Sample records for compounds ii reproductive

  1. II-VI semiconductor compounds

    CERN Document Server


    For condensed matter physicists and electronic engineers, this volume deals with aspects of II-VI semiconductor compounds. Areas covered include devices and applications of II-VI compounds; Co-based II-IV semi-magnetic semiconductors; and electronic structure of strained II-VI superlattices.

  2. Reproduction (II): Human Control of Reproductive Processes (United States)

    Jost, Alfred


    Describes methods of intervening in reproduction of animals and humans (artificial insemination, contraception, ovular and blastodisc transplants, pre selection of sex, cloning) and discusses the social implications of their use with humans. (AL)

  3. Reproduction (II): Human Control of Reproductive Processes (United States)

    Jost, Alfred


    Describes methods of intervening in reproduction of animals and humans (artificial insemination, contraception, ovular and blastodisc transplants, pre selection of sex, cloning) and discusses the social implications of their use with humans. (AL)

  4. Triorganotin as a compound with potential reproductive toxicity in mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S. Delgado Filho


    Full Text Available Organotin compounds are typical environmental contaminants and suspected endocrine-disrupting substances, which cause irreversible sexual abnormality in female mollusks, called "imposex". However, little is known about the capability of triorganotin compounds, such as tributyltin and triphenyltin, to cause disorders in the sexual development and reproductive functions of mammals, including humans and rodents. Moreover, these compounds can act as potential competitive inhibitors of aromatase enzyme and other steroidogenic enzymes, affecting the reproductive capacity of male and female mammals. In this review, we discuss the cellular, biochemical, and molecular mechanisms by which triorganotin compounds induce adverse effects in the mammalian reproductive function.

  5. Reproduction in the space environment: Part II. Concerns for human reproduction (United States)

    Jennings, R. T.; Santy, P. A.


    Long-duration space flight and eventual colonization of our solar system will require successful control of reproductive function and a thorough understanding of factors unique to space flight and their impact on gynecologic and obstetric parameters. Part II of this paper examines the specific environmental factors associated with space flight and the implications for human reproduction. Space environmental hazards discussed include radiation, alteration in atmospheric pressure and breathing gas partial pressures, prolonged toxicological exposure, and microgravity. The effects of countermeasures necessary to reduce cardiovascular deconditioning, calcium loss, muscle wasting, and neurovestibular problems are also considered. In addition, the impact of microgravity on male fertility and gamete quality is explored. Due to current constraints, human pregnancy is now contraindicated for space flight. However, a program to explore effective countermeasures to current constraints and develop the required health care delivery capability for extended-duration space flight is suggested. A program of Earth- and space-based research to provide further answers to reproductive questions is suggested.

  6. Adverse Effect of Antifouling Compounds on the Reproductive Mechanisms of the Ascidian Ciona intestinalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Gallo


    Full Text Available Fertilization and embryo development that occur in sea water are sensitive to xenobiotics from anthropogenic sources. In this work, we evaluated the influence of two antifouling biocides, tributyltin (TBT and diuron, on the reproductive mechanisms of the marine invertebrate Ciona intestinalis. By using electrophysiological techniques, we examined the impact of these compounds on the electrical properties of the mature oocytes and of events occurring at fertilization. With different toxicity assays, we studied the effect of the two biocides on the gametes by evaluating fertilization rate and embryo development. Results show that sodium (Na+ currents were significantly reduced by either of the two biocides, whereas conductance was significantly increased. The fertilization current frequency and amplitude, fertilization rate and larval development were affected only by TBT. This study suggests that: (i the two biocides affect either the electrical properties of the oocyte plasma membrane and the reproductive success representing a risk factor for the survival of the species exposed to environmental pollution; (ii the ascidian Ciona intestinalis may represent a good model organism to test toxicity of marine pollutants. Possible mechanisms of action of the two biocides are discussed.

  7. studies on transition metal complexes of herbicidal compounds. ii

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    II: TRANSITION METAL COMPLEXES OF DERIVATIZED 2-CHLORO-4- ... Several compounds of this class like atrazine, simazine, prometryn, aziprotryn, etc. .... dissolve in water and most of the common polar organic solvents. ... coordination.

  8. Characterization of ToxCast Phase II compounds disruption of ... (United States)

    The development of multi-well microelectrode array (mwMEA) systems has increased in vitro screening throughput making them an effective method to screen and prioritize large sets of compounds for potential neurotoxicity. In the present experiments, a multiplexed approach was used to determine compound effects on both neural function and cell health in primary cortical networks grown on mwMEA plates following exposure to ~1100 compounds from EPA’s Phase II ToxCast libraries. On DIV 13, baseline activity (40 min) was recorded prior to exposure to each compound at 40 µM. DMSO and the GABAA antagonist bicuculline (BIC) were included as controls on each mwMEA plate. Changes in spontaneous network activity (mean firing rate; MFR) and cell viability (lactate dehydrogenase; LDH and CellTiter Blue; CTB) were assessed within the same well following compound exposure. Activity calls (“hits”) were established using the 90th and 20th percentiles of the compound-induced change in MFR (medians of triplicates) across all tested compounds; compounds above (top 10% of compounds increasing MFR), and below (bottom 20% of compounds decreasing MFR) these thresholds, respectively were considered hits. MFR was altered beyond one of these thresholds by 322 compounds. Four compound categories accounted for 66% of the hits, including: insecticides (e.g. abamectin, lindane, prallethrin), pharmaceuticals (e.g. haloperidol, reserpine), fungicides (e.g. hexaconazole, fenamidone), and h

  9. Mn(II) oxidation by an ascomycete fungus is linked to superoxide production during asexual reproduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansel, C. M.; Zeiner, C. A.; Santelli, C. M.; Webb, S. M.


    Manganese (Mn) oxides are among the most reactive minerals within the environment, where they control the bioavailability of carbon, nutrients, and numerous metals. Although the ability of microorganisms to oxidize Mn(II) to Mn(III/IV) oxides is scattered throughout the bacterial and fungal domains of life, the mechanism and physiological basis for Mn(II) oxidation remains an enigma. Here, we use a combination of compound-specific chemical assays, microspectroscopy, and electron microscopy to show that a common Ascomycete filamentous fungus, Stilbella aciculosa, oxidizes Mn(II) to Mn oxides by producing extracellular superoxide during cell differentiation. The reactive Mn oxide phase birnessite and the reactive oxygen species superoxide and hydrogen peroxide are colocalized at the base of asexual reproductive structures. Mn oxide formation is not observed in the presence of superoxide scavengers (e.g., Cu) and inhibitors of NADPH oxidases (e.g., diphenylene iodonium chloride), enzymes responsible for superoxide production and cell differentiation in fungi. Considering the recent identification of Mn(II) oxidation by NADH oxidase-based superoxide production by a common marine bacterium (Roseobacter sp.), these results introduce a surprising homology between some prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms in the mechanisms responsible for Mn(II) oxidation, where oxidation appears to be a side reaction of extracellular superoxide production. Finally, given the versatility of superoxide as a redox reactant and the widespread ability of fungi to produce superoxide, this microbial extracellular superoxide production may play a central role in the cycling and bioavailability of metals (e.g., Hg, Fe, Mn) and carbon in natural systems.

  10. Mn(II) oxidation by an ascomycete fungus is linked to superoxide production during asexual reproduction. (United States)

    Hansel, Colleen M; Zeiner, Carolyn A; Santelli, Cara M; Webb, Samuel M


    Manganese (Mn) oxides are among the most reactive minerals within the environment, where they control the bioavailability of carbon, nutrients, and numerous metals. Although the ability of microorganisms to oxidize Mn(II) to Mn(III/IV) oxides is scattered throughout the bacterial and fungal domains of life, the mechanism and physiological basis for Mn(II) oxidation remains an enigma. Here, we use a combination of compound-specific chemical assays, microspectroscopy, and electron microscopy to show that a common Ascomycete filamentous fungus, Stilbella aciculosa, oxidizes Mn(II) to Mn oxides by producing extracellular superoxide during cell differentiation. The reactive Mn oxide phase birnessite and the reactive oxygen species superoxide and hydrogen peroxide are colocalized at the base of asexual reproductive structures. Mn oxide formation is not observed in the presence of superoxide scavengers (e.g., Cu) and inhibitors of NADPH oxidases (e.g., diphenylene iodonium chloride), enzymes responsible for superoxide production and cell differentiation in fungi. Considering the recent identification of Mn(II) oxidation by NADH oxidase-based superoxide production by a common marine bacterium (Roseobacter sp.), these results introduce a surprising homology between some prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms in the mechanisms responsible for Mn(II) oxidation, where oxidation appears to be a side reaction of extracellular superoxide production. Given the versatility of superoxide as a redox reactant and the widespread ability of fungi to produce superoxide, this microbial extracellular superoxide production may play a central role in the cycling and bioavailability of metals (e.g., Hg, Fe, Mn) and carbon in natural systems.

  11. Association between SNPs within candidate genes and compounds related to boar taint and reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moe, Maren; Lien, Sigbjørn; Aasmundstad, Torunn


    understanding of the complex regulation of the trait and for the purpose of identifying markers that can be used to improve the gain of breeding. The beneficial SNPs to be used in breeding would have the combinational effects of reducing levels of boar taint without affecting fertility of the animals. The aim...... of this study was to detect SNPs in boar taint candidate genes and to perform association studies for both single SNPs and haplotypes with levels of boar taint compounds and phenotypes related to reproduction. RESULTS: An association study involving 275 SNPs in 121 genes and compounds related to boar taint...... and reproduction were carried out in Duroc and Norwegian Landrace boars. Phenotypes investigated were levels of androstenone, skatole and indole in adipose tissue, levels of androstenone, testosterone, estrone sulphate and 17beta-estradiol in plasma, and length of bulbo urethralis gland. The SNPs were genotyped...

  12. Female reproductive factors and risk of Seizure or Epilepsy: Data from the Nurses’ Health Study II


    Dworetzky, Barbara A.; Townsend, Mary K.; Pennell, Page B; Kang, Jae H.


    Reproductive factors are associated with seizures in women with epilepsy. We prospectively examined the association between reproductive factors and the risk of adult-onset isolated seizure, epilepsy, or any unprovoked seizure (defined as single unprovoked seizure or epilepsy) among 114,847 Nurses’ Health Study II participants followed from 1989–2005. Validated seizure questionnaires and medical records were used to confirm incident cases of isolated seizure (n=95) or epilepsy (n=151). Overal...

  13. Reproductive toxicities of methoxychlor based on estrogenic properties of the compound and its estrogenic metabolite, hydroxyphenyltrichloroethane. (United States)

    Aoyama, Hiroaki; Chapin, Robert E


    Methoxychlor is an organochlorine pesticide having a weak estrogenicity, which is estimated to be approximately 1000- to 14,000-fold less potent to a natural ligand, 17β-estradiol. However, its active metabolite, hydroxyphenyltrichloroethane, has much more potent estrogenic activity and probably acts in the target organs of animals exposed to methoxychlor at least 100 times stronger than the parent compound. A variety of in vivo reproductive toxicity studies have shown that treatment with methoxychlor exerts typical endocrine-disrupting effects manifest as estrogenic effects, such as formation of cystic ovaries resulting in ovulation failures, uterine hypertrophy, hormonal imbalances, atrophy of male sexual organs, and deteriorations of sperm production in rats and/or mice, through which it causes serious reproductive damages in both sexes of animals at sufficient dose levels. However, methoxychlor is not teratogenic. The no-observed-adverse-effect level of methoxychlor among reliable experimental animal studies in terms of the reproductive toxicity is 10 ppm (equivalent to 0.600 mg/kg/day) in a two-generation reproduction toxicity study.

  14. Reproductive endocrine patterns and volatile urinary compounds of Arctictis binturong: discovering why bearcats smell like popcorn (United States)

    Greene, Lydia K.; Wallen, Timothy W.; Moresco, Anneke; Goodwin, Thomas E.; Drea, Christine M.


    Members of the order Carnivora rely on urinary scent signaling, particularly for communicating about reproductive parameters. Here, we describe reproductive endocrine patterns in relation to urinary olfactory cues in a vulnerable and relatively unknown viverrid—the binturong ( Arctictis binturong). Female binturongs are larger than and dominate males, and both sexes engage in glandular and urinary scent marking. Using a large ( n = 33), captive population, we collected serum samples to measure circulating sex steroids via enzyme immunoassay and urine samples to assay volatile chemicals via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Male binturongs had expectedly greater androgen concentrations than did females but, more unusually, had equal estrogen concentrations, which may be linked to male deference. Males also expressed a significantly richer array of volatile chemical compounds than did females. A subset of these volatile chemicals resisted decay at ambient temperatures, potentially indicating their importance as long-lasting semiochemicals. Among these compounds was 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2-AP), which is typically produced at high temperatures by the Maillard reaction and is likely to be responsible for the binturong's characteristic popcorn aroma. 2-AP, the only compound expressed by all of the subjects, was found in greater abundance in males than females and was significantly and positively related to circulating androstenedione concentrations in both sexes. This unusual compound may have a more significant role in mammalian semiochemistry than previously appreciated. Based on these novel data, we suggest that hormonal action and potentially complex chemical reactions mediate communication of the binturong's signature scent and convey information about sex and reproductive state.

  15. Inhibition of Zn(II binding type IA topoisomerases by organomercury compounds and Hg(II.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bokun Cheng

    Full Text Available Type IA topoisomerase activities are essential for resolving DNA topological barriers via an enzyme-mediated transient single strand DNA break. Accumulation of topoisomerase DNA cleavage product can lead to cell death or genomic rearrangement. Many antibacterial and anticancer drugs act as topoisomerase poison inhibitors that form stabilized ternary complexes with the topoisomerase covalent intermediate, so it is desirable to identify such inhibitors for type IA topoisomerases. Here we report that organomercury compounds were identified during a fluorescence based screening of the NIH diversity set of small molecules for topoisomerase inhibitors that can increase the DNA cleavage product of Yersinia pestis topoisomerase I. Inhibition of relaxation activity and accumulation of DNA cleavage product were confirmed for these organomercury compounds in gel based assays of Escherichia coli topoisomerase I. Hg(II, but not As(III, could also target the cysteines that form the multiple Zn(II binding tetra-cysteine motifs found in the C-terminal domains of these bacterial topoisomerase I for relaxation activity inhibition. Mycobacterium tuberculosis topoisomerase I activity is not sensitive to Hg(II or the organomercury compounds due to the absence of the Zn(II binding cysteines. It is significant that the type IA topoisomerases with Zn(II binding domains can still cleave DNA when interfered by Hg(II or organomercury compounds. The Zn(II binding domains found in human Top3α and Top3β may be potential targets of toxic metals and organometallic complexes, with potential consequence on genomic stability and development.

  16. Biological Role of Cobalt(II), Copper(II) and Nickel(II) Metal Ions on the Antibacterial Properties of Some Nicotinoyl-Hydrazine Derived Compounds


    Chohan, Zahid H.; Sherazi, Syed K. A.


    Several cobalt(II), copper(II) and nickel(II) complexes of nicotinoylhydrazine-derived compounds were prepared and characterised by physical, spectral and analytical data. These compounds and their complexes have proven to be antibacterial. The screening data show the metal complexes to be more potential/bactericidal than the uncomplexed compounds against one or more bacterial species.

  17. Dioxin-like compounds and endometriosis: a study on Italian and Belgian women of reproductive age. (United States)

    De Felip, Elena; Porpora, Maria Grazia; di Domenico, Alessandro; Ingelido, Anna Maria; Cardelli, Massimo; Cosmi, Ermelando V; Donnez, Jacques


    Compounds with dioxin-like toxicity are suspected to adversely affect human reproduction even at current background exposures. Endometriosis, a gynecological disorder often associated with infertility, has been hypothesized to be linked to dioxins and similar chemicals, a hypothesis supported by the outcome of experimental studies on animal models. Endometriosis severity and incidence in Belgium is one of the highest of the world: in this country, the general population exposure to dioxin-like compounds has been, on average, higher than in most industrialized countries. Here we show the results of a pilot case-control study carried out on 22 Italian and 18 Belgian women of reproductive age, with and without endometriosis. No significant differences were found in dioxin-like compound body burdens between cases and controls on a country basis, whereas the body burdens of the Italian women resulted to be significantly lower than that of the Belgian. In particular, total TEQs in Italian and Belgian women without endometriosis were respectively 18 and 45 pg WHO-TE/g lb.

  18. Identification of pheromone-like compounds in male reproductive organs of the oriental locust Locusta migratoria. (United States)

    Ban, Liping; Napolitano, Elio; Serra, Andrea; Zhou, Xianhong; Iovinella, Immacolata; Pelosi, Paolo


    Despite the great economical interest of locusts in agriculture, knowledge on their chemoreception systems is still poor. Phenylacetonitrile is recognised as a pheromone of the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria, triggering gregarization, promoting aggregation and inhibiting courtship. However, in the other major locust species, Locusta migratoria, pheromones have not been reported. We have identified the two isomers of naphthylpropionitrile from the male reproductive organs of L. migratoria. Chemical synthesis has confirmed the identity of the two compounds. Both isomers show significant affinity to CSP91, a protein reported in the testis, but not to three other proteins of the same family (CSP180, CSP540 and CSP884) expressed in female accessory glands. The striking similarity of these compounds with phenylacetonitrile and the unusual nature of such chemicals strongly suggest that naphthylpropionitrile could be pheromones for L. migratoria, while their site of expression and binding activity indicate a role in communication between sexes.

  19. Impact of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive health. (United States)

    Fowler, Paul A; Bellingham, Michelle; Sinclair, Kevin D; Evans, Neil P; Pocar, Paola; Fischer, Bernd; Schaedlich, Kristina; Schmidt, Juliane-Susanne; Amezaga, Maria R; Bhattacharya, Siladitya; Rhind, Stewart M; O'Shaughnessy, Peter J


    Evidence is accumulating that environmental chemicals (ECs) including endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) can alter female reproductive development, fertility and onset of menopause. While not as clearly defined as in the male, this set of abnormalities may constitute an Ovarian Dysgenesis Syndrome with at least some origins of the syndrome arising during foetal development. ECs/EDCs have been shown to affect trophoblast and placental function, the female hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis, onset of puberty and adult ovarian function. The effects of ECs/EDCs are complex, not least because it is emerging that low-level, 'real-life' mixtures of ECs/EDCs may carry significant biological potency. In addition, there is evidence that ECs/EDCs can alter the epigenome in a sexually dimorphic manner, which may lead to changes in the germ line and perhaps even to transgenerational effects. This review summarises the evidence for EC, including EDC, involvement in female reproductive dysfunction, it highlights potential mechanisms of EC action in the female and emphasises the need for further research into EC effects on female development and reproductive function.

  20. Compounds from multilayer plastic bags cause reproductive failures in artificial insemination (United States)

    Nerin, C.; Ubeda, J. L.; Alfaro, P.; Dahmani, Y.; Aznar, M.; Canellas, E.; Ausejo, R.


    High levels of reproductive failure were detected in some Spanish sow farms in the Spring of 2010. Regular returns to estrus and variable reductions in litter size were observed. The problem started suddenly and did not appear to be related to the quality of the ejaculates, disease, alterations of body condition or any other apparent reasons. Subsequent studies determined that the problem was the origin of the plastic bags used for semen storage. Chemical analysis of the suspicious bags identified unexpected compounds such as BADGE, a cyclic lactone and an unknown phthalate that leached into the semen at concentrations of 0.2 to 2.5 mg/L. Spermatozoa preserved in these bags passed all of the routine quality control tests, and no differences were observed between storage in the control and suspicious bags (p > 0.05). In vitro fecundation tests and endocrine profiler panel analysis (EPP) did not show any alterations, whereas the in vivo tests confirmed the described failure. This is the first described relationship between reproductive failure and toxic compounds released from plastic bags.

  1. Negative impact of endocrine-disrupting compounds on human reproductive health. (United States)

    Balabanič, Damjan; Rupnik, Marjan; Klemenčič, Aleksandra Krivograd


    There is increasing concern about chemical pollutants that are able to mimic hormones, the so-called endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs), because of their structural similarity to endogenous hormones, their ability to interact with hormone transport proteins or because of their potential to disrupt hormone metabolic pathways. Thus, the effects of endogenous hormones can be mimicked or, in some cases, completely blocked. A substantial number of environmental pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phthalates, bisphenol A, pesticides, alkylphenols and heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury), have been shown to disrupt endocrine function. These compounds can cause reproductive problems by decreasing sperm count and quality, increasing the number of testicular germ cells and causing male breast cancer, cryptorchidism, hypospadias, miscarriages, endometriosis, impaired fertility, irregularities of the menstrual cycle, and infertility. Although EDCs may be released into the environment in different ways, the main sources is industrial waste water. The present paper critically reviews the current knowledge of the impact of EDCs on reproductive disorders in humans.

  2. reproduction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    slow, yet no other field in medicine has integrated new knowledge ... Many countries have introduced tight ethical regulation ... and research, such as human reproductive cloning." Howover ... human pregnancy and birth after embryo donation.

  3. Unusual route for preparation of manganese(II), cobalt(II), zinc(II) and cadmium(II) carbonate compounds: synthesis and spectroscopic characterizations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Moamen S Refat; Mohsen M Al-Qahtani


    The manganese(II) carbonate, MnCO3.H2O, cobalt(II) carbonate, CoCO3.4H2O, zinc(II) carbonate, ZnCO3 and cadmium(II) carbonate, CdCO3, respectively, were synthesis by a new simple unusual route during the reaction of aqueous solutions of MnX2, CoX2, ZnX2 and CdX2, where (X = Br- and ClO$^{-}_{4}$) with urea at high temperature within ∼ 90°C for 6 h. The infrared spectra of the reaction products clearly indicate the absence of the bands of urea, but show the characteristic bands of ionic carbonate, CO$^{2-}_{3}$. A general mechanism describing the preparation of manganese(II), cobalt(II), zinc(II) and cadmium(II) carbonate compounds are discussed.

  4. Maternally transferred dioxin-like compounds can affect the reproductive success of European eel. (United States)

    Foekema, Edwin M; Kotterman, Michiel; de Vries, Pepijn; Murk, Albertinka J


    Reported concentrations of dioxin-like compounds accumulated in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) were used to perform a risk assessment for eel larval survival, taking into account a modeled amplification of tissue concentrations with a factor of 1.33 during spawning migration. The calculated concentrations of dioxin-like compounds finally deposited in the eggs were compared with the internal effect concentrations for survival of early life stages of the European eel; these concentrations, by lack of experimental data, were estimated from a sensitivity distribution based on literature data by assuming that eel larvae are among the 10% most sensitive teleost fish species. Given concentrations of dioxin-like contaminants and assuming a relatively high sensitivity, it can be expected that larvae from eggs produced by eel from highly contaminated locations in Europe will experience increased mortality as a result of maternally transferred dioxin-like contaminants. As historical persistent organic pollutant concentrations in eel tissue were higher, this impact must have been stronger in the past. Potential effects of other compounds or effects on the migration, condition, and fertility of the parental animals were not taken into account. It is important to further study the overall impact of contaminants on the reproductive success of the European eel as this may have been underestimated until now.

  5. Radiation effects on II-VI compound-based detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Cavallini, A; Dusi, W; Auricchio, N; Chirco, P; Zanarini, M; Siffert, P; Fougeres, P


    The performance of room temperature CdTe and CdZnTe detectors exposed to a radiation source can be strongly altered by the interaction of the ionizing particles and the material. Up to now, few experimental data are available on the response of II-VI compound detectors to different types of radiation sources. We have carried out a thorough investigation on the effects of gamma-rays, neutrons and electron irradiation both on CdTe : Cl and Cd sub 0 sub . sub 9 Zn sub 0 sub . sub 1 Te detectors. We have studied the detector response after radiation exposure by means of dark current measurements and of quantitative spectroscopic analyses at low and medium energies. The deep traps present in the material have been characterized by means of PICTS (photo-induced current transient spectroscopy) analyses, which allow to determine the trap apparent activation energy and capture cross-section. The evolution of the trap parameters with increasing irradiation doses has been monitored for all the different types of radiati...

  6. Highly cytotoxic DNA-interacting copper(II) coordination compounds. (United States)

    Brissos, Rosa F; Torrents, Ester; dos Santos Mello, Francyelli Mariana; Carvalho Pires, Wanessa; Silveira-Lacerda, Elisângela de Paula; Caballero, Ana B; Caubet, Amparo; Massera, Chiara; Roubeau, Olivier; Teat, Simon J; Gamez, Patrick


    Four new Schiff-base ligands have been designed and prepared by condensation reaction between hydrazine derivatives (i.e. 2-hydrazinopyridine or 2-hydrazinoquinoline) and mono- or dialdehyde (3-tert-butyl-2-hydroxybenzaldehyde and 5-tert-butyl-2-hydroxyisophthalaldehyde, respectively). Six copper(II) coordination compounds of various nuclearities have been obtained from these ligands, which are formulated as [Cu(L1)Cl](CH3OH) (1), [Cu(L2)NO3] (2), [Cu2(L3)(ClO4)2(CH3O)(CH3OH)](CH3OH) (3), [Cu2(L4)(ClO4)(OH)(CH3OH)](ClO4) (4), [Cu8(L3)4(NO3)4(OH)5](NO3)3(CH3OH)5(H2O)8 (5) and [Cu3(HL2')4Cl6](CH3OH)6 (6), as revealed by single-crystal X-ray studies. Their DNA-interacting abilities have been investigated using different characterization techniques, which suggest that the metal complexes act as efficient DNA binders. Moreover, cytotoxicity assays with several cancer cell lines show that some of them are very active, as evidenced by the sub-micromolar IC50 values achieved in some cases.

  7. Female reproductive factors and risk of seizure or epilepsy: data from the Nurses' Health Study II. (United States)

    Dworetzky, Barbara A; Townsend, Mary K; Pennell, Page B; Kang, Jae H


    Reproductive factors are associated with seizures in women with epilepsy. We prospectively examined the association between reproductive factors and the risk of adult-onset isolated seizure, epilepsy, or any unprovoked seizure (defined as single unprovoked seizure or epilepsy) among 114,847 Nurses' Health Study II participants followed from 1989 to 2005. Validated seizure questionnaires and medical records were used to confirm incident cases of isolated seizure (n = 95) or epilepsy (n = 151). Overall, there were no significant associations between any reproductive factor and risk of any unprovoked seizure (n = 196). However, menstrual irregularity at ages 18-22 years was specifically associated with an increased risk of epilepsy [relative risk (RR) 1.67, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.12-2.51]. Menstrual irregularity during follow-up (RR 2.21, 95% CI 1.16-4.20) and early age at menarche (Oral contraceptive use and parity were not associated with isolated seizure or epilepsy. Therefore, menstrual factors were associated with risk of seizure and epilepsy. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2011 International League Against Epilepsy.

  8. Bioactive compounds: Safety and efficacy (Consensus Meeting - Part II)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesalski, H.K.; Dragsted, L.O.; Elmadfa, I.; Grossklaus, R.; Müller, M.R.; Schrenk, D.; Walter, P.; Weber, P.


    The efficacy and safety of bioactive compounds depend on a few known and unknown parameters. What is a physiologic dose and how can that dose be defined in cases of bioactive compounds with a poor knowledge of supply and distribution? What safety sets are needed? How can individual aspects such as p

  9. Cyclopentadienyl-ruthenium(II) and iron(II) organometallic compounds with carbohydrate derivative ligands as good colorectal anticancer agents. (United States)

    Florindo, Pedro R; Pereira, Diane M; Borralho, Pedro M; Rodrigues, Cecília M P; Piedade, M F M; Fernandes, Ana C


    New ruthenium(II) and iron(II) organometallic compounds of general formula [(η(5)-C5H5)M(PP)Lc][PF6], bearing carbohydrate derivative ligands (Lc), were prepared and fully characterized and the crystal structures of five of those compounds were determined by X-ray diffraction studies. Cell viability of colon cancer HCT116 cell line was determined for a total of 23 organometallic compounds and SAR's data analysis within this library showed an interesting dependency of the cytotoxic activity on the carbohydrate moiety, linker, phosphane coligands, and metal center. More importantly, two compounds, 14Ru and 18Ru, matched oxaliplatin IC50 (0.45 μM), the standard metallodrug used in CC chemotherapeutics, and our leading compound 14Ru was shown to be significantly more cytotoxic than oxaliplatin to HCT116 cells, triggering higher levels of caspase-3 and -7 activity and apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner.

  10. Cytotoxic copper(II), cobalt(II), zinc(II), and nickel(II) coordination compounds of clotrimazole. (United States)

    Betanzos-Lara, Soledad; Gómez-Ruiz, Celedonio; Barrón-Sosa, Lidia R; Gracia-Mora, Isabel; Flores-Álamo, Marcos; Barba-Behrens, Noráh


    Sixteen novel mononuclear Cu(II), Co(II), Zn(II), and Ni(II) complexes of the biologically active ligand clotrimazole (clotri) of the forms [M(clotri)(2)Cl(2)]·nH(2)O (1-4), [M(clotri)(2)Br(2)]·nH(2)O (5-7), [M(clotri)(3)Br(2)] (8), [M(clotri)(3)NO(3)]NO(3)·nH(2)O (9, 11), [M(clotri)(3)(NO(3))(2)]·nH(2)O (10), and [M(clotri)(3)(OH(2))(2)NO(3)]NO(3)·nH(2)O (12) were synthesized and fully characterized. Dinuclear [Cu(2)(clotri)(4)μ(2)-Cl(4)]·2H(2)O (1a) and [Cu(2)(clotri)(4)μ(2)-Br(2)]·2H(2)O (5b) as well as tetranuclear [Cu(4)(clotri)(4)μ(4)-Br(6)μ(4)-O] (5a) complexes were also isolated. Complexes 1-7, 9, and 11 present a tetrahedral geometry; complex 8 exhibits a pentacoordinated structure; complexes 1a, 10 and 12 an octahedral geometry. X-ray crystal structures of [Cu(clotri)(2)Cl(2)](1), [Cu(clotri)(2)(EtOH)Cl(2)](1·EtOH), [Zn(clotri)(2)Cl(2)] (3), [Zn(clotri)(2)Br(2)] (7), and [Cu(4)(clotri)(4)μ(4)-Br(6)μ(4)-O] (5a) were obtained. Complexes 1-12 were tested for cytotoxic activity against the human carcinoma cell lines HeLa (cervix-uterine), PC3 (prostate), and HCT-15 (colon) displaying IC(50) values <30 μM. Confocal microscopy and nuclear dying (DAPI) for complex 1 showed condensation of cromatin and nuclear membrane fragmentation. Immunocytochemical detection/expression of biomarkers suggests that complexes 1 and 9 induce cell death via apoptosis. TUNEL assay detected DNA fragmentation in HeLa cells, resulting from apoptotic signaling cascades induced by Cu(II) complexes 1 and 9. (1)H NMR studies of the Zn(II) complexes showed that they can bind to nucleotides.

  11. Cytotoxic activity, X-ray crystal structures and spectroscopic characterization of cobalt(II), copper(II) and zinc(II) coordination compounds with 2-substituted benzimidazoles. (United States)

    Sánchez-Guadarrama, Obdulia; López-Sandoval, Horacio; Sánchez-Bartéz, Francisco; Gracia-Mora, Isabel; Höpfl, Herbert; Barba-Behrens, Noráh


    Herein we present the synthesis, structural and spectroscopic characterization of coordination compounds of cobalt(II), copper(II) and zinc(II) with 2-methylbenzimidazole (2mbz), 2-phenylbenzimidazole (2phbz), 2-chlorobenzimidazole (2cbz), 2-benzimidazolecarbamate (2cmbz) and 2-guanidinobenzimidazole (2gbz). Their cytotoxic activity was evaluated using human cancer cell lines, PC3 (prostate), MCF-7 (breast), HCT-15 (colon), HeLa (cervic-uterine), SKLU-1 (lung) and U373 (glioblastoma), showing that the zinc(II) and copper(II) compounds [Zn(2mbz)(2)Cl(2)].0.5H(2)O, [Zn(2cmbz)(2)Cl(2)].EtOH, [Cu(2cmbz)Br(2)].0.7H(2)O and [Cu(2gbz)Br(2)] had significant cytotoxic activity. The isostructural cobalt(II) complexes showed not significant activity. The cytotoxic activity is related to the presence of halides in the coordination sphere of the metal ion. Recuperation experiments with HeLa cells, showed that the cells recuperated after removing the copper(II) compounds and, on the contrary, the cells treated with the zinc(II) compounds did not. These results indicate that the mode of action of the coordination compounds is different.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ticuţa Negreanu-Pîrjol


    Full Text Available In this paper we report the synthesis, physical-chemical characterization and antimicrobial activity of some new complex compounds of hetero-aromatic biguanides ligands, chlorhexidine base (CHX and chlorhexidine diacetate (CHXac2 with metallic ions Cu(II and Zn(II, in different molar ratio. The synthesized complexes were characterized by elemental chemical analysis and differential thermal analysis. The stereochemistry of the metallic ions was determined by infrared spectra, UV-Vis, EPR spectroscopy and magnetic susceptibility in the aim to establish the complexes structures. The biological activity of the new complex compounds was identified in solid technique by measuring minimum inhibition diameter of bacterial and fungal culture, against three standard pathogen strains, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphilococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Candida albicans ATCC 10231. The results show an increased specific antimicrobial activity for the complexes chlorhexidine:Cu(II 1:1 and 1:2 compared with the one of the Zn(II complexes.

  13. Reproductive behavior following evacuation to foster care duringWorld War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten Santavirta


    Full Text Available Background: Family disruption and separation form parents during childhood may have long-lasting effects on the child. Previous literature documents associations between separation from parents and cognitive ability, educational attainment, and health, but little is known about effects on subsequent reproductive behavior. Objective: We evaluate the associations between unaccompanied evacuation to foster care and subsequent marriage and fertility behavior by comparing Finnish children who were evacuated to Swedish foster families during World War II to their non-evacuated siblings. Methods: In total, some 49,000 children were evacuated for a period ranging from months to years. We analyze a nationally representative sample of 2,009 evacuees born in 1933-1944 by combining data collected from war time government records with 1950 and 1971 censuses and 1971-2011 population registers. Results: Comparison of evacuated and nonevacuated same-sex siblings suggests no associations between evacuation and the probability of ever marrying, timing of first birth, and completed family size, although some associations are found in na¨ıve means comparisons. This difference in results across models is suggestive of negative selection of evacuee families. Conclusions: We do not find consistent evidence of any causal effect of family disruption on family formation and reproductive behavior. The results are sensitive to controlling for unobserved selection and suggest that some of the adverse outcomes documented in earlier literature could change if selection was accounted for.

  14. Diarylplatinum(II Compounds as Versatile Metallating Agents in the Synthesis of Cyclometallated Platinum Compounds with N-Donor Ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Crespo


    Full Text Available This review deals with the reactions of diarylplatinum(II complexes with N-donor ligands to produce a variety of cycloplatinated compounds including endo-five-, endo-seven-, endo-six- or exo-five-membered platinacycles. The observed reactions result from a series of oxidative addition/reductive elimination processes taking place at platinum(II/platinum(IV species and involving C–X (X = H, Cl, Br bond activation, arene elimination, and, in some cases, Caryl–Caryl bond formation.

  15. Abiotic reduction of nitroaromatic compounds by Fe(II) associated with iron oxides and humic acid. (United States)

    Luan, Fubo; Xie, Li; Li, Jun; Zhou, Qi


    Experiments were conducted to examine the reduction of nitroaromatic compounds (NACs) by Fe(II) associated with iron oxides (goethite, hematite and magnetite) and humic acid. The reduction rate of nitrobenzene decreased in the order of Fe(II) associated with magnetite>Fe(II) associated with goethite>Fe(II) associated with hematite. We proposed a four-step model (adsorption, electron transfer to conduction band, electron transfer to nitrobenzene and electron transfer to crystal lattice) for nitrobenzene reduction by Fe(II) associated with iron oxides. Fe(II)-humic acid complexes did not present reduction capability of nitrobenzene. Furthermore, Humic acid significantly inhibited nitrobenzene reduction by Fe(II) associated with iron oxides. The inhibitory effect of humic acid toward the reduction of nitrobenzene decreased in the order of magnetite>goethite>hematite. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Easy access to silicon(0) and silicon(II) compounds. (United States)

    Mondal, Kartik Chandra; Samuel, Prinson P; Tretiakov, Mykyta; Singh, Amit Pratap; Roesky, Herbert W; Stückl, A Claudia; Niepötter, Benedikt; Carl, Elena; Wolf, Hilke; Herbst-Irmer, Regine; Stalke, Dietmar


    Two different synthetic methodologies of silicon dihalide bridged biradicals of the general formula (L(n)•)2SiX2 (n = 1, 2) have been developed. First, the metathesis reaction between NHC:SiX2 and L(n): (L(n): = cyclic akyl(amino) carbene in a 1:3 molar ratio leads to the products 2 (n = 1, X = Cl), 4 (n = 2, X = Cl), 6 (n = 1, X = Br), and 7 (n = 2, X = Br). These reactions also produce coupled NHCs (3, 5) under C-C bond formation. The formation of the coupled NHCs (L(m) = cyclic alkyl(amino) carbene substituted N-heterocyclic carbene; m = 3, n = 1 (3) and m = 4, n =2 (5)) is faster during the metathesis reaction between NHC:SiBr2 and L(n): when compared with that of NHC:SiCl2. Second, the reaction of L(1):SiCl4 (8) (L(1): =:C(CH2)(CMe2)2N-2,6-iPr2C6H3) with a non-nucleophilic base LiN(iPr)2 in a 1:1 molar ratio shows an unprecedented methodology for the synthesis of the biradical (L(1)•)2SiCl2 (2). The blue blocks of silicon dichloride bridged biradicals (2, 4) are stable for more than six months under an inert atmosphere and in air for one week. Compounds 2 and 4 melt in the temperature range of 185 to 195 °C. The dibromide (6, 7) analogue is more prone to decomposition in the solution but comparatively more stable in the solid state than in the solution. Decomposition of the products has been observed in the UV-vis spectra. Moreover, compounds 2 and 4 were further converted to stable singlet biradicaloid dicarbene-coordinated (L(n):)2Si(0) (n = 1 (9), 2 (10)) under KC8 reduction. Compounds 2 and 4 were also reduced to dehalogenated products 9 and 10, respectively when treated with RLi (R = Ph, Me, tBu). Cyclic voltametry measurements show that 10 can irreversibly undergo both one electron oxidation and reduction.

  17. Surface Bonding Effects in Compound Semiconductor Nanoparticles: II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helen H. Farrell


    Small nanoparticles have a large proportion of their atoms either at or near the surface, and those in clusters are essentially all on the surface. As a consequence, the details of the surface structure are of paramount importance in governing the overall stability of the particle. Just as with bulk materials, factors that determine this stability include “bulk” structure, surface reconstruction, charge balance and hybridization, ionicity, strain, stoichiometry, and the presence of adsorbates. Needless to say, many of these factors, such as charge balance, hybridization and strain, are interdependent. These factors all contribute to the overall binding energy of clusters and small nanoparticles and play a role in determining the deviations from an inverse size dependence that we have previously reported for compound semiconductor materials. Using first-principles density functional theory calculations, we have explored how these factors influence particle stability under a variety of conditions.

  18. Interaction of coffee compounds with serum albumins. Part II: Diterpenes. (United States)

    Guercia, Elena; Forzato, Cristina; Navarini, Luciano; Berti, Federico


    Cafestol and 16-O-methylcafestol are diterpenes present in coffee, but whilst cafestol is found in both Coffea canephora and Coffea arabica, 16-O-methylcafestol (16-OMC) was reported to be specific of only C. canephora. The interactions of such compounds, with serum albumins, have been studied. Three albumins have been considered, namely human serum albumin (HSA), fatty acid free HSA (ffHSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA). The proteins interact with the diterpenes at the interface between Sudlow site I and the fatty acid binding site 6 in a very peculiar way, leading to a significant change in the secondary structure. The diterpenes do not displace reference binding drugs of site 2, but rather they enhance the affinity of the site for the drugs. They, therefore, may alter the pharmacokinetic profile of albumin - bound drugs.

  19. Female reproductive disorders: the roles of endocrine-disrupting compounds and developmental timing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D.A.; Janssen, S.J.; Edwards, T.M.


    , and pregnancy loss), breast (breast cancer, reduced duration of lactation), and pubertal timing were identified, reviewed, and summarized at a workshop. CONCLUSION(S): The data reviewed illustrate that EDCs contribute to numerous human female reproductive disorders and emphasize the sensitivity of early life...

  20. The Narrative Reproduction of Contemporary Montenegrin Identity in The Process of Euroatlantic Intergrations (Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko Banović


    Full Text Available If we conceptualize reality as a large narrative we “build ourselves into” as social beings, and consider social activities and identities as narratively mediated, the full extent of the capacity of narratives in the creation, shaping, transmission and reconstruction of contemporary social identities, as well as the reproduction of the concept of nation in everyday life becomes apparent. The imagined Euro- Atlantic future of Montenegro demands certain narrative interpretations of the past, which, in latter stages tend to become meta-narratives susceptible to consensus. The linkage of significant historical events to the process of Euro-Atlantic integrations of Montenegro is preformed through different meta-discursive practices, most often through ceremonial evocations of memories of significant events from the recent as well as further history of Montenegro. In this context, celebrations of Statehood Day and Independence Day are especially important, as they serve as reminders of the decisions of the Congress of Berlin, the Podgorica Assembly, the antifascist struggle of World War II and the independence of Montenegro attained through the referendum held in 2006. The clearly defined key points, along with the logical coherence the narrative is based on, provide the narrative with a certain “flexibility” which enables it to take in new elements. Narrative interpretations of the past have a significant role in the reproduction of the nation, as well as the shaping and consolidation of a desirable national identity, while the established narrative continuity between the past, present and imagined Euro-Atlantic future of Montenegro emerges as the “official” mediator in the reproduction of contemporary Montenegrin identity in the process of Euro-Atlantic integrations. In order to fully comprehend this narrative, it is advisable to conceptualize it both in a synchronic as well as a diachronic perspective, as can be shown in two charts

  1. New Magnetic and Structural Results for Uniformly Spaced, Alternatingly Spaced, and Ladder-Like Copper(II) Linear Chain Compounds. (United States)


    ligands are dig- cussed, including the quasi-linear chain compound bia(dimethyldithio- carbamato )copper(II) in which the copper(II) ions are...sample of the linear chain compound bis(dimethyldithio- adequate to permit a correlation between the magnetic carbamato )copper(II) is plotted as a

  2. [Animal Reproduction and Breeding.] Student Materials. V.A. III. [II-A-1 through II-A-8]. (United States)

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    Part of a series of eight student learning modules in vocational agriculture, this booklet deals with animal reproduction and breeding. The topics covered are genetics, animal reproduction, breeding methods, artificial insemination, pregnancy diagnosis, and parturition care. Each section ends with a glossary and a quiz. (PLB)

  3. Preparation of association compound between rhodium(II) citrate and β-cyclodextrin


    Burgos, Ana E; Coco K. Y. A. Okio; Sinisterra, Rubén D.


    Inclusion compound of rhodium(II) citrate with β-cyclodextrin in a 1:1 molar ratio was prepared using freeze-drying method. X-ray diffactometry, thermal analysis (TG/DTG/DSC), infrared and ¹H-NMR with ¹H spin lattice relaxation (¹H T1) measurements and 13C techniques were used to characterize the system prepared. The results indicated the formation of inclusion or association compounds between rhodium(II) citrate and β-cyclodextrin.

  4. Preparation of association compound between rhodium(II citrate and β-cyclodextrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana E. Burgos


    Full Text Available Inclusion compound of rhodium(II citrate with β-cyclodextrin in a 1:1 molar ratio was prepared using freeze-drying method. X-ray diffactometry, thermal analysis (TG/DTG/DSC, infrared and ¹H-NMR with ¹H spin lattice relaxation (¹H T1 measurements and 13C techniques were used to characterize the system prepared. The results indicated the formation of inclusion or association compounds between rhodium(II citrate and β-cyclodextrin.

  5. Reproductive character displacement of epicuticular compounds and their contribution to mate choice in Drosophila subquinaria and Drosophila recens. (United States)

    Dyer, Kelly A; White, Brooke E; Sztepanacz, Jacqueline L; Bewick, Emily R; Rundle, Howard D


    Interactions between species can alter selection on sexual displays used in mate choice within species. Here we study the epicuticular pheromones of two Drosophila species that overlap partially in geographic range and are incompletely reproductively isolated. Drosophila subquinaria shows a pattern of reproductive character displacement against Drosophila recens, and partial behavioral isolation between conspecific sympatric versus allopatric populations, whereas D. recens shows no such variation in mate choice. First, using manipulative perfuming experiments, we show that females use pheromones as signals for mate discrimination both between species and among populations of D. subquinaria. Second, we show that patterns of variation in epicuticular compounds, both across populations and between species, are consistent with those previously shown for mating probabilities: pheromone compositions differ between populations of D. subquinaria that are allopatric versus sympatric with D. recens, but are similar across populations of D. recens regardless of overlap with D. subquinaria. We also identify differences in pheromone composition among allopatric regions of D. subquinaria. In sum, our results suggest that epicuticular compounds are key signals used by females during mate recognition, and that these traits have diverged among D. subquinaria populations in response to reinforcing selection generated by the presence of D. recens.

  6. Development of the compound eyes of dragonflies (Odonata). II. Development of the larval compound eyes. (United States)

    Sherk, T E


    The development of the compound eye was analyzed by marking individual ommatidia and by studying naturally occurring pigment band patterns. New ommatidia are added to the eye along its anterior margin. This changes the directions of view of the older ommatidia with the greatest change occurring in the fovea. New ommatidia are added to the fovea medially, and old ones are removed laterally as their interommatidial angles and directions of view in the visual field change. Over one-third of the aeshnid ommatidia are foveal during at least one of the early larval instars, and are then used for peripheral vision later in development. The design of each ommatidium is a compromise so that it is adapted for all stages of development, but sometimes better adapted for one instar than for others. Factors which are balanced for best vision are lens diameter, facet admission function, interommatidial angle, and inclination of the optic axis to the eye surface. Ommatidia are described in terms of these factors throughout their life history, from initial differentiation anteriorly, through passage through the fovea, to their final relatively posterior location.

  7. Female reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M


    To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...

  8. 2,6-Bis(2,6-diethylphenyliminomethyl)pyridine coordination compounds with cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II), and zinc(II): synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, X-ray study and in vitro cytotoxicity. (United States)

    Martinez-Bulit, Pablo; Garza-Ortíz, Ariadna; Mijangos, Edgar; Barrón-Sosa, Lidia; Sánchez-Bartéz, Francisco; Gracia-Mora, Isabel; Flores-Parra, Angelina; Contreras, Rosalinda; Reedijk, Jan; Barba-Behrens, Norah


    Coordination compounds with cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II) and zinc(II) and the ligand 2,6-bis(2,6-diethylphenyliminomethyl)pyridine (L) were synthesized and fully characterized by IR and UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility and X-ray diffraction for two representative cases. These novel compounds were designed to study their activity as anti-proliferative drugs against different human cancer cell lines. The tridentate ligand forms heptacoordinated compounds from nitrate metallic salts, where the nitrate acts in a chelating form to complete the seven coordination positions. In vitro cell growth inhibition was measured for Co(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes, as well as for the free ligand. Upon coordination, the IC50 value of the transition-metal compounds is improved compared to the free ligand. The copper(II) and zinc(II) compounds are the most promising candidates for further in vitro and in vivo studies. The activity against colon and prostate cell lines merits further research, in views of the limited therapeutic options for such cancer types.

  9. Female reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M;


    To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive disrupti......To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...

  10. Meta-analysis of the effect of immunocastration on production performance, reproductive organs and boar taint compounds in pigs. (United States)

    Batorek, N; Čandek-Potokar, M; Bonneau, M; Van Milgen, J


    Meta-analytical approach was used to quantitatively synthesize the effect of immunocastration on growth, carcass, meat quality, reproductive organs and boar taint compounds. Altogether, 41 papers were collected for effect size (θ) calculation and the comparisons were made with entire males (EM) and surgical castrates (SC). The data for reproductive organs and growth performance are numerous enough to draw firm conclusions. In contrast, data for carcass and meat quality are more limited. Results of meta-analysis show efficient immunocastration with the magnitude of the response being by far the largest for reproductive organs (θ = -2.8 to -5.0) and boar taint substances (θ = -2.8 and -0.8 for androstenone and skatole, respectively). However, compared with SC, the immunocastrates exhibit larger bulbourethral glands (θ = 1.3) and slightly higher concentrations of androstenone and skatole (θ = 0.1 and θ = 0.2, respectively). The impact of immunocastration is also remarkable on performance, where the main advantage of the immunocastrates is their boar-like performance until revaccination. In the period following the second vaccination, they eat much more than EM (θ = 2.1), resulting in large effect size for growth rate compared with both EM and SC (θ = 1.1 and θ = 1.4, respectively). Considering the whole fattening period, their feed conversion ratio is higher compared with EM (θ = 0.6) and much lower than that of SC (θ = -1.3), although exhibiting moderately faster growth compared with both (θ = 0.6 and θ = 0.2, respectively). With regard to carcass quality, the immunocastrates take intermediate position between EM and SC. Besides, our analysis suggests no difference in meat quality with SC and some meat quality advantages of immunocastrates over EM because of higher intramuscular fat content (θ = 0.4) and lower shear force (θ = -0.6).

  11. Crystal-field spectra of 3d super n impurities in II-VI and III-V compound semiconductors. (United States)

    Allen, J. W.; Baranowski, J. M.; Pearson, G. L.


    Impurity crystal-field spectra in II-VI and III- V compound semiconductors used to predict unexplored systems spectra impurity crystal-field spectra in II-VI and III-V compound semiconductors used to predict unexplored systems spectra

  12. Potential roles for GNIH and GNRH-II in reproductive axis regulation of an opportunistically breeding songbird. (United States)

    Perfito, Nicole; Zann, Richard; Ubuka, Takayoshi; Bentley, George; Hau, Michaela


    The ability to breed at any time of year enables opportunistically breeding species to respond to good conditions whenever they occur. We investigate the neuroendocrine basis for this relatively unusual reproductive pattern in the avian world. One proposed mechanism for year-round breeding ability is tonic activation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone-I (GnRH-I) production that is flexibly modified by gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) production during unfavorable conditions. GnIH could inhibit GnRH secretion from the hypothalamus and/or inhibit GnRH action on the anterior pituitary gland. We studied neuroendocrine patterns in wild Australian zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) sampled during a breeding period in Southern Australia, a non-breeding period in central Australia, and in juvenile males in the latter location. We asked whether patterns in immunoreactivity of three neuropeptides important for reproductive axis regulation, GnRH-I, GnRH-II and GnIH, during periods of breeding and non-breeding reflect this flexibility. We found that the numbers and sizes of immunoreactive (-ir) GnRH-I cells did not vary between breeding stages and ages. Contrary to our predictions, irGnIH cell number and size, as well as the synthesis of GnIH mRNA were similar in breeding and non-breeding conditions. However, breeding males had more and larger irGnRH-II cells in the midbrain compared to non-breeding males. Hence, while changes in irGnIH cells are not associated with fluctuations in gonadotropin secretion or gonad volume, the regulation of irGnRH-II cells might represent a previously-unidentified mechanism by which reproductive flexibility can be achieved; namely via behavioral neurotransmitter actions of GnRH-II rather than through the typical sensory-CNS integration-GnRH-I route.

  13. Toxic compounds and health and reproductive effects in St. Lawrence Beluga Whales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beland, P.; Michaud, R. (St. Lawrence National Inst. of Ecotoxicology, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)); DeGuise, S. (St. Lawrence National Inst. of Ecotoxicology, Montreal, Quebec (Canada) Faculte de Medecine Veterinaire, St-Hyacinthe, Quebec (Canada)); Girard, C.; Lagace, A. (Faculte de Medecine Veterinaire, St-Hyacinthe, Quebec (Canada)); Martineau, D. (St. Lawrence National Inst. of Ecotoxicology, Montreal, Quebec (Canada) Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)); Muir, D.C.G. (Freshwater Inst., Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada)); Norstorm, R.J. (National Wildlife Research Center, Hull, Quebec (Canada)); Pelletier, E. (INRS-Oceanologie, Rimouski, Quebec (Canada)); Ray, S. (Fisheries and Oceans Canada, St. John' s, Newfoundland (Canada)) (and others)


    An epidemiologic study was carried out over a period of 9 years on an isolated population of beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) residing in the St. Lawrence estuary (Quebec, Canada). More than 100 individual deaths were aged, and/or autopsied and analyzed for toxic compounds, and the population was surveyed for size and structure. Arctic belugas and other species of whales and seals from the St. Lawrence were used for comparison. Population dynamics: Population size appeared to be stable and modeling showed this stable pattern to result from low calf production and/or low survival to adulthood. Toxicology: St. Lawrence belugas had higher or much higher levels of mercury, lead, PCBs, DDT, Mirex, benzo[a]pyrene metabolites, equivalent levels of dioxins, furans, and PAH metabolites, and much lower levels of cadmium than Arctic belugas. In other St. Lawrence cetaceans, levels of PCBs and DDT were inversely related to body size, as resulting from differences in metabolic rate, diet, and trophic position, compounded by length of residence in the St. Lawrence basin. St. Lawrence belugas had much higher levels than predicted from body size alone; levels increased with age in both sexes, although unloading by females through the placenta and/or lactation was evidenced by overall lower levels in females and very high burdens in some calves. 45 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Synthesis and Characterisation of a Novel Phosphonate Ligand and Its Palladium(II Coordination Compound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesea Cuzan


    Full Text Available The novel N-(methylene-2-pyridine-N,N-bis(diethoxyphosphorylmethylamine ligand (L was obtained through a double Kabachnik-Fields reaction, starting from 2-aminomethyl pyridine (2-picolylamine. Based on the L ligand, a new palladium(II coordination compound [Pd(L2Cl2] has been synthetized and comprehensively characterized by spectroscopic methods (1H NMR, UV-Vis, ESI mass spectrometry and X-ray crystallography.

  15. Profiling of Phenolic Compounds of Somatic and Reproductive Tissues of Agave Durangensis Gentry (Agavaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Almaraz-Abarca


    Full Text Available Problem statement: In Durango, Mexico, mescal is elaborated from wild plants of Agave durangensis. This species shows a high morphological variability within and among populations, what makes its taxonomic delimitation a hard task. Approach: In this study the pollen and foliar phenolic compositions of Agave durangensis were analyzed by HPLC/DAD with the aim of determining the significance of phenol profiles to delimit this taxon. Results: The foliar phenol compositions were evaluated within and among two populations and between juvenile and adult plants. Agave asperrima Jacobi, Dasylirion sp. and juvenile samples of A. shrevei Gentry subsp. shrevei, A. shrevei Gentry subsp. matapensis Gentry and A. wocomahi Gentry, were also analyzed to stand comparisons with. The results from this study indicated that pollen and foliar tissues of Agave durangneisis were rich in kaempferol glycoside derivatives (13 and 23 different compounds can be present, respectively. Principal coordinates analysis (PCO, based on foliar profiles of adults, indicated the presence of several chemotypes within the Type locality of Agave durangensis and revealed chemical differences between the both analyzed populations. Conclusion/Recommendations: Chemical and morphological differences and biogeographical evidence suggest the recognition of two different taxonomic entities in this morphological variable group.

  16. Transgenerational actions of environmental compounds on reproductive disease and identification of epigenetic biomarkers of ancestral exposures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Manikkam

    Full Text Available Environmental factors during fetal development can induce a permanent epigenetic change in the germ line (sperm that then transmits epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult-onset disease in the absence of any subsequent exposure. The epigenetic transgenerational actions of various environmental compounds and relevant mixtures were investigated with the use of a pesticide mixture (permethrin and insect repellant DEET, a plastic mixture (bisphenol A and phthalates, dioxin (TCDD and a hydrocarbon mixture (jet fuel, JP8. After transient exposure of F0 gestating female rats during the period of embryonic gonadal sex determination, the subsequent F1-F3 generations were obtained in the absence of any environmental exposure. The effects on the F1, F2 and F3 generations pubertal onset and gonadal function were assessed. The plastics, dioxin and jet fuel were found to promote early-onset female puberty transgenerationally (F3 generation. Spermatogenic cell apoptosis was affected transgenerationally. Ovarian primordial follicle pool size was significantly decreased with all treatments transgenerationally. Differential DNA methylation of the F3 generation sperm promoter epigenome was examined. Differential DNA methylation regions (DMR were identified in the sperm of all exposure lineage males and found to be consistent within a specific exposure lineage, but different between the exposures. Several genomic features of the DMR, such as low density CpG content, were identified. Exposure-specific epigenetic biomarkers were identified that may allow for the assessment of ancestral environmental exposures associated with adult onset disease.

  17. Phytoestrogens and avian reproduction: Exploring the evolution and function of phytoestrogens and possible role of plant compounds in the breeding ecology of wild birds. (United States)

    Rochester, Johanna R; Millam, James R


    Phytoestrogens are secondary plant compounds, which can act to mimic estrogen and cause the disruption of estrogenic responses in organisms. Although there is a substantial body of research studying phytoestrogens, including their mechanisms of estrogenic effects, evolution, and detection in biological systems, little is known about their ecological significance. There is evidence, however, that an ecological relationship involving phytoestrogens exists between plants and animals-plants may produce phytoestrogens to reduce fecundity of organisms that eat them. Birds and other vertebrates may also exploit phytoestrogens to regulate their own reproduction-there are well known examples of phytoestrogens inhibiting reproduction in higher vertebrates, including birds. Also, common plant stressors (e.g., high temperature) increase the production of secondary plant compounds, and, as evidence suggests, also induce phytoestrogen biosynthesis. These observations are consistent with the single study ever done on phytoestrogens and reproduction in wild birds [Leopold, A.S., Erwin, M., Oh, J., Browning, B., 1976. Phytoestrogens adverse effects on reproduction in California quail. Science 191, 98-100.], which found that drought stress correlated with increased levels of phytoestrogens in plants, and that increased phytoestrogen levels correlated with decreased young. This review discusses the hypothesis that plants may have an effect on the reproduction of avian species by producing phytoestrogens as a plant defense against herbivory, and that birds may "use" changing levels of phytoestrogens in the vegetation to ensure that food resources will support potential young produced. Evidence from our laboratory and others appear to support this hypothesis.

  18. Activation of peroxyl and molecular oxygen using bis-benzimidazole diamide copper (II) compounds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pavan Mathur


    New tetradentate bis-benzimidazole ligands have been synthesized and utilized to prepare copper (II) complexes. Some of these copper (II) complexes have been characterized structurally. The copper (II) in these complexes is found to possess varying geometries. A distorted octahedral geometry is found with a highly unsymmetrical bidentate nitrate group. An unusual polymeric one-dimensional structure is observed where copper (II) is in a distorted square pyramidal geometry with a monodentate nitrate ion, having long Cu-O bond, while a distorted triagonal bipyramidal geometry is found with two carbonyl O atoms and a Cl atom in the equatorial plane, and two benzimidazole imine N atoms occupy the axial position. These compounds are found to activate the cumylperoxyl group, and this has been utilized in the facile oxidation of aromatic alcohols to aldehydes, where they act as catalysts with large turnovers. The yields of the respective products vary from 32 to 65%. The role of molecular oxygen has been studied and an attempt has been made to identify the "active copper species”. Activation of molecular oxygen has also been observed and has been used for oxidative dealkylation of a hindered phenol, producing di-butyl quinones with yields of 20-25% and 10-12 fold catalytic turnover. Dihydroxybenzenes and substituted catechols are also readily oxidized to the corresponding quinones, in oxygen-saturated solvents. Yields of 84% have been observed with 34-fold catalyst turnover, with di--butylcatechol. The activity of these copper (II) - bis-benzmidazolediamide compounds is reminiscent of the functioning of copper centres in galactose oxidase, tyrosinase and catechol oxidase.

  19. A pooled analysis of case-control studies of thyroid cancer - II. Menstrual and reproductive factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Negri, E; Dal Maso, L; Ron, E; La Vecchia, C; Mark, SD; Preston-Martin, S; McTiernan, A; Kolonel, L; Yoshimoto, Y; Jin, F; Wingren, G; Galanti, MR; Hardell, L; Glattre, E; Lund, E; Levi, F; Linos, D; Braga, C; Franceschi, S

    Objective: It has been suggested that female hormones, and hence menstrual and reproductive factors, play a role in thyroid cancer etiology. Epidemiological data, however, are limited and inconsistent, partly because of the small number of cases included in each study. To clarify the etiology of

  20. A pooled analysis of case-control studies of thyroid cancer - II. Menstrual and reproductive factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Negri, E; Dal Maso, L; Ron, E; La Vecchia, C; Mark, SD; Preston-Martin, S; McTiernan, A; Kolonel, L; Yoshimoto, Y; Jin, F; Wingren, G; Galanti, MR; Hardell, L; Glattre, E; Lund, E; Levi, F; Linos, D; Braga, C; Franceschi, S


    Objective: It has been suggested that female hormones, and hence menstrual and reproductive factors, play a role in thyroid cancer etiology. Epidemiological data, however, are limited and inconsistent, partly because of the small number of cases included in each study. To clarify the etiology of thy

  1. A pooled analysis of case-control studies of thyroid cancer - II. Menstrual and reproductive factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Negri, E; Dal Maso, L; Ron, E; La Vecchia, C; Mark, SD; Preston-Martin, S; McTiernan, A; Kolonel, L; Yoshimoto, Y; Jin, F; Wingren, G; Galanti, MR; Hardell, L; Glattre, E; Lund, E; Levi, F; Linos, D; Braga, C; Franceschi, S


    Objective: It has been suggested that female hormones, and hence menstrual and reproductive factors, play a role in thyroid cancer etiology. Epidemiological data, however, are limited and inconsistent, partly because of the small number of cases included in each study. To clarify the etiology of thy

  2. Saturation magnetization of Ni(II) in metalloproteins and model compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sendova, M.; Day, E.P.; Kiick, K.; Johnson, M.; Ma, L.; Scott, B.; Hausinger, R.; Todd, M.; Peterson, J. (Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States) Univ. of Georgia, Athens (United States) Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (United States) Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa (United States))


    The Ni(II) sites of urease (from Klebsiella aerogenes and jack bean), coenzyme F[sub 430] (from Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum), and several model compounds having octahedral symmetry have been studied using the saturation megnetization technique. Data were collected at four fixed fields over the temperature range from 2 - 200K. Theoretical curves calculated from the spin Hamiltonian were used to fit the experimentally obtained magnetization curves. The following parameters were determined: the spine state (S), the amount of the sample in this spin state ([S]), the gyromagnetic ratio (g), and the zero field splitting parameters (D, E/D). The amount of S=1 paramagnetism of the Ni(II) sites was found to depend on the pH of the buffer and on the concentration of the protein in D[sub 2]O (for coenzyme F[sub 430]). The relationship of the strength of the ligand field to the zero field splitting parameter was studied for the model compounds. There was no evidence for exchange coupling between the two Ni(II) ions at the active sites of either plant or bacterial urease.

  3. Session 4: Catalytic behavior of Ni(II)-Al hydrotalcite like compounds in bio-ethanol steam reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comas, J.; Laborde, M.; Amadeo, N. [Laboratorio de Procesos Cataliticos, Dpto. Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de Ingenieria. Pabellon de Industrias. Ciudad Universitaria (1428) Buenos Aires (Argentina)


    In this work, the ethanol steam reforming on massive Ni(II)-Al hydrotalcite like compounds as catalyst, at 773 K and atmospheric pressure, was studied. In particular, from the experiments carried out at different water/ethanol feed ratio is possible to elucidate the catalytic behavior for ethanol steam reforming over Ni(II)-Al hydrotalcite. (authors)

  4. Biology of the amphioxus, Branchiostoma belcheri in the Ariake Sea, Japan II. Reproduction. (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Takao; Henmi, Yasuhisa


    We investigated the reproduction of the amphioxus Branchiostoma belcheri in the southern Ariake Sea, Japan, from 1999 to 2002. Gonads were very small or almost absent from September to December and began to develop in January. Changes in the gonad length index indicated that spawning began in mid June, after the gonads had attained maximum size. Although most gametes were extruded during the first spawning, some remained in the gonads. Shrunken gonads were much smaller but contained gametes, and the second spawning occurred around 10 July. It was unclear whether all adults spawned twice, but a large proportion of individuals did. After the first spawning, both males and females lost 30% of their body weight. Most one-year-old individuals did not spawn, and the minimum size at maturity was ca. 20 mm. We found no termination of reproduction among very large individuals. The average number of gonads was significantly larger on the right side of the body (26.2 in males and 26.1 in females) than on the left side (24.0 in males and 23.5 in females). We found two hermaphrodites in a total of 11,184 specimens examined. Each had four or three ovaries among a total of 45 or 54 gonads.

  5. Spectroscopic characterization of iron-doped II-VI compounds for laser applications (United States)

    Martinez, Alan

    currently covered by available sources while maintaining absorption which overlaps with available pump sources. Because optimization of these materials requires extensive experimentation, a technique to fabricate and characterize novel crystals in powder form was developed, eliminating the need for the crystal growth. Powders were characterized using Raman, photoluminescence studies, and kinetics of luminescence. The first demonstration of random lasing of Fe:ZnCdTe powder at 6 microm was reported. These results show promise for the development of these TM-doped ternary II-VI compounds as laser gain media operating at 6 microm and longer. The second major objective was to study the performance of TM:II-VI elements as saturable absorber Q-switches and mode-lockers in flash lamp pumped Er:YAG and Er:Cr:YSGG cavities. Different cavity schemes were arranged to eliminate depolarization losses and improve Q-switching performance in Er:YAG and the first use of Cr:ZnSe to passively Q -switch an Er:Cr:YSGG cavity was demonstrated. While post-growth thermal diffusion is an effective way to prepare large-scale highly doped TM:II-VI laser elements, the diffusion rate of some ions into II-VI semiconductors is too low to make this method practical for large crystals. The third objective was to improve the rate of thermal diffusion of iron into II-VI semiconductor crystals by means of gamma-irradiation during the diffusion process. When exposed to a dose rate of 44 R/s during the diffusion process, the diffusion coefficient for Fe into ZnSe showed improvement of 60% and the diffusion coefficient of Fe into ZnS showed improvement of 30%.

  6. Metal-Based Antibacterial and Antifungal Agents: Synthesis, Characterization, and In Vitro Biological Evaluation of Co(II, Cu(II, Ni(II, and Zn(II Complexes with Amino Acid-Derived Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahid H. Chohan


    Full Text Available A series of antibacterial and antifungal amino acid-derived compounds and their cobalt(II, copper(II, nickel(II, and zinc(II metal complexes have been synthesized and characterized by their elemental analyses, molar conductances, magnetic moments, and IR, and electronic spectral measurements. Ligands (L1–(L5 were derived by condensation of β-diketones with glycine, phenylalanine, valine, and histidine and act as bidentate towards metal ions (cobalt, copper, nickel, and zinc via the azomethine-N and deprotonated-O of the respective amino acid. The stoichiometric reaction between the metal(II ion and synthesized ligands in molar ratio of M: L (1: 1 resulted in the formation of the metal complexes of type [M(L(H2O4]Cl (where M = Co(II, Cu(II, and Zn(II and of M: L (1: 2 of type [M(L2(H2O2] (where M = Co(II, Cu(II, Ni(II, and Zn(II. The magnetic moment data suggested for the complexes to have an octahedral geometry around the central metal atom. The electronic spectral data also supported the same octahedral geometry of the complexes. Elemental analyses and NMR spectral data of the ligands and their metal(II complexes agree with their proposed structures. The synthesized ligands, along with their metal(II complexes, were screened for their in vitro antibacterial activity against four Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Shigella flexeneri, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella typhi and two Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus bacterial strains and for in vitro antifungal activity against Trichophyton longifusus, Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, Microsporum canis, Fusarium solani, and Candida glaberata. The results of these studies show the metal(II complexes to be more antibacterial/antifungal against one or more species as compared to the uncomplexed ligands. The brine shrimp bioassay was also carried out to study their in vitro cytotoxic properties. Five compounds, (3, (7, (10, (11, and (22, displayed potent cytotoxic

  7. Reproductive health for refugees by refugees in Guinea II: sexually transmitted infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekirapa Akaco


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Providing reproductive and sexual health services is an important and challenging aspect of caring for displaced populations, and preventive and curative sexual health services may play a role in reducing HIV transmission in complex emergencies. From 1995, the non-governmental "Reproductive Health Group" (RHG worked amongst refugees displaced by conflicts in Sierra Leone and Liberia (1989–2004. RHG recruited refugee nurses and midwives to provide reproductive and sexual health services for refugees in the Forest Region of Guinea, and trained refugee women as lay health workers. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 1999 to assess sexual health needs, knowledge and practices among refugees, and the potential impact of RHG's work. Methods Trained interviewers administered a questionnaire on self-reported STI symptoms, and sexual health knowledge, attitudes and practices to 445 men and 444 women selected through multistage stratified cluster sampling. Chi-squared tests were used where appropriate. Multivariable logistic regression with robust standard errors (to adjust for the cluster sampling design was used to assess if factors such as source of information about sexually transmitted infections (STIs was associated with better knowledge. Results 30% of women and 24% of men reported at least one episode of genital discharge and/or genital ulceration within the past 12 months. Only 25% correctly named all key symptoms of STIs in both sexes. Inappropriate beliefs (e.g. that swallowing tablets before sex, avoiding public toilets, and/or washing their genitals after sex protected against STIs were prevalent. Respondents citing RHG facilitators as their information source were more likely to respond correctly about STIs; RHG facilitators were more frequently cited than non-healthcare information sources in men who correctly named the key STI symptoms (odds ratio (OR = 5.2, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.9–13.9, and in men and

  8. Preparation of association compound between rhodium(II) citrate and {beta}-cyclodextrin; Preparacao do composto de associacao entre citrato de rodio(II) e {beta}-ciclodextrina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgos, Ana E.; Okio, Coco K.Y.A., E-mail: [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia); Sinisterra, Ruben D. [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte - MG (Brazil)


    Inclusion compound of rhodium(II) citrate with{beta}-cyclodextrin in a 1:1 molar ratio was prepared using freeze-drying method. X-ray diffractometry, thermal analysis (TG/DTG/DSC), infrared and {sup 1}H-NMR with {sup 1}H spin lattice relaxation ({sup 1}H T{sub 1}) measurements and {sup 13}C techniques were used to characterize the system prepared. The results indicated the formation of inclusion or association compounds between rhodium(II) citrate and {beta}-cyclodextrin. (author)

  9. Biological Role of Anions (Sulfate, Nitrate , Oxalate and Acetate) on the Antibacterial Properties of Cobalt (II) and Nickel(II) Complexes With Pyrazinedicarboxaimide Derived, Furanyl and Thienyl Compounds


    Chohan, Zahid H.; Praveen, M.


    A number of biologically active complexes of cobalt(II) and nickel(II) with pyrazinedicarboxaimido derived thienyl and furanyl compounds having the same metal ion but different anions such as sulphate, nitrate, oxalate and acetate have been synthesized and characterized on the basis of their physical, spectral and analytical data. In order to evaluate the role of anions on their antibacterial properties, these ligands and their synthesized metal complexes with various anions have been screene...

  10. Crystal structure of a new hybrid compound based on an iodido-plumbate(II) anionic motif. (United States)

    Mokhnache, Oualid; Boughzala, Habib


    Crystals of the one-dimensional organic-inorganic lead iodide-based compound catena-poly[bis-(piperazine-1,4-diium) [[tetra-iodido-plumbate(II)]-μ-iodido] iodide monohydrate], (C4N2H12)2[PbI5]I·H2O, were obtained by slow evaporation at room temperature of a solution containing lead iodide and piperazine in a 1:2 molar ratio. Inorganic lead iodide chains, organic (C4N2H12)(2+) cations, water mol-ecules of crystallization and isolated I(-) anions are connected through N-H⋯·I, N-H⋯OW and OW-H⋯I hydrogen-bond inter-actions. Zigzag chains of corner-sharing [PbI6](4-) octa-hedra with composition [PbI4/1I2/2](3-) running parallel to the a axis are present in the structure packing.

  11. Crystal structure of a new hybrid compound based on an iodidoplumbate(II anionic motif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oualid Mokhnache


    Full Text Available Crystals of the one-dimensional organic–inorganic lead iodide-based compound catena-poly[bis(piperazine-1,4-diium [[tetraiodidoplumbate(II]-μ-iodido] iodide monohydrate], (C4N2H122[PbI5]I·H2O, were obtained by slow evaporation at room temperature of a solution containing lead iodide and piperazine in a 1:2 molar ratio. Inorganic lead iodide chains, organic (C4N2H122+ cations, water molecules of crystallization and isolated I− anions are connected through N—H...·I, N—H...OW and OW—H...I hydrogen-bond interactions. Zigzag chains of corner-sharing [PbI6]4− octahedra with composition [PbI4/1I2/2]3− running parallel to the a axis are present in the structure packing.

  12. Altered reproduction in fish exposed to pulp and paper mill effluents: roles of individual compounds and mill operating conditions. (United States)

    Hewitt, L Mark; Kovacs, Tibor G; Dubé, Monique G; MacLatchy, Deborah L; Martel, Pierre H; McMaster, Mark E; Paice, Michael G; Parrott, Joanne L; van den Heuvel, Michael R; van der Kraak, Glen J


    For the last 20 years, studies conducted in North America, Scandinavia, and New Zealand have shown that pulp and paper mill effluents affect fish reproduction. Despite the level of effort applied, few leads are available regarding the factors responsible. Effluents affect reproduction in multiple fish species, as evidenced by decreased gonad size, decreased circulating and gonadal production of reproductive steroids, altered expression of secondary sex characteristics, and decreased egg production. Several studies also have shown that effluent constituents are capable of accumulating in fish and binding to sex steroid receptors/ binding proteins. Studies aimed at isolating biologically active substances within the pulping and papermaking process have provided clues about their source, and work has progressed in identifying opportunities for in-mill treatment technologies. Following comparisons of manufacturing processes and fish responses before and after process changes, it can be concluded that effluent from all types of mill processes are capable of affecting fish reproduction and that any improvements could not be attributed to a specific process modification (because mills normally performed multiple modifications simultaneously). Improved reproductive performance in fish generally was associated with reduced use of molecular chlorine, improved condensate handling, and liquor spill control. Effluent biotreatment has been effective in reducing some effects, but biotreated effluents also have shown no difference or an exacerbation of effects. The role of biotreatment in relation to effects on fish reproduction remains unclear and needs to be resolved.

  13. Effect of Pd(II and Ni(II coordination compounds with 4-amino-3-mercapto-5-methyl-1,2,4-triazole on the mitochondrial dehydrogenases activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Orysyk


    Full Text Available Pd(II and Ni(II complex compounds: [Pd(AMMT2]Cl2 (1, [Pd(AMMT4]Cl2 (2 and [Ni(AMMT2(H2O2](NO32 (3 with 4-amino-3-mercapto-5-methyl-1,2,4-triazole (AMMT have been synthesized. The spectral characteristics of 1, 2 were studied by 1H (13C NMR and UV-Vis spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction studies established that all complexes contain the AMMT molecule, which are coordinated to the central metal ion in the thione tautomeric form. At the ratio M : L = 1 : 2 ligand is coordinated in bidentate chelate manner by the nitrogen of amino- and sulfur of mercapto group (compounds 1, 3. But the molar ratio M : L = 1 : 4 leads to monodentate coordination of AMMT molecules only by sulfur of mercaptogroup (complex 2. Vacant coordination sites of the metal ion are occupied by water molecules (complex 3. The screening of complexes 1−3 and starting compounds [АММТ, K2PdCl4 (4, Ni(NO32∙6H2O (5] by their mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity have been performed by us for the first time, resulting in established that the Pd(II complexes (1, 2, Pd(II salt (4 and AMMT normalize the activity of mitochondrial dehydrogenases of cancer HeLa cells, identified by MTT-test. In contrast, the Ni(II complex (3 and Ni(II salt (5 do not stimulate the activity of mitochondrial dehydrogenases. It has been found, that all investigated compounds do not affect on the cell cycle and the level of apoptotic cells as well as do not show a toxic effect. Thus, these results indicate that AMMT and Pd(II complexes may be used as modifiers of mitochondrial respiration, which dysfunction is particularly evident in the tumor cells.

  14. Binding of a coordinatively unsaturated mercury(II) thiolate compound by carboxylate anions. (United States)

    Tang, Xiao-Yan; Zheng, Ai-Xia; Shang, Hai; Yuan, Rong-Xin; Li, Hong-Xi; Ren, Zhi-Gang; Lang, Jian-Ping


    Reactions of [Hg(Tab)2](PF6)2 (TabH = 4-(trimethylammonio)benzenethiol) (1) with acetic acid (HAc), propanoic acid (HPro), salicylic acid (HSal), benzoic acid (HBez), malonic acid (H2Mal), oxalic acid (H2Oxa), adipic acid (H2Adi), or methylimindiacetic acid (H2Meida) in the presence of Et3N gave rise to a family of mercury(II)-thiolate-carboxylate compounds, [Hg(Tab)2(Ac)](PF6) · 0.5H2O (2 · 0.5H2O), [Hg(Tab)2(Pro)](PF6) (3), [Hg(Tab)2(Sal)](PF6) · MeOH (4 · MeOH), [Hg(Tab)2(Sal)](Sal) · MeOH (5 · MeOH), [Hg(Tab)2(Bez)](PF6) · H2O (6 · H2O), [Hg(Tab)2(HMal)](Mal)0.5 H2O (7 · H2O), [{Hg(Tab)2}2(μ-Oxa)](PF6)2 H2O (8·2H2O), [{Hg(Tab)2}2(μ-Adi)](PF6)2 (9), [Hg(μ-Tab)(μ-Adi)]2n (10), and [Hg(Tab)2(Meida)] · 2.5H2O (11 · 2.5H2O). These compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectra, UV-vis spectra, (1)H NMR, and single-crystal X-ray crystallography. Each mercury(II) atom in [Hg(Tab)2](2+) dication of 2-7 is further coordinated by two oxygen atoms from one Ac(-), Pro(-), Sal(-), Bez(-), Mal(2-) or HMal(-) anion, forming a unique seesaw-shaped coordination geometry. In 8 or 9, two [Hg(Tab)2](2+) dications are connected by one bridging oxalate or adipate dianion to generate a dimeric structure with each mercury(II) center adopting a seesaw-shaped geometry. In 10, a pair of octahedrally coordinated mercury(II) atoms are bridged by two sulfur atoms of two Tab ligands to form a [Hg(μ-Tab)2Hg](4+) fragment, which is further connected to its equivalent ones via four adipate dianions, thereby forming a rare two-dimensional network. In 11, the mercury(II) atom in the [Hg(Tab)2](2+) dication is coordinated by one nitrogen and two oxygen atoms from one Meida(2-) dianion to have a rare square pyramidal geometry. The formation of 2-11 from 1 may be applicable to mimicking the interactions of the mercury(II) sites of Hg-MerR and Hg-MT with various amino acids encountered in nature.

  15. Cobalt(II Coordination Compounds of Ethyl 4-Methyl-5-Imidazolecarboxylate: Chemical and Biochemical Characterization on Photosynthesis and Seed Germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz King-Díaz


    chloroplasts. Seed germination and seedling growth of the monocotyledonous species Lolium multiflorum and Triticum aestivum and the dicotyledonous species Trifolium alexandrinum and Physalis ixocarpa were also assayed under the effect of the compounds and salts. The results showed that cobalt(II salts and their emizco coordination compounds inhibit photosynthetic electron flow and ATP-synthesis, behaving as Hill reaction inhibitors. Coordination compounds are more potent inhibitors than the salts. It was found that the salts target is at the b6f level while the complexes targets are at QB(D1-protein and b6f level. The QB inhibition site was confirmed by variable chlorophyll a fluorescence yield. On the other hand, emizco inhibits seed germination, root and shoot development, in both weed and crop species. Cobalt(II coordination compounds are the most effective photosynthesis inhibitors, but they are less potent than emizco in germination and seedling growth, while the metal salts are the least active of all.

  16. Syntheses, Structures, and Characterization of Two Novel Copper(II) and Cadmium(II) Compounds Based on Pyridyl Conjugated 1,2,3-Triazole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Jinlong; Wang, Gaigai; Zhao, Hong [Southeast Univ., Nanjing (Korea, Republic of); Qu, Zhirong; Ma Huajun [Hangzhou Normal Univ., Hangzhou (China)


    Two new complexes with 5-methyl-1-(pyridine-3-yl)-1H-1,2,3-triazole-4-carboxylic acid ligand: [Cd(mptc){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}] and [Cu(mptc){sub 4}·2H{sub 2}O]{sub n} were prepared and their crystal structures were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. In complex, the Cd(II) ions coordinates with the pyridyl nitrogen atom from the ligand, forming a mononuclear Cd(II) compound. Complex exhibits a novel two-dimensional (2D) polymer in which four ligands stabilize the Cu(II) atom. And the coordination involves one nitrogen atom of the triazole, one oxygen atom of the carboxylic acid and the pyridyl nitrogen atom. In addition, FT-IR and solid-state fluorescent emission spectroscopy of two compounds have been determined.

  17. Evidence for the 'good genes' model: association of MHC class II DRB alleles with ectoparasitism and reproductive state in the neotropical lesser bulldog bat, Noctilio albiventris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Schad

    Full Text Available The adaptive immune system has a major impact on parasite resistance and life history strategies. Immunological defence is costly both in terms of immediate activation and long-term maintenance. The 'good genes' model predicts that males with genotypes that promote a good disease resistance have the ability to allocate more resources to reproductive effort which favours the transmission of good alleles into future generations. Our study shows a correlation between immune gene constitution (Major Histocompatibility Complex, MHC class II DRB, ectoparasite loads (ticks and bat flies and the reproductive state in a neotropical bat, Noctilio albiventris. Infestation rates with ectoparasites were linked to specific Noal-DRB alleles, differed among roosts, increased with body size and co-varied with reproductive state particularly in males. Non-reproductive adult males were more infested with ectoparasites than reproductively active males, and they had more often an allele (Noal-DRB*02 associated with a higher tick infestation than reproductively active males or subadults. We conclude that the individual immune gene constitution affects ectoparasite susceptibility, and contributes to fitness relevant trade-offs in male N. albiventris as suggested by the 'good genes' model.

  18. Evidence for the 'good genes' model: association of MHC class II DRB alleles with ectoparasitism and reproductive state in the neotropical lesser bulldog bat, Noctilio albiventris. (United States)

    Schad, Julia; Dechmann, Dina K N; Voigt, Christian C; Sommer, Simone


    The adaptive immune system has a major impact on parasite resistance and life history strategies. Immunological defence is costly both in terms of immediate activation and long-term maintenance. The 'good genes' model predicts that males with genotypes that promote a good disease resistance have the ability to allocate more resources to reproductive effort which favours the transmission of good alleles into future generations. Our study shows a correlation between immune gene constitution (Major Histocompatibility Complex, MHC class II DRB), ectoparasite loads (ticks and bat flies) and the reproductive state in a neotropical bat, Noctilio albiventris. Infestation rates with ectoparasites were linked to specific Noal-DRB alleles, differed among roosts, increased with body size and co-varied with reproductive state particularly in males. Non-reproductive adult males were more infested with ectoparasites than reproductively active males, and they had more often an allele (Noal-DRB*02) associated with a higher tick infestation than reproductively active males or subadults. We conclude that the individual immune gene constitution affects ectoparasite susceptibility, and contributes to fitness relevant trade-offs in male N. albiventris as suggested by the 'good genes' model.

  19. Annotated compound data for modulators of detergent-solubilised or lipid-reconstituted respiratory type II NADH dehydrogenase activity obtained by compound library screening


    Dunn, Elyse A.; Cook, Gregory M.; Adam Heikal


    The energy-generating membrane protein NADH dehydrogenase (NDH-2), a proposed antibacterial drug target (see “Inhibitors of type II NADH:menaquinone oxidoreductase represent a class of antitubercular drugs” Weinstein et al. 2005 [1]), was screened for modulators of activity in either detergent-solublised or lipid reconstituted (proteolipsome) form. Here we present an annotated list of compounds identified in a small-scale screen against NDH-2. The dataset contains information regarding the li...

  20. The angiotensin II type 2 receptor agonist Compound 21 is protective in experimental diabetes-associated atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chow, Bryna S M; Koulis, Christine; Krishnaswamy, Pooja;


    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Angiotensin II is well-recognised to be a key mediator in driving the pathological events of diabetes-associated atherosclerosis via signalling through its angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) subtype. However, its actions via the angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) subtype...... are still poorly understood. This study is the first to investigate the role of the novel selective AT2R agonist, Compound 21 (C21) in an experimental model of diabetes-associated atherosclerosis (DAA). METHODS: Streptozotocin-induced diabetic Apoe-knockout mice were treated with vehicle (0.1 mol/l citrate...

  1. Thermolysis preparation of ZnS nanoparticles from a nano-structure bithiazole zinc(II) coordination compound (United States)

    Hosseinian, Akram; Rahimipour, Hamid Reza; Haddadi, Hedayat; Ashkarran, Ali Akbar; Mahjoub, Ali Reza


    Nano-scale and single crystals of a new tris-chelate Zn(II) compound, {[Zn(DADMBTZ)3](SCN)2ṡ4H2O}n, (1), {DADMBTZ = 2,2‧-diamino-5,5‧-dimethyl-4,4‧-bithiazole} have been synthesized by the reaction of zinc(II) sulfate, ammonium thiocyanate and DADMBTZ using sonochemical and branched tube methods, respectively. The new nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and FT-IR spectroscopy. Compound (1) was structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound (1) form a tris-chelate complex with nearly C3 symmetry. The coordination number of zinc atom in the compound is six with coordinated environments of distorted octahedral, ZnN6. In reaction with DADMBTZ, the ligand DADMBTZ acts as bidentate in compound to form five-membered chelate rings with the same internal angles in coordination polyhedron. The crystal packing is mainly stabilized by N-H- - - -N hydrogen bonding interactions. The thermal stability of compound (1) was studied by thermal gravimetric (TG) and differential thermal analyses (DTA). ZnS nanostructures were obtained by direct thermolyses of compound (1) at 400 °C under argon atmosphere. The ZnS nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy.

  2. 1D zigzag chain and 0D monomer Cd(II)/Zn(II) compounds based on flexible phenylenediacetic ligand: Synthesis, crystal structures and fluorescent properties (United States)

    Yang, Fang; Ren, Yixia; Li, Dongsheng; Fu, Feng; Qi, Guangcai; Wang, Yaoyu


    Three novel Cd(II)/Zn(II) compounds, [Cd 2(poda) 2(phen) 3(H 2O)] n· nEtOH·3 nH 2O (1), [Zn(poda) 2(bpy)(H 2O)] n(2) and [Zn(Hpoda) 2(bpy)] (3) (H 2poda = 1,2-phenylenediacetic acid, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline, bpy = 2,2'-bipyridyl), have been synthesized and characterized by IR, TG, fluorescent spectrum and single-crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. In 1, poda 2- anions link the adjacent Cd(II) centers to generate a 1D zigzag chain. Furthermore, an unprecedented four-footed "8-shaped" mixed water-ethanol (H 2O) 6(C 2H 5OH) 2 cluster connects four double chains based on 1D zigzag chain into 3D supramolecular architecture. By bis(chelate-monodentate) fashion of poda 2- ligand, compound 2 exhibits 1D zigzag chains, which forming a dense zipper-like 2D structure via strong π-π stacking interactions. Differed from 1 and 2, compound 3 has a mononuclear motif, and displays a 3D 6-connected α-Po net hydrogen-bonded topology. The structure-related solid-state fluorescence spectra of compounds 1 and 2 have been determined.

  3. Theoretical and experimental studies of Cu(II) and Zn(II) coordination compounds with N,O donor bidentate Schiff base ligand containing amino phenol moiety (United States)

    Kusmariya, Brajendra S.; Tiwari, Anjali; Mishra, A. P.; Naikoo, Gowhar Ahmad


    We report here two mononuclear Cu(II) and Zn(II) coordination compounds of general formula [CuII(L)2].2H2O (1) and [ZnII(L)2].3H2O (2) derived from bidentate 2-chloro-6-{[(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)methylidene]amino}-4 nitrophenol ligand (HL). These compounds were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, uv-vis, 1H NMR, molar conductance, thermal, PXRD, SEM-EDX and electrochemical studies. The PXRD and SEM analysis shows the amorphous/nanocrystalline nature of 1 and crystalline nature of 2. The diffraction peak broadening was explained in terms of domain size and the crystallite lattice strain. Thermogravimetric analysis in the range of 300-1172 K has been performed to determine the thermal stability of synthesized compounds. The non-isothermal kinetic parameters of degradation process were calculated using Coats-Redfern (C-R), Piloyan-Novikova (P-N) and Horowitz-Metzger (H-M) methods assuming first order degradation and proposed a random nucleation mechanism of thermal decomposition for both compounds. The cyclic voltammetric studies reveal the irreversibility of the oxidation/reduction process of synthesized compounds. To support the experimental findings theoretical calculations by means of DFT and TD-DFT at B3LYP level were incorporated. In addition; frequency calculations, HOMO-LUMO, energy gap (ΔE), molecular electrostatic potential (MEP), spin density and crystal packing were also computed at the same level of theory.

  4. Synthesis, Structural, and Antimicrobial Studies of Some New Coordination Compounds of Palladium(II with Azomethines Derived from Amino Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Gupta


    Full Text Available Some new coordination compounds of palladium(II have been synthesized by the reaction of palladium(II acetate with azomethines in a 1 : 2 molar ratio using acetonitrile as a reaction medium. Azomethines used in these studies have been prepared by the condensation of 2-acetyl fluorene and 4-acetyl biphenyl with glycine, alanine, valine, and leucine in methanol. An attempt has been made to probe their bonding and structures on the basis of elemental analyses and IR, 1H, and 13C NMR spectral studies. Pd(II compounds have been found to be more active than their uncomplexed ligands as both of them were screened for antibacterial, antifungal, and insecticidal activities.

  5. Crystallization of II-VI semiconductor compounds forming long microcrystalline linear assemblies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelino Becerril


    Full Text Available In this work we report the formation of long microcrystalline linear self-assemblies observed during the thin film growth of several II-VI compounds. Polycrystalline CdTe, CdS, CdCO3, and nanocrystalline CdTe:Al thin films were prepared on glass substrates by different deposition techniques. In order to observe these crystalline formations in the polycrystalline materials, the thin film growth was suspended before the grains reached to form a continuous layer. The chains of semiconductor crystals were observed among many isolated and randomly distributed grains. Since CdTe, CdTe:Al, CdS and CdCO3 are not ferroelectric and/or ferromagnetic materials, the relevant problem would be to explain what is the mechanism through which the grains are held together to form linear chains. It is well known that some nanocrystalline materials form rods and wires by means of electrostatic forces. This occurs in polar semiconductors, where it is assumed that the attraction forces between surface polar faces of the small crystals are the responsible for the chains formation. Since there are not too many mechanisms responsible for the attraction we assume that a dipolar interaction is the force that originates the formation of chain-like grain clusters. The study of this property can be useful for the understanding of nucleation processes in the growth of semiconductor thin films.

  6. Hydrothermally generated aromatic compounds are consumed by bacteria colonizing in Atlantis II Deep of the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yong


    Hydrothermal ecosystems have a wide distribution on Earth and many can be found in the basin of the Red Sea. Production of aromatic compounds occurs in a temperature window of 60-150 °C by utilizing organic debris. In the past 50 years, the temperature of the Atlantis II Deep brine pool in the Red Sea has increased from 56 to 68 °C, whereas the temperature at the nearby Discovery Deep brine pool has remained relatively stable at about 44 °C. In this report, we confirmed the presence of aromatic compounds in the Atlantis II brine pool as expected. The presence of the aromatic compounds might have disturbed the microbes in the Atlantis II. To show shifted microbial communities and their metabolisms, we sequenced the metagenomes of the microbes from both brine pools. Classification based on metareads and the 16S rRNA gene sequences from clones showed a strong divergence of dominant bacterial species between the pools. Bacteria capable of aromatic degradation were present in the Atlantis II brine pool. A comparison of the metabolic pathways showed that several aromatic degradation pathways were significantly enriched in the Atlantis II brine pool, suggesting the presence of aromatic compounds. Pathways utilizing metabolites derived from aromatic degradation were also significantly affected. In the Discovery brine pool, the most abundant genes from the microbes were related to sugar metabolism pathways and DNA synthesis and repair, suggesting a different strategy for the utilization of carbon and energy sources between the Discovery brinse pool and the Atlantis II brine pool. © 2011 International Society for Microbial Ecology. All rights reserved.

  7. Hydrothermally generated aromatic compounds are consumed by bacteria colonizing in Atlantis II Deep of the Red Sea. (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Yang, Jiangke; Lee, On On; Dash, Swagatika; Lau, Stanley C K; Al-Suwailem, Abdulaziz; Wong, Tim Y H; Danchin, Antoine; Qian, Pei-Yuan


    Hydrothermal ecosystems have a wide distribution on Earth and many can be found in the basin of the Red Sea. Production of aromatic compounds occurs in a temperature window of ∼60-150 °C by utilizing organic debris. In the past 50 years, the temperature of the Atlantis II Deep brine pool in the Red Sea has increased from 56 to 68 °C, whereas the temperature at the nearby Discovery Deep brine pool has remained relatively stable at about 44 °C. In this report, we confirmed the presence of aromatic compounds in the Atlantis II brine pool as expected. The presence of the aromatic compounds might have disturbed the microbes in the Atlantis II. To show shifted microbial communities and their metabolisms, we sequenced the metagenomes of the microbes from both brine pools. Classification based on metareads and the 16S rRNA gene sequences from clones showed a strong divergence of dominant bacterial species between the pools. Bacteria capable of aromatic degradation were present in the Atlantis II brine pool. A comparison of the metabolic pathways showed that several aromatic degradation pathways were significantly enriched in the Atlantis II brine pool, suggesting the presence of aromatic compounds. Pathways utilizing metabolites derived from aromatic degradation were also significantly affected. In the Discovery brine pool, the most abundant genes from the microbes were related to sugar metabolism pathways and DNA synthesis and repair, suggesting a different strategy for the utilization of carbon and energy sources between the Discovery brine pool and the Atlantis II brine pool.

  8. Mono and dinuclear arene ruthenium(II) triazoles by 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions to a coordinated azide in ruthenium(II) compounds

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Singh; Svitlyk, V.; Mozharivskyj, Y.

    : Dalton Trans., vol.40(5); 2011; 1020-1023 Mono and dinuclear arene ruthenium (II) triazoles by 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions to a coordinated azide in ruthenium(II) compounds Keisham Sarjit Singh a* , Volodymyr Svitlyk b , Yurij Mozharivskyj b a.... Kauffmann, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. Engl., 1974, 13, 627-639. 7 Z.- X. Wang, H.- L. Qin, Chem. Commun., 2003, 2450-2451. 10 8 Z. Dori, R. F. Ziolo, Chem. Rev., 1973, 73, 247-254. 9 (a) K. S. Singh, K. A. Kreisel, G. P. Yap, M. R. Kollipara, J. Organomet...

  9. Evaluation of Maternal Health Component of Reproductive and Child Health (RCH II Programme in Beed District, Maharashtra, India 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dnyaneshwar Nipte,


    Full Text Available Introduction: Situation analysis of Reproductive and Child Health programme of Government of India in Beed district of Maharashtra state in India indicated lack of achievement of targeted maternal health indicators. Evaluation of the utilization of maternal health services component of Reproductive and Child Health (RCH II programme in Beed district of Maharashtra state in India was undertaken. Material and Methods: A cross sectional survey in the rural area of Beed district using cluster sampling method was conducted. The information about the utilization of maternal health services was collected from mothers who delivered between 1st April and 30th June 2013. A facility survey using pre tested check list was undertaken. Analysis of the data using Epi Info Version 3.5.3 and proportion for selected maternal health care indicators were calculated. Results: Out of the 374 mothers included in the study, 122 (33.0% had registered within first trimester of pregnancy; nearly 50% had received more than three antenatal care (ANC visits and 90% had institutional delivery. Of the 70 mothers, who made phone call for ambulance service, 56 (80% utilized ambulance from their residence to the hospitals. Of the 183 mothers who delivered in Government hospitals, 103 (56.3% utilized it to reach home from hospitals after delivery. Of the eligible women, 96 (76.2% were registered for Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY scheme of the Government and 67 (69.8% received the benefit. In all 46 (16.4% Auxiliary Nurse Midwives (ANMs were trained as Skilled Birth Attendant (SBA. Of the 22 facilities, 14 (63.6% had delivery kits and in 6 (27.3% facilities maternal health services were monitored by medical officers. Conclusion: The utilization of maternal health care services and knowledge and implementation regarding JSY Scheme and ambulance service utilization among mothers was less than desirable. The coverage of training of ANMs as SBA was low. Provision of antenatal services in

  10. The effects of some compounds of Mn(II and Zn(II on the multiplication of wine yeast and biosynthesis of carbohydrates in the biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agafia USATÎI


    Full Text Available The aim of investigation was to establish the influence of sulphates, acetates and coordination compounds of Mn(II and Zn(II as stimulators of the multiplication and growth of wine yeasts strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNMN-Y-20 and inducers of carbohydrate biosynthesis in biomass with the following elaboration of new procedures for directed carbohydrate biosynthesis. The study has been revealed that compounds MnSO4•4H2O, [Mn2Ac(2PyTCH-1,5-Bis(piridintiocarbohidrazid-dimanganese-acetate] and ZnLP-2 in optimal concentrations can be recommended as effective regulators of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNMN-Y-20 multiplications, as well as compounds [Mn(Gly2]Cl2, (CH3COO2Zn and ZnLP-2 in established concentrations - of the carbohydrates biosynthesis in the biomass of studied wine yeast strain. Stimulatory properties of studied compounds of Mn2+ and Zn2+ on carbohydrate biosynthesis in biomass of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNMN-Y-20 can be explained both by the action of metal and by the nature of the ligand. The obtained biomass of wine yeast strain with high content of carbohydrates can be utilized for the obtaining of new bioproducts with the following application in the field of medicine and cosmetology.

  11. Syntheses and structural characterization of iron(II) and copper(II) coordination compounds with the neutral flexible bidentate N-donor ligands (United States)

    Beheshti, Azizolla; Lalegani, Arash; Bruno, Giuseppe; Rudbari, Hadi Amiri


    Two new coordination compounds [Fe(bib)2(N3)2]n(1) and [Cu2(bpp)2(N3)4] (2) with azide and flexible ligands 1,4-bis(imidazolyl)butane (bib) and 1,3-bis(3,5-dimethylpyrazolyl)propane (bpp) were prepared and structurally characterized. In the 2D network structure of 1, the iron(II) ion lies on an inversion center and exhibits an FeN6 octahedral arrangement while in the dinuclear structure of 2, the copper(II) ion adopts an FeN5 distorted square pyramid geometry. In the complex 1, each μ2-bib acts as bridging ligand connecting two adjacent iron(II) ions while in the complex 2, the bpp ligand is coordinated to copper(II) ion in a cyclic-bidentate fashion forming an eight-membered metallocyclic ring. Coordination compounds 1 and 2 have been characterized by infrared spectroscopy, elemental analyses and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Thermal analysis of polymer 1 was also studied.

  12. Annotated compound data for modulators of detergent-solubilised or lipid-reconstituted respiratory type II NADH dehydrogenase activity obtained by compound library screening. (United States)

    Dunn, Elyse A; Cook, Gregory M; Heikal, Adam


    The energy-generating membrane protein NADH dehydrogenase (NDH-2), a proposed antibacterial drug target (see "Inhibitors of type II NADH:menaquinone oxidoreductase represent a class of antitubercular drugs" Weinstein et al. 2005 [1]), was screened for modulators of activity in either detergent-solublised or lipid reconstituted (proteolipsome) form. Here we present an annotated list of compounds identified in a small-scale screen against NDH-2. The dataset contains information regarding the libraries screened, the identities of hit compounds and the physicochemical properties governing solubility and permeability. The implications of these data for future antibiotic discovery are discussed in our associated report, "Comparison of lipid and detergent enzyme environments for identifying inhibitors of membrane-bound energy-transducing proteins" [2].

  13. Annotated compound data for modulators of detergent-solubilised or lipid-reconstituted respiratory type II NADH dehydrogenase activity obtained by compound library screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elyse A. Dunn


    Full Text Available The energy-generating membrane protein NADH dehydrogenase (NDH-2, a proposed antibacterial drug target (see “Inhibitors of type II NADH:menaquinone oxidoreductase represent a class of antitubercular drugs” Weinstein et al. 2005 [1], was screened for modulators of activity in either detergent-solublised or lipid reconstituted (proteolipsome form. Here we present an annotated list of compounds identified in a small-scale screen against NDH-2. The dataset contains information regarding the libraries screened, the identities of hit compounds and the physicochemical properties governing solubility and permeability. The implications of these data for future antibiotic discovery are discussed in our associated report, “Comparison of lipid and detergent enzyme environments for identifying inhibitors of membrane-bound energy-transducing proteins” [2].

  14. Biotransformation of endocrine disrupting compounds by selected phase I and phase II enzymes--formation of estrogenic and chemically reactive metabolites by cytochromes P450 and sulfotransferases. (United States)

    Reinen, J; Vermeulen, N P E


    The endocrine system is a major communication system in the body and is involved in maintenance of the reproductive system, fetal development, growth, maturation, energy production, and metabolism,. The endocrine system responds to the needs of an organism by secreting a wide variety of hormones that enable the body to maintain homeostasis, to respond to external stimuli, and to follow various developmental programs. This occurs through complex signalling cascades,with multiple sites at which the signals can be regulated. Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) affect the endocrine system by simulating the action of the naturally produced hormones, by inhibiting the action of natural hormones, by changing the function and synthesis of hormone receptors, or by altering the synthesis, transport, metabolism, and elimination of hormones. It has been established that exposure to environmental EDCs is a risk factor for disruption of reproductive development and oncogenesis in both humans and wildlife. For accurate risk assessment of EDCs, the possibility of bioactivation through biotransformation processes needs to be included since neglecting these mechanisms may lead to undervaluation of adverse effects on human health caused by EDCs and/or their metabolites. This accurate risk assessment should include: (1) possibility of EDCs to be bioactivated into metabolites with enhanced endocrine disruption (ED) effects, and (2) possibility of EDCs to be biotransformed into reactive metabolites that may cause DNA damage. Here, we present an overview of different metabolic enzymes that are involved in the biotransformation of EDCs. In addition, we describe how biotransformation by Cytochromes P450 (CYPs), human estrogen sulfotransferase 1E1 (SULT1E1) and selected other phase II enzymes, can lead to the formation of bioactive metabolites. This review mainly focuses on CYP- and SULT-mediated bioactivation of estrogenic EDCs and summarizes our views on this topic while also showing

  15. Do mollusks use vertebrate sex steroids as reproductive hormones? II. Critical review of the evidence that steroids have biological effects. (United States)

    Scott, Alexander P


    In assessing the evidence as to whether vertebrate sex steroids (e.g. testosterone, estradiol, progesterone) have hormonal actions in mollusks, ca. 85% of research papers report at least one biological effect; and 18 out of 21 review papers (published between 1970 and 2012) express a positive view. However, just under half of the research studies can be rejected on the grounds that they did not actually test steroids, but compounds or mixtures that were only presumed to behave as steroids (or modulators of steroids) on the basis of their effects in vertebrates (e.g. Bisphenol-A, nonylphenol and sewage treatment effluents). Of the remaining 55 papers, some can be criticized for having no statistical analysis; some for using only a single dose of steroid; others for having irregular dose-response curves; 40 out of the 55 for not replicating the treatments; and 50 out of 55 for having no within-study repetition. Furthermore, most studies had very low effect sizes in comparison to fish-based bioassays for steroids (i.e. they had a very weak 'signal-to-noise' ratio). When these facts are combined with the fact that none of the studies were conducted with rigorous randomization or 'blinding' procedures (implying the possibility of 'operator bias') one must conclude that there is no indisputable bioassay evidence that vertebrate sex steroids have endocrinological or reproductive roles in mollusks. The only observation that has been independently validated is the ability of estradiol to trigger rapid (1-5 min) lysosomal membrane breakdown in hemocytes of Mytilus spp. This is a typical 'inflammatory' response, however, and is not proof that estradiol is a hormone - especially when taken in conjunction with the evidence (discussed in a previous review) that mollusks have neither the enzymes necessary to synthesize vertebrate steroids nor nuclear receptors with which to respond to them.

  16. Two half-sandwiched ruthenium (II compounds containing 5-fluorouracil derivatives: synthesis and study of DNA intercalation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-Jun Li

    Full Text Available Two novel coordination compounds of half-sandwiched ruthenium(II containing 2-(5-fluorouracil-yl-N-(pyridyl-acetamide were synthesized, and their intercalation binding modes with calf thymus DNA were revealed by hyperchromism of ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy; the binding constants were determined according to a Langmuir adsorption equation that was deduced on the base of careful cyclic voltammetry measurements. The two compounds exhibited DNA intercalation binding activities with the binding constants of 1.13×106 M-1 and 5.35 ×105 M-1, respectively.

  17. Two half-sandwiched ruthenium (II) compounds containing 5-fluorouracil derivatives: synthesis and study of DNA intercalation. (United States)

    Li, Zhao-Jun; Hou, Yong; Qin, Da-An; Jin, Zhi-Min; Hu, Mao-Lin


    Two novel coordination compounds of half-sandwiched ruthenium(II) containing 2-(5-fluorouracil)-yl-N-(pyridyl)-acetamide were synthesized, and their intercalation binding modes with calf thymus DNA were revealed by hyperchromism of ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy; the binding constants were determined according to a Langmuir adsorption equation that was deduced on the base of careful cyclic voltammetry measurements. The two compounds exhibited DNA intercalation binding activities with the binding constants of 1.13×106 M-1 and 5.35 ×105 M-1, respectively.

  18. Spectroelectrochemical studies of nuclease-active zinc(II) coordination compounds from the ligands Hpyramol and Hpyrimol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozalp-Yaman, Seniz, E-mail: [Atilim University, Engineering Faculty, Chemistry Group, 06836 Ankara (Turkey); Leiden Institute of Chemistry, Gorlaeus Laboratories, Leiden University, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Hoog, Paul de; Maheswari, Palanisamy Uma; Casellas, Helene [Leiden Institute of Chemistry, Gorlaeus Laboratories, Leiden University, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Golobic, Amalija; Kozlevcar, Bojan [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Askerceva 5, P.O. Box 537, 1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Gamez, Patrick; Reedijk, Jan [Leiden Institute of Chemistry, Gorlaeus Laboratories, Leiden University, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)


    The electrochemical oxidation of four zinc(II) coordination compounds from the ligands 4-methyl-2-(2-pyridylmethyl)aminophenol (Hpyramol) and 4-methyl-2-(2-pyridylmethylene)aminophenol (Hpyrimol) with chloride or acetate as counter-ions has been studied by in situ spectroelectrochemistry in dimethylformamide (DMF). Low-temperature EPR studies of electrolyte solutions of all zinc compounds indicate the presence of a phenoxyl radical with a g-value in the range 2.070-2.099, which is illustrative for an electron delocalization over the metal centre. The final product of this oxidative process is shown to be a benzoquinone methide derivative.

  19. Rates of water exchange for two cobalt(II) heteropoly-oxotungstate compounds in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohlin, C. Andre [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Harley, Stephen J. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); McAlpin, J. Gregory [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Hocking, Rosalie K. [Monash Univ., Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Mercado, Brandon Q. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Johnson, Rene L. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Villa, Eric M. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Fidler, Mary Kate [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States); Olmstead, Marilyn M. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Spiccia, Leone [Monash Univ., Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Britt, R. David [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Casey, William H. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)


    Polyoxometalate ions are used as ligands in water-oxidation processes related to solar energy production. An important step in these reactions is the association and dissociation of water from the catalytic sites, the rates of which are unknown. Here we report the exchange rates of water ligated to CoII atoms in two polyoxotungstate sandwich molecules using the 17O-NMR-based Swift–Connick method. The compounds were the [Co4(H2O)2(B-α-W9O34)2]-10 and the larger αββα-[Co4(H2O)2(P2W15O56)2]-16 ions, each with two water molecules bound trans to one another in a CoII sandwich between the tungstate ligands. The clusters, in both solid and solution state, were characterized by a range of methods, including NMR, EPR, FT-IR, UV-Vis, and EXAFS spectroscopy, ESI-MS, single-crystal X-ray crystallography, and potentiometry. For [Co4(H2O)2(B-α-PW9O34)2]-10 at pH 5.4, we estimate: k 298=1.5(5)±0.3×106 s-1, ΔH=39.8±0.4 kJ mol-1, ΔS=+7.1±1.2 J mol-1 K-1 and ΔV=5.6 ±1.6 cm3 mol-1. For the Wells–Dawson sandwich cluster (αββα-[Co4(H2O)2(P2W15O56)2]-16) at pH 5.54, we find: k298=1.6(2)±0.3×106 s-1, ΔH=27.6±0.4 kJ mol-1 ΔS=-33±1.3 J mol-1 K-1 and ΔV=2.2±1.4 cm3mol-1 at pH 5.2. The molecules are clearly stable and monospecific in slightly acidic solutions, but dissociate in strongly acidic solutions. This dissociation is detectable by EPR

  20. Reproductıve and Growth Chacterıstıcs First Age of Bandirma-I and Bandirma-II Crossbred Ewe Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kucukkebabci


    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate first age reproduction and growth characteristics of Bandırma-I and Bandırma-II crossbred lambs which have been keeping on Marmara Livestock Research Institute. Bandırma-I and Bandırma-II females were kept to gather in a single flock after 3 month of age. The oestrus detection was performed twice a day (per twelve hours by using teaser rams. The materials of the study were used 21 head female for first age reproductive traits and for growth characteristics 99 head and 89 head Bandırma-I and Bandırma-II lamb. The results of live weight first oestrus for Bandırma-I and Bandırma-II lambs were 45.30 kg and 47.30 kg, age of first oestrus 317.73 day and 321.330 day, the duration of oestrus 19.42 hour and 21.23 hour the duration of the cycle 16.12 day and 17.07 day, the duration of gestation length 145.74 day and 145.87 day, birth weight (BW 4.23 kg and 4.12 kg, weaning weight (WWLW 35.45 kg and 34.27 kg, six mount live weight (SMLW 46.03 kg and 44.17 kg, yearling live weight (YLW 47.97 kg and 46.634 kg and average daily live weight gain (ADLG, 0.394 kg and 0.381 kg respectively. The effects of genotype on BW, WW, SMLW, YLW and DLWG were not significant statistically whereas the effects of age of dam, birth type, and sex on growth characteristic were significant (P<0.001.In conclusion, Bandırma-I and Bandırma-II crossbred lambs were similar first age reproduction and growth characteristic of lambs.

  1. Structural and antimicrobial studies of coordination compounds of VO(II, Co(II, Ni(II and Cu(II with some Schiff bases involving 2-amino-4-chlorophenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. MISHRA


    Full Text Available Complexes of tailor-made ligands with life essential metal ions may be an emerging area to answer the problem of multi-drug resistance (MDR. The coordination complexes of VO(II, Co(II, Ni(II and Cu(II with the Schiff bases derived from 2-hydroxyacetophenone/2-chlorobenzaldehyde with 2-ami¬no-4-chlorophenol were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, electronic spectra, FT-IR, ESR, FAB mass, thermal and magnetic susceptibility measurements. The FAB mass and thermal data show degradation of the complexes. The ligand A (2-hydroxyacetophenone-2amino-4-chlorophenol behaved as tridentate and ligand B (2-chlorobenzylidene-2-amino-4-chlorophenol as bidentate, coordinating through O and N donors. The complexes [VO(A(H2O]×xH2O, [M(A(H2On]×xH2O for Co and Ni, [Cu(A(H2O] and [VO(B2]×xH2O, [M(B2(H2On] for Co and Cu and [Ni(B2] exhibited coordination numbers 4, 5 or 6. X-ray powder diffraction data (a = 11.00417 Å, b = 11.706081 Å and c = 54.46780 Å showed that [Cu(CACP2(H2O2], complex 8, crystallized in the orthorhombic system. The in vitro biological screening effects of the investigated compounds were tested against the bacteria Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus fecalis and the fungi Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma polysporum and Candida albicans by the serial dilution method. A comparative study of the MIC values of the Schiff base and their [M(B2(H2O2] complexes (Co(II, complex 6 and Cu(II, complex 8, indicated that the metal complexes exhibited a higher or lower antimicrobial activity than 2-chlorobenzylidene-2-amino-4-chlorophenol as the free ligand (B.

  2. Quinoxaline-2-carboxamide as a carrier ligand in two new platinum(ii) compounds: Synthesis, crystal structure, cytotoxic activity and DNA interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marques Gallego, P.; Amparo Gamiz-Gonzalez, M.; Fortea-Pérez, F. R.; Lutz, M.; Spek, A.L.; Pevec, A.; Kozlevar, B.; Reedijk, J.


    The search for platinum compounds structurally different from cisplatin has led to two new platinum(II) compounds containing quinoxaline-2-carboxamide as a carrier ligand, i.e. cis-[Pt(qnxca)(MeCN)Cl2] (1) and the [Pt(qnxca−H)(dmso)Cl] (2). Both compounds have been synthesized and characterized usin


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Varbanets


    Full Text Available Chloride, bromide and isothiocyanate complexes of cobalt(II with N-substituted thiocarbamoyl-N?-pentamethylenesulfenamides (1–(12, and also complexes of cobalt(II, Ш with derivatives of morpholine-4-carbodithioic acid (13–(18 have been used as modificators of enzymes of hydrolytic action — Bacillus thurin-giensis ІМВ В-7324 peptidases, Bacillus subtilis 147 and Aspergillus flavus var. oryzae 80428 amylases, Eupenicillium erubescens 248 and Cryptococcus albidus 1001 rhamnosidases. It was shown that cobalt (II, Ш compounds influence differently on the activity of enzymes tested, exerted both inhibitory and stimulatory action. It gives a possibility to expect that manifestation of activity by complex molecule depends on ligand and anion presence — Cl–, Br– or NCS–. The high activating action of cobalt(II complexes with N-substituted thiocarbamoyl-N?-pentamethylenesulphenamides (1–(12 on elastase and fibrinolytic activity of peptidases compared to tris(4-morpholinecarbodithioatocobalt(ІІІ (14 and products of its interaction with halogens (15–(17, causes inhibitory effect that is probably due to presence of a weekly S–N link, which is easy subjected to homolytic breaking. The studies of influences of cobalt(II complexes on activity of C. аlbidus and E. еrubescens ?-Lrhamnosidases showed, that majority of compounds inhibits of its activity, at that the most inhibitory effect exerts to C. аlbidus enzyme.To sum up, it is possible to state that character of influence of cobalt(II complexes with N-substituted thiocarbamoyl-N?-pentamethylenesulphenamides, and also cobalt(II, Ш complexes with derivatives of morpholine-4-carbodithioic acid varies depending on both strain producer and enzyme tested. The difference in complex effects on enzymes tested are due to peculiarities of building and functional groups of their active centers, which are also responsible for binding with modificators.

  4. Triggering the Generation of an Iron(IV)-Oxo Compound and Its Reactivity toward Sulfides by Ru-II Photocatalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Company, Anna; Sabenya, Gerard; Gonzalez-Bejar, Maria; Gomez, Laura; Clemancey, Martin; Blondin, Genevieve; Jasniewski, Andrew J.; Puri, Mayank; Browne, Wesley R.; Latour, Jean-Marc; Que, Lawrence; Costas, Miguel; Perez-Prieto, Julia; Lloret-Fillol, Julio


    The preparation of [Fe-IV(O)(MePy(2)tacn)](2+) (2, MePy(2)tacn = N-methyl-N,N-b is (2-picolyl)- 1,4,7-triazacy-clononane) by reaction of [Fe-II(MePy(2)tacn)(solvent)](2+) (1) and PhIO in CH3CN and its full characterization are described. This compound can also be prepared photochemically from its ir

  5. Triggering the Generation of an Iron(IV)-Oxo Compound and Its Reactivity toward Sulfides by Ru-II Photocatalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Company, Anna; Sabenya, Gerard; Gonzalez-Bejar, Maria; Gomez, Laura; Clemancey, Martin; Blondin, Genevieve; Jasniewski, Andrew J.; Puri, Mayank; Browne, Wesley R.; Latour, Jean-Marc; Que, Lawrence; Costas, Miguel; Perez-Prieto, Julia; Lloret-Fillol, Julio


    The preparation of [Fe-IV(O)(MePy(2)tacn)](2+) (2, MePy(2)tacn = N-methyl-N,N-b is (2-picolyl)- 1,4,7-triazacy-clononane) by reaction of [Fe-II(MePy(2)tacn)(solvent)](2+) (1) and PhIO in CH3CN and its full characterization are described. This compound can also be prepared photochemically from its

  6. Reproductive responses of male fathead minnows exposed to wastewater treatment plant effluent, effluent treated with XAD8 resin, and an environmentally relevant mixture of alkylphenol compounds (United States)

    Barber, L.B.; Lee, K.E.; Swackhamer, D.L.; Schoenfuss, H.L.


    On-site, continuous-flow experiments were conducted during August and October 2002 at a major metropolitan wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) to determine if effluent exposure induced endocrine disruption as manifested in the reproductive competence of sexually mature male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). The fathead minnows were exposed in parallel experiments to WWTP effluent and WWTP effluent treated with XAD8 macroreticular resin to remove the hydrophobic-neutral fraction which contained steroidal hormones, alkylphenolethoxylates (APEs), and other potential endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). The effluent composition varied on a temporal scale and the continuous-flow experiments captured the range of chemical variability that occurred during normal WWTP operations. Exposure to WWTP effluent resulted in vitellogenin induction in male fathead minnows, with greater response in October than in August. Concentrations of ammonia, APEs, 17??-estradiol, and other EDCs also were greater in October than in August, reflecting a change in effluent composition. In the October experiment, XAD8 treatment significantly reduced vitellogenin induction in the male fathead minnows relative to the untreated effluent, whereas in August, XAD8 treatment had little effect. During both experiments, XAD8 treatment removed greater than 90% of the APEs. Exposure of fish to a mixture of APEs similar in composition and concentration to the WWTP effluent, but prepared in groundwater and conducted at a separate facility, elicited vitellogenin induction during both experiments. There was a positive relation between vitellogenin induction and hepatosomatic index (HSI), but not gonadosomatic index (GSI), secondary sexual characteristics index (SSCI), or reproductive competency. In contrast to expectations, the GSI and SSCI increased in males exposed to WWTP effluent compared to groundwater controls. The GSI, SSCI, and reproductive competency were positively affected by XAD8 treatment of

  7. Structure-Triggered High Quantum Yield Luminescence and Switchable Dielectric Properties in Manganese(II) Based Hybrid Compounds. (United States)

    Wang, Zhong-Xia; Li, Peng-Fei; Liao, Wei-Qiang; Tang, Yuanyuan; Ye, Heng-Yun; Zhang, Yi


    Two new manganese(II) based organic-inorganic hybrid compounds, C11H21Cl3MnN2 (1) and C11H22Cl4MnN2 (2), with prominent photoluminescence and dielectric properties were synthesized by solvent modulation. Compound 1 with novel trigonal bipyramidal geometry exhibits bright red luminescence with a lifetime of 2.47 ms and high quantum yield of 35.8 %. Compound 2 with tetrahedral geometry displays intense long-lived (1.54 ms) green light emission with higher quantum yield of 92.3 %, accompanied by reversible solid-state phase transition at 170 K and a distinct switchable dielectric property. The better performance of 2 results from the structure, including a discrete organic cation moiety and inorganic metal anion framework, which gives the cations large freedom of motion.

  8. Small organic compounds enhance antigen loading of class II major histocompatibility complex proteins by targeting the polymorphic P1 pocket

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höpner, Sabine; Dickhaut, Katharina; Hofstätter, Maria


    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules are a key element of the cellular immune response. Encoded by the MHC they are a family of highly polymorphic peptide receptors presenting peptide antigens for the surveillance by T cells. We have shown that certain organic compounds can amplify...... immune responses by catalyzing the peptide loading of human class II MHC molecules HLA-DR. Here we show now that they achieve this by interacting with a defined binding site of the HLA-DR peptide receptor. Screening of a compound library revealed a set of adamantane derivatives that strongly accelerated......, transient occupation of this pocket by the organic compound stabilizes the peptide-receptive conformation permitting rapid antigen loading. This interaction appeared restricted to the larger Gly(beta86) pocket and allowed striking enhancements of T cell responses for antigens presented by these "adamantyl...

  9. Novel platinum(II) compounds with O,S bidentate ligands: synthesis, characterization, antiproliferative properties and biomolecular interactions. (United States)

    Mügge, Carolin; Liu, Ruiqi; Görls, Helmar; Gabbiani, Chiara; Michelucci, Elena; Rüdiger, Nadine; Clement, Joachim H; Messori, Luigi; Weigand, Wolfgang


    Cisplatin and its analogues are first-line chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of numerous human cancers. A major inconvenience in their clinical use is their strong tendency to link to sulfur compounds, especially in kidney, ultimately leading to severe nephrotoxicity. To overcome this drawback we prepared a variety of platinum complexes with sulfur ligands and analyzed their biological profiles. Here, a series of six platinum(II) compounds bearing a conserved O,S binding moiety have been synthesized and characterized as experimental anticancer agents. The six compounds differ in the nature of the O,S bidentate β-hydroxydithiocinnamic alkyl ester ligand where both the substituents on the aromatic ring and the length of the alkyl chain may be varied. The two remaining coordination positions at the square-planar platinum(II) center are occupied by a chloride ion and a DMSO molecule. These novel platinum compounds showed an acceptable solubility profile in mixed DMSO-buffer solutions and an appreciable stability at physiological pH as judged from analysis of their time-course UV-visible absorption spectra. Their anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activities were tested against the cisplatin-resistant lung cancer cell line A549. Assays revealed significant effects of the sample drugs at low concentrations (in the μmolar range); initial structure-activity-relationships are proposed. The activity of the apoptosis-promoting protein caspase 3/7 was determined; results proved that these novel platinum compounds, under the chosen experimental conditions, preferentially induce apoptosis over necrosis. Reactions with the model proteins cytochrome c, lysozyme and albumin were studied by ESI MS and ICP-OES to gain preliminary mechanistic information. The tested compounds turned out to metalate the mentioned proteins to a large extent. In view of the obtained results these novel platinum complexes qualify themselves as promising cytotoxic agents and merit, in our

  10. Developing Predictive Approaches to Characterize Adaptive Responses of the Reproductive Endocrine Axis to Aromatase Inhibition II: Computational Modeling (United States)

    ABSTRACT Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals can affect reproduction and development in both humans and wildlife. We developed a mechanistic mathematical model of the hypothalamic­ pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in female fathead minnows to predic...

  11. cobalt (ii), nickel (ii)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT. The manganese (II), cobalt (II), nickel (II) and copper (II) complexes of N, N' – ... temperature and coordinated water were determined ... indicating fairly stable complex compounds (Table 1). The complex compounds are insoluble [Table 2] in water and common organic solvents, but are readily soluble in ...

  12. Predicting the reactivity of phenolic compounds with formaldehyde. II, continuation of an ab initio study. (United States)

    Tohru Mitsunaga; Anthony H. Conner; Charles G. Jr. Hill


    Phenol–formaldehyde resins are important adhesives used by the forest products industry. The phenolic compounds in these resins are derived primarily from petrochemical sources. Alternate sources of phenolic compounds include tannins, lignins, biomass pyrolysis products, and coal gasification products. Because of variations in their chemical structures, the...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Orojloo


    Full Text Available Synthesis, spectral identification, and magnetic properties of three complexes of Ni(II, Cu(II, and Zn(II are described. All three compounds have the general formula [M(L2(H2O2], where L = deprotonated phenol in the Schiff base 2-((z-(3-methylpyridin-2-yleiminomethylphenol. The three complexes were synthesized in a one-step synthesis and characterized by elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, electronic spectra, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and room temperature magnetic moments. The Cu(II and Ni(II complexes exhibited room temperature magnetic moments of 1.85 B.M. per copper atom and 2.96 B.M. per nickel atom. The X-band electron spin resonance spectra of a Cu(II sample in dimethylformamide frozen at 77 K (liquid nitrogen temperature showed a typical ΔMS = ± 1 transition. The complexes ([M(L2(H2O2] were investigated by the cyclic voltammetry technique, which provided information regarding the electrochemical mechanism of redox behavior of the compounds. Thermal decomposition of the complexes at 750 ºC resulted in the formation of metal oxide nanoparticles. XRD analyses indicated that the nanoparticles had a high degree of crystallinity. The average sizes of the nanoparticles were found to be approximately 54.3, 30.1, and 44.4 nm for NiO, CuO, and ZnO, respectively.

  14. Novel Platinum(II) compounds modulate insulin-degrading enzyme activity and induce cell death in neuroblastoma cells. (United States)

    Tundo, Grazia R; Sbardella, Diego; De Pascali, Sandra A; Ciaccio, Chiara; Coletta, Massimo; Fanizzi, Francesco P; Marini, Stefano


    The properties of three novel Platinum(II) compounds toward the insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) enzymatic activity have been investigated under physiological conditions. The rationale of this study resides on previous observations that these compounds, specifically designed and synthesized by some of us, induce apoptosis in various cancer cell lines, whereas IDE has been proposed as a putative oncogene involved in neuroblastoma onset and progression. Two of these compounds, namely [PtCl(O,O'-acac)(DMSO)] and [Pt(O,O'-acac)(γ-acac)(DMS)], display a modulatory behavior, wherefore activation or inhibition of IDE activity occurs over different concentration ranges (suggesting the existence of two binding sites on the enzyme). On the other hand, [Pt(O,O'-acac)(γ-acac)(DMSO)] shows a typical competitive inhibitory pattern, characterized by a meaningful affinity constant (K i  = 0.95 ± 0.21 μM). Although all three compounds induce cell death in neuroblastoma SHSY5Y cells at concentrations exceeding 2 μM, the two modulators facilitate cells' proliferation at concentrations ≤ 1.5 μM, whereas the competitive inhibitor [Pt(O,O'-acac)(γ-acac)(DMSO)] only shows a pro-apoptotic activity at all investigated concentrations. These features render the [Pt(O,O'-acac)(γ-acac)(DMSO)] a promising "lead compound" for the synthesis of IDE-specific inhibitors (not characterized yet) with therapeutic potentiality.

  15. Antimicrobial Activity of Co(II, Ni(II and Cu(II Coordination Compounds with Nitrogen, Oxygen Containing Schiff Base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. K. RAI


    Full Text Available A series of complexes of the type [M(EHPQH2X2] where M = Co(II, Ni(II and Cu(II, EHPQH=2-ethyl, [3(hydroxypropyl]-3, 1 4H quinazoline -4-hydrazone, X= Cl-, Br-, I- and No-3 -. The geometry of the complexes have been elucidated in the light of molar mass, elemental analysis, IR, electronic Spectra, molar conductance and magnetic susceptibility. The measured molar conductance value indicates that the complexes are nonelectrolytic in nature. The above observation indicates that Schiff bases EHPQH behave as bidentate ligand and coordination proposes through azomethine N and oxygen atom of alcoholic group of ligand. The remaining coordination sites are satisfied by negative ion such as Ci-, Br-, I- and NB-. The geometry of the Co(II and Ni(II were proposed to be octahedral in geometry whereas Cu(II complexes were proposed to be distorted octahedral. The Schiff bases and its complexes have been evaluated for their antibacterial activity. The complexes show enhanced antibacterial activity than ligand.

  16. One-dimensional mu-chloromanganese(II)-tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) coordination compound. (United States)

    Jia, Chunyang; Liu, Shi-Xia; Ambrus, Christina; Neels, Antonia; Labat, Gaël; Decurtins, Silvio


    A new tetrathiafulvalene derivative 1 bearing a single pyridine group and its coordination complex 2, with stoichiometry [Mn(mu-Cl)Cl(1)2(CH3OH)]n, have been synthesized and fully characterized. The complex 2 shows an extended chain structure, which is potentially favorable for electrical conductivity. Notably, this is the first monohalogen-bridged Mn(II) polymer exhibiting a moderate antiferromagnetic coupling between the Mn(II) centers.

  17. Disruption of aminergic signalling reveals novel compounds with distinct inhibitory effects on mosquito reproduction, locomotor function and survival (United States)

    Fuchs, Silke; Rende, Ermelinda; Crisanti, Andrea; Nolan, Tony


    Insecticide resistance amongst disease vectors is a growing problem and novel compounds are needed. Biogenic amines are important for neurotransmission and we have recently shown a potential role for these in mosquito fertility. Here, we dissected the relative contribution of different aminergic signalling pathways to biological processes essential for vectorial capacity such as fertility, locomotion and survival by injecting agonists and antagonists and showed that octopaminergic/tyraminergic signalling is essential for oviposition and hatching rate. We show that egg melanisation is regulated by adrenergic signalling, whose disruption causes premature melanisation specifically through the action of tyramine. In addition to this, co-injection of tyramine with DOPA, the precursor of melanin, had a strong cumulative negative effect on mosquito locomotion and survival. Dopaminergic and serotonergic antagonists such as amitriptyline and citalopram recapitulate this effect. Together these results reveal potential new target sites for the development of future mosquito sterilants and insecticides.

  18. Synthesis, Structures and Photoluminescent Properties of Two Novel Zinc(II) Compounds Constructed from 5-Sulfoisophthalic Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yu Lan; Tang, Xue Ling; Ma, Kui Rong; Chen, Hao [Huaiyin Normal University, Huaian (China); Ma, Feng; Zhao, Lian Hua [Yanbian University, Yanji (China)


    Hydrothermal reaction of zinc(II) salts with 5-sulfoisophthalic acid monosodium salt (NaO{sub 3}SC{sub 6}H{sub 3}-1,3-(COOH){sub 2}, NaH{sub 2}- SIP) and 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) led to two new compounds, [Zn(phen){sub 3}]{center_dot}2H{sub 2}SIP{center_dot}4H{sub 2}O and [Zn(phen){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{center_dot} 2H{sub 2}SIP{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O. They were characterized by element analysis, IR spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Both compounds 1-2 represent the first example of Zn/phen/SIP system. The Zn (II) ion in 1 is six-coordinated by six nitrogen atoms from three phen molecules, and the H{sub 2}SIP{sup -} ligands engage in the formation of hydrogen bond. The Zn(II) ion in 2 is coordinated by four nitrogen atoms from two phen molecules and two oxygen atoms from two water molecules. Moreover, both 1 and 2 are assembled into 3D supramolecular architectures by hydrogen bonds (O-H{center_dot}{center_dot}{center_dot}O) and {pi}-{pi} interactions. Solvent water molecules occupying voids of the compounds serve as receptors or donors of the extensive O-H{center_dot}{center_dot}{center_dot}O hydrogen bonds.

  19. Oxidation of Half-Lantern Pt2(II,II) Compounds by Halocarbons. Evidence of Dioxygen Insertion into a Pt(III)-CH3 Bond. (United States)

    Sicilia, V; Baya, M; Borja, P; Martín, A


    The half-lantern compound [{Pt(bzq)(μ-N^S)}2] (1) [bzq = benzo[h]quinoline, HN^S = 2-mercaptopyrimidine (C4H3N2HS)] reacts with CH3I and haloforms CHX3 (X = Cl, Br, I) to give the corresponding oxidized diplatinum(III) derivatives [{Pt(bzq)(μ-N^S)X}2] (X = Cl 2a, Br 2b, I 2c). These compounds exhibit half-lantern structures with short intermetallic distances (∼2.6 Å) due to Pt-Pt bond formation. The halogen abstraction mechanisms from the halocarbon molecules by the Pt2(II,II) compound 1 were investigated. NMR spectroscopic evidence using labeled reagents support that in the case of (13)CH3I the reaction initiates with an oxidative addition through an SN2 mechanism giving rise to the intermediate species [I(bzq)Pt(μ-N^S)2Pt(bzq)((13)CH3)}]. However, with haloforms the reactions proceed through a radical-like mechanism, thermally (CHBr3, CHI3) or photochemically (CHCl3) activated, giving rise to mixtures of species [X(bzq)Pt(μ-N^S)2Pt(bzq)R] (3a-c) and [X(bzq)Pt(μ-N^S)2Pt(bzq)X] (2a-c). In these cases the presence of O2 favors the formation of species 2 over 3. Transformation of 3 into 2 was possible upon irradiation with UV light. In the case of [I(bzq)Pt(μ-N^S)2Pt(bzq)((13)CH3)}] (3d), in the presence of O2 the formation of the unusual methylperoxo derivative [I(bzq)Pt(μ-N^S)2Pt(bzq)(O-O(13)CH3)}] (4d) was detected, which in the presence of (13)CH3I rendered the final product [{Pt(bzq)(μ-N^S)I}2] (2c) and (13)CH3OH.

  20. Anthracene-tethered ruthenium(II) arene complexes as tools to visualize the cellular localization of putative organometallic anticancer compounds. (United States)

    Nazarov, Alexey A; Risse, Julie; Ang, Wee Han; Schmitt, Frederic; Zava, Olivier; Ruggi, Albert; Groessl, Michael; Scopelitti, Rosario; Juillerat-Jeanneret, Lucienne; Hartinger, Christian G; Dyson, Paul J


    Anthracene derivatives of ruthenium(II) arene compounds with 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphatricyclo[]decane (pta) or a sugar phosphite ligand, viz., 3,5,6-bicyclophosphite-1,2-O-isopropylidene-α-d-glucofuranoside, were prepared in order to evaluate their anticancer properties compared to the parent compounds and to use them as models for intracellular visualization by fluorescence microscopy. Similar IC(50) values were obtained in cell proliferation assays, and similar levels of uptake and accumulation were also established. The X-ray structure of [{Ru(η(6)-C(6)H(5)CH(2)NHCO-anthracene)Cl(2)(pta)] is also reported.

  1. Ground-based research of crystal growth of II-VI compound semiconductors by physical vapor transport (United States)

    Volz, M. P.; Gillies, D. C.; Szofran, F. R.; Lehoczky, S. L.; Su, Ching-Hua; Sha, Yi-Gao; Zhou, W.; Dudley, M.; Liu, Hao-Chieh; Brebrick, R. F.; Wang, J. C.


    Ground-based investigation of the crystal growth of II-VI semiconductor compounds, including CdTe, CdS, ZnTe, and ZnSe, by physical vapor transport in closed ampoules was performed. The crystal growth experimental process and supporting activities--preparation and heat treatment of starting materials, vapor partial pressure measurements, and transport rate measurements are reported. The results of crystal characterization, including microscopy, microstructure, optical transmission photoluminescence, synchrotron radiation topography, and chemical analysis by spark source mass spectrography, are also discussed.

  2. Copper(II) mixed chelate compounds induce apoptosis through reactive oxygen species in neuroblastoma cell line CHP-212. (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Anllely Grizett; Vázquez-Aguirre, Adriana; García-Ramos, Juan Carlos; Flores-Alamo, Marcos; Hernández-Lemus, Enrique; Ruiz-Azuara, Lena; Mejía, Carmen


    In the present work we report the antiproliferative activity of Cu(II) coordination compounds, CasIIgly ([Cu(4,7-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline) (glycinato) (H2O)]NO3), CasIIIia ([Cu(4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine) (glycinato) (H2O)]NO3), and CasIIIEa ([Cu(4,7-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline) (acetylacetonato) (H2O)]NO3), against human tumoral cell line CHP-212 (estromal neuroblastoma). Additionally, the molecular structure of CasIIIEa was reported. The IC50 values obtained for the evaluated compounds are in the range 18 to 47 μM, representing an inhibition potency increase of 5 to 12 times compared with cisplatin (IC50=226.7 μM). After 2h of incubation with the evaluated compounds, cells showed high levels of reactive oxygen species and a considerable GSH depletion, besides an important disruption of the mitochondrial membrane with release of cytochrome C and besides the presence of caspase-3, an effector caspase that is activated in the last step of apoptosis cascade. The results confirm that cell death in neuroblastoma CHP-212 treated with Casiopeínas occurs via apoptosis. Due to the lack of expression of caspase-8, cell death is principally by the mitochondrial pathway. Thus, one of the most interesting findings of this work is the identification of a very important damage in neuroblastoma cells induced by Cu(II) coordination compounds in a very short exposition times. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Flavor of roasted peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) - Part II: Correlation of volatile compounds to sensory characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lykomitros, Dimitrios; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Capuano, Edoardo


    Flavor and color of roasted peanuts are important research areas due to their significant influence on consumer preference. The aim of the present study was to explore correlations between sensory attributes of peanuts, volatile headspace compounds and color parameters. Different raw peanuts were se

  4. Detection of VR-2332 strain of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus type II using an aptamer-based sandwich-type assay. (United States)

    Lee, Su Jin; Kwon, Young Seop; Lee, Ji-eun; Choi, Eun-Jin; Lee, Chang-Hee; Song, Jae-Young; Gu, Man Bock


    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome disease (PRRS), a disease that has a significant and economic impact on the swine industry. In this study, single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) aptamers with high specificity and affinity against VR-2332 strain of PRRSV type II were successfully obtained. Of 19 candidates, the LB32 aptamer was found to be the most specific and sensitive to VR-2332 strain according to an aptamer-based surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis. The detection of VR-2332 of PRRSV type II was successfully accomplished using the enzyme-linked antibody-aptamer sandwich (ELAAS) method. The detection limit of ELAAS was 4.8 × 10(0) TCID(50)/mL that is comparable to some of the previous reports of the PCR-based detection but does not require any complicated equipment or extra costs. Moreover, this ELAAS-based PRRSV detection showed similar sensitivity for both the VR-2332 samples spiked in diluted swine serum and in buffer. Therefore, this VR-2332 strain-specific aptamer and its assay method with high specificity can be used as an alternative method for the fast and precise detection of PRRSV.

  5. Bis(morpholine) hydrogen bond pincer - a novel series of heteroleptic Cu(II) coordination compounds as receptors for electron rich guests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stilinovic, Vladimir; Uzarevic, Krunoslav; Cvrtila, Ivica; Kaitner, Branko


    Crystallisation from morpholine (morph) solutions of copper(II) salts with monovalent anions (A) and 1,3-diketones (Hdkt) yielded nine heteroleptic coordination compounds [Cu(dkt)(morph)(2)A]. The coordination polyhedron of the copper ion in these compounds is a square pyramid with a monovalent

  6. Bis(morpholine) hydrogen bond pincer - a novel series of heteroleptic Cu(II) coordination compounds as receptors for electron rich guests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stilinovic, Vladimir; Uzarevic, Krunoslav; Cvrtila, Ivica; Kaitner, Branko


    Crystallisation from morpholine (morph) solutions of copper(II) salts with monovalent anions (A) and 1,3-diketones (Hdkt) yielded nine heteroleptic coordination compounds [Cu(dkt)(morph)(2)A]. The coordination polyhedron of the copper ion in these compounds is a square pyramid with a monovalent anio

  7. Compound Specific Hydrogen Isotope Composition of Type II and III Kerogen Extracted by Pyrolysis-GC-MS-IRMS (United States)

    Socki, Richard A.; Pernia, Denet; Evans, Michael; Fu, Qi; Bissada, Kadry K.; Curiale, Joseph A.; Niles, Paul B.


    The use of Hydrogen (H) isotopes in understanding oil and gas resource plays is in its infancy. Described here is a technique for H isotope analysis of organic compounds pyrolyzed from oil and gas shale-derived kerogen. Application of this technique will progress our understanding. This work complements that of Pernia et al. (2013, this meeting) by providing a novel method for the H isotope analysis of specific compounds in the characterization of kerogen extracted by analytically diverse techniques. Hydrogen isotope analyses were carried out entirely "on-line" utilizing a CDS 5000 Pyroprobe connected to a Thermo Trace GC Ultra interfaced with a Thermo MAT 253 IRMS. Also, a split of GC-separated products was sent to a DSQ II quadrupole MS to make semi-quantitative compositional measurements of the extracted compounds. Kerogen samples from five different basins (type II and III) were dehydrated (heated to 80 C overnight in vacuum) and analyzed for their H isotope compositions by Pyrolysis-GC-MS-TC-IRMS. This technique takes pyrolysis products separated via GC and reacts them in a high temperature conversion furnace (1450 C) which quantitatively forms H2, following a modified method of Burgoyne and Hayes, (1998, Anal. Chem., 70, 5136-5141). Samples ranging from approximately 0.5 to 1.0mg in size, were pyrolyzed at 800 C for 30s. Compounds were separated on a Poraplot Q GC column. Hydrogen isotope data from all kerogen samples typically show enrichment in D from low to high molecular weight compounds. Water (H2O) average deltaD = -215.2 (V-SMOW), ranging from -271.8 for the Marcellus Shale to -51.9 for the Polish Shale. Higher molecular weight compounds like toluene (C7H8) have an average deltaD of -89.7 0/00, ranging from -156.0 for the Barnett Shale to -50.0 for the Monterey Shale. We interpret these data as representative of potential H isotope exchange between hydrocarbons and sediment pore water during formation within each basin. Since hydrocarbon H isotopes

  8. Electron paramagnetic resonance study of ternary CuII compounds with glycine and phenanthroline

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ricardo C Santana; Anderson B C Araújo; Jesiel F Carvalho; Rafael Calvo


    We report here electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements at 9 and 34 GHz, and room temperature (), in powder and single crystal samples of the ternary compounds of copper nitrate or copper chloride with glycine and 1,10-phenanthroline [Cu(Gly)(phen)(H2O)]·NO3·1.5H2O (1) and [Cu(Gly)(phen)Cl]2·7H2O (2). In compound 1, the copper ions are arranged in 1-D chains along one of the crystal axes connected by syn-anti carboxylate ligands, while in 2 the array is nearly 3-D and the connections involve -bonds and stacking interactions. The angular variation of the squared g-factor and the line width were measured as a function of orientation of the magnetic field (0) in three orthogonal crystal planes. In both compounds we observed one resonance without hyperfine structure for any magnetic field orientation which we attribute to the collapse of the hyperfine coupling and of the resonances of two chemically identical but rotated coppers in the unit cell, produced by exchange interactions. We analyse the results in terms of the structures of the compounds and chemical paths connecting neighbour copper ions which support the exchange interactions between neighbour spins in the lattice. Considering the collapse of the EPR signals of rotated sites in the lattices we are able to set lower limits to the exchange interactions, which are supported by weak equatorial-apical carboxylate bridges in 1, and by paths containing hydrogen bonds and aromatic - interactions in 2. Broadening due to dipole-dipole couplings and hyperfine interactions are strongly reduced by these exchange couplings and their role in the EPR line width is more difficult to recognize.

  9. Luminescent and electronic properties of stilbenoid NCN-pincer PtII compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batema, G.D.; van de Westelaken, K.T.L.; Guerra, J.; Lutz, M.; Spek, A.L.; van Walree, C.A.; de Mello Donega, C.; Meijerink, A.; van Klink, G.P.M.; van Koten, G.


    A series of novel 4,4'-disubstituted organic-organometallic stilbenes were synthesized, that is, the 4'-substituted stilbenoid- NCN-pincer platinum(II) complexes [PtCl(NCN-R-4)] (NCN-R-4 = [C6H2(CH2NMe2)2-2,6-R-4]- in which R = C2H2C6H4-R'-4' with R' = NMe2, OMe, SiMe3, H, I, CN, NO2) (1-7). In thes

  10. Photophysical Properties of Organoplatinum(II) Compounds and Derived Self-Assembled Metallacycles and Metallacages: Fluorescence and its Applications. (United States)

    Saha, Manik Lal; Yan, Xuzhou; Stang, Peter J


    Over the past couple of decades, coordination-driven self-assembly has evolved as a broad multidisciplinary domain that not only covers the syntheses of aesthetically pleasing supramolecular architectures but also emerges as a method to form new optical materials, chemical sensors, theranostic agents, and compounds with light-harvesting and emissive properties. The majority of these applications depend upon investigations that reveal the photophysical nature and electronic structure of supramolecular coordination complexes (SCCs), including two-dimensional (2D) metallacycles and three-dimensional (3D) metallacages. As such, well-defined absorption and emission spectra are important for a given SCC to be used for sensing, bioimaging, and other applications with molecular fluorescence being an important component. In this Account, we summarize the photophysical properties of some bis(phosphine)organoplatinum(II) compounds and their discrete SCCs. The platinum(II) based organometallic precursors typically display spectral red-shifts and have low fluorescence quantum yields and short fluorescence lifetimes compared to their organic counterparts because the introduction of metal centers enhances both intersystem crossing (ISC) and intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) processes, which can compete with the fluorescence emissions. Likewise ligands with conjugation can also increase the ICT process; hence the corresponding organoplatinum(II) compounds undergo a further decrease in fluorescence lifetimes. The use of endohedral amine functionalized 120°-bispyridyl ligands can dramatically enhance the emission properties of the resultant organoplatinum(II) based SCCs. As such these SCCs display emissions in the visible region (ca. 400-500 nm) and are significantly red-shifted (ca. 80-100 nm) compared to the ligands. This key feature makes them suitable as supramolecular theranostic agents wherein these unique emission properties provide diagnostic spectroscopic handles and

  11. Vibrational spectroscopic and DFT calculation studies of a new organic-inorganic compound of bis (4-acetylanilinium) tetrachlorocadmiate (II) (United States)

    Jellibi, A.; Chaabane, I.; Guidara, K.


    The FT-IR and Raman vibrational spectra of bis (4-acetylanilinium) tetrachlorocadmiate (II) compound have been measured at room temperature by FT-infrared spectroscopy (4000-400 cm-1) on polycrystalline samples, and by Raman spectroscopy (3600-30 cm-1) on monocrystals. The structure of the [C8H10NO] 2CdCl4 formed by two cations [C8H10NO]+ of same type and one type of anion [CdCl4]2- was optimized by density functional theory (DFT) using the B3LYP method. The theoretical wavenumbers spectra were scaled by multiple scaling factors, yielding a good agreement between the experimentally recorded and the theoretically calculated values. Root mean square (rms) value was calculated and the small difference between experimental and calculated modes has been interpreted by intermolecular interactions in the crystal. The comparison between the [C8H9NO] ligand and the [C8H10NO]2[CdCl4] compound of the Raman spectra showed a decrease in the wavenumber of the bands assigned to the stretching vibration of (NH3) group in the compound due to the effect of the protonation of the nitrogen.

  12. Ligand-field symmetry effects in Fe(ii) polypyridyl compounds probed by transient X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Hana; Strader, Matthew L.; Hong, Kiryong; Jamula, Lindsey; Gullikson, Eric M.; Kim, Tae Kyu; de Groot, Frank M. F.; McCusker, James K.; Schoenlein, Robert W.; Huse, Nils


    Ultrafast excited-state evolution in polypyridyl FeII complexes are of fundamental interest for understanding the origins of the sub-ps spin-state changes that occur upon photoexcitation of this class of compounds as well as for the potential impact such ultrafast dynamics have on incorporation of these compounds in solar energy conversion schemes or switchable optical storage technologies. We have demonstrated that ground-state and, more importantly, ultrafast time-resolved x-ray absorption methods can offer unique insights into the interplay between electronic and geometric structure that underpin the photo-induced dynamics of this class of compounds. The present contribution examines in greater detail how the symmetry of the ligand field surrounding the metal ion can be probed using these x-ray techniques. In particular, we show that steady-state K-edge spectroscopy of the nearest-neighbour nitrogen atoms reveals the characteristic chemical environment of the respective ligands and suggests an interesting target for future charge-transfer femtosecond and attosecond spectroscopy in the x-ray water window.

  13. Excitation Wavelength Dependent O2 Release from Copper(II)-Superoxide Compounds: Laser Flash-Photolysis Experiments and Theoretical Studies (United States)

    Saracini, Claudio; Liakos, Dimitrios G.; Zapata Rivera, Jhon E.; Neese, Frank; Meyer, Gerald J.; Karlin, Kenneth D.


    Irradiation of the copper(II)-superoxide synthetic complexes [(TMG3tren)CuII(O2)]+ (1) and [(PV-TMPA)CuII(O2)]+ (2) with visible light resulted in direct photo-generation of O2 gas at low temperature (from −40 °C to −70°C for 1 and from −125 °C to −135 °C for 2) in 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (MeTHF) solvent. The yield of O2 release was wavelength dependent: λexc = 436 nm, ϕ = 0.29 (for 1), ϕ = 0.11 (for 2), and λexc = 683 nm, ϕ = 0.035 (for 1), ϕ = 0.078 (for 2), which was followed by fast O2-recombination with [(TMG3tren)CuI]+ (3) and [(PV-TMPA)CuI]+ (4). Enthalpic barriers for O2 re-binding to the copper(I) center (~ 10 kJ mol−1) and for O2 dissociation from the superoxide compound 1 (45 kJ mol−1) were determined. TD-DFT studies, carried out for 1, support the experimental results confirming the dissociative character of the excited states formed upon blue or red light laser excitation. PMID:24428309

  14. Structural characterization and physicochemical features of new hybrid compound containing chlorate anions of cadmate (II) (United States)

    Lassoued, Mohamed Saber; Abdelbaky, Mohammed S. M.; Lassoued, Abdelmajid; Gadri, Abdellatif; Ammar, Salah; Ben Salah, Abdelhamid; García-Granda, Santiago


    The present paper reports the synthesis of a single crystal of a new organic-inorganic hybrid compound, with the formula (C6H14N2) CdCl4·H2O, by slow evaporation method at room temperature. It was characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction (SCXRD), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Hirshfeld surface, spectroscopy measurement, thermal study and photoluminescence (PL) properties. A preliminary SCXRD structural analysis revealed that it crystallized in the monoclinic system (space group P21/c) with the following unit cell parameters: a = 12.95823(16) Å, b = 14.92449(16) Å, c = 7.13838(9) Å and β = 103.2108(12)° with Z = 4. The refinement converged to R = 0.0164 and ωR = 0.0393. Its atomic arrangement can be described as an alternation of organic and inorganic layers along the a-axis. The crystal packing was governed by the N-H⋯Cl and O-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonding interaction between the 1.2-diammoniumcyclohexane cations, the [CdCl42n-]n anions and water molecule. The Hirshfeld surface analysis was conducted to investigate intermolecular interactions and associated 2D fingerprint plots, revealing the relative contribution of these interactions in the crystal structure quantitatively. Furthermore, the room temperature infrared (IR) spectrum of the title compound was recorded and analyzed on the basis of data found in the literature. Besides, the thermal analysis studies were performed, but no phase transition was found in the temperature range between 30 and 450 °C. The optical and PL properties of the compound were investigated in the solid state at room temperature and exhibited three bands at 225, 268 and 315 nm and a strong fluorescence at 443 nm.

  15. GnRH-II receptor-like antigenicity in human placenta and in cancers of the human reproductive organs. (United States)

    Eicke, Nicola; Günthert, Andreas R; Viereck, Volker; Siebold, Doreen; Béhé, Martin; Becker, Tamara; Emons, Günter; Gründker, Carsten


    We have recently demonstrated that the antiproliferative activity of GnRH-II on human endometrial and ovarian cancer cell lines is not mediated through the GnRH-I receptor. A functional receptor for human GnRH-II has not yet been identified. In this study, we have generated a polyclonal antiserum to the putative human GnRH-II receptor using a peptide (YSPTMLTEVPPC) corresponding to the third extracellular domain coupled to keyhole limpet haemocyanin via the Cys residue. A database search showed no identical peptide sequences in any other human gene. To avoid cross-reactions against two similar amino acid sequences the antiserum was pre-absorbed using these peptides. Immune histological sections of human placenta and human endometrial, ovarian and prostate cancers using rabbit anti-human GnRH-II receptor antiserum showed GnRH-II receptor-like staining. Western blot analysis of cell membrane preparations of human endometrial and ovarian cancer cell lines yielded a band at approximately 43 kDa whereas Western blot analysis of cell membrane preparations of ovaries obtained from the marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus) yielded a band at approximately 54 kDa. To identify the GnRH-II receptor-like antigen we used the photo-affinity labelling technique. Photochemical reaction of (125)I-labelled (4-azidobenzoyl)-N-hydroxysuccinimide-[d-Lys(6)]-GnRH-II (10(-9) M) with cell membrane preparations of human endometrial and ovarian cancer cells yielded a band at approximately 43 kDa. In competition experiments, the GnRH-I agonist Triptorelin (10(-7) M) showed a weak decrease of (125)I-labelled (4-azidobenzoyl)-N-hydroxysuccinimide-[d-Lys(6)]-GnRH-II binding to its binding site. The GnRH-I antagonist Cetrorelix (10(-7) M) showed a clearly stronger decrease, whereas GnRH-II agonist [d-Lys(6)]-GnRH-II (10(-7) M) was the most potent competitor. Western blot analysis of the same gel using rabbit anti-human GnRH-II receptor antiserum identified this band as GnRH-II receptor

  16. Sol-gel encapsulation of binary Zn(II) compounds in silica nanoparticles. Structure-activity correlations in hybrid materials targeting Zn(II) antibacterial use. (United States)

    Halevas, E; Nday, C M; Kaprara, E; Psycharis, V; Raptopoulou, C P; Jackson, G E; Litsardakis, G; Salifoglou, A


    In the emerging issue of enhanced multi-resistant properties in infectious pathogens, new nanomaterials with optimally efficient antibacterial activity and lower toxicity than other species attract considerable research interest. In an effort to develop such efficient antibacterials, we a) synthesized acid-catalyzed silica-gel matrices, b) evaluated the suitability of these matrices as potential carrier materials for controlled release of ZnSO4 and a new Zn(II) binary complex with a suitably designed well-defined Schiff base, and c) investigated structural and textural properties of the nanomaterials. Physicochemical characterization of the (empty-loaded) silica-nanoparticles led to an optimized material configuration linked to the delivery of the encapsulated antibacterial zinc load. Entrapment and drug release studies showed the competence of hybrid nanoparticles with respect to the a) zinc loading capacity, b) congruence with zinc physicochemical attributes, and c) release profile of their zinc load. The material antimicrobial properties were demonstrated against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus) and negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Xanthomonas campestris) bacteria using modified agar diffusion methods. ZnSO4 showed less extensive antimicrobial behavior compared to Zn(II)-Schiff, implying that the Zn(II)-bound ligand enhances zinc antimicrobial properties. All zinc-loaded nanoparticles were less antimicrobially active than zinc compounds alone, as encapsulation controls their release, thereby attenuating their antimicrobial activity. To this end, as the amount of loaded zinc increases, the antimicrobial behavior of the nano-agent improves. Collectively, for the first time, sol-gel zinc-loaded silica-nanoparticles were shown to exhibit well-defined antimicrobial activity, justifying due attention to further development of antibacterial nanotechnology.

  17. Turbulence Investigation and Reproduction for Assisting Downstream Migrating Juvenile Salmonids, Part I of II, 2001-2002 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hotchkiss, Rollin H. (Washington State University, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineers, Albrook Hydraulics Laboratory)


    Turbulence in gravel bed rivers plays a critical role in most stream processes including contaminant and nutrient transport, aquatic habitat selection, and natural channel design. While most hydraulic designs and fluid models are based on bulk velocity, migrating juvenile salmon experience and react to the temporally varied turbulent fluctuations. Without properly understanding and accounting for the continuous turbulent motions proper fishway design and guidance are impossible. Matching temporally varied flow to fish reactions is the key to guiding juvenile salmonids to safe passageways. While the ideal solution to fish guidance design would be to use specific fluid action-fish reaction mechanisms, such concrete cause and effect relations have not been established. One way to approach the problem of guidance is to hypothesize that in an environment lacking obvious bulk flow cues (like the reservoir environment), turbulent flow conditions similar to those experienced by juvenile salmonids in natural migration corridors will be attractive to juvenile salmonids. Proof of this hypothesis requires three steps: (1) gathering data on turbulence characteristics in natural migration corridors, (2) reproduction of the turbulence parameters in a controlled environment, and (3) testing the reproduced turbulence on actively migrating juvenile salmonids for increased passage efficiencies. The results from the third step have not been finalized, therefore this report will focus on understanding turbulent processes in gravel bed rivers and reproduction of turbulence in controlled environments for use in fish passage technologies. The purposes of this report are to (1) present data collected in natural gravel bed rivers, (2) present a simple method for reproduction of appropriate turbulence levels in a controlled environment, (3) compare these results to those from one prototype surface collector (PSC), and (4) discuss the implications on fish passage design.

  18. Reproductive traits following a parent-child separation trauma during childhood: a natural experiment during World War II. (United States)

    Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Räikkönen, Katri; Heinonen, Kati; Kajantie, Eero; Forsén, Tom; Eriksson, Johan G


    Given the ethical limitations of exposing children to experimentally manipulated adverse experiences, evidence of the effects of childhood traumas on subsequent life history are based mostly on women's retrospective reports and animal studies. Only a few prospective studies have assessed the life-long consequences of childhood trauma. We asked whether a traumatic separation from both parents during childhood is associated with reproductive and marital traits later in life, measured by age of onset of menarche, timing of menopause, period of fertile years, age at first childbirth, birth spacing, number of children, and history of divorce. We studied members of the 1934-1944 Helsinki Birth Cohort, including 396 former war evacuees from varying socioeconomic backgrounds, who were sent unaccompanied by their parents to temporary foster families in Sweden and Denmark, and 503 participants who had no separation experiences. Data on separation experiences, number of children, and divorces experienced came from national registers, and the remaining data from a survey among the participants aged 61.6 years (SD = 2.9). Former evacuees had earlier menarche, earlier first childbirth (men), more children by late adulthood (women), and shorter interbirth intervals (men), than the non-separated. A traumatic experience in childhood is associated with significant alterations in reproductive and marital traits, which characterize both women and men. The implications are relevant to the 9.2 million child refugees living throughout the world today.

  19. Combining a Ru(II) "Building Block" and Rapid Screening Approach to Identify DNA Structure-Selective "Light Switch" Compounds. (United States)

    Wachter, Erin; Moyá, Diego; Glazer, Edith C


    A chemically reactive Ru(II) "building block", able to undergo condensation reactions with substituted diamines, was utilized to create a small library of luminescent "light switch" dipyrido-[3,2-a:2',3'-c] phenazine (dppz) complexes. The impact of substituent identity, position, and the number of substituents on the light switch effect was investigated. An unbiased, parallel screening approach was used to evaluate the selectivity of the compounds for a variety of different biomolecules, including protein, nucleosides, single stranded DNA, duplex DNA, triplex DNA, and G-quadruplex DNA. Combining these two approaches allowed for the identification of hit molecules that showed different selectivities for biologically relevant DNA structures, particularly triplex and quadruplex DNA.

  20. Localization and expression of spermadhesin PSP-I/PSP-II subunits in the reproductive organs of the boar. (United States)

    García, E M; Vázquez, J M; Parrilla, I; Ortega, M D; Calvete, J J; Sanz, L; Martínez, E A; Roca, J; Rodríguez-Martínez, H


    The epithelial localization and expression of the spermadhesin PSP-I and PSP-II subunits were determined in the testis, ductus epididymes (caput, corpus and cauda), seminal vesicles and bulbourethral glands of mature boars, using immunohistochemical, western blotting and RT-PCR methods. Immunohistochemistry showed positive labelling for PSP-I and PSP-II antibodies in the epithelium of seminal vesicles in all males tested. Positive immunolabelling, but with variable intensity, was also present in the epididymal epithelium (caput, corpus and cauda), although varying largely among segments and boars. Immunoreactivity was nearly or completely absent in the seminiferous epithelium and the bulbourethral gland, although SDS-PAGE and western blotting revealed the presence of PSP-I and PSP-II immunoreactive bands in all the tissue extracts, including the testis and the bulbourethral gland. mRNA amplification by RT-PCR using primers specific for PSP-I and PSP-II showed a trend similar to that observed for western blotting, i.e. intensity variation between tissues (even between segments of the same epididymis) and among boars. Our results indicate that the seminal vesicles are the main source of PSP-I and PSP-II spermadhesins, although epididymal segments, testis and the bulbourethral gland also participate in the expression of both proteins.

  1. Reactivity of Deoxy- and Oxyferrous Dehaloperoxidase B from Amphitrite ornata: Identification of Compound II and its Ferrous-Hydroperoxide Precursor† (United States)

    D’Antonio, Jennifer; Ghiladi, Reza A.


    Dehaloperoxidase (DHP) from the terebellid polychaete Amphitrite ornata is a bifunctional enzyme that possesses both hemoglobin and peroxidase activities. The bifunctional nature of DHP as a globin-peroxidase appears to be at odds with the traditional starting oxidation state for each individual activity. Namely, reversible oxygen-binding is only mediated via a ferrous heme in globins, and peroxidase activity is initiated from ferric centers and to the exclusion of the oxyferrous oxidation state from the peroxidase cycle. Thus, to address what appears to be a paradox, herein we report the details of our investigations into the DHP catalytic cycle when initiated from the deoxy- and oxyferrous states using biochemical assays, stopped-flow UV-visible and rapid-freeze-quench electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopies, and anaerobic methods. We demonstrate the formation of Compound II directly from deoxyferrous DHP B upon its reaction with hydrogen peroxide, and show that this occurs both in the presence and absence of trihalophenol. Prior to Compound II formation, we have identified a new species which we have preliminarily attributed to a ferrous-hydroperoxide precursor that undergoes heterolysis to generate the aforementioned ferryl intermediate. Taken together, the results demonstrate that the oxyferrous state in DHP is a peroxidase competent starting species, and an updated catalytic cycle for DHP is proposed in which the ferric oxidation state is not an obligatory starting point for the peroxidase catalytic cycle of dehaloperoxidase. The data presented herein provide a link between the peroxidase and oxygen transport activities which furthers our understanding of how this bifunctional enzyme is able to unite its two inherent functions in one system. PMID:21619067

  2. New aromatic/heteroaromatic propanesulfonylhydrazone compounds: Synthesis, physical properties and inhibition studies against carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) enzyme (United States)

    Özmen Özdemir, Ümmühan; Altuntaş, Ayşegül; Gündüzalp, Ayla Balaban; Arslan, Fatma; Hamurcu, Fatma


    Some new aromatic/heteroaromatic propanesulfonylhydrazone derivatives (1-8) were synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, LC/MS techniques. The geometry optimizations and spectral calculations were performed by using DFT/B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) basis set in Gaussian 09 program. The inhibition activities of the synthesized compounds on carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) isoenzyme have been investigated by comparing IC50 values. Acetazolamide (5-acetamido-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-sulfonamide) AAZ, a clinically used in CAII inhibition has also been investigated as standard inhibitor. The best aromatic/heteroaromatic propanesulfonylhydrazone inhibitors of this isoform were o-aminobenzaldehydepropanesulfonylhydrazone (1) and thiophenecarboxyaldehyde propanesulfonylhydrazone (5) having the same IC50 (0.55 mM) value. The molecular descriptors for propanesulfonylhydrazones were obtained to develop structure activity relationship (SAR) model between experimental IC50 values and the molecular descriptors calculated by PM3-based SAR models in Hyperchem 8, respectively. The obtained models confirm the good carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) inhibition activity of the propanesulfonylhydrazone derivatives. The selected descriptors are sensitive both to the imine (CHdbnd N) and NH2 groups that are responsible from higher activities of (1) and (5) in their series.

  3. Crystal structures of two nickel compounds comprising neutral Ni(II) hydrazone complexes and di-carb-oxy-lic acids. (United States)

    Nakanishi, Takumi; Sato, Osamu


    Two isostructural Ni(II) compounds, bis-{N-[1-(pyridin-2-yl-κN)eth-ylidene]pyridine-4-carbohydrazonato-κ(2)N',O}nickel(II)-2,5-di-chloro-terephthalic acid (1/1), [Ni(C13H11N4O)2](C8H4Cl2O4), and bis-{N-[1-(pyridin-2-yl-κN)eth-ylidene]pyridine-4-carbohydrazonato-κ(2)N',O}nickel(II)-2,5-di-bromo-terephthalic acid (1/1), [Ni(C13H11N4O)2](C8H4Br2O4), were synthesized and their crystal structures determined. The pair of N,N',O-tridentate N-[1-(pyridin-2-yl-κN)eth-yl]pyridine-4-carbohydrazonate L ligands result in a cis-NiO2N4 octa-hedral coordination sphere for the metal ions. The asymmetric units consist of two half-mol-ecules of the di-carb-oxy-lic acids, which are completed by crystallographic inversion symmetry. In the respective crystals, the 2,5-di-chloro-terephthalic acid (H2Cl2TPA, 1-Cl) mol-ecules form zigzag hydrogen-bonded chains with the [Ni(L)2] mol-ecules, with the hydrogen-bond distances in 1-Br slightly longer than those in 1-Cl. The packing is consolidated by aromatic π-π stacking between the di-carb-oxy-lic acid mol-ecules and terminal pyridine rings in [Ni(L)2] and short halogen-halogen inter-actions are also observed. The qualitative prediction of the H-atom position from the C-N-C angles of the terminal pyridine rings in L and the C-O distances in the carboxyl groups show that 1-Cl and 1-Br are co-crystals rather than salts.

  4. Reproductive behaviour in the male cricket Gryllus bimaculatus DeGeer. II. Neural control of the genitalia. (United States)

    Kumashiro, M; Sakai, M


    To understand the neural mechanisms of reproductive behaviour in the male cricket, we identified motor neurones innervating the muscles in each genital organ by backfilling with cobalt/nickel and recording their extracellular spike activity from nerve bundles of the terminal abdominal ganglion during tethered copulation and spermatophore formation. During tethered copulation, at least two motor neurones innervating two ipsilateral muscles were activated during projection of the guiding rod of the phallic dorsal pouch. Only one motor neurone, innervating four ipsilateral muscles of the dorsal pouch, was responsible for spermatophore extrusion by deforming the dorsal pouch. For spermatophore transfer, three motor neurones, singly innervating three epiphallus muscles, played a major role in opening passages for haemolymph to enter the ventral lobes and median pouch by bending the epiphallus. Two ventral lobe and 3-5 median pouch motor neurones seemed to play a role in expanding or folding the two membranous structures by relaxing or contracting their muscle fibres. After spermatophore transfer, most of the genital motor neurones exhibited a rhythmic burst of action potentials causing movement of the phallic complex coupled with strong abdominal contractions. For spermatophore formation, the genital motor neurones began to accelerate their rhythmic bursts approximately 30 s prior to subgenital plate opening and then changed their activity to tonic bursting or silence. The results have allowed us to describe the timing of the onset and termination of genital muscle contraction more precisely than before, to examine the neural mechanisms of copulatory motor control and to speculate on the neural organization of the reproductive centre for spermatophore extrusion and protrusion.

  5. Structure-based design, synthesis and biological testing of etoposide analog epipodophyllotoxin-N-mustard hybrid compounds designed to covalently bind to topoisomerase II and DNA. (United States)

    Yadav, Arun A; Wu, Xing; Patel, Daywin; Yalowich, Jack C; Hasinoff, Brian B


    Drugs that target DNA topoisomerase II isoforms and alkylate DNA represent two mechanistically distinct and clinically important classes of anticancer drugs. Guided by molecular modeling and docking a series of etoposide analog epipodophyllotoxin-N-mustard hybrid compounds were designed, synthesized and biologically characterized. These hybrids were designed to alkylate nucleophilic protein residues on topoisomerase II and thus produce inactive covalent adducts and to also alkylate DNA. The most potent hybrid had a mean GI(50) in the NCI-60 cell screen 17-fold lower than etoposide. Using a variety of in vitro and cell-based assays all of the hybrids tested were shown to target topoisomerase II. A COMPARE analysis indicated that the hybrids had NCI 60-cell growth inhibition profiles matching both etoposide and the N-mustard compounds from which they were derived. These results supported the conclusion that the hybrids displayed characteristics that were consistent with having targeted both topoisomerase II and DNA.

  6. Quinoxaline-2-carboxamide as a carrier ligand in two new platinum(II) compounds: Synthesis, crystal structure, cytotoxic activity and DNA interaction. (United States)

    Marqués-Gallego, Patricia; Gamiz-Gonzalez, M Amparo; Fortea-Pérez, Francisco R; Lutz, Martin; Spek, Anthony L; Pevec, Andrej; Kozlevčar, Bojan; Reedijk, Jan


    The search for platinum compounds structurally different from cisplatin has led to two new platinum(II) compounds containing quinoxaline-2-carboxamide as a carrier ligand, i.e. cis-[Pt(qnxca)(MeCN)Cl2] (1) and the [Pt(qnxca-H)(dmso)Cl] (2). Both compounds have been synthesized and characterized using different spectroscopic methods. In addition, single-crystal structures have been determined by X-Ray diffraction for both compounds. In each case a square planar Pt(II) is present; in (1) the qnxca is monodentate and neutral, whereas in (2) the ligand has lost a hydrogen, to form the anionic chelating ligand abbreviated as qnxca-H. The biological activity of both compounds has been investigated in a panel of seven human tumour cells, displaying poor cytotoxic activity, compared to cisplatin. The interaction of the new compounds with 1 or 2 equiv. of 9-ethylguanine has been studied using (1)H NMR, (195)Pt NMR and ESI-MS spectroscopy, finding poor reactivity of 1 towards the model base, forming only the monosubstituted adduct. Surprisingly, compound 2, which is more sterically crowded, interacts more efficiently with the 9-EtG, forming a bifunctional adduct with two 9-EtG with substitution of the dmso and the chloride ligand. Unwinding studies of pUC19 plasmid DNA by compound 1 show similar unwinding properties to cisplatin.

  7. Pharmacokinetic comparison of the vasorelaxant compound ferulic acid following the administration of Guanxin II to healthy volunteers and patients with angina pectoris. (United States)

    Li, Yun-Hui; Huang, Xi; Wang, Yang; Fan, Rong; Zhang, Hong-Min; Ren, Ping; Chen, Yao; Zhou, Hong-Hao; Liu, Zhao-Qian; Liang, Yi-Zeng; Lu, Hong-Mei


    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. The Chinese medicinal formula Guanxin II has been shown to have a favorable effect in the attenuation of angina. The aim of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of ferulic acid (FA), which is a vasorelaxant compound present in Guanxin II, in healthy volunteers and patients with angina pectoris following the administration of Guanxin II. Ex vivo experiments were performed in order to investigate the vasorelaxant effect of FA on the human internal mammary artery (IMA) to provide evidence that it is a bioactive component of Guanxin II. Following the oral administration of Guanxin II, the FA levels in the serum were quantified by a simple and rapid high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Treatment with FA (10(-8)-10(-3) M) caused a concentration-dependent relaxation of endothelial IMA rings following precontraction with KCl. Statistically significant differences were identified between the pharmaco-kinetic parameters Cmax, t1/2α, t1/2β and t1/2Ka of the healthy volunteers and the patients with angina pectoris following the oral administration of Guanxin II. FA is a bioactive compound absorbed from Guanxin II that attenuates angina pectoris, a condition that may modify the pharmacokinetics of FA. Not only do the pharmacokinetic parameters direct the clinical use of Guanxin II, but they may also be useful for exploring the pathology of angina pectoris.

  8. Discodermolide--a new, marine-derived immunosuppressive compound. II. In vivo studies. (United States)

    Longley, R E; Caddigan, D; Harmody, D; Gunasekera, M; Gunasekera, S P


    The in vivo immunosuppressive properties of a novel, marine-derived compound, discodermolide, are reported here. Discodermolide was effective in suppressing the graft-versus-host splenomegaly response of BALB/c----CB6F1 (BALB/c X C57BL/6J)F1 grafted mice at 5.0, 2.5, and 1.25 mg/kg, when administered as daily, i.p. injections, for 7 days. Mice treated with 5.0 and 2.5 mg/kg demonstrated a high degree of suppression (219 and 150%, respectively); however, these dosages were associated with some degree of morbidity (2/5 and 4/5 survivors for 5.0 and 2.5 mg/kg, respectively). Mice that were treated with 1.25, 0.625, and 0.313 mg/kg remained healthy after a 7-day regimen, and continued to demonstrate suppression of splenomegaly (106%, 72%, and 76% suppression, respectively). Splenocytes obtained from discodermolide-treated, allogeneic grafted mice were suppressed in their ability to respond in vitro to optimal mitogenic concentrations of concanavalin A, and natural-killer-cell activity directed against YAC-1 tumor cells, compared with vehicle-treated, allogeneic grafted control mice. Lower dosages (2.5 and 1.25 mg/kg) of discodermolide, however, did not affect the subsequent ability of splenocytes obtained from these mice to produce IL-2 following in vitro stimulation with Con A. This was observed to be in contrast to the immunosuppressive activity observed with cyclosporine treatment of mice (150 mg/kg) for the ex vivo suppression of splenocyte production of IL-2. Treatment of normal, nongrafted mice with similar high dosages of discodermolide (5.0 mg/kg) for 4 days did not affect the primary antibody response of mice immunized with sheep red blood cells as measured by hemagglutination activity of their serum. These results suggest that discodermolide's in vivo immunosuppressive action appears not to be that of a generalized immunosuppressive agent and that its specific in vivo mechanism of action warrants further preclinical evaluation.

  9. Synthesis, crystal structure, vibrational spectroscopy and photoluminescence of new hybrid compound containing chlorate anions of stanate (II) (United States)

    Lassoued, Mohamed Saber; Abdelbaky, Mohammed S. M.; Lassoued, Abdelmajid; Meroño, Rafael Mendoza; Gadri, Abdellatif; Ammar, Salah; Ben Salah, Abdelhamid; García-Granda, Santiago


    The present work aimed at studying a new organic-inorganic bis (4-amino quinolinium) hexachloro stanate (II) dihydrate compound. It was prepared and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, X-ray powder, Hirshfeld surface, Spectroscopy measurement, thermal study and photoluminescence properties. It was found to crystallize in the monoclinic system (P21/c space group) with the following lattice parameters: a = 7.2558(6) Å, b = 13.4876(5) Å, c = 17.2107(13) Å, β = 102.028 (12)°. Its crystal structure was determined and refined down to an R value of 0.06 and a wR value of 0.087. The structure consisted of two different alternating organic-inorganic layers. The crystal packing was stabilized by Nsbnd H⋯Cl and Osbnd H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds and π-π interactions. Hirshfeld surface analysis was used to investigate intermolecular interactions, as well 2D finger plots were conducted to reveal the contribution of these interactions in the crystal structure quantitatively. The X-ray powder is in agreement with the X-ray structure. Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) was carried out. Furthermore, the room temperature Infra Red (IR) spectrum of the title compound was analyzed on the basis of data found in the literature. Solid state 13C NMR spectrum shows ten signals, confirming the solid state structure determined by X-ray diffraction. Thermal analysis shows two anomalies at 380 and 610 °C. The optical properties of the crystal were studied using optical absorption UV-visible and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, which were investigated at room temperature.

  10. Natural history of Ctenus medius Keyserling, 1891 (Aranae, Ctenidae II: life cycle and aspects of reproductive behavior under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Ctenus medius Keyserling, 1891 is a wandering spider common in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. It has been the subject of few studies. Thus, this work aims to elucidate aspects of its natural history, such as the life cycle and reproductive behavior of this species, through laboratory and field observations. Two females with egg sacs were observed in the laboratory and one was observed in field (Barra Mansa, 22º32'S and 44º10'W until the emergence of the spiderlings. For observation of the immature stage development, a portion of the spiderlings from the same hatch were taken to the laboratory and watched until sexual maturity. In the field, the period between the oviposition and the emergence of spiderlings was of 36 days. The female selects a site for egg sac deposition and stays there until the spiderlings emerge. Seven days after the emergence, the female abandoned the site where the egg sac was made, concomitant to the spiderlings dispersion from observation's place and until the moment that the spiderlings started to eat. For the spiderlings kept under laboratory conditions, cannibalism was not observed in the first instars (1-4th when sufficient food was offered. Sexual maturity happened in the 14th or 15th instars, with an average of 309.2 to 344.5 days until the last/sexual molt, respectively. Until the date of sexual maturity, there was a mortality rate of 85%. This species is very fragile in captivity. This hampered deductions concerning longevity. Both females and males collected in the field were induced to mate in the laboratory. Courtship movements of males were registered, but the females did not permit the mating. These data may assist in initial biological studies of Ctenus genus and offer comparative parameters for studies of other related species.

  11. Developing predictive approaches to characterize adaptive responses of the reproductive endocrine axis to aromatase inhibition: II. Computational modeling. (United States)

    Breen, Miyuki; Villeneuve, Daniel L; Ankley, Gerald T; Bencic, David C; Breen, Michael S; Watanabe, Karen H; Lloyd, Alun L; Conolly, Rory B


    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals can affect reproduction and development in humans and wildlife. We developed a computational model of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in female fathead minnows to predict dose-response and time-course (DRTC) behaviors for endocrine effects of the aromatase inhibitor, fadrozole (FAD). The model describes adaptive responses to endocrine stress involving regulated secretion of a generic gonadotropin (LH/FSH) from the hypothalamic-pituitary complex. For model development, we used plasma 17β-estradiol (E2) concentrations and ovarian cytochrome P450 (CYP) 19A aromatase mRNA data from two time-course experiments, each of which included both an exposure and a depuration phase, and plasma E2 data from a third 4-day study. Model parameters were estimated using E2 concentrations for 0, 0.5, and 3 µg/l FAD exposure concentrations, and good fits to these data were obtained. The model accurately predicted CYP19A mRNA fold changes for controls and three FAD doses (0, 0.5, and 3 µg/l) and plasma E2 dose response from the 4-day study. Comparing the model-predicted DRTC with experimental data provided insight into how the feedback control mechanisms in the HPG axis mediate these changes: specifically, adaptive changes in plasma E2 levels occurring during exposure and "overshoot" occurring postexposure. This study demonstrates the value of mechanistic modeling to examine and predict dynamic behaviors in perturbed systems. As this work progresses, we will obtain a refined understanding of how adaptive responses within the vertebrate HPG axis affect DRTC behaviors for aromatase inhibitors and other types of endocrine-active chemicals and apply that knowledge in support of risk assessments.

  12. The developmental neurotoxicity study of platinum compounds. Effects of cisplatin versus a novel Pt(II) complex on rat cerebellum. (United States)

    Cerri, Silvia; Piccolini, Valeria M; Santin, Giada; Bottone, Maria G; De Pascali, Sandra A; Migoni, Danilo; Iadarola, Paolo; Fanizzi, Francesco P; Bernocchi, Graziella


    In the field of experimental oncology, many efforts are being carried out to search new platinum-based drugs overcoming the CNS toxicity and drug resistance. One of the adopted strategies is the synthesis of platinum compounds able to form Pt-DNA adducts different from the cisplatin ones or to react with other subcellular targets. In this context a novel Pt(II) complex, [Pt(O,O'-acac)(γ-acac)(DMS)](PtAcacDMS), was synthesized which reacts preferentially with protein thiols or thioethers. In this work we investigated the in vivo effects of cisplatin and PtAcacDMS on normal development. Moreover, to verify the dose-dependence of the effects, different groups of animals were treated with 5 μg/g or 10 μg/g body weight of cisPt and PtAcacDMS. We have focused our attention on the cerebellum because it provides a useful model system to evaluate the outcomes of perinatal treatment with chemotherapeutic agents on key CNS developmental processes such as neural cells proliferation, migration and differentiation. We have demonstrated the ability of both cisPt and PtAcacDMS to reach the brain tissue once injected. The brain platinum content after PtAcacDMS treatment was notably higher (approximately 4-fold as much) than after cisPt. The platinum accumulation in the brain was still considerable 7 days after PtAcacDMS administration. However, compared with cisplatin, PtAcacDMS induces less severe changes on fundamental events of neuroarchitecture development, such as no high apoptotic events, less altered granule cell migration and Purkinje cell dendrite growth, suggesting a low neurotoxicity of this new Pt complex for normal CNS. The mild damages could be attributable to the different subcellular target of this compound as well as to a greater efficiency of the cell repair system to recognize the drug-target adducts and to repair them. Together with the previously demonstrated antineoplastic effectiveness in vitro, the findings here reported suggest PtAcacDMS as a potential

  13. Crystal and phonon structure of ZnSiP{sub 2}, a II-IV-V{sub 2} semiconducting compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena-Pedraza, H., E-mail: [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Pamplona, Pamplona 54518000 (Colombia); Lopez-Rivera, S.A.; Martin, J.M. [Laboratorio de Fisica Aplicada, ULA, Merida 5101 (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Delgado, J.M. [Laboratorio de Cristalografia, ULA, Merida 5101 (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Power, Ch. [Centro de Estudios en Semiconductores, ULA, Merida 5101 (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)


    Using single-crystal X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy, the characterization of a member of the II-IV-V{sub 2} family of semiconducting compounds, ZnSiP{sub 2}, is presented in this work. The diffraction experiment showed that ZnSiP{sub 2} crystallizes in a chalcopyrite-type of structure (space group: I4{sup Macron }2d) with unit cell parameters a = 5.407(9) Angstrom-Sign and c = 10.454(2) Angstrom-Sign . The structure is based on a cubic close-packed arrangement of phosphorus atoms with the two cations in an orderly way occupying one-half of the tetrahedral sites. In this structure, two Zn and two Si are bonded to each phosphorus atom and four phosphorus atoms are bonded to each cation. The results obtained are consistent with previous reports. Raman spectroscopy, Group Theory, and a modified correlation method allowed the assignment of the characteristics of the thirteen first-order Raman active optical vibrational modes observed for this material.

  14. Ruthenium(II) piano stool coordination compounds with aminomethylphosphanes: Synthesis, characterisation and preliminary biological study in vitro. (United States)

    Płotek, Michał; Starosta, Radosław; Komarnicka, Urszula K; Skórska-Stania, Agnieszka; Kołoczek, Przemysław; Kyzioł, Agnieszka


    Reaction of {[Ru(η(6)-p-cymene)Cl]2(μ-Cl)2} (1) with aminomethylphosphane derived from morpholine (P{CH2N(CH2CH2)2O}3 (A), PPh2{CH2N(CH2CH2)2O} (B)) or piperazine (P{CH2N(CH2CH2)2NCH2CH3}3 (C), PPh2{CH2N(CH2CH2)2NCH2CH3} (D)) results in four new piano stool ruthenium(II) coordination compounds: [Ru(η(6)-p-cymene)Cl2(A)] (2A), [Ru(η(6)-p-cymene)Cl2(B)] (2B), [Ru(η(6)-p-cymene)Cl2(C)] (2C) and [Ru(η(6)-p-cymene)Cl2(D)] (2D). Every complex was fully characterized using spectroscopic methods ((1)H, (13)C{(1)H}, (31)P{(1)H} NMR and ESI-MS), elemental analysis, X-ray single crystal diffraction and DFT calculations. Preliminary studies of in vitro cytotoxicity on the A549 (human lung adenocarcinoma) and MCF7 (human breast adenocarcinoma) cell lines revealed 2A-2D activity in the same order of magnitude as in the case of cisplatin. Additionally, the study confirmed the ability of 2A-2D to interact with DNA helix and transferrin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Fixation of CO2 in air: Synthesis and crystal structure of a 3-CO3-bridged tricopper(II) compound

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jhumpa Mukherjee; V Balamurugan; Maninder Singh Hundal; Rabindranath Mukherjee


    A novel trinuclear copper(II) compound [{(L3)Cu(OClO3)}3(3-OCO2)][ClO4] has been synthesised using an N-tridentate symmetrical pyridylalkylamine ligand, N-methyl-N,N-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)amine (L3). The structure of the complex has been determined by X-ray crystallography; it is found to crystallise in the hexagonal space group 63/ with = 13.936(2), = 13.936(2), = 14.895(3) Å, = = 90°, = 120°. The complex possesses a $\\bar{6}$ - symmetry axis passing through the carbon atom of the triply bridging carbonate ion, with the three symmetry related copper ions connected to one another through the oxygen atoms from the bridging carbonato group, giving an equilateral triangular array of copper centres. Each copper ion has distorted square pyramidal environment with the basal plane formed by three nitrogen atoms of the ligand L3 and the oxygen atom of the bridging carbonato group. The apical position at each copper is provided by the weak oxygen coordination from the perchlorate ion.

  16. Chitosan microparticles: influence of the gelation process on the release profile and oral bioavailability of albendazole, a class II compound. (United States)

    Piccirilli, Gisela N; García, Agustina; Leonardi, Darío; Mamprin, María E; Bolmaro, Raúl E; Salomón, Claudio J; Lamas, María C


    Encapsulation of albendazole, a class II compound, into polymeric microparticles based on chitosan-sodium lauryl sulfate was investigated as a strategy to improve drug dissolution and oral bioavailability. The microparticles were prepared by spray drying technique and further characterized by means of X-ray powder diffractometry, infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The formation of a novel polymeric structure between chitosan and sodium lauryl sulfate, after the internal or external gelation process, was observed by infrared spectroscopy. The efficiency of encapsulation was found to be between 60 and 85% depending on the internal or external gelation process. Almost spherically spray dried microparticles were observed using scanning electron microscopy. In vitro dissolution results indicated that the microparticles prepared by internal gelation released 8% of the drug within 30 min, while the microparticles prepared by external gelation released 67% within 30 min. It was observed that the AUC and Cmax values of ABZ from microparticles were greatly improved, in comparison with the non-encapsulated drug. In conclusion, the release properties and oral bioavailability of albendazole were greatly improved by using spraydried chitosan-sodium lauryl sulphate microparticles.

  17. Plant growth with new fluorescent lamps : II. Growth and reproduction of mature bean plants and dwarf marigold plants. (United States)

    Thomas, A S; Dunn, S


    Bean and marigold plants were grown to maturity under several kinds of fluorescent lamps to evaluate the effects of spectral differences on development and reproduction. Six kinds of lamps were tested including five lamps that were used in closely related experiments on tomato seedling growth (THOMAS and DUNN, 1967). Evaluation was by fresh- and dry-weight yields of immature and mature pods, and of vegetative tops of plants for bean; and by flowering and fresh-and dry-weight yields for marigold.Bean plants grown under two experimental lamps, Com I and IR III produced significantly higher fresh- and dry-weight yields of both mature and total pods than under Warm-white lamps. This effect could be attributed largely to the considerable energy emitted by the experimental lamps in the red and far-red, as compared to a larger emission in the green and blue for the Warm-white lamps. The differences in the yields for immature pods and vegetative portions of the mature tops were not significant.In a comparison of the effects of three experimental lamps with those of three commercial lamps on growth response of bean plants, the yields were in general higher for the experimental lamps, except for immature pods. The yields of vegetative tops were significantly greater for the 78/22 lamp over the yields for all other lamps. The larger proportion of red and far-red light emitted by the experimental lamps is again the probable cause of the higher yields with these lamps.Two sets of experiments on growth and flowering of marigold under various experimental and commercial lamps were largely inconclusive although there was some indication of beneficial effects by the experimental lamps.In general, the results with bean agree with those for tomato (THOMAS and DUNN, 1967), in that best growth was obtained with a lamp high in red light emission, a moderate amount in the far-red, and very little in the blue part of the spectrum.

  18. Ruthenium(II carbonyl compounds with the 4′-chloro-2,2′:6′,2′′-terpyridine ligand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendhraprasad Tatikonda


    Full Text Available Two ruthenium carbonyl complexes with the 4′-chloro-2,2′:6′,2′′-terpyridine ligand (tpy-Cl, C15H10ClN3, i.e. [RuCl(tpy-Cl(CO2][RuCl3(CO3] (I [systematic name: cis-dicarbonylchlorido(4′-chloro-2,2′:6′,2′′-terpyridine-κ3Nruthenium(II fac-tricarbonyltrichloridoruthenate(II], and [RuCl2(tpy-Cl(CO2] (II [cis-dicarbonyl-trans-dichlorido(4′-chloro-2,2′:6′,2′′-terpyridine-κ2N1,N1′ruthenium(II], were synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The RuII atoms in both centrosymmetric structures (I and (II display similar, slightly distorted octahedral coordination spheres. The coordination sphere in the complex cation in compound (I is defined by three N atoms of the tridentate tpy-Cl ligand, two carbonyl carbon atoms and one chlorido ligand; the charge is balanced by an octahedral [Ru(CO3Cl3]− counter-anion. In the neutral compound (II, the tpy-Cl ligand coordinates to the metal only through two of its N atoms. The coordination sphere of the RuII atom is completed by two carbonyl and two chlorido ligands. In the crystal structures of both (I and (II, weak C—H...Cl interactions are observed.

  19. Association of the estrogen receptor gene Pvu II restriction polymorphism with expected progeny differences for reproductive and performance traits in swine herds in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Amélia Aparecida Santana


    Full Text Available Estrogen has an important function in swine reproduction and growth. A Pvu II restriction enzyme polymorphism has been proven to be an important genetic variation in the estrogen receptor gene (ESR and may be considered as a candidate gene for use in pig production but there is no data regarding the prevalence of this polymorphism in the Brazilian pig population. We used DNA samples from the following three purebred pig breeds: Large White (336 females and 26 males, Landrace (304 females and 27 males and Pietrain (125 females and 11 males. The ESR genotyping was performed using PCR-RFLP. For each breed, genotypes for the ESR gene were compared independently for expected progeny differences (EPD in litter size (LS, average daily weight gain (DWG (g/day and back fat thickness (BT as measured in mm by ultrasound. In the Large White breed, but not the other breeds, the ESR genotype was significantly (p < 0.05 associated to LS, DWG and BT. Large Whites genotyped as AA or AB had higher EPD values for the LS and BT traits compared to BB Large Whites, while AA Large Whites had higher DWG EPD values than BB Large Whites. Our results for the Large White population showed that the A allele has a beneficial effect on LS, DWG and BT expected progeny differences.

  20. Emtonjeni-A Structural Intervention to Integrate Sexual and Reproductive Health into Public Sector HIV Care in Cape Town, South Africa: Results of a Phase II Study. (United States)

    Mantell, J E; Cooper, D; Exner, T M; Moodley, J; Hoffman, S; Myer, L; Leu, C-S; Bai, D; Kelvin, E A; Jennings, K; Stein, Z A; Constant, D; Zweigenthal, V; Cishe, N; Nywagi, N


    Integration of sexual and reproductive health within HIV care services is a promising strategy for increasing access to family planning and STI services and reducing unwanted pregnancies, perinatal HIV transmission and maternal and infant mortality among people living with HIV and their partners. We conducted a Phase II randomized futility trial of a multi-level intervention to increase adherence to safer sex guidelines among those wishing to avoid pregnancy and adherence to safer conception guidelines among those seeking conception in newly-diagnosed HIV-positive persons in four public-sector HIV clinics in Cape Town. Clinics were pair-matched and the two clinics within each pair were randomized to either a three-session provider-delivered enhanced intervention (EI) (onsite contraceptive services and brief milieu intervention for staff) or standard-of-care (SOC) provider-delivered intervention. The futility analysis showed that we cannot rule out the possibility that the EI intervention has a 10 % point or greater success rate in improving adherence to safer sex/safer conception guidelines than does SOC (p = 0.573), indicating that the intervention holds merit, and a larger-scale confirmatory study showing whether the EI is superior to SOC has merit.

  1. Role of NSO compounds during primary cracking of a Type II kerogen and a Type III lignite (United States)

    Behar, F.; Lorant, F.; Lewan, M.


    The aim of this work is to follow the generation of NSO compounds during the artificial maturation of an immature Type II kerogen and a Type III lignite in order to determine the different sources of the petroleum potential during primary cracking. Experiments were carried out in closed system pyrolysis in the temperature range from 225 to 350 ??C. Two types of NSOs were recovered: one is soluble in n-pentane and the second in dichloromethane. A kinetic scheme was optimised including both kerogen and NSO cracking. It was validated by complementary experiments carried out on isolated asphaltenes generated from the Type II kerogen and on the total n-pentane and DCM extracts generated from the Type III lignite. Results show that kerogen and lignite first decompose into DCM NSOs with minor generation of hydrocarbons. Then, the main source of petroleum potential originates from secondary cracking of both DCM and n-pentane NSOs through successive decomposition reactions. These results confirm the model proposed by Tissot [Tissot, B., 1969. Premie??res donne??es sur les me??canismes et la cine??tique de la formation du pe??trole dans les bassins se??dimentaires. Simulation d'un sche??ma re??actionnel sur ordinateur. Oil and Gas Science and Technology 24, 470-501] in which the main source of hydrocarbons is not the insoluble organic matter, but the NSO fraction. As secondary cracking of the NSOs largely overlaps that of the kerogen, it was demonstrated that bulk kinetics in open system is a result of both kerogen and NSO cracking. Thus, another kinetic scheme for primary cracking in open system was built as a combination of kerogen and NSO cracking. This new kinetic scheme accounts for both the rate and amounts of hydrocarbons generated in a closed pyrolysis system. Thus, the concept of successive steps for hydrocarbon generation is valid for the two types of pyrolysis system and, for the first time, a common kinetic scheme is available for extrapolating results to natural

  2. New manganese(II) and nickel(II) coordination compounds with N,O-polydentate ligands obtained from pyridoxal and tripodal units (United States)

    Ebani, Patrícia Regina; Fontana, Liniquer Andre; Campos, Patrick Teixeira; Rosso, Eduardo F.; Piquini, Paulo C.; Iglesias, Bernardo Almeida; Back, Davi Fernando


    We have reported the synthesis involving the condensation of pyridoxal with tris(2-aminoethyl)amine obtained a tripodal ligand, as well as its subsequent complexation with the manganese(II) and nickel(II) ions. The structural analysis revealed, in the case of complex 1, the formation of a monomeric complex with Mn(II) species. In the complex 2, with Ni(II) metal ion, we describe the probable mechanism for the formation of hemiacetal in these complexes. Only the complex 1 catalyze the dismutation of superoxide efficiently with IC50 equal to 3.38 μM, evaluated through the nitro blue tetrazolium photoreduction inhibition superoxide dismutase assay, in aqueous solution of pH 7.8. Density functional theory calculations are done to characterize and compare the molecular frontier orbitals of the Mn(II) and Ni(II) complexes.

  3. Dynamics of phosphorus compounds in ripening and germinating cereal grains. Part II. Changes in phosphorus compounds content during germination of wheat, barley and rye grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tłuczkiewicz


    Full Text Available The dynamics of phosphorus compounds was investigated in the embryos and endosperm of wheat (Grana, barley (Kosmos and rye (Pancerne grain after 2, 4 and 6 days of germination. In germinating grain the phosphorus compounds transformations ran along the way of synthesis in the embryo and of breakdown in the endosperm. The level of phosphorus: inorganic, nucleotides, saccharides esters and their metabolites, lipid, RNA, DNA, phytin free and phytin bound with proteins and proteins rapidly increased in germinating seed embryos. The content of phosphorus free phytin and that bound with proteins, lipids, RNA and DNA in the endosperm rapidly decreased during germination. On the other hand, the saccharides phosphorus and that of their metabolites did not change, and inorganic, nuclotides and proteins-P slightly increased. Germinating rye grains showed a higher rate of synthesis in the embryos and of breakdown in the endosperm of the investigated phosphorus compounds than wheat and barley grains.

  4. Enantioselective Synthesis of α-Mercapto-β-amino Esters via Rh(II)/Chiral Phosphoric Acid-Cocatalyzed Three-Component Reaction of Diazo Compounds, Thiols, and Imines. (United States)

    Xiao, Guolan; Ma, Chaoqun; Xing, Dong; Hu, Wenhao


    An enantioselective method for the synthesis of α-mercapto-β-amino esters has been developed via a rhodium(II)/chiral phosphoric acid-cocatalyzed three-component reaction of diazo compounds, thiols, and imines. This transformation is proposed to proceed through enantioselective trapping of the sulfonium ylide intermediate generated in situ from the diazo compound and thiol by the phosphoric acid-activated imine. With this method, a series of α-mercapto-β-amino esters were obtained in good yields with moderate to good stereoselectivities.

  5. Spectroscopic, thermal and biological studies of coordination compounds of sulfasalazine drug: Mn(II), Hg(II), Cr(III), ZrO(II), VO(II) and Y(III) transition metal complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M G Abd El-Wahed; M S Refat; S M El-Megharbel


    The complexations of sulfasalazine (H3Suz) with some of transition metals have been investigated. Three types of complexes, [Mn(HSuz)-2(H2O)4].2H2O, [M(HSuz)-2(H2O)2].H2O (M = Hg(II), ZrO(II) and VO(II), = 4, 8 and 6, respectively) and [M(HSuz)-2(Cl)(H2O)3].H2O (M = Cr(III) and Y(III), = 5 and 6, respectively) were obtained and characterized by physicochemical and spectroscopic methods. The IR spectra of the complexes suggest that the sulfasalazine behaves as a monoanionic bidentate ligand. The thermal decomposition of the complexes as well as thermodynamic parameters ( *}, *, * and *) were estimated using Coats–Redfern and Horowitz–Metzger equations. In vitro antimicrobial activities of the H3Suz and the complexes were tested.

  6. Effects of counterions of colorful sandwich-type zinc(II) 4‧-phenyl-terpyridine compounds on photoluminescent and thermal properties (United States)

    Zhang, Yongqiang; Zhou, Peng; Liang, Baohuan; Huang, Ling; Zhou, Yanling; Ma, Zhen


    Reactions between 4‧-phenyl-terpyridine (L) and several Zn(II) salts (p-toluenesulfonate, nitrate, trifluoromethane sulfonate or hexafluoroantimonate) led to the formation of the complexes [ZnL2](p-OSO2PhCH3)2 (1), [ZnL2](NO3)2 (2), [ZnL2](SO3CF3)2 (3) and [ZnL2](SbF6)2 (4), which were characterized by IR, 1H NMR, elemental analysis, UV-vis spectroscopies and single crystal X-ray diffraction, along with their TG-DTA thermal and photoluminescent properties. The four compounds show mononuclear Zn(II) structures with hexacoordinated, irregular ZnN6 octahedron geometries. Their colours and photo-luminescent properties have changed regularly depending on the counterions of the compounds.

  7. Synthesis of Dichlorophosphinenickel(II) Compounds and Their Catalytic Activity in Suzuki Cross-Coupling Reactions: A Simple Air-Free Experiment for Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory (United States)

    Thananatthanachon, Todsapon; Lecklider, Michelle R.


    In this experiment, students perform an air-free synthesis of three dichlorophosphinenickel(II) compounds, NiCl[subscript 2](PPh[subscript 3])[subscript 2], NiCl[subscript 2](PCy[subscript 3])[subscript 2], and NiCl[subscript 2](DPPE), using NiCl[subscript 2]·6H[subscript 2]O and the appropriate phosphine as the precursors. These colorful nickel…

  8. Compounds with anti-influenza activity: present and future of strategies for the optimal treatment and management of influenza Part II: Future compounds against influenza virus


    Gasparini, R; Amicizia, D.; Lai, P.L.; BRAGAZZI, N.L.; Panatto, D.


    Summary In the first part of this overview, we described the life cycle of the influenza virus and the pharmacological action of the currently available drugs. This second part provides an overview of the molecular mechanisms and targets of still-experimental drugs for the treatment and management of influenza. Briefly, we can distinguish between compounds with anti-influenza activity that target influenza virus proteins or genes, and molecules that target host components that are essential f...

  9. Compounds with anti-influenza activity: present and future of strategies for the optimal treatment and management of influenza. Part II: Future compounds against influenza virus. (United States)

    Gasparini, R; Amicizia, D; Lai, P L; Bragazzi, N L; Panatto, D


    In the first part of this overview, we described the life cycle of the influenza virus and the pharmacological action of the currently available drugs. This second part provides an overview of the molecular mechanisms and targets of still-experimental drugs for the treatment and management of influenza. Briefly, we can distinguish between compounds with anti-influenza activity that target influenza virus proteins or genes, and molecules that target host components that are essential for viral replication and propagation. These latter compounds have been developed quite recently. Among the first group, we will focus especially on hemagglutinin, M2 channel and neuraminidase inhibitors. The second group of compounds may pave the way for personalized treatment and influenza management. Combination therapies are also discussed. In recent decades, few antiviral molecules against influenza virus infections have been available; this has conditioned their use during human and animal outbreaks. Indeed, during seasonal and pandemic outbreaks, antiviral drugs have usually been administered in mono-therapy and, sometimes, in an uncontrolled manner to farm animals. This has led to the emergence of viral strains displaying resistance, especially to compounds of the amantadane family. For this reason, it is particularly important to develop new antiviral drugs against influenza viruses. Indeed, although vaccination is the most powerful means of mitigating the effects of influenza epidemics, antiviral drugs can be very useful, particularly in delaying the spread of new pandemic viruses, thereby enabling manufacturers to prepare large quantities of pandemic vaccine. In addition, antiviral drugs are particularly valuable in complicated cases of influenza, especially in hospitalized patients. To write this overview, we mined various databases, including Embase, PubChem, DrugBank and Chemical Abstracts Service, and patent repositories.

  10. Evaluation of the health aspects of certain compounds found in irradiated beef. Supplement II. Possible radiolytic compounds. Final report, 1 October 1977-31 March 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chinn, H.I.


    Volatile products of beef irradiated with 56 kGy (5.6 Mrad) and approximately -30 C have been identified and their health aspects discussed in a previous report. In addition to these volatile radiolytic compounds, other, nonvolatile products are possible. This report attempts to identify the compounds which might result from beef irradiation; to estimate roughly the concentrations of such products; and to evaluate their possible hazard to health. There is very little carbohydrate in beef and its radiolytic products should be relatively innocuous in the amounts produced. Few radiolytic products have been identified from the protein component of beef. The bulk of radiolytic products found in beef has come from the fat moiety. Simple triglycerides have been studied extensively and sites of bond scission have been identified. The major products are fatty acids, diglycerides, and diol diesters. The concentrations of these classes have been estimated at approximately 0.5 to 1.0 g per kg irradiated beef. Lesser amounts of many other compounds are possible, including hydrocarbons of varying chain lengths, glycerol, monoglycerides, aldehydes, and ketones. The biological effects of each of these classes have been considered.

  11. Inclusion compounds between α-, β- and γ-cyclodextrins: iron II lactate: a theoretical and experimental study using diffusion coefficients and molecular mechanics (United States)

    Leite, Rosiley A.; Lino, Antonio C. S.; Takahata, Yuji


    The inclusion compounds between iron II lactate and three different cyclodextrins (CDs) were studied by means of experimental and theoretical data. The importance of iron II in the human metabolism effort the necessity of a minimum concentration to the human life. Malnutrition is one great problem in social politics of many countries on the world. The possibility to the development of novel medicines with the iron II species stable look for an increase on the efficiency for this kind of aid. Kinetics measurements confirm the possibility to stop the oxidation reaction. It was the first indication of efficient molecular encapsulation. Diffusion coefficient measurements were carried out by Taylor-Aris diffusion technique. The decrease of diffusion coefficients measured for iron II lactate when alone and forming the inclusion complexes was obtained for all hosts molecules used. Molecular Mechanics calculations were performed to elucidate the perfect arrange of iron II lactate inside CDs cavity. No great differences were obtained to the binding energy for the different hosts. Using the software HyperChem6.03v MM+, AMBER94 and OPLS Forced Fields for iron atom in two chemical environments (a) vacuum and (b) with addition of 250 water molecules (MM+). The solvent treatment was decisive to the order of stability. This order was β-CD>γ-CD>α-CD, the same order of solubility in water. The results contained in this work confirm the possibility to protect iron II lactate against oxidation.

  12. Estanilenos: organometálicos de estanho (II σ - ligados a grupos orgânicos Stannylenes: organometallic compounds of tin (II σ-bonded to organic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo M. de Lima


    Full Text Available This article provides a short review of the chemistry of stannylenes and their derivatives, including the preparation, spectroscopic properties, molecular structure and reactivity of the various species. The organometallic chemistry of Sn(II is far less explored than that of its much more common Sn(IV counterpart. Organometallics of main group metals have become increasingly important in recent years, which prompted us to present an overview of the situation regarding the case of Sn(II.

  13. Unusual mode of protein binding by a cytotoxic π-arene ruthenium(ii) piano-stool compound containing an O,S-chelating ligand. (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Jana; Görls, Helmar; Häfner, Norman; Ferraro, Giarita; Dürst, Matthias; Runnebaum, Ingo B; Weigand, Wolfgang; Merlino, Antonello


    A new pseudo-octahedral π-arene ruthenium(ii) piano-stool compound, containing an O,S-bidentate ligand (compound 1) and showing significant cytotoxic activity in vitro, was synthesized and characterized. In solution stability and interaction with the model protein bovine pancreatic ribonuclease (RNase A) were investigated by using UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. Its crystal structure and that of the adduct formed upon reaction with RNase A were obtained by X-ray crystallography. The comparison between the structure of purified compound 1 and that of the fragment bound to RNase A reveals an unusual mode of protein binding that includes ligand exchange and alteration of coordination sphere geometry.

  14. Spin crossover behaviour in one-dimensional Fe(II) compounds based on the [M(CN)4](2-) (M = Pd, Pt) units. (United States)

    Zhang, Shao-Liang; Zhao, Xin-Hua; Wang, Yuan-Min; Shao, Dong; Wang, Xin-Yi


    Four one-dimensional heterobimetallic coordination polymers {Fe(pic)2[M(CN)4]}n (M = Pd(II) () and Pt(II) (), pic = 2-picolylamine), and {Fe(pypz)2[M(CN)4]}n (M = Pd(II) () and Pt(II) (), pypz = 2-(1H-pyrazol-3-yl)pyridine) have been synthesized and characterized by infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, magnetic measurements and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Single-crystal X-ray analyses show that all the compounds are 1D neutral zigzag chain structures in which the planar [M(CN)4](2-) anion acts as a μ2-bridging ligand, and the two pic/pypz molecules as chelating coligands. Examination of the intermolecular contacts in compounds reveals the existence of the hydrogen bonding interactions involving the hydrogen donor groups of the pic and pypz ligands and the nitrogen atoms of the non-bridging cyanide groups of the [M(CN)4](2-) anions. Weak π-π interactions were also found to be important for the formation of the 3D structures of compounds and . The SCO properties of all compounds were confirmed by the detailed structural analyses of the coordination environments of the Fe(II) centres, DSC analyses, and magnetic susceptibility measurements. Compounds and exhibit complete SCO behaviour with very narrow thermal hysteresis loops centred near the room temperature (T1/2↓ = 270 K and T1/2↑ = 272 K for and T1/2↓ = 272 K and T1/2↑ = 274 K for ), whereas and exhibit abrupt SCO at 186 and 180 K, respectively. Compared to the mononuclear species of the pic and pypz ligands, the SCO temperatures are adjusted by the different ligand field strength of the [M(CN)4)](2-) units. The cooperativity from both the coordination bonds and supramolecular interaction leads to the observation of the hysteresis loops in the Fe-pic systems and the abrupt SCO transition in the Fe-pypz systems. Furthermore, the light-induced excited-spin-state trapping (LIESST) effect was observed for .


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, F


    Reproductive toxicants are a very important class of compounds. They present unique hazards to those of child bearing ages, perform their 'dirty work' using a wide variety of mechanisms on a number of different organs, and are regulatorily important. Because of all of this, properly identifying reproductive toxicants is important, but fraught with difficulty. In this paper we will describe types or reproductive toxicants, their importance, and both mistakes and good practices that people who are not experts in reproductive toxicology may use in their attempts to identify them. Additionally, this paper will focus on chemical reproductive toxicants and will not address biological agents that could affect reproductive toxicity although many principles outlined here could be applied to that endeavor.

  16. Diverse Cd(II) compounds based on N-benzoyl-L-glutamic acid and N-donor ligands: Structures and photoluminescent properties (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Guo, Wei-Ying; Song, Hui-Hua; Yu, Hai-Tao


    Five new Cd(II) coordination polymers with N-benzoyl-L-glutamic acid (H2bzgluO) and different N-donor ligands, [Cd(bzgluO)(2,2‧-bipy)(H2O)]n (1), [Cd(bzgluO)(2,4‧-bipy)2(H2O)·3H2O]n (2), [Cd(bzgluO)(phen)·H2O]n (3), [Cd(bzgluO)(4,4‧-bipy)(H2O)]n (4), [Cd(bzgluO)(bpp)(H2O)·2H2O]n (5) were synthesized (2,2‧-bipy=2,2‧-bipyridine, 2,4‧-bipy=2,4‧-bipyridine, phen=1,10-phenanthroline, 4,4‧-bipy=4,4‧-bipyridine, bpp=1,3-di(4-pyridyl)propane). Compounds 1-2 exhibit a 1D single-chain structure. Compound 1 generates a 2D supramolecular structure via π-π stacking and hydrogen bonding, 3D architecture of compound 2 is formed by hydrogen bonding. Compound 3 features a 1D double-chain structure, which are linked by π-π interactions into a 2D supramolecular layer. Compounds 4-5 display a 2D network structure. Neighboring layers of 4 are extended into a 3D supramolecular architecture through hydrogen bonding. The structural diversity of these compounds is attributed to the effect of ancillary N-donor ligands and coordination modes of H2bzgluO. Luminescent properties of 1-5 were studied at room temperature. Circular dichroism of compounds 1, 2 and 5 were investigated.

  17. Structural, vibrational, and electronic properties of an uncoordinated pseudoephedrine derivative and its mononuclear and trinuclear copper(II)-coordinated compounds: A combined theoretical and experimental study (United States)

    Valencia, Israel; Ávila-Torres, Yenny; Barba-Behrens, Norah; Garzón, Ignacio L.


    Multicopper oxidases are fundamental in a variety of biological processes in bacteria, fungi and vertebrates. The catalytic center in these enzymes is formed basically by three copper ions, bridged by oxygen bonds. In order to get insights into the reactivity of these complex systems, biomimetic compounds are usually synthesized. Accordingly, in this work, we studied structural, vibrational, and electronic properties of an uncoordinated pseudoephedrine derivative, as well as its corresponding mononuclear and trinuclear copper(II)-coordinated complexes by means of density functional theory. The calculations are compared with experimental results using measurements of the infrared spectra. It is obtained that the molecular configuration of the pseudoephedrine amino-alcohol derivative is stabilized by hydrogen bonding Osbnd H⋯N and by Csbnd H⋯π interactions that are not present in the mononuclear and trinuclear compounds. The coordination compounds show octahedral and square pyramid geometries, respectively, which are slightly distorted by Jahn-Teller effects. The analysis of their theoretical and experimental IR spectra reveals signals related with hydrogen bonding as well as metal-ligand vibrational modes. Regarding the electronic structure, the density of states was calculated in order to analyze the atomic orbital contributions present in these compounds. This analysis would provide useful insights about the optical behavior, for example, in the visible region of the spectrum of the coordinated compounds. At these energies, the optical absorption would be influenced by the orbital interaction of the Cu2+d orbitals with sp ones of the ligand, reflecting a decrease of the HOMO-LUMO gap of the organic ligand due to the presence of the copper(II) ions.

  18. Investigations into traditionally managed Djallonké-sheep production in the humid and subhumid zones of Asante, Ghana: II. Reproductive events and prolificacy(1). (United States)

    London, J C; Weniger, J H; Schwartz, H J


    Parturitions of 338 among humid-zone ewes and 690 among subhumid-zone ewes gave rise to 361 and 797 live-born lambs, respectively. Mean age and weight at first parity were 431.3 days and 15.6 kg for the humid-zone ewes while those for the subhumid-zone ewes were 429.4 days and 17.0 kg. Early age at first parity is related to physiological age and growth of body weight which is closely related to early sexual maturity. The monthly distribution of parturitions is discussed with considerably higher peaks in October, April and May in the humid zone while in the subhumid zone, high frequencies were recorded in July, August, February and March. Higher parities significantly shortened the successive parturition intervals within and between the climatic zones with general intervals of 234.2 and 208.7 days among the humid- and the subhumid-zone ewes, respectively, at the fifth parity. The shortest parturition intervals (242.6 days) were recorded during the dryspell-minor wet season (August-October) in the humid zone and the major-wet season (May-July; 223.9 days) in the subhumid zone. Higher annual reproduction rates of 1.95 (1st year) and 1.79 (2nd year) lambs among the free-range ewes while subnormal rates of 1.72 (1st year) and 1.68 (2nd year) lambs among the humid-zone ewes were recorded. These differences are related to the natural service, parturition intervals, litter size and the availability of fodder plants as influenced by management (semi-tethering as against free-range). ZUSAMMENFASSUNG: Untersuchungen über traditionelle Schafproduktion in der humiden und sub-humiden Asante Region Ghanas II. Reproduktionsleistungen und Fruchtbarkeitsraten Gegenüber 690 Lebendgeburten bei 338 Mutterschafen in der humiden Zone (H) wurden in der semi-humiden Zone (SH) 797 Geburten bei 361 Mutterschafen erfaßt. Mit einem Erstlammalter zwischen 431,3 (H) und 429,4 (SH) Tagen und Körpergewichten von 15,6 kg (H) und 17,0 kg (SH) sind Mutterschafe zu diesem Zeitpunkt in der semi

  19. Semisynthetic Lipopeptides Derived from Nisin Display Antibacterial Activity and Lipid II Binding on Par with That of the Parent Compound. (United States)

    Koopmans, Timo; Wood, Thomas M; 't Hart, Peter; Kleijn, Laurens H J; Hendrickx, Antoni P A; Willems, Rob J L; Breukink, Eefjan; Martin, Nathaniel I


    The lipid II-binding N-terminus of nisin, comprising the so-called A/B ring system, was synthetically modified to provide antibacterially active and proteolytically stable derivatives. A variety of lipids were coupled to the C-terminus of the nisin A/B ring system to generate semisynthetic constructs that display potent inhibition of bacterial growth, with activities approaching that of nisin itself. Most notable was the activity observed against clinically relevant bacterial strains including MRSA and VRE. Experiments with membrane models indicate that these constructs operate via a lipid II-mediated mode of action without causing pore formation. A lipid II-dependent mechanism of action is further supported by antagonization assays wherein the addition of lipid II was found to effectively block the antibacterial activity of the nisin-derived lipopeptides.

  20. Photoreceptor spectral sensitivity of the compound eyes of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) informing the design of LED-based illumination to enhance indoor reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonincx, D.G.A.B.; Volk, N.; Diehl, J.J.E.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Belušič, G.


    Mating in the black soldier fly (BSF) is a visually mediated behaviour that under natural conditions occurs in full sunlight. Artificial light conditions promoting mating by BSF were designed based on the spectral characteristics of the compound eye retina. Electrophysiological measurements

  1. Perfluoroalkyl compounds in relation to life-history and reproductive parameters in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from Sarasota Bay, Florida, USA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houde, M.; Balmer, B.C.; Brandsma, S.H.; Wells, R.S.; Rowles, T.K.; Solomon, K.R.; Muir, D.C.G.


    Perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) were determined in plasma, milk, and urine of free-ranging bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from Sarasota Bay (FL, USA) during three winter and two summer capture-and-release programs (2002¿ 2005). Plasma and urine samples were extracted using an ion-pairing m

  2. Photoreceptor spectral sensitivity of the compound eyes of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) informing the design of LED-based illumination to enhance indoor reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonincx, D.G.A.B.; Volk, N.; Diehl, J.J.E.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Belušič, G.


    Mating in the black soldier fly (BSF) is a visually mediated behaviour that under natural conditions occurs in full sunlight. Artificial light conditions promoting mating by BSF were designed based on the spectral characteristics of the compound eye retina. Electrophysiological measurements revea

  3. Manipulating insulin signaling to enhance mosquito reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasgon Jason L


    Full Text Available Abstract Backgrond In the mosquito Aedes aegypti the insulin/insulin growth factor I signaling (IIS cascade is a key regulator of many physiological processes, including reproduction. Two important reproductive events, steroidogenesis in the ovary and yolk synthesis in the fat body, are regulated by the IIS cascade in mosquitoes. The signaling molecule phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN is a key inhibitor of the IIS cascade that helps modulate the activity of the IIS cascade. In Ae. aegypti, six unique splice variants of AaegPTEN were previously identified, but the role of these splice variants, particularly AaegPTEN3 and 6, were unknown. Results Knockdown of AaegPTEN or its specific splice variant AaegPTEN6 (the splice variant thought to regulate reproduction in the ovary and fat body using RNAi led to a 15–63% increase in egg production with no adverse effects on egg viability during the first reproductive cycle. Knockdown of AaegPTEN3, expressed predominantly in the head, had no effect on reproduction. We also characterized the protein expression patterns of these two splice variants during development and in various tissues during a reproductive cycle. Conclusion Previous studies in a range of organisms, including Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans, have demonstrated that disruption of the IIS cascade leads to decreased reproduction or sterility. In this study we demonstrate that knockdown of the IIS inhibitor PTEN can actually increase reproduction in the mosquito, at least during the first reproductive cycle.

  4. Luminescent MOFs comprising mixed tritopic linkers and Cd(II)/Zn(II) nodes for selective detection of organic nitro compounds and iodine capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rachuri, Yadagiri; Bisht, Kamal Kumar [Analytical Discipline and Centralized Instrument Facility, CSIR–Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, G. B. Marg, Bhavnagar 364002, Gujarat (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR–Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, G. B. Marg, Bhavnagar 364002, Gujarat (India); Parmar, Bhavesh [Analytical Discipline and Centralized Instrument Facility, CSIR–Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, G. B. Marg, Bhavnagar 364002, Gujarat (India); Suresh, Eringathodi, E-mail: [Analytical Discipline and Centralized Instrument Facility, CSIR–Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, G. B. Marg, Bhavnagar 364002, Gujarat (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR–Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, G. B. Marg, Bhavnagar 364002, Gujarat (India)


    Two CPs ([Cd{sub 3}(BTC){sub 2}(TIB){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}].(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}){sub n} (1) and ([Zn{sub 3}(BTC){sub 2}(TIB){sub 2}].(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}){sub n} (2) composed of tripodal linkers BTC (1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate) and TIB (1,3,5-tris(imidazol-1-ylmethyl)benzene) were synthesized via solvothermal route and structurally characterized. Single crystal structural analysis reveals 1 possesses a novel 3D framework structure, whereas 2 represents a previously established compound. Owing to the d{sup 10} configuration of metal nodes and robust 3D frameworks, 1 and 2 exhibit excellent fluorescence properties which have been exploited to sense organic nitro compounds in vapor phase. Compound 1 demonstrates selective sensing of nitromethane over structurally similar methanol with ca. 70 and 43% fluorescence quenching in case of former and later. Similarly, 58% fluorescence quenching was observed in case of nitrobenzene over the structurally resembling toluene for which 30% quenching was observed. Compound 2 did not show any preference for nitro compounds and exhibited comparable fluorescence quenching when exposed to the vapors of nitro or other geometrically resembling organic molecules. Furthermore, adsorption experiments revealed that 1 and 2 can uptake 2.74 and 14.14 wt% molecular iodine respectively in vapor phase which can be released in organic solvents such as hexane and acetonitrile. The maximal iodine uptake in case of 1 and 2 corresponds to 0.15 and 0.80 molecules of iodine per formula unit of respective frameworks. Comprehensive structural description, thermal stability and luminescence behavior for both CPs has also been presented. - Graphical abstract: Two 3D luminescent CPs comprising mixed tripodal ligands have been hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized. Iodine encapsulation capacity of synthesized CPs is evaluated and their fluorescence quenching in presence of small organic molecules is exploited for sensing of nitro

  5. Fully quantal calculation of H2 translation-rotation states in (H2)4@5(12)6(4) clathrate sII inclusion compounds. (United States)

    Felker, Peter M


    The quantal translation-rotation (TR) states of the (p-H2)4@5(12)6(4) and (o-D2)4@5(12)6(4) hydrate clathrate sII inclusion compounds have been computed by nuclear-orbital/configuration-interaction methods. The model of these compounds in a rigid, high-symmetry 5(12)6(4) cage is treated in detail. The low-energy TR level structures of both isotopomers within this model are found to consist of states that can be readily described in terms of a small number of single-H2 and double-H2 excitation modes. The use of the high-symmetry results to facilitate the calculation and interpretation of (p-H2)4 and (o-D2)4 TR states in low-symmetry physically realizable 5(12)6(4) cages is also reported.

  6. Formation of Fe(0-Nanoparticles via Reduction of Fe(II Compounds by Amino Acids and Their Subsequent Oxidation to Iron Oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Klačanová


    Full Text Available Iron nanoparticles were prepared by the reduction of central Fe(II ion in the coordination compounds with amino acid ligands. The anion of the amino acid used as a ligand acted as the reducing agent. Conditions for the reduction were very mild; the temperature did not exceed 52°C, and the optimum pH was between 9.5 and 9.7. The metal iron precipitated as a mirror on the flask or as a colloid in water. Identification of the product was carried out by measuring UV/VIS spectra of the iron nanoparticles in water. The iron nanoparticles were oxidized by oxygen yielding a mixture of iron oxides. Oxidation of Fe(0 to Fe(II took several seconds under air. The size and properties of iron oxide nanoparticles were studied by UV/VIS, TEM investigation, RTG diffractometry, Mössbauer spectroscopy, magnetometry, thermogravimetry, and GC/MS.

  7. Combined experimental and theoretical study on the reactivity of compounds I and II in horseradish peroxidase biomimetics. (United States)

    Ji, Li; Franke, Alicja; Brindell, Małgorzata; Oszajca, Maria; Zahl, Achim; van Eldik, Rudi


    For the exploration of the intrinsic reactivity of two key active species in the catalytic cycle of horseradish peroxidase (HRP), Compound I (HRP-I) and Compound II (HRP-II), we generated in situ [Fe(IV) O(TMP(+.) )(2-MeIm)](+) and [Fe(IV) O(TMP)(2-MeIm)](0) (TMP=5,10,15,20-tetramesitylporphyrin; 2-MeIm=2-methylimidazole) as biomimetics for HRP-I and HRP-II, respectively. Their catalytic activities in epoxidation, hydrogen abstraction, and heteroatom oxidation reactions were studied in acetonitrile at -15 °C by utilizing rapid-scan UV/Vis spectroscopy. Comparison of the second-order rate constants measured for the direct reactions of the HRP-I and HRP-II mimics with the selected substrates clearly confirmed the outstanding oxidizing capability of the HRP-I mimic, which is significantly higher than that of HRP-II. The experimental study was supported by computational modeling (DFT calculations) of the oxidation mechanism of the selected substrates with the involvement of quartet and doublet HRP-I mimics ((2,4) Cpd I) and the closed-shell triplet spin HRP-II model ((3) Cpd II) as oxidizing species. The significantly lower activation barriers calculated for the oxidation systems involving (2,4) Cpd I than those found for (3) Cpd II are in line with the much higher oxidizing efficiency of the HRP-I mimic proven in the experimental part of the study. In addition, the DFT calculations show that all three reaction types catalyzed by HRP-I occur on the doublet spin surface in an effectively concerted manner, whereas these reactions may proceed in a stepwise mechanism with the HRP-II mimic as oxidant. However, the high desaturation or oxygen rebound barriers during CH bond activation processes by the HRP-II mimic predict a sufficient lifetime for the substrate radical formed through hydrogen abstraction. Thus, the theoretical calculations suggest that the dissociation of the substrate radical may be a more favorable pathway than desaturation or

  8. Mono-, di- and polynuclear copper(II) compounds derived from N-butyldiethanolamine: structural features, magnetism and catalytic activity for the mild peroxidative oxidation of cyclohexane. (United States)

    Gruenwald, Katrin R; Kirillov, Alexander M; Haukka, Matti; Sanchiz, Joaquin; Pombeiro, Armando J L


    The new mononuclear [Cu(Hbdea)(2)].2Hdnba (), dinuclear [Cu(2)(mu-Hbdea)(2)(N(3))(2)] () and [Cu(2)(mu-Hbdea)(2)(pta)(2)].2H(2)O (), and 1D polymeric [Cu(2)(mu-Hbdea)(2)(mu-tpa)](n).2nH(2)O () copper(II) compounds have been prepared by self-assembly, in aqueous alkali medium and at ambient conditions, from Cu(II) acetate, N-butyldiethanolamine (H(2)bdea) and the corresponding auxiliary reagents, 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid (Hdnba), sodium azide, p-toluic acid (Hpta) and terephthalic acid (H(2)tpa), respectively. They have been fully characterized by IR spectroscopy, FAB-MS(+), elemental and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses, the latter also revealing intensive intermolecular hydrogen bonding in , resulting in the extension of the structural motifs and generation of tetrameric aggregates (in ) and 1D (in ) or 2D (in ) supramolecular networks. All compounds constitute the first examples of Cu complexes derived from N-butyldiethanolamine, while represents also the first coordination polymer bearing this ligand. Magnetic susceptibility measurements reveal that compound follows the Curie-Weiss law, whereas follow the Bleaney-Bowers dinuclear model displaying antiferromagnetic coupling. Compounds act as valuable catalyst precursors for the mild peroxidative oxidation of cyclohexane, by aqueous H(2)O(2) in acidic MeCN medium, to cyclohexanol and cyclohexanone with overall yields up to 38%. The effects of various acid additives (promoters) have been studied, showing the preferable use of trifluoroacetic (TFA), nitric and hydrochloric acids.

  9. Mammalian Toxicity of Munition Compounds. Phase II. Effects of Multiple Doses. Part III. 2,6-Dinitrotoluene (United States)


    calcium concentration can produce tetany ,./ which resembles the neuromuscular signs seen. However, this requires hypocalcemia of 3.5 meq/liter or less...treated with 2,4-DNT was not sufficient to induce tetany . Similar neuro- muscular effects were observed in dogs given either compounds, but the

  10. X-ray and DFT studies of a mono- and binuclear copper(II) ionic compound containing a Schiff base. (United States)

    Langer, Vratislav; Mach, Pavol; Gyepesová, Dalma; Andrezálová, Lucia; Kohútová, Mária


    In the structure of trans-bis(ethanol-κO)tetrakis(1H-imidazole-κN(3))copper(II) bis[μ-N-(2-oxidobenzylidene)-D,L-glutamato]-κ(4)O(1),N,O(2'):O(2');κ(4)O(2'):O(1),N,O(2')-bis[(1H-imidazole-κN(3))cuprate(II)], [Cu(C(3)H(4)N(2))(4)(C(2)H(6)O)(2)][Cu(2)(C(15)H(14)N(3)O(5))(2)], both ions are located on centres of inversion. The cation is mononuclear, showing a distorted octahedral coordination, while the anion is a binuclear centrosymmetric dimer with a square-pyramidal copper(II) coordination. An extensive three-dimensional hydrogen-bonding network is formed between the ions. According to B3LYP/6-31G* calculations, the two equivalent components of the anion are in doublet states (spin density located mostly on Cu(II) ions) and are coupled as a triplet, with only marginal preference over an open-shell singlet.

  11. Effect of sulfur compounds on biological reduction of nitric oxide in aqueous Fe(II)EDTA2- solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manconi, I.; Maas, van der P.M.F.; Lens, P.N.L.


    Biological reduction of nitric oxide (NO) in aqueous solutions of EDTA chelated Fe(II) is one of the main steps in the BioDeNOx process, a novel bioprocess for the removal of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from polluted gas streams. Since NOx contaminated gases usually also contain sulfurous pollutants, the

  12. Part I. Lattice dynamics of rare earth tritin intermetallic compounds. Part II. Lattice hardening from fission fragment recoils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGuire, T.K.


    The lattice dynamical behavior of RESn/sub 3/ (RE = La,Ce,Pr,Nd,Sm,Eu,Gd,Yb) compounds were investigated using temperature dependent /sup 119/Sn Mossbauer spectroscopy over the range 78 < T < 320K. The temperature dependence of the recoil-free fraction (f) is nearly identical for Re = (La,Ce,Nd,Sm,Gd)Sn/sub 3/ compounds. EuSn/sub 3/ and YbSn/sub 3/ show a slightly greater temperature variation in In f than the other rare earth tritin compounds. All compounds exhibit curvature over the measured temperature range suggesting motional anharmonicity at the tin site. Analysis of the spectral doublet in each compound in terms of the Goldanskii-Karyagin effect show > at 300K. The In f versus temperature data for CeSn/sub 3/ display an anomalous softening of the lattice centered at 140K. This behavior indicates strong electro-elastic coupling of the electronic instability in cerium at this temperature. Using the 14.4 keV radiation in /sup 57/Fe and the 23.8 keV radiation in /sup 119/Sn, temperature dependent Mossbauer effect measurements were carried out on samples of USn/sub 3/ and UFe/sub 2/ prepared with both depleted and /sup 235/U enriched uranium. Blank experiments to gauge the effect of ..gamma.. radiation and fast neturons were performed with /sup 60/Co and reactor irradiations, using the Brookhaven National Laboratory Hi Flux facility. Lattice temperatures (O/sub m/) for the blanks and for samples in which approx.0.01% of the /sup 235/U was allowed to fission were calculated from the temperature dependence of the recoil-free fraction over the temperature range 78 < T < 320K.

  13. The experimental chemotherapy of leishmaniasis. II. The activity in tissue culture of some antiparasitic and antimicrobial compounds in clinical use. (United States)

    Mattock, N M; Peters, W


    A variety of compounds used in the treatment of parasitic or bacterial infections in man, including leishmaniasis itself, were examined for their activity against three lines of Leishmania in tissue culture. The organisms used were L. mexicana mexicana, L. tropical major and L. donovani; they were grown in dog sarcoma and hamster peritoneal exudate cell lines. Leishmanicidal activity was observed in a number of compounds currently in clinical use for the treatment of one or other form of leishmaniasis. Cycloguanil, nifurtimox, amphotericin B and monomycin were effective but pentamidine showed poor activity. In each case marked differences were observed in the level of response in the different parasite lines. Organic antimonials were most active when anmastigotes were exposed to them prior to entry of the parasites into host cells. This suggests that such compounds may exert an effect on amastigotes during their brief extracellular transit from one host cell to another in vivo. A number of antimalarials showed good to moderate leishmanicidal action, particularly against L. mexicana and L.t. major. Several schistosomicidal agents also possessed leishmanicidal properties. The commonly used broad spectrum antibiotics showed little if any activity. In discusssion a comparison is drawn between data published on the action of some of these drugs against L.t. major in mice and our observations with the same strain and L. mexicana in tissue culture. A remarkably good agreement is found for most of the compounds examined. General agreement is also noted between these data and reports of clinical trials although it is not possible to draw too many conclusions because of the failure in most clinical studies to make an accurate identification of the causative Leishmania. It is concluded that, although the tissue culture model is not to be considered as ideal and can probably be improved, data obtained by its use do bear relevance to the action compounds in vivo, and the model

  14. Diverse Cd(II) compounds based on N-benzoyl-L-glutamic acid and N-donor ligands: Structures and photoluminescent properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Ning; Guo, Wei-Ying; Song, Hui-Hua, E-mail:; Yu, Hai-Tao, E-mail:


    Five new Cd(II) coordination polymers with N-benzoyl-L-glutamic acid (H{sub 2}bzgluO) and different N-donor ligands, [Cd(bzgluO)(2,2′-bipy)(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n} (1), [Cd(bzgluO)(2,4′-bipy){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)·3H{sub 2}O]{sub n} (2), [Cd(bzgluO)(phen)·H{sub 2}O]{sub n} (3), [Cd(bzgluO)(4,4′-bipy)(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n} (4), [Cd(bzgluO)(bpp)(H{sub 2}O)·2H{sub 2}O]{sub n} (5) were synthesized (2,2′-bipy=2,2′-bipyridine, 2,4′-bipy=2,4′-bipyridine, phen=1,10-phenanthroline, 4,4′-bipy=4,4′-bipyridine, bpp=1,3-di(4-pyridyl)propane). Compounds 1–2 exhibit a 1D single-chain structure. Compound 1 generates a 2D supramolecular structure via π–π stacking and hydrogen bonding, 3D architecture of compound 2 is formed by hydrogen bonding. Compound 3 features a 1D double-chain structure, which are linked by π–π interactions into a 2D supramolecular layer. Compounds 4-5 display a 2D network structure. Neighboring layers of 4 are extended into a 3D supramolecular architecture through hydrogen bonding. The structural diversity of these compounds is attributed to the effect of ancillary N-donor ligands and coordination modes of H{sub 2}bzgluO. Luminescent properties of 1–5 were studied at room temperature. Circular dichroism of compounds 1, 2 and 5 were investigated. - Graphical abstract: Five new Cd(II) metal coordination compounds with H{sub 2}bzgluO and different N-donor ligands were synthesized and characterized. Compounds 1, 2 and 3 present 1D structures, compounds 4 and 5 display 2D networks. Results indicate that auxiliary ligands and coordination modes of H{sub 2}bzgluO play an important role in governing the formation of final frameworks, and the hydrogen-bonding and π–π stacking interactions contribute the formation of the diverse supramolecular architectures. Furthermore, the different crystal structures influence the emission spectra significantly. - Highlights: • It is rarely reported that complexes prepared with N-benzoyl-L-glutamic acid

  15. The layered compound poly[mu2-4,4'-bipyridyl-di-mu2-chlorido-mercury(II)]. (United States)

    Xie, Yi-Ming; Wu, Ji-Huai


    The title compound, [HgCl2(C(10)H(8)N(2))]n, features two-dimensional [HgCl2(4,4'-bipy)]n neutral networks (4,4'-bipy is 4,4'-bipyridine), based on an octahedral Hg atom coordinated by four mu2-Cl atoms and two mu2-4,4'-bipy ligands in trans positions, yielding a HgCl(4)N(2) octahedron. The structure has mmm symmetry about the Hg atoms, with most of the atoms on at least one mirror plane, but the unsubstituted C atoms of the 4,4'-bipy rings are disordered across a mirror plane. Photoluminescent investigations reveal that the title compound displays a strong emission in the green region, which probably originates from a ligand-to-ligand charge-transfer transition.

  16. Synthesis and Characterization of a New Coordinative Compound of Cu(II with 1-(3 Bromo, 2 Hydroxy, 4 Methylphenyl- 2-(4 Bromo-Phenyl-Sulphanyl- Etanone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antighin Simona


    Full Text Available Continuing the research in the field of complex compounds, the authors present in this paper the synthesis and characterization of a new compound of Cu(II with the ligand 1-(3 bromo, 2 hydroxy, 4 methyl-phenyl-2-(4 bromophenyl- sulphanyl-etanone. Different methods were used, such as chemical elemental analysis, thermal-gravimetry, infrared absorption spectroscopy and electronic spin resonance (ESR. From chemical analysis resulted that the combination ratio ligand-central atom is 2:1. The new compound can also be used for gravimetric determination of Cu(II.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of a cadmium(II)-organic supramolecular coordination compound based on the multifunctional 2-amino-5-sulfobenzoic acid ligand. (United States)

    Yuan, Gan Yin; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Meng Jie; Zhang, Kou Lin


    Much attention has been paid by chemists to the construction of supramolecular coordination compounds based on the multifunctional ligand 5-sulfosalicylic acid (H3SSA) due to the structural and biological interest of these compounds. However, no coordination compounds have been reported for the multifunctional amino-substituted sulfobenzoate ligand 2-amino-5-sulfobenzoic acid (H2asba). We expected that H2asba could be a suitable building block for the assembly of supramolecular networks due to its interesting structural characteristics. The reaction of cadmium(II) nitrate with H2asba in the presence of the auxiliary flexible dipyridylamide ligand N,N'-bis[(pyridin-4-yl)methyl]oxamide (4bpme) under ambient conditions formed a new mixed-ligand coordination compound, namely bis(3-amino-4-carboxybenzenesulfonato-κO(1))diaquabis{N,N'-bis[(pyridin-4-yl)methyl]oxamide-κN}cadmium(II)-N,N'-bis[(pyridin-4-yl)methyl]oxamide-water (1/1/4), [Cd(C7H6NO5S)2(C14H14N4O2)2(H2O)2]·C14H14N4O2·4H2O, (1), which was characterized by single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction analysis (PXRD), FT-IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TG), and UV-Vis and photoluminescence spectroscopic analyses in the solid state. The central Cd(II) atom in (1) occupies a special position on a centre of inversion and exhibits a slightly distorted octahedral geometry, being coordinated by two N atoms from two monodentate 4bpme ligands, four O atoms from two monodentate 4-amino-3-carboxybenzenesulfonate (Hasba(-)) ligands and two coordinated water molecules. Interestingly, complex (1) further extends into a threefold polycatenated 0D→2D (0D is zero-dimensional and 2D is two-dimensional) interpenetrated supramolecular two-dimensional (4,4) layer through intermolecular hydrogen bonding. The interlayer hydrogen bonding further links adjacent threefold polycatenated two-dimensional layers into a three-dimensional network. The optical properties of complex (1) indicate that it may be used as a

  18. A new chitosan Schiff base supported Pd(II) complex for microwave-assisted synthesis of biaryls compounds (United States)

    Baran, Talat


    In this study, a new heterogeneous palladium (II) catalyst that contains O-carboxymethyl chitosan Schiff base has been designed for Suzuki coupling reactions. The chemical structures of the synthesized catalyst were characterized with the FTIR, TG/DTG, ICP-OES, SEM/EDAX, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, GC/MS, XRD, and magnetic moment techniques. The reusability and catalytic behavior of heterogeneous catalyst was tested towards Suzuki reactions. As a result of the tests, excellent selectivity was obtained, and by-products of homo coupling were not seen in the spectra. The biaryls products were identified on a GC/MS. In addition, it was determined in the reusability tests that the catalysts could be used several times (seven runs). More importantly, with very low catalyst loading (6 × 10-3 mol %) in very short reaction time (5 min), chitosan Schiff base supported Pd(II) complex gave high TON and TOF values. These findings showed that Schiff base supported Pd(II) catalyst is suitable for Suzuki cross coupling reactions.

  19. Reproductive health. (United States)


    This article explores the reproductive health status of China. Since 1990, China has stepped up its efforts in promoting reproductive health and maternal and child health. Several studies demonstrated a remarkable progress made in this area. By 1997, maternal and infant mortality rates have declined, while the penetration rate for the immunization program and inpatient delivery rate increased. Despite these achievements, however, much remains to be done such as the lack of client-centered approaches to meet the increasingly diverse needs of the population for family planning services. A survey conducted in 1995 showed that the country's family planning program was focused primarily on demographic issues while little attention was given to reproductive health objectives. The situation improved when the State Planning Commission implemented its pilot program called the Quality of Care in Family Planning in China. The program yielded encouraging results including a reoriented philosophy towards reproductive health services, enhanced service facilities, informed choices for family planning methods, and the development of an operational information system. Another strategy adopted to address fertility and reproductive health issues was the implementation of adolescent reproductive health education as a required course for senior middle schools. Lastly, this article provided a brief overview of China's HIV/AIDS situation.

  20. Utilization of Boron Compounds for the Modification of Suberoyl Anilide Hydroxamic Acid as Inhibitor of Histone Deacetylase Class II Homo sapiens. (United States)

    Bakri, Ridla; Parikesit, Arli Aditya; Satriyanto, Cipta Prio; Kerami, Djati; Tambunan, Usman Sumo Friend


    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) has a critical function in regulating gene expression. The inhibition of HDAC has developed as an interesting anticancer research area that targets biological processes such as cell cycle, apoptosis, and cell differentiation. In this study, an HDAC inhibitor that is available commercially, suberoyl anilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), has been modified to improve its efficacy and reduce the side effects of the compound. Hydrophobic cap and zinc-binding group of these compounds were substituted with boron-based compounds, whereas the linker region was substituted with p-aminobenzoic acid. The molecular docking analysis resulted in 8 ligands with ΔG binding value more negative than the standards, SAHA and trichostatin A (TSA). That ligands were analyzed based on the nature of QSAR, pharmacological properties, and ADME-Tox. It is conducted to obtain a potent inhibitor of HDAC class II Homo sapiens. The screening process result gave one best ligand, Nova2 (513246-99-6), which was then further studied by molecular dynamics simulations.

  1. Crystal structure and spectroscopic analysis of a new oxalate-bridged MnII compound: catena-poly[guanidinium [[aquachloridomanganese(II]-μ2-oxalato-κ4O1,O2:O1′,O2′] monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiba Sehimi


    Full Text Available As part of our studies on the synthesis and the characterization of oxalate-bridged compounds M–ox–M (ox = oxalate dianion and M = transition metal ion, we report the crystal structure of a new oxalate-bridged MnII phase, {(CH6N3[Mn(C2O4Cl(H2O]·H2O}n. In the compound, a succession of MnII ions (situated on inversion centers adopting a distorted octahedral coordination and bridged by oxalate ligands forms parallel zigzag chains running along the c axis. These chains are interconnected through O—H...O hydrogen-bonding interactions to form anionic layers parallel to (010. Individual layers are held together via strong hydrogen bonds involving the guanidinium cations (N—H...O and N—H...Cl and the disordered non-coordinating water molecule (O—H...O and O—H...Cl, as well as by guanidinium π–π stacking. The structural data were confirmed by IR and UV–Visible spectroscopic analysis.

  2. Designing dinuclear iron(II) spin crossover complexes. Structure and magnetism of dinitrile-, dicyanamido-, tricyanomethanide-, bipyrimidine- and tetrazine-bridged compounds. (United States)

    Batten, Stuart R; Bjernemose, Jens; Jensen, Paul; Leita, Ben A; Murray, Keith S; Moubaraki, Boujemaa; Smith, Jonathan P; Toftlund, Hans


    In order to expand the few known examples of dinuclear iron(II) compounds displaying (weak) intradinuclear exchange coupling and spin-crossover on one or both of the iron(II) centres, various dinuclear compounds have been synthesised and assessed for their spin-crossover and exchange coupling behaviour. The key aim of the work was to prepare and structurally characterise 'weakly linked' and 'covalently bridged' systems incorporating bridging ligands such as alkyldinitriles (e.g.NC(CH(2))(4)CN), bipyrimidine (bpym), dicyanamide (dca(-)), tricyanomethanide (tcm(-)), 3,6-bis(2-pyridyl)tetrazine (bptz) and 3,6-bis(2-pyridyl)2,5-dihydrotetrazine (H(2)bptz). The 'end groups', which complete the Fe(ii)N(6) chromophores, include tris(2-pyridylmethyl)amine (tpa), di(2-pyridylethyl)(2-pyridylmethyl)amine (tpa'), 3-(2-pyridyl)pyrazole (pypzH), 1,10-phenanthroline (1,10-phen), tris(pyrazolyl)methane (tpm) and NCX(-)(X = S, Se). It was quite difficult to achieve the spin-crossover condition, many ligand combinations yielding high-spin/high-spin (HS-HS) Fe(II)Fe(II) spin states at all temperatures (300-2 K) with very weak antiferromagnetic coupling (J spin-crossover beginning above 300 K. 'Half crossover' examples, yielding HS-LS states below the spin transition, similar to those noted by Real and coworkers in some mu-bpym systems, were noted for [(1,10-phen)(NCS)(2)Fe(mu-bpym)Fe(NCS)(2)(1,10-phen)], 2, [(pypzH)(NCSe)(2)Fe(mu-bpym)Fe(NCSe)(2)(pypzH)], 4, and [(tpa)Fe(mu-H(2)bptz)Fe(tpa)](ClO(4))(4), 8. Interestingly, the mu-bptz analogue, 7, remained LS-LS at all temperatures with the start of a broad spin crossover evident above 300 K. No thermal hysteresis was evident in the spin transitions of these new dinuclear crossover species indicating a lack of intra- or interdinuclear cooperativity.

  3. Changes in reproductive biomarkers in an endangered fish species (bonytail chub, Gila elegans) exposed to low levels of organic wastewater compounds in a controlled experiment (United States)

    Walker, David B.; Paretti, Nicholas V.; Cordy, Gail; Gross, Timothy S.; Zaugg, Steven D.; Furlong, Edward T.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Matter, William J.; Gwinn, Jessica; McIntosh, Dennis


    In arid regions of the southwestern United States, municipal wastewater treatment plants commonly discharge treated effluent directly into streams that would otherwise be dry most of the year. A better understanding is needed of how effluent-dependent waters (EDWs) differ from more natural aquatic ecosystems and the ecological effect of low levels of environmentally persistent organic wastewater compounds (OWCs) with distance from the pollutant source. In a controlled experiment, we found 26 compounds common to municipal effluent in treatment raceways all at concentrations <1.0 μg/L. Male bonytail chub (Gila elegans) in tanks containing municipal effluent had significantly lower levels of 11-ketotestosterone (p = 0.021) yet higher levels of 17β-estradiol (p = 0.002) and vitellogenin (p = 0.036) compared to control male fish. Female bonytail chub in treatment tanks had significantly lower concentrations of 17β-estradiol than control females (p = 0.001). The normally inverse relationship between primary male and female sex hormones, expected in un-impaired fish, was greatly decreased in treatment (r = 0.00) versus control (r = −0.66) female fish. We found a similar, but not as significant, trend between treatment (r = −0.45) and control (r = −0.82) male fish. Measures of fish condition showed no significant differences between male or female fish housed in effluent or clean water. Inter-sex condition did not occur and testicular and ovarian cells appeared normal for the respective developmental stage and we observed no morphological alteration in fish. The population-level impacts of these findings are uncertain. Studies examining the long-term, generational and behavioral effects to aquatic organisms chronically exposed to low levels of OWC mixtures are needed.

  4. Reproduction Symposium: does grazing on biosolids-treated pasture pose a pathophysiological risk associated with increased exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds? (United States)

    Evans, N P; Bellingham, M; Sharpe, R M; Cotinot, C; Rhind, S M; Kyle, C; Erhard, H; Hombach-Klonisch, S; Lind, P M; Fowler, P A


    Biosolids (processed human sewage sludge), which contain low individual concentrations of an array of contaminants including heavy metals and organic pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans known to cause physiological disturbances, are increasingly being used as an agricultural fertilizer. This could pose a health threat to both humans and domestic and wild animal species. This review summarizes results of a unique model, used to determine the effects of exposure to mixtures of environmentally relevant concentrations of pollutants, in sheep grazed on biosolids-treated pastures. Pasture treatment results in nonsignificant increases in environmental chemical (EC) concentrations in soil. Whereas EC concentrations were increased in some tissues of both ewes and their fetuses, concentrations were low and variable and deemed to pose little risk to consumer health. Investigation of the effects of gestational EC exposure on fetal development has highlighted a number of issues. The results indicate that gestational EC exposure can adversely affect gonadal development (males and females) and that these effects can impact testicular morphology, ovarian follicle numbers and health, and the transcriptome and proteome in adult animals. In addition, EC exposure can be associated with altered expression of GnRH, GnRH receptors, galanin receptors, and kisspeptin mRNA within the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, gonadotroph populations within the pituitary gland, and regional aberrations in thyroid morphology. In most cases, these anatomical and functional differences do not result in altered peripheral hormone concentrations or reproductive function (e.g., lambing rate), indicating physiological compensation under the conditions tested. Physiological compensation is also suggested from studies that indicate that EC effects may be greater when exposure occurs either

  5. Electrophysiological Responses and Reproductive Behavior of Fall Webworm Moths (Hyphantria cunea Drury are Influenced by Volatile Compounds from Its Mulberry Host (Morus alba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Tang


    Full Text Available Hyphantria cunea (Drury is an invasive pest of Morus alba L. in China. β-ocimene and cis-2-penten-1-ol among eleven electro-physiologically active leaf volatiles from M. alba have been reported to influence captures of Hyphantria cunea moths when added into sex pheromone traps. This study further investigated influences of volatile types and their dosages on the electro-physiological responses in the antennae of male and female moths, as well as on mating and oviposition behaviors. Females were, regardless of dosages, more sensitive to β-ocimene and cis-2-penten-1-ol in electro-physiological response tests than males. For males, a dose response was detected, i.e., a dosage of 10 μg and 100 μg of either chemical stimulated higher electric response in their antennae than 1 μg. Moth pairs either exposed respectively to a herbivore-induced M. alba volatile blend (HIPV, to a mechanically-damaged M. alba volatile blend (MDV, to β-ocimene, to cis-2-penten-1-ol, or to pentane as a control showed that pairs exposed to β-ocimene most likely mated, followed by HIPV blends and least by the other volatiles or the control. In contrast, β-ocimene induced about 70% of the female oviposition behaviors and was nearly 4.5 times the oviposition rate than cis-2-penten-1-ol and 2 times than the control. However, none of the chemicals had any effect on the 48 h fecundity or on egg sizes. In conclusion, β-ocimene from mulberry plants alone could promote mating and oviposition in H. cunea at a dosage of 1 mg. The results indicate that reproductive behaviors of H. cunea moths can be enhanced through HIPV blends and β-ocimene induced by feeding of larvae. This contra phenomenon has revealed a different ecology in this moth during colonizing China as local pests would commonly be repelled by herbivore induced chemicals. These chemicals can be used for the development of biological control approaches such as being used together with sex pheromone traps.

  6. He(I) and He(II) Photoelectron Spectra of Some Mixed Sandwich Compounds of Titanium, Zirconium and Hafnium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andréa, R.R.; Oskam, A.; Bruin, P.; Teuben, J.H.


    The He(I) and He(II) photoelectron spectra are reported for two series of transition metal mixed sandwich complexes of general formula LaMLb (M = Ti, La = η5-C5H5, η5-CH3C5H4, η5-C5(CH3)5; M = Zr, Hf, La = η5-C5(CH3)5; Lb = η7-C7H7 (series I); M = Ti, La = η5-CH3C5H4, η5-C5(CH3)5; M = Zr, La =

  7. Extremotolerance and resistance of lichens: comparative studies on five species used in astrobiological research II. Secondary lichen compounds. (United States)

    Meessen, J; Sánchez, F J; Sadowsky, A; de la Torre, R; Ott, S; de Vera, J-P


    Lichens, which are symbioses of a fungus and one or two photoautotrophs, frequently tolerate extreme environmental conditions. This makes them valuable model systems in astrobiological research to fathom the limits and limitations of eukaryotic symbioses. Various studies demonstrated the high resistance of selected extremotolerant lichens towards extreme, non-terrestrial abiotic factors including space exposure, hypervelocity impact simulations as well as space and Martian parameter simulations. This study focusses on the diverse set of secondary lichen compounds (SLCs) that act as photo- and UVR-protective substances. Five lichen species used in present-day astrobiological research were compared: Buellia frigida, Circinaria gyrosa, Rhizocarpon geographicum, Xanthoria elegans, and Pleopsidium chlorophanum. Detailed investigation of secondary substances including photosynthetic pigments was performed for whole lichen thalli but also for axenically cultivated mycobionts and photobionts by methods of UV/VIS-spectrophotometry and two types of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Additionally, a set of chemical tests is presented to confirm the formation of melanic compounds in lichen and mycobiont samples. All investigated lichens reveal various sets of SLCs, except C. gyrosa where only melanin was putatively identified. Such studies will help to assess the contribution of SLCs on lichen extremotolerance, to understand the adaptation of lichens to prevalent abiotic stressors of the respective habitat, and to form a basis for interpreting recent and future astrobiological experiments. As most of the identified SLCs demonstrated a high capacity in absorbing UVR, they may also explain the high resistance of lichens towards non-terrestrial UVR.

  8. Dielectric properties and study of AC electrical conduction mechanisms by non-overlapping small polaron tunneling model in Bis(4-acetylanilinium) tetrachlorocuprate(II) compound (United States)

    Abkari, A.; Chaabane, I.; Guidara, K.


    In the present work, the synthesis and characterization of the Bis(4-acetylanilinium) tetrachlorocuprate(II) compound are presented. The structure of this compound is analyzed by X-ray diffraction which confirms the formation of single phase and is in good agreement the literature. Indeed, the Thermo gravimetric Analysis (TGA) shows that the decomposition of the compound is observed in the range of 420-520 K. However, the differential thermal analysis (DTA) indicates the presence of a phase transition at T=363 k. Furthermore, the dielectric properties and AC conductivity were studied over a temperature range (338-413 K) and frequency range (200 Hz-5 MHz) using complex impedance spectroscopy. Dielectric measurements confirmed such thermal analyses by exhibiting the presence of an anomaly in the temperature range of 358-373 K. The complex impedance plots are analyzed by an electrical equivalent circuit consisting of resistance, constant phase element (CPE) and capacitance. The activation energy values of two distinct regions are obtained from log σT vs 1000/T plot and are found to be E=1.27 eV (Tdependence of ac conductivity, σac, has been analyzed by Jonscher's universal power law σ(ω)=σdc+Aωs. The value of s is to be temperature-dependent, which has a tendency to increase with temperature and the non-overlapping small polaron tunneling (NSPT) model is the most applicable conduction mechanism in the title compound. Complex impedance spectra of [C8H10NO]2CuCl4 at different temperatures.

  9. Survival, Growth and Reproduction of Non-Native Nile Tilapia II: Fundamental Niche Projections and Invasion Potential in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (United States)


    2070–2099 compared to 1961–1990 under the A2 emission scenario in World Climate Research Pro- gramme’s Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3...multi- model dataset [40]. Concomitantly, regional precipitation is projected to vary between 228% to 32% in the summer and 248% to 18% in winter. While...regression models were developed to predict the probabilities of Nile tilapia survival, growth, and reproduction at different combinations of

  10. Synthesis, spectral characterization of biologically active compounds derived from oxalyldihydrazide and 5-tert-Butyl-2-hydroxy-3-(3-phenylpent-3-yl benzaldehyde and their Cu(II, Ni(II and Co(II Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Johari


    Full Text Available A series of Schiff base M(II complexes of the type [HLMClH2O] and [HLMOAcH2O], where M =Cu(II, Ni(II and Co(II have been synthesized by condensation of 3-tert-butl-2-hydroxy-3-(3-phenylpent-3-ylbenzaldehyde and oxalyldihydrazide (2:1 in the presence of divalent metal salt in methanolic medium. Thecomplexes have been characterized with the help of elemental analysis, conductance measurements, magneticmeasurements and their structural configuration have been determined by various spectroscopic (electronic, IR,1H NMR, 13C NMR, GCMS techniques. Electronic and magnetic moments of the complexes indicate that thegeometries of the metal centers were octahedral. These metal complexes were also tested for their antimicrobialactivities to assess their inhibiting potential.

  11. Photodriven spin change of Fe(II) benzimidazole compounds anchored to nanocrystalline TiO(2) thin films. (United States)

    Xia, Hai-Long; Ardo, Shane; Narducci Sarjeant, Amy A; Huang, Sunxiang; Meyer, Gerald J


    Ferrous tris-chelate compounds based on 2-(2'-pyridyl)benzimidazole (pybzim) have been prepared and characterized for studies of spin equilibria in fluid solution and when anchored to the surface of mesoporous nanocrystalline (anatase) TiO(2) and colloidal ZrO(2) thin films. The solid state structure of Fe(pybzim)(3)(ClO(4))(2).CH(3)CN.H(2)O was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction at 110 K to be triclinic, P-1, a = 11.6873(18), b = 12.2318(12), c = 14.723(4) A, alpha = 89.864(13) degrees , beta = 71.430(17) degrees , gamma = 73.788(11) degrees , V = 1907.1(6) A(3), Z = 2, and R = 0.0491. The iron compound has a meridional FeN(6) distorted octahedral geometry with bond lengths expected for a low-spin iron center at 110 K. The visible absorption spectra of Fe(pybzim)(3)(2+) and Fe(pymbA)(3)(2+), where pymbA is 4-(2-pyridin-2-yl-benzimidazol-1-ylmethyl)-benzoic acid, in methanol solution were dominated by metal-to-ligand charge-transfer (MLCT) bands. Variable-temperature UV-visible absorption spectroscopy revealed dramatic changes in the extinction coefficient consistent with a high-spin ((1)A) left harpoon over right harpoon low-spin ((5)T) equilibrium. Thermodynamic parameters for the temperature-dependent spin equilibrium of Fe(pymbA)(3)(2+) in methanol were determined to be DeltaH(HL) = 3270 +/- 210 cm(-1) and DeltaS(HL) = 13.3 +/- 0.8 cm(-1) K(-1). The corresponding values for Fe(pybzimEE)(3)(2+), where pybzimEE is (2-pyridin-2-yl-benzimidazol-1-yl)-acetic acid ethyl ester, in acetonitrile solution were determined to be 3072 +/- 34 cm(-1)and 10.5 +/- 0.1 cm(-1) K(-1). The temperature-dependent effective magnetic moments of Fe(pybzimEE)(3)(2+) in acetonitrile solution were also quantified by the Evans method. Pulsed 532 nm light excitation of Fe(pybzim)(3)(2+) or Fe(pymbA)(3)(2+) in solution resulted in an immediate bleach of the MLCT absorption bands. Relaxation back to the equilibrium state followed a first-order reaction mechanism. Arrhenius analysis

  12. Coordination compounds of dimethylethyleneurea with Zn(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II) halides: synthesis, characterization and thermochemistry; Compostos de coordenacao entre a dimetiletilenoureia e haletos de Zn(II), Cd(II) e Hg(II): sintese, caracterizacao e termoquimica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, Robson Fernandes de [Roraima Univ., Boa Vista, RR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Oliveira, Otom Anselmo de [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica


    1.3-dimethyl-2-imidazolidinone (dimethylethyleneurea - DMEU), a relatively new non-aqueous solvent of high polarity, was used as ligand in the preparation of nine coordination compounds with some zinc group halides. The compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, IR TGA, DTA and DSC. The metal-oxggen bond enthalpies were estimated, as well another thermochemical parameters. (author) 34 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Investigations on some metabolites of Tecoma stans Juss. callus tissue. Part II. Chromatographical analysis of alkaloid and quinone compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Dohnal


    Full Text Available Tecoma stans Juss. callus tissue grown on Murashige-Mei Lie Lin (M-L and Murashige-Skoog (RT-k medium supplemented with Tecoma alkaloid precursors like lysine, mevalonic acid lactone and quinolinic acid, were investigated for their alkaloid content by thin-layer (TLC and paper (PC chromatography methods. The results were compared with those obtained by parallel analysis of greenhouse plant leaves. Seven alkaloid spots were detected in the leaf extracts, namely: actinidine, 4-noractinidine, boschniakine, tecomanine, two spots of skytanthine derivatives and one unidentified spot. Only l spot corresponding to skytanthine derivatives appeard in the extracts of callus tissues cultured on basal M-L medium or supplemented with lysine or mevalonic acid lactone. However, 3 alkaloid spots were revealed in extracts of homogeneous parenchyma-like callus tissues obtained o-n, RT-k medium. Beside the skytanthine derivatives rnentioned above, actinidine and tecomanine were identified, and moreover, in callus tissues growing on the same medium (RT-k supplemented with quinolinic acid, boschniakine was found. It was found that T. stans leaves as well as callus tissues cultured on RT-k medium contained traces of lapachol and another quinone-type compound.

  14. Experimental and theoretical study of AC electrical conduction mechanisms of Organic-inorganic hybrid compound Bis (4-acetylanilinium) tetrachlorocadmiate (II) (United States)

    Jellibi, A.; Chaabane, I.; Guidara, K.


    A new organic-inorganic bis (4-acetylaniline) tetrachlorocadmate [C8H10NO]2[CdCl4] can be obtained by slow evaporation at room temperature and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction. It crystallized in an orthorhombic system (Cmca space group). The material electrical properties were characterized by impedance spectroscopy technique in the frequency range from 209 Hz-5 MHz and temperature 413 to 460 K. Besides, the impedance plots show semicircle arcs at different temperatures and an electrical equivalent circuit has been proposed to interpret the impedance results. The circuits consist of the parallel combination of a resistance (R), capacitance (C) and fractal capacitance (CPE). The variation of the exponent s as a function of temperature suggested that the conduction mechanism in Bis (4-acetylanilinium) tetrachlorocadmiate compound is governed by two processes which can be ascribed to a hopping transport mechanism: correlated barrier hopping (CBH) model below 443 K and the small polaron tunneling (SPT) model above 443 K.

  15. Bioactive compounds extracted from Indian wild legume seeds: antioxidant and type II diabetes-related enzyme inhibition properties. (United States)

    Gautam, Basanta; Vadivel, Vellingiri; Stuetz, Wolfgang; Biesalski, Hans K


    Seven different wild legume seeds (Acacia leucophloea, Bauhinia variegata, Canavalia gladiata, Entada scandens, Mucuna pruriens, Sesbania bispinosa and Tamarindus indica) from various parts of India were analyzed for total free phenolics, l-Dopa (l-3,4 dihydroxyphenylalanine), phytic acid and their antioxidant capacity (ferric-reducing antioxidant power [FRAP] and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl [DPPH] assay) and type II diabetes-related enzyme inhibition activitiy (α-amylase). S. bispinosa had the highest content in both total free phenolics and l-Dopa, and relatively low phytic acid when compared with other seeds. Phytic acid content, being highest in E. scandens, M. pruriens and T. indica, was highly predictive for FRAP (r = 0.47, p < 0.05) and DPPH (r = 0.66, p < 0.001) assays. The phenolic extract from T. indica and l-Dopa extract from E. scandens showed significantly higher FRAP values among others. All seed extracts demonstrated a remarkable reducing power (7-145 mM FeSO4 per mg extract), DPPH radical scavenging activity (16-95%) and α-amylase enzyme inhibition activity (28-40%).

  16. Synthesis, structure and properties of hexacoordinated compounds of cadmium(II) halides/pseudohalides containing a pentadentate N-donor Schiff base (United States)

    Sarkar, Bhola Nath; Choubey, Somnath; Bhar, Kishalay; Chattopadhyay, Soumi; Mitra, Partha; Ghosh, Barindra Kumar


    Five hexacoordinated compounds of type [Cd(L)(X)]Y· nMeCN ( 1- 5) [L = N,N'-(bis(pyridin-2-yl)benzylidene)diethylenetriamine; Y=PF6-, n = 1; X = Cl - ( 1), Br - ( 2), I - ( 3) and Y=PF6-, n = 0, X=N3-, ( 4); Y=ClO4-, n = 0, X = NCO -, ( 5)] are synthesized and characterized. Structures of all the compounds are solved by X-ray diffraction measurements. Structural analyses reveal that each cadmium(II) center adopts a distorted octahedral geometry bound by five N atoms of L along with terminal halide in 1- 3 and N atom of terminal pseudohalide in 4 and 5. Intermolecular N sbnd H⋯O, C sbnd H⋯O, N sbnd H⋯F and C sbnd H⋯F hydrogen bondings and C sbnd H⋯π interactions as is the case lead to different crystalline aggregates in 1- 5. The complexes display intraligand 1(π sbnd π *) fluorescence in DMF solutions at room temperature.

  17. A new potential NLO compound with a supramolecular layered structure: aqua(hexamethylenetetramine-κN)(iminodiacetato-κ3O,N,O')copper(II). (United States)

    He, Jiao-Jiao; Chai, Wen-Xiang; Song, Li; Niu, Feng; Fang, Xiao-Bin


    In the noncentrosymmetric title compound, [Cu(C(4)H(5)NO(4))(C(6)H(12)N(4))(H(2)O)] or [Cu(IDA)(HMTA)(H(2)O)], where IDA is iminodiacetate and HMTA is hexamethylenetetramine, the asymmetric unit consists of a whole mononuclear neutral molecule, where the Cu(II) cation is coordinated by two carboxylate O atoms and one N atom from the IDA ligand, by one N atom from the HMTA ligand and by the O atom of the coordinated water molecule, giving rise to a CuN(2)O(3) distorted square-pyramidal coordination geometry. The IDA and HTMA ligands adopt terminal tri- and monocoordinated modes, respectively. All adjacent molecules within the ac plane are connected to each other via two pairs of O-H···O and one N-H...O hydrogen bond, forming a (4,4) supramolecular two-dimensional network. In the unit cell, these layers stack alternately in an …ABABAB… sequence along the b axis. The optical absorption properties of this compound have been studied on powder samples, which had previously been examined by powder X-ray diffraction.

  18. New dicyano cyclometalated compounds containing Pd(II)-Tl(I) bonds as building blocks in 2D extended structures: synthesis, structure, and luminescence studies. (United States)

    Sicilia, Violeta; Forniés, Juan; Fuertes, Sara; Martín, Antonio


    New mixed metal complexes [PdTl(C^N)(CN)(2)] [C^N = 7,8-benzoquinolinate (bzq, 3); 2-phenylpyridinate (ppy, 4)] have been synthesized by reaction of their corresponding precursors (NBu(4))[Pd(C^N)(CN)(2)] [C^N = bzq (1), ppy (2)] with TlPF(6). Compounds 3 and 4 were studied by X-ray diffraction, showing the not-so-common Pd(II)-Tl(I) bonds. Both crystal structures exhibit 2-D extended networks fashioned by organometallic "PdTl(C^N)(CN)(2)" units, each one containing a donor-acceptor Pd(II)-Tl(I) bond, which are connected through additional Tl···N≡C contacts and weak Tl···π (bzq) contacts in the case of 3. Solid state emissions are red-shifted compared with those of the precursors and have been assigned to metal-metal'-to-ligand charge transfer (MM'LCT [d/s σ*(Pd,Tl) → π*(C^N)]) mixed with some intraligand ((3)IL[π(C^N) → π*(C^N)]) character. In diluted solution either at room temperature or 77 K, the Pd-Tl bond is no longer retained as confirmed by mass spectrometry, NMR, and UV-vis spectroscopic techniques.

  19. Reproductive physiology (United States)

    Gee, G.F.; Russman, S.E.; Ellis, David H.; Gee, George F.; Mirande, Claire M.


    Conclusions: Although the general pattern of avian physiology applies to cranes, we have identified many physiological mechanisms (e.g., effects of disturbance) that need further study. Studies with cranes are expensive compared to those done with domestic fowl because of the crane's larger size, low reproductive rate, and delayed sexual maturity. To summarize, the crane reproductive system is composed of physiological and anatomical elements whose function is controlled by an integrated neural-endocrine system. Males generally produce semen at a younger age than when females lay eggs. Eggs are laid in clutches of two (1 to 3), and females will lay additional clutches if the preceding clutches are removed. Both sexes build nests and incubate the eggs. Molt begins during incubation and body molt may be completed annually in breeding pairs. However, remiges are replaced sequentially over 2 to 3 years, or abruptly every 2 to 3 years in other species. Most immature birds replace their juvenal remiges over a 2 to 3 year period. Stress interferes with reproduction in cranes by reducing egg production or terminating the reproductive effort. In other birds, stress elevates corticosterone levels and decreases LHRH release. We know little about the physiological response of cranes to stress.

  20. Reproductive epidemiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jørn; Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard


    Reproductive health covers a broad category of health and disease conditions, according to the Cairo Statement. This chapter focuses on subfecundity fertility, fetal death, malformations, pregnancy complications, sexual health, and diseases that may have their origin in fetal life, but which will...

  1. Reproductive hacking (United States)

    Dustin Rubinstein, C; Wolfner, Mariana F


    Seminal proteins are critical for reproductive success in all animals that have been studied. Although seminal proteins have been identified in many taxa, and female reproductive responses to receipt of these proteins have been documented in several, little is understood about the mechanisms by which seminal proteins affect female reproductive physiology. To explore this topic, we investigated how a Drosophila seminal protein, ovulin, increases ovulation rate in mated females. Ovulation is a relatively simple physiological process, with known female regulators: previous studies have shown that ovulation rate is promoted by the neuromodulator octopamine (OA) in D. melanogaster and other insects. We found that ovulin stimulates ovulation by increasing OA signaling in the female. This finding supports a model in which a male seminal protein acts through “hacking” a well-conserved, regulatory system females use to adjust reproductive output, rather than acting downstream of female mechanisms of control or in parallel pathways altogether. We also discuss similarities between 2 forms of intersexual control of behavior through chemical communication: seminal proteins and pheromones. PMID:25483253

  2. Interpreting effects of structure variations induced by temperature and pressure on luminescence spectra of platinum(II) bis(dithiocarbamate) compounds. (United States)

    Poirier, Stéphanie; Roberts, Ryan J; Le, Debbie; Leznoff, Daniel B; Reber, Christian


    Luminescence spectra of two square-planar dithiocarbamate complexes of platinum(II) with different steric bulk, platinum(II) bis(dimethyldithiocarbamate) (Pt(MeDTC)2) and platinum(II) bis(di(o-pyridyl)dithiocarbamate) (Pt(dopDTC)2), are presented at variable temperature and pressure. The spectra show broad d-d luminescence transitions with maxima at approximately 13500 cm(-1) (740 nm). Variations of the solid-state spectra with temperature and pressure reveal intrinsic differences due to subtle variations of molecular and crystal structures, reported at 100 and 296 K for Pt(dopDTC)2. Luminescence maxima of Pt(MeDTC)2 shift to higher energy as temperature increases by +320 cm(-1) for an increase by 200 K, mainly caused by a bandwidth increase from 3065 to 4000 cm(-1) on the high-energy side of the band over the same temperature range. Luminescence maxima of Pt(dopDTC)2 shift in the opposite direction by -460 cm(-1) for a temperature increase by 200 K. The bandwidth of approximately 2900 cm(-1) does not vary with temperature. Both ground and emitting-state properties and subtle structural differences between the two compounds lead to this different behavior. Luminescence maxima measured at variable pressure show shifts to higher energy by +47 ± 3 and +11 ± 1 cm(-1)/kbar, for Pt(MeDTC)2 and Pt(dopDTC)2, respectively, a surprising difference by a factor of 4. The crystal structures indicate that decreasing intermolecular interactions with increasing pressure are likely to contribute to the exceptionally high shift for Pt(MeDTC)2.

  3. Mercury and drought along the lower Carson River, Nevada: II. Snowy egret and black-crowned night-heron reproduction on Lahontan Reservoir, 1997-2006 (United States)

    Hill, E.F.; Henny, C.J.; Grove, R.A.


    Mercury concentrations in the floodplain of the Carson River Basin in northwestern Nevada are some of the highest ever reported in a natural system. Thus, a portion of the basin including Lahontan Reservoir was placed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Natural Priorities List for research and cleanup. Preliminary studies indicated that reproduction in piscivorous birds may be at risk. Therefore, a 10-year study (1997-2006) was conducted to evaluate reproduction of snowy egrets (Egretta thula) and black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) nesting on Gull Island in Lahontan Reservoir. Special attention was given to the annual flow of the Carson River, the resultant fluctuation of this irrigation reservoir, and the annual exposure of snowy egrets and night-herons to methylmercury (MeHg). The dynamic character of the river due to flooding and drought (drought effect) influenced snowy egret and night-heron reproduction more so than did MeHg contamination of eggs. During an extended drought (2000-2004) in the middle of the study, snowy egret nests containing eggs with concentrations of MeHg (measured as total mercury [THg] ??? 100% MeHg) ???0.80 ??g THg/g, ww, all failed, but in 1997 and 2006 (wet years with general flooding), substantial numbers of young were produced (but fewer than at nests where eggs contained putative biological effect threshold of 2.0 ??g THg/g in whole blood for young of both species was evaluated, which was frequently exceeded, but with no evidence, while still in the colony, of an association with direct mortality. An evaluation of physiological associations with blood residues and post-fledging survival will be presented in future reports in this series. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  4. Some new nano-structure zinc(II) coordination compounds of an imidazolidine Schiff base: Spectral, thermal, antimicrobial properties and DNA interaction (United States)

    Montazerozohori, Morteza; Musavi, Sayed Alireza; Naghiha, Asghar; Zohour, Mostafa Montazer


    Some novel nano-sized structure zinc complexes of a new Schiff base ligand entitled as (3-nitro-benzylidene)-{2-[2-(3-nitro-phenyl)-imidazolidine-1-yl]-ethyl}-amine(L) with general formula of ZnLX2 wherein X = Cl-, Br-, I-, SCN- and N3- have been synthesized under ultrasonic conditions. The ligand and its complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance measurements, FT-IR, 1H and 13C NMR and UV-Visible spectroscopy. The resulting data from spectral investigation especially 1H and 13C NMR well confirmed formation of an imidazolidine ring in the ligand structure. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed nano-size structures with average particle sizes of 21.80-78.10 nm for the zinc(II) Schiff base complexes. The free Schiff base and its Zn(II) complexes have been screened in vitro both for antibacterial activity against some gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and also for antifungal activity. The metal complexes were found to be more active than the free Schiff base ligand. The results showed that ZnL(N3)2 is the most effective inhibitor against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aereuguinosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans while ZnLBr2 was found to be more effective against Bacillus subtillis than other compounds. Moreover, DNA cleavage potential of all compounds with plasmid DNA was investigated. The results showed that the ligand and ZnLCl2 complex cleave DNA more efficiently than others. In final, thermal analysis of ligand and its complexes revealed that they are decomposed via 2-3 thermal steps in the range of room temperature to 1000 °C. Furthermore some activation kinetic parameters such as A, E*, ΔH*, ΔS* and ΔG* were calculated based on TG/DTA plots by use of coats - Redfern relation. Positive values of activation energy evaluated for the compounds confirmed the thermal stability of them. In addition to, the positive ΔH*, and ΔG* values suggested endothermic character for the thermal decomposition steps.

  5. Syntheses, structures, magnetic properties, and density functional theory magneto-structural correlations of bis(μ-phenoxo) and bis(μ-phenoxo)-μ-acetate/bis(μ-phenoxo)-bis(μ-acetate) dinuclear Fe(III)Ni(II) compounds. (United States)

    Hazra, Susanta; Bhattacharya, Sagarika; Singh, Mukesh Kumar; Carrella, Luca; Rentschler, Eva; Weyhermueller, Thomas; Rajaraman, Gopalan; Mohanta, Sasankasekhar


    The bis(μ-phenoxo) Fe(III)Ni(II) compound [Fe(III)(N3)2LNi(II)(H2O)(CH3CN)](ClO4) (1) and the bis(μ-phenoxo)-μ-acetate/bis(μ-phenoxo)-bis(μ-acetate) Fe(III)Ni(II) compound {[Fe(III)(OAc)LNi(II)(H2O)(μ-OAc)](0.6)·[Fe(III)LNi(II)(μ-OAc)2](0.4)}(ClO4)·1.1H2O (2) have been synthesized from the Robson type tetraiminodiphenol macrocyclic ligand H2L, which is the [2 + 2] condensation product of 4-methyl-2,6-diformylphenol and 2,2'-dimethyl-1,3-diaminopropane. Single-crystal X-ray structures of both compounds have been determined. The cationic part of the dinuclear compound 2 is a cocrystal of the two species [Fe(III)(OAc)LNi(II)(H2O)(μ-OAc)](+) (2A) and [Fe(III)LNi(II)(μ-OAc)2](+) (2B) with weights of 60% of the former and 40% of the latter. While 2A is a triply bridged bis(μ-phenoxo)-μ-acetate system, 2B is a quadruply bridged bis(μ-phenoxo)-bis(μ-acetate) system. Variable-temperature (2-300 K) magnetic studies reveal antiferromagnetic interaction in 1 and ferromagnetic interaction in 2 with J values of -3.14 and 7.36 cm(-1), respectively (H = -2JS1·S2). Broken-symmetry density functional calculations of exchange interaction have been performed on complexes 1 and 2 and also on previously published related compounds, providing good numerical estimates of J values in comparison to experiments. The electronic origin of the difference in magnetic behavior of 1 and 2 has been well understood from MO analyses and computed overlap integrals of BS empty orbitals. The role of acetate and thus its complementarity/countercomplementarity effect on the magnetic properties of diphenoxo-bridged Fe(III)Ni(II) compounds have been determined on computing J values of model compounds by replacing bridging acetate and nonbridging acetate ligand(s) by water ligands in the model compounds derived from 2A,B. The DFT calculations have also been extended to develop several magneto-structural correlations in these types of complexes, and the correlations focus on the role of Fe

  6. What kinds of ferryl species exist for compound II of chloroperoxidase? A dialog of theory with experiment. (United States)

    Lai, Wenzhen; Chen, Hui; Shaik, Sason


    QM/MM calculations of Mossbauer parameters lead to assignments of the three isomeric species of CPO-II, "major", "minor", and unassigned "6% species", which were recently observed in experiment and posed two puzzles (Stone, K. L.; Hoffart, L. M.; Behan, R. K.; Krebs, C.; Green, M. T. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2006, 128, 6147). Both the minor and major species were found to be iron(IV)-hydroxides, thus accounting for the observed ratio of their relative yield that is pH-independent. The difference between the minor and major species is a single water molecule that acts as a H-bond acceptor from the ferryl in the minor species (2b) and it is essential to get a good match of the calculated Mossbauer parameters to the experimentally observed ones for the minor species. The major species (2c-2e, 2e-NW) may or may not have a water molecule. The calculations reveal also two candidates for the unassigned 6% species, which are a Por+*FeIIIOH species 2e-Fe(III), without or with a water molecule, or the corresponding aqua complex Por+*FeIIIOH2 3c formed by adding an additional proton to the system. These species have DeltaEQ parameters of the same magnitude but with opposite signs: negative (-2.30 mm/s) for the two 2e-Fe(III) species and positive (2.39 mm/s) for 3c. The above assignments were further consolidated by an extended correlation (Figure 2) between the iron spin density and the DeltaEQ parameters of the species calculated in the present study and by relating DeltaEQ to the d-electronic configuration on iron. A bonding model of the FeO(H) moiety (Figure 3) was used to account for the variation of the spin density and provided further support for the correlation in Figure 2 and the assignment. Experimental determination of the sign of the quadruple parameter will finally confirm the identity of this species. In addition, since 3c possesses an additional proton, its identity can be revealed by pH-dependent yield. All in all, the present paper shows that QM/MM calculations can

  7. Enhanced ion anisotropy by nonconventional coordination geometry: single-chain magnet behavior for a [{Fe(II)L}2{Nb(IV)(CN)8}] helical chain compound designed with heptacoordinate Fe(II). (United States)

    Venkatakrishnan, Thengarai S; Sahoo, Shaon; Bréfuel, Nicolas; Duhayon, Carine; Paulsen, Carley; Barra, Anne-Laure; Ramasesha, S; Sutter, Jean-Pascal


    Nonconventional heptacoordination in combination with efficient magnetic exchange coupling is shown to yield a 1-D heteronuclear {Fe(II)Nb(IV)} compound with remarkable magnetic features when compared to other Fe(II)-based single chain magnets (SCM). Cyano-bridged heterometallic {3d-4d} and {3d-5d} chains are formed upon assembling Fe(II) bearing a pentadentate macrocycle as the blocking ligand with octacyano metallates, [M(CN)(8)](4-) (M = Nb(IV), Mo(IV), W(IV)). X-ray diffraction (single-crystal and powder) measurements reveal that the [{(H(2)O)Fe(L(1))}{M(CN)(8)}{Fe(L(1))}](infinity) architectures consist of isomorphous 1-D polymeric structures based on the alternation of {Fe(L(1))}(2+) and {M(CN)(8)}(4-) units (L(1) stands for the pentadentate macrocycle). Analysis of the magnetic susceptibility behavior revealed cyano-bridged {Fe-Nb} exchange interaction to be antiferromagnetic with J = -20 cm(-1) deduced from fitting an Ising model taking into account the noncollinear spin arrangement. For this ferrimagnetic chain a slow relaxation of its magnetization is observed at low temperature revealing a SCM behavior with Delta/k(B) = 74 K and tau(0) = 4.6 x 10(-11) s. The M versus H behavior exhibits a hysteresis loop with a coercive field of 4 kOe at 1 K and reveals at 380 mK magnetic avalanche processes, i.e., abrupt reversals in magnetization as H is varied. The origin of these characteristics is attributed to the combination of efficient {Fe-Nb} exchange interaction and significant anisotropy of the {Fe(L(1))} unit. High field EPR and magnetization experiments have revealed for the parent compound [Fe(L(1))(H(2)O)(2)]Cl(2) a negative zero field splitting parameter of D approximately = -17 cm(-1). The crystal structure, magnetic behavior, and Mossbauer data for [Fe(L(1))(H(2)O)(2)]Cl(2) are also reported.

  8. Survival, growth and reproduction of non-native Nile tilapia II: fundamental niche projections and invasion potential in the northern Gulf of Mexico (United States)

    Lowe, Michael R.; Wu, Wei; Peterson, Mark S.; Brown-Peterson, Nancy J.; Slack, William T.; Schofield, Pamela J.


    Understanding the fundamental niche of invasive species facilitates our ability to predict both dispersal patterns and invasion success and therefore provides the basis for better-informed conservation and management policies. Here we focus on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758), one of the most widely cultured fish worldwide and a species that has escaped local aquaculture facilities to become established in a coastal-draining river in Mississippi (northern Gulf of Mexico). Using empirical physiological data, logistic regression models were developed to predict the probabilities of Nile tilapia survival, growth, and reproduction at different combinations of temperature (14 and 30°C) and salinity (0–60, by increments of 10). These predictive models were combined with kriged seasonal salinity data derived from multiple long-term data sets to project the species' fundamental niche in Mississippi coastal waters during normal salinity years (averaged across all years) and salinity patterns in extremely wet and dry years (which might emerge more frequently under scenarios of climate change). The derived fundamental niche projections showed that during the summer, Nile tilapia is capable of surviving throughout Mississippi's coastal waters but growth and reproduction were limited to river mouths (or upriver). Overwinter survival was also limited to river mouths. The areas where Nile tilapia could survive, grow, and reproduce increased during extremely wet years (2–368%) and decreased during extremely dry years (86–92%) in the summer with a similar pattern holding for overwinter survival. These results indicate that Nile tilapia is capable of 1) using saline waters to gain access to other watersheds throughout the region and 2) establishing populations in nearshore, low-salinity waters, particularly in the western portion of coastal Mississippi.

  9. Survival, growth and reproduction of non-native Nile tilapia II: fundamental niche projections and invasion potential in the northern Gulf of Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R Lowe

    Full Text Available Understanding the fundamental niche of invasive species facilitates our ability to predict both dispersal patterns and invasion success and therefore provides the basis for better-informed conservation and management policies. Here we focus on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758, one of the most widely cultured fish worldwide and a species that has escaped local aquaculture facilities to become established in a coastal-draining river in Mississippi (northern Gulf of Mexico. Using empirical physiological data, logistic regression models were developed to predict the probabilities of Nile tilapia survival, growth, and reproduction at different combinations of temperature (14 and 30°C and salinity (0-60, by increments of 10. These predictive models were combined with kriged seasonal salinity data derived from multiple long-term data sets to project the species' fundamental niche in Mississippi coastal waters during normal salinity years (averaged across all years and salinity patterns in extremely wet and dry years (which might emerge more frequently under scenarios of climate change. The derived fundamental niche projections showed that during the summer, Nile tilapia is capable of surviving throughout Mississippi's coastal waters but growth and reproduction were limited to river mouths (or upriver. Overwinter survival was also limited to river mouths. The areas where Nile tilapia could survive, grow, and reproduce increased during extremely wet years (2-368% and decreased during extremely dry years (86-92% in the summer with a similar pattern holding for overwinter survival. These results indicate that Nile tilapia is capable of 1 using saline waters to gain access to other watersheds throughout the region and 2 establishing populations in nearshore, low-salinity waters, particularly in the western portion of coastal Mississippi.

  10. New family of thiocyanate-bridged Re(IV)-SCN-M(II) (M = Ni, Co, Fe, and Mn) heterobimetallic compounds: synthesis, crystal structure, and magnetic properties. (United States)

    González, Ricardo; Acosta, Alvaro; Chiozzone, Raúl; Kremer, Carlos; Armentano, Donatella; De Munno, Giovanni; Julve, Miguel; Lloret, Francesc; Faus, Juan


    The heterobimetallic complexes of formula [(Me(2)phen)(2)M(μ-NCS)Re(NCS)(5)]·CH(3)CN [Me(2)phen = 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline and M = Ni (1), Co (2), Fe (3), and Mn (4)] have been prepared, and their crystal structures have been determined by X-ray diffraction on single crystals. Compounds 1-4 crystallize in the monoclinic C2/c space group, and their structure consists of neutral [(Me(2)phen)(2)M(μ-NCS)Re(NCS)(5)] heterodinuclear units with a Re-SCN-M bridge. Each Re(IV) ion in this series is six-coordinated with one sulfur and five nitrogen atoms from six thiocyanate groups building a somewhat distorted octahedral environment, whereas the M(II) metal ions are five-coordinated with four nitrogen atoms from two bidentate Me(2)phen molecules and a nitrogen atom from the bridging thiocyanate describing distorted trigonal bipyramidal surroundings. The values of the Re···M separation through the thiocyanate bridge in 1-4 vary in the range 5.903(1)-6.117(3) Å. The magnetic properties of 1-4 as well as those of the parent mononuclear Re(IV) compounds (NBu(4))(2)[Re(NCS)(6)] (A1) (NBu(4)(+) = tetra-n-butylammonium cation) and [Zn(NO(3))(Me(2)phen)(2)](2)[Re(NCS)(5)(SCN)] (A2) were investigated in the temperature range 1.9-300 K. Weak antiferromagnetic interactions between the Re(IV) and M(II) ions across the bridging thiocyanate were found in 1-4 [J = -4.3 (1), -2.4 (2), -1.8 (3), and -1.2 cm(-1) (4), the Hamiltonian being defined as Ĥ = -JŜ(Re)·Ŝ(M)]. The magnetic behavior of A2 is that of a magnetically diluted Re(IV) complex with a large and positive value of the zero-field splitting for the ground level (D(Re) = +37.0 cm(-1)). In the case of A1, although its magnetic behavior is similar to that of A2 in the high-temperature range (D(Re) being +19.0 cm(-1)), it exhibits a weak ferromagnetism below 3.0 K with a canting angle of 1.3°.

  11. Synthesis, thermogravimetric study and crystal structure of an N-rich copper(II) compound with tren ligands and nitrate counter-anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez-Toro, Inmaculada; Domínguez-Martín, Alicia [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain); Choquesillo-Lazarte, Duane [Laboratorio de Estudios Cristalográficos, IACT, CSIC-Universidad de Granada, Av. de las Palmeras 4, E-18100 Armilla, Granada (Spain); Vílchez-Rodríguez, Esther [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain); Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Castiñeiras, Alfonso [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Niclós-Gutiérrez, Juan, E-mail: [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain)


    The N-rich salt [{Cu(tren)}{sub 3}(μ{sub 3}-tren)]{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 12}·3H{sub 2}O has been studied by XRD and by coupled TG and FT-IR spectroscopy of the evolved gases. After water loss, thermal decomposition of the nitrate ions and some tren ligands in the salt are overlapped. - Highlights: • A novel N-rich copper(II)-tren complex has been crystallized as a 3-hydrated nitrate salt. • Tren acts both as tripodal tetradentate and as μ{sub 3}-tren bridging ligand. • Copper(II) centers exhibit distorted trigonal bipyramidal coordination. • Coupled thermogravimetry and FT-IR spectra of evolved gases have been used. • Decomposition of nitrate anions and tren ligands occurs in an overlapped step. - Abstract: The compound [{Cu(tren)}{sub 3}(μ3-tren)]{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 12}·3H{sub 2}O has been synthesized, crystallized and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry (TG) coupled to FT-IR spectroscopy of the evolved gases, TG–differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and electronic (diffuse reflectance) and FT-IR spectroscopies. The sample loses the crystallization water between room temperature and 200 °C. The decomposition of the salt begins with an overlapped decomposition of nitrate anions and some tren ligands where CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, CO, NH{sub 3}, N{sub 2}O, NO and NO{sub 2} are evolved (205–235 °C). Then decomposition of additional tren ligands takes place (235–725 °C). Finally a non-pure CuO residue is obtained at 725 °C.

  12. Targeting mitochondria by Zn(II)N-alkylpyridylporphyrins: the impact of compound sub-mitochondrial partition on cell respiration and overall photodynamic efficacy. (United States)

    Odeh, Ahmad M; Craik, James D; Ezzeddine, Rima; Tovmasyan, Artak; Batinic-Haberle, Ines; Benov, Ludmil T


    Mitochondria play a key role in aerobic ATP production and redox control. They harness crucial metabolic pathways and control cell death mechanisms, properties that make these organelles essential for survival of most eukaryotic cells. Cancer cells have altered cell death pathways and typically show a shift towards anaerobic glycolysis for energy production, factors which point to mitochondria as potential culprits in cancer development. Targeting mitochondria is an attractive approach to tumor control, but design of pharmaceutical agents based on rational approaches is still not well established. The aim of this study was to investigate which structural features of specially designed Zn(II)N-alkylpyridylporphyrins would direct them to mitochondria and to particular mitochondrial targets. Since Zn(II)N-alkylpyridylporphyrins can act as highly efficient photosensitizers, their localization can be confirmed by photodamage to particular mitochondrial components. Using cultured LS174T adenocarcinoma cells, we found that subcellular distribution of Zn-porphyrins is directed by the nature of the substituents attached to the meso pyridyl nitrogens at the porphyrin ring. Increasing the length of the aliphatic chain from one carbon (methyl) to six carbons (hexyl) increased mitochondrial uptake of the compounds. Such modifications also affected sub-mitochondrial distribution of the Zn-porphyrins. The amphiphilic hexyl derivative (ZnTnHex-2-PyP) localized in the vicinity of cytochrome c oxidase complex, causing its inactivation during illumination. Photoinactivation of critical cellular targets explains the superior efficiency of the hexyl derivative in causing mitochondrial photodamage, and suppressing cellular respiration and survival. Design of potent photosensitizers and redox-active scavengers of free radicals should take into consideration not only selective organelle uptake and localization, but also selective targeting of critical macromolecular structures.

  13. Measurement of antioxidant activity and antioxidant compounds under versatile extraction conditions: II. The immuno-biochemical antioxidant properties of black sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) extracts. (United States)

    Haddad, John J; Ghadieh, Rana M; Hasan, Hiba A; Nakhal, Yasmine K; Hanbali, Lama B


    Retrospectively, we have measured the antioxidant activity and a variety of antioxidant compounds under versatile extraction conditions of sweet cherry (Prunus avium) extracts. Further in this study, in order to understand the biochemical constituents and antioxidant activities of a variety of extracts of black sour cherries (P. cerasus), a related species, antioxidant compounds, including L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C), phenols, flavonoids, and anthocyanins, and the total antioxidant activity were simultaneously measured under varying extraction conditions (mild heating and brief microwave exposure) for: i) whole juice extracts (WJE), ii) methanol-extracted juice (MEJ), iii) ddH2O-extracted pomace (dPOM), and iv) methanol-extracted pomace (mPOM). The antioxidant activity for WJE was substantially increased with mild and prolonged exposure to either heating or microwave, such that the % inhibition against 2,2-diphenyl-1-bspicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) followed a positive correlation (heating, 5-20 min.; microwave, 1-2 min.), insignificant with MEJ and dPOM, whereas with mPOM there was sharp downregulation. L-Ascorbic acid content was not affected with mild to prolonged heating or microwave exposure (WEJ and mPOM), except a mild increase with MEJ and dPOM. Similarly, total phenols assessed showed no significant variations, as compared with control extracts, except a mild decrease with exposure for mPOM. In a manner similar to L-ascorbic acid, total flavonoid content was increased under varying conditions for WEJ and MEJ, and slightly decreased for dPOM and mPOM. On the other hand, anthocyanins showed differential variations with exposure (up- and downregulation). Assessment of extraction means as compared with WJE revealed sharp increase in the antioxidant activity for MEJ, dPOM and mPOM, significant increase in L-ascorbic acid, total phenol, and flavonoid contents for MEJ, dPOM and mPOM, and mild decrease in anthocyanin contents for MEJ, dPOM, and mPOM. These results

  14. Synthesis and evaluation of new salicylaldehyde-2-picolinylhydrazone Schiff base compounds of Ru(II), Rh(III) and Ir(III) as in vitro antitumor, antibacterial and fluorescence imaging agents. (United States)

    Palepu, Narasinga Rao; Nongbri, S L; Premkumar, J Richard; Verma, Akalesh Kumar; Bhattacharjee, Kaushik; Joshi, S R; Forbes, Scott; Mozharivskyj, Yurij; Thounaojam, Romita; Aguan, K; Kollipara, Mohan Rao


    Reaction of salicylaldehyde-2-picolinylhydrazone (HL) Schiff base ligand with precursor compounds [{(p-cymene)RuCl2}2] 1, [{(C6H6)RuCl2}2] 2, [{Cp*RhCl2}2] 3 and [{Cp*IrCl2}2] 4 yielded the corresponding neutral mononuclear compounds 5-8, respectively. The in vitro antitumor evaluation of the compounds 1-8 against Dalton's ascites lymphoma (DL) cells by fluorescence-based apoptosis study and by their half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values revealed the high antitumor activity of compounds 3, 4, 5 and 6. Compounds 1-8 render comparatively lower apoptotic effect than that of cisplatin on model non-tumor cells, i.e., peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). The antibacterial evaluation of compounds 5-8 by agar well-diffusion method revealed that compound 6 is significantly effective against all the eight bacterial species considered with zone of inhibition up to 35 mm. Fluorescence imaging study of compounds 5-8 with plasmid circular DNA (pcDNA) and HeLa RNA demonstrated their fluorescence imaging property upon binding with nucleic acids. The docking study with some key enzymes associated with the propagation of cancer such as ribonucleotide reductase, thymidylate synthase, thymidylate phosphorylase and topoisomerase II revealed strong interactions between proteins and compounds 5-8. Conformational analysis by density functional theory (DFT) study has corroborated our experimental observation of the N, N binding mode of ligand. Compounds 5-8 exhibited a HOMO (highest occupied molecular orbital)-LUMO (lowest unoccupied molecular orbital) energy gap 2.99-3.04 eV. Half-sandwich ruthenium, rhodium and iridium compounds were obtained by treatment of metal precursors with salicylaldehyde-2-picolinylhydrazone (HL) by in situ metal-mediated deprotonation of the ligand. Compounds under investigation have shown potential antitumor, antibacterial and fluorescence imaging properties. Arene ruthenium compounds exhibited higher activity compared to that of Cp

  15. Selective Reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Mette N.


    This article employs a multi-species perspective in investigating how life's worth is negotiated in the field of neonatology in Denmark. It does so by comparing decision-making processes about human infants in the Danish neonatal intensive care unit with those associated with piglets who serve as...... as expectations within linear or predictive time frames are key markers in both sites. Exploring selective reproductive processes across human infants and research piglets can help us uncover aspects of the cultural production of viability that we would not otherwise see or acknowledge....

  16. Investigation of p-side contact layers for II-VI compound semiconductor optical devices fabricated on InP substrates by MBE (United States)

    Takamatsu, Shingo; Nomura, Ichirou; Shiraishi, Tomohiro; Kishino, Katsumi


    N-doped p-type ZnTe and ZnSeTe contact layers were investigated to evaluate which is more suitable for use in II-VI compound semiconductor optical devices on InP substrates. Contact resistances (Rc) between the contact layers and several electrode materials (Pd/Pt/Au, Pd/Au, and Au) were measured by the circular transmission line model (c-TLM) method using p-n diode samples grown on InP substrates by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The lowest Rc (6.5×10-5 Ω cm2) was obtained in the case of the ZnTe contact and Pd/Pt/Au electrode combination, which proves that the combination is suitable for obtaining low Rc. Yellow light-emitting diode devices with a ZnTe and ZnSeTe p-contact layer were fabricated by MBE to investigate the effect of different contact layers. The devices were characterized under direct current injections at room temperature. Yellow emission at around 600 nm was observed for each device. Higher emission intensity and lower slope resistance were obtained for the device with the ZnTe contact layer and Pd/Pt/Au electrode compared with other devices. These device performances are ascribed to the low Rc of the ZnTe contact and Pd/Pt/Au electrode combination.

  17. Experimental and theoretical investigations on Pd(II) host-guest compound: Deciphering the structural and electronic features of a potential bioactive complex (United States)

    Sreejith, S. S.; Mohan, Nithya; Prathapachandra Kurup, M. R.


    A Pd(II) complex from N,N‧-bis(2-hydroxy-3-ethoxybenzylidene)butane-1,4-diamine salen-type ligand has been synthesized and characterised using single crystal XRD analysis, elemental analysis, IR and UV-Vis spectroscopic methods. Thermal profile of the compound is investigated using TG-DTG-DSC method. The quantification of intermolecular interactions and surface morphology has been done using Hirshfeld surface study mapped using various functions like dnorm, shape index and curvedness. ESP analysis is done to visualize the electrophilic and nucleophilic regions in the complex. Geometry optimization of the structure is done using DFT at B3LYP/def2-TZVP level of theory. Frontier orbital analysis reveals the kinetical stability and chemical inertness of the complex. A detailed charge distribution analysis is done using different analytical methods like Mulliken, Löwdin, NPA and AIM methods. Further bond order analysis and topological analysis are also done. Finally the bioactivity of the titled complex is checked using molecular docking method on both DNA and protein.

  18. Chemistry of clitoral gland secretions of the laboratory rat: Assessment of behavioural response to identified compounds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Kannan; G Archunan


    The present investigations were carried out to find out the chemical nature of clitoral gland extracts and their involvement in reproductive and social behaviour. Homogenates of clitoral glands of mature estrous female rats were extracted with -hexane and dichloromethane (1 : 1 ratio v/v) and analysed by gas chromatography linked mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Three peaks were found to be in higher concentration, which were identified as 6,11-dihydro-dibenz-b,e-oxepin-11-one (I); 2,6,10-dodecatrien-1-ol-3,7,11-trimethyl(Z) (II); and 1,2-benzene-dicarboxylic acid butyl(2-ethylpropyl) ester (III).Odour preference tests demonstrated that the first compound attracted conspecifics of the opposite sex. By contrast, the second and third compounds were found to attract both sexes. The results conclude that the clitoral gland of laboratory rat contains three major chemical compounds which have a unique function in maintaining social and reproductive status.

  19. Comparison of Host Immune Responses to Homologous and Heterologous Type II Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV Challenge in Vaccinated and Unvaccinated Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Li


    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS is a high-consequence animal disease with current vaccines providing limited protection from infection due to the high degree of genetic variation of field PRRS virus. Therefore, understanding host immune responses elicited by different PRRSV strains will facilitate the development of more effective vaccines. Using IngelVac modified live PRRSV vaccine (MLV, its parental strain VR-2332, and the heterologous KS-06-72109 strain (a Kansas isolate of PRRSV, we compared immune responses induced by vaccination and/or PRRSV infection. Our results showed that MLV can provide complete protection from homologous virus (VR-2332 and partial protection from heterologous (KS-06 challenge. The protection was associated with the levels of PRRSV neutralizing antibodies at the time of challenge, with vaccinated pigs having higher titers to VR-2332 compared to KS-06 strain. Challenge strain did not alter the cytokine expression profiles in the serum of vaccinated pigs or subpopulations of T cells. However, higher frequencies of IFN-γ-secreting PBMCs were generated from pigs challenged with heterologous PRRSV in a recall response when PBMCs were re-stimulated with PRRSV. Thus, this study indicates that serum neutralizing antibody titers are associated with PRRSV vaccination-induced protection against homologous and heterologous challenge.

  20. Female Reproductive System (United States)

    ... Reproductive System en español Sistema reproductor femenino About Human Reproduction All living things reproduce. Reproduction — the process by ... male and female reproductive systems are essential for reproduction. The female needs a ... like other organisms, pass certain characteristics of themselves ...

  1. Reproduction in the space environment: Part I. Animal reproductive studies (United States)

    Santy, P. A.; Jennings, R. T.; Craigie, D.


    Mankind's exploration and colonization of the frontier of space will ultimately depend on men's and women's ability to live, work, and reproduce in the space environment. This paper reviews animal studies, from microorganisms to mammals, done in space or under space-simulated conditions, which identify some of the key areas which might interfere with human reproductive physiology and/or embryonic development. Those space environmental factors which impacted almost all species included: microgravity, artificial gravity, radiation, and closed life support systems. These factors may act independently and in combination to produce their effects. To date, there have been no studies which have looked at the entire process of reproduction in any animal species. This type of investigation will be critical in understanding and preventing the problems which will affect human reproduction. Part II will discuss these problems directly as they relate to human physiology.

  2. Normal Female Reproductive Anatomy (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x756 ... Large: 3000x3150 View Download Title: Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the female reproductive system; drawing ...

  3. Reproduction, physiology and biochemistry (United States)

    This chapter summarizes fundamental knowledge and recent discoveries about the reproduction, physiology and biochemistry of plant-parasitic nematodes. Various types of reproduction are reviewed, including sexual reproduction and mitotic and meiotic parthenogenesis. Although much is known about the p...

  4. My Reproductive Life Plan (United States)

    ... Button Information For... Media Policy Makers My Reproductive Life Plan Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... to achieve those goals is called a reproductive life plan . There are many kinds of reproductive life plans. ...

  5. Supplementation based on protein or energy ingredients to beef cattle consuming low-quality cool-season forages: II. Performance, reproductive, and metabolic responses of replacement heifers. (United States)

    Cappellozza, B I; Cooke, R F; Reis, M M; Moriel, P; Keisler, D H; Bohnert, D W


    This experiment evaluated the influence of supplement composition on performance, reproductive, and metabolic responses of Angus × Hereford heifers consuming a low-quality cool-season forage (8.7% CP and 57% TDN). Sixty heifers (initial age = 226 ± 3 d) were allocated into 15 drylot pens (4 heifers/pen and 5 pens/treatment) and assigned to 1) supplementation with soybean meal (PROT), 2) supplementation with a mixture of cracked corn, soybean meal, and urea (68:22:10 ratio, DM basis; ENER), or 3) no supplementation (CON). Heifers were offered meadow foxtail (Alopecurus pratensis L.) hay for ad libitum consumption during the experiment (d -10 to 160). Beginning on d 0, PROT and ENER were provided daily at a rate of 1.30 and 1.40 kg of DM/heifer to ensure that PROT and ENER intakes were isocaloric and isonitrogenous. Hay and total DMI were recorded for 5 consecutive days during each month of the experiment. Blood was collected every 10 d for analysis of plasma progesterone to evaluate puberty attainment. Blood samples collected on d -10, 60, 120, and 150 were also analyzed for plasma concentrations of plasma urea N (PUN), glucose, insulin, IGF-I, NEFA, and leptin. Liver samples were collected on d 100 from 2 heifers/pen and analyzed for mRNA expression of genes associated with nutritional metabolism. No treatment effect was detected (P = 0.33) on forage DMI. Total DMI, ADG, and mean concentrations of glucose, insulin, and IGF-I as well as hepatic mRNA expression of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were greater (P ≤ 0.02) for PROT and ENER compared with CON and similar between PROT and ENER (P ≥ 0.13). Mean PUN concentrations were also greater (P beef heifers consuming a low-quality cool-season forage had a similar increase in DMI, growth, and overall metabolic status if offered supplements based on soybean meal or corn at 0.5% of BW.

  6. Conjugation of a Ru(II) arene complex to neomycin or to guanidinoneomycin leads to compounds with differential cytotoxicities and accumulation between cancer and normal cells. (United States)

    Grau-Campistany, Ariadna; Massaguer, Anna; Carrion-Salip, Dolors; Barragán, Flavia; Artigas, Gerard; López-Senín, Paula; Moreno, Virtudes; Marchán, Vicente


    A straightforward methodology for the synthesis of conjugates between a cytotoxic organometallic ruthenium(II) complex and amino- and guanidinoglycosides, as potential RNA-targeted anticancer compounds, is described. Under microwave irradiation, the imidazole ligand incorporated on the aminoglycoside moiety (neamine or neomycin) was found to replace one triphenylphosphine ligand from the ruthenium precursor [(η(6)-p-cym)RuCl(PPh3)2](+), allowing the assembly of the target conjugates. The guanidinylated analogue was easily prepared from the neomycin-ruthenium conjugate by reaction with N,N'-di-Boc-N″-triflylguanidine, a powerful guanidinylating reagent that was compatible with the integrity of the metal complex. All conjugates were purified by semipreparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and characterized by electrospray ionization (ESI) and matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) and NMR spectroscopy. The cytotoxicity of the compounds was tested in MCF-7 (breast) and DU-145 (prostate) human cancer cells, as well as in the normal HEK293 (Human Embryonic Kidney) cell line, revealing a dependence on the nature of the glycoside moiety and the type of cell (cancer or healthy). Indeed, the neomycin-ruthenium conjugate (2) displayed moderate antiproliferative activity in both cancer cell lines (IC50 ≈ 80 μM), whereas the neamine conjugate (4) was inactive (IC50 ≈ 200 μM). However, the guanidinylated analogue of the neomycin-ruthenium conjugate (3) required much lower concentrations than the parent conjugate for equal effect (IC50 = 7.17 μM in DU-145 and IC50 = 11.33 μM in MCF-7). Although the same ranking in antiproliferative activity was found in the nontumorigenic cell line (3 ≫ 2 > 4), IC50 values indicate that aminoglycoside-containing conjugates are about 2-fold more cytotoxic in normal cells (e.g., IC50 = 49.4 μM for 2) than in cancer cells, whereas an opposite tendency was found

  7. Componentes voláteis do café torrado. Parte II. Compostos alifáticos, alicíclicos e aromáticos Volatile components in roasted coffee. Part II. Aliphatic, alicyclic and aromatic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Felipe Alves Moreira


    Full Text Available This review is about the aliphatic, alicyclic and aromatic compounds (non-heterocyclic compounds that are present in the volatile fractions of roasted coffees. Herein, the contents, aroma precursors and the sensorial properties of volatile phenols, aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, ethers, hydrocarbons, carboxylic acids, anhydrides, esters, lactones, amines and sulphur compounds are discussed. Special attention is given to the compounds of these groups that are actually important to the final aroma of roasted coffees.

  8. Syntheses, structures, and magnetic properties of three one-dimensional end-to-end azide/cyanate-bridged copper(II) compounds exhibiting ferromagnetic interaction: new type of solid state isomerism. (United States)

    Sasmal, Sujit; Sarkar, Sohini; Aliaga-Alcalde, Núria; Mohanta, Sasankasekhar


    The work in this paper presents the syntheses, structures, and magnetic properties of three end-to-end (EE) azide/cyanate-bridged copper(II) compounds [Cu(II)L(1)(μ(1,3)-NCO)](n)·2nH(2)O (1), [Cu(II)L(1)(μ(1,3)-N(3))](n)·2nH(2)O (2), and [Cu(II)L(2)(μ(1,3)-N(3))](n) (3), where the ligands used to achieve these species, HL(1) and HL(2), are the tridentate Schiff base ligands obtained from [1 + 1] condensations of salicylaldehyde with 4-(2-aminoethyl)-morpholine and 3-methoxy salicylaldehyde with 1-(2-aminoethyl)-piperidine, respectively. Compounds 1 and 2 crystallize in the monoclinic P2(1)/c space group, while compound 3 crystallizes in the orthorhombic Pbca space group. The metal center in 1-3 is in all cases pentacoordinated. Three coordination positions of the metal center in 1, 2, or 3 are satisfied by the phenoxo oxygen atom, imine nitrogen atom, and morpholine (for 1 and 2) or piperidine (for 3) nitrogen atom of one deprotonated ligand, [L(1)](-) or [L(2)](-). The remaining two coordination positions are satisfied by two nitrogen atoms of two end-to-end bridging azide ligands for 2 and 3 and one nitrogen atom and one oxygen atom of two end-to-end bridging cyanate ligands for 1. The coordination geometry of the metal ion is distorted square pyramidal in which one EE azide/cyanate occupies the apical position. Variable-temperature (2-300 K) magnetic susceptibilities of 1-3 have been measured under magnetic fields of 0.05 (from 2 to 30 K) and 1.0 T (from 30 to 300 K). The simulation reveals a ferromagnetic interaction in all three compounds with J values of +0.19 ± 0.01, +0.79 ± 0.01, and +1.25 ± 0.007 cm(-1) for 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Compound 1 is the sole example of a ferromagnetically coupled EE cyanate-bridged 1-D copper(II) system. In addition, a rare example of supramolecular isomerism and a nice example of magnetic isomerism have been observed and most interestingly a new type of solid state isomerism has emerged as a result of the comparison

  9. Persistent organic pollutants and male reproductive health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Vested


    Full Text Available Environmental contaminants such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs are man-made bioaccumulative compounds with long half-lives that are found throughout the world as a result of heavy use in a variety of consumer products during the twentieth century. Wildlife and animal studies have long suggested adverse effects of exposure to these compounds on human reproductive health, which, according to the endocrine disrupter hypothesis, are ascribed to the compounds' potential to interfere with endocrine signaling, especially when exposure occurs during certain phases of fetal and childhood development. An extensive number of epidemiological studies have addressed the possible effects of exposure to POPs on male reproductive health, but the results are conflicting. Thus far, most studies have focused on investigating exposure and the different reproductive health outcomes during adulthood. Some studies have addressed the potential harmful effects of fetal exposure with respect to malformations at birth and/or reproductive development, whereas only a few studies have been able to evaluate whether intrauterine exposure to POPs has long-term consequences for male reproductive health with measurable effects on semen quality markers and reproductive hormone levels in adulthood. Humans are not exposed to a single compound at a time, but rather, to a variety of different substances with potential divergent hormonal effects. Hence, how to best analyze epidemiological data on combined exposures remains a significant challenge. This review on POPs will focus on current knowledge regarding the potential effects of exposure to POPs during fetal and childhood life and during adulthood on male reproductive health, including a critical revision of the endocrine disruption hypothesis, a comment on pubertal development as part of reproductive development and a comment on how to account for combined exposures in epidemiological research.

  10. Persistent organic pollutants and male reproductive health. (United States)

    Vested, Anne; Giwercman, Aleksander; Bonde, Jens Peter; Toft, Gunnar


    Environmental contaminants such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are man-made bioaccumulative compounds with long half-lives that are found throughout the world as a result of heavy use in a variety of consumer products during the twentieth century. Wildlife and animal studies have long suggested adverse effects of exposure to these compounds on human reproductive health, which, according to the endocrine disrupter hypothesis, are ascribed to the compounds' potential to interfere with endocrine signaling, especially when exposure occurs during certain phases of fetal and childhood development. An extensive number of epidemiological studies have addressed the possible effects of exposure to POPs on male reproductive health, but the results are conflicting. Thus far, most studies have focused on investigating exposure and the different reproductive health outcomes during adulthood. Some studies have addressed the potential harmful effects of fetal exposure with respect to malformations at birth and/or reproductive development, whereas only a few studies have been able to evaluate whether intrauterine exposure to POPs has long-term consequences for male reproductive health with measurable effects on semen quality markers and reproductive hormone levels in adulthood. Humans are not exposed to a single compound at a time, but rather, to a variety of different substances with potential divergent hormonal effects. Hence, how to best analyze epidemiological data on combined exposures remains a significant challenge. This review on POPs will focus on current knowledge regarding the potential effects of exposure to POPs during fetal and childhood life and during adulthood on male reproductive health, including a critical revision of the endocrine disruption hypothesis, a comment on pubertal development as part of reproductive development and a comment on how to account for combined exposures in epidemiological research.

  11. Raman spectra of Cu{sub 2}B{sup II}C{sup IV}X{sub 4}{sup VI} magnetic quaternary semiconductor compounds with tetragonal stannite type structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rincón, C., E-mail:; Quintero, M.; Power, Ch.; Moreno, E.; Quintero, E.; Morocoima, M. [Centro de Estudios de Semiconductores, Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Los Andes, Mérida (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Henao, J. A.; Macías, M. A. [Grupo de Investigación en Química Estructural, Facultad de Ciencias, Escuela de Química, Universidad Industrial de Santander, Apartado Aéreo 678, Bucaramanga (Colombia)


    A comparative study of the Raman spectra of Cu{sub 2}B{sup II}C{sup IV}S{sub 4}{sup VI} and Cu{sub 2}B{sup II}C{sup IV}Se{sub 4}{sup VI}(where B = Mn or Fe) magnetic quaternary semiconductor compounds with stannite-type structure (I4{sup ¯}2m) has been done. Most of the fourteen Raman lines expected for these materials were observed in the spectra. The two strongest lines observed have been assigned to the IR inactive A{sub 1}{sup 1} and A{sub 1}{sup 2} stannite modes that originated from the motion of the S or Se anion around the Cu and C{sup IV} cations remaining at rest. The shift in the frequency of these two lines of about 150 cm{sup −1} to lower energies observed in Cu{sub 2}B{sup II}C{sup IV}Se{sub 4}{sup VI} compounds as compared to those in Cu{sub 2}B{sup II}C{sup IV}S{sub 4}{sup VI} ones, can then be explained as due to the anion mass effect. Based on the fact that values of these frequencies depend mainly on anion mass and bond-stretching forces between nearest-neighbor atoms, the vibrational frequencies v{sup ¯}(A{sub 1}{sup 2}) and v{sup ¯}(A{sub 1}{sup 2}) of both modes for several Cu{sub 2}B{sup II}C{sup IV}X{sub 4}{sup VI} stannite compounds (where X = S, Se, or Te) very close to the experimental data reported for these materials were calculated from a simple model that relates these stretching forces to the anion-cation bond-distances.

  12. Low-dimensional compounds containing cyanido groups. XXVIII. Crystal structure, spectroscopic and magnetic properties of two copper(II) tetracyanidoplatinate complexes with 1,2-diaminopropane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vavra, Martin, E-mail: [Institute of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, P.J. Šafárik University, Moyzesova 11, SK-04154 Košice (Slovakia); Potočňák, Ivan [Institute of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, P.J. Šafárik University, Moyzesova 11, SK-04154 Košice (Slovakia); Dušek, Michal [Institute of Physics, Na Slovance 2, CZ-182 21 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Čižmár, Erik [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Science, P.J. Šafárik University, Park Angelinum 9, SK-04154 Košice (Slovakia); Ozerov, Mykhaylo; Zvyagin, Sergei A. [Dresden High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, D-01314 Dresden (Germany)


    Violet crystals of ([Cu(pn){sub 2}]{sub 2}[Pt(CN){sub 4}])[Pt(CN){sub 4}]·2H{sub 2}O (1, pn=1,2-diaminopropane) and blue crystals of [Cu(pn)Pt(CN){sub 4}]{sub n}·nH{sub 2}O (2) were prepared under hydrothermal conditions and characterized using elemental analysis, IR and UV–vis spectroscopy and by X-ray crystal structure analysis. Different number of ν(C≡N) absorption bands of these two compounds reflects their different structures. An X-ray crystal structure analysis has shown that complex 1 is of ionic character and is formed from trinuclear [Cu(pn){sub 2}–Pt(CN){sub 4}–Cu(pn){sub 2}]{sup 2+} complex cation and discrete [Pt(CN){sub 4}]{sup 2–} anion together with two molecules of crystal water. On the other hand, complex 2 is of polymeric character and is formed by 2D networks of [Cu(pn)Pt(CN){sub 4}]{sub n} composition and completed by n molecules of crystal water. Magnetic measurements show the presence of a weak antiferromagnetic exchange interaction in complex 1 (Θ=–0.2 K), while the magnetic susceptibility of complex 2 is well described by the model of uniform S=1/2 spin chain with exchange interaction J/k{sub B}=–1.64 K. - Graphical abstract: Two complexes of different structural types from the system Cu(II) – 1,2–diaminopropane – [Pt(CN){sub 4}]{sup 2–} have been isolated. These were characterized by IR and UV–VIS spectroscopy, X–ray crystal structure analysis together with the magnetic measurements. On one hand ([Cu(pn){sub 2}]{sub 2}[Pt(CN){sub 4}])[Pt(CN){sub 4}]∙2H{sub 2}O is of ionic character and is formed from trinuclear complex cation and discrete anion together with two molecules of crystal water. On the other hand, [Cu(pn)Pt(CN){sub 4}]{sub n}∙nH{sub 2}O is of polymeric character and is formed by 2D networks of [Cu(pn)Pt(CN){sub 4}]{sub n} composition and completed by n molecules of crystal water. - Highlights: • Two complexes of different compositions from one system have been isolated. • First complex is of

  13. Reproductive Disorders in Snakes. (United States)

    Di Girolamo, Nicola; Selleri, Paolo


    Reproduction of snakes is one of the challenging aspects of herpetology medicine. Due to the complexity of reproduction, several disorders may present before, during, or after this process. This article describes the physical examination, and radiographic, ultrasonographic, and endoscopic findings associated with reproductive disorders in snakes. Surgical techniques used to resolve reproductive disorders in snakes are described. Finally, common reproductive disorders in snakes are individually discussed.

  14. A new compound heterozygous frameshift mutation in the type II 3{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3{beta}-HSD gene causes salt-wasting 3{beta}-HSD deficiency congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, L.; Sakkal-Alkaddour, S.; Chang, Ying T.; Yang, Xiaojiang; Songya Pang [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)


    We report a new compound heterozygous frameshift mutation in the type II 3{Beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3{beta}-HSD) gene in a Pakistanian female child with the salt-wasting form of 3{Beta}-HSD deficiency congenital adrenal hyperplasia. The etiology for her congenital adrenal hyperplasia was not defined. Although the family history suggested possible 3{beta}-HSd deficiency disorder, suppressed adrenal function caused by excess glucocorticoid therapy in this child at 7 yr of age did not allow hormonal diagnosis. To confirm 3{beta}-HSD deficiency, we sequenced the type II 3{beta}-HSD gene in the patient, her family, and the parents of her deceased paternal cousins. The type II 3{beta}-HSD gene region of a putative promotor, exons I, II, III, and IV, and exon-intron boundaries were amplified by PCR and sequenced in all subjects. The DNA sequence of the child revealed a single nucleotide deletion at codon 318 [ACA(Thr){r_arrow}AA] in exon IV in one allele, and two nucleotide deletions at codon 273 [AAA(Lys){r_arrow}A] in exon IV in the other allele. The remaining gene sequences were normal. The codon 318 mutation was found in one allele from the father, brother, and parents of the deceased paternal cousins. The codon 273 mutation was found in one allele of the mother and a sister. These findings confirmed inherited 3{beta}-HSD deficiency in the child caused by the compound heterozygous type II 3{beta}-HSD gene mutation. Both codons at codons 279 and 367, respectively, are predicted to result in an altered and truncated type II 3{beta}-HSD protein, thereby causing salt-wasting 3{beta}-HSD deficiency in the patient. 21 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  15. In vitro and in vivo studies of the antineoplastic activity of copper (II) compounds against human leukemia THP-1 and murine melanoma B16-F10 cell lines. (United States)

    Borges, Layla J H; Bull, Érika S; Fernandes, Christiane; Horn, Adolfo; Azeredo, Nathalia F; Resende, Jackson A L C; Freitas, William R; Carvalho, Eulógio C Q; Lemos, Luciana S; Jerdy, Hassan; Kanashiro, Milton M


    We investigated the antineoplastic activities of a previously reported copper (II) coordination compound, [Cu(BMPA)Cl2]CH3OH (1), and a new compound, [Cu(HBPA)Cl2]H2O (2), where BMPA is bis(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)amine and HBPA is (2-hydroxybenzyl)(2-pyridylmethyl)amine, using various cellular models of human leukemia (THP-1, U937, HL60, Molt-4, JURKAT) and human colon cancer (COLO 205), as well as a murine highly metastatic melanoma (B16-F10) cell line. Compound (2) was characterized using several physical and chemical techniques, including X-ray diffraction studies. The IC50 values of the copper coordination complexes in the human leukemia cell lines ranged from 87.63 ± 1.02 to ≥400 μM at high cell concentrations and from 19.17 ± 1.06 to 97.67 ± 1.23 μM at low cell concentrations. Both compounds induced cell death, which was determined by cell cycle analyses and phosphatidylserine exposure studies. THP-1 cells released cytochrome c to the cytoplasm 12 h after treatment with 400 μM of compound (2). To evaluate the apoptosis pathway induced by compound (2), we measured the activities of initiator caspases 8 and 9 and executioner caspases 3 and 6. The results were suggestive of the activation of both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathways. To investigate the activities of the compounds in vivo, we selected two sensitive cell lines from leukemia (THP-1) and solid tumor (B16-F10) lineages. BALB/c nude bearing THP-1 tumors treated with 12 mg·kg(-1) of compound (2) showed a 92.4% inhibition of tumor growth compared with the control group.

  16. Bio-sensitive activities of coordination compounds containing 1,10-phenanthroline as co-ligand: Synthesis, structural elucidation and DNA binding properties of metal(II) complexes (United States)

    Raman, Natarajan; Mahalakshmi, Rajkumar; Mitu, Liviu


    Present work reports the DNA binding and cleavage characteristics of a series of mixed-ligand complexes having the composition [M(L)(phen)2]Cl2 (where M = Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II) and Zn(II) and phen as co-ligand) in detail. Their structural features and other properties have been deduced from their elemental analyses, magnetic susceptibility and molar conductivity as well as from IR, UV-Vis, 1H NMR and EPR spectral studies. The UV-Vis, magnetic susceptibility and EPR spectral data of metal complexes suggest an octahedral geometry. The binding properties of these complexes with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) have been explored using electronic absorption spectroscopy, viscosity measurement, cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry. The DNA-binding constants for Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II), and Zn(II) complexes are 6.14 × 105 M-1, 1.8 × 105 M-1, 6.7 × 104 M-1 and 2.5 × 104 M-1 respectively. Detailed analysis reveals that these complexes interact with DNA through intercalation binding. Nuclease activity has also been investigated by gel electrophoresis. Moreover, the synthesized Schiff base and its mixed-ligand complexes have been screened for antibacterial and antifungal activities. The data reveal that the complexes exhibit higher activity than the parent ligand.

  17. Un modelo descriptivo del sistema reproductor hembra del coipo (Myocastor coypus II: los órganos tubulares (A descriptive model of the female reproductive system of coypu (Myocastor coypus II: tubular organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe, A. E.


    prominence. The mucous tunic of infundibulum and ampulla had many longitudinal folds with fine secondary and tertiary branches. Folds were low and undivided at the isthmus. The mucosa of the oviducts was covered by high epithelium. The double uterus consisted of two uteri with cavities quite independent from each other. A gross septum separated the cervical canals which still remained separately in the dorsal surface of the cervix. The mucous epithelium of the horns was composed of ciliated cylindrical cells that contained oval nuclei in basal position. There were abundant endometrial glands in the horns. The epithelium of the endocervix was composed of large columnar cells, with a mucus-secreting appearance. All along the uterine horns the lamina propria was composed of a lax connective tissue. The myometrium was very well-developed. The perimetrium was a serous membrane with many longitudinal muscle fibres. The vagina was a tubular organ. The fornix was divided into five cul-de-sacs. The vaginal mucosa was covered by a stratified squamous epithelium. The connective-epithelial junction was notably irregular due to the presence of many connective papillae which projected themselves from the lamina propria into the basal epithelium. The general morphology of the reproductive organs of the Myocastor coypus is typical of the hystricomorph rodents studied.

  18. Late First-Row Transition-Metal Complexes Containing a 2-Pyridylmethyl Pendant-Armed 15-Membered Macrocyclic Ligand. Field-Induced Slow Magnetic Relaxation in a Seven-Coordinate Cobalt(II) Compound. (United States)

    Antal, Peter; Drahoš, Bohuslav; Herchel, Radovan; Trávníček, Zdeněk


    The 2-pyridylmethyl N-pendant-armed heptadentate macrocyclic ligand {3,12-bis(2-methylpyridine)-3,12,18-triaza-6,9-dioxabicyclo[12.3.1]octadeca-1,14,16-triene = L} and [M(L)](ClO4)2 complexes, where M = Mn(II) (1), Fe(II) (2), Co(II) (3), Ni(II) (4), and Cu(II) (5), were prepared and thoroughly characterized, including elucidation of X-ray structures of all the compounds studied. The complexes 1-5 crystallize in non-centrosymmetric Sohncke space groups as racemic compounds. The coordination numbers of 7, 6 + 1, and 5 were found in complexes 1-3, 4, and 5, respectively, with a distorted pentagonal bipyramidal (1-4) or square pyramidal (5) geometry. On the basis of the magnetic susceptibility experiments, a large axial zero-field splitting (ZFS) was found for 2, 3, and 4 (D(Fe) = -7.4(2) cm(-1), D(Co) = 34(1) cm(-1), and D(Ni) = -12.8(1) cm(-1), respectively) together with a rhombic ZFS (E/D = 0.136(3)) for 4. Despite the easy plane anisotropy (D > 0, E/D = 0) in 3, the slow relaxation of the magnetization below 8 K was observed and analyzed either with Orbach relaxation mechanism (the relaxation time τ0 = 9.90 × 10(-10) s and spin reversal barrier Ueff = 24.3 K (16.9 cm(-1))) or with Raman relaxation mechanism (C = 2.12 × 10(-5) and n = 2.84). Therefore, compound 3 enlarges the small family of field-induced single-molecule magnets with pentagonal-bipyramidal chromophore. The cyclic voltammetry in acetonitrile revealed reversible redox processes in 1-3 and 5, except for the Ni(II) complex 4, where a quasi-reversible process was dominantly observed. Presence of the two 2-pyridylmethyl pendant arms in L with a stronger σ-donor/π-acceptor ability had a great impact on the properties of all the complexes (1-5), concretely: (i) strong pyridine-metal bonds provided slight axial compression of the coordination sphere, (ii) substantial changes in magnetic anisotropy, and (iii) stabilization of lower oxidation states.

  19. Persistent organic pollutants and male reproductive health (United States)

    Vested, Anne; Giwercman, Aleksander; Bonde, Jens Peter; Toft, Gunnar


    Environmental contaminants such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are man-made bioaccumulative compounds with long half-lives that are found throughout the world as a result of heavy use in a variety of consumer products during the twentieth century. Wildlife and animal studies have long suggested adverse effects of exposure to these compounds on human reproductive health, which, according to the endocrine disrupter hypothesis, are ascribed to the compounds’ potential to interfere with endocrine signaling, especially when exposure occurs during certain phases of fetal and childhood development. An extensive number of epidemiological studies have addressed the possible effects of exposure to POPs on male reproductive health, but the results are conflicting. Thus far, most studies have focused on investigating exposure and the different reproductive health outcomes during adulthood. Some studies have addressed the potential harmful effects of fetal exposure with respect to malformations at birth and/or reproductive development, whereas only a few studies have been able to evaluate whether intrauterine exposure to POPs has long-term consequences for male reproductive health with measurable effects on semen quality markers and reproductive hormone levels in adulthood. Humans are not exposed to a single compound at a time, but rather, to a variety of different substances with potential divergent hormonal effects. Hence, how to best analyze epidemiological data on combined exposures remains a significant challenge. This review on POPs will focus on current knowledge regarding the potential effects of exposure to POPs during fetal and childhood life and during adulthood on male reproductive health, including a critical revision of the endocrine disruption hypothesis, a comment on pubertal development as part of reproductive development and a comment on how to account for combined exposures in epidemiological research. PMID:24369135

  20. [Protective effect of GnRH analogues on the reproductive capacity of women with neoplasia or autoimmune disease who require chemotherapy. Final results of a phase ii clinical trial]. (United States)

    Gris-Martínez, José M; Trillo-Urrutia, Lourdes; Gómez-Cabeza, Juan José; Encabo-Duró, Gloria


    In order to avoid the toxic effect of chemotherapy, it has been proposed to use GnRH agonist analogues (GnRHa) to inhibit the depletion of ovarian follicles. Nevertheless, there is controversy about its effectiveness. This clinical trial has been conducted with the aim to assess the protective effect of GnRH analogues on the reproductive capacity of women with malignancies or autoimmune diseases, which require chemotherapy. Open phase ii single-center clinical trial. During chemotherapy, a total of 5 doses of GnRH antagonist analogue at a dose interval of 3 days and/or a monthly dose of GnRHa were administered. Hormonal determinations prior to the start of the CT treatment were conducted during treatment and at the end of it. The inclusion of patients was prematurely concluded when incorporating the determination of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) as a parameter for assessing the ovarian reserve. Out of 38 patients, 23 (60.5%, 95%CI 43.4-76.0) had AMH values below normal following completion of treatment. An intermediate analysis was carried out observing that while most patients were recovering the menstrual cycle (86.6% 95%CI 71.9-95.6), they had reduced levels of AMH. Although most patients recovered their menstrual cycles, the ovarian reserve, assessed by the concentration of AMH, decreased in many patients. Therefore, we can conclude that the concomitant treatment of chemotherapy and GnRH analogues does not preserve the loss of follicular ovarian reserve. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Associations of Polymorphisms in Anti-Müllerian Hormone (AMH Ile49Ser and its Type II Receptor (AMHRII -482 A>G on Reproductive Outcomes and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel Pabalan


    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Reported associations of reproductive outcomes (RO and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS with genotypes of the Ile49Ser and -482A>G polymorphisms in the Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH gene and its type II receptor (AMHRII, respectively, have conflicting results. Methods: PubMed, Google Scholar and Science Direct databases were searched for studies that investigated Ile49Ser and -482A>G in RO and PCOS. Using the metaanalytic approach, we estimated risk (odds ratio [OR] with 95% confidence intervals using standard genetic models. Results: All calculated summary effects were non-significant. Overall associations of Ile49Ser and -482A>G with RO were absent (OR 0.95-0.99, P = 0.76-0.96 but implied increased risk in PCOS (OR 1.07-1.17, P = 0.49-0.55. Where heterogeneity of the pooled ORs were present, its sources were explored using the Galbraith plot. Detection and omission of the outlying studies in both polymorphisms not only erased heterogeneity of the recalculated pooled outcomes but also changed direction of association, where null effects turned to increased risk (Ile49Ser in RO and increased risk became reduced risk (-482A>G in PCOS. Implications of the Ile49Ser and -482A>G, effects pointed to protection for Caucasians (OR 0.64-0.89, P = 0.36-0.73 in RO and increased risk in PCOS (OR 1.19-1.45, P = 0.28-0.65. Asian effects in RO and PCOS were variable (OR 0.97-1.24, P = 0.58-0.91. Conclusions: In summary, we found no evidence of significant associations of Ile49Ser and -482A>G with RO and PCOS, although contrasting Ile49Ser effects were implied among Caucasians between RO (up to 0.36% reduced risk and PCOS (up to 1.5-fold increased risk.

  2. Chemosignals, hormones and mammalian reproduction. (United States)

    Petrulis, Aras


    Many mammalian species use chemosignals to coordinate reproduction by altering the physiology and behavior of both sexes. Chemosignals prime reproductive physiology so that individuals become sexually mature and active at times when mating is most probable and suppress it when it is not. Once in reproductive condition, odors produced and deposited by both males and females are used to find and select individuals for mating. The production, dissemination and appropriate responses to these cues are modulated heavily by organizational and activational effects of gonadal sex steroids and thereby intrinsically link chemical communication to the broader reproductive context. Many compounds have been identified as "pheromones" but very few have met the expectations of that term: a unitary, species-typical substance that is both necessary and sufficient for an experience-independent behavioral or physiological response. In contrast, most responses to chemosignals are dependent or heavily modulated by experience, either in adulthood or during development. Mechanistically, chemosignals are perceived by both main and accessory (vomeronasal) olfactory systems with the importance of each system tied strongly to the nature of the stimulus rather than to the response. In the central nervous system, the vast majority of responses to chemosignals are mediated by cortical and medial amygdala connections with hypothalamic and other forebrain structures. Despite the importance of chemosignals in mammals, many details of chemical communication differ even among closely related species and defy clear categorization. Although generating much research and public interest, strong evidence for the existence of a robust chemical communication among humans is lacking.

  3. Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology (United States)

    The Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology PATIENTS Patient Information What Is SART? Risks of IVF Third Party Reproduction A Patient's Guide to Assisted Reproductive Technology Frequently Asked ...


    Pilot-scale demonstration of pervaporation-based removal of volatile organic compounds from a surfactant enhanced aquifer remediation (SEAR) fluid has been conducted at USEPA's Test & Evaluation Facility using hollow fiber membrane modules. The membranes consisted of microporous...

  5. A dinuclear end-on azide-bridged copper(II) compound with weak antiferromagnetic interaction - Synthesis, characterization, magnetism and X-ray structure of bis[(μ-azido-κN1)-(azido-κN1)(1,3-bis(benzimidazol-2-yl)-2-methylpropane)copper(II) (United States)

    van Albada, Gerard A.; Mutikainen, Ilpo; Roubeau, Olivier; Reedijk, Jan


    The centrosymmetric dinuclear compound of formula [Cu(μ-N3-κN1)(N3-κN1)(bbmp)]2 is reported. Synthesis, characterization, physical properties are determined in detail, together with its 3D structure. The dinuclear end-on azide-bridged copper(II) compound displays a weak antiferromagnetic interaction, despite the fact that the magnetic orbitals overlap. The Cu-Cu contact distance is 3.1867(8) Å, while the Cu-Nazide-Cu angle is 103.41(14)°. The IR spectra of the azido ligands are as expected for such coordinated azides.

  6. Phytoestrogen Biological Actions on Mammalian Reproductive System and Cancer Growth


    Zhao, E; Mu, Qing


    Phytoestrogens are a family of diverse polyphenolic compounds derived from nature plant that structurally or functionally mimic circulating estrogen in the mammalian reproductive system. They induce estrogenic and anti-estrogenic effects in the brain-pituitary-gonad axis (a principal endocrine system involving in reproductive regulation) and peripheral reproductive organs. The dichotomy of phytoestrogen-mediated actions elucidates that they play the biological activities via complex mechanism...

  7. Temperature-dependent interactions and disorder in the spin-transition compound [Fe(II)(L)2][ClO4]2.C7H8 through structural, calorimetric, magnetic, photomagnetic, and diffuse reflectance investigations. (United States)

    Mishra, Vibha; Mukherjee, Rabindranath; Linares, Jorge; Balde, Chérif; Desplanches, Cédric; Létard, Jean-François; Collet, Eric; Toupet, Loic; Castro, Miguel; Varret, François


    The title compound [Fe (II)(L) 2][ClO 4] 2.C 7H 8 (L = 2-[3-(2'-pyridyl)pyrazol-1-ylmethyl]pyridine) has been isolated while attempting to grow single crystals of the spin-transition (continuous-type) compound [Fe (II)(L) 2][ClO 4] 2, published earlier ( Dalton Trans. 2003, 3392-3397). Magnetic susceptibility measurements, as well as Mossbauer and calorimetric investigations on polycrystalline samples of [Fe(L) 2][ClO 4] 2.C 7H 8 revealed the occurrence of an abrupt HS ( (5) T 2) LS ( (1) A 1) transition with steep and narrow (2 K) hysteresis at approximately 232 K. The photomagnetic properties exhibit features typical for a broad distribution of activation energies, with relaxation curves in the shape of stretched exponentials. We performed a crystal structure determination of the compound at 120, 240, and 270 K. A noteworthy temperature-dependent behavior of the structural parameters was observed, in terms of disorder of both the anions and solvent molecules, leading to a strong thermal dependence of the strength and dimensionality of the interaction network. Additional data were obtained by diffuse reflectance measurements. We model and discuss the antagonistic effects of interactions and disorder by using a two-level cooperative mean-field approach which includes a distribution of barrier energies at the microscopic scale.

  8. Syntheses, structures and properties of two dinuclear mercury(II) iodide compounds containing tetradentate tripodal amine/pentadentate N-donor Schiff base: Control of molecular and crystalline architectures by varying ligand matrices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subhasis Roy; Soumi Chattopadhyay; Somnath Choubey; Kishalay Bhar; Partha Mitra; Barindra Kumar Ghosh


    Two dinuclear mercury(II) iodide complexes of the types [(L1)Hg(-I)HgI3] (1) and [Hg2(L2) (I)4]·H2O (2) [L1 = tris(2-aminoethyl)amine and L2 = N,N'-(bis-(pyridin-2-yl)benzylidene)diethylenetriamine] have been synthesized and characterized usingmicroanalytical, spectroscopic, thermal and other physicochemical results. Structures of both the compounds are solved by X-ray diffraction measurements. Structural analyses show that one mercury (II) centre in 1 adopts a distorted tetrahedral geometry with an HgI4 chromophore surrounded by four iodides, while the other has a distorted trigonal bipyramidal environment with an HgN4I chromophore bound by four N atoms of L1 and one bridging iodide. Pentadentate Schiff base (L2) in 2 shows unusual binucleating bis(bidentate) behaviour to bind two different mercury(II) centres—Hg1 with an HgN3I2 chromophore in a distorted square pyramidal geometry and Hg2 with an HgN2I2 chromophore in a tetrahedral environment. Weak intermolecularN-H…I hydrogen bonds in 1 and cooperative C-H$\\ldots$ and $\\ldots$ interactions in 2 promote dimensionalities. The Schiff base complex, 2, shows intraligand (-*) fluorescence in DMF solution at room temperature, whereas compound 1 containing tripodal amine is fluorescent-inactive.

  9. Reproductive tract microbiome in assisted reproductive technologies. (United States)

    Franasiak, Jason M; Scott, Richard T


    The human microbiome has gained much attention recently for its role in health and disease. This interest has come as we have begun to scratch the surface of the complexity of what has been deemed to be our "second genome" through initiatives such as the Human Microbiome Project. Microbes have been hypothesized to be involved in the physiology and pathophysiology of assisted reproduction since before the first success in IVF. Although the data supporting or refuting this hypothesis remain somewhat sparse, thanks to sequencing data from the 16S rRNA subunit, we have begun to characterize the microbiome in the male and female reproductive tracts and understand how this may play a role in reproductive competence. In this review, we discuss what is known about the microbiome of the reproductive tract as it pertains to assisted reproductive technologies.

  10. Squalus cubensis Reproduction Data (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Reproductive data from Squalus cubensis (Cuban dogfish) were opportunistically collected from 2005-2012. Data include those necessary to examine reproductive cycle,...

  11. Persistent organic pollutants and male reproductive health


    Anne Vested; Aleksander Giwercman; Jens Peter Bonde; Gunnar Toft


    Environmental contaminants such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are man-made bioaccumulative compounds with long half-lives that are found throughout the world as a result of heavy use in a variety of consumer products during the twentieth century. Wildlife and animal studies have long suggested adverse effects of exposure to these compounds on human reproductive health, which, according to the endocrine disrupter hypothesis, are ascribed to the compounds’ potential to interfere with ...

  12. Structures and standard molar enthalpies of formation of a series of Ln(III)-Cu(II) heteronuclear compounds with pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid (United States)

    Yang, Qi; Xie, Gang; Wei, Qing; Chen, Sanping; Gao, Shengli


    Fifteen lanthanide-copper heteronuclear compounds, formulated as [CuLn2(pzdc)4(H2O)6]·xH2O (1-6(x=2), 8(x=3), 9-10(x=4); [CuLn2(pzdc)4(H2O)4]·xH2O (7, 12-13, 15(x=4), 14(x=5), 11(x=8) (Ln(III)=La(1); Ce(2); Pr(3); Nd(4); Sm(5); Eu(6); Gd(7); Tb(8); Dy(9); Ho(10); Er(11); Tm(12); Yb(13); Lu(14); Y(15); H2pzdc (C6H4N2O4)=pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid) have been hydrothermally synthesized. All compounds were characterized by element analysis, IR spectroscopy, single-crystal X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis. X-ray diffraction analyses confirm that all compounds are isostructural and feature a 3D brick-like framework structure with {4.62}2{42.62.82}{63}2{65.8}2 topology. Using 1 mol cm-3 HCl(aq) as calorimetric solvent, with an isoperibol solution-reaction calorimeter, the standard molar enthalpies of formation of all compounds were determined by a designed thermochemical cycle. In addition, solid state luminescence properties of compounds 5, 6, 8 and 9 were studied in the solid state.

  13. High-pressure synthesis and structural characterization of the type II clathrate compound Na(30.5)Si(136) encapsulating two sodium atoms in the same silicon polyhedral cages. (United States)

    Yamanaka, Shoji; Komatsu, Masaya; Tanaka, Masashi; Sawa, Hiroshi; Inumaru, Kei


    Single crystals of sodium containing silicon clathrate compounds Na8Si46 (type I) and NaxSi136 (type II) were prepared from the mixtures of NaSi and Si under high-pressure and high-temperature conditions of 5 GPa at 600-1000 °C. The type II crystals were obtained at relatively low-temperature conditions of 700-800 °C, which were found to have a Na excess composition Na30.5Si136 in comparison with the compounds NaxSi136 (x ≤ 24) obtained by a thermal decomposition of NaSi under vacuum. The single crystal study revealed that the Na excess type II compound crystallizes in space group Fd3̅m with a lattice parameter of a = 14.796(1) Å, slightly larger than that of the ambient phase (Na24Si136), and the large silicon hexakaidecahedral cages (@Si28) are occupied by two sodium atoms disordered in the two 32e sites around the center of the @Si28 cages. At temperatures primitive cell with space group P213, and the Na atoms in the @Si28 cages are aligned as Na2 pairs. The temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility of Na30.5Si136 suggests that the two Na ions (2 Na(+)) in the cage are changed to a Na2 molecule. The Na atoms of Na30.5Si136 can be deintercalated from the cages topochemically by evacuation at elevated temperatures. The single crystal study of the deintercalated phases NaxSi136 (x = 25.5 and 5.5) revealed that only excess Na atoms have disordered arrangements.

  14. Characterization of one Novel Flavone and four New Source Compounds from the Bark of Millettia ovalifolia and In-Vitro Inhibition of Carbonic Anhydrase-II by the Novel Flavonoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taj Ur Rahman


    Full Text Available The phytochemical examination of the extract of bark of Millettia ovalifolia yielded chemical constituents, which included one novel flavonoid 7-(4-methoxyphenyl-9H-furo [2, 3-f] chromen-9-one and four new source compounds characterized as 3,7-Dihydroxy-2-phenyl-4H-chromen-4-one, (E-Ethyl-13-(3,4-dimethoxyphenylacrylate, (E-Methyl-3-(3,4-dimethoxyphenylacrylate and N-Ethylacetamide. These compounds were characterized by using advance modern spectroscopic analytical techniques such as UV, IR, 1D, 2D NMR and mass spectrometry. The novel flavonoid (1 displayed significant inhibition of cytosolic form of bovine carbonic anhydrase-II with IC 50 value of 17.86 ± 0.07 µM. This flavonoid may be used as a new pharmacophore to treat cystic fibrosis, glaucoma, epilepsy, leaukomia and other disorders such as neurology etc.

  15. Supramolecular hydrogen-bonding patterns in the organic-inorganic hybrid compound bis(4-amino-5-chloro-2,6-dimethylpyrimidinium) tetrathiocyanatozinc(II)-4-amino-5-chloro-2,6-dimethylpyrimidine-water (1/2/2). (United States)

    Karthikeyan, Ammasai; Zeller, Matthias; Thomas Muthiah, Packianathan


    Zinc thiocyanate complexes have been found to be biologically active compounds. Zinc is also an essential element for the normal function of most organisms and is the main constituent in a number of metalloenzyme proteins. Pyrimidine and aminopyrimidine derivatives are biologically very important as they are components of nucleic acids. Thiocyanate ions can bridge metal ions by employing both their N and S atoms for coordination. They can play an important role in assembling different coordination structures and yield an interesting variety of one-, two- and three-dimensional polymeric metal-thiocyanate supramolecular frameworks. The structure of a new zinc thiocyanate-aminopyrimidine organic-inorganic compound, (C6H9ClN3)2[Zn(NCS)4]·2C6H8ClN3·2H2O, is reported. The asymmetric unit consist of half a tetrathiocyanatozinc(II) dianion, an uncoordinated 4-amino-5-chloro-2,6-dimethylpyrimidinium cation, a 4-amino-5-chloro-2,6-dimethylpyrimidine molecule and a water molecule. The Zn(II) atom adopts a distorted tetrahedral coordination geometry and is coordinated by four N atoms from the thiocyanate anions. The Zn(II) atom is located on a special position (twofold axis of symmetry). The pyrimidinium cation and the pyrimidine molecule are not coordinated to the Zn(II) atom, but are hydrogen bonded to the uncoordinated water molecules and the metal-coordinated thiocyanate ligands. The pyrimidine molecules and pyrimidinium cations also form base-pair-like structures with an R2(2)(8) ring motif via N-H...N hydrogen bonds. The crystal structure is further stabilized by intermolecular N-H...O, O-H...S, N-H...S and O-H...N hydrogen bonds, by intramolecular N-H...Cl and C-H...Cl hydrogen bonds, and also by π-π stacking interactions.

  16. One-pot synthesis of an Mn(III)-Cu(II)-Mn(III) trinuclear heterometallic compound formed by Mn$\\cdots$S-Cu-S$\\cdots$Mn supramolecular interactions: Crystal structure of [{MnIII(salph)(H2O)}2{CuII(mnt)2}]$\\cdot$4DMF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vedichi Madhu; Samar K Das


    A one-pot synthesis, that includes CuCl2$\\cdot$2H2O, Na2mnt, H2salph and Mn(CH3COO)3$\\cdot$H2O, leads to the isolation of a trinuclear heterometallic compound [{MnIII(salph)(H2O)}2{CuII(mnt)2}]$\\cdot$4DMF (1) formed by Mn$\\cdots$S-Cu-S$\\cdots$Mn supramolecular interactions. Compound 1 crystallizes in the monoclinic space group 21/ with = 13.433(4), = 16.283(5), = 15.072(4) Å, = 107.785(4)°, = 2. In the crystal structure, the complex anion [CuII(mnt)2]2- bridges two [MnIII(salph)(H2O)]1+ cations through Mn$\\cdots$S contacts. The non-covalent hydrogen bonding and - interactions among the trinuclear [{MnIII(salph)(H2O)}2{CuII(mnt)2}] complexes lead to an extended chain-like arrangement of [MnIII(salph) (H2O)]1+ cations with [CuII(mnt)2]2- anions embedded in between these chains.

  17. Characterization of ToxCast Phase II compounds disruption of spontaneous network activity in cortical networks grown on multi-well microelectrode array (mwMEA) plates. (United States)

    The development of multi-well microelectrode array (mwMEA) systems has increased in vitro screening throughput making them an effective method to screen and prioritize large sets of compounds for potential neurotoxicity. In the present experiments, a multiplexed approach was used...

  18. Reactions of the class II peroxidases, lignin peroxidase and Arthromyces ramosus peroxidase, with hydrogen peroxide. Catalase-like activity, compound III formation, and enzyme inactivation. (United States)

    Hiner, Alexander N P; Hernández-Ruiz, Josefa; Rodríguez-López, José Neptuno; García-Cánovas, Francisco; Brisset, Nigel C; Smith, Andrew T; Arnao, Marino B; Acosta, Manuel


    The reactions of the fungal enzymes Arthromyces ramosus peroxidase (ARP) and Phanerochaete chrysosporium lignin peroxidase (LiP) with hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) have been studied. Both enzymes exhibited catalase activity with hyperbolic H(2)O(2) concentration dependence (K(m) approximately 8-10 mm, k(cat) approximately 1-3 s(-1)). The catalase and peroxidase activities of LiP were inhibited within 10 min and those of ARP in 1 h. The inactivation constants were calculated using two independent methods; LiP, k(i) approximately 19 x 10(-3) s(-1); ARP, k(i) approximately 1.6 x 10(-3) s(-1). Compound III (oxyperoxidase) was detected as the majority species after the addition of H(2)O(2) to LiP or ARP, and its formation was accompanied by loss of enzyme activity. A reaction scheme is presented which rationalizes the turnover and inactivation of LiP and ARP with H(2)O(2). A similar model is applicable to horseradish peroxidase. The scheme links catalase and compound III forming catalytic pathways and inactivation at the level of the [compound I.H(2)O(2)] complex. Inactivation does not occur from compound III. All peroxidases studied to date are sensitive to inactivation by H(2)O(2), and it is suggested that the model will be generally applicable to peroxidases of the plant, fungal, and prokaryotic superfamily.

  19. Highly efficient expression of interleukin-2 under the control of rabbit β-globin intron II gene enhances protective immune responses of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS DNA vaccine in pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijun Du

    Full Text Available Highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV had caused catastrophic losses in swine industry in China. The current inactivated vaccine provided only limited protection, and the attenuated live vaccine could protect piglets against the HP-PRRSV but there was a possibility that the attenuated virus returned to high virulence. In this study, the eukaryotic expression vector pVAX1© was modified under the control of rabbit β-globin intron II gene and the modified vector pMVAX1© was constructed. Porcine interleukin-2 (IL-2 and GP3-GP5 fusion protein of HP-PRRSV strain SD-JN were highly expressed by pMVAX1©. Mice inoculated with pMVAX1©-GP35 developed significantly higher PRRSV-specific antibody responses and T cell proliferation than those vaccinated with pVAX1©-GP35. pMVAX1©-GP35 was selected as PRRS DNA vaccine candidate and co-administrated with pVAX1©-IL-2 or pMVAX1©-IL-2 in pigs. pMVAX1©-IL-2+pMVAX1©-GP35 could provide enhanced PRRSV-specific antibody responses, T cell proliferation, Th1-type and Th2-type cytokine responses and CTL responses than pMVAX1©-GP35 and pVAX1©-IL-2+pMVAX1©-GP35. Following homologous challenge with HP-PRRSV strain SD-JN, similar with attenuated PRRS vaccine group, pigs inoculated with pMVAX1©-IL-2+pMVAX1©-GP35 showed no clinical signs, almost no lung lesions and no viremia, as compared to those in pMVAX1©-GP35 and pVAX1©-IL-2+pMVAX1©-GP35 groups. It indicated that pMVAX1©-IL-2 effectively increases humoral and cell mediated immune responses of pMVAX1©-GP35. Co-administration of pMVAX1©-IL-2 and pMVAX1©-GP35 might be attractive candidate vaccines for preventing HP-PRRSV infections.

  20. Emprego de compostos organometálicos mononucleares de paládio(II na ativação de macrófagos peritoneais de camundongos Activation of mice peritoneal macrophages by palladium(II organometallic mononuclear compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Tonon de Almeida


    Full Text Available The immune responses are mediated by a variety of cells that, when activated, produce a number of molecules. Macrophages are the first cells to take part in the immune response releasing many compounds in the extracellular environment such as H2O2. Taking into account this aspect we evaluated the activation of an immunological system, in vitro, by determining the H2O2 released in cultures of peritoneal macrophage cells from Swiss mice in the presence of organopalladated compounds of the type [Pd(dmba(X(dppp], dmba = N,N-dimethylbenzylamine, dppp = 1,3-bis(diphenylphosphinepropane, X = Cl, N3, NCO, NCS. An excellent activation of macrophages by the [Pd(dmba(X(dppp] compounds was observed and the influence of the X ligand on the immune response could be verified.

  1. Formation of an Oxidant-Sensible Pd(II) Coordination Compound and Its [superscript 1]H NMR Specific Characterization: A Preparative and Analytical Challenge in Current Coordination Chemistry (United States)

    Abraham, Maria L.; Oppel, Iris M.


    A three-part experiment that leads to the synthesis of palladium(II) complex starting from a C[subscript 3]-symmetric triaminoguanidinium-based ligand is presented. In the first part, the preparation of tris-benzylidenetriaminoguanidinium chloride ([H[subscript 6]Br[subscript 3]L]Cl) by an acidic catalyzed 3-fold imine formation reaction of…

  2. Experimental (FTIR, Raman, UV-visible and PL) and theoretical (DFT and TDDFT) studies on bis(8-hydroxyquinolinium) tetrachlorocobaltate(II) compound (United States)

    Chaouachi, Soumaya; Elleuch, Slim; Hamdi, Besma; Zouari, Ridha


    The purpose of this paper is to present the chemical preparation, crystal structure, vibrational study and optical features for new organic-inorganic compound [C9H8NO]2CoCl4 abbreviated [8-HQ]2CoCl4. The structural study by X-ray diffraction prove that this compound crystallize in a monoclinic unit-cell with space group C2/c (point group 2/m = C2h). It is built of tetrahedra [CoCl4]2- anions and (C9H8NO)+ cations in the 1/2 ratio. The crystal structure is stabilized by network three-dimensional of Nsbnd H⋯Cl, Nsbnd H⋯O, Osbnd H⋯Cl, Csbnd H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds, and offset π-π stacking interactions. Also, the Hirshfeld Surface projections and Fingerprint plots were elucidated the relative contribution of the type, nature and explore the H⋯Cl, C⋯H, C⋯C, C⋯N, H⋯O intermolecular contacts in the crystal in a visual manner. Furthermore, vibrational analysis of the structural groups in the compound was carried out by both Fourier transforms infrared (FT-IR) and Raman spectra. The spectral data are complemented by good information at the region characteristic of metal-ligand, which evidences coordination through the compound. The optical properties of the crystal were studied by using optical absorption UV-visible and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy studies. Theoretical calculations were performed using density functional theory (DFT) at (DFT/B3LYP/LanL2DZ) level in the aim of aiding in studying structural, vibrational and optical properties of the investigated compound. Good relationship consistency is found between the experimental and theoretical studies. Inspection of the optical properties has lead to confirm the exhibition of a green photoluminescence and the occurrence of charge transfer phenomenon in this material.

  3. Pupils' Perceptions of Sex and Reproductive Health Education in Primary Schools in Tanzania: A Phenomenological Study (United States)

    Kapinga, Orestes Silverius; Hyera, Daniel Frans


    This study explored pupils' perceptions of sex and reproductive health education in primary schools in Tanzania. Specifically, the study aimed at (i) exploring pupils' views on sex and reproductive health education in primary schools; (ii) determining opinions on the appropriateness of sex and reproductive health education for pupils in primary…

  4. Group I, II, and III mGluR compounds affect rhythm generation in the gastric circuit of the crustacean stomatogastric ganglion. (United States)

    Krenz, W D; Nguyen, D; Pérez-Acevedo, N L; Selverston, A I


    We have studied the effects of group I, II, and III metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) agonists on rhythm generation by the gastric circuit of the stomatogastric ganglion (STG) of the Caribbean spiny lobster Panulirus argus. All mGluR agonists and some antagonists we tested in this study had clear and distinct effects on gastric rhythm generation when superfused over combined oscillating or blocked silent STG preparations. A consistent difference between group I agonists and group II and III agonists was that group I agonists acted excitatory. The group I-specific agonists L-quisqualic acid and (S)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine, as well as the nonspecific agonist (1S,3R)-1-aminocyclopentane-1, 3-dicarboxylic acid accelerated ongoing rhythms and could induce gastric rhythms in silent preparations. The group II agonist (2S,1'S, 2'S)-2-(carboxycyclopropyl)glycine (L-CCG-I) and the group III agonist L(+)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid (L-AP4) slowed down or completely blocked ongoing gastric rhythms and were without detectable effect on silent preparations. The action of L-CCG-I was blocked partially by the group-II-specific antagonist, (RS)-1-amino-5-phosphonoindan-1-carboxylic acid [(RS)APICA], and the group-III-specific antagonist (RS)-alpha-methyl-4-phosphonophenylglycine completely blocked the action of L-AP4. Besides its antagonistic action, the group-II-specific antagonist (RS)APICA had a remarkably strong apparent inverse agonist action when applied alone on oscillating preparations. The action of all drugs was dose dependent and reversible, although recovery was not always complete. In our experiments, the effects of none of the mGluR-specific agonists were antagonized or amplified by the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-receptor-specific antagonist D(-)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid, excluding the contamination of responses to mGluR agonists by nonspecific cross-reactivity with NMDA receptors. Picrotoxin did not prevent the inhibitory action of L-CCG-I and

  5. Arene ruthenium(II) azido complexes incorporating N intersection O chelate ligands: Synthesis, spectral studies and 1,3-dipolar-cycloaddition to a coordinated azide in ruthenium(II) compounds

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Singh, K.S.; Kaminsky, W.

    Synthesis of (η6-arene) ruthenium (II) complexes has attracted considerable attention owing to their anti-cancer [1-3], antiviral [4] and catalytic properties [5-7]. The catalytic activities of these complexes range from hydrogen transfer to ring closing...

  6. An in vitro embryotoxicity assay based on the disturbance of the differentiation of murine embryonic stem cells into endothelial cells. II. Testing of compounds. (United States)

    Festag, Matthias; Viertel, Bruno; Steinberg, Pablo; Sehner, Claudia


    The embryonic stem cell test (EST) developed by Spielmann et al. [Spielmann, H., Pohl, I., Doering, B., Liebsch, M., Moldenhauer, F., 1997. The embryonic stem cell test, an in vitro embryotoxicity test using two permanent mouse cell lines: 3T3 fibroblasts and embryonic stem cells. In Vitro. Toxicol. 10, 119-127] is currently the most promising in vitro assay to predict the embryotoxic potential of compounds. In this assay the disturbance of the differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) cells into contracting cardiomyocytes by test compounds as well as the direct cytotoxicity of the test compounds on ES cells and 3T3 fibroblasts is analyzed. On the basis of these results and by applying a biostatistical prediction model (PM) [Genschow, E., Scholz, G., Brown, N., Piersma, A., Brady, M., Clemann, N., Huuskonen, H., Paillard, F., Bremer, S., Becker, K., Spielmann, H., 2000. Development of prediction models for three in vitro embryotoxicity tests in an ECVAM validation study. In Vitr. Mol. Toxicol. 13, 51-66; Genschow, E., Spielmann, H., Scholz, G., Pohl, I., Seiler, A., Clemann, N., Bremer, S., Becker, K., 2004. Validation of the embryonic stem cell test in the international ECVAM validation study on three in vitro embryotoxicity tests. Altern. Lab. Anim. 32, 209-244; Genschow, E., Spielmann, H., Scholz, G., Seiler, A., Brown, N., Piersma, A., Brady, M., Clemann, N., Huuskonen, H., Paillard, F., Bremer, S., Becker, K., 2002. The ECVAM international validation study on in vitro embryotoxicity tests: results of the definitive phase and evaluation of prediction models. European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods. Altern. Lab. Anim. 30, 151-176] test compounds can be classified as non-embryotoxic, weakly or strongly embryotoxic. In order to introduce a further endpoint into the EST, the disturbance of vasculogenesis and/or angiogenesis, a protocol to differentiate ES cells into endothelial cells, was established in the accompanying paper. PECAM-1 and VE

  7. Electronic properties of the III-VI layer compounds GaS, GaSe and InSe. Part II: Photoemission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonangeli, F.; Piacentini, M. (Comitato Nazionale per l' Energia Nucleare, Frascati (Italy). Lab. Nazionali di Frascati); Balzarotti, A. (L' Aquila Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica); Grasso, V.; Girlanda, R. (Messina Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Struttura della Materia); Doni, E. (Pisa Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica)


    The valence density of states of the III-VI layer compounds GaS, GaSe and InSe is discussed on the basis of the available ultraviolet photoelectron spectra. A new set of X-ray photoelectron spectra, measured homogeneously on the three compounds, are presented and the experimental features are interpreted on the basis of the valence band density of states, calculated by using the band structures obtained in the first paper of this series with the overlap-reduced tight-binding method. The overall similarity of the experimental spectra agrees with the theoretical findings. The dependence of less bound states on the polarization of the exciting radiation is understood on the basis of the computed energy levels. The fine structure shown by some UPS peaks is interpreted, and some experimental features are shown to depend essentially on the interaction between adjacent layers.

  8. Asexual Reproduction in Holothurians


    Igor Yu. Dolmatov


    Aspects of asexual reproduction in holothurians are discussed. Holothurians are significant as fishery and aquaculture items and have high commercial value. The last review on holothurian asexual reproduction was published 18 years ago and included only 8 species. An analysis of the available literature shows that asexual reproduction has now been confirmed in 16 holothurian species. Five additional species are also most likely capable of fission. The recent discovery of new fissiparous holot...

  9. Reproductive and developmental toxicology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gupta, Ramesh C


    .... Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology is a comprehensive and authoritative resource providing the latest literature enriched with relevant references describing every aspect of this area of science...

  10. Bulky N(,N)-(di)alkylethane-1,2-diamineplatinum(II) compounds as precursors for generating unsymmetrically substituted platinum(IV) complexes. (United States)

    Pichler, Verena; Göschl, Simone; Meier, Samuel M; Roller, Alexander; Jakupec, Michael A; Galanski, Markus; Keppler, Bernhard K


    Investigations of the influence of bulky groups in the equatorial ligand sphere of platinum(IV) compounds on the complexes' stability and reaction pattern were performed. Four dihydroxidoplatinum(IV) complexes were reacted with anhydrides, cinnamoyl chloride, and n-propyl isocyanate and yielded the symmetric dicarboxylated products or, if steric hindrance was observed, unsymmetrically substituted monocarboxylated analogues. With the aim of raising the steric demand, the following ligands were chosen: N-cyclohexylethane-1,2-diamine, N,N-dimethylethane-1,2-diamine, N,N-diethylethane-1,2-diamine, and N,N-diisopropylethane-1,2-diamine. All of the novel complexes were characterized by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and reversed-phase HPLC; complexes B3, C3, C6, and D4 were also analyzed by X-ray diffraction. Additionally, the cytotoxicities of 10 compounds toward the cisplatin-sensitive cell line CH1 and the intrinsically cisplatin-resistant cell lines A549 and SW480 were investigated, and IC50 values down to the nanomolar range were found. To aid in the interpretation of structure-activity relationships, log k(w) values as a measure for the lipophilicity were determined for all of the new complexes, and the rates of reduction of C1, C3, and C4 relative to satraplatin were determined by means of NMR spectroscopy and ESI-MS.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Botanical insecticides have long been touted as attractive alternatives to synthetic chemical insecticides for pest management because botanicals reputedly pose little threat to the environment or to human health. The body of scientific literature documenting bioactivity of plant derivatives to arthropods pests continues to expand i.e. repellents based on essential oils extracted from Chenopodium ambrosioides, Eucalyptus saligna, Rosmarinus officinalis to mosquitoes, or cinnamon oil, sandalwood oil and turmeric oil are previously reported as insect repellents evaluatede in the laboratory conditions. With the constantly increasing problems of insecticide resistance and increasing public concerns regarding pesticide safety, new, safer active ingredients are becoming necessary to replace existing compounds on the market. The present study carried out in the period 2010-2012 comprises a review of two insect repellents, followed by some new research conducted in our laboratory on plant-derived insect repellents. The two alkaloids tested against the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say in laboratory conditions was obtained by water and alchohol extraction from two vegetal species, Cichorium intybus L. (Asterales:Asteraceae and Delphinium consolida L. (Ranales:Ranunculaceae. The tests carried out in laboratory and field experimentally plots under cages permit to evaluate several other compounds for repellent activity of lacctucin alkaloids.

  12. Characterization of vanadium compounds in selected crudes. II. Electron paramagnetic resonance studies of the first coordination spheres in porphyrin and non-porphyrin fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, J.G.; Biggs, W.R.; Fetzer, J.C.


    The authors applied electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) to heavy petroleum fractions to characterize the first coordination sphere around the vanadyl +2 ion. The fractions were generated using a modified porphyrin extraction procedure. For the residual oil from the extraction, which contains the non-porphyrin metals, the first coordination sphere was dominated by 4N and N O 2S for Boscan, Beta, Morichal, and Arabian Heavy crudes. Maya had distinctively different parameters. These findings are significant for determining the overall structure of metal-containing compounds in heavy crude oils. They discuss the difference between the porphyrin and non-porphyrin behavior, possible biogenic precursors, and some process implications. 59 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  13. In silico modification of Zn2+ binding group of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) by organoselenium compounds as Homo sapiens class II HDAC inhibitor of cervical cancer (United States)

    Sumo Friend Tambunan, Usman; Bakri, Ridla; Aditya Parikesit, Arli; Ariyani, Titin; Dyah Puspitasari, Ratih; Kerami, Djati


    Cervical cancer is the most common cancer in women, and ranks seventh of all cancers worldwide, with 529000 cases in 2008 and more than 85% cases occur in developing countries. One way to treat this cancer is through the inhibition of HDAC enzymes which play a strategic role in the regulation of gene expression. Suberoyl Anilide Hydroxamic Acid (SAHA) or Vorinostat is a drug which commercially available to treat the cancer, but still has some side effects. This research present in silico SAHA modification in Zinc Binding Group (ZBG) by organoselenium compound to get ligands which less side effect. From molecular docking simulation, and interaction analysis, there are five best ligands, namely CC27, HA27, HB28, IB25, and KA7. These five ligands have better binding affinity than the standards, and also have interaction with Zn2+ cofactor of inhibited HDAC enzymes. This research is expected to produce more potent HDAC inhibitor as novel drug for cervical cancer treatment.

  14. Sequestration of Sr(II) by calcium oxalate—A batch uptake study and EXAFS analysis of model compounds and reaction products (United States)

    Singer, David M.; Johnson, Stephen B.; Catalano, Jeffrey G.; Farges, François; Brown, Gordon E., Jr.


    Calcium oxalate monohydrate (CaC 2O 4·H 2O—abbreviated as CaOx) is produced by two-thirds of all plant families, comprising up to 80 wt.% of the plant tissue and found in many surface environments. It is unclear, however, how CaOx in plants and soils interacts with metal ions and possibly sequesters them. This study examines the speciation of Sr(II) aq following its reaction with CaOx. Batch uptake experiments were conducted over the pH range 4-10, with initial Sr solution concentrations, [Sr] aq, ranging from 1 × 10 -4 to 1 × 10 -3 M and ionic strengths ranging of 0.001-0.1 M, using NaCl as the background electrolyte. Experimental results indicate that Sr uptake is independent of pH and ionic strength over these ranges. After exposure of CaOx to Sr aq for two days, the solution Ca concentration, [Ca] aq, increased for all samples relative to the control CaOx suspension (with no Sr added). The amount of Sr aq removed from solution was nearly equal to the total [Ca] aq after exposure of CaOx to Sr. These results suggest that nearly 90% of the Sr is removed from solution to a solid phase as Ca is released into solution. We suggest that the other 10% is sequestered through surface adsorption on a solid phase, although we have no direct evidence for this. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy was used to determine the molecular-level speciation of Sr in the reaction products. Deconvolutions of the Sr K-edge EXAFS spectra were performed to identify multi-electron excitation (MEE) features. MEE effects were found to give rise to low-frequency peaks in the Fourier transform before the first shell of oxygen atoms and do not affect EXAFS fitting results. Because of potential problems caused by asymmetric distributions of Sr-O distances when fitting Sr K-edge EXAFS data using the standard harmonic model, we also employed a cumulant expansion model and an asymmetric analytical model to account for anharmonic effects in the EXAFS data. For Sr

  15. Adsorption and Oxidation of Aromatic Amines on Metal(II Hexacyanocobaltate(III Complexes: Implication for Oligomerization of Exotic Aromatic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachana Sharma


    Full Text Available Based on the hypothesis on the presence of double metal cyanides in the primordial oceans, a series of nano-sized metal(II hexacyanocobaltate(III (MHCCo with the general formula: M3[Co(CN6]2•xH2O (where M = Zn, Fe, Ni and Mn has been synthesized. Surface interaction of aromatic amines, namely aniline, 4-chloroaniline, 4-methylaniline and 4-methoxyaniline with MHCCo particles has been carried out at the concentration range of 100–400 μM at pH~7.0. The percentage binding of aromatic amines on MHCCo surface was found to be in the range of 84%–44%. The trend in adsorption was in accordance to the relative basicity of the studied amines. At the experimental pH, amines reacted rapidly with the surface of the iron(II hexacyanocobaltate, producing colored products that were analyzed by Gas Chromatography Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS. GC-MS analysis of the colored products demonstrated the formation of dimers of the studied aromatic amines. Surface interaction of aromatic amines with MHCCo was studied by Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM. The change in amine characteristic frequencies, as observed by FT-IR, suggests that interaction took place through the NH2 group on amines with metal ions of hexacyanocobaltate complexes. FE-SEM studies revealed the adherence of 4-methoxyaniline on zinc hexacyanocobaltate particles surface. We proposed that MHCCo might have been formed under the conditions on primitive Earth and may be regarded as an important candidate for concentrating organic molecules through the adsorption process.

  16. Selective Reproductive Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Tine; Wahlberg, Ayo


    selective reproduction has been placed under the aegis of science and expertise in novel ways. New laboratory and clinical techniques allow for the selective fertilization of gametes, implantation of embryos, or abortion of fetuses. Although they will often overlap with assisted reproductive technologies...

  17. Testing of Experimental Antileishmanial Compounds. (United States)


    administrative and clerical assistance and Ms. Barbara L. Harris, Laboratory Technician II, for technical assistance with this study. Their efforts are appreciated...braziliensis) leishmaniasis . Although several new compounds have been identified with activity against L. (V.) braziliensis, none have shown adequate warrant initiation of clinical trials. However, among the most promising active compounds found against visceral leishmaniasis during these

  18. Exposure to modern, widespread environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals and their effect on the reproductive potential of women: an overview of current epidemiological evidence. (United States)

    Karwacka, Anetta; Zamkowska, Dorota; Radwan, Michał; Jurewicz, Joanna


    Growing evidence indicates that exposure to widespread, environmental contaminants called endocrine disruptors (EDCs) negatively affects animal and human reproductive health and has been linked to several diseases including infertility. This review aims to evaluate the impact of environmental exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals [phthalates, parabens, triclosan, bisphenol A (BPA), organochlorine (PCBs) and perfluorinated (PFCs) compounds] on the reproductive potential among women, by reviewing most recently published literature. Epidemiological studies focusing on EDCs exposure and reproductive potential among women for the last 16 years were identified by a search of the PUBMED, MEDLINE, EBSCO and TOXNET literature databases. The results of the presented studies show that exposure to EDCs impacts the reproductive potential in women, measured by ovarian reserve and by assisted reproductive technology outcomes. Exposure to environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals decrease: (i) oestradiol levels (BPA); (ii) anti-Müllerian hormone concentrations (PCBs); (iii) antral follicle count (BPA, parabens, phthalates); (iv) oocyte quality (BPA, triclosan, phthalates, PCBs); (v) fertilization rate (PFCs, PCBs); (vi) implantation (BPA, phthalates, PCBs); (vii) embryo quality (triclosan, PCBs, BPA); (viii) rate of clinical pregnancy and live births (parabens, phthalates). The studies were mostly well-designed and used prospective cohorts with the exposure assessment based on the biomarker of exposure. Considering the suggested health effects, more epidemiological data is urgently needed to confirm the presented findings.

  19. Síntese e caracterização de novos compostos de coordenação de cobre (II com ligantes não-simétricos N,O-doadores: contribuições para o sítio ativo da galactose oxidase Synthesis and characterization of new copper (II coordination compounds with unsymmetrical N,O-donor ligands: contributions for the galactose oxidase active site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Maris de Moraes Romanowski


    Full Text Available The reactions of four new unsymmetrical N,O-donor ligands, {H2BBPETEN= [N-(2-hydroxybenzyl - N,N' - bis(2 methylpyridyl -N'-(hydroxyethyl ethylenodiamine], H3BPETEN=[N,N'- bis(2-hydroxybenzyl -N- (2-methylpyridyl -N'- (hydroxyethyl ethylenodiamine], HTPETEN=[N,N,N'- tris(2-methylpyridyl -N'- (hydroxyethyl ethylenodiamine] and H3BIMETEN=[N,N'-(2-hydroxybenzyl-N-(1-methylimidazol-2-il-methyl-N'- (hydroxyethylethylenodiamine]}, with Cu(II salts afforded the following mononuclear compounds: [CuII(HBBPETEN]ClO4, [CuII(H2BPETEN]ClO4 , [CuII(HTPETEN](PF62 and [CuII(H2BIMETEN]ClO4 . All were characterized by EPR, electronic spectroscopy and electrochemistry. The four copper (II compounds showed interesting electrochemistry properties. All presented an anodic wave that can be attributed to the Cu (I oxide formation at the electrode surface, or to a Cu0 sediment at the same surface or yet, to Cu(I -> Cu(II oxidation process with coupled chemistry reaction, due to their irreversibility. Two of the complexes are described as interesting synthetic models for the active site of the metalloenzyme galactose oxidase.

  20. Synthesis and crystal structures of mercury(II) and cadmium(II) coordination compounds using 4‧-(4-pyridyl)-2,2‧:6‧,2‧-terpyridine ligand and their thermolysis to nanometal oxides (United States)

    Mehrani, Azadeh; Morsali, Ali


    Two new complexes with the ligand 4‧-(4-pyridyl)-2,2‧:6‧,2‧-terpyridine (pyterpy), [Hg(pyterpy)2](ClO4)2 and [Cd(pyterpy)2](ClO4)2ṡH2O, have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy and structurally analyzed by X-ray single-crystal diffraction. The single crystal X-ray analysis shows that the coordination number in these complexes is six and the “pyterpy” ligand acts as a tridentate donor. The thermolysis studies show that the calcination of [Cd(pyterpy)2](ClO4)2ṡH2O leads to formation of cadmium oxide nano-particles while the calcination of mercury(II) complex does not form HgO as mercury evaporated before getting oxide.

  1. Sensory effects of capsaicin congeners. Part II: Importance of chemical structure and pungency in desensitizing activity of capsaicin-type compounds. (United States)

    Szolcsányi, J; Jancsó-Gábor, A


    The characteristic insensitivity of sensory nerve endings to chemically induced pain brought about by capsaicin could be reproduced on the rat's eye by pungent vanillylamides, homovanilloyl-alkylamides and piperine, while homovanilloyl-cycloalkylamides, -azacycloalkylamides, - alkylesters, -alkyl-homovanillylamides, undecenoyl-3-aminopropranololand zingerone were practically ineffective in this respect. Desensitizing potency was not parallel with the stimulating effect of the compounds, e.g. the strongly pungent homovanilloyl-octylester failed to desensitize the receptors, while the less pungent homovanilloyl-dodecylamide proved to be a more potent desensitizing agent than capsaicin itself. It is concluded that the inverse position of the acylamide linkage does not modify, while its replacement by an esteric group completely abolishes the desensitizing activity. In contrast to the stimulating effect, in desensitizing action the presence of an alkyl chain is essential and its optimal length corresponds to 10-12 C atoms. On the basis of these results the possible molecular interactions at the site of action are discussed.

  2. Low-dimensional compounds containing cyanido groups. XXVIII. Crystal structure, spectroscopic and magnetic properties of two copper(II) tetracyanidoplatinate complexes with 1,2-diaminopropane (United States)

    Vavra, Martin; Potočňák, Ivan; Dušek, Michal; Čižmár, Erik; Ozerov, Mykhaylo; Zvyagin, Sergei A.


    Violet crystals of {[Cu(pn)2]2[Pt(CN)4]}[Pt(CN)4]·2H2O (1, pn=1,2-diaminopropane) and blue crystals of [Cu(pn)Pt(CN)4]n·nH2O (2) were prepared under hydrothermal conditions and characterized using elemental analysis, IR and UV-vis spectroscopy and by X-ray crystal structure analysis. Different number of ν(C≡N) absorption bands of these two compounds reflects their different structures. An X-ray crystal structure analysis has shown that complex 1 is of ionic character and is formed from trinuclear [Cu(pn)2-Pt(CN)4-Cu(pn)2]2+ complex cation and discrete [Pt(CN)4]2- anion together with two molecules of crystal water. On the other hand, complex 2 is of polymeric character and is formed by 2D networks of [Cu(pn)Pt(CN)4]n composition and completed by n molecules of crystal water. Magnetic measurements show the presence of a weak antiferromagnetic exchange interaction in complex 1 (Θ=-0.2 K), while the magnetic susceptibility of complex 2 is well described by the model of uniform S=1/2 spin chain with exchange interaction J/kB=-1.64 K.

  3. The future of human reproduction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overall, Christine


    ... Contradictions III SOCIAL POLICY QUESTIONS Pregnancy as Justification for Loss of Juridical Autonomy Sanda Rodgers 174 Prenatal Diagnosis: Reproductive Choice? Reproductive Control? Abby Lippman ...

  4. Pentiptycene-Based Luminescent Cu (II) MOF Exhibiting Selective Gas Adsorption and Unprecedentedly High-Sensitivity Detection of Nitroaromatic Compounds (NACs) (United States)

    Zhang, Minghui; Zhang, Liangliang; Xiao, Zhenyu; Zhang, Qinhui; Wang, Rongming; Dai, Fangna; Sun, Daofeng


    The assembly of a fluorescent pentiptycene-based ligand with copper ion resulted in the formation of a 3D porous metal-organic framework (UPC-21) based on well-known paddlewheel SBUs. UPC-21 exhibits selective adsorption of CO2 over CH4 and N2 at 273 K and 295 K, C2H2 over CH4 at 273 K. The most significant performance of UPC-21 is its highly efficient detection of NACs such as 4-NP, 1,4-DNB, NB, and 1,3-DNB with the calculated quenching constants, Ksv, being 3.097 × 106, 1.406 × 106, 4.420 × 105, and 1.498 × 105 M-1 for 4-NP, 1,4-DNB, NB, 1,3-DNB, respectively, which keeps a record on the fluorescence detection of NACs. This is the first porous Cu(II) MOF that exhibits fluorescent detection of NACs with high sensitivities.

  5. Pentiptycene-Based Luminescent Cu (II) MOF Exhibiting Selective Gas Adsorption and Unprecedentedly High-Sensitivity Detection of Nitroaromatic Compounds (NACs) (United States)

    Zhang, Minghui; Zhang, Liangliang; Xiao, Zhenyu; Zhang, Qinhui; Wang, Rongming; Dai, Fangna; Sun, Daofeng


    The assembly of a fluorescent pentiptycene-based ligand with copper ion resulted in the formation of a 3D porous metal-organic framework (UPC-21) based on well-known paddlewheel SBUs. UPC-21 exhibits selective adsorption of CO2 over CH4 and N2 at 273 K and 295 K, C2H2 over CH4 at 273 K. The most significant performance of UPC-21 is its highly efficient detection of NACs such as 4-NP, 1,4-DNB, NB, and 1,3-DNB with the calculated quenching constants, Ksv, being 3.097 × 106, 1.406 × 106, 4.420 × 105, and 1.498 × 105 M−1 for 4-NP, 1,4-DNB, NB, 1,3-DNB, respectively, which keeps a record on the fluorescence detection of NACs. This is the first porous Cu(II) MOF that exhibits fluorescent detection of NACs with high sensitivities. PMID:26857592

  6. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of a Copper(II) Compound Constructed by N-(4,6- Dimethoxylpyrimidin)-N'-(ethoxycarbonyl)thiourea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Ding-Wei; SONG Ji-Rong; REN Ying-Hui; YAN Biao; L(U) Xing-Qiang; HU Huai-Ming


    A copper(Ⅱ) complex Cu(L)2(NO3)2 constructed by the L (L = N-(4,6-dime- thoxylpyrimidin)-N'-(ethoxycarbonyl)thiourea) ligand crystallizes in monoclinic, space group C2/c with a = 16.2416(16), b = 9.1385(7), c = 22.0008(18) (A),β = 108.077(2)°, V = 3104.3(5)(A)3, Dc = 1.627 g/cm3, Z = 4, C20H28CuN10O14S2, Mr = 760.18, μ(MoKα) = 0.920 mm-1, F(000) = 1564, R = 0.0471 and wR = 0.1284 for 2239 observed reflections (I > 2σ(I)). X-ray diffraction shows the existence of weak complementary intramolecular N-H…O (DA) hydrogen bonds which further strengthen the coordination from the two L ligands with the Cu(II) ion, intermolecular C-H…O hydrogen bonds and weak π…π stacking interactions, leading to the formation of a multi-dimen- sional supramolecular network.

  7. DFT (B3LYP/LanL2DZ and B3LYP/6311G+(d,p)) comparative vibrational spectroscopic analysis of organic-inorganic compound bis(4-acetylanilinium) tetrachlorocuprate(II) (United States)

    Abkari, A.; Chaabane, I.; Guidara, K.


    The organic-inorganic salt, bis(4-acetylanilinium) tetrachlorocuprate(II), was synthesized and characterized by means of FT-IR (4000-400 cm-1) and Raman (3500-50 cm-1) in solid phase. The structure of [C8H10NO]2CuCl4 compound which was optimized by density functional theory (DFT) using B3LYP method showed that the calculated values obtained by B3LYP with LanL2DZ and 6311G+(d,p) basis sets are in better agreement with the experimental data. The computed vibrational frequencies were scaled by different scale factors to yield a good agreement with the experimental vibrational frequencies. The latter have been discussed on the basis of quantum chemical DFT calculations using the B3LYP/6311G+(d,p) and B3LYP/LanL2DZ method approach in gas phase. Besides, the effects due to the substitutions and the intermolecular interactions were investigated. The comparative analysis of the Raman spectra of the title compound with that of the free ligand was also discussed. The geometries and normal modes of the vibrations obtained from B3LYP/6311G+(d,p) calculation are found to be in good agreement with the experimentally observed data. The complete vibrational assignments and analysis of the observed fundamental bands of molecule were carried out.

  8. Phenotype of Usher syndrome type II assosiated with compound missense mutations of c.721 C>T and c.1969 C>T in MYO7A in a Chinese Usher syndrome family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhai


    Full Text Available AIM:To identify the pathogenic mutations in a Chinese pedigree affected with Usher syndrome type II (USH2.METHODS:The ophthalmic examinations and audiometric tests were performed to ascertain the phenotype of the family. To detect the genetic defect, exons of 103 known RDs -associated genes including 12 Usher syndrome (USH genes of the proband were captured and sequencing analysis was performed to exclude known genetic defects and find potential pathogenic mutations. Subsequently, candidate mutations were validated in his pedigree and 100 normal controls using polymerase chain reaction (PCR and Sanger sequencing.RESULTS:The patient in the family occurred hearing loss (HL and retinitis pigmentosa (RP without vestibular dysfunction, which were consistent with standards of classification for USH2. He carried the compound heterozygous mutations, c.721 C>T and c.1969 C>T, in the MYO7A gene and the unaffected members carried only one of the two mutations. The mutations were not present in the 100 normal controls.CONCLUSION:We suggested that the compound heterozygous mutations of the MYO7A could lead to USH2, which had revealed distinguished clinical phenotypes associated with MYO7A and expanded the spectrum of clinical phenotypes of the MYO7A mutations.

  9. Novel Co(III)/Co(II) mixed valence compound [Co(bapen)Br2]2[CoBr4] (bapen = N,N‧-bis(3-aminopropyl)ethane-1,2-diamine): Synthesis, crystal structure and magnetic properties (United States)

    Smolko, Lukáš; Černák, Juraj; Kuchár, Juraj; Miklovič, Jozef; Boča, Roman


    Green crystals of Co(III)/Co(II) mixed valence compound [Co(bapen)Br2]2[CoBr4] (bapen = N,N‧-bis(3-aminopropyl)ethane-1,2-diamine) were isolated from the aqueous system CoBr2 - bapen - HBr, crystallographically studied and characterized by elemental analysis and IR spectroscopy. Its ionic crystal structure is built up of [Co(bapen)Br2]+ cations and [CoBr4]2- anions. The Co(III) central atoms within the complex cations are hexacoordinated (donor set trans-N4Br2) with bromido ligands placed in the axial positions. The Co(II) atoms exhibit distorted tetrahedral coordination. Beside ionic forces weak Nsbnd H⋯Br intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions contribute to the stability of the structure. Temperature variable magnetic measurements confirm the S = 3/2 behavior with the zero-field splitting of an intermediate strength: D/hc = 8.7 cm-1.

  10. Reduction of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid iron(III) by Klebsiella sp. FD-3 immobilized on iron(II, III) oxide poly (styrene-glycidyl methacrylate) magnetic porous microspheres: effects of inorganic compounds and kinetic study of effective diffusion in porous media. (United States)

    Zhou, Zuo-Ming; Wang, Xiao-Yan; Lin, Tian-Ming; Jing, Guo-Hua


    Fe3O4 poly (styrene-glycidyl methacrylate) magnetic porous microspheres (MPPMs) were introduced to immobilize Klebsiella sp. FD-3, an iron-reducing bacterium applied to reduce Fe(III)EDTA. The effects of potential inhibitors (S(2-), SO3(2-), NO3(-), NO2(-) and Fe(II)EDTA-NO) on Fe(III)EDTA reduction were investigated. S(2-) reacted with Fe(III)EDTA as an electron-shuttling compound and enhanced the reduction. But Fe(III)EDTA reduction was inhibited by SO3(2-) and Fe(II)EDTA-NO due to their toxic to microorganisms. Low concentrations of NO3(-) and NO2(-) accelerated Fe(III)EDTA reduction, but high concentrations inhibited the reduction, whether by free or immobilized FD-3. The immobilized FD-3 performed better than freely-suspended style. The substrate mass transfer and diffusion kinetics in the porous microspheres were calculated. The value of Thiele modulus and effectiveness factors showed that the intraparticle diffusion was fairly small and neglected in this carrier. Fe(III)EDTA reduction fitted first-order model at low Fe(III)EDTA concentration, and changed to zero-order model at high concentrations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. TRIENNIAL REPRODUCTION SYMPOSIUM: Developmental programming of fertility. (United States)

    Reynolds, L P; Vonnahme, K A


    The 2015 Triennial Reproduction Symposium focused on developmental programming of fertility. The topics covered during the morning session included the role of the placenta in programming of fetal growth and development, effects of feeding system and level of feeding during pregnancy on the annual production cycle and lifetime productivity of heifer offspring, effects of litter size and level of socialization postnatally on reproductive performance of pigs, effects of postnatal dietary intake on maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and onset of puberty in heifers, effects of housing systems on growth performance and reproductive efficiency of gilts, and effects of energy balance on sexual differentiation in rodent models. The morning session concluded with presentation of the American Society of Animal Science L. E. Casida Award for Excellence in Graduate Education to Dr. Michael Smith from the University of Missouri, Columbia, who shared his philosophy of graduate education. The afternoon session included talks on the role of epigenetic modifications in developmental programming and transgenerational inheritance of reproductive dysfunction, effects of endocrine disrupting compounds on fetal development and long-term physiology of the individual, and potential consequences of real-life exposure to environmental contaminants on reproductive health. The symposium concluded with a summary talk and the posing of 2 questions to the audience. From an evolutionary standpoint, programming and epigenetic events must be adaptive; when do they become maladaptive? If there are so many environmental factors that induce developmental programming, are we doomed, and if not, what is or are the solution or solutions?

  12. Avaliação de bis(4-metilfenilditiocarbimatozincato(II de tetrabutilamônio como acelerador em composições de borracha natural Evaluation of tetrabutyl ammonium bis(4-methylphenyldithiocarbimatozincate(II as accelerator in natural rubber (NR compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta M. Mariano


    Full Text Available Neste trabalho a substância ZNIBU [bis(4-metilfenilditiocarbimatozincato(II de tetrabutilamônio] foi usada em formulações de borracha natural (NR e o seu efeito como acelerador de vulcanização foi investigado. As composições, vulcanizadas com a substância em questão, foram submetidas a testes mecânicos e os resultados comparados com os de outras composições vulcanizadas com os aceleradores comerciais CBS (N-ciclohexil-2-benzotiazol-2-sulfenamida, TMTD (dissulfeto de tetrametiltiuram e MBTS (dissulfeto de benzotiazol. Propriedades como dureza, resiliência e densidade foram avaliadas em presença ou não da carga negro de fumo.The acceleration potential of ZNIBU [tetrabutyl ammonium bis(4-methylphenyldithiocarbimatozincate(II] in the vulcanization process of natural rubber compounds was investigated. The vulcanized compounds were tested for hardness, resilience and density and compared with those vulcanized with commercial accelerators such as CBS (N-cyclohexyl-2-benzothiazolesulphenamide, TMTD (tetramethyl thiuram disulphide and MBTS (dibenzothiazole disulphide. The new accelerator tested was found to be too slow for a commercial application, but its properties were similar to those of other accelerators.

  13. The politics of reproduction. (United States)

    Ginsburg, F; Rapp, R


    The topic of human reproduction encompasses events throughout the human and especially female life-cycle as well as ideas and practices surrounding fertility, birth, and child care. Most of the scholarship on the subject, up through the 1960s, was based on cross-cultural surveys focused on the beliefs, norms, and values surrounding reproductive behaviors. Multiple methodologies and subspecialties, and fields like social history, human biology, and demography were utilized for the analysis. The concept of the politics of reproduction synthesizes local and global perspectives. The themes investigated include: the concept of reproduction, population control, and the internationalization of state and market interests (new reproductive technologies); social movements and contested domains; medicalization and its discontents; fertility and its control; adolescence and teen pregnancy; birth; birth attendants; the construction of infancy and the politics of child survival; rethinking the demographic transition; networks of nurturance; and meanings of menopause. The medicalization of reproduction is a central issue of studies of birth, midwifery, infertility, and reproductive technologies. Scholars have also analyzed different parts of the female life-cycle as medical problems. Other issues worth analysis include the internationalization of adoption and child care workers; the crisis of infertility of low-income and minority women who are not candidates for expensive reproductive technologies; the concerns of women at high risk for HIV whose cultural status depends on their fertility; questions of reproduction concerning, lesbians and gay men (artificial insemination and discrimination in child rearing); the study of menopause; and fatherhood. New discourse analysis is used to analyze state eugenic policies; conflicts over Western neocolonial influences in which women's status as childbearers represent nationalist interests; fundamentalist attacks on abortion rights; and

  14. Synthesis, structural characterization and cytotoxic activity of ternary copper(II)-dipeptide-phenanthroline complexes. A step towards the development of new copper compounds for the treatment of cancer. (United States)

    Iglesias, Sebastián; Alvarez, Natalia; Torre, María H; Kremer, Eduardo; Ellena, Javier; Ribeiro, Ronny R; Barroso, Rafael P; Costa-Filho, Antonio J; Kramer, M Gabriela; Facchin, Gianella


    In the search for new compounds with antitumor activity, coordination complexes with different metals are being studied by our group. This work presents the synthesis and characterization of six copper complexes with general stoichiometry [Cu(L-dipeptide)(phen)]·nH2O (were phen=1,10-phenanthroline) and their cytotoxic activities against tumor cell lines. To characterize these systems, analytical and spectroscopic studies were performed in solid state (by UV-visible, IR, X-ray diffraction) including the crystal structure of four new complexes (of the six complexes studied): [Cu(Ala-Phe)(phen)]·4H2O, [Cu(Phe-Ala)(phen)]·4H2O, [Cu(Phe-Val)(phen)]·4.5H2O and [Cu(Phe-Phe)(phen)]·3H2O. In all of them, the copper ion is situated in a distorted squared pyramidal environment. The phen ligand is perpendicular to the dipeptide, therefore exposed and potentially available for interaction with biological molecules. In addition, for all the studied complexes, structural information in solution using EPR and UV-visible spectroscopies were obtained, showing that the coordination observed in solid state is maintained. The lipophilicity, DNA binding and albumin interaction were also studied. Biological experiments showed that all the complexes induce cell death in the cell lines: HeLa (human cervical adenocarcinoma), MCF-7 (human metastatic breast adenocarcinoma) and A549 (human lung epithelial carcinoma). Among the six complexes, [Cu(Ala-Phe)(phen)] presents the lowest IC50 values. Taken together all these data we hypothesize that [Cu(Ala-Phe)(phen)] may be a good candidate for further studies in vivo.

  15. Selective Reproductive Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Tine; Wahlberg, Ayo


    selective reproduction has been placed under the aegis of science and expertise in novel ways. New laboratory and clinical techniques allow for the selective fertilization of gametes, implantation of embryos, or abortion of fetuses. Although they will often overlap with assisted reproductive technologies...... (ARTs), what we term selective reproductive technologies (SRTs) are of a more specific nature: Rather than aiming to overcome infertility, they are used to prevent or allow the birth of certain kinds of children. This review highlights anthropological research into SRTs in different parts of the world...

  16. Toxicology of perfluorinated compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahl, Thorsten [Hessian State Laboratory, Wiesbaden (Germany); Mattern, Daniela; Brunn, Hubertus [Hessian State Laboratory, Giessen (Germany)


    Perfluorinated compounds [PFCs] have found a wide use in industrial products and processes and in a vast array of consumer products. PFCs are molecules made up of carbon chains to which fluorine atoms are bound. Due to the strength of the carbon/fluorine bond, the molecules are chemically very stable and are highly resistant to biological degradation; therefore, they belong to a class of compounds that tend to persist in the environment. These compounds can bioaccumulate and also undergo biomagnification. Within the class of PFC chemicals, perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorosulphonic acid are generally considered reference substances. Meanwhile, PFCs can be detected almost ubiquitously, e.g., in water, plants, different kinds of foodstuffs, in animals such as fish, birds, in mammals, as well as in human breast milk and blood. PFCs are proposed as a new class of 'persistent organic pollutants'. Numerous publications allude to the negative effects of PFCs on human health. The following review describes both external and internal exposures to PFCs, the toxicokinetics (uptake, distribution, metabolism, excretion), and the toxicodynamics (acute toxicity, subacute and subchronic toxicities, chronic toxicity including carcinogenesis, genotoxicity and epigenetic effects, reproductive and developmental toxicities, neurotoxicity, effects on the endocrine system, immunotoxicity and potential modes of action, combinational effects, and epidemiological studies on perfluorinated compounds). (orig.)

  17. Physiologie de la reproduction = Physiology of reproduction


    Legendre, Marc; JALABERT, B.


    Apart from a few species on which specific studies have been conducted (e.g. on the sexual cycle), most research on the physiology of reproduction in African inland waters fishes deals with four families : Cichlidae, Mugilidae, Clariidae and Anguillidae, due to their economic importance in fisheries and fishiculture. A detailed review of date on these four families is given after a brief summary of general knowledge concerning Teleostean fishes

  18. Society of Reproductive Surgeons (United States)

    ... affiliated society to the American Society for Reproductive Medicine . Below are links to publications authored by ASRM and its affiliated societies. Latest Additions: Diagnostic Testing for Male Factor Infertility Robotic surgery The Intrauterine Device (IUD): A Long-acting ...

  19. Reproductive prognosis in endometriosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjordt Hansen, Maj V; Dalsgaard, Torur; Hartwell, Dorthe


    OBJECTIVE: To assess the reproductive long-term prognosis of women with and without endometriosis, to explore changes over time, and to quantify the contribution of artificial reproductive techniques. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Denmark 1977-2009. SAMPLE: Data retrieved from four national...... registries. Among 15-49-year-old women during the period 1977-82, 24 667 were diagnosed with endometriosis and 98 668 (1:4) women without endometriosis were age-matched. METHODS: To assess long-term reproductive prognosis, all pregnancy outcomes were identified among the women with and without endometriosis......, but this was restricted to pregnancies from assisted reproduction. CONCLUSION: Women with endometriosis have slightly fewer children, but this lessened over time due to artificially conceived pregnancies. The risk for miscarriages and ectopic pregnancies was increased compared with women without the disease....

  20. Pregnancy and Reproductive Issues (United States)

    ... Relationships Pregnancy Share this page Facebook Twitter Email Pregnancy and Reproductive Issues Tahirah Diagnosed in 2003 Pregnancy ... in control groups without the disease. Effects of pregnancy on MS Before 1950, most women with MS ...

  1. Teaching Plant Reproduction. (United States)

    Tolman, Marvin N., Ed.; Hardy, Garry R., Ed.


    Recommends using Amaryllis hippeastrum to teach young children about plant reproduction. Provides tips for growing these plants, discusses the fast growing rate of the plant, and explains the anatomy. (YDS)

  2. Reproductive data for groundfish (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The ROCKFISH database houses data from rockfish species collected by the SWFSC FED along the California coast as part of a reproductive study originating in the...

  3. Reproductive rights approach to reproductive health in developing countries



    Background: Research on reproductive health in developing countries focuses mostly on the role of economic development on various components of reproductive health. Cross-sectional and empirical research studies in particular on the effects of non-economic factors such as reproductive rights remain few and far between. Objective: This study investigates the influence of two components of an empowerment strategy, gender equality, and reproductive rights on women’s reproductive health in develo...

  4. Avian reproductive physiology (United States)

    Gee, G.F.; Gibbons, Edward F.; Durrant, Barbara S.; Demarest, Jack


    Knowledge of the many physiological factors associated with egg production , fertility, incubation, and brooding in nondomestic birds is limited. Science knows even less about reproduction in most of the 238 endangered or threatened birds. This discussion uses studies of nondomestic and, when necessary, domestic birds to describe physiological control of reproduction. Studies of the few nondomestic avian species show large variation in physiological control of reproduction. Aviculturists, in order to successfully propagate an endangered bird, must understand the bird's reproductive peculiarities. First, investigators can do studies with carefully chosen surrogate species, but eventually they need to confirm the results in the target endangered bird. Studies of reproduction in nondomestic birds increased in the last decade. Still, scientists need to do more comparative studies to understand the mechanisms that control reproduction in birds. New technologies are making it possible to study reproductive physiology of nondomestic species in less limiting ways. These technologies include telemetry to collect information without inducing stress on captives (Howey et al., 1987; Klugman, 1987), new tests for most of the humoral factors associated with reproduction, and the skill to collect small samples and manipulate birds without disrupting the physiological mechanisms (Bercovitz et al., 1985). Managers are using knowledge from these studies to improve propagation in zoological parks, private and public propagation facilities, and research institutions. Researchers need to study the control of ovulation, egg formation, and oviposition in the species of nondomestic birds that lay very few eggs in a season, hold eggs in the oviduct for longer intervals, or differ in other ways from the more thoroughly studied domestic birds. Other techniques that would enhance propagation for nondomestlc birds include tissue culture of cloned embryonic cells, cryopreservation of embryos

  5. Thyroid and male reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Kumar


    Full Text Available Male reproduction is governed by the classical hypothalamo-hypophyseal testicular axis: Hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH, pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and the gonadal steroid, principally, testosterone. Thyroid hormones have been shown to exert a modulatory influence on this axis and consequently the sexual and spermatogenic function of man. This review will examine the modulatory influence of thyroid hormones on male reproduction.

  6. Quininium tetrachloridozinc(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Zhuang Chen


    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound {systematic name: 2-[hydroxy(6-methoxyquinolin-1-ium-4-ylmethyl]-8-vinylquinuclidin-1-ium tetrachloridozinc(II}, (C20H26N2O2[ZnCl4], consists of a double protonated quininium cation and a tetrachloridozinc(II anion. The ZnII ion is in a slightly distorted tetrahedral coordination environment. The crystal structure is stabilized by intermolecular N—H...Cl and O—H...Cl hydrogen bonds.

  7. Asexual reproduction in holothurians. (United States)

    Dolmatov, Igor Yu


    Aspects of asexual reproduction in holothurians are discussed. Holothurians are significant as fishery and aquaculture items and have high commercial value. The last review on holothurian asexual reproduction was published 18 years ago and included only 8 species. An analysis of the available literature shows that asexual reproduction has now been confirmed in 16 holothurian species. Five additional species are also most likely capable of fission. The recent discovery of new fissiparous holothurian species indicates that this reproduction mode is more widespread in Holothuroidea than previously believed. New data about the history of the discovery of asexual reproduction in holothurians, features of fission, and regeneration of anterior and posterior fragments are described here. Asexual reproduction is obviously controlled by the integrated systems of the organism, primarily the nervous system. Special molecular mechanisms appear to determine the location where fission occurs along the anterior-posterior axis of the body. Alteration of the connective tissue strength of the body wall may play an important role during fission of holothurians. The basic mechanism of fission is the interaction of matrix metalloproteinases, their inhibitors, and enzymes forming cross-link complexes between fibrils of collagen. The population dynamics of fissiparous holothurians are discussed.

  8. The Natural Reproduction and Economic Reproduction of Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In the perspective of Marx’s materialism,the thesis expounds the natural reproduction and economic reproduction of agriculture,and analyzes the relationship between the two production processes.The natural reproduction of agriculture,the contradicted unification of agricultural organism and natural environment,conforms to natural law and has the specific objective environmental requirements.The economic reproduction of agriculture is the process of people’s production and labor which takes keeping the life vitality of agricultural organism as objective,including the reproduction of agricultural productivity and the reproduction of agricultural production relations.The agricultural productivity comprises social productivity and natural productivity.The process of agricultural economic reproduction must conform to the objective natural law and economic law.The relationship of agricultural natural reproduction and economic reproduction is that the agricultural natural reproduction process is intertwined with economic reproduction process;the variation trend of agricultural natural reproduction ability and economic reproduction ability is identical;the agricultural economic reproduction dominates over the natural reproduction.

  9. Glucocorticoid Regulation of Reproduction. (United States)

    Geraghty, Anna C; Kaufer, Daniela


    It is well accepted that stress, measured by increased glucocorticoid secretion, leads to profound reproductive dysfunction. In times of stress, glucocorticoids activate many parts of the fight or flight response, mobilizing energy and enhancing survival, while inhibiting metabolic processes that are not necessary for survival in the moment. This includes reproduction, an energetically costly procedure that is very finely regulated. In the short term, this is meant to be beneficial, so that the organism does not waste precious energy needed for survival. However, long-term inhibition can lead to persistent reproductive dysfunction, even if no longer stressed. This response is mediated by the increased levels of circulating glucocorticoids, which orchestrate complex inhibition of the entire reproductive axis. Stress and glucocorticoids exhibits both central and peripheral inhibition of the reproductive hormonal axis. While this has long been recognized as an issue, understanding the complex signaling mechanism behind this inhibition remains somewhat of a mystery. What makes this especially difficult is attempting to differentiate the many parts of both of these hormonal axes, and new neuropeptide discoveries in the last decade in the reproductive field have added even more complexity to an already complicated system. Glucocorticoids (GCs) and other hormones within the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis (as well as contributors in the sympathetic system) can modulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis at all levels-GCs can inhibit release of GnRH from the hypothalamus, inhibit gonadotropin synthesis and release in the pituitary, and inhibit testosterone synthesis and release from the gonads, while also influencing gametogenesis and sexual behavior. This chapter is not an exhaustive review of all the known literature, however is aimed at giving a brief look at both the central and peripheral effects of glucocorticoids on the reproductive function.

  10. Application of the multi-parameter SQM harmonic force field, and ESFF harmonic frequencies scaling procedures to the determination of the vibrational spectra of silicon- and sulfur(II)-containing compounds. (United States)

    Borowski, Piotr; Ruiz, Tomas Peña; Barczak, Mariusz; Pilorz, Karol; Pasieczna-Patkowska, Sylwia


    Multi-parameter scaling techniques, such as Scaled Quantum Mechanical (SQM) force field [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 105 (1983) 7037-7047; J. Phys. Chem. A 102 (1998) 1412-1424] or Effective Scaling Frequency Factor (ESFF) [Chem. Phys. Lett. 446 (2007) 191-198; J. Mol. Spectrosc. 264 (2010) 66-74] techniques, are very powerful in the theoretical prediction of the vibrational spectra of complex molecules. In the present work sets of transferable SQM and ESFF scaling factors (within the valence coordinates based schemes) that can be applied to silicon- and sulfur(II)-containing compounds have been determined. A number of VDZ- and VTZ-quality basis sets were used in conjunction with the B3LYP density functional. Eight molecules typically used in the synthesis of silica-based materials were chosen, and theoretical modes were assigned to bands detected on their IR or Raman spectra. This set was augmented with a set of 10 auxiliary, sulfur(II)-containing molecules, for which only "pure" vibrations involving S-containing motifs were assigned. This led to the set of more than 600 individual vibrations. Five factors attributed to these motifs were optimized. Scaling factors attributed to the characteristic types of internal coordinates including the second-row atoms and chlorine, which are applicable to the present molecules were preset. Their values, optimized for Baker's training set of molecules [J. Phys. Chem. A 102 (1998) 1412-1424] for all basis sets considered in this work, were also found, extending thus the applicability of the multi-parameter scaling methods. New scaling factors exhibit low statistical uncertainties. Reasonable agreement between experimental and SQM- or ESFF-scaled frequencies was obtained even for the 6-31G* basis set (RMSSQM scaling factors were found to occasionally exhibit large deviations from unity, which is to be contrasted with ESFF scaling factors.

  11. Impact of Marine Drugs on Animal Reproductive Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Tosti


    Full Text Available The discovery and description of bioactive substances from natural sources has been a research topic for the last 50 years. In this respect, marine animals have been used to extract many new compounds exerting different actions. Reproduction is a complex process whose main steps are the production and maturation of gametes, their activation, the fertilisation and the beginning of development. In the literature it has been shown that many substances extracted from marine organisms may have profound influence on the reproductive behaviour, function and reproductive strategies and survival of species. However, despite the central importance of reproduction and thus the maintenance of species, there are still few studies on how reproductive mechanisms are impacted by marine bioactive drugs. At present, studies in either marine and terrestrial animals have been particularly important in identifying what specific fine reproductive mechanisms are affected by marine-derived substances. In this review we describe the main steps of the biology of reproduction and the impact of substances from marine environment and organisms on the reproductive processes.

  12. Reproductive costs in terrestrial male vertebrates: insights from bird studies. (United States)

    Bleu, Josefa; Gamelon, Marlène; Sæther, Bernt-Erik


    Reproduction requires resources that cannot be allocated to other functions resulting in direct reproductive costs (i.e. trade-offs between current reproduction and subsequent survival/reproduction). In wild vertebrates, direct reproductive costs have been widely described in females, but their occurrence in males remains to be explored. To fill this gap, we gathered 53 studies on 48 species testing direct reproductive costs in male vertebrates. We found a trade-off between current reproduction and subsequent performances in 29% of the species and in every clade. As 73% of the studied species are birds, we focused on that clade to investigate whether such trade-offs are associated with (i) levels of paternal care, (ii) polygyny or (iii) pace of life. More precisely for this third question, it is expected that fast species (i.e. short lifespan, early maturity, high fecundity) pay a cost in terms of survival, whereas slow species (with opposite characteristics) do so in terms of fecundity. Our findings tend to support this hypothesis. Finally, we pointed out the potential confounding effects that should be accounted for when investigating reproductive costs in males and strongly encourage the investigation of such costs in more clades to understand to what extent our results are relevant for other vertebrates.

  13. Altruism and Reproductive Limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carey J. Fitzgerald


    Full Text Available We examined how different types of reproductive limitations — functional (schizoid personality disorder and schizophrenia, physical (malnutrition, and sexual (bisexuality and homosexuality — influenced altruistic intentions toward hypothetical target individuals of differing degrees of relatedness (r = 0, .25, and .50. Participants were 312 undergraduate students who completed a questionnaire on altruism toward hypothetical friends, half-siblings, and siblings with these different types of reproductive limitations. Genetic relatedness and reproductive limitations did not influence altruistic decision-making when the cost of altruism was low but did as the cost of altruism increased, with participants being more likely to help a sibling over a half-sibling and a half-sibling over a friend. Participants also indicated they were more likely to help a healthy (control person over people with a reproductive limitation. Of the three types of reproductive limitations, functional limitations had the strongest effect on altruistic decision-making, indicating that people were less likely to help those who exhibit abnormal social behavior.

  14. Adipokines in human reproduction. (United States)

    Dupont, Joëlle; Pollet-Villard, Xavier; Reverchon, Maxime; Mellouk, Namya; Levy, Rachel


    Adipose tissue communicates with other central and peripheral organs by the synthesis and release of substances called adipokines. The most studied adipokine is leptin but others have been recently identified including resistin, adiponectin, chemerin, omentin and visfatin. These adipokines have a critical role in the development of obesity-related complications and inflammatory conditions. However, they are also involved in other functions in the organism including reproductive functions. Indeed, many groups have demonstrated that adipokine receptors, such as adiponectin and chemerin, but also adipokines themselves (adiponectin, chemerin, resistin, visfatin and omentin) are expressed in human peripheral reproductive tissues and that these adipokines are likely to exert direct effects on these tissues. After a brief description of these new adipokines, an overview of their actions in different human reproductive organs (hypothalamus, pituitary, ovary, testis, uterus and placenta) will be presented. Finally, comments will be made on the eventual alterations of these adipokines in reproductive disorders, with special attention to polycystic ovary syndrome, a disease characterized by dysfunction of gonadal axis and systemic nerve endocrine metabolic network with a prevalence of up to 10% in women of reproductive age.

  15. Polybenzimidazole compounds (United States)

    Klaehn, John R.; Peterson, Eric S.; Wertsching, Alan K.; Orme, Christopher J.; Luther, Thomas A.; Jones, Michael G.


    A PBI compound that includes imidazole nitrogens, at least a portion of which are substituted with an organic-inorganic hybrid moiety. At least 85% of the imidazole nitrogens may be substituted. The organic-inorganic hybrid moiety may be an organosilane moiety, for example, (R)Me.sub.2SiCH.sub.2--, where R is selected from among methyl, phenyl, vinyl, and allyl. The PBI compound may exhibit similar thermal properties in comparison to the unsubstituted PBI. The PBI compound may exhibit a solubility in an organic solvent greater than the solubility of the unsubstituted PBI. The PBI compound may be included in separatory media. A substituted PBI synthesis method may include providing a parent PBI in a less than 5 wt % solvent solution. Substituting may occur at about room temperature and/or at about atmospheric pressure. Substituting may use at least five equivalents in relation to the imidazole nitrogens to be substituted or, preferably, about fifteen equivalents.

  16. Photocatalytic splitting of CS2 to S8 and a carbon-sulfur polymer catalyzed by a bimetallic ruthenium(II) compound with a tertiary amine binding site: toward photocatalytic splitting of CO2? (United States)

    Livanov, Konstantin; Madhu, Vedichi; Balaraman, Ekambaram; Shimon, Linda J W; Diskin-Posner, Yael; Neumann, Ronny


    The catalytic photocleavage of CS(2) to S(8) and a (C(x)S(y))(n) polymer with visible light using a dinuclear ruthenium(II) compound with a bipyridine units for photoactivity and a vicinal tertiary amine binding site for CS(2) activation was studied. The catalyst was characterized by X-ray diffraction, (1)H NMR, and (13)C NMR, ESI-MS and elemental analysis. CS(2) photocleavage was significant (240 turnovers, 20 h) to yield isolable S(8) and a (C(x)S(y))(n) polymer. A mononuclear catalyst or one without an amine binding site showed significantly less activity. XPS of the (C(x)S(y))(n) polymer showed a carbon/sulfur ratio ∼1.5-1.6 indicating that in part both C-S bonds of CS(2) had been cleaved. Catalyst was also included within the polymer. The absence of peaks in the (1)H NMR verified the (C(x)S(y))(n) nature of the polymer, while (13)C NMR and IR indicated that the polymer had multiple types of C-S and C-C bonds.

  17. Dinosaur Reproduction and Parenting (United States)

    Horner, John R.

    Non-avian dinosaur reproductive and parenting behaviors were mostly similar to those of extant archosaurs. Non-avian dinosaurs were probably sexually dimorphic and some may have engaged in hierarchical rituals. Non-avian coelurosaurs (e.g. Troodontidae, Oviraptorosauria) had two active oviducts, each of which produced single eggs on a daily or greater time scale. The eggs of non-coelurosaurian dinosaurs (e.g. Ornithischia, Sauropoda) were incubated in soils, whereas the eggs of non-avian coelurosaurs (e.g. Troodon, Oviraptor) were incubated with a combination of soil and direct parental contact. Parental attention to the young was variable, ranging from protection from predators to possible parental feeding of nest-bound hatchlings. Semi-altricial hadrosaur hatchlings exited their respective nests near the time of their first linear doubling. Some reproductive behaviors, once thought exclusive to Aves, arose first in non-avian dinosaurs. The success of the Dinosauria may be related to reproductive strategies.

  18. Genetic divergence predicts reproductive isolation in damselflies. (United States)

    Sánchez-Guillén, R A; Córdoba-Aguilar, A; Cordero-Rivera, A; Wellenreuther, M


    Reproductive isolation is the defining characteristic of a biological species, and a common, but often untested prediction is a positive correlation between reproductive isolation and genetic divergence. Here, we test for this correlation in odonates, an order characterized by strong sexual selection. First, we measure reproductive isolation and genetic divergence in eight damselfly genera (30 species pairs) and test for a positive correlation. Second, we estimate the genetic threshold preventing hybrid formation and empirically test this threshold using wild populations of species within the Ischnura genus. Our results indicate a positive and strong correlation between reproductive isolation and genetic distance using both mitochondrial and nuclear genes cytochrome oxidase II (COII: r = 0.781 and 18S-28S: r = 0.658). Hybridization thresholds range from -0.43 to 1.78% for COII and -0.052-0.71% for 18S-28S, and both F1 -hybrids and backcrosses were detected in wild populations of two pairs of Ischnura species with overlapping thresholds. Our study suggests that threshold values are suitable to identify species prone to hybridization and that positive isolation-divergence relationships are taxonomically widespread.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Faruk TEKBAS


    Full Text Available However a lot of chemicals had been used in our daily life, we have enough knowledge about the effects of only for a small portion of them on reproductive health. Our knowledge had been arisen from epidemiologic and experimental studies. In order to protect ourselves from chemicals in the environment it should be concentrate on experimental studies and the results of them should be carefully studied during epidemiological researches. It would be tried to tell about the main chemicals which had been known as effective on reproductive health on the following review. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2006; 5(1.000: 50-59

  20. Robotics in reproductive medicine. (United States)

    Sroga, Julie; Patel, Sejal Dharia; Falcone, Tommaso


    In the past decade, robotic technology has been increasingly incorporated into various industries, including surgery and medicine. This chapter will review the history, development, current applications, and future of robotic technology in reproductive medicine. A literature search was performed for all publications regarding robotic technology in medicine, surgery, reproductive endocrinology, and its role in both surgical education and telepresence surgery. As robotic assisted surgery has emerged, this technology provides a feasible option for minimally invasive surgery, impacts surgical education, and plays a role in telepresence surgery.

  1. Reproduction of European Eel in Aquaculture (REEL)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Tybjerg, Lars; Støttrup, Josianne

    Project aim: Enhance methods and technology applied to produce and culture European eel larvae as basis for the development of a future self-sustained eel aquaculture. Background: The severe decline of the European eel stock calls for conservation measures including national eel management plans...... for the development of methods to reproduce European eel in aquaculture. Two major projects: Artificial Reproduction of Eels II and III (ROE II and III) succeeded during 2005-2008 to produce viable eggs and larvae that lived up to 12 days. The larvae thereby accomplished the yolk-sac stage and became ready to start...... feeding. The results were in particular promising because they evidenced that methods successfully applied to Japanese eel has a potential for application also to the European eel. ROE II and III were supported by the Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Fisheries and the European Commission through...

  2. The reproductive ecology of the house mouse. (United States)

    Bronson, F H


    This paper attempts to integrate the physiological and ecological perspectives of the reproductive biology of the house mouse (Mus musculus). The endeavor is made within a larger context to provide a prototype for mammalian reproductive ecology in general. Specifically, the environmental regulation of the reproduction of Mus musculus is examined in relation to its ecological opportunism and, in particular, in relation to its history of global colonization. House mice can live as commensals of man or under totally feral conditions. Stable, high density, commensal populations are characterized by an insular division of the living space into demeterritories, each dominated by a single male. Feral populations typically are characterized by temporal, spatial, and social instability. Territoriality is improbable under such conditions, particularly given the necessity for large home ranges in most feral habitats. In both feral and commensal populations, however, male aggressiveness promotes the large-scale dispersal of young, all of which are potential colonizers. Of the ten or so environmental factors known to influence reproduction in house mice, seven probably are of routine importance in natural populations: diurnal modulation by daily light:dark cycles; caloric intake; nutrition; extreme temperature; agaonistic stimuli; socio-tactile cues; and priming pheronomes. The last two factors named operate directly on the secretion of luteinizing hormone or prolactin; the others act at many points in the reproductive system. Reproduction in the house mouse seems divorced from photoperiodically induced seasonality; indeed, this species breeds well even in constant darkness. Seasonal breeding may or may not then occur, depending upon dietary considerations, with or without a secondary interaction with variation in ambient temperature. There is no evidence for a dependence upon secondary plant compounds. Some of the effects of priming pheromones that have been observed

  3. Endocrine disruption of oestrogen action and female reproductive tract cancers. (United States)

    Gibson, Douglas A; Saunders, Philippa T K


    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) are ubiquitous and persistent compounds that have the capacity to interfere with normal endocrine homoeostasis. The female reproductive tract is exquisitely sensitive to the action of sex steroids, and oestrogens play a key role in normal reproductive function. Malignancies of the female reproductive tract are the fourth most common cancer in women, with endometrial cancer accounting for most cases. Established risk factors for development of endometrial cancer include high BMI and exposure to oestrogens or synthetic compounds such as tamoxifen. Studies on cell and animal models have provided evidence that many EDC can bind oestrogen receptors and highlighted early life exposure as a window of risk for adverse lifelong effects on the reproductive system. The most robust evidence for a link between early life exposure to EDC and adverse reproductive health has come from studies on women who were exposed in utero to diethylstilbestrol. Demonstration that EDC can alter expression of members of the HOX gene cluster highlights one pathway that might be vulnerable to their actions. In summary, evidence for a direct link between EDC exposure and cancers of the reproductive system is currently incomplete. It will be challenging to attribute causality to any single EDC when exposure and development of malignancy may be separated by many years and influenced by lifestyle factors such as diet (a source of phytoestrogens) and adiposity. This review considers some of the evidence collected to date.

  4. Highly trifluoromethylated platinum compounds. (United States)

    Martínez-Salvador, Sonia; Forniés, Juan; Martín, Antonio; Menjón, Babil


    The homoleptic, square-planar organoplatinum(II) compound [NBu(4)](2) [Pt(CF(3))(4)] (1) undergoes oxidative addition of CF(3) I under mild conditions to give rise to the octahedral organoplatinum(IV) complex [NBu(4)](2) [Pt(CF(3))(5)I] (2). This highly trifluoromethylated species reacts with Ag(+) salts of weakly coordinating anions in Me(2)CO under a wet-air stream to afford the aquo derivative [NBu(4)][Pt(CF(3))(5) (OH(2))] (4) in around 75% yield. When the reaction of 2 with the same Ag(+) salts is carried out in MeCN, the solvento compound [NBu(4) ][Pt(CF(3))(5)(NCMe)] (5) is obtained in around 80% yield. The aquo ligand in 4 as well as the MeCN ligand in 5 are labile and can be cleanly replaced by neutral and anionic ligands to furnish a series of pentakis(trifluoromethyl)platinate(IV) compounds with formulae [NBu(4)][Pt(CF(3))(5) (L)] (L=CO (6), pyridine (py; 7), tetrahydrothiophene (tht; 8)) and [NBu(4)](2) [Pt(CF(3))(5)X] (X=Cl (9), Br (10)). The unusual carbonyl-platinum(IV) derivative [NBu(4)][Pt(CF(3))(5) (CO)] (6) is thermally stable and has a ν(CO) of 2194 cm(-1). The crystal structures of 2⋅CH(2)Cl(2), 5, [PPh(4) ][Pt(CF(3))(5)(CO)] (6'), and 7 have been established by X-ray diffraction methods. Compound 2 has shown itself to be a convenient entry to the chemistry of highly trifluoromethylated platinum compounds. To the best of our knowledge, compounds 2 and 4-10 are the organoelement compounds with the highest CF(3) content to have been isolated and adequately characterized to date.

  5. Ethics of Reproductive Engineering (United States)

    Buuck, R. John


    Artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization, artificial placentas, and cloning are examined from a ethical viewpoint. The moral, social, and legal implications of reproductive engineering are considered important to biology as well as medicine. The author suggests that these ethical issues should be included in the biology curriculum and lists…

  6. Telomeres and human reproduction. (United States)

    Kalmbach, Keri Horan; Fontes Antunes, Danielle Mota; Dracxler, Roberta Caetano; Knier, Taylor Warner; Seth-Smith, Michelle Louise; Wang, Fang; Liu, Lin; Keefe, David Lawrence


    Telomeres mediate biologic aging in organisms as diverse as plants, yeast, and mammals. We propose a telomere theory of reproductive aging that posits telomere shortening in the female germ line as the primary driver of reproductive aging in women. Experimental shortening of telomeres in mice, which normally do not exhibit appreciable oocyte aging, and which have exceptionally long telomeres, recapitulates the aging phenotype of human oocytes. Telomere shortening in mice reduces synapsis and chiasmata, increases embryo fragmentation, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, spindle dysmorphologies, and chromosome abnormalities. Telomeres are shorter in the oocytes from women undergoing in vitro fertilization, who then produce fragmented, aneuploid embryos that fail to implant. In contrast, the testes are replete with spermatogonia that can rejuvenate telomere reserves throughout the life of the man by expressing telomerase. Differences in telomere dynamics across the life span of men and women may have evolved because of the difference in the inherent risks of aging on reproduction between men and women. Additionally, growing evidence links altered telomere biology to endometriosis and gynecologic cancers, thus future studies should examine the role of telomeres in pathologies of the reproductive tract.

  7. Sound reproduction system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, M.M.; De Vries, D.; Horbach, U.


    Arrangement of a sound reproduction system (1), including at least one input (2), a sound field generator (4), a loudspeaker panel (10); the at least one input (2) connected to the sound filed generator (4), and the sound filed (4) connected to the loudspeaker panel (10); the at least one input (2)

  8. Operation Desert Storm. Questions Remain on Possible Exposure to Reproductive Toxicants (United States)


    this compound may have reproductive effects (including teratogenesis ). From the findings above, it is clear that neither has reproductive and...incidence of fetal death, premature birth, serious birth defects, and neonatal deaths between the two populations. Our concern regarding this study is that

  9. Exposure to Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers and Male Reproductive Function in Greenland, Poland and Ukraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Gunnar; Lenters, Virissa; Vermeulen, Roel


    Animal and a few human studies suggest that polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) may affect male reproductive function. The aim of the present study was to evaluate if male reproductive function was associated with serum level of PBDEs. We evaluated, in a cross-sectional study, the effects of e...... of these compounds in fertile European or Arctic populations....

  10. TGF-beta Sma/Mab signaling mutations uncouple reproductive aging from somatic aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijing Luo


    Full Text Available Female reproductive cessation is one of the earliest age-related declines humans experience, occurring in mid-adulthood. Similarly, Caenorhabditis elegans' reproductive span is short relative to its total life span, with reproduction ceasing about a third into its 15-20 day adulthood. All of the known mutations and treatments that extend C. elegans' reproductive period also regulate longevity, suggesting that reproductive span is normally linked to life span. C. elegans has two canonical TGF-beta signaling pathways. We recently found that the TGF-beta Dauer pathway regulates longevity through the Insulin/IGF-1 Signaling (IIS pathway; here we show that this pathway has a moderate effect on reproductive span. By contrast, TGF-beta Sma/Mab signaling mutants exhibit a substantially extended reproductive period, more than doubling reproductive span in some cases. Sma/Mab mutations extend reproductive span disproportionately to life span and act independently of known regulators of somatic aging, such as Insulin/IGF-1 Signaling and Dietary Restriction. This is the first discovery of a pathway that regulates reproductive span independently of longevity and the first identification of the TGF-beta Sma/Mab pathway as a regulator of reproductive aging. Our results suggest that longevity and reproductive span regulation can be uncoupled, although they appear to normally be linked through regulatory pathways.

  11. Preparing for Assisted Reproductive Technology (United States)

    ... CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... visit this page: About . Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) What Is ART Patient Resources Preparing for ...

  12. Multipurpose Compound (United States)


    Specially formulated derivatives of an unusual basic compound known as Alcide may be the answer to effective treatment and prevention of the disease bovine mastitis, a bacterial inflammation of a cow's mammary gland that results in loss of milk production and in extreme cases, death. Manufactured by Alcide Corporation the Alcide compound has killed all tested bacteria, virus and fungi, shortly after contact, with minimal toxic effects on humans or animals. Alcide Corporation credits the existence of the mastitis treatment/prevention products to assistance provided the company by NERAC, Inc.

  13. Xeno-estrogenic compounds in precipitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, R.J.B.; Beeltje, H.; Delft, R.J.


    The exposure to some chemicals can lead to hormone disrupting effects. Presently, much attention is focused on so-called xeno-estrogens, synthetic compounds that interact with hormone receptors causing a number of reactions that eventually lead to effects related to reproduction and development. The

  14. Reproductive and developmental toxicity of phthalates. (United States)

    Lyche, Jan L; Gutleb, Arno C; Bergman, Ake; Eriksen, Gunnar S; Murk, AlberTinka J; Ropstad, Erik; Saunders, Margaret; Skaare, Janneche U


    The purposes of this review are to (1) evaluate human and experimental evidence for adverse effects on reproduction and development in humans, produced by exposure to phthalates, and (2) identify knowledge gaps as for future studies. The widespread use of phthalates in consumer products leads to ubiquitous and constant exposure of humans to these chemicals. Phthalates were postulated to produce endocrine-disrupting effects in rodents, where fetal exposure to these compounds was found to induce developmental and reproductive toxicity. The adverse effects observed in rodent models raised concerns as to whether exposure to phthalates represents a potential health risk to humans. At present, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), and butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) have been demonstrated to produce reproductive and developmental toxicity; thus, this review focuses on these chemicals. For the general population, DEHP exposure is predominantly via food. The average concentrations of phthalates are highest in children and decrease with age. At present, DEHP exposures in the general population appear to be close to the tolerable daily intake (TDI), suggesting that at least some individuals exceed the TDI. In addition, specific high-risk groups exist with internal levels that are several orders of magnitude above average. Urinary metabolites used as biomarkers for the internal levels provide additional means to determine more specifically phthalate exposure levels in both general and high-risk populations. However, exposure data are not consistent and there are indications that secondary metabolites may be more accurate indicators of the internal exposure compared to primary metabolites. The present human toxicity data are not sufficient for evaluating the occurrence of reproductive effects following phthalate exposure in humans, based on existing relevant animal data. This is especially the case for data on female reproductive toxicity, which are

  15. Reproductive rights approach to reproductive health in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayan K. Pillai


    Full Text Available Research on reproductive health in developing countries focuses mostly on the role of economic development on various components of reproductive health. Cross-sectional and empirical research studies in particular on the effects of non-economic factors such as reproductive rights remain few and far between.This study investigates the influence of two components of an empowerment strategy, gender equality, and reproductive rights on women's reproductive health in developing countries. The empowerment strategy for improving reproductive health is theoretically situated on a number of background factors such as economic and social development.Cross-national socioeconomic and demographic data from a number of international organizations on 142 developing countries are used to test a model of reproductive rights and reproductive health.The findings suggest that both economic and democratic development have significant positive effects on levels of gender equality. The level of social development plays a prominent role in promoting reproductive rights. It is found that reproductive rights channel the influences of social structural factors and gender equality on reproductive health.

  16. The future of mothering: reproductive technology and feminist theory. (United States)

    Donchin, A


    An exploration of (I) alternative perspectives toward recent innovations in reproductive technology: support for new techniques for the sake of the kind of feminist future they facilitate; unqualified opposition despite therapeutic benefit to individual women; or qualified opposition depending upon specific threats to women's interests and (II) relationships between these positions and values bound up with mothering practices.

  17. Biologically active new Fe(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II, Zn(II and Cd(II complexes of N-(2-thienylmethylenemethanamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. SPÎNU


    Full Text Available Iron(II, cobalt(II, nickel (II, copper (II, zinc(II and cadmium(II complexes of the type ML2Cl2, where M is a metal and L is the Schiff base N-(2-thienylmethylenemethanamine (TNAM formed by the condensation of 2-thiophenecarboxaldehyde and methylamine, were prepared and characterized by elemental analysis as well as magnetic and spectroscopic measurements. The elemental analyses suggest the stoichiometry to be 1:2 (metal:ligand. Magnetic susceptibility data coupled with electronic, ESR and Mössbauer spectra suggest a distorted octahedral structure for the Fe(II, Co(II and Ni(II complexes, a square-planar geometry for the Cu(II compound and a tetrahedral geometry for the Zn(II and Cd(II complexes. The infrared and NMR spectra of the complexes agree with co-ordination to the central metal atom through nitrogen and sulphur atoms. Conductance measurements suggest the non-electrolytic nature of the complexes, except for the Cu(II, Zn(II and Cd(II complexes, which are 1:2 electrolytes. The Schiff base and its metal chelates were screened for their biological activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the metal chelates were found to possess better antibacterial activity than that of the uncomplexed Schiff base.

  18. Organic compounds and cadmium in the tributaries to the Elizabeth River in New Jersey, October 2008 to November 2008: Phase II of the New Jersey Toxics Reduction Workplan for New York-New Jersey Harbor (United States)

    Bonin, Jennifer L.


    Samples of surface water and suspended sediment were collected from the two branches that make up the Elizabeth River in New Jersey - the West Branch and the Main Stem - from October to November 2008 to determine the concentrations of selected chlorinated organic and inorganic constituents. The sampling and analyses were conducted as part of Phase II of the New York-New Jersey Harbor Estuary Plan-Contaminant Assessment and Reduction Program (CARP), which is overseen by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. Phase II of the New Jersey Workplan was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey to define upstream tributary and point sources of contaminants in those rivers sampled during Phase I work, with special emphasis on the Passaic and Elizabeth Rivers. This portion of the Phase II study was conducted on the two branches of the Elizabeth River, which were previously sampled during July and August of 2003 at low-flow conditions. Samples were collected during 2008 from the West Branch and Main Stem of the Elizabeth River just upstream from their confluence at Hillside, N.J. Both tributaries were sampled once during low-flow discharge conditions and once during high-flow discharge conditions using the protocols and analytical methods that were used in the initial part of Phase II of the Workplan. Grab samples of streamwater also were collected at each site and were analyzed for cadmium, suspended sediment, and particulate organic carbon. The measured concentrations, along with available historical suspended-sediment and stream-discharge data were used to estimate average annual loads of suspended sediment and organic compounds in the two branches of the Elizabeth River. Total suspended-sediment loads for 1975 to 2000 were estimated using rating curves developed from historical U.S. Geological Survey suspended-sediment and discharge data, where available. Concentrations of suspended-sediment-bound polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the Main Stem and the

  19. Intermetallic Compounds (United States)

    Takagiwa, Y.; Matsuura, Y.; Kimura, K.


    We have focused on the binary narrow-bandgap intermetallic compounds FeGa3 and RuGa3 as thermoelectric materials. Their crystal structure is FeGa3-type (tetragonal, P42/ mnm) with 16 atoms per unit cell. Despite their simple crystal structure, their room temperature thermal conductivity is in the range 4-5-W-m-1-K-1. Both compounds have narrow-bandgaps of approximately 0.3-eV near the Fermi level. Because their Seebeck coefficients are quite large negative values in the range 350-FeGa3 and RuGa3 as n and p-type materials. The dimensionless figure of merit, ZT, was significantly improved by substitution of Sn for Ga in FeGa3 (electron-doping) and by substitution of Zn for Ga in RuGa3 (hole-doping), mainly as a result of optimization of the electronic part, S 2 σ.

  20. Organic Compounds (United States)

    Shankland, Kenneth

    For many years, powder X-ray diffraction was used primarily as a fingerprinting method for phase identification in the context of molecular organic materials. In the early 1990s, with only a few notable exceptions, structures of even moderate complexity were not solvable from PXRD data alone. Global optimisation methods and highly-modified direct methods have transformed this situation by specifically exploiting some well-known properties of molecular compounds. This chapter will consider some of these properties.

  1. Compound odontoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Yadav


    Full Text Available Odontomas have been extensively reported in the dental literature, and the term refers to tumors of odontogenic origin. Though the exact etiology is still unknown, the postulated causes include: local trauma, infection, inheritance and genetic mutation. The majority of the lesions are asymptomatic; however, may be accompanied with pain and swelling as secondary complaints in some cases. Here, we report a case of a compound odontome in a 14 year old patient.

  2. Cr(III,Mn(II,Fe(III,Co(II,Ni(II,Cu(II and Zn(II Complexes with Diisobutyldithiocarbamato Ligand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Tarique


    Full Text Available The synthesis of sulphur and nitrogen containing dithiocarbamato ligand derived from diisobutylamine as well as its coordination compounds with 3d series transition metals is presented. These synthesized compounds were characterized on the basis of elemental analysis, conductometric measurements and IR spectral studies. The analytical data showed the stoichiometry 1:2 and 1:3 for the compounds of the types ML2 {M=Mn(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II and Zn(II} and M'L3{M'=Cr(III and Fe(III} respectively. The conductometric measurements proved the non-electrolytic behaviour of all the compounds. The bidentate nature of dithiocarbamato moiety was confirmed on the basis of IR spectral data.

  3. Energetics, lifestyle, and reproduction in birds. (United States)

    Sibly, Richard M; Witt, Christopher C; Wright, Natalie A; Venditti, Chris; Jetz, Walter; Brown, James H


    Theoretical and empirical studies of life history aim to account for resource allocation to the different components of fitness: survival, growth, and reproduction. The pioneering evolutionary ecologist David Lack [(1968) Ecological Adaptations for Breeding in Birds (Methuen and Co., London)] suggested that reproductive output in birds reflects adaptation to environmental factors such as availability of food and risk of predation, but subsequent studies have not always supported Lack's interpretation. Here using a dataset for 980 bird species (Dataset S1), a phylogeny, and an explicit measure of reproductive productivity, we test predictions for how mass-specific productivity varies with body size, phylogeny, and lifestyle traits. We find that productivity varies negatively with body size and energetic demands of parental care and positively with extrinsic mortality. Specifically: (i) altricial species are 50% less productive than precocial species; (ii) species with female-only care of offspring are about 20% less productive than species with other methods of parental care; (iii) nonmigrants are 14% less productive than migrants; (iv) frugivores and nectarivores are about 20% less productive than those eating other foods; and (v) pelagic foragers are 40% less productive than those feeding in other habitats. A strong signal of phylogeny suggests that syndromes of similar life-history traits tend to be conservative within clades but also to have evolved independently in different clades. Our results generally support both Lack's pioneering studies and subsequent research on avian life history.

  4. Two-generation reproduction toxicity study in rats with methoxychlor. (United States)

    Aoyama, Hiroaki; Hojo, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Ken L; Shimizu-Endo, Naoko; Araki, Masayuki; Takeuchi-Kashimoto, Yukiko; Saka, Machiko; Teramoto, Shoji


    A two-generation reproduction toxicity study was conducted in rats with a reference estrogenic pesticide, methoxychlor, to validate the sensitivity and competency of current guidelines recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency; Japanese Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries; and Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development for predicting reproductive toxicity of the test compound based on estrogenic endocrine disrupting effects. Both sexes of SD rats were exposed to methoxychlor in the diet at concentrations of 0, 10, 500 and 1500 ppm for two successive generations. The present study has successfully detected estrogenic activities and reproductive toxicities of methoxychlor, as well as its systemic toxicity. Body weights, body weight gains and food consumption of both sexes of animals were suppressed significantly in the 500 and 1500 ppm groups. Typical reproductive toxicities observed in females of these groups included, but were not limited to, prolonged estrous cycle, reduced fertility, decreased numbers of implantation sites and newborns, decreased ovary weights and/or increased incidences of cystic ovary. Uterine weights of weanlings increased significantly in these groups, suggesting that the sensitivity of this parameter for predicting estrogenic ability of the test compound is comparable to that of the uterotrophic assay. Reproductive toxicities of methoxychlor seemed less potent in males than in females. Methoxychlor delayed preputial separation and significantly reduced sperm counts and reproductive organ weights of males of the 500 and/or 1500 ppm groups; however, most males that failed to impregnate females in the same group showed normal fertility when they were re-mated with untreated females. Neither systemic nor reproductive toxicities appeared in the 10 ppm group.

  5. Dianilinedichloridozinc(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam Ullah Khan


    Full Text Available In the title compound, [ZnCl2(C6H7N2], the ZnII ion (site symmetry 2 adopts a near-regular tetrahedral ZnN2Cl2 coordination geometry. In the crystal, molecules are linked by N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds, generating (100 sheets containing R22(8 loops.

  6. Platinum compounds with anti-tumour activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plooy, A.C.M.; Lohman, P.H.M.


    Ten platinum (Pt) coordination complexes with different ligands, comprising both Pt(II) and Pt(IV) complexes of which the cis-compounds all possessed at least some anti-tumour activity and the trans-compounds were inactive, were tested as to their effect on cell survival and the induction and repair

  7. Bis(1,3-dithiole) Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jan Rud; Engler, E. M.; Green, D. C.;


    There is described the preparation of bis-1,3-dithiole compounds (I) which are key synthetic precursors for the preparation of new polymeric metal bis(dithiolene) (i.e., II) and tetrathiafulvalene compounds (i.e., III): (Image Omitted)...

  8. Male reproductive health and yoga


    Pallav Sengupta; Prasenjit Chaudhuri; Koushik Bhattacharya


    Now-a-days reproductive health problems along with infertility in male is very often observed. Various Assisted Reproductive Technologies have been introduced to solve the problem, but common people cannot afford the cost of such procedures. Various ayurvedic and other alternative medicines, along with regular yoga practice are proven to be not only effective to enhance the reproductive health in men to produce a successful pregnancy, but also to regulate sexual desire in men who practice cel...

  9. Condition-dependent chemosignals in reproductive behavior of lizards. (United States)

    Martín, José; López, Pilar


    This article is part of a Special Issue "Chemosignals and Reproduction". Many lizards have diverse glands that produce chemosignals used in intraspecific communication and that can have reproductive consequences. For example, information in chemosignals of male lizards can be used in intrasexual competition to identify and assess the fighting potential or dominance status of rival males either indirectly through territorial scent-marks or during agonistic encounters. Moreover, females of several lizard species "prefer" to establish or spend more time on areas scent-marked by males with compounds signaling a better health or body condition or a higher genetic compatibility, which can have consequences for their mating success and inter-sexual selection processes. We review here recent studies that suggest that the information content of chemosignals of lizards may be reliable because several physiological and endocrine processes would regulate the proportions of chemical compounds available for gland secretions. Because chemosignals are produced by the organism or come from the diet, they should reflect physiological changes, such as different hormonal levels (e.g. testosterone or corticosterone) or different health states (e.g. parasitic infections, immune response), and reflect the quality of the diet of an individual. More importantly, some compounds that may function as chemosignals also have other important functions in the organism (e.g. as antioxidants or regulating the immune system), so there could be trade-offs between allocating these compounds to attending physiological needs or to produce costly sexual "chemical ornaments". All these factors may contribute to maintain chemosignals as condition-dependent sexual signals, which can inform conspecifics on the characteristics and state of the sender and allow making behavioral decisions with reproductive consequences. To understand the evolution of chemical secretions of lizards as sexual signals and their

  10. Human reproductive issues in space (United States)

    Santy, Patricia A.; Jennings, Richard T.


    A review of reproductive functioning in animal species studied during space flight demonstrated that most species were affected significantly by the absence of gravity and/or the presence of radiation. These two factors induced alterations in normal reproductive functioning independently of, as well as in combination with, each other. Based on animal models, several potential problem areas regarding human reproductive physiology and functioning in the space environment were identified. While there are no current space flight investigations, the animal studies suggest priorities for future research in human reproduction. Such studies will be critical for the successful colonization of the space frontier.

  11. Magnesium compounds (United States)

    Kramer, D.A.


    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 57 percent of magnesium compounds produced in the United States in 2011. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties LLC from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Magnesia LLC in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Magnesia. Intrepid Potash Wendover LLC and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma Inc. in Delaware and Premier Magnesia in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its brine operation in Michigan.

  12. Human reproduction: current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Izzo


    Full Text Available SUMMARY The concern about the maintenance of the human species has existed since the earliest civilizations. Progress in the diagnosis and treatment of infertility has led to the development of assisted reproductive techniques (ART which, along with the evolution of genetics and molecular biology studies, have contributed in a concrete way to the management of infertile couples. Classic in vitro fertilization was initially developed 35 years ago for the treatment of women with tubal blockage, however, it remains inaccessible to a significant proportion of infertile couples around the world. This can be explained by the lack of specialized clinics in some countries and by the high cost of the procedures. Efforts have been employed to increase the number of treatment cycles for assisted reproduction, as for example, the creation of low-cost programs. Even today, infertility remains a problem of global proportions, affecting millions of couples. The estimate of the incidence of infertility is uncertain, mainly because of the criteria used for its definition. This article aims to review the most important aspects, succinctly, regarding the incidence, etiology, and treatment options available to infertile couples.

  13. Epigenetics of reproductive infertility. (United States)

    Das, Laxmidhar; Parbin, Sabnam; Pradhan, Nibedita; Kausar, Chahat; Patra, Samir K


    Infertility is a complex pathophysiological condition. It may caused by specific or multiple physical and physiological factors, including abnormalities in homeostasis, hormonal imbalances and genetic alterations. In recent times various studies implicated that, aberrant epigenetic mechanisms are associated with reproductive infertility. There might be transgenerational effects associated with epigenetic modifications of gametes and studies suggest the importance of alterations in epigenetic modification at early and late stages of gametogenesis. To determine the causes of infertility it is necessary to understand the altered epigenetic modifications of associated gene and mechanisms involved therein. This review is devoted to elucidate the recent mechanistic advances in regulation of genes by epigenetic modification and emphasizes their possible role related to reproductive infertility. It includes environmental, nutritional, hormonal and physiological factors and influence of internal structural architecture of chromatin nucleosomes affecting DNA and histone modifications in both male and female gametes, early embryogenesis and offspring. Finally, we would like to emphasize that research on human infertility by gene knock out of epigenetic modifiers genes must be relied upon animal models.

  14. Reproductive cycle of goats. (United States)

    Fatet, Alice; Pellicer-Rubio, Maria-Teresa; Leboeuf, Bernard


    Goats are spontaneously ovulating, polyoestrous animals. Oestrous cycles in goats are reviewed in this paper with a view to clarifying interactions between cyclical changes in tissues, hormones and behaviour. Reproduction in goats is described as seasonal; the onset and length of the breeding season is dependent on various factors such as latitude, climate, breed, physiological stage, presence of the male, breeding system and specifically photoperiod. In temperate regions, reproduction in goats is described as seasonal with breeding period in the fall and winter and important differences in seasonality between breeds and locations. In tropical regions, goats are considered continuous breeders; however, restricted food availability often causes prolonged anoestrous and anovulatory periods and reduced fertility and prolificacy. Different strategies of breeding management have been developed to meet the supply needs and expectations of consumers, since both meat and milk industries are subjected to growing demands for year-round production. Hormonal treatments, to synchronize oestrus and ovulation in combination with artificial insemination (AI) or natural mating, allow out-of-season breeding and the grouping of the kidding period. Photoperiodic treatments coupled with buck effect now allow hormone-free synchronization of ovulation but fertility results after AI are still behind those of hormonal treatments. The latter techniques are still under study and will help meeting the emerging social demand of reducing the use of hormones for the management of breeding systems.

  15. Human reproduction: current status. (United States)

    Izzo, Carlos Roberto; Monteleone, Pedro Augusto Araújo; Serafini, Paulo C


    The concern about the maintenance of the human species has existed since the earliest civilizations. Progress in the diagnosis and treatment of infertility has led to the development of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) which, along with the evolution of genetics and molecular biology studies, have contributed in a concrete way to the management of infertile couples. Classic in vitro fertilization was initially developed 35 years ago for the treatment of women with tubal blockage, however, it remains inaccessible to a significant proportion of infertile couples around the world. This can be explained by the lack of specialized clinics in some countries and by the high cost of the procedures. Efforts have been employed to increase the number of treatment cycles for assisted reproduction, as for example, the creation of low-cost programs. Even today, infertility remains a problem of global proportions, affecting millions of couples. The estimate of the incidence of infertility is uncertain, mainly because of the criteria used for its definition. This article aims to review the most important aspects, succinctly, regarding the incidence, etiology, and treatment options available to infertile couples.

  16. Smoking and reproduction. (United States)

    Lincoln, R


    2 of the 5 health warnings that must now appear on American cigarette packs and cigarette advertising refer to some of the increased hazards smoking entails for the woman and her unborn child. Yet, the myriad reproductive risks associated with smoking are little known or considered by the general public--or even by physicians--when compared with the dangers of lung cancer, heart attacks and emphysema. In an attempt to remedy that deficit, 8 government agencies sponsored the 1st International Conference on Smoking and Reproductive Health, held October 15-17, 1985 in San Francisco. Speaker after expert speaker connected smoking during pregnancy with increased risks of low birth weight, miscarriage, infant mortality and morbidity--including poorer health of surviving children up to at least age 3--ectopic pregnancy, infertility, menstrual disorders, early menopause, osteoporosis, cervical cancer and dysplasia, cardiovascular disease and placental abnormalities. Similarly, the conference participants documented the association of smoking among men with lower sperm count and increased prevalence of abnormal sperm. The following measures were urged at the closing statements of the conference: 1) an increased effort to inform doctors and health professionals of these findings; 2) increasing the tax on cigarettes, so that smokers would pay for their own health costs; 3) decreasing or eliminating government subsidies for growing tobacco, while helping growers make the transition to nontobacco crops; 4) making smoking cessation programs more widely available; 5) prohibiting the sale of cigarettes through vending machines; and 6) banning all smoking in the workplace.

  17. Laterality and reproductive indices. (United States)

    Kalichman, Leonid; Kobyliansky, Eugene


    Several previous studies support the association between manual dominance and age at menarche or age at menopause. The aim of the present study was to estimate the association between indices of laterality and reproductive indices. The studied sample comprised 650 Chuvashian women aged 18 to 80 years (mean, 46.9; SD = 16.2). The independent-sample t test was used to compare the age at menarche or age at menopause between individuals with right or left dominance of handedness, dominant eye, hand clasping, and arm folding. No significant differences in age at menarche or age at menopause between women with right and left dominance in any of the studied laterality indices were found. This is the first study that simultaneously evaluates the association between dominance in four laterality indices (handedness, dominant eye, hand clasping, and arm folding) and two reproductive indices (age at menarche and age at menopause). Result of our study do not support the hypothesis of a possible association between handedness (and other indices of laterality) and an early age at menarche or age at natural menopause.

  18. Study efficacy of new model of derivative clonazepam on hypnotic, sedative, blood hematology and evaluation reproductive function in male mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan M. Jassim


    Conclusion clonazepam (T1 and 88 compound (T3 with high dose 50 mg/kg have good hypnotic action with complete muscle relaxant. In addition to all, agents have good analgesic effect but T2 showed prominent result. Finally, clonazepam and its related agent 88, 89 compound reveal adverse effect on reproductive function but may be very slightly in 94 compound.

  19. Toxic effects of bisphenol A on sexual and asexual reproduction in Hydra oligactis. (United States)

    Fukuhori, N; Kitano, M; Kimura, H


    Hydra oligactis, an evolutionarily primitive invertebrate, produced eggs or testes (sexual reproduction) when starved at 10 degrees C, and produced buds (asexual reproduction) when fed at 20 degrees C. Bisphenol A (BPA) at 2-4 mg/L given to male or female hydra had adverse effects on both sexual and asexual reproduction. Despite the estrogenic nature of BPA, testis formation and egg formation were similarly affected. The doses causing these acute toxicities were comparable to those reported earlier in aquatic invertebrates and were much higher than environmentally detected doses, at which the disruption of the endocrine system has been reported in fishes. All these facts indicate that the adverse effects are the results of general toxicity and may not be due to the estrogenic function of the compound. On the other hand, we found that BPA at 1 mg/L (a dose still much higher than environmental doses) stimulated asexual reproduction. No such stimulation of sexual reproduction was seen. When male hydras were fed at 10 degrees C, they produced both buds and testes simultaneously. BPA at 0.5 and 1 mg/L under this condition also stimulated asexual reproduction, whereas it suppressed sexual reproduction more severely than BPA at 2-3 mg/L. There may be some interaction between processes involved in sexual and asexual reproduction under this condition, and the stimulation of asexual reproduction by BPA may cause suppression of sexual reproduction.

  20. Reproductive performance of second parity sows: relations with subsequent reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoving, L.L.; Soede, N.M.; Graat, E.A.M.; Feitsma, H.; Kemp, B.


    The objective of this study was to determine relations between reproductive performance, i.e. being a repeat breeder and litter size, in 2nd parity and reproductive performance in later parities. In addition, relations between the 1st and 2nd parity litter size and litter size in later parities were

  1. Materials Chemistry and Performance of Silicone-Based Replicating Compounds.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brumbach, Michael T.; Mirabal, Alex James; Kalan, Michael; Trujillo, Ana B; Hale, Kevin


    Replicating compounds are used to cast reproductions of surface features on a variety of materials. Replicas allow for quantitative measurements and recordkeeping on parts that may otherwise be difficult to measure or maintain. In this study, the chemistry and replicating capability of several replicating compounds was investigated. Additionally, the residue remaining on material surfaces upon removal of replicas was quantified. Cleaning practices were tested for several different replicating compounds. For all replicating compounds investigated, a thin silicone residue was left by the replica. For some compounds, additional inorganic species could be identified in the residue. Simple solvent cleaning could remove some residue.

  2. Structure and physical properties of [micro-tris(1,4-bis(tetrazol-1-yl)butane-N4,N4')iron(II)] bis(hexafluorophosphate), a new Fe(II) spin-crossover compound with a three-dimensional threefold interlocked crystal lattice. (United States)

    Grunert, C Matthias; Schweifer, Johannes; Weinberger, Peter; Linert, Wolfgang; Mereiter, Kurt; Hilscher, Gerfried; Müller, Martin; Wiesinger, Günter; van Koningsbruggen, Petra J


    [micro-Tris(1,4-bis(tetrazol-1-yl)butane-N4,N4')iron(II)] bis(hexafluorophosphate), [Fe(btzb)(3)](PF(6))(2), crystallizes in a three-dimensional 3-fold interlocked structure featuring a sharp two-step spin-crossover behavior. The spin conversion takes place between 164 and 182 K showing a discontinuity at about T(1/2) = 174 K and a hysteresis of about 4 K between T(1/2) and the low-spin state. The spin transition has been independently followed by magnetic susceptibility measurements, (57)Fe-Mössbauer spectroscopy, and variable temperature far and midrange FTIR spectroscopy. The title compound crystallizes in the trigonal space group P3 (No. 147) with a unit cell content of one formula unit plus a small amount of disordered solvent. The lattice parameters were determined by X-ray diffraction at several temperatures between 100 and 300 K. Complete crystal structures were resolved for 9 of these temperatures between 100 (only low spin, LS) and 300 K (only high spin, HS), Z = 1 [Fe(btzb)(3)](PF(6))(2): 300 K (HS), a = 11.258(6) A, c = 8.948(6) A, V = 982.2(10) A(3); 100 K (LS), a = 10.989(3) A, c = 8.702(2) A, V = 910.1(4) A(3). The molecular structure consists of octahedral coordinated iron(II) centers bridged by six N4,N4' coordinating bis(tetrazole) ligands to form three 3-dimensional networks. Each of these three networks is symmetry related and interpenetrates each other within a unit cell to form the interlocked structure. The Fe-N bond lengths change between 1.993(1) A at 100 K in the LS state and 2.193(2) A at 300 K in the HS state. The nearest Fe separation is along the c-axis and identical with the lattice parameter c.

  3. African Journal of Reproductive Health

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL · RESOURCES ... The African Journal of Reproductive Health is a multidisciplinary and international journal that publishes original research, ... to share findings on all aspects of reproductive health, and to disseminate innovative, relevant ...

  4. Assisted reproductive practice: religious perspectives. (United States)

    Schenker, Joscph G


    It is important to those who practise reproductive techniques to learn about different religious perspectives related to reproductive health problems. Religious groups are active in influencing the public regarding bioethical positions, and this is particularly evident with issues concerning procreation, abortion and infertility therapy. The Jewish attitude towards procreation is derived from the first commandment of God to Adam to 'Be fruitful and multiply'. Judaism allows the practice of all techniques of assisted reproduction when the oocyte and spermatozoon originate from the wife and husband respectively. The attitude toward reproductive practice varies among Christian groups. While assisted reproduction is not accepted by the Vatican, it may be practised by Protestant, Anglican and other denominations. According to traditional Christian views, beginning at conception, the embryo has moral status as a human being, and thus most assisted reproductive technologies are forbidden. According to Islam, the procedures of IVF and embryo transfer are acceptable, although they can be performed only for husband and wife. Developments in science and technology and corresponding clinical applications raise new religious questions, often without clear answers. The role of theology in bioethics is integral to clarify perceived attitudes toward these developments for different religious communities. This paper presents the attitude of monotheistic religions to therapeutic procedures, such as IVF-embryo transfer, spermatozoa, oocytes, embryo donation, cryopreservation of genetic material, surrogacy, posthumous reproduction, gender preselection, reproductive and therapeutic cloning.

  5. Genetic aspects of female reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collins, J.; Diedrich, K.; Franks, S.; Geraedts, J. P. M.; Jacobs, P. A.; Karges, B.; Kennedy, S.; Marozzi, A.; Regan, L.; Baird, D. T.; Crosignani, P. G.; Devroey, P.; Diczfalusy, E.; Evers, J. L. H.; Fauser, B. C. J. M.; Fraser, L.; Gianaroli, L.; Glasier, A.; Liebaers, I.; Ragni, G.; Sunde, A.; Tarlatzis, B.; Van Steirteghem, A.


    BACKGROUND: Sexual reproduction provides the means for preserving genetic identity and in turn, genetic variability may affect the ability to reproduce. This review aims to summarize current research on genetic diagnosis and genetic causes of reproductive disorders.METHODS: Searches were done by sub

  6. Involvement of inositol in reproduction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beemster, P.; Groenen, P.; Steegers-Theunissen, R.P.M.


    Inositol is involved in several aspects of reproduction. It affects overall embryogenesis, may prevent neural tube defects, and stimulates the production of lung surfactant. This article will review the involvement of inositol in reproduction. After describing the biologic function of inositol and i

  7. Phthalates as developmental reproductive toxicants (United States)

    PE are a large family ofcompounds used in a wide array ofconsumer, industrial and medical products. Studies have shown that in utero treatment with PE such as diethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP) during the critical period offetal reproductive development produced male reproductive mal...

  8. Reproduction Diversity of Enteromorpha prolifera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Apeng Lin; Songdong Shen; Jianwei Wang; Binlun Yan


    Enteromorpha prolifera (Muell.) J. Agardh (Chlorophyta, Ulvophyceae), which is distributed widely in the Inter-tidal zone of the ocean, is one of the most common fouling green algae. However, the present understandings of the life history of E. prolifera have been insufficient to explain their seasonal abundances. Thus it is essential to investigate how many.reproductive strategies are likely to contribute to the successful colonization and flourishing of the green alga. In the present study the reproduction diversity of E. prolifera was observed and studied systematically by culturing chopped tissues. Our results showed that there are in total seven pathways of reproduction for E. prolifera including sexual, asexual and vegetative reproduction. It was Indicated that the variety of the reproductive ways and the large quantity of reproductive cells produced and released during the reproductive season are the two key factors that facilitate colonization of E. prolifera. The reproduction of the alga E. prolifera mainly depends on asexual methods. The results presented here contribute to increasing our understanding about how the opportunistic macroalgae successfully maintain colonization and excessive growth.

  9. [Influence of industrial and traffic pollution on reproduction of spermatophytes]. (United States)

    Solntseva, M P; Glazunova, K P


    A review of studies conducted, primarily, in Europe in last 30 years that deal with influence of anthropogenic environmental pollution on functioning of reproductive and, by comparison, vegetative organs of spermatophytes is presented. In the papers considered the impacts of typical industrial and traffic pollutants (compounds of iron, zinc, copper, lead, chromium, cadmium, as well as sulfur dioxide, ozone, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) on plants via soil, water, air, and precipitation have been studied. Special attention is paid to effects of heavy metals on embryological structures and processes in staminate and pistillate reproductive spheres of plants (archesporium, meiosis, sporogenesis, gametophytogenesis, morphology and functioning of gametophyte, endospermogenesis, embryogenesis). Detrimental effects of anthropogenic pollution on reproductive sphere of spermatophytes are manifested through disorder in processes of cells fission and differentiation, abnormality in structures development at early stages of morphogenesis, broadening of anomalies spectrum, decrease in pollen fertility, derangement of seed-bearing and germination.

  10. Reproductive endocrinology of vitamin D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Mette; Boisen, Ida Marie; Mortensen, Li Juel


    Vitamin D is a versatile hormone with several functions beyond its well-established role in maintenance of skeletal health and calcium homeostasis. The effects of vitamin D are mediated by the vitamin D receptor, which is expressed together with the vitamin D metabolizing enzymes...... in the reproductive tissues. The reproductive organs are therefore responsive to and able to metabolize vitamin D locally. The exact role remains to be clarified but several studies have suggested a link between vitamin D and production/release of reproductive hormones into circulation, which will be the main focus...... suffering from reproductive problems and abnormal endocrinology research addressing the role of vitamin D in reproductive endocrinology is of clinical importance....

  11. Male reproductive health and yoga. (United States)

    Sengupta, Pallav; Chaudhuri, Prasenjit; Bhattacharya, Koushik


    Now-a-days reproductive health problems along with infertility in male is very often observed. Various Assisted Reproductive Technologies have been introduced to solve the problem, but common people cannot afford the cost of such procedures. Various ayurvedic and other alternative medicines, along with regular yoga practice are proven to be not only effective to enhance the reproductive health in men to produce a successful pregnancy, but also to regulate sexual desire in men who practice celibacy. Yoga is reported to reduce stress and anxiety, improve autonomic functions by triggering neurohormonal mechanisms by the suppression of sympathetic activity, and even, today, several reports suggested regular yoga practice from childhood is beneficial for reproductive health. In this regard the present review is aimed to provide all the necessary information regarding the effectiveness of yoga practice to have a better reproductive health and to prevent infertility.

  12. Male reproductive health and yoga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallav Sengupta


    Full Text Available Now-a-days reproductive health problems along with infertility in male is very often observed. Various Assisted Reproductive Technologies have been introduced to solve the problem, but common people cannot afford the cost of such procedures. Various ayurvedic and other alternative medicines, along with regular yoga practice are proven to be not only effective to enhance the reproductive health in men to produce a successful pregnancy, but also to regulate sexual desire in men who practice celibacy. Yoga is reported to reduce stress and anxiety, improve autonomic functions by triggering neurohormonal mechanisms by the suppression of sympathetic activity, and even, today, several reports suggested regular yoga practice from childhood is beneficial for reproductive health. In this regard the present review is aimed to provide all the necessary information regarding the effectiveness of yoga practice to have a better reproductive health and to prevent infertility.

  13. Curriculum reform for reproductive health | Olatunbosun | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Reproductive Health ... A new model of reproductive health care delivery is unfolding, driven by ... A three-pronged approach based on reproductive health, problem-based learning and evidence-based medicine, has much ...

  14. Assembly of a new family of mercury(II) zwitterionic thiolate complexes from a preformed compound [Hg(Tab)2](PF6)2 [Tab = 4-(trimethylammonio)benzenethiolate]. (United States)

    Chen, Jin-Xiang; Zhang, Wen-Hua; Tang, Xiao-Yan; Ren, Zhi-Gang; Zhang, Yong; Lang, Jian-Ping


    Reactions of Hg(OAc)2 with 2 equiv of TabHPF6 [TabH = 4-(trimethylammonio)benzenethiol] in MeCN/MeOH afforded a mononuclear linear complex [Hg(Tab)2](PF6)2 (1). By using 1 as a precursor, a new family of mercury(II) zwitterionic thiolate complexes, [Hg2(Tab)6](PF6)4.2MeCN (2.2MeCN), [Hg(Tab)2(SCN)](PF6) (3), [Hg(Tab)2(SCN)2] (4), [Hg(Tab)I2] (5), {[Hg(Tab)2]4[HgI2][Hg2I6]}(PF6)2(NO3)4 (6), [Hg(Tab)2][HgI4] (7), [Hg(Tab)2][HgCl2(SCN)2] (8), [Tab-Tab]2[Hg3Cl10] (9), and [Hg2(Tab)6]3(PF6)Cl11 (10), were prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectra, UV-vis spectra, 1H NMR, and single-crystal X-ray crystallography. The [Hg2(Tab)6]4+ tetracation of 2 or 10 contains an asymmetrical Hg2S2 rhomb with an inversion center lying on the midpoint of the Hg...Hg line. The Hg atom of the [Hg(Tab)2]2+ dication of 3 is coordinated to one SCN-, forming a rare T-shaped coordination geometry, while in 4, the Hg atom of [Hg(Tab)2]2+ is coordinated to two SCN-, forming a seesaw-shaped coordination geometry. Through weak secondary Hg...S coordinations, each cation in 3 is further linked to afford a one-dimensional zigzag chain. The trigonal [Hg(Tab)I2] molecules in 5 are held together by weak secondary Hg...I and Hg...S interactions, forming a one-dimensional chain structure. In 6, the four [Hg(Tab)2]2+ dications, one HgI2 molecule, one [Hg2I6]2- dianion, one PF6-, and four NO3- anions are interconnected by complicated secondary Hg...I and Hg...O interactions, forming a scolopendra-like chain structure. The secondary Hg...I interactions, [Hg(Tab)2]2+ and [HgI4]2- in 7, are combined to generate a one-dimensional chain structure, while [Hg(Tab)2]2+ and [HgCl2(SCN)2]2- in 8 are interconnected by secondary Hg...N interactions to form a one-dimensional zigzag chain structure. Compound 9 consists of two [Tab-Tab]2+ dications and one [Hg3Cl10]4- tetraanion. The facile approach to the construction of 2-8 and 10 from 1 may be applicable to the mimicking of a coordination sphere of

  15. Reproductive Rights or Reproductive Justice? Lessons from Argentina. (United States)

    Morgan, Lynn


    Argentine sexual and reproductive rights activists insist on using the language and framework of "human rights," even when many reproductive rights activists in the US and elsewhere now prefer the framework of "reproductive justice." Reflecting on conversations with Argentine feminist anthropologists, social scientists, and reproductive rights activists, this paper analyzes why the Argentine movement to legalize abortion relies on the contested concept of human rights. Its conclusion that "women's rights are human rights" is a powerful claim in post-dictatorship politics where abortion is not yet legal and the full scope of women's rights has yet to be included in the government's human rights agenda. Argentine feminist human rights activists have long been attentive to the ways that social class, gender, migration, and racism intersect with reproduction. Because their government respects and responds to a human rights framework, however, they have not felt it necessary--as U.S. feminists have--to invent a new notion of reproductive justice in order to be heard. Given the increasing popularity of reproductive justice in health and human rights, the Argentine case shows that rights-based claims can still be politically useful when a State values the concept of human rights.

  16. Bioaccessibility testing of cobalt compounds. (United States)

    Stopford, Woodhall; Turner, John; Cappellini, Danielle; Brock, Tom


    Testing of metal compounds for solubility in artificial fluids has been used for many years to assist determining human health risk from exposure to specific compounds of concern. In lieu of obtaining bioavailability data from samples of urine, blood, or other tissues, these studies measured solubility of compounds in various artificial fluids as a surrogate for bioavailability. In this context, the measurement of metal "bioaccessibility" can be used as an in vitro substitute for measuring metal bioavailability. Bioaccessibility can be defined as a value representing the availability of metal for absorption when dissolved in in vitro surrogates of body fluids or juices. The aim of this study was to measure and compare the bioaccessibility of selected cobalt compounds in artificial human tissue fluids and human serum. A second aim was to initiate studies to experimentally validate an in vitro methodology that would provide a conservative estimate of cobalt bioavailability in the assessment of dose from human exposure to various species of cobalt compounds. This study evaluated the bioaccessibility of cobalt(II) from 11 selected cobalt compounds and an alloy in 2 physical forms in 5 surrogate human tissue fluids and human serum. Four (4) separate extraction times were used up to 72 hours. The effect of variables such as pH, dissolution time, and mass-ion effect on cobalt bioaccessibility were assessed as well. We found that the species of cobalt compound as well as the physico-chemical properties of the surrogate fluids, especially pH, had a major impact on cobalt solubility. Cobalt salts such as cobalt(II) sulfate heptahydrate were highly soluble, whereas cobalt alloys used in medical implants and cobalt aluminate spinels used as pigments, showed minimal dissolution over the period of the assay.

  17. Reproductive endocrinology in chondrichthyans: the present and the future. (United States)

    Awruch, C A


    The class Chondrichthyes, that includes Elasmobranchii and Holocephali, is a diverse group of fish occupying a key position at the base of vertebrate evolution. Their evolutionary success is greatly attributed to their wide range of reproductive strategies controlled by different endocrine mechanics. As in other vertebrates, hormonal control of reproduction in chondrichthyans is mediated by the neuropeptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) that regulates the brain control of gonadal activity via a hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Chondrichthyans lack of a direct vascular supply from the hypothalamus to the zone of the pituitary where the gonadotropic activity resides, thus transport between these two zones likely occurs via the general circulation. In the brain of elasmobranchs, two groups of GnRH, GnRH-I and GnRH-II were identified, and the presence of two immunoreactive gonadotropins similar to the luteinising (LH) and follicle stimulating (FSH) hormones was identified in the pituitary. In holocephalans, only GnRH-II has been confirmed, and while gonadotropin activity has been found in the buccal pituitary lobe, the presence of gonadotropin receptors in the gonads remains unknowns. The diversity of reproductive strategies display by chondrichthyans makes it difficult to generalize the control of gametogenesis and steroidogenesis; however, some general patterns emerge. In both sexes, androgens and estrogens are the main steroids during gonadal growth; while progestins have maturational activity. Androgens also form the precursors for estrogen steroid production. Estrogens stimulate the hepatic synthesis of yolk and stimulate the development of different part of the reproductive tract in females. The role of other gonadal steroids may play in chondrichthyan reproduction remains largely unknown. Future work should concentrate in filling the gaps into the current knowledge of the HPG axis regulation, and the use of reproductive endocrinology as a non

  18. Phytoestrogens: Plant-derived Estrogenic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevzat Konar


    Full Text Available Estrogen is a hormone, which is produced in ovary and testis; however, it has many biological effects besides the reproductive system. Phytoestrogens are the compounds, which have estrogen-like structure and activities, taking place in structure of various edible plants at different levels and in different compositions. These compounds attracted notice after the first quarter of 20th century upon they had been associated with infertility seen in some of animals fed with alfalfa, and these compounds have been identified in human-derived biological samples and its effects on health have been taken under study in the recent 30 years. These materials have especially antioxidant role in plants while they have activities in animals and humans as estrogen agonist and antagonists. Based on their chemical structure, they may be gathered under especially isoflavon and lignan groups while some of members of coumestan and stilbene groups are also identified as phytoestrogenic compound.

  19. Life-history theory, fertility and reproductive success in humans. (United States)

    Strassmann, Beverly I; Gillespie, Brenda


    According to life-history theory, any organism that maximizes fitness will face a trade-off between female fertility and offspring survivorship. This trade-off has been demonstrated in a variety of species, but explicit tests in humans have found a positive linear relationship between fitness and fertility. The failure to demonstrate a maximum beyond which additional births cease to enhance fitness is potentially at odds with the view that human fertility behaviour is currently adaptive. Here we report, to our knowledge, the first clear evidence for the predicted nonlinear relationship between female fertility and reproductive success in a human population, the Dogon of Mali, West Africa. The predicted maximum reproductive success of 4.1+/-0.3 surviving offspring was attained at a fertility of 10.5 births. Eighty-three per cent of the women achieved a lifetime fertility level (7-13 births) for which the predicted mean reproductive success was within the confidence limits (3.4 to 4.8) for reproductive success at the optimal fertility level. Child mortality, rather than fertility, was the primary determinant of fitness. Since the Dogon people are farmers, our results do not support the assumptions that: (i) contemporary foragers behave more adaptively than agriculturalists, and (ii) that adaptive fertility behaviour ceased with the Neolithic revolution some 9000 years ago. We also present a new method that avoids common biases in measures of reproductive success.

  20. Medical devices; obstetrical and gynecological devices; classification of the assisted reproduction embryo image assessment system. Final order. (United States)


    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is classifying the Assisted Reproduction Embryo Image Assessment System into class II (special controls). The special controls that will apply to the device are identified in this order, and will be part of the codified language for the Assisted Reproduction Embryo Image Assessment System classification. The Agency is classifying the device into class II (special controls) in order to provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device.

  1. The Mahabharata and reproductive endocrinology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharti Kalra


    Full Text Available This communication approaches the Mahabharata through the prism of reproductive endocrinology. Descriptions of episodes related to reproduction are listed here, to provide fodder for the endocrinologically minded brain. The cases described here are perhaps, the first documented observations of fetal orgasm, pseudocyesis and assisted reproductive technology, including assisted insemination by donor, induction of ovulation, and in vitro fertilization as well as precocious growth and intersex. We do not presume to offer a definite explanation for these interesting episodes from the Mahabharata. We do, however, hope to stimulate interest in ancient Indian literature, and encourage a literary “forensic endocrine” analysis of events relevant to our specialty.

  2. Antitumor Compounds from Marine Actinomycetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Salas


    Full Text Available Chemotherapy is one of the main treatments used to combat cancer. A great number of antitumor compounds are natural products or their derivatives, mainly produced by microorganisms. In particular, actinomycetes are the producers of a large number of natural products with different biological activities, including antitumor properties. These antitumor compounds belong to several structural classes such as anthracyclines, enediynes, indolocarbazoles, isoprenoides, macrolides, non-ribosomal peptides and others, and they exert antitumor activity by inducing apoptosis through DNA cleavage mediated by topoisomerase I or II inhibition, mitochondria permeabilization, inhibition of key enzymes involved in signal transduction like proteases, or cellular metabolism and in some cases by inhibiting tumor-induced angiogenesis. Marine organisms have attracted special attention in the last years for their ability to produce interesting pharmacological lead compounds.

  3. Endocrine uncoupling of the trade-off between reproduction and somatic maintenance in eusocial insects. (United States)

    Rodrigues, Marisa A; Flatt, Thomas


    In most animals reproduction trades off with somatic maintenance and survival. Physiologically this trade-off is mediated by hormones with opposite effects on reproduction and maintenance. In many insects, this regulation is achieved by an endocrine network that integrates insulin-like/IGF-1 signaling (IIS), juvenile hormone (JH), and the yolk precursor vitellogenin (Vg) (or, more generally, yolk proteins [YPs]). Downregulation of this network promotes maintenance and survival at the expense of reproduction. Remarkably, however, queens of highly eusocial social insects exhibit both enormous reproductive output and longevity, thus escaping the trade-off. Here we argue - based on recent evidence - that the proximate reason for why eusocial insects can decouple this trade-off is that they have evolved a different 'wiring' of the IIS-JH-Vg/YP circuit.

  4. Addressing the reproductive health problems. JICA Reproductive Health Project. (United States)

    Nguyen Thi Han


    In an effort to ensure quality of medical and health services for all people in Vietnam, several multilateral and bilateral donors and international NGOs have collaborated. One of its most promising projects in the field of reproductive health is the technical cooperation project supported by Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). The JICA Reproductive Health Project, which started in June 1997, has created clear changes in staff's knowledge and skills, and people's awareness of the health problems and risks that they are faced with. It was developed to address the serious reproductive health problems in the province represented by an unacceptably high maternal mortality rate. In the Nghe An Province of Vietnam, the JICA Reproductive Health Project has gained the most important achievement. This has been the triumphant empowerment of midwives who are the focal persons of reproductive health care in Vietnam. In view of the success of the JICA Project, plans have been made to implement the reproductive health services in 11 other districts.

  5. The dynamics of acid-soluble phosphorus compounds in the course of winter and spring wheat germination under various thermic conditions. Part II. Labile phosphorus after hydrolysis of the acid-soluble fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Barbaro


    Full Text Available The changes in labile phosphorus compounds content during germination of wheat were investigated. These compounds were determined in acid-soluble germ extracts separated into fractions according to the solubility of their barium salts. Low germination temperature was found to raise the labile phosphorus content in the fraction of insoluble barium salts. If we assume that labile P of this fraction consisted mainly of adenosinedi- and triphosphates, it would seem that the rise, in the ATP and ADP level under the influence of low temperature may be essential for initiating flowering in winter varieties.

  6. Introduction: Obesity and reproduction. (United States)

    Meldrum, David R


    Women bear the predominant burden of our obesogenic environment, with a higher incidence of obesity than men, more impact on their fertility and success with treatment, and significant maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. In this series, the causes, consequences, and solutions regarding the obesity pandemic, the mechanisms of the effect of obesity on the female and male, the epigenetic consequences of male obesity, the marked effects on perinatal outcomes, and the effects of weight loss before conception and during pregnancy are explored. Lifestyle modifications, in particular a healthy diet and exercise during the 3-6 months before conception and during treatment, should result in better outcomes than requiring weight loss before fertility treatments. Such fundamental changes toward a healthier lifestyle will achieve steady and sustainable weight loss and long-term benefits for general health. The role of bariatric surgery before pregnancy requires careful consideration. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Endocannabinoids: friends and foes of reproduction. (United States)

    Maccarrone, Mauro


    Endocannabinoids are fatty acid amides like anandamide (AEA), and monoacylglycerols like 2-arachidonoylglycerol, that bind to cannabinoid, vanilloid and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. Their biological actions are controlled through not yet fully characterized cellular mechanisms. These compounds, together with their related enzymes, that include key proteins for the synthesis and degradation of endocannabinoids, cannabinoid and non-cannabinoid receptors, and purported membrane transporter(s), form the "endocannabinoid system (ECS)". In the past few years AEA and related ECS elements have emerged as essential players in various aspects of human reproduction, both for males and females. Here, the key features of the ECS and the potential of its components to direct human fertility towards a positive or negative end will be reviewed. In particular, the involvement of AEA and related ECS elements in regulating embryo oviductal transport, blastocyst implantation and placental development (in females), and sperm survival, motility, capacitation and acrosome reaction (in males) will be addressed, as well as the role of endocannabinoids in sperm-oviduct interactions. Additionally, the possibility that blood AEA and its hydrolase FAAH may represent reliable diagnostic markers of natural and assisted reproduction in humans will be discussed, along with the therapeutic exploitation of ECS-oriented drugs as useful fertility enhancers.

  8. Pheromone signaling during sexual reproduction in algae. (United States)

    Frenkel, Johannes; Vyverman, Wim; Pohnert, Georg


    Algae are found in all aquatic and many terrestrial habitats. They are dominant in phytoplankton and biofilms thereby contributing massively to global primary production. Since algae comprise photosynthetic representatives of the various protoctist groups their physiology and appearance is highly diverse. This diversity is also mirrored in their characteristic life cycles that exhibit various facets of ploidy and duration of the asexual phase as well as gamete morphology. Nevertheless, sexual reproduction in unicellular and colonial algae usually has as common motive that two specialized, sexually compatible haploid gametes establish physical contact and fuse. To guarantee mating success, processes during sexual reproduction are highly synchronized and regulated. This review focuses on sex pheromones of algae that play a key role in these processes. Especially, the diversity of sexual strategies as well as of the compounds involved are the focus of this contribution. Discoveries connected to algal pheromone chemistry shed light on the role of key evolutionary processes, including endosymbiotic events and lateral gene transfer, speciation and adaptation at all phylogenetic levels. But progress in this field might also in the future provide valid tools for the manipulation of aquaculture and environmental processes.

  9. Exposure to perfluorinated compounds and human semen quality in arctic and European populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Gunnar; Jönsson, B A G; Lindh, C H


    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been suspected to adversely affect human reproductive health. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between PFC exposure and male semen quality....


    Prepubertal exposure to compounds that increase prolactin secretion in the male rat: effects on the adult prostate.Stoker TE, Robinette CL, Britt BH, Laws SC, Cooper RL.Endocrinology Branch, Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effec...

  11. Fundamental roles of reactive oxygen species and protective mechanisms in the female reproductive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okada Futoshi


    Full Text Available Abstract Controlled oxidation, such as disulfide bond formation in sperm nuclei and during ovulation, plays a fundamental role in mammalian reproduction. Excess oxidation, however, causes oxidative stress, resulting in the dysfunction of the reproductive process. Antioxidation reactions that reduce the levels of reactive oxygen species are of prime importance in reproductive systems in maintaining the quality of gametes and support reproduction. While anti-oxidative enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase and peroxidase, play a central role in eliminating oxidative stress, reduction-oxidation (redox systems, comprised of mainly glutathione and thioredoxin, function to reduce the levels of oxidized molecules. Aldo-keto reductase, using NADPH as an electron donor, detoxifies carbonyl compounds resulting from the oxidation of lipids and proteins. Thus, many antioxidative and redox enzyme genes are expressed and aggressively protect gametes and embryos in reproductive systems.

  12. Interpreting the von Bertalanffy model of somatic growth in fishes: the cost of reproduction. (United States)

    Lester, N P; Shuter, B J; Abrams, P A


    We develop a model for somatic growth in fishes that explicitly allows for the energy demand imposed by reproduction. We show that the von Bertalanffy (VB) equation provides a good description of somatic growth after maturity, but not before. We show that the parameters of the VB equation are simple functions of age at maturity and reproductive investment. We use this model to show how the energy demands for both growth and reproduction trade off to determine optimal life-history traits. Assuming that both age at maturity and reproductive investment adapt to variations in adult mortality to maximize lifetime offspring production, our model predicts that: (i) the optimal age of maturity is inversely related to adult mortality rate; (ii) the optimal reproductive effort is approximately equal to adult mortality rate. These predictions are consistent with observed variations in the life-history traits of a large sample of iteroparous freshwater fishes. Copyright 2004 The Royal Society


    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jul 1, 2003 ... young people face numerous reproductive heath challenges ... Adolescents are tending to delay age at marriage. In United States of ... unplanned, sporadic and sometimes, the result of peer pressure or force. As shown in the ...

  14. Fertility Desire and Reproductive Health

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Understanding fertility desire and reproductive health care needs of HIV positive men and women in the era ... and related consequences. ... inform national policy decisions on PMTCT, HIV ... The study population was included proportional to.

  15. Developing a reproductive life plan. (United States)

    Files, Julia A; Frey, Keith A; David, Paru S; Hunt, Katherine S; Noble, Brie N; Mayer, Anita P


    The purpose of this article is 2-fold: to emphasize the importance of a reproductive life plan and to define its key elements. We review the 2006 recommendations from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) regarding ways to improve the delivery of preconception health care to women in the United States, with particular focus on encouraging individual reproductive responsibility throughout the life span and on encouraging every woman to develop a reproductive life plan. We propose recommendations for the content of a reproductive life plan and explore ways to incorporate the guidelines from the CDC into clinical practice. By encouraging women to consider their plans for childbearing before they become pregnant, clinicians have the opportunity to influence behavior before pregnancy, which may decrease the incidence of unintended pregnancies and adverse pregnancy outcomes. © 2011 by the American College of Nurse‐Midwives.

  16. Plant reproduction in spaceflight environments (United States)

    Musgrave, M. E.; Kuang, A.; Porterfield, D. M.


    Because plant reproduction is a complex developmental process there are many possible sites of perturbation by the unusual environments of orbital spacecraft. Previous long-duration experiments on Soviet platforms shared features of slowed development through the vegetative stage of plant growth and aborted reproductive function. Our goal has been to understand how special features of the spaceflight environment impact physiological function and reproductive development. In a series of short-duration experiments in the Shuttle mid-deck we studied early reproductive development in Arabidopsis thaliana. Pollen and ovule development aborted at an early stage in the first experiment on STS-54 which utilized closed plant growth chambers. Post-flight analysis suggested that the plants may have been carbon dioxide limited. Subsequent experiments utilized carbon dioxide enrichment (on STS-51) and cabin air flow-through with an air exchange system (on STS-68). Both modifications allowed pollen and ovule development to occur normally on orbit, and full reproductive development up to the stage of an immature seed occurred on STS-68. However, analysis of plant roots from these experiments demonstrated a limitation in rootzone aeration in the spaceflight material that was not mitigated by these procedures. In the future, additional resources (crew time, upgraded flight hardware, and special platforms) will invite more elaborate, long-duration experimentation. On the ISS, a variable speed centrifuge and upgraded plant habitats will permit detailed experiments on the role of gravity in shaping the plant micro-environment, and what influence this plays during reproduction.

  17. Reproductive ecology of lampreys (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas S.; Buchinger, Tyler J.; Li, Weiming


    Lampreys typically spawn in riffle habitats during the spring. Spawning activity and diel (i.e., during daylight and at night) behavioral patterns are initiated when spring water temperatures increase to levels that coincide with optimal embryologic development. Nests are constructed in gravel substrate using the oral disc to move stones and the tail to fan sediment out of the nest. Spawning habitat used by individual species is generally a function of adult size, where small-bodied species construct nests in shallower water with slower flow and smaller gravel than large-bodied species. The mating system of lampreys is primarily polygynandrous (i.e., where multiple males mate with multiple females). Lamprey species with adult total length less than 30 cm generally spawn communally, where a nest may contain 20 or more individuals of both sexes. Lamprey species with adult sizes greater than 35 cm generally spawn in groups of two to four. Operational sex ratios of lampreys are highly variable across species, populations, and time, but are generally male biased. The act of spawning typically starts with the male attaching with his oral disc to the back of the female’s head; the male and female then entwine and simultaneously release gametes. However, alternative mating behaviors (e.g., release of gametes without paired courtship and sneaker males) have been observed. Future research should determine how multiple modalities of communication among lampreys (including mating pheromones) are integrated to inform species recognition and mate choice. Such research could inform both sea lamprey control strategies and provide insight into possible evolution of reproductive isolation mechanisms between paired lamprey species in sympatry.

  18. Song book on reproductive health issue. JICA Reproductive Health Project. (United States)


    This article reports on the use of poetry to disseminate messages to people, an approach that was utilized by the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) Reproductive Health Project in its awareness creation campaign. The activity called on villagers living in the project area to write and contribute poems on reproductive health. The themes of the poem include 1) health benefits of receiving more than four prenatal checkups; 2) necessity of being immunized against tetanus; 3) how to make an early detection of the warning signs developing during pregnancy; 4) male participation in reproductive health; and 5) not having abortion. About 1300 people contributed their poems to the Poetical Works Publication Sub-Committee, who selected 140 poems for publication. The JICA project has printed 10,000 copies of an anthology entitled ¿Message to Everybody--Song Book on Reproductive Health Issues.¿ Three of the poems that were selected by the Management Team of the JICA Reproductive Health Project in Nghe An Province, are included in the article.

  19. Low temperature vibrational spectroscopy. II. Evidence for order–disorder phase transitions due to weak C–H···Cl hydrogen bonding in tetramethylammonium hexachloroplatinate (IV), -tellurate (IV), and -stannate (IV) and the related perdeuterated compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.


    torsions and other noncubic features play a role, especially in spectra at low temperatures. Possible site symmetries of the [PtCl6]2− ion, which cannot have strictly Oh symmetry in either phase, have been deduced. The spectra of a mixed Pt : Te compound showed that the hexachlorometallate anions vibrate...... approximately independent of each other. The results have been compared with von der Ohe's recent extensive low temperature Raman study on protonated compounds with M=U, Sn, and Zr, and his conclusions are discussed. It is shown that crystals of this kind can be characterized by methyl–chlorine interaction...... and it is suggested that the phase transitions are caused by an ordering of rotationally disordered methyl groups via the formation of weak C–H···Cl hydrogen bonds at low temperatures. The transition temperatures and hence the interactions are shown to depend on both the kind of hydrogen isotope and metal present...

  20. Grandparental effects on reproductive strategizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available This paper analyzes data from the household registers for two villages in the Nôbi region of central Japan in the late Edo period (1717-1869 to assess how grandparents may have affected reproductive strategizing in stem families. The particulars of the family system fostered a culturally favored set of reproductive goals, in particular, a daughter as eldest child, followed by a son (and heir, coupled with gender alternation in subsequent reproduction and overall gender balance. This reproductive strategy was generally followed during the stem phase of the domestic cycle, when one or both grandparents were present, especially when the family head was in the senior generation. By contrast, a son-first strategy was favored when childbearing began in the conjugal phase of the cycle. This suggests grandparental influence on the junior couple's reproductive decisions in favor of the cultural ideal. I find that the senior couple's decision to marry the heir early or late strongly affects the reproductive strategies followed by him after marriage. I show that when a grandmother is present at the onset of childbearing, especially if she is relatively young, the junior couple ends up with more offspring on average. A controlled analysis of infanticiding behavior is interpreted in terms of conjugal power and coalition formation. It appears that a grandmother gets her way only when she and her son gang up on the daughter-in-law, but such a coalition is likely only when her son dominates the conjugal relationship (which in turn reflects the grandmother's success in binding the son tightly to her emotionally and in delaying his marriage. Otherwise, the grandmother may be shut out from reproductive decision-making by the solidary conjugal coalition.

  1. Zambia moves towards reproductive health. (United States)


    Several events in Zambia this year have marked the development of an integrated approach to reproductive health. A team met in March to draw up a national safe motherhood policy, plus strategies and guidelines. These were completed by April and are being distributed for comments. Clinical guidelines for safe motherhood in health centers have also been developed. These aim to reduce mortality and morbidity among mothers and infants by helping health workers to provide quality care to women at every stage of pregnancy and delivery. A reproductive health workshop was held in Ngwerere in May to create awareness of the concept of reproductive health, identify reproductive health problems in the area, propose solutions and outline activities. The 75 participants included community health workers, community leaders, teachers, youth leaders, and community members, as well as health workers and policymakers. The workshop was conducted in the local language so that those present were able to participate fully. June 1997 saw the official launch of Zambia's new policy framework, guidelines and strategy on family planning within reproductive health. The country's Minister of Health, Dr. Katele Kalumba, said the family planning guidelines were a sign of the government's commitment to providing a basic health care package for all Zambians. To promote widespread discussion of the whole concept of reproductive health, local newspapers printed feature articles with the headline "Let's talk reproductive health." The articles raised a variety of sensitive issues that ranged from safe sex and adolescent sexuality to safe motherhood and HIV prevention. Plans are going ahead in Zambia for drawing up a national training curriculum for safe motherhood and family planning. The curriculum for health workers will cover both pre-service and in-service training. full text

  2. Variation of the EuII emission wavelength by substitution of fluoride by hydride in fluorite-type compounds EuHxF2-x (0.20 ≤ x ≤ 0.67)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunkel, Nathalie; Meijerink, A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075044986; Kohlmann, Holger


    Mixed-hydride fluorides EuHxF2-x were prepared by the solid-state reaction of EuF2 and EuH2 under hydrogen gas pressure in an autoclave. EuII luminescence is observed for 0.20 > x > 0.67, while pure EuF2 does not show any emission. The energy of the emission depends strongly on the degree of

  3. Preparation and thermal decomposition of copper(II, zinc(II and cadmium(II chelates with 8-hydroxyquinoline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crespi Marisa S.


    Full Text Available When the compounds are heated in an inert atmosphere it can be verified the consecutive partial sublimation, fusion, partial volatilization and partial thermal decomposition of the anhydrous complexes. When in an oxidating atmosphere the above process is only verified to Cu(II chelates. Anhydrous copper(II complexes present a monoclinic structure in the b form and the volatilized compound in a a form. Zinc(II and cadmium(II hydrated complexes are isomorphous and they present different cell dimensions from those reported previously.

  4. [Public health ethics and reproduction]. (United States)

    Alexandrova-Yankulovska, S; Bozhinov, P; Bojinova, S


    Medical progress has enabled achievements that were not even thinkable earlier but at the same time society and public health have had to face new challenges. What are we ready to accept in the area of human reproduction? This paper aims at ethical analysis of Bulgarian laws on reproduction. The abortion debate nowadays has got new dimiension focusing not that much on its moral acceptability but rather on the acceptable indications for its performance. Is it ethical to perform abortion in case of undesired gender of the embryo or genetic malformations? Lots of moral issues mark the area of assisted reproduction which is due to the separation of the reproductive functions (ova, sperm and embryo donation, surrogacy), fragmentation of motherhood and fatherhood, differentiation of biological and social parenthood. Defining limits of acceptable interference or non-interference in human reproduction will never be easy, but dynamics of moral judgment shouldn't bother us. The rigidity of moral norms is what should be alarming because it threatens procreative autonomy.

  5. Religious aspects of assisted reproduction (United States)

    Sallam, H N; Sallam, N H


    Human response to new developments regarding birth, death, marriage and divorce is largely shaped by religious beliefs. When assisted reproduction was introduced into medical practice in the last quarter of the twentieth century, it was fiercely attacked by some religious groups and highly welcomed by others. Today, assisted reproduction is accepted in nearly all its forms by Judaism, Hinduism and Buddhism, although most Orthodox Jews refuse third party involvement. On the contrary assisted reproduction is totally unacceptable to Roman Catholicism, while Protestants, Anglicans, Coptic Christians and Sunni Muslims accept most of its forms, which do not involve gamete or embryo donation. Orthodox Christians are less strict than Catholic Christians but still refuse third party involvement. Interestingly, in contrast to Sunni Islam, Shi'a Islam accepts gamete donation and has made provisions to institutionalize it. Chinese culture is strongly influenced by Confucianism, which accepts all forms of assisted reproduction that do not involve third parties. Other communities follow the law of the land, which is usually dictated by the religious group(s) that make(s) the majority of that specific community. The debate will certainly continue as long as new developments arise in the ever-evolving field of assisted reproduction.

  6. Free radicals and male reproduction. (United States)

    Agarwal, Ashok; Allamaneni, Shyam S R


    Male factor accounts for almost 50% cases of infertility. The exact mechanism of sperm dysfunction is not known in many cases. Extensive research in the last decade has led to the identification of free radicals (reactive oxygen species) as mediators of sperm dysfunction in both specific diagnoses and idiopathic cases of male infertility. Elevated levels of reactive oxygen species are seen in up to 30-80% of men with male infertility. The role of free radicals has been studied extensively in the process of human reproduction. We know now that a certain level of free radicals is necessary for normal sperm function, whereas an excessive level of free radicals can cause detrimental effect on sperm function and subsequent fertilisation and offspring health. Oxidative stress develops when there is an imbalance between generation of free radicals and scavenging capacity of anti-oxidants in reproductive tract. Oxidative stress has been shown to affect both standard semen parameters and fertilising capacity. In addition, high levels of free radicals have been associated with lack of or poor fertility outcome after natural conception or assisted reproduction. Diagnostic techniques to quantify free radicals in infertile patients can assist physicians treating patients with infertility to plan for proper treatment strategies. In vivo anti-oxidants can be used against oxidative stress in male reproductive tract. Supplementation of in vitro anti-oxidants can help prevent the oxidative stress during sperm preparation techniques in assisted reproduction.

  7. Religious aspects of assisted reproduction (United States)

    Sallam, HN; Sallam, NH


    Abstract Human response to new developments regarding birth, death, marriage and divorce is largely shaped by religious beliefs. When assisted reproduction was introduced into medical practice in the last quarter of the twentieth century, it was fiercely attacked by some religious groups and highly welcomed by others. Today, assisted reproduction is accepted in nearly all its forms by Judaism, Hinduism and Buddhism, although most Orthodox Jews refuse third party involvement. On the contrary assisted reproduction is totally unacceptable to Roman Catholicism, while Protestants, Anglicans, Coptic Christians and Sunni Muslims accept most of its forms, which do not involve gamete or embryo donation. Orthodox Christians are less strict than Catholic Christians but still refuse third party involvement. Interestingly, in contrast to Sunni Islam, Shi’a Islam accepts gamete donation and has made provisions to institutionalize it. Chinese culture is strongly influenced by Confucianism, which accepts all forms of assisted reproduction that do not involve third parties. Other communities follow the law of the land, which is usually dictated by the religious group(s) that make(s) the majority of that specific community. The debate will certainly continue as long as new developments arise in the ever-evolving field of assisted reproduction. PMID:27822349

  8. Mammalian Toxicity of Munitions Compounds. Summary of Toxicity of Nitrotoluenes (United States)


    Allargenicity Carcinogenicty Mutagenicity Reproductive toxicity Disposition Metabolism Excretion Risk Asseasment Water Quality Criterion UCU1flY...16 E. Water Quality Criterion .............. ... 17 References ................ ........................... .... 19 xii • I II’ I TABLE OF...including mixtures, are produced commercially in large quantities. They are reduced to diaminotoluenes , reacted with phosgene to make toluenediisocyanate

  9. Natural arsenic contaminated diets perturb reproduction in fish. (United States)

    Boyle, David; Brix, Kevin V; Amlund, Heidi; Lundebye, Anne-Katrine; Hogstrand, Christer; Bury, Nic R


    The toxicological effect of natural diets elevated in metals on reproduction in fish is poorly understood. The reproductive output of zebrafish fed the polychaete Nereis diversicolor collected from a metal-impacted estuary, Restronguet Creek, Cornwall, UK, was compared to fish fed N. diversicolor collected from a nonmetal impacted estuary, Blackwater, Essex, UK. Fish fed the metal laden N. diversicolorfor 68 days showed reduced reproductive output, characterized by reduced cumulative egg production (47%), cumulative number of spawns (30%), as well as reduced average number of eggs produced per spawn and % hatch rate. The mRNA transcript levels of the egg-yolk protein vitellogenin was also reduced 1.5 fold in the livers of female fish fed metal-laden N. diversicolor. No difference was seen between the lipid, protein, or moisture content of the two diets and no difference in growth was seen between the two fish populations. The Restronguet Creek polychaetes have elevated arsenic, cadmium, copper, zinc, lead, and silver body burdens, but the only element found to accumulate in the tissues of zebrafish fed this diet was As. The As in these N. diversicolor was found to be predominantly potentially toxic inorganic As species, 58% of total As content, which is unusual for aquatic organisms where arsenic is typically biotransformed into less toxic organoarsenical compounds. These results demonstrate that reproduction in fish is a sensitive target of exposure to a natural diet contaminated with As and this exposure route could be of significance to the health of fish populations.

  10. Determinants of reproductive success in female adders, Vipera berus. (United States)

    Madsen, Thomas; Shine, Richard


    Female lifetime reproductive success in a small population of individually-marked adders in southern Sweden was studied over a period of seven years. Reproductive characteristics varied little from year to year and were consistent through time in individual females. Most females mature at four years of age and reproduce every two years. The total number of offspring produced by a female depends on her adult body size (and thus, litter size) and longevity (and thus, number of litters per lifetime). Adult body size in females is influenced mainly by subadult growth rates. Offspring size depends on maternal body size and a tradeoff between offspring size and offspring number. Maternal age does not affect litter sizes and offspring sizes except through ontogenetic changes in maternal body size.Survival of females after parturition is low because of the high energy costs of reproduction, compounded by low feeding rates of gravid females because of their sedentary behaviour at this time. About one-half of females produce only a single litter during their lifetimes, although some females live to produce four or five litters. On a proximate basis, rates of energy accumulation for growth (in subadults) and reproduction (in adults) may be the most important determinants of fitness in female adders.

  11. Insulin-like growth factors and fish reproduction. (United States)

    Reinecke, Manfred


    Knowledge of fish reproduction is of high relevance to basic fish biology and comparative evolution. Furthermore, fish are excellent biomedical models, and the impact of aquaculture on worldwide food production is steadily increasing. Consequently, research on fish reproduction and the potential modes of its manipulation has become more and more important. Reproduction in fish is regulated by the integration of endogenous neuroendocrine (gonadotropins), endocrine, and autocrine/paracrine signals with exogenous (environmental) factors. The main endocrine regulators of gonadal sex differentiation and function are steroid hormones. However, recent studies suggest that other hormones are also involved. Most prominent among these hormones are the insulin-like growth factors (Igfs), i.e., Igf1, Igf2, and, most recently, Igf3. Thus, the present review deals with the expression patterns and potential physiological functions of Igf1 and Igf2 in male and female gonads. It further considers the potential involvement of growth hormone (Gh) and balances the reasons for endocrine vs. autocrine/paracrine action of the Igfs on the gonads of fish. Finally, this review discusses the early and late development of gonadal Igf1 and Igf2 and whether they are targets of endocrine-disrupting compounds. Future topics for novel research investigation on Igfs and fish reproduction are presented.

  12. Similar causes of various reproductive disorders in early life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Svechnikov


    Full Text Available During the past few decades, scientific evidence has been accumulated concerning the possible adverse effects of the exposure to environmental chemicals on the well-being of wildlife and human populations. One large and growing group of such compounds of anthropogenic or natural origin is referred to as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs, due to their deleterious action on the endocrine system. This concern was first focused on the control of reproductive function particularly in males, but has later been expanded to include all possible endocrine functions. The present review describes the underlying physiology behind the cascade of developmental events that occur during sexual differentiation of males and the specific role of androgen in the masculinization process and proper organogenesis of the external male genitalia. The impact of the genetic background, environmental exposures and lifestyle factors in the etiology of hypospadias, cryptorchidism and testicular cancer are reviewed and the possible role of EDCs in the development of these reproductive disorders is discussed critically. Finally, the possible direct and programming effects of exposures in utero to widely use therapeutic compounds, environmental estrogens and other chemicals on the incidence of reproductive abnormalities and poor semen quality in humans are also highlighted.

  13. Biological systems combined for the treatment of coffee processing wastewater: II - Removal of nutrients and phenolic compounds - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i3.13628



    Three treatment systems consisting of anaerobic filters with upward flow followed by constructed wetland systems (CW) were evaluated for the removal of nutrients and phenolic compounds, in the treatment of coffee processing wastewater (WCP) in Viçosa, Minas Gerais State. Filters were made of PVC (1.5 m high and 0.35 m diameter) filled with gravel # 2 and CW were made of wooden boxes (1.5 m long, 0.4 m high and 0.5 m wide) sealed by HDPE geomembrane and filled with gravel ‘zero’. The WCP ...

  14. Differentials in reproductive and child health status in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhilesh Parchure


    Full Text Available

    Background: Inequalities in reproductive and child health (RCH exist, in general, in different regions of India. The present study aims to investigate the current status of RCH and examine the factors responsible for it in different parts of India.

    Methods: This study utilized data obtained from two Indian studies – (i National Family Health Survey – 3 (NFHS- 2005-06 and (ii District Level Household Survey (DLHS – 2002-04. Reproductive Health Index was computed on the basis of five variables such as total fertility rate, infant mortality rate, birth order, delivery care and female educational attainment.

    Results: In terms of reproductive and child health, a wide range of variation exists in India in its different regions. The study reveals that among Indian states, 13 states have an index value less than the national average. On the basis of the reproductive health index, the Indian states can be divided into three categories, namely; progressive states, semi progressive states and backward states.

    Conclusions: The interstate differences in healthcare utilization are partly due to variations in the implementation of maternal health care programs as well as differences in availability of and accessibility to healthcare between Indian states.

  15. Functional genomics in reproductive medicine. (United States)

    Barratt, Christopher L R; Hughes, David C; Afnan, Masoud; Brewis, Ian A


    The British Fertility Society organised a workshop on Functional Genomics in Reproductive Medicine at the University of Birmingham on 13-14 September 2001. The primary aim was to inform delegates about the power of the technology that has been made available after completion of the sequencing of the human genome, and to stimulate debate about using functional genomics to address both clinical and scientific questions in reproductive medicine. Three specific areas were addressed: proteomics, gene expression and bioinformatics. Although the sophistication and plethora of techniques available were obvious, major limitations in the technology were also discussed. The future promises to be very challenging indeed.

  16. Synthesis, structural visualization, spectroscopic, and thermal studies of charge transfer Cu(II, Ni(II and Zn(II bromides-carbamide complexes at elevated temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khlood Abou-Melha


    Full Text Available In the present study, the composition and structure of Cu(II, Ni(II and Zn(II compounds resulted from the chemical reactions of copper(II, nickel(II and zinc(II bromide salts with carbamide in aqueous media at 95 oC have been investigated, using IR, electron spin resonance ESR and x-ray powder diffraction spectroscopy as well as thermal analysis TG/DTG/DSC. The Cu2(OH3Br, [Ni2(NCO2(H2O2(Br2], and ZnCO3.xH2O compounds were achieved by a novel synthetic route through with a low cost precursor like carbamide. The infrared spectra of the results indicate absence of the individual bands of carbamide, but exhibited of the distinguished bands of hydroxyl, isocyanate, NCO, and ionic carbonate, CO32– for Cu(II, Ni(II and Zn(II compounds, respectively. Visualized investigations were performed to confirm crystal structure, validity and stability of the product compounds. A general reaction mechanisms describing the preparation of Cu(II, Ni(II, and Zn(II compounds were discussed.

  17. Quininium tetra-chloridozinc(II). (United States)

    Chen, Li-Zhuang


    The asymmetric unit of the title compound {systematic name: 2-[hydr-oxy(6-meth-oxy-quinolin-1-ium-4-yl)meth-yl]-8-vinyl-quinuclidin-1-ium tetra-chlorido-zinc(II)}, (C(20)H(26)N(2)O(2))[ZnCl(4)], consists of a double proton-ated quininium cation and a tetra-chloridozinc(II) anion. The Zn(II) ion is in a slightly distorted tetra-hedral coordination environment. The crystal structure is stabilized by inter-molecular N-H⋯Cl and O-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds.

  18. Reproductive impacts of tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT) in the hermaphroditic freshwater gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis. (United States)

    Giusti, Arnaud; Barsi, Alpar; Dugué, Maël; Collinet, Marc; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Joaquim-Justo, Célia; Roig, Benoit; Lagadic, Laurent; Ducrot, Virginie


    Tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT) are emblematic endocrine disruptors, which have been mostly studied in gonochoric prosobranchs. Although both compounds can simultaneously occur in the environment, they have mainly been tested separately for their effects on snail reproduction. Because large discrepancies in experimental conditions occurred in these tests, the present study aimed to compare the relative toxicity of TBT and TPT under similar laboratory conditions in the range of 0 ng Sn/L to 600 ng Sn/L. Tests were performed on the simultaneous hermaphrodite Lymnaea stagnalis, a freshwater snail in which effects of TPT were unknown. Survival, shell length, and reproduction were monitored in a 21-d semistatic test. Frequency of abnormal eggs was assessed as an additional endpoint. Triphenyltin hampered survival while TBT did not. Major effects on shell solidity and reproduction were observed for both compounds, reproductive outputs being more severely hampered by TBT than by TPT. Considering the frequency of abnormal eggs allowed increasing test sensitivity, because snail responses to TBT could be detected at concentrations as low as 19 ng Sn/L. However, the putative mode of action of the 2 compounds could not be deduced from the structure of the molecules or from the response of apical endpoints. Sensitivity of L. stagnalis to TBT and TPT was compared with the sensitivity of prosobranch mollusks with different habitats and different reproductive strategies.

  19. Reproductive effort in viscous populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pen, Ido


    Here I study a kin selection model of reproductive effort, the allocation of resources to fecundity versus survival, in a patch-structured population. Breeding females remain in the same patch for life. Offspring have costly, partial long-distance dispersal and compete for breeding sites, which beco

  20. Bodies of Knowledge in Reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard; Tsingou, Eleni


    Professionals compete and cooperate over how states should govern their population. Declining fertility rates in advanced economies have led to debates about how to enable those of reproductive age to have more children and to have them earlier. This springs from political and socio-economic conc......Professionals compete and cooperate over how states should govern their population. Declining fertility rates in advanced economies have led to debates about how to enable those of reproductive age to have more children and to have them earlier. This springs from political and socio......-economic concerns about fulfilling desired fertility rates, maintaining high levels of human capital, and supporting fiscal and pension systems. This article investigates professionals addressing declining fertility through assisted reproductive technologies (ART), including doctors, demographers and economists....... These professional groups have their own bodies of knowledge on how they view fertility, fecundity and the role of women in social reproduction. They can also cooperate to create ‘issue linkages’ on ART across their professional ecologies. The article discusses how professionals apply their bodies of knowledge...

  1. Assisted reproduction and distributive justice. (United States)

    Panitch, Vida


    The Canadian province of Quebec recently amended its Health Insurance Act to cover the costs of In Vitro Fertilization (IVF). The province of Ontario recently de-insured IVF. Both provinces cited cost-effectiveness as their grounds, but the question as to whether a public health insurance system ought to cover IVF raises the deeper question of how we should understand reproduction at the social level, and whether its costs should be a matter of individual or collective responsibility. In this article I examine three strategies for justifying collective provisions in a liberal society and assess whether public reproductive assistance can be defended on any of these accounts. I begin by considering, and rejecting, rights-based and needs-based approaches. I go on to argue that instead we ought to address assisted reproduction from the perspective of the contractarian insurance-based model for public health coverage, according to which we select items for inclusion based on their unpredictability in nature and cost. I argue that infertility qualifies as an unpredictable incident against which rational agents would choose to insure under ideal conditions and that assisted reproduction is thereby a matter of collective responsibility, but only in cases of medical necessity or inability to pay. The policy I endorse by appeal to this approach is a means-tested system of coverage resembling neither Ontario nor Quebec's, and I conclude that it constitutes a promising alternative worthy of serious consideration by bioethicists, political philosophers, and policy-makers alike.

  2. Molecular cytogenetics in reproductive pathology. (United States)

    Bruyère, Hélène; Rajcan-Separovic, Evica; Kalousek, Dagmar K


    This chapter presents the summary of two molecular cytogenetic techniques--FISH and CGH--with their applications and limitations in the studies of pregnancy loss. These molecular techniques clearly represent a significant advantage over the traditional cytogenetic technique and likely will become the predominant cytogenetic techniques in reproductive cytogenetics of the future.

  3. Reproduction, genetics and the law. (United States)

    Crockin, Susan L


    Both reproductive medicine and genetics are seeing rapid, and in some instances revolutionary, medical and scientific advances. Courts have been called upon to resolve a variety of novel disputes arising from these areas, and more can be anticipated as these technologies continue to develop and their use becomes more widespread. This article discusses some of the most relevant areas of the law and litigation that currently bear on reproduction and genetics or that may be anticipated to do so in the future. Specific developments and judicial decisions addressing them include: legal theories of wrongful birth and wrongful life and their application to children born with genetic impairments; a physician's duty to warn family members about a relative's genetic disease; disputes over reproductive materials and non-reproductive cells and tissues; unauthorized genetic testing in the workplace; and genetic discrimination. It is hoped that this discussion will be of value to medical and legal professionals and policy makers who work with these concepts in the increasingly inter-related fields of law and medicine.

  4. Hyperprolactinemia and male reproductive functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.F.A. Weber (Robert)


    textabstractIn this thesis some effects of PRL on reproductive functions have been investigated PRL-secreting pituitary adenoma. animal model has been used: For in men with a comparison an In. rats hyperprolactinemia has been induced by sub-cutaneous inoculation of a PRL- and ACTH-secreting transpla

  5. Hyperprolactinemia and male reproductive functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.F.A. Weber (Robert)


    textabstractIn this thesis some effects of PRL on reproductive functions have been investigated PRL-secreting pituitary adenoma. animal model has been used: For in men with a comparison an In. rats hyperprolactinemia has been induced by sub-cutaneous inoculation of a PRL- and ACTH-secreting transpla

  6. Financing reproductive health in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khanna, A.; Pradhan, J.; Rashid, H.A.; Beekink, E.; Gupta, M.; Sharma, A.


    Bangladesh is the signatory of both, International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) programme of action and Millennium Development goals (MDGs). The Government of Bangladesh has set ambitious agendas for improving Reproductive Health (RH) services, to achieve the targets till 2015. In

  7. Reproductive Physiology in Cetaceans (Review)



    This paper briefly reviews some works on reproductive physiology in cetaceans with special reference to dolphins from the following aspects: estrous cycle in female dolphins, hormonal profiles during pregnancy, testosterone levels and seasonality in testicular activity, ovulation induction and sperm collection and freezing.

  8. Sexual and reproductive health education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M Den Uyl; M Dijkstra; NK De Vries; Jolien van der Geugten; prof Berno van Meijel


    There have been few assessments of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) education programmes in sub-Saharan Africa from the students’ and educators’ perspective. This study examined students’ opinions on an SRH programme in northern Ghana and explored the facilitators and barriers for educators

  9. Aging changes in the male reproductive system (United States)

    ... this page: // Aging changes in the male reproductive system To use ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Aging changes in the male reproductive system may include ...

  10. Aging changes in the female reproductive system (United States)

    ... this page: // Aging changes in the female reproductive system To use ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Aging changes in the female reproductive system result mainly ...

  11. Sexual behaviour, contraceptive practice and reproductive health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sexual behaviour, contraceptive practice and reproductive health outcomes among ... sexual behaviour, outcomes and care-seeking among university students in ... to collect information on their reproductive health knowledge and behaviour.

  12. Barriers of Reproductive Health Education in Schools

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tahereh Kamalikhah; Fatemeh Rahmati-Najarkolaei; Masoud Karimi


    Background: The aim of this study is to explore the barriers on reproductive health education and prospects among teachers and students in the Zahedan city related to reproductive health education at schools...

  13. Gender and Women's Reproductive Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aygul Akyuz


    Full Text Available AIM: According to the “rights to equality” in reproductive and sexual rights, “no persons should be discriminated against their sexual and reproductive lives, in their access to health care and/or services on the grounds of race, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, family position, age, language, religion, political, or other opinion; national or social origin, property, birth, or other status” In this context, health professionals devoted to reproductive health are responsible for the provision of services to individuals equally and should maintain equality rights. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of gender on the reproductive health of women and utilization of reproductive health services. METHODS: The study population consisted of 250 married women at their reproductive ages of 15 to 49, who applied to the obstetrics and gynecology service of a university hospital and a gynecology clinic of a training hospital dedicated to obstetrics and gynecology between 1 February 2007 and 30 April 2007. The data collection form was developed by researchers after evaluation of the relevant literature which relevance of gender discrimination could show where the questions. RESULTS: 52% of Women’ have graduated from primary school. Education levels of women with men (her husband between level of education is statistically significant difference, and women were receive less education than men (her husband (²=34.231, p<0.001. The study was determined that women who received training secondary school and above, worked and decision maker to domestic that they get prenatal care of a high percentage and deliver their babies in the hospital with the aid of a health care professional, and they go to medical center from gynecological problems and they need to obtain permission from their husbands in order to seek aid at a medical center of a low percentage (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Women's reproductive health, gender discrimination status

  14. Reproductive health education intervention trial. (United States)

    Parwej, Saroj; Kumar, Rajesh; Walia, Indarjeet; Aggarwal, Arun K


    To measure the effectiveness of a reproductive health education package in improving the knowledge of adolescent girls aged 15-19 years in Chandigarh (India). A reproductive health education package, developed in consultation with parents, teachers and adolescents, was delivered to randomly sampled classes of two senior secondary schools and one school was selected as control. In one school, a nurse conducted 15 sessions for 94 students in three batches using conventional education approach. In another school she conducted sessions for a selected group of 20 adolescents who later disseminated the messages informally to their 84 classmates (peer education). Using a 70-item structured questionnaire the knowledge of 95 adolescents from conventional, 84 from peer, and 94 from control school were assessed before and one month after the last session. Change in the score in intervention and control groups was tested by ANOVA taking age and socio-economic status as covariates. Teachers, parents and students overwhelmingly (88%, 95.5% and 93% respectively) favoured reproductive health education program. Five percent of the respondents reported that someone in their class is having sexual relations, and 13% of the girls approved of pre-marital sexual relations. Reproductive health knowledge scores improved significantly after intervention in conventional education (27.28) and peer education group (20.77) in comparison to the controls (3.64). Post-test scores were not significantly different between peer education group and conventional education group (43.65 and 40.52 respectively) though the time consumed in delivering the peer education intervention was almost one third of the time taken to implement conventional education. Peer education and conventional education strategies were effective in improving the reproductive health knowledge of adolescent girls but peer strategy was less time consuming.

  15. Pulsed electric field increases reproduction. (United States)

    Panagopoulos, Dimitris J


    Purpose To study the effect of pulsed electric field - applied in corona discharge photography - on Drosophila melanogaster reproduction, possible induction of DNA fragmentation, and morphological alterations in the gonads. Materials and methods Animals were exposed to different field intensities (100, 200, 300, and 400 kV/m) during the first 2-5 days of their adult lives, and the effect on reproductive capacity was assessed. DNA fragmentation during early- and mid-oogenesis was investigated by application of the TUNEL (Terminal deoxynucleotide transferase dUTP Nick End Labeling) assay. Sections of follicles after fixation and embedding in resins were observed for possible morphological/developmental abnormalities. Results The field increased reproduction by up to 30% by increasing reproductive capacity in both sexes. The effect increased with increasing field intensities. The rate of increase diminished at the strongest intensities. Slight induction of DNA fragmentation was observed exclusively in the nurse (predominantly) and follicle cells, and exclusively at the two most sensitive developmental stages, i.e., germarium and predominantly stage 7-8. Sections of follicles from exposed females at stages of early and mid-oogennesis other than germarium and stages 7-8 did not reveal abnormalities. Conclusions (1) The specific type of electric field may represent a mild stress factor, inducing DNA fragmentation and cell death in a small percentage of gametes, triggering the reaction of the animal's reproductive system to increase the rate of gametogenesis in order to compensate the loss of a small number of gametes. (2) The nurse cells are the most sensitive from all three types of egg chamber cells. (3) The mid-oogenesis checkpoint (stage 7-8) is more sensitive to this field than the early oogenesis one (germarium) in contrast to microwave exposure. (4) Possible therapeutic applications, or applications in increasing fertility, should be investigated.

  16. Reproductive history and risk of multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nete Munk; Jørgensen, Kristian Tore; Stenager, Egon


    It has been suggested that reproductive factors may be involved in the etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS). We studied associations of reproductive history with MS risk in a population-based setting.......It has been suggested that reproductive factors may be involved in the etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS). We studied associations of reproductive history with MS risk in a population-based setting....

  17. Thermal stress impacts reproductive development and grain yield in rice. (United States)

    Arshad, Muhammad Shakeel; Farooq, Muhammad; Asch, Folkard; Krishna, Jagadish S V; Prasad, P V Vara; Siddique, Kadambot H M


    Rice is highly sensitive to temperature stress (cold and heat), particularly during the reproductive and grain-filling stages. In this review, we discuss the effects of low- and high-temperature sensitivity in rice at various reproductive stages (from meiosis to grain development) and propose strategies for improving the tolerance of rice to terminal thermal stress. Cold stress impacts reproductive development through (i) delayed heading, due to its effect on anther respiration, which increases sucrose accumulation, protein denaturation and asparagine levels, and decreases proline accumulation, (ii) pollen sterility owing to tapetal hypertrophy and related nutrient imbalances, (iii) reduced activity of cell wall bound invertase in the tapetum of rice anthers, (iv) impaired fertilization due to inhibited anther dehiscence, stigma receptivity and ability of the pollen tube to germinate through the style towards the ovary, and (v) floret sterility, which increases grain abortion, restricts grain size, and thus reduces grain yield. Heat stress affects grain formation and development through (i) poor anther dehiscence due to restricted closure of the locules, leading to reduced pollen dispersal and fewer pollen on the stigma, (ii) changes in pollen proteins resulting in significant reductions in pollen viability and pollen tube growth, leading to spikelet sterility, (iii) delay in heading, (iv) reduced starch biosynthesis in developing grain, which reduces starch accumulation, (v) increased chalkiness of grain with irregular and round-shaped starch granules, and (vi) a shortened grain-filling period resulting in low grain weight. However, physiological and biotechnological tools, along with integrated management and adaptation options, as well as conventional breeding, can help to develop new rice genotypes possessing better grain yield under thermal stress during reproductive and grain-filling phases.

  18. Synthesis, structural and fungicidal studies of hydrazone based coordination compounds. (United States)

    Sharma, Amit Kumar; Chandra, Sulekh


    The coordination compounds of the Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) metal ions derived from imine based ligand, benzil bis(carbohydarzone) were structurally and pharmaceutically studied. The compounds have the general stoichiometry [M(L)]X(2) and [Co(L)X(2)], where M=Ni(II) and Cu(II), and X=NO(3)(-) and Cl(-) ions. The analytical techniques like elemental analyses, molar conductance measurements, magnetic susceptibility measurements, IR, UV/Visible, NMR, ESI mass and EPR were used to study the compounds. The key IR bands, i.e., amide I, amide II and amide III stretching vibrations accounts for the tetradentate metal binding nature of the ligand. The electronic and EPR spectral results suggest the square planar Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes (g(iso)=2.11-2.22) and tetragonal geometry Co(II) complexes (g(iso)=2.10-2.17). To explore the compounds in the biological field, they were examined against the opportunistic pathogens, i.e., Alternaria brassicae, Aspergillus niger and Fusarium oxysporum. The partial covalent character of metal-ligand bond is supported by the orbital reduction factor k (0.62-0.92) and nephalauxetic parameter β (0.55-0.57).

  19. Endocrine disruptors and metabolic and reproductive disorders: Future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Mendiola Olivares


    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence of the relation between environmental exposures [mainly to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC] and human health impairment. These compounds include a wide assortment of chemicals used in agriculture (organophosphate and organochlorine compounds, fungicides, etc. and industrial and commercial applications (bisphenol A, phthalates, perfluorinated compounds, etc.. Currently, the main research areas into this relation are related to neurodevelopmental disorders or cancer, and hormonal, metabolic or reproductive disorders or diseases. The incidence rates of metabolic disorders or conditions–obesity, metabolic syndrome or diabetes–and reproductive or infertility problems are on the rise in human populations. However, the already known risk factors do not fully explain the documented trends for these disorders and diseases. In general, it would be highly advisable to increase the number of epidemiological studies in humans and of mechanistic studies in preclinical and/or cellular models to better understand the links between environmental exposure to EDCs and metabolic disorders or conditions such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes or infertility, including epigenetic aspects as well.

  20. 42 CFR 9.7 - Reproduction. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reproduction. 9.7 Section 9.7 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS STANDARDS OF CARE FOR CHIMPANZEES HELD IN THE FEDERALLY SUPPORTED SANCTUARY SYSTEM § 9.7 Reproduction. Chimpanzee reproduction...

  1. Cost-effectiveness in reproductive medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M. Moolenaar


    This thesis reports on cost-effectiveness in reproductive medicine. Firstly, we evaluated the methodologic quality of studies in reproductive medicine. Insight into the quality of economical analysis in reproductive medicine is important for valuing the performed studies and to assess whether these

  2. Approved Practices in Dairy Reproduction. Slide Script. (United States)

    Roediger, Roger D.; Barr, Harry L.

    This slide script, part of a series of slide scripts designed for use in vocational agriculture classes, deals with approved practices in dairy reproduction. Included in the guide are narrations for use with 200 slides dealing with the following topics: the importance of good reproduction, the male and female roles in reproduction, selection of…

  3. Asexual Plant Reproduction. Agricultural Lesson Plans. (United States)

    Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale. Dept. of Agricultural Education and Mechanization.

    These lesson plans are intended for use in conducting classes on asexual plant reproduction. Presented first are an attention step/problem statement and a series of questions and answers designed to convey general information about asexual plant reproduction/propagation. The following topics are among those discussed: plant reproduction methods,…

  4. Effect of supplemented ration on some reproductive traits in Azeri Buffaloes of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Razzagzadeh


    Full Text Available Reproduction efficiency is one of the most important factors for productivity and profitably of dairy animals. Late or delayed oestrus in buffalo heifers is one of the major factors limiting its overall productive and reproductive performance. Feeding and general management have been reported to improve reproduction efficiency of buffaloes. Reproduction is partly affected by nutrition supplementation. Thus the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of supplemented ration on some reproductive traits in Azeri buffaloes. One hundred and twenty female buffalo calves with 8 months age were randomly divided into four groups (30 calves in each group. Calves received I traditional ration (TR II TR plus 0.5 kg concentrate III TR plus 1 kg concentrate IV TR plus 1.5 kg concentrates till the age at first estrous. There was no difference between initial weights of calves before the treatments. The reproductive traits considered were age at first oestrus, weight at first oestrus, number of oestruses before gestation, age at gestation, age at calving. Although there were no significant differences between the all studied traits among treatments, the supplementation in Group 4 improved the traits somehow; in particular, treatment 4 decreased by 70 days the age at calving compared to treatment 1. This indicates that the W. Azerbaijan buffaloes suffer a nutritional deficiency in their lifetime and that quality /quantity supplementation of ration can improve their reproductive performance.

  5. Endocrine effects of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in a one-generation reproduction study in Wistar rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, van der L.T.M.; Kuil, van de T.; Leonards, P.E.G.; Slob, W.; Lilienthal, H.; Litens, S.; Herlin, M.; Hakansson, H.; Canton, R.F.; Berg, M.; Visser, T.J.; Loveren, van H.; Vos, J.G.; Piersma, A.H.


    The brominated flame retardant (BFR) hexabromocyclododecane was tested in a one-generation reproduction assay in Wistar rats, enhanced for endocrine parameters. A solution of the compound in corn oil was mixed in the feed, targeting at dietary exposure of 0-0.1-0.3-1-3-10-30-100 mg/kg body weight/da

  6. Endocrine effects of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in a one-generation reproduction study in Wistar rats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ven, L.T.; van de Kuil, T.; Leonards, P.E.; Slob, W.; Lilienthal, H.; Litens, S.; Herlin, M.; Hakansson, H.; Canton, R.F.; van den Berg, M.; Visser, T.J.; van Loveren, H.; Vos, J.G.; Piersma, A.H.


    The brominated flame retardant (BFR) hexabromocyclododecane was tested in a one-generation reproduction assay in Wistar rats, enhanced for endocrine parameters. A solution of the compound in corn oil was mixed in the feed, targeting at dietary exposure of 0-0.1-0.3-1-3-10-30-100 mg/kg body weight/da

  7. Legal issues of biomedical assisted reproduction: Reproductive tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samardžić Sandra


    Full Text Available National laws represent a combination of customary and ethical, but also political and other opinions in a society. Particularly delicate, are the laws regulating the issue of assisted reproduction. In this area, broad social acceptance of legal solutions is an essential prerequisite for their use, while achieving the consent of the majority, especially the consensus is extremely difficult, almost impossible. As much as the laws seek to implement those views that are predominant, the adopted solutions will always remain incapable of granting wishes to a certain number of people. These persons, in an understandable effort to realize their desire for an offspring at any cost, will not hold back from seeking help at any place, even if it meant going to distant destinations and extracting large sums of money. In fact, many patients go to other countries which set less restrictive rules in the field of assisted reproduction, and it appears that in the near future we could not expect a reduction of this trend. This phenomenon, which is in theory called reproductive tourism, has long been a reality that one can see as a problem, while others view it as an irreplaceable solution. This paper seeks to highlight the main causes of this phenomenon, but also to try and give an answer as to, whether reproductive tourism should be prevented (and how or actually its maintenance in force reduces moral conflict in society through a mechanism that recognizes the right of everyone to a considerable extent of free will in decision making regarding the most significant issues which offspring certainly is.

  8. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of a Novel Three-dimensional Cu(II) Compound {[Cu(2,2'-bipy)(C7H4O5S)(H2O)2]·(H2O}n

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Wei; CAO Rong; BI Wen-Hua; LI Xing


    The title compound, {[Cu(2,2'-bipy)(C7H4O5S)(H2O)2](H2O}n (2,2'-bipy = 2,2'- bipyridine), was synthesized by the hydrothermal reaction of Cu(NO3)2(3H2O, 2,2'-bipyridine and 2-sulphobenzoic acid, and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The crystal is of triclinic, space group P with a = 9.21(3), b = 10.17(3), c = 10.77(3) (A), α = 77.017(16), β = 89.80(8), γ = 68.46(7)°, V = 911(5) (A)3, Z = 2, (D/s)max = 0.001, Mr = 473.94, Dc = 1.728 g/cm3, μ(MoKα) = 1.365 mm-1, F(000) = 486, the final R = 0.0246 and wR = 0.0628 for 3809 observed reflections with I > 2σ(I). The mononuclear crystal structure extends into a two-dimensional net- work via hydrogen-bonding interactions and a three-dimensional framework is further formed by means of π-π stacking interactions.

  9. Structure of the Intermetallic Compound Ni3Al Synthesized under Compression of the Powder Mixture of Pure Elements Part II: Influence of Alloying by Boron on the Phase Composition and the Microstructure of Grains of the Main Phase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The Ni3B phase was formed when boron (0.5 at. pct B) was added to the intermetallic of stoichiometric and off-stoichiometric (Ni-24 at. pct Al) compounds. In the alloy of stoichiometric composition the particles of Ni3B phase has the size around 0.1μm and is located on the grain boundary of the main phase. The decreasing of concentrations of Al in the off-stoichiometric alloy leads to increase in the degree of the long-range order parameter, increasing the concentrations of boron in the solid solution and decreasing its localization on the grain boundary.Microalloying of boron leads to increasing in the fraction of grain monodomains with dislocations up to 0.7 in the alloy of the off-stoichiometric composition and up to 1 in the alloy of the stoichiometric composition. It was established the correlation between the degree of the concentration inhomogeneity, average density of the dislocations and the average long range-order parameter.

  10. Biological systems combined for the treatment of coffee processing wastewater: II - Removal of nutrients and phenolic compounds - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i3.13628

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Fia


    Full Text Available Three treatment systems consisting of anaerobic filters with upward flow followed by constructed wetland systems (CW were evaluated for the removal of nutrients and phenolic compounds, in the treatment of coffee processing wastewater (WCP in Viçosa, Minas Gerais State. Filters were made of PVC (1.5 m high and 0.35 m diameter filled with gravel # 2 and CW were made of wooden boxes (1.5 m long, 0.4 m high and 0.5 m wide sealed by HDPE geomembrane and filled with gravel ‘zero’. The WCP had the pH adjusted with lime to values close to 7.0 and the nutrient concentration changed to obtain a BOD/N/P ratio of 100/5/1. As a result, hydraulic retention times longer than 160 h in all treatment systems during phase III had not promoted greater efficiencies for removal compared with the phase I, because the recovery time of the systems was inadequate. The F1+CW1 system that received the lowest organic load, showed a satisfactory performance with regard to the removal of nutrients (above 50%.  

  11. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of a One-dimensional Azido-bridged Manganese (II) Compound [Mn(N3)2(H2O)3·C6H12N4]n

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hui; WANG Wen-Guo; ZHANG Xiao-Feng; CHEN Chang-Neng; LIU Qiu-Tian


    A new one-dimensional azido-bridged manganese compound has been prepared and structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction. The complex [Mn(N3)2(H2O)3·C6H12N4]n crystallizes in space group Pnma with a = 6.5252 (5), b = 9.3226(7), c = 22.2070(15)(A), V = 1350.89(17)(A)3, Z = 4, Mr = 333.24, Dc = 1.639 g/cm3, μ= 1.005 mm-1 and F(000) = 692. The final refinement gave R = 0.0328 and wR = 0.0777 for 1085 observed reflections with I > 2σ(I). The structure contains [Mn- (N3)2(H2O)3]n polymeric chains and uncoordinated hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) molecules with Mn/HMTA molar ratio of 1:1. The Mn atoms are bridged by end-to-end azido ligands to construct one-dimensional zig-zag infinite chains. Each Mn atom is six-coordinated by three N atoms of three azido ligands and three water O atoms, resulting in an octahedral geometry. Extending hydrogen- bonding interactions involving water O atoms, azido and HMTA N atoms link the chains and HMTA molecules into a three-dimensional network.

  12. Copper (II)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    field of coordination chemistry, these are either neutral or charged species possessing at ... Schiff bases and their complex compounds have been studied for their ... The Schiff base is soluble in water and most organic solvents except ether, ...

  13. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) (United States)

    ... Contact Us Share Volatile Organic Compounds' Impact on Indoor Air Quality On this page: Introduction Sources Health Effects Levels in Homes Steps to Reduce Exposure Standards or Guidelines Additional Resources Introduction Volatile organic compounds ( ...

  14. Reissert compound of bisbenzimidazole



    A Reissert compound of bisbenzimidazole can be formed by first reacting benzimidazole with an aliphatic diacid chloride to form bisbenzimidazole and then reacting the bisbenzimidazole with an aliphatic acid chloride and cyanide to form the Reissert compound thereof.

  15. Women Reproductive Rights in India: Prospective Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Kosgi


    Full Text Available Reproductive rights were established as a subset of the human rights. Parents have a basic human right to determine freely and responsibly the number and the spacing of their children. Issues regarding the reproductive rights are vigorously contested, regardless of the population’s socioeconomic level, religion or culture. Following review article discusses reproductive rights with respect to Indian context focusing on socio economic and cultural aspects. Also discusses sensitization of government and judicial agencies in protecting the reproductive rights with special focus on the protecting the reproductive rights of people with disability (mental illness and mental retardation.

  16. Queen succession through asexual reproduction in termites. (United States)

    Matsuura, Kenji; Vargo, Edward L; Kawatsu, Kazutaka; Labadie, Paul E; Nakano, Hiroko; Yashiro, Toshihisa; Tsuji, Kazuki


    The evolution and maintenance of sexual reproduction may involve important tradeoffs because asexual reproduction can double an individual's contribution to the gene pool but reduces diversity. Moreover, in social insects the maintenance of genetic diversity among workers may be important for colony growth and survival. We identified a previously unknown termite breeding system in which both parthenogenesis and sexual reproduction are conditionally used. Queens produce their replacements asexually but use normal sexual reproduction to produce other colony members. These findings show how eusociality can lead to extraordinary reproductive systems and provide important insights into the advantages and disadvantages of sex.

  17. Pb II

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Windows User

    ISSN 1684–5315 ©2012 Academic Journals ... Exposure to Pb above permissible limit (50 ppb in water) .... taken and analyzed for residual metal concentration determination. ..... loss in Pb(II) sorption capacity up to five cycles of reuse of.

  18. Dibromidotris(dimethylaminemagnesium(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Bolte


    Full Text Available The Mg centre in the title compound, [MgBr2(C2H7N3], is pentacoordinated in a trigonal-bipyramidal mode with the two Br atoms in axial positions and the N atoms of the dimethylamine ligands in equatorial positions. The MgII centre is located on a crystallographic twofold rotation axis. The crystal structure is stabilized by N—H...Br hydrogen bonds. The N atom and H atoms of one dimethylamine ligand are disordered over two equally occupied positions.

  19. Container II


    Baraklianou, Stella


    Container II, self-published artists book.\\ud The book was made on the occasion of the artists residency at the Banff Arts Centre, in Alberta Canada. \\ud \\ud Container II is a performative piece, it worked in conjunction with the photographic installation "Stage Set: Cool Tone" . (photographic floor installation, Reclaimed wood, frames, 130x145cm, 2016) \\ud The photographic installation was also part of the artists residency titled "New Materiality" at the Banff Arts Centre. \\ud \\ud Limited E...

  20. Parthenogenesis and Human Assisted Reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bos-Mikich


    Full Text Available Parthenogenetic activation of human oocytes obtained from infertility treatments has gained new interest in recent years as an alternative approach to create embryos with no reproductive purpose for research in areas such as assisted reproduction technologies itself, somatic cell, and nuclear transfer experiments and for derivation of clinical grade pluripotent embryonic stem cells for regenerative medicine. Different activating methods have been tested on human and nonhuman oocytes, with varying degrees of success in terms of parthenote generation rates, embryo development stem cell derivation rates. Success in achieving a standardized artificial activation methodology for human oocytes and the subsequent potential therapeutic gain obtained from these embryos depends mainly on the availability of gametes donated from infertility treatments. This review will focus on the creation of parthenotes from clinically unusable oocytes for derivation and establishment of human parthenogenetic stem cell lines and their potential applications in regenerative medicine.

  1. Epigenetics and assisted reproductive technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinborg, Anja; Loft, Anne; Romundstad, Liv Bente


    associated with ART techniques, but disentangling the influence of the ART procedures per se from the effect of the reproductive disease of the parents is a challenge. Epidemiological human studies have shown altered birth weight profiles in ART compared with spontaneously conceived singletons. Conception......Epigenetic modification controls gene activity without changes in the DNA sequence. The genome undergoes several phases of epigenetic programming during gametogenesis and early embryo development coinciding with assisted reproductive technologies (ART) treatments. Imprinting disorders have been...... with cryopreserved/thawed embryos results in a higher risk of large-for-gestational age babies, which may be due to epigenetic modification. Further animal studies have shown altered gene expression profiles in offspring conceived by ART related to altered glucose metabolism. It is controversial whether human...

  2. Microbes central to human reproduction. (United States)

    Reid, Gregor; Brigidi, Patrizia; Burton, Jeremy P; Contractor, Nikhat; Duncan, Sylvia; Fargier, Emilie; Hill, Colin; Lebeer, Sarah; Martín, Rocio; McBain, Andrew J; Mor, Gil; O'Neill, Catherine; Rodríguez, Juan Miguel; Swann, Jonathan; van Hemert, Saskia; Ansell, Juliett


    As studies uncover the breadth of microbes associated with human life, opportunities will emerge to manipulate and augment their functions in ways that improve health and longevity. From involvement in the complexities of reproduction and fetal/infant development, to delaying the onset of disease, and indeed countering many maladies, microbes offer hope for human well-being. Evidence is emerging to suggest that microbes may play a beneficial role in body sites traditionally viewed as being sterile. Although further evidence is required, we propose that much of medical dogma is about to change significantly through recognition and understanding of these hitherto unrecognized microbe-host interactions. A meeting of the International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics held in Aberdeen, Scotland (June 2014), presented new views and challenged established concepts on the role of microbes in reproduction and health of the mother and infant. This article summarizes some of the main aspects of these discussions.

  3. How to measure reproductive success? (United States)

    Strassmann, Beverly I; Gillespie, Brenda


    To date there have been few empirical comparisons between alternative methods for measuring reproductive success (RS). We consider the pros and cons of alternative measures of RS to provide guidance for the design of field studies in human behavioral ecology. We compare cross-sectional measures that count offspring alive at the time of the interview and retrospective measures that require data on offspring age at death or censoring. We consider analyses that include adult women (yielding age-specific estimates of RS) as well as analyses restricted to postreproductive women (yielding data on lifetime RS). These methods are applied to reproductive data for the Dogon of Mali, West Africa. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Coral reproduction in Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Gilmour


    Full Text Available Larval production and recruitment underpin the maintenance of coral populations, but these early life history stages are vulnerable to extreme variation in physical conditions. Environmental managers aim to minimise human impacts during significant periods of larval production and recruitment on reefs, but doing so requires knowledge of the modes and timing of coral reproduction. Most corals are hermaphroditic or gonochoric, with a brooding or broadcast spawning mode of reproduction. Brooding corals are a significant component of some reefs and produce larvae over consecutive months. Broadcast spawning corals are more common and display considerable variation in their patterns of spawning among reefs. Highly synchronous spawning can occur on reefs around Australia, particularly on the Great Barrier Reef. On Australia’s remote north-west coast there have been fewer studies of coral reproduction. The recent industrial expansion into these regions has facilitated research, but the associated data are often contained within confidential reports. Here we combine information in this grey-literature with that available publicly to update our knowledge of coral reproduction in WA, for tens of thousands of corals and hundreds of species from over a dozen reefs spanning 20° of latitude. We identified broad patterns in coral reproduction, but more detailed insights were hindered by biased sampling; most studies focused on species of Acropora sampled over a few months at several reefs. Within the existing data, there was a latitudinal gradient in spawning activity among seasons, with mass spawning during autumn occurring on all reefs (but the temperate south-west. Participation in a smaller, multi-specific spawning during spring decreased from approximately one quarter of corals on the Kimberley Oceanic reefs to little participation at Ningaloo. Within these seasons, spawning was concentrated in March and/or April, and October and/or November, depending

  5. On the Lewis acidic character of bis(salicylaldiminato)zinc(ii) Schiff-base complexes: a computational and experimental investigation on a series of compounds varying the bridging diimine. (United States)

    Forte, Giuseppe; Oliveri, Ivan Pietro; Consiglio, Giuseppe; Failla, Salvatore; Di Bella, Santo


    This contribution explores the effect of the 1,2-diimine bridge upon the Lewis acidic character of a series of bis(salicylaldiminato)zinc(ii), ZnL, Schiff-base complexes. The structure of the monomeric and dimeric ZnL complexes, and of the 1 : 1 adducts with pyridine, ZnL·py, is fully optimized by means of DFT calculations. The Gibbs free energy for the dimerization of ZnL complexes and for the formation of ZnL·py adducts is evaluated by accurate composite calculations. It accounts for their spontaneous dimerization and for the greater stability of the ZnL·py adducts with respect to the dimers. Calculated binding constants for the formation ZnL·py adducts are in excellent agreement with experimentally derived values, thus allowing establishing a relative Lewis acidity scale within this series. While the complex derived from the non-conjugated ethylenediamine reveals the lowest Lewis acidity, the complex derived from the diaminomaleonitrile represents the stronger Lewis acidic species. These findings are in good agreement with the greater catalytic activity observed for ZnL Schiff-base complexes derived from conjugated 1,2-diamines in comparison to the non-conjugated analogues. Both in ZnL dimers as well as in ZnL·py adducts the geometry of the coordination sphere seems to be a relevant feature to assess their relative stability. Thus, while the quasi-planarity of ZnL monomers of the conjugated diimines is an unfavourable feature in the dimerization process, it represents an important aspect in stabilizing ZnL·py adducts in a nearly perfect square-pyramidal coordination. These features are relevant for the sensing and catalytic properties of these complexes.

  6. Preconception care: promoting reproductive planning (United States)


    Introduction Preconception care recognizes that many adolescent girls and young women will be thrust into motherhood without the knowledge, skills or support they need. Sixty million adolescents give birth each year worldwide, even though pregnancy in adolescence has mortality rates at least twice as high as pregnancy in women aged 20-29 years. Reproductive planning and contraceptive use can prevent unintended pregnancies, unsafe abortions and sexually-transmitted infections in adolescent girls and women. Smaller families also mean better nutrition and development opportunities, yet 222 million couples continue to lack access to modern contraception. Method A systematic review and meta-analysis of the evidence was conducted to ascertain the possible impact of preconception care for adolescents, women and couples of reproductive age on MNCH outcomes. A comprehensive strategy was used to search electronic reference libraries, and both observational and clinical controlled trials were included. Cross-referencing and a separate search strategy for each preconception risk and intervention ensured wider study capture. Results Comprehensive interventions can prevent first pregnancy in adolescence by 15% and repeat adolescent pregnancy by 37%. Such interventions should address underlying social and community factors, include sexual and reproductive health services, contraceptive provision; personal development programs and emphasizes completion of education. Appropriate birth spacing (18-24 months from birth to next pregnancy compared to short intervals adolescent health and preventing adolescent pregnancy; and promotion of birth spacing through increasing correct and consistent use of effective contraception are fundamental to preconception care. Promoting reproductive planning on a wider scale is closely interlinked with the reliable provision of effective contraception, however, innovative strategies will need to be devised, or existing strategies such as community

  7. Tuberculosis and female reproductive health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ghosh


    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is an important cause of mortality and morbidity all over the world and is particularly relevant in developing countries like India where the disease is endemic. Female reproductive system is very vulnerable to this infection and clinical presentation of this disease in female reproductive tract is protean in nature and in a large majority of patients could be completely silent. This disease is an important cause of infertility, menstrual irregularity, pregnancy loss, and in association with pregnancy, morbidity to both the mother and child increases. Some of the effects of TB infection on female genital tract could be remote in nature due to infection elsewhere. Medicines used to treat TB infection can also have adverse effects on contraception and other areas of female reproductive health. HIV coinfection and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB and increased population migration from developed to developing countries have now added a whole new dimension to this infection. Though new, finer diagnostic tools of detection of TB are increasingly available in the form of bacterial cultures and polymerase chain reaction (PCR based diagnostics, suspicion by clinicians remains the main tool for diagnosis of the condition. Hence, doctors need to be properly trained to become "Tuberculosis Minded".

  8. Spatial processing in color reproduction (United States)

    Liu, Li; Yang, Yongyi; Stark, Henry


    We consider the reproduction of color subject to material and neighborhood constraints. By 'material constraints,' we mean any constraints that are applied to the amount of ink, lights, voltages, and currents that are used in the generation of color. In the first instance we consider the problem of reproducing a target color constrained by maximum additive color signals, such as in the phosphorescence process in a cathode ray tube. In the second instance we consider the more difficult problem of reproducing color subject to constraints on the maximum primary color variations in a (spatial) neighborhood. We introduce the idea of adjacent color variance (ACV) and then attempt to reproduce colors subject to an upper bound on the ACV. An algorithm that is suitable for this task is the method of vector space projections (VSP). In order to use VSP for constrained color reproduction, we use a novel approach to linearize nonlinear CIE-Lab space constraints. Experimental results are furnished that demonstrate that using the ACV as a bound helps to reduce reproduction artifacts in a color image.

  9. Unisexual reproduction of Cryptococcus gattii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujal S Phadke

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus gattii is a basidiomycetous human fungal pathogen that typically causes infection in tropical and subtropical regions and is responsible for an ongoing outbreak in immunocompetent individuals on Vancouver Island and in the Pacific Northwest of the US. Pathogenesis of this species may be linked to its sexual cycle that generates infectious propagules called basidiospores. A marked predominance of only one mating type (α in clinical and environmental isolates suggests that a-α opposite-sex reproduction may be infrequent or geographically restricted, raising the possibility of an alternative unisexual cycle involving cells of only α mating type, as discovered previously in the related pathogenic species Cryptococcus neoformans. Here we report observation of hallmark features of unisexual reproduction in a clinical isolate of C. gattii (isolate 97/433 and describe genetic and environmental factors conducive to this sexual cycle. Our results are consistent with population genetic evidence of recombination in the largely unisexual populations of C. gattii and provide a useful genetic model for understanding how novel modes of sexual reproduction may contribute to evolution and virulence in this species.

  10. Introduction: Microbiome in human reproduction. (United States)

    Franasiak, Jason M; Scott, Richard T


    The human microbiome has been termed the "second human genome" and data that has come about of late certainly makes it appear every bit as complex. The human body contains 10-fold more microbial cells than the human cells and accounts for 1%-3% of our total body mass. As we learn more about this symbiotic relationship, it appears this complex interaction occurs in nearly every part of the body, even those areas at one time considered to be sterile. Indeed, the microbiome in human reproduction has been investigated in terms of both the lower and upper reproductive tract and includes interactions even at the point of gametogenesis. What is all the more fascinating is that we have known about the importance of microbes for over 150 years, even before they existed in name. And now, with the assistance of an exciting technologic revolution which has pushed forward our understanding of the microbiome, we appear to stand on the precipice of a higher level of understanding of microbes, the biofilms they create, and their impact of health and disease in human reproduction.

  11. Structure and physical properties of [mu-tris(1,4-bis(tetrazol-1-yl)butane-N4,N4 ')iron(II)] bis(hexafluorophosphate), a new Fe(II) spin-crossover compound with a three-dimensional threefold interlocked crystal lattice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grunert, CM; Schweifer, J; Weinberger, P; Linert, W; Mereiter, K; Hilscher, G; Muller, M; Wiesinger, G; van Koningsbruggen, PJ


    [mu-Tris(1,4-bis(tetrazol-1-yl)butane-N4,N4')iron(II)] bis(hexafluorophosphate), [Fe(btzb)(3)](PF6)(2), crystallizes in a three-dimensional 3-fold interlocked structure featuring a sharp two-step spin-crossover behavior. The spin conversion takes place between 164 and 182 K showing a discontinuity a

  12. Mercurial induced changes in the hypothalamo-neurohypophysical complex in relation to reproduction in the teleostean fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ram, R.N.; Joy, K.P.


    Although extensive work has been done on neurotoxic, teratologic and genetic effects of mercurials in a variety of animals including man, very little is known about their impacts on the neuroendocrine physiology of reproduction. The available investigations largely pertain to mammals. However, reports on the toxic effects of longterm exposure to mercury compounds on physiology of reproduction are meagre in fish. In the present communication, inorganic mercuric chloride (HgCl/sub 2/) and organic mercurial fungicide (Emisan) induced changes in the hypothalamo-neurohypophysical system in relation to reproduction of C. punctatus are described after chronic exposure for 6 months.

  13. In vitro cytotoxicity, pharmacokinetics and ex vivo pharmacodynamics of a new platinum compound, cis-malonato [(4R,5R-4,5-bis(aminomethyl)-1,3-dioxolane-2-spiro-1'-cyclopentane] platinum (II). (United States)

    Kim, D K; Kim, H T; Cho, Y B; Kim, T S; Kim, K H; Hong, W S


    The in vitro cytotoxicity of a new platinum complex, cis-malonato [(4R, 5R)-4,5-bis(aminomethyl)-1,3-dioxolane 2- spiro 1' cyclo-pentane]platinum(II) (SKI 2054R) and cisplatin (CDDP) was evaluated against two human stomach adenocarcinoma cell lines (MKN-45 and KATO III) and a human lung adenocarcinoma cell line (PC-14). The in vitro 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of SKI 2054R and CDDP against MKN-45, KATO III, and PC-14 were 1.21 and 0.51, 2.11 and 0.83, and 2.90 and 0.77 micrograms/ml, respectively. The pharma-cokinetic and ex vivo pharmacodynamic studies on SKI 2054R and CDDP were performed in beagle dogs. Equitoxic doses of SKI 2054R and CDDP (7.0 and 3.0 mg/kg, respectively) were administered i.v. bolus to beagle dose in a randomized crossover study. Plasma samples were analyzed for platinum by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Plasma concentrations of total and ultrafiltrable platinum for the two drugs declined in a biexponential fashion. The mean area under the concentration-tine curve (AUC(0)--> infinity) determined for ultrafiltrable platinum derived from SKI 2054R, as an active component was 6.61 +/- 2.34 micrograms . h/ml (mean +/- S.D.), with an initial half-life of 0.26 +/- 0.14 h, a terminal half-life of 1.57 +/- 0.71 hour, a total clearance of 17.65 +/- 4.99 ml/min/kg, and a steady-state volume of distribution of 1.46 +/- 0.11 l/kg. The ex vivo antitumor activity of SKI 2054R was assessed using the ultrafiltrable plasma against MKN-45, KATO III, and PC-14 by tetrazolium-dye (MTT) assay and was compared with that of CDDP using the antitumor index (ATI) determined from the ex vivo pharmacodynamic results of inhibition rates (%) versus time curves. The mean ATI value recorded for SKI 2054R was higher than that noted for CDDP; however, statistical difference was not observed between SKI 2054R and CDDP, suggesting that the antitumor activity of SKI 2054R is comparable to that of CDDP. These results suggest that SKI 2054R is a new

  14. Pharmacokinetics and antitumor activity of a new platinum compound, cis-malonato[(4R,5R)-4,5-bis(aminomethyl)-2-isopropyl-1, 3- dioxolane]platinum(II), as determined by ex vivo pharmacodynamics. (United States)

    Kim, D K; Kim, H T; Tai, J H; Cho, Y B; Kim, T S; Kim, K H; Park, J G; Hong, W S


    The pharmacokinetics and ex vivo pharmacodynamics studies on cis-malonato[(4R,5R)-4,5-bis(aminomethyl)-2-isopropyl-1, 3- dioxolane]platinum(II) (SKI 2053R, NSC D644591), cisplatin (CDDP), and carboplatin (CBDCA) were performed in beagle dogs. Equitoxic doses of SKI 2053R, CDDP, and CBDCA (7.5, 2.5, and 15.0 mg/kg, respectively) were given by i.v. bolus to three beagle dogs in a randomized crossover study. Plasma samples were analyzed for platinum by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Plasma concentrations of total and ultrafiltrable platinum for the three drugs declined in a biexponential fashion. The mean area under the concentration-time curve (AUC0-->infinity) determined for ultrafiltrable platinum derived from SKI 2053R, as an active component, was 7.72 +/- 2.74 micrograms h ml-1 (mean +/- SD), with an initial half-life of 0.37 +/- 0.20 h, a terminal half-life of 2.19 +/- 0.93 h, a total clearance of 16.83 +/- 4.76 ml min-1 kg-1, and a steady-state volume of distribution of 1.57 +/- 0.30 l/kg. The ex vivo antitumor activity of SKI 2053R was assessed using the ultrafiltrable plasma against two human lung-adenocarcinoma cell lines (PC-9 and PC-14) and five stomach-adenocarcinoma cell lines (MKN-45, KATO III, SNU-1, SNU-5, and SNU-16) by tetrazolium-dye (MTT) assay and was compared with that of CDDP and CBDCA using an antitumor index (ATI) determined from the ex vivo pharmacodynamic results of inhibition rates (%) versus time curves. The mean ATI value was shown to be ranked in the following order: SKI 2053R > CBDCA > CDDP. The mean ATI values recorded for SKI 2053R and CBDCA were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that noted for CDDP; however, no statistically significant difference was observed between SKI 2053R and CBDCA, suggesting that the antitumor activity of SKI 2053R is superior to that of CDDP and is equivalent to that of CBDCA. These results suggest that SKI 2053R is a promising candidate for further development as a clinically useful

  15. Reproductive toxicity of the endocrine disrupters vinclozolin and bisphenol A in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Latreille, 1804). (United States)

    Lemos, M F L; van Gestel, C A M; Soares, A M V M


    Endocrine Disruptor Compounds (EDCs) have been largely studied concerning their effects on vertebrates. Nevertheless, invertebrates as targets for these chemicals have been neglected and few studies are available. Specifically for edaphic invertebrates, data concerning the effects of EDCs is residual. Influences of EDCs on the reproduction systems of these organisms, with consequences at the population level, are expected but have not been confirmed. This work aimed to study the effects of bisphenol A (BPA) and vinclozolin (Vz) on the reproduction of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber. Isopods were coupled and exposed to increasing concentrations of Vz and BPA and the females' reproductive cycle followed for 56d. Both compounds elicited reproductive toxicity. Vz and BPA decreased female reproductive allocation. Vz reduced pregnancy duration; increased the abortion percentage; decreased the number of pregnancies; and decreased the number of juveniles per female while BPA increased abortions at the lowest and highest test concentrations. The reproductive endpoints presented in here are indicative of the possible impact that this type of compounds might have on isopod population dynamics, which may eventually lead to population decline.

  16. Biological control of vaginosis to improve reproductive health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Mastromarino


    Full Text Available The human vaginal microbiota plays an important role in the maintenance of a woman′s health, as well as of her partner′s and newborns′. When this predominantly Lactobacillus community is disrupted, decreased in abundance and replaced by different anaerobes, bacterial vaginosis (BV may occur. BV is associated with ascending infections and obstetrical complications, such as chorioamnionitis and preterm delivery, as well as with urinary tract infections and sexually transmitted infections. In BV the overgrowth of anaerobes produces noxious substances like polyamines and other compounds that trigger the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL-1 β and IL-8. BV can profoundly affect, with different mechanisms, all the phases of a woman′s life in relation to reproduction, before pregnancy, during fertilization, through and at the end of pregnancy. BV can directly affect fertility, since an ascending dissemination of the involved species may lead to tubal factor infertility. Moreover, the increased risk of acquiring sexually transmitted diseases contributes to damage to reproductive health. Exogenous strains of lactobacilli have been suggested as a means of re-establishing a normal healthy vaginal flora. Carefully selected probiotic strains can eliminate BV and also exert an antiviral effect, thus reducing viral load and preventing foetal and neonatal infection. The administration of beneficial microorganisms (probiotics can aid recovery from infection and restore and maintain a healthy vaginal ecosystem, thus improving female health also in relation to reproductive health.

  17. Molecular interactions of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and its biological and toxicological relevance for reproduction. (United States)

    Pocar, P; Fischer, B; Klonisch, T; Hombach-Klonisch, S


    The dioxin/aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor responsive to both natural and man-made environmental compounds. AhR and its nuclear partner ARNT are expressed in the female reproductive tract in a variety of species and several indications suggest that the AhR might play a pivotal role in the physiology of reproduction. Furthermore, it appears to be the mediator of most, if not all, the adverse effects on reproduction of a group of highly potent environmental pollutants collectively called aryl hydrocarbons (AHs), including the highly toxic compound 2,3,7,8-tetrachlor-odibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Although a large body of recent literature has implicated AhR in multiple signal transduction pathways, the mechanisms of action resulting in a wide spectrum of effects on female reproduction are largely unknown. Here we summarize the major types of molecular cross-talks that have been identified for the AhR and linked cell signaling pathways and that are relevant for the understanding of the role of this transcription factor in female reproduction.

  18. Reproductive biology traits affecting productivity of sour cherry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milica Fotiric Aksic


    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate variability in reproductive biology traits and the correlation between them in genotypes of 'Oblačinska' sour cherry (Prunus cerasus. High genetic diversity was found in the 41 evaluated genotypes, and significant differences were observed among them for all studied traits: flowering time, pollen germination, number of fruiting branches, production of flower and fruit, number of flowers per bud, fruit set, and limb yield efficiency. The number of fruiting branches significantly influenced the number of flower and fruit, fruit set, and yield efficiency. In addition to number of fruiting branches, yield efficiency was positively correlated with fruit set and production of flower and fruit. Results from principal component analysis suggested a reduction of the reproductive biology factors affecting yield to four main characters: number and structure of fruiting branches, flowering time, and pollen germination. Knowledge of the reproductive biology of the 'Oblačinska' genotypes can be used to select the appropriate ones to be grown or used as parents in breeding programs. In this sense, genotypes II/2, III/9, III/13, and III/14 have very good flower production and satisfactory pollen germination.

  19. Invasion fitness, inclusive fitness, and reproductive numbers in heterogeneous populations. (United States)

    Lehmann, Laurent; Mullon, Charles; Akçay, Erol; Van Cleve, Jeremy


    How should fitness be measured to determine which phenotype or "strategy" is uninvadable when evolution occurs in a group-structured population subject to local demographic and environmental heterogeneity? Several fitness measures, such as basic reproductive number, lifetime dispersal success of a local lineage, or inclusive fitness have been proposed to address this question, but the relationships between them and their generality remains unclear. Here, we ascertain uninvadability (all mutant strategies always go extinct) in terms of the asymptotic per capita number of mutant copies produced by a mutant lineage arising as a single copy in a resident population ("invasion fitness"). We show that from invasion fitness uninvadability is equivalently characterized by at least three conceptually distinct fitness measures: (i) lineage fitness, giving the average individual fitness of a randomly sampled mutant lineage member; (ii) inclusive fitness, giving a reproductive value weighted average of the direct fitness costs and relatedness weighted indirect fitness benefits accruing to a randomly sampled mutant lineage member; and (iii) basic reproductive number (and variations thereof) giving lifetime success of a lineage in a single group, and which is an invasion fitness proxy. Our analysis connects approaches that have been deemed different, generalizes the exact version of inclusive fitness to class-structured populations, and provides a biological interpretation of natural selection on a mutant allele under arbitrary strength of selection.

  20. Oxidative-addition reactions of cyclometallated platinum(II) compounds with mercury(II) carboxylates. X-ray, crystal and molecular structure of rac-[a-(m-MeCO2)-cf,de-(2-Me2NCH2C6H4)2PtHg(O2CMe)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koten, G. van; Ploeg, A.F.M.J. van der; Vrieze, K.; Spek, A.L.


    The reactions of C~~-[(~-M~~NCo~btHain~edC fHrom~ )[P~tCP12~(S~Et2])2,a] n d [(2-MeJW6H4CH2)Li(TMEDA)] (TMEDA = tetramethylethylenediamine), and of cis-[( 2-Me2NCH2C6H4)2Pt1w1]i th Hg11(02CR)2( R = Me, i-Pr) yielded a novel type of cyclometalated Pt-Hg compound [(N-C)2(RCOJPtHg(02CR)] (N-C = 2-Me@C6