkaloid from the fruit of Voacanga africana and a protoberberine-type alkaloid (7,8-dihydro-8-hydroxypalmatine) (1), obtained from the bark of Enantia chlorantha were tested for ulcer preventive and antisecretory activity in combination with ranitidine. When tested alone (50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.), TN and 1 achieved their anti-ulcer actions through reduced gastric secretion and improved mucus production. 1:1 combinations of 1 and the antisecretory agents (25/25 and 50/50 mg/kg) resulted in significant reduction of ulceration under highly acidic conditions (50-70 mEq/l), suggesting potentiating effects. A combination of TN and ranitidine led to synergistic antisecretory effects.

  1. Phenolic compounds in oats

    OpenAIRE

    Skoglund, Maria

    2008-01-01

    This research project examined how to treat raw oat material for oat-based food products in order to sustain or increase the levels of phenolic compounds. The focus was mainly on the avenanthramides, which are potentially health beneficial bioactive components found exclusively in oats. A proposed enzymatic decrease in avenanthramide levels when non heat-treated milled oats are steeped in water was investigated. The decrease was strongly suggested to be caused by a polyphenol oxidase. Althoug...

  2. Validation of GC-IRMS techniques for δ(13)C and δ(2)H CSIA of organophosphorus compounds and their potential for studying the mode of hydrolysis in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Langping; Kümmel, Steffen; Richnow, Hans H

    2017-04-01

    Compound-specific stable isotope analysis (CSIA) is among the most promising tools for studying the fate of organic pollutants in the environment. However, the feasibility of multidimensional CSIA was limited by the availability of a robust method for precise isotope analysis of heteroatom-bearing organic compounds. We developed a method for δ (13)C and δ (2)H analysis of eight organophosphorus compounds (OPs) with different chemical properties. In particular, we aimed to compare high-temperature conversion (HTC) and chromium-based HTC (Cr/HTC) units to explore the limitations of hydrogen isotope analysis of heteroatom-bearing compounds. Analysis of the amount dependency of the isotope values (linearity analysis) of OPs indicated that the formation of HCl was a significant isotope fractionation process leading to inaccurate δ (2)H analysis in HTC. In the case of nonchlorinated OPs, by-product formation of HCN, H2S, or PH3 in HTC was observed but did not affect the dynamic range of reproducible isotope values above the limit of detection. No hydrogen-containing by-products were found in the Cr/HTC process by use of ion trap mass spectrometry analysis. The accuracy of gas chromatography - isotope ratio mass spectrometry was validated in comparison with elemental analyzer - isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Dual-isotope fractionation yielded Λ values of 0 ± 0 at pH 7, 7 ± 1 at pH 9, and 30 ± 6 at pH 12, indicating the potential of 2D CSIA to characterize the hydrolysis mechanisms of OPs. This is the first report on the combination of δ (2)H and δ (13)C isotope analysis of OPs, and this is the first study providing a systematic evaluation of HTC and Cr/HTC for hydrogen isotope analysis using OPs as target compounds. Graphical Abstract Comparison of δ(2)H measurement of non-chlorinated and chlorinated OPs via GC-Cr/HTC-IRMS and GC-HTC-IRMS system.

  3. A CALCULATION OF SEMI-EMPIRICAL ONE-ELECTRON WAVE FUNCTIONS FOR MULTI-ELECTRON ATOMS USED FOR ELEMENTARY PROCESS SIMULATION IN NONLOCAL PLASMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Tchernycheva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The paper deals with development outcomes for creation method of one-electron wave functions of complex atoms, relatively simple, symmetrical for all atom electrons and free from hard computations. The accuracy and resource intensity of the approach are focused on systematic calculations of cross sections and rate constants of elementary processes of inelastic collisions of atoms or molecules with electrons (ionization, excitation, excitation transfer, and others. Method. The method is based on a set of two iterative processes. At the first iteration step the Schrödinger equation was solved numerically for the radial parts of the electron wave functions in the potential of the atomic core self-consistent field. At the second iteration step the new approximationfor the atomic core field is created that uses found solutions for all one-electron wave functions. The solution optimization for described multiparameter problem is achieved by the use of genetic algorithm. The suitability of the developed method was verified by comparing the calculation results with numerous data on the energies of atoms in the ground and excited states. Main Results. We have created the run-time version of the program for creation of sets of one-electron wave functions and calculation of the cross sections and constants of collisional transition rates in the first Born approximation. The priori available information about binding energies of the electrons for any many-particle system for creation of semi-empirical refined solutions for the one-electron wave functions can be considered at any step of this procedure. Practical Relevance. The proposed solution enables a simple and rapid preparation of input data for the numerical simulation of nonlocal gas discharge plasma. The approach is focused on the calculation of discharges in complex gas mixtures requiring inclusion in the model of a large number of elementary collisional and radiation

  4. Modeling organic aerosols in a megacity: Potential contribution of semi-volatile and intermediate volatility primary organic compounds to secondary organic aerosol formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodzic, A.; Kleinman, L.; Jimenez, J. L.; Madronich, S.; Canagaratna, M. R.; DeCarlo, P. F.; Fast, J.

    2010-06-01

    It has been established that observed local and regional levels of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in polluted areas cannot be explained by the oxidation and partitioning of anthropogenic and biogenic VOC precursors, at least using current mechanisms and parameterizations. In this study, the 3-D regional air quality model CHIMERE is applied to estimate the potential contribution to SOA formation of recently identified semi-volatile and intermediate volatility organic precursors (S/IVOC) in and around Mexico City for the MILAGRO field experiment during March 2006. The model has been updated to include explicitly the volatility distribution of primary organic aerosols (POA), their gas-particle partitioning and the gas-phase oxidation of the vapors. Two recently proposed parameterizations, those of Robinson et al. (2007) ('ROB') and Grieshop et al. (2009) ('GRI') are compared and evaluated against surface and aircraft measurements. The 3-D model results are assessed by comparing with the concentrations of OA components from Positive Matrix Factorization of Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) data, and for the first time also with oxygen-to-carbon ratios derived from high-resolution AMS measurements. The results show a substantial enhancement in predicted SOA concentrations (2-4 times) with respect to the previously published base case without S/IVOCs (Hodzic et al., 2009), both within and downwind of the city leading to much reduced discrepancies with the total OA measurements. Model improvements in OA predictions are associated with the better-captured SOA magnitude and diurnal variability. The predicted production from anthropogenic and biomass burning S/IVOC represents 40-60% of the total measured SOA at the surface during the day and is somewhat larger than that from commonly measured aromatic VOCs, especially at the T1 site at the edge of the city. The SOA production from the continued multi-generation S/IVOC oxidation products continues actively

  5. Modeling organic aerosols in a megacity: potential contribution of semi-volatile and intermediate volatility primary organic compounds to secondary organic aerosol formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hodzic

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been established that observed local and regional levels of secondary organic aerosols (SOA in polluted areas cannot be explained by the oxidation and partitioning of anthropogenic and biogenic VOC precursors, at least using current mechanisms and parameterizations. In this study, the 3-D regional air quality model CHIMERE is applied to estimate the potential contribution to SOA formation of recently identified semi-volatile and intermediate volatility organic precursors (S/IVOC in and around Mexico City for the MILAGRO field experiment during March 2006. The model has been updated to include explicitly the volatility distribution of primary organic aerosols (POA, their gas-particle partitioning and the gas-phase oxidation of the vapors. Two recently proposed parameterizations, those of Robinson et al. (2007 ("ROB" and Grieshop et al. (2009 ("GRI" are compared and evaluated against surface and aircraft measurements. The 3-D model results are assessed by comparing with the concentrations of OA components from Positive Matrix Factorization of Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS data, and for the first time also with oxygen-to-carbon ratios derived from high-resolution AMS measurements. The results show a substantial enhancement in predicted SOA concentrations (2–4 times with respect to the previously published base case without S/IVOCs (Hodzic et al., 2009, both within and downwind of the city leading to much reduced discrepancies with the total OA measurements. Model improvements in OA predictions are associated with the better-captured SOA magnitude and diurnal variability. The predicted production from anthropogenic and biomass burning S/IVOC represents 40–60% of the total measured SOA at the surface during the day and is somewhat larger than that from commonly measured aromatic VOCs, especially at the T1 site at the edge of the city. The SOA production from the continued multi-generation S/IVOC oxidation products continues actively

  6. Argyreia nervosa (Burm. f.): receptor profiling of lysergic acid amide and other potential psychedelic LSD-like compounds by computational and binding assay approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulke, Alexander; Kremer, Christian; Wunder, Cora; Achenbach, Janosch; Djahanschiri, Bardya; Elias, Anderson; Schwed, J Stefan; Hübner, Harald; Gmeiner, Peter; Proschak, Ewgenij; Toennes, Stefan W; Stark, Holger

    2013-07-09

    The convolvulacea Argyreia nervosa (Burm. f.) is well known as an important medical plant in the traditional Ayurvedic system of medicine and it is used in numerous diseases (e.g. nervousness, bronchitis, tuberculosis, arthritis, and diabetes). Additionally, in the Indian state of Assam and in other regions Argyreia nervosa is part of the traditional tribal medicine (e.g. the Santali people, the Lodhas, and others). In the western hemisphere, Argyreia nervosa has been brought in attention as so called "legal high". In this context, the seeds are used as source of the psychoactive ergotalkaloid lysergic acid amide (LSA), which is considered as the main active ingredient. As the chemical structure of LSA is very similar to that of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), the seeds of Argyreia nervosa (Burm. f.) are often considered as natural substitute of LSD. In the present study, LSA and LSD have been compared concerning their potential pharmacological profiles based on the receptor binding affinities since our recent human study with four volunteers on p.o. application of Argyreia nervosa seeds has led to some ambiguous effects. In an initial step computer-aided in silico prediction models on receptor binding were employed to screen for serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine, muscarine, and histamine receptor subtypes as potential targets for LSA. In addition, this screening was extended to accompany ergotalkaloids of Argyreia nervosa (Burm. f.). In a verification step, selected LSA screening results were confirmed by in vitro binding assays with some extensions to LSD. In the in silico model LSA exhibited the highest affinity with a pKi of about 8.0 at α1A, and α1B. Clear affinity with pKi>7 was predicted for 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT1D, 5-HT6, 5-HT7, and D2. From these receptors the 5-HT1D subtype exhibited the highest pKi with 7.98 in the prediction model. From the other ergotalkaloids, agroclavine and festuclavine also seemed to be highly affine to the 5-HT1D

  7. Diversity of compounds in femoral secretions of Galápagos iguanas (genera: Amblyrhynchus and Conolophus, and their potential role in sexual communication in lek-mating marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Ibáñez

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Chemical signals are widely used in the animal kingdom, enabling communication in various social contexts, including mate selection and the establishment of dominance. Femoral glands, which produce and release waxy secretions into the environment, are organs of central importance in lizard chemical communication. The Galápagos marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus is a squamate reptile with a lek-mating system. Although the lekking behaviour of marine iguanas has been well-studied, their potential for sexual communication via chemical cues has not yet been investigated. Here we describe the diversity of the lipophilic fraction of males’ femoral gland secretions among 11 island populations of marine iguanas, and compare it with the composition of its sister species, the Galápagos land iguana (Conolophus subcristatus. We also conducted behavioural observations in marine iguana territorial males in order to explore the possible function of these substances in the context of male dominance in leks. Methods Femoral secretions were analysed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC–MS, and chromatography with a flame ionisation detector (GC-FID in order to characterise the lipophilic composition. To understand the potential role of femoral secretions in marine iguana intraspecific communication, territorial males were sampled for their femoral glands and monitored to record their head bob rate—a territorial display behaviour in males—as well as the number of females present in their leks. Results We found that the gland secretions were composed of ten saturated and unsaturated carboxylic acids ranging in chain length between C16 and C24, as well as three sterols. Cholesterol was the main compound found. Intriguingly, land iguanas have a higher diversity of lipophilic compounds, with structural group of lipids (i.e. aldehydes entirely absent in marine iguanas; overall the chemical signals of both species were strongly

  8. Toxicology of perfluorinated compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahl, Thorsten [Hessian State Laboratory, Wiesbaden (Germany); Mattern, Daniela; Brunn, Hubertus [Hessian State Laboratory, Giessen (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Perfluorinated compounds [PFCs] have found a wide use in industrial products and processes and in a vast array of consumer products. PFCs are molecules made up of carbon chains to which fluorine atoms are bound. Due to the strength of the carbon/fluorine bond, the molecules are chemically very stable and are highly resistant to biological degradation; therefore, they belong to a class of compounds that tend to persist in the environment. These compounds can bioaccumulate and also undergo biomagnification. Within the class of PFC chemicals, perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorosulphonic acid are generally considered reference substances. Meanwhile, PFCs can be detected almost ubiquitously, e.g., in water, plants, different kinds of foodstuffs, in animals such as fish, birds, in mammals, as well as in human breast milk and blood. PFCs are proposed as a new class of 'persistent organic pollutants'. Numerous publications allude to the negative effects of PFCs on human health. The following review describes both external and internal exposures to PFCs, the toxicokinetics (uptake, distribution, metabolism, excretion), and the toxicodynamics (acute toxicity, subacute and subchronic toxicities, chronic toxicity including carcinogenesis, genotoxicity and epigenetic effects, reproductive and developmental toxicities, neurotoxicity, effects on the endocrine system, immunotoxicity and potential modes of action, combinational effects, and epidemiological studies on perfluorinated compounds). (orig.)

  9. Modeling organic aerosols in a megacity: potential contribution of semi-volatile and intermediate volatility primary organic compounds to secondary organic aerosol formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodzic, Alma; Jimenez, Jose L.; Madronich, Sasha; Canagaratna, M. R.; DeCarlo, Peter F.; Kleinman, Lawrence I.; Fast, Jerome D.

    2010-06-21

    S/IVOC represents 40-60% of the total SOA at the surface during the day and is somewhat larger than that from aromatics, especially at the T1 site at the edge of the city. The downwind SOA production from the continued multi-generation S/IVOC oxidation products actively continues. Similar to aircraft observations, the predicted OA/DCO ratio for the ROB case increases from 20-30 mg sm-3 ppm-1 up to 60-70 mg sm-3 ppm-1 between a fresh and 1-day aged air mass, while the GRI case produces a 30-40% higher OA growth than observed. The predicted average O/C ratio of total OA for the ROB case is 0.16 at T0, substantially below observed value of 0.5. A much better agreement for O/C ratios and temporal variability (R2=0.63) is achieved with the updated GRI treatment. Both treatments show a deficiency in regard to POA evolution with a tendency to over-evaporate POA upon dilution of the urban plume suggesting that atmospheric HOA may be less volatile than assumed in these parameterizations. This study highlights the very important potential role of S/IVOC chemistry in the SOA budget in this region, and highlights the need for improvements in current parameterizations. We note that other proposed pathways of SOA formation such as formation from very volatile species like glyoxal were not included in our simulations, which can also contribute SOA mass and especially increase the O/C ratio.

  10. Enhancing the laccase production and laccase gene expression in the white-rot fungus Trametes velutina 5930 with great potential for biotechnological applications by different metal ions and aromatic compounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    Full Text Available Laccase is useful for various biotechnological and industrial applications. The white-rot fungus Trametes velutina 5930 and its laccase, isolated from the Shennongjia Nature Reserve in China by our laboratory, has great potential for practical application in environmental biotechnology. However, the original level of laccase produced by Trametes velutina 5930 was relatively low in the absence of any inducer. Therefore, in order to enhance the laccase production by Trametes velutina 5930 and make better use of this fungus in the field of environmental biotechnology, the regulation of laccase production and laccase gene expression in Trametes velutina 5930 were investigated in this study. Different metal ions such as Cu(2+ and Fe(2+ could stimulate the laccase synthesis and laccase gene transcription in Trametes velutina 5930. Some aromatic compounds structurally related to lignin, such as tannic acid, syringic acid, cinnamic acid, gallic acid and guaiacol, could also enhance the level of laccase activity and laccase gene transcription. We also found that there existed a positive synergistic effect of aromatic compound and metal ion on the laccase production and laccase gene transcription in Trametes velutina 5930. Taken together, our study may contribute to the improvement of laccase productivity by Trametes velutina 5930.

  11. Hausa verbal compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McIntyre, Joseph Anthony

    2006-01-01

    Verbal compounds abound in Hausa (a Chadic language). A very broad definition of Hausa verbal compounds (henceforth: VC) is “a compound with a verb”. Four types of verbal compound are analysed: V[erb]+X compounds, PAC+V compounds (a PAC is a pronoun complex indicating TAM), VCs with a ma prefix

  12. Assessing the effects of the three herbicides acetochlor, 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid on the compound action potential of the sciatic nerve of the frog (Rana ridibunda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafeiridou, Georgia; Geronikaki, Athina; Papaefthimiou, Chrisovalantis; Tryfonos, Melpomeni; Kosmidis, Efstratios K; Theophilidis, George

    2006-11-01

    To assess the relative toxicity of the herbicides acetochlor and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) on the nervous system, the sciatic nerve of the frog (Rana ridibunda) nerve was incubated in saline inside a specially designed recording chamber. This chamber permits monitoring of the evoked compound action potential (CAP) of the nerve, a parameter that could be used to quantify the vitality of the nerve in normal conditions as well as when the nerve was exposed to the compounds under investigation. Thus, when the nerve was exposed to acetochlor, the EC(50) was estimated to be 0.22mM, while for 2,4,5-T the EC(50) was 0.90mM. Using the identical nerve preparation, the EC(50) of 2,4-D was estimated to be 3.80mM [Kouri, G., Theophilidis, G., 2002. The action of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid on the isolated sciatic nerve of the frog (Rana ridibunda). Neurotoxicol. Res. 4, 25-32]. The ratio of the relative toxicity for acetochlor, 2,4,5-T and 2,4-D was found to be 1:4:17.2. However, because it is well-known that the action of 2,4-D is dependent on the pH, the relative toxicity of the three compounds was tested at pH 3.3, since it has been found that the sciatic nerve of the frog is tolerant of such a low pH. Under these conditions, the EC(50) was 0.77mM (from 0.22mM at pH 7.2) for acetochlor, 0.20mM (from 0.90mM) for 2,4,5-T and 0.24mM (from 3.80mM at pH 7.2) for 2,4-D. Thus, the relative toxicity of the three compounds changed drastically to 1:0.25:0.31. This change in the relative toxicity is due not only to the increase in the toxicity of 2,4,5-T and 2,4-D at low pH levels, but also to the decrease in the toxicity of acetochlor at pH 3.3.

  13. Recent (2008-10) concentrations and isotopic compositions of nitrate and concentrations of wastewater compounds in the Barton Springs zone, south-central Texas, and their potential relation to urban development in the contributing zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Barbara J.; Musgrove, MaryLynn; Herrington, Chris; Sample, Thomas L.

    2011-01-01

    contributing watersheds. An isotopic composition of nitrate (delta nitrogen–15) greater than 8 per mil in many of the samples indicated there was a contribution of nitrate with a biogenic (human and or animal waste, or both) origin. Wastewater compounds measured in routine samples were detected infrequently (3 percent of cases), and concentrations were very low (less than the method reporting level in most cases). There was no correlation between nitrate concentrations and the frequency of detection of wastewater compounds, indicating that wastewater compounds might be undergoing removal during such processes as infiltration through soil. Three potential sources of biogenic nitrate to the contributing zone were considered: septic systems, land application of treated wastewater, and domesticated dogs and cats. During 2001–10, the estimated densities of septic systems and domesticated dogs and cats (number per acre) increased in the watersheds of all five creeks, and the rate of land application of treated wastewater (gallons per day per acre) increased in the watersheds of Barton, Bear, and Onion Creeks. Considering the timing and location of the increases in the three sources, septic systems were considered a likely source of increased nitrate to Bear Creek; land application of treated wastewater a likely source to Barton, Bear, and Onion Creeks; and domestic dogs and cats a potential source principally to Williamson Creek. The results of this investigation indicate that baseline water quality, in terms of nitrate, has shifted upward between 2001 and 2010, even without any direct discharges of treated wastewater to the creeks.

  14. Magnetochemistry: Compounds and Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueken, Heiko; Schilder, Helmut; Eifert, Thomas; Handrick, Klaus; Huening, Felix

    New materials in today's magnetochemistry are reviewed, among them spin-crossover compounds, single-molecule magnets, supramolecular magnetic materials, ferrofluids, and ferromagnetic nanocrystal superlattices, each with its specific application potential. Advanced computer programs are available which consider all relevant perturbations on the 'magnetic electrons' and allow, on the basis of precise measurement results, the evaluation of magnetic parameters, above all the exchange parameter J. By means of molecular, ionic, and metallic compounds the J values are discussed with respect to sign and magnitude on the basis of concepts which take into consideration overlap of magnetic orbitals (direct exchange, superexchange) and the conduction electron concentration. Finally, further developments in the field of magnetochemistry are prospected.

  15. Flaxseeds: Nutritional Potential and Bioactive Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana PANAITE

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the nutritional and bioactive composition of commercially available flaxseeds with the aim to develop new alternatives for their use as functional and nutraceutical food ingredient. The samples of flaxseed contained 20.86% protein, 31.16% fat, 29.07% crude fiber and 3.75% ash. Essential amino acids represented 34% of total protein. The amino acids profile showed that glutamic acid was the most abundant (3.87 g 100 g-1, followed by arginine (1.93 g 100 g-1 and aspartic acid (1.52 g 100 g-1. Fatty acids analysis indicated that alpha-linolenic acid represents the major fatty acid (54.51% of the total fatty acids. The ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids was 8.67 while the n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio was 3.2. Total phenolics showed average contents of 295.92 mg GAE 100 g-1, of which flavonoids accounted for 25.85 mg QE 100 g-1. The results confirmed that, in addition to being one of the richest sources of alpha-linolenic acid, flaxseed is an essential source of high quality protein, soluble fiber and potent natural antioxidants.

  16. Phenolic Compounds in Brassica Vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Cartea González, María Elena; Francisco Candeira, Marta; Soengas Fernández, María del Pilar; Velasco Pazos, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    Phenolic compounds are a large group of phytochemicals widespread in the plant kingdom. Depending on their structure they can be classified into simple phenols, phenolic acids, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids. Phenolic compounds have received considerable attention for being potentially protective factors against cancer and heart diseases, in part because of their potent antioxidative properties and their ubiquity in a wide range of commonly consumed foods of plant origin. The...

  17. Phytochemical and Bioactive Potential of in vivo and in vitro Grown Plants of Centaurea ragusina L. - Detection of DNA/RNA Active Compounds in Plant Extracts via Thermal Denaturation and Circular Dichroism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujčić, Valerija; Radić Brkanac, Sandra; Radojčić Redovniković, Ivana; Ivanković, Siniša; Stojković, Ranko; Žilić, Irena; Radić Stojković, Marijana

    2017-11-01

    The phytochemical composition and biological activity of non-volatile components of Centaurea ragusina L. has not been studied previously. Our aim was to evaluate the phytochemical and bioactive potential (including interactions with polynucleotides) of C. ragusina L. depending on the origin of plant material (in vivo - leaves from natural habitats, ex vitro - leaves from plants acclimated from culture media, in vitro - leaves and calli from plants grown in culture media) and polarity of solvents used in extract preparation (80 and 96% ethanol and water combinations or single solvents). The polyphenol composition was determined by spectrophotometric and HPLC analysis. Biological activity of extracts was evaluated by following methods: 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) methods for antioxidative activity, 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) microdilution method for antibacterial activity, crystal-violet test for cytotoxic activity and thermal denaturation (TD) and circular dichroism (CD) for DNA/RNA interactions. Conditions for the most efficient polyphenol extraction were determined: the 80% ethanol/water solvent system was the most suitable for callus and leaf ex vitro samples and 80 or 96% ethanol for leaf in vivo samples. Significantly higher levels of chlorogenic acid and naringenin were detected in callus tissue than in vivo plant. Ethanolic extracts exhibited the significant antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. DNA/RNA active compounds in plant extracts were detected by TD and CD methods. Callus tissue and ex vitro leaves represent a valuable source of polyphenols as in vivo leaves. TD and CD can be applied for detection of DNA/RNA active compounds in extracts from natural resources. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Annona muricata Linn. leaf as a source of antioxidant compounds with in vitro antidiabetic and inhibitory potential against α-amylase, α-glucosidase, lipase, non-enzymatic glycation and lipid peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justino, Allisson Benatti; Miranda, Natália Carnevalli; Franco, Rodrigo Rodrigues; Martins, Mário Machado; Silva, Neide Maria da; Espindola, Foued Salmen

    2018-02-06

    Annona muricata leaves are used in traditional medicine to manage diabetes mellitus and its complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential in vitro antidiabetic properties of Annona muricata leaf by identifying its main phytochemical constituents and characterizing the phenolic-enriched fractions for their in vitro antioxidant capacity and inhibitory activities against glycoside and lipid hydrolases, advanced glycation end-product formation and lipid peroxidation. Ethanol extract of A. muricata leaf was subjected to a liquid-liquid partitioning and its fractions were used in enzymatic assays to evaluate their inhibitory potential against α-amylase, α-glucosidase and lipase, as well as their antioxidant (DPPH, ORAC, FRAP and Fe 2+ -ascorbate-induced lipid peroxidation assays) and anti-glycation (BSA-fructose, BSA-methylglyoxal and arginine-methylglyoxal models) capacities. In addition, identification of the main bioactive compounds of A. muricata leaf by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis was carried out. Ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and n-butanol (BuOH) fractions showed, respectively, antioxidant properties (ORAC 3964 ± 53 and 2707 ± 519 μmol trolox eq g -1 , FRAP 705 ± 35 and 289 ± 18 μmol trolox eq g -1 , and DPPH IC 50 4.3 ± 0.7 and 9.3 ± 0.8 μg mL -1 ) and capacity to reduce liver lipid peroxidation (p muricata, which contributes to the understanding of the potential effectiveness in the use of the A. muricata leaf, especially its polyphenols-enriched fractions, for the management of diabetes mellitus and its complications. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  19. Rubber compounding and processing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    John, MJ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This chapter presents an overview on the compounding and processing techniques of natural rubber compounds. The introductory portion deals with different types of rubbers and principles of rubber compounding. The primary and secondary fillers used...

  20. Semantics vs Pragmatics of a Compound Word

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Elena A.; Biktemirova, Ella I.; Davletbaeva, Diana N.

    2016-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of correlation between semantic and pragmatic potential of a compound word, which functions in informal speech, and the mechanisms of secondary nomination, which realizes the potential of semantic-pragmatic features of colloquial compounds. The relevance and the choice of the research question is based on the…

  1. Phenolic Compounds in Brassica Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Velasco

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are a large group of phytochemicals widespread in the plant kingdom. Depending on their structure they can be classified into simple phenols, phenolic acids, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids. Phenolic compounds have received considerable attention for being potentially protective factors against cancer and heart diseases, in part because of their potent antioxidative properties and their ubiquity in a wide range of commonly consumed foods of plant origin. The Brassicaceae family includes a wide range of horticultural crops, some of them with economic significance and extensively used in the diet throughout the world. The phenolic composition of Brassica vegetables has been recently investigated and, nowadays, the profile of different Brassica species is well established. Here, we review the significance of phenolic compounds as a source of beneficial compounds for human health and the influence of environmental conditions and processing mechanisms on the phenolic composition of Brassica vegetables.

  2. Vanadium Compounds as PTP Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Irving

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Phosphotyrosine signaling is regulated by the opposing actions of protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs and protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs. Here we discuss the potential of vanadium derivatives as PTP enzyme inhibitors and metallotherapeutics. We describe how vanadate in the V oxidized state is thought to inhibit PTPs, thus acting as a pan-inhibitor of this enzyme superfamily. We discuss recent developments in the biological and biochemical actions of more complex vanadium derivatives, including decavanadate and in particular the growing number of oxidovanadium compounds with organic ligands. Pre-clinical studies involving these compounds are discussed in the anti-diabetic and anti-cancer contexts. Although in many cases PTP inhibition has been implicated, it is also clear that many such compounds have further biochemical effects in cells. There also remain concerns surrounding off-target toxicities and long-term use of vanadium compounds in vivo in humans, hindering their progress through clinical trials. Despite these current misgivings, interest in these chemicals continues and many believe they could still have therapeutic potential. If so, we argue that this field would benefit from greater focus on improving the delivery and tissue targeting of vanadium compounds in order to minimize off-target toxicities. This may then harness their full therapeutic potential.

  3. Potencial herbicida da biomassa e de substâncias químicas produzidas pelo fungo endofítico Pestalotiopsis guepinii Herbicide potential of the biomass and chemical compounds produced by the fungus Pestalotiopsis guepinii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Santos

    2008-01-01

    .Many of the chemical compounds found in nature that are produced by plants or microorganisms can offer new and efficient ways of controlling pests in agriculture and agricultural practice, with the help of fungi. The objective of this work is to characterize the inhibitory potential for seed germination and the plantlet development of two weed species using extracts and compounds obtained from biomass produced by Pestalotiopsis guepinii, an endophytic fungus of the species Virola michelii. The bioassays were developed under controlled conditions at 25 ºC and 12-hour photoperiod for germination, and at 25 ºC and 12-hour photoperiod for root and hypocotyl development. The crude extracts were analyzed at a concentration of 1.0% (m/v. The results showed that the more polar extracts (MeOH-1 and MeOH-2 have the highest inhibitory potential, although the hexane and ethyl acetate extract effects were important, especially for seed germination. Comparatively, weed seed germination was more sensitive to the effects than plantlet development. Mimosa pudica was more affected by the inhibitory effects of the extracts. However, for seed germination of Senna obtusifolia, the extract MeOH-1 showed 100% inhibition. The compounds ergosterol and ergosterol peroxide showed an inhibitory potential always below 35%, not showing the inhibitory potential of the hexane extract from which they were isolated. When these compounds were tested together, little increase was observed in the inhibitory activity.

  4. Expanding the potential of chiral chromatography for high-throughput screening of large compound libraries by means of sub-2μm Whelk-O 1 stationary phase in supercritical fluid conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciascera, Luca; Ismail, Omar; Ciogli, Alessia; Kotoni, Dorina; Cavazzini, Alberto; Botta, Lorenzo; Szczerba, Ted; Kocergin, Jelena; Villani, Claudio; Gasparrini, Francesco

    2015-02-27

    With the aim of exploring the potential of ultra-fast chiral chromatography for high-throughput analysis, the new sub-2 micron Whelk-O 1 chiral stationary phase (CSP) has been employed in supercritical fluid conditions to screen 129 racemates, mainly of pharmaceutical interest. By using a 5-cm long column (0.46cm internal diameter), a single co-solvent (MeOH) and a 7-min gradient elution, 85% of acidic and neutral analytes considered in this work have been successfully resolved, with resolution (Rs) larger than 2 in more than 65% of cases. Moreover, almost a half of basic samples that, for their own characteristics, are known to be difficult to separate on Whelk-O 1 CSP, have shown Rs greater than 0.3. The screening of the entire library could be accomplished in less than 24h (single run) with 63% of positive score. For well-resolved enantiomers (Rs roughly included between 1 and 3), we show that method transfer from gradient to isocratic conditions is straightforward. In many cases, isocratic ultra-fast separations (with analysis time smaller than 60s) have been achieved by simply employing, as isocratic mobile phase, the eluent composition at which the second enantiomer was eluted in gradient mode. By considering the extension and variety of the library in terms of chemico-physical and structural properties of compounds and numerousness, we believe that this work demonstrates the real potential of the technique for high-throughput enantioselective screening. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Flavour Compounds in Fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravasio, Davide Antonio

    from the catabolism of amino acids. These compounds are produced by the Ehrlich pathway. The conversion of amino acids into aroma alcohols is accomplished by three enzymatic steps: i) a transamination, ii) a decarboxylation and iii) a dehydration reaction. The transaminase and decarboxylase enzymes...... and 2-phenylacetate. The last part of this thesis presents the initial characterization of twenty non-conventional yeasts (NCY) and their potential application in fermentative processes. These strains have been selected as they have been previously isolated from various fermented food sources....... This selection of strains was used in fermentations with the aim of identifying new interesting flavour producers. Fermentation profiles, volatile analyses, off-flavour identification and resistance to osmotic/oxidative stress have been addressed to highlight new candidates to use for industrial applications...

  6. Efeitos do potencial de ação neural sobre a percepção de fala em usuários de implante coclear Influence of evoked compound action potential on speech perception in cochlear implant users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Cardoso Guedes

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O Potencial de Ação Composto Evocado Eletricamente reflete a atividade do nervo auditivo, podendo ser registrado através dos eletrodos do implante coclear. A determinação dos elementos neurais estimuláveis pode contribuir para explicar a variabilidade de desempenho entre indivíduos implantados. OBJETIVO: Comparar o desempenho nos testes de percepção da fala entre pacientes que apresentaram e que não apresentaram potencial de ação composto evocado eletricamente no momento intra-operatório. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Estudo prospectivo no qual 100 indivíduos usuários do implante coclear Nucleus 24 foram divididos em dois grupos de acordo com a presença ou ausência do potencial de ação intra-operatório. Após 6 meses de uso do dispositivo, os resultados dos testes de percepção de fala foram comparados entre os grupos. RESULTADOS: O potencial foi observado em 72% dos pacientes. A percepção no teste de frases em formato aberto foi melhor nos indivíduos com presença de potencial (média 82,8% contra 41,0%, p = 0,005. Houve associação entre ausência do potencial e etiologia da surdez por meningite. CONCLUSÃO: Ausência de potencial neural intraoperatório esteve associada ao pior desempenho na percepção da fala e à etiologia da surdez por meningite. Por outro lado, a presença do potencial de ação intraoperatório sugere ótimo prognóstico.Electrically Evoked Compound Action Potential is a measure of synchronous cochlear nerve fibers activity elicited by electrical stimulation of the cochlear implant. The electrophysiological nerve responses may contribute to explain the variability in individual performance of cochlear implant recipients. AIM: To compare speech perception tests’ performances of cochlear implant users according to the presence or absence of intraoperative neural telemetry responses. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Prospective study design with 100 "Nucleus 24" cochlear implant users divided in two groups according

  7. Cancer prevention with natural compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullett, Norleena P; Ruhul Amin, A R M; Bayraktar, Soley; Pezzuto, John M; Shin, Dong M; Khuri, Fadlo R; Aggarwal, Bharat B; Surh, Young-Joon; Kucuk, Omer

    2010-06-01

    Botanical and nutritional compounds have been used for the treatment of cancer throughout history. These compounds also may be useful in the prevention of cancer. Population studies suggest that a reduced risk of cancer is associated with high consumption of vegetables and fruits. Thus, the cancer chemopreventive potential of naturally occurring phytochemicals is of great interest. There are numerous reports of cancer chemopreventive activity of dietary botanicals, including cruciferous vegetables such as cabbage and broccoli, Allium vegetables such as garlic and onion, green tea, Citrus fruits, soybeans, tomatoes, berries, and ginger, as well as medicinal plants. Several lead compounds, such as genistein (from soybeans), lycopene (from tomatoes), brassinin (from cruciferous vegetables), sulforaphane (from asparagus), indole-3-carbinol (from broccoli), and resveratrol (from grapes and peanuts) are in preclinical or clinical trials for cancer chemoprevention. Phytochemicals have great potential in cancer prevention because of their safety, low cost, and oral bioavailability. In this review, we discuss potential natural cancer preventive compounds and their mechanisms of action. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Toxicity of individual pharmaceuticals and their mixtures to Aliivibrio fischeri: Experimental results for single compounds and considerations of their mechanisms of action and potential acute effects on aquatic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Nica, Valeria; Villa, Sara; Finizio, Antonio

    2017-03-01

    In the first part of a broader study on the effects of individual and multicomponent mixtures of pharmaceutical active compounds, the authors used the Microtox(®) test system to analyze in detail the effects of 10 widely used human and veterinary pharmaceutical active compounds toward the bioluminescent bacterium Aliivibrio fischeri. The experimental results indicated moderate toxicity for the majority of the tested compounds. Comparison between experimental 50% inhibitory concentrations and those predicted from the quantitative structure-activity relationship models indicated that most of the tested pharmaceutical active compounds behave as polar narcotic compounds toward A. fischeri (only the antibiotic chlortetracycline seemed to have a specific mechanism of action). A comparison between the experimental results and a collection of acute toxicity data on other nontarget organisms indicated that in general A. fischeri has a comparable sensitivity to other aquatic species. However, according to the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals, the majority of the investigated chemicals can be classified as harmful or nontoxic for aquatic ecosystems. Finally, based on comparisons among the 95th percentile of measured environmental concentrations found in European Union water bodies and acute toxicity data on various aquatic organisms, no risk to aquatic life exists when the tested pharmaceutical active compounds are assessed as individual chemicals. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:807-814. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  9. Dissociation Dynamics of Nitrogen Rich Cyclic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    Arlington, VA 2220 Abstract The photophysics and photochemistry of the nitrogen-rich compounds diazomethane and diazirine were studied both...experimentally and theoretically following excitation in the ultraviolet . These molecules are locally stable on their ground potential energy surfaces, but they...ABSTRACT The photophysics and photochemistry of the nitrogen-rich compounds diazomethane and diazirine were studied both experimentally and

  10. Gallium-containing anticancer compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitambar, Christopher R

    2012-06-01

    There is an ever pressing need to develop new drugs for the treatment of cancer. Gallium nitrate, a group IIIa metal salt, inhibits the proliferation of tumor cells in vitro and in vivo and has shown activity against non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and bladder cancer in clinical trials. Gallium can function as an iron mimetic and perturb iron-dependent proliferation and other iron-related processes in tumor cells. Gallium nitrate lacks crossresistance with conventional chemotherapeutic drugs and is not myelosuppressive; it can be used when other drugs have failed or when the blood count is low. Given the therapeutic potential of gallium, newer generations of gallium compounds are now in various phases of preclinical and clinical development. These compounds hold the promise of greater anti-tumor activity against a broader spectrum of cancers. The development of gallium compounds for cancer treatment and their mechanisms of action will be discussed.

  11. CHARACTERIZATION OF RUTIN-CYCLODEXTRIN INCLUSION COMPOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Corciovă

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to examine the potential of beta-cyclodextrin to improve the solubility of rutin and obtain inclusion compounds that were analyzed by different techniques: UV-Vis, IR spectroscopy, thermal analysis. The presence of β-cyclodextrin raises the content of rutin in water. The inclusion compounds were prepared by dry mixing, complexation in semisolid and liquid medium in 1:2 molar ratio rutin - β-cyclodextrin. The UV-Vis and IR analysis demonstrated the obtaining of inclusion compounds and the thermal analysis show that these compounds are more stable than the parent substance.

  12. Antimicrobial Action of Compounds from Marine Seaweed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Pérez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Seaweed produces metabolites aiding in the protection against different environmental stresses. These compounds show antiviral, antiprotozoal, antifungal, and antibacterial properties. Macroalgae can be cultured in high volumes and would represent an attractive source of potential compounds useful for unconventional drugs able to control new diseases or multiresistant strains of pathogenic microorganisms. The substances isolated from green, brown and red algae showing potent antimicrobial activity belong to polysaccharides, fatty acids, phlorotannins, pigments, lectins, alkaloids, terpenoids and halogenated compounds. This review presents the major compounds found in macroalga showing antimicrobial activities and their most promising applications.

  13. Design and selection of triazole-based compounds with high ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    linked energetic polynitropyrazoles, which showed that these compounds have potential applications as energetic compounds. Zhu et al.,15 designed three novel explosives by introducing the N- oxides into the 1,2,4-triazole, which were more pow ...

  14. Bioactive compounds in berries relevant to human health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battino, M.; Beekwilder, M.J.; Denoyes-Rothan, B.; Laimer, M.

    2009-01-01

    Berries contain powerful antioxidants, potential allergens, and other bioactive compounds. Genetic and environmental factors affect production and storage of such compounds. For this reason breeding and biotechnological approaches are currently used to control or to increase the content of specific

  15. Detailed comparisons of airborne formaldehyde measurements with box models during the 2006 INTEX-B and MILAGRO campaigns: potential evidence for significant impacts of unmeasured and multi-generation volatile organic carbon compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fried

    2011-11-01

    , MCM model calculations, using assumptions about initial amounts of high-order NMHCs, further indicate the potential importance of CH2O produced from unmeasured and multi-generation hydrocarbon oxidation compounds, particularly methylglyoxal, 3-hydroxypropanal, and butan-3-one-al.

  16. Identification and quantification of glucosinolate and flavonol compounds in rocket salad (Eruca sativa, Eruca vesicaria and Diplotaxis tenuifolia) by LC-MS: highlighting the potential for improving nutritional value of rocket crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Luke; Oruna-Concha, Maria Jose; Wagstaff, Carol

    2015-04-01

    Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was used to obtain glucosinolate and flavonol content for 35 rocket accessions and commercial varieties. 13 glucosinolates and 11 flavonol compounds were identified. Semi-quantitative methods were used to estimate concentrations of both groups of compounds. Minor glucosinolate composition was found to be different between accessions; concentrations varied significantly. Flavonols showed differentiation between genera, with Diplotaxis accumulating quercetin glucosides and Eruca accumulating kaempferol glucosides. Several compounds were detected in each genus that have only previously been reported in the other. We highlight how knowledge of phytochemical content and concentration can be used to breed new, nutritionally superior varieties. We also demonstrate the effects of controlled environment conditions on the accumulations of glucosinolates and flavonols and explore the reasons for differences with previous studies. We stress the importance of consistent experimental design between research groups to effectively compare and contrast results. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Identification and quantification of glucosinolate and flavonol compounds in rocket salad (Eruca sativa, Eruca vesicaria and Diplotaxis tenuifolia) by LC–MS: Highlighting the potential for improving nutritional value of rocket crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Luke; Oruna-Concha, Maria Jose; Wagstaff, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC–MS) was used to obtain glucosinolate and flavonol content for 35 rocket accessions and commercial varieties. 13 glucosinolates and 11 flavonol compounds were identified. Semi-quantitative methods were used to estimate concentrations of both groups of compounds. Minor glucosinolate composition was found to be different between accessions; concentrations varied significantly. Flavonols showed differentiation between genera, with Diplotaxis accumulating quercetin glucosides and Eruca accumulating kaempferol glucosides. Several compounds were detected in each genus that have only previously been reported in the other. We highlight how knowledge of phytochemical content and concentration can be used to breed new, nutritionally superior varieties. We also demonstrate the effects of controlled environment conditions on the accumulations of glucosinolates and flavonols and explore the reasons for differences with previous studies. We stress the importance of consistent experimental design between research groups to effectively compare and contrast results. PMID:25442630

  18. NOUN COMPOUND IN ENGLISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Luh Ketut Mas Indrawati

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at analyzing and describing the English compound specifically the English noun compound. Compound is a combination of two or more words of which meaning cannot always be predicted from the meaning of each part. In English, words, especially adjectives and nouns, are combined into compound structures in a variety of ways. This article attempts to discuss the formal characteristics and types of the English noun compound. The theory of compound was adopted for further analysis. The finding shows that the formal characteristics of the English noun compound are: the noun compounds have primary stress on the first constituent, the semantic unity of a noun compound is reflected in an orthographic, the meaning of the noun compound cannot be predicted from the meaning of the parts. The orthographic characteristics can be solid, hyphenated, and open. The types involved are Subject and Verb, Verb and Object, verb and adverbial, verb-less, subject and complement, combining-form and Bahuvrihi

  19. Extraction, isolation and characterization of bioactive compounds from chloroform extract of Carica papaya seed and it's in vivo antibacterial potentiality in Channa punctatus against Klebsiella PKBSG14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Subarna; Saha, Mandira; Bandyopadhyay, Probir Kumar; Jana, Monoranjan

    2017-10-01

    The relative efficacy of the isolated pure compound, extracted from Carica papaya seed has been tested against live fish, Channa punctatus infected with pathogenic strains of KlebsiellaPKBSG14 (gene bank accession no.KJ162158) at a dose of 0.75 CFU/ml in vivo. The isolated compound has been characterized by chromatography and mass spectroscopy studies using FTIR, 1HNMR and 13c NMR to identify as well as to determine the nature of the pure compound. This study revealed the extracted biological molecule is oleic acid, a long chained saturated fatty acid (LFAs) with a molecular formula C18H34O2. Later this compound was analyzed for its efficacy as an antibacterial agent in vivo through cytotoxicological and genotoxicological assays. A dose of 0.5 mg/kg and 1 mg/kg b.w of isolated pure oleic acid has been tested and it showed effective result in regard to DNA fragmentation, comet tail length and toxicity biomarkers like ROS generation. The results of in vivo studies showed similar effects on spleen cells with regard to cell viability by PI staining, cell cycle analysis and also Annexin-FITC assay. Thus, the overall results suggest that oleic acid increases drug bioavailability and thereby has a better chem